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1

Optimal Global Carbon Management with Ocean Sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the socially optimal anthropogenic intervention into the global carbon cycle. The limiting factor for this intervention is the accumulation of carbon in the atmosphere, which causes global warming. We apply a simplified two-box model to incorporate aspects of the global carbon cycle in a more appropriate way than a simple proportional decay assumption does. Anthropogenic intervention into the

Wilfried Rickels; Thomas Lontzek

2008-01-01

2

An introduction to global carbon-cycle management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Past and current human activities have fundamentally altered the global carbon cycle. Potential future efforts to control atmospheric CO2 will also involve significant changes in the global carbon cycle. Carbon cycle scientists and engineers now face not only the difficulties of recording and understanding past and present changes but also the challenge of providing information and tools for new management strategies that are responsive to societal needs. The challenge is nothing less than managing the global carbon cycle.

Sundquist, Eric T.; Ackerman, Katherine V.; Parker, Lauren; Huntzinger, Deborah N.

2009-01-01

3

The Century-Long Challenge of Global Carbon Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time scale of the global carbon management is a century, not a decade and not a millennium. A century is the ratio of 1000 billion metric tons of carbon [Gt(C)] to 10 Gt(C)\\/yr. 1000 Gt(C) is the future emissions that will lead to approximately a doubling of the pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration, 280 ppm, assuming the total net ocean

R. Socolow

2002-01-01

4

Ocean systems for managing the global carbon cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide is formed in all processes utilizing fossil fuels. Controlling the emissions of CO2 from a number of processes by forming CO2 hydrates (clathrates), may be an effective approach for both absorbing CO2 from multicomponent gas streams (Flue gases, Anaerobic digester gases, etc.) and sequestering CO2 in the deep oceans. Further, ocean marine farms may be an effective process

Dwain F Spencer; Wheeler J North

1997-01-01

5

OCEAN SYSTEMS FOR MANAGING THE GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Carbon,dioxide,is,formed,in,all,processes,utilizing,fossil,fuels. Controlling,the,emissions,of,CO 2 from,a number,of processes,by forming CO 2 hydrates (clathrates), may be an effective approach for both absorbing CO 2 from multicomponent,gas streams (Flue gases, Anaerobic digester gases, etc.) and sequestering CO 2 in the deep oceans. Further, ocean marine farms may be an effective process,for,extracting,CO 2 from,the,atmosphere,and,forming,both valuable products and rejecting excess CO 2, in the form

Wheeler J. North

6

Estimating the global potential of forest and agroforest management practices to sequester carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forests play a prominent role in the global C cycle. Occupying one-third of the earth's land area, forest vegetation and soils contain about 60% of the total terrestrial C. Forest biomass productivity can be enhanced by management practices, which suggests that, by this means, forests could store more C globally and thereby slow the increase in atmospheric CO2. The question

Jack K. Winjum; Robert K. Dixon; Paul E. Schroeder

1992-01-01

7

Global supply chain management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of organizations to effectively compete in the global marketplace is contingent on identifying and selecting an adequate number of qualified global managers. Nowhere is the shortage of managerial talent more evident than in the management of global supply chains. The complex and vexing set of problems facing global supply chain managers makes the task of selecting an adequate

Michael G Harvey; R. Glenn Richey

2001-01-01

8

ESTIMATING THE GLOBAL POTENTIAL OF FOREST AND AGROFOREST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES TO SEQUESTER CARBON  

EPA Science Inventory

Forests play a prominent role in the global C cycle. ccupying one-third of the earth's land area, forest vegetation nd soils contain about 60% of the total terrestrial C. Forest biomass productivity can be enhanced by management practices,, which suggests that by this means, fore...

9

CO(2) capture from dilute gases as a component of modern global carbon management.  

PubMed

The growing atmospheric CO(2) concentration and its impact on climate have motivated widespread research and development aimed at slowing or stemming anthropogenic carbon emissions. Technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) employing mass separating agents that extract and purify CO(2) from flue gas emanating from large point sources such as fossil fuel-fired electricity-generating power plants are under development. Recent advances in solvents, adsorbents, and membranes for postcombust- ion CO(2) capture are described here. Specifically, room-temperature ionic liquids, supported amine materials, mixed matrix and facilitated transport membranes, and metal-organic framework materials are highlighted. In addition, the concept of extracting CO(2) directly from ambient air (air capture) as a means of reducing the global atmospheric CO(2) concentration is reviewed. For both conventional CCS from large point sources and air capture, critical research needs are identified and discussed. PMID:22432609

Jones, Christopher W

2011-01-01

10

GLOBAL TERRESTRIAL CARBON CYCLE  

EPA Science Inventory

There is great uncertainty with regard to the future role of the terrestrial biosphere in the global carbon cycle, arising from both an inadequate understanding of current pools and fluxes as well as the potential effects of rising atmospheric concentrations of CO, on natural eco...

11

Global Managers' Career Competencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study aims to empirically examine the career competencies of global managers having world-wide coordination responsibility: knowing-why, knowing-how and knowing-whom career competencies. Design/methodology/approach: Based on in-depth interviews with 45 global managers, the paper analyzes career stories from a content analysis…

Cappellen, Tineke; Janssens, Maddy

2008-01-01

12

Global carbon budget 2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated for the first time in this budget with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2 and land cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). All uncertainties are reported as ±1?, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2003-2012), EFF was 8.6 ± 0.4 GtC yr-1, ELUC 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN 2.5 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND 2.8 ± 0.8 GtC yr-1. For year 2012 alone, EFF grew to 9.7 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, 2.2% above 2011, reflecting a continued growing trend in these emissions, GATM was 5.1 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and assuming an ELUC of 1.0 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1 (based on the 2001-2010 average), SLAND was 2.7 ± 0.9 GtC yr-1. GATM was high in 2012 compared to the 2003-2012 average, almost entirely reflecting the high EFF. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 392.52 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2012. We estimate that EFF will increase by 2.1% (1.1-3.1%) to 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC in 2013, 61% above emissions in 1990, based on projections of world gross domestic product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy. With this projection, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 535 ± 55 GtC for 1870-2013, about 70% from EFF (390 ± 20 GtC) and 30% from ELUC (145 ± 50 GtC). This paper also documents any changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget from previous budgets (Le Quéré et al., 2013). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2013_V2.3).

Le Quéré, C.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Andrew, R. M.; Boden, T. A.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Houghton, R. A.; Marland, G.; Moriarty, R.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Arvanitis, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Bopp, L.; Canadell, J. G.; Chini, L. P.; Doney, S. C.; Harper, A.; Harris, I.; House, J. I.; Jain, A. K.; Jones, S. D.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Körtzinger, A.; Koven, C.; Lefèvre, N.; Maignan, F.; Omar, A.; Ono, T.; Park, G.-H.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schwinger, J.; Segschneider, J.; Stocker, B. D.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van Heuven, S.; Viovy, N.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.

2014-06-01

13

Globalization of Management Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new study, sponsored by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, presented a comprehensive new perspective on the globalization of management education, (AACSB International, 2011). Its findings are sobering: with regard to emerging global trends in higher education and cross-border business, the report reveals a sizable gap…

Bruner, Robert F.; Iannarelli, Juliane

2011-01-01

14

The Use of CCS in Global Carbon Management: Simulation with the DICE Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempts a numerical simulation of potential CCS (carbon dioxide capture and storage) use by using a modified version of the DICE (Dynamic Integrated model on Climate and Economy) model (Nordhaus, 1994; Nordhaus and Boyer, 2000). In DICE, CO2 emissions are controlled to the extent in which a hypothetical optimal carbon tax justifies CO2 reduction by firms: in our

Daiju Narita

2008-01-01

15

Information management for global environmental change, including the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The issue of global change is international in scope. A body of international organizations oversees the worldwide coordination of research and policy initiatives. In the US the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) was established in November of...

F. W. Stoss

1994-01-01

16

GLOBAL ASSESSMENT OF PROMISING FOREST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON  

EPA Science Inventory

The assessment produced productivity and cost data for forest and agroforestry management practices in 94 nations. hat is, out of a total of 140 nations in the world with forest resources, about two-thirds are represented in the database at present. he total forest and woodland a...

17

Global Financial Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Campbell Harvey, Professor of International Business in the Fuqua School of Business at Duke University, has created this web site as a supplement to his course in Global Financial Management. The course introduces students to the "fundamental principles of asset valuation and financing in competitive global financial market." Visitors will find a syllabus for the course, a short introduction to Financial Mathematics, and supplementary notes on topics covered in the course. Assignments and learning modules for the course can also be found at the site.

Harvey, Campbell R.

1969-12-31

18

Carbon sequestration and its role in the global carbon cycle  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For carbon sequestration the issues of monitoring, risk assessment, and verification of carbon content and storage efficacy are perhaps the most uncertain. Yet these issues are also the most critical challenges facing the broader context of carbon sequestration as a means for addressing climate change. In response to these challenges, Carbon Sequestration and Its Role in the Global Carbon Cycle presents current perspectives and research that combine five major areas: • The global carbon cycle and verification and assessment of global carbon sources and sinks • Potential capacity and temporal/spatial scales of terrestrial, oceanic, and geologic carbon storage • Assessing risks and benefits associated with terrestrial, oceanic, and geologic carbon storage • Predicting, monitoring, and verifying effectiveness of different forms of carbon storage • Suggested new CO2 sequestration research and management paradigms for the future. The volume is based on a Chapman Conference and will appeal to the rapidly growing group of scientists and engineers examining methods for deliberate carbon sequestration through storage in plants, soils, the oceans, and geological repositories.

McPherson, Brian J.; Sundquist, Eric T.

2009-01-01

19

Understanding the Global Carbon Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The site offers charts and graphs to aid in a detailed explanation of where carbon comes from and where it goes. Supplementing the main topic, links lead to the topics Carbon and Land Use, Missing Carbon Sink, and Forest Sequestered Carbon Dioxide. Their conclusion is that the major contributor to climatic change, and hence the human activity most in need of change, is use of fossil fuels for energy. Advances in the technology of renewable energy sources, including wood-derived fuels, might reduce our reliance on fossil fuels and thus reduce global emissions of carbon dioxide significantly.

20

(Managing the global environment)  

SciTech Connect

The conference was stimulated by concern that policy makers increasingly have to make environmental management decisions in the absence of solidly established scientific consensus about ecological processes and the consequences of human actions. Often, as in the case of climate change, some decisions may have to be made in the absence of information that is desirable but may not be available for years to come, if ever. Six topics were identified as running throughout the Congress. These were: the epistemology and history of the sciences or disciplines concerned with the environment, including the scientific basis of rationality and modes of dealing with uncertainty and complexity; the social, economic, and institutional conditions for the production of knowledge bearing on the environment, including the politics of research and the improvement of scientific data; the structuring and institutionalization of expert assessments on national and international levels, including the global distribution of expertise; the means of establishing scientific information, the role of the media in transmitting and processing knowledge about the environment, and the organization of public environmental debate; and decision making and management under conditions of uncertainty; and, finally the relationship between science and ethics. 13 refs.

Rayner, S.F.

1989-10-03

21

Understanding Carbon Sequestration Options in the United States: Capabilities of a Carbon Management Geographic Information System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

While one can discuss various sequestration options at a national or global level, the actual carbon management approach is highly site specific. In response to the need for a better understanding of carbon management options, Battelle in collaboration wi...

A. Mizoguchi D. Brown J. Dooley M. Shiozaki R. Dahowski

2005-01-01

22

What is a global manager?  

PubMed

To compete around the world, a company needs three strategic capabilities: global-scale efficiency, local responsiveness, and the ability to leverage learning worldwide. No single "global" manager can build these capabilities. Rather, groups of specialized managers must integrate assets, resources, and people in diverse operating units. Such managers are made, not born. And how to make them is--and must be--the foremost question for corporate managers. Drawing on their research with leading transnational corporations, Christopher Bartlett and Sumantra Ghoshal identify three types of global managers. They also illustrate the responsibilities each position involves through a close look at the careers of successful executives: Leif Johansson of Electrolux, Howard Gottlieb of NEC, and Wahib Zaki of Procter & Gamble. The first type is the global business or product-division manager who must build worldwide efficiency and competitiveness. These managers recognize cross-border opportunities and risks as well as link activities and capabilities around the world. The second is the country manager whose unit is the building block for worldwide operations. These managers are responsible for understanding and interpreting local markets, building local resources and capabilities, and contributing to--and participating in--the development of global strategy. Finally, there are worldwide functional specialists--the managers whose potential is least appreciated in many traditional multinational companies. To transfer expertise from one unit to another and leverage learning, these managers must scan the company for good ideas and best practice, cross-pollinate among units, and champion innovations with worldwide applications. PMID:10121314

Bartlett, C A; Ghoshal, S

1992-01-01

23

Global deforestation: contribution to atmospheric carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

A study of effects of terrestrial biota on the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere suggests that the global net release of carbon due to forest clearing between 1960 and 1980 was between 135 X 10/sup 15/ and 228 X 10/sup 15/ grams. Between 1.8 X 10/sup 15/ and 4.7 X 10/sup 15/ grams of carbon were released in 1980, of which nearly 80 percent was due to deforestation, principally in the tropics. The annual release of carbon from the biota and soils exceeded the release from fossil fuels until about 1960. Because the biotic release has been and remains much larger than is commonly assumed, the airborne fraction, usually considered to be about 50 percent of the releases from fossil fuels, was probably between 22 and 43 percent of the total carbon released in 1980. The increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is thought by some to be increasing the storage of carbon in the earth's remaining forests sufficiently to offset the release from deforestation. The interpretation of the evidence presented here suggests no such effect; deforestation appears to be the dominant biotic effect on atmospheric carbon dioxide. If deforestation increases in proportion to population, the biotic release of carbon will reach 9 X 10/sup 15/ grams per year before forests are exhausted early in the next century. The possibilities for limiting the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere through reduction in use of fossil fuels and through management of forests may be greater than is commonly assumed.

Woodwell, G.M.; Hobbie, J.E.; Houghton, R.A.; Melillo, J.M.; Moore, B.; Peterson, B.J.; Shaver, G.R.

1983-12-09

24

Africa and the global carbon cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The African continent has a large and growing role in the global carbon cycle, with potentially important climate change implications. However, the sparse observation network in and around the African continent means that Africa is one of the weakest links in our understanding of the global carbon cycle. Here, we combine data from regional and global inventories as well as

Christopher A Williams; Niall P Hanan; Jason C Neff; Robert J Scholes; Joseph A Berry; A Scott Denning; David F Baker

2007-01-01

25

What is a global manager?  

PubMed

Riven by ideology, religion, and mistrust, the world seems more fragmented than at any time since, arguably, World War II. But however deep the political divisions, business operations continue to span the globe, and executives still have to figure out how to run them efficiently and well. In "What Is a Global Manager?" (first published in September-October 1992), business professors Christopher Bartlett and Sumantra Ghoshal lay out a model for a management structure that balances the local, regional, and global demands placed on companies operating across the world's many borders. In the volatile world of transnational corporations, there is no such thing as a "universal" global manager, the authors say. Rather, there are three groups of specialists: business managers, country managers, and functional managers. And there are the top executives at corporate headquarters who manage the complex interactions between the three--and can identify and develop the talented executives a successful transnational requires. This kind of organizational structure characterizes a transnational rather than an old-line multinational, international, or global company. Transnationals integrate assets, resources, and diverse people in operating units around the world. Through a flexible management process, in which business, country, and functional managers form a triad of different perspectives that balance one another, transnational companies can build three strategic capabilities: global-scale efficiency and competitiveness; national-level responsiveness and flexibility; and cross-market capacity to leverage learning on a worldwide basis. Through a close look at the successful careers of Leif Johansson of Electrolux, Howard Gottlieb of NEC, and Wahib Zaki of Procter & Gamble, the authors illustrate the skills that each managerial specialist requires. PMID:12884670

Bartlett, Christopher A; Ghoshal, Sumantra

2003-08-01

26

Global trends in mercury management.  

PubMed

The United Nations Environmental Program Governing Council has regulated mercury as a global pollutant since 2001 and has been preparing the mercury convention, which will have a strongly binding force through Global Mercury Assessment, Global Mercury Partnership Activities, and establishment of the Open-Ended Working Group on Mercury. The European Union maintains an inclusive strategy on risks and contamination of mercury, and has executed the Mercury Export Ban Act since December in 2010. The US Environmental Protection Agency established the Mercury Action Plan (1998) and the Mercury Roadmap (2006) and has proposed systematic mercury management methods to reduce the health risks posed by mercury exposure. Japan, which experienced Minamata disease, aims vigorously at perfection in mercury management in several ways. In Korea, the Ministry of Environment established the Comprehensive Plan and Countermeasures for Mercury Management to prepare for the mercury convention and to reduce risks of mercury to protect public health. PMID:23230466

Kim, Dae-Seon; Choi, Kyunghee

2012-11-01

27

Modelling the effects of grassland management on the carbon cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Management of grassland is assumed to have a substantial impact on the global carbon cycle and large potential for carbon sequestration. There are few global assessments of the respective fluxes. Within the well-established dynamic global vegetation model LPJmL, we implemented four major options for the management and harvest regimes of grasslands. This approach enables to study the feedbacks of biomass removal through harvest and grazing on grassland productivity. We demonstrate sensitivity of carbon fluxes and stocks under different grassland management options. This opens the possibility for the integration of observation-based estimates of carbon sequestration in global models.

Rolinski, Susanne; Heinke, Jens; Weindl, Isabelle

2014-05-01

28

Monitoring Global Ocean Carbon Inventories.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Foreword by OOSDP chairman; Preface by Author; Significance of a Changing Oceanic Carbon Inventory; The Case for Monitoring Ocean Carbon Inventories; Ocean Carbon Monitoring Approaches (Air-Sea Fluxes, CO(sub 2) Transport within the Ocean, Inven...

D. W. R. Wallace

1995-01-01

29

GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The production of greenhouse gases due to anthropogenic activities may have begun to change the global climate. he global carbon cycle plays a significant role in projected climate change. owever, considerable uncertainty exists regarding pools and flux in the global cycle. iven ...

30

Global Deforestation: Contribution to Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of effects of terrestrial biota on the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere suggests that the global net release of carbon due to forest clearing between 1860 and 1980 was between 135 × 1015 and 228 × 1015 grams. Between 1.8 × 1015 and 4.7 × 1015 grams of carbon were released in 1980, of which nearly

G. M. Woodwell; J. E. Hobbie; R. A. Houghton; J. M. Melillo; B. Moore; B. J. Peterson; G. R. Shaver

1983-01-01

31

Getting to Know Global Carbon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

GLOBE Carbon Cycle is focused on bringing the most cutting edge research and research techniques in the field of terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycling into the classroom. Students can collect data about their school field site through existing GLOBE protocols of phenology, land cover and soils as well as through new protocols focused on biomass and carbon stocks in vegetation.

2013-01-01

32

Understanding Carbon Sequestration Options in the United States: Capabilities of a Carbon Management Geographic Information System  

Microsoft Academic Search

While one can discuss various sequestration options at a national or global level, the actual carbon management approach is highly site specific. In response to the need for a better understanding of carbon management options, Battelle in collaboration with Mitsubishi Corporation, has developed a state-of-the-art Geographic Information System (GIS) focused on carbon capture and sequestration opportunities in the United States.

Robert T. Dahowski; James J. Dooley; Daryl R. Brown; Akiyoshi Mizoguchi; Mai Shiozaki

2001-01-01

33

Integrated estimates of global terrestrial carbon sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing the contribution of terrestrial carbon sequestration to climate change mitigation requires integration across scientific and disciplinary boundaries. A comprehensive analysis incorporating ecologic, geographic and economic data was used to develop terrestrial carbon sequestration estimates for agricultural soil carbon, reforestation and pasture management. These estimates were applied in the MiniCAM integrated assessment model to evaluate mitigation strategies within policy and

Allison M. Thomson; R. César Izaurralde; Steven J. Smith; Leon E. Clarke

2008-01-01

34

Carbon Management Response curves: estimates of temporal soil carbon dynamics.  

PubMed

Measurement of the change in soil carbon that accompanies a change in land use (e.g., forest to agriculture) or management (e.g., conventional tillage to no-till) can be complex and expensive, may require reference plots, and is subject to the variability of statistical sampling and short-term variability in weather. In this paper, we develop Carbon Management Response (CMR) curves that could be used as an alternative to in situ measurements. The CMR curves developed here are based on quantitative reviews of existing global analyses and field observations of changes in soil carbon. The curves show mean annual rates of soil carbon change, estimated time to maximum rates of change, and estimated time to a new soil carbon steady state following the initial change in management. We illustrate how CMR curves could be used in a carbon accounting framework while effectively addressing a number of potential policy issues commonly associated with carbon accounting. We find that CMR curves provide a transparent means to account for changes in soil carbon accumulation and loss rates over time, and also provide empirical relationships that might be used in the development or validation of ecological or Earth systems models. PMID:15453404

West, Tristram O; Marland, Gregg; King, Anthony W; Post, Wilfred M; Jain, Atul K; Andrasko, Kenneth

2004-04-01

35

Global deforestation: contribution to atmospheric carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of effects of terrestrial biota on the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere suggests that the global net release of carbon due to forest clearing between 1960 and 1980 was between 135 X 10¹⁵ and 228 X 10¹⁵ grams. Between 1.8 X 10¹⁵ and 4.7 X 10¹⁵ grams of carbon were released in 1980, of which nearly

G. M. Woodwell; J. E. Hobbie; R. A. Houghton; J. M. Melillo; B. Moore; B. J. Peterson; G. R. Shaver

1983-01-01

36

76 FR 41525 - Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit Including...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management...Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management...Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles...

2011-07-14

37

The global carbon budget and its operationalization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presentation will cover two components: 1) the latest global carbon budget and 2) the requirements to operationalize its annual update and trend reanalysis to enhance policy relevance and scientific understanding of the current carbon cycle perturbation. First, we will present the new update of the global carbon-CO2 budget covering 1958-2009, including an analysis of the impact of the global financial crisis, new estimates on the emissions from land use change, and ensemble model results on the strength and dynamics of the ocean and land sinks. Second, we will discuss the requirements to make these annual updates a routing operation and to become more regionally explicit, in addition to the extension of the budget to include CH4-carbon.

Canadell, J.; Le Quere, C.; Friedlingstein, P.; Houghton, R. A.; Marland, G.; Ciais, P.; Raupach, M. R.; Sitch, S.; Kirschke, S.

2010-12-01

38

Global carbon dioxide emissions from inland waters.  

PubMed

Carbon dioxide (CO2) transfer from inland waters to the atmosphere, known as CO2 evasion, is a component of the global carbon cycle. Global estimates of CO2 evasion have been hampered, however, by the lack of a framework for estimating the inland water surface area and gas transfer velocity and by the absence of a global CO2 database. Here we report regional variations in global inland water surface area, dissolved CO2 and gas transfer velocity. We obtain global CO2 evasion rates of 1.8(+0.25)(-0.25)? petagrams of carbon (Pg?C) per year from streams and rivers and 0.32(+0.52)(-0.26)? Pg?C?yr(-1) from lakes and reservoirs, where the upper and lower limits are respectively the 5th and 95th confidence interval percentiles. The resulting global evasion rate of 2.1?Pg?C?yr(-1) is higher than previous estimates owing to a larger stream and river evasion rate. Our analysis predicts global hotspots in stream and river evasion, with about 70 per cent of the flux occurring over just 20 per cent of the land surface. The source of inland water CO2 is still not known with certainty and new studies are needed to research the mechanisms controlling CO2 evasion globally. PMID:24256802

Raymond, Peter A; Hartmann, Jens; Lauerwald, Ronny; Sobek, Sebastian; McDonald, Cory; Hoover, Mark; Butman, David; Striegl, Robert; Mayorga, Emilio; Humborg, Christoph; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Dürr, Hans; Meybeck, Michel; Ciais, Philippe; Guth, Peter

2013-11-21

39

Strategic Global Human Resource Management: The Role of Inpatriate Managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for highly qualified multicultural managers will increase as more organizations globalize their operations. These global managers may be perceived as organizational resources and, therefore, a resource-based view of human resource management is utilized. At the same time, relational view of human capital provides insight into the value of managers who have unique local market knowledge (i.e., social knowledge).

Michael G Harvey; Cheri Speier; Milorad M Novicevic

2000-01-01

40

Automating a Building's Carbon Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buildings are the largest contributor to the world’s carbon footprint, yet many building managers use only periodic audits to adjust resource consumption and carbon emission levels. The ECView framework leverages existing workflow systems to continually assess a building’s carbon emissions in relation to daily weather, commuting and travel patterns, and changing government regulations.

Geetha Thiagarajan; Venkatesh Sarangan; Ramasubramanian Suriyanarayanan; Pragathichitra Sethuraman; Anand Sivasubramaniam; Avinash Yegyanarayanan

2011-01-01

41

Carbon pools and flux of global forest ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

Forest systems cover more than 4.1 x 10(9) hectares of the Earth's land area. Globally, forest vegetation and soils contain about 1146 petagrams of carbon, with approximately 37 percent of this carbon in low-latitude forests, 14 percent in mid-latitudes, and 49 percent in high latitudes. Over two-thirds of the carbon in forest ecosystems is contained in soils and associated peat deposits. In 1990, deforestation in the low latitudes emitted 1.6 + or - 0.4 petagrams of carbon per year, whereas forest area expansion and growth in mid- and high-latitude forest sequestered 0.7 + or - 0.2 petagrams of carbon per year, for a net flux to the atmosphere of 0.9 + or - 0.4 petagrams per year. Slowing deforestation, combined with an increase in forestation and other management measures to improve forest ecosystem productivity, could conserve or sequester significant quantities of carbon.

Dixon, R.K.; Brown, S.; Houghton, R.A.; Solomon, A.M.; Trexler, M.C.

1994-01-01

42

Carbon pools and flux of global forest ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

Forest systems cover more than 4.1 x 10[sup 9] hectares of the Earth's land area. Globally, forest vegetation and soils contain about 1146 petagrams of carbon, with approximately 37 percent of this carbon in low-latitude forests, 14 percent in mid-latitudes, and 49 percent at high latitudes. Over two-thirds of the carbon in forest ecosystems is contained in soils and associated peat deposits. In 1990, deforestation in the low latitudes emitted 1.6 [+-] 0.4 petagrams of carbon per year, whereas forest area expansion and growth in mid- and high-latitude forest sequestered 0.7 [+-] 0.2 petagrams of carbon per year, for a net flux to the atmosphere of 0.9 [+-] 0.4 petagrams of carbon per year. Slowing deforestation, combined with an increase in forestation and other management measures to improve forest ecosystem productivity, could conserve or sequester significant quantities of carbon. Future forest carbon cycling trends attributable to losses and regrowth associated with global climate and land-use change are uncertain. Model projections and some results suggest that forests could be carbon sinks or sources in the future.

Dixon, R.K.; Solomon, A.M. (Global Change Research Program, Corvallis, OR (United States)); Brown, S. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)); Houghton, R.A. (Woods Hole Research Center, MA (United States)); Trexler, M.C. (Trexler and Associates, Inc., Oak Grove, OR (United States)); Wisniewski, J. (Wisniewski and Associates, Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States))

1994-01-14

43

The global carbon budget 1959-2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the climate policy process, and project future climate change. Present-day analysis requires the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. Here we describe datasets and a methodology developed by the global carbon cycle science community to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, and methodology and data limitations. Based on energy statistics, we estimate that the global emissions of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion and cement production were 9.5 ± 0.5 PgC yr-1 in 2011, 3.0 percent above 2010 levels. We project these emissions will increase by 2.6% (1.9-3.5%) in 2012 based on projections of Gross World Product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy. Global net CO2 emissions from Land-Use Change, including deforestation, are more difficult to update annually because of data availability, but combined evidence from land cover change data, fire activity in regions undergoing deforestation and models suggests those net emissions were 0.9 ± 0.5 PgC yr-1 in 2011. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and reached 391.38 ± 0.13 ppm at the end of year 2011, increasing 1.70 ± 0.09 ppm yr-1 or 3.6 ± 0.2 PgC yr-1 in 2011. Estimates from four ocean models suggest that the ocean CO2 sink was 2.6 ± 0.5 PgC yr-1 in 2011, implying a global residual terrestrial CO2 sink of 4.1 ± 0.9 PgC yr-1. All uncertainties are reported as ±1 sigma (68% confidence assuming Gaussian error distributions that the real value lies within the given interval), reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. This paper is intended to provide a baseline to keep track of annual carbon budgets in the future. All carbon data presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_V2012).

Le Quéré, C.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T.; Conway, T.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Marland, G.; Peters, G. P.; van der Werf, G.; Ahlström, A.; Andrew, R. M.; Bopp, L.; Canadell, J. G.; Ciais, P.; Doney, S. C.; Enright, C.; Friedlingstein, P.; Huntingford, C.; Jain, A. K.; Jourdain, C.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Levis, S.; Levy, P.; Lomas, M.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Schwinger, J.; Sitch, S.; Stocker, B. D.; Viovy, N.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

2012-12-01

44

Impact of carbon storage through restoration of drylands on the global carbon cycle  

SciTech Connect

The authors evaluate the potential for global carbon storage in drylands as one of several policy options to reduce buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. They use the GLOCO model, a global carbon cycle model with eight terrestrial biomes that are described mechanistically in detail in terms of the biological processes that involve carbon and nitrogen cycling and the effect of temperature on these processes. GLOCO also considers low-latitude and high-latitude oceans, each divided further into a surface layer and several deeper layers, with an explicit description of biogeochemical processes occurring in each layer, and exchanges among ocean reservoirs and the atmosphere. GLOCO is used to study the transient response of actual vegetation, which is more realistic than looking at equilibrium conditions of potential vegetation. Using estimates of land suitable for restoration in woodlands, grasslands, and deserts, as well as estimates of the rate at which restoration can proceed, the authors estimate that carbon storage in these biomes can range up to 0.8 billion tons of carbon per year for a combination of land management strategies. A global strategy for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration will require the implementation of multiple options. The advantage of carbon storage in restored drylands is that it comes as a side benefit to programs that are also justifiable in terms of land management.

Keller, A.A. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). School of Environmental Science and Management] [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). School of Environmental Science and Management; Goldstein, R.A. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)] [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1998-09-01

45

A Global Vision of Information Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The definition of Information System do not consid er individual as a component of the Information System. In this paper we present our postulates, and our definition of Knowledge Management and Knowledge Management Systems. We describe the Model for Global Knowledge Management within the Enterprise (MGKME) that has been conceived in order to serve as a referential for Knowledge Management

Camille Rosenthal-sabroux; Michel Grundstein

2008-01-01

46

76 FR 34271 - Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, Including...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management...Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management...Services America, Global Parts Supply Chain Group, including leased...

2011-06-13

47

Carbon management and biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

International efforts to mitigate human-caused changes in the Earth's climate are considering a system of incentives (debits and credits) that would encourage specific changes in land use that can help to reduce the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide. The two primary land-based activities that would help to minimize atmospheric carbon dioxide are carbon storage in the terrestrial biosphere and the

Michael A. Huston; Gregg Marland

2003-01-01

48

Towards an Autonomous Global Ocean Carbon Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ocean is by far the largest carbon reservoir in rapid communication with the atmosphere. Understanding both ocean carbon chemistry and ocean carbon biology are critical for carbon prediction. Marine carbon biomass accounts for roughly 50% of global carbon photosynthesis and a ~10 Pg C/year particulate carbon flux through 100 m into the deep sea. The latter export is commonly referred to as the biological carbon pump. The entire plant biomass of the ocean turns over on week time scales. We lack predictive skill for the biological pump mainly because observations of the biological pump have to be tied to ships which are unable to remain at sea at any location longer than several weeks. Since 2001, a dozen low cost, long lived, robotic Carbon Explorers have been deployed to operate in the ocean for year-long time scales and return real-time information on the daily variation of Particulate Organic Carbon (POC) concentration of the upper 1000 m of the ocean. On June 22 2007 the next generation of Explorer, the Carbon Flux Explorer (CFE) was recovered after a successful two day test and routine operation as deep as 800 m in waters of the San Clemente Basin off shore of San Diego. The CFE represents integration of the Optical Sedimentation Recorder (engineered at Berkeley Laboratory) and the Sounding Ocean Lagrangian Observer (SOLO) profiling float engineered at Scripps. Every eight hours, the CFE surfaced and transmitted in real time engineering and position information in minutes to shore and ship via Iridium satellite link. This fully autonomous and robotic free vehicle/instrument is designed to follow (at hourly resolution) variations of particulate organic and inorganic carbon sedimentation for seasons. Beyond enhanced predictability of the ocean biological carbon pump brought by such enhanced technology, it is fully feasible in the next decade to implement a low cost real-time ocean carbon observing system (a CARBON-ARGO), capable of real time assessment of ocean carbon flux which when coupled with atmospheric CO2 measurements will constrain the balance between carbon emissions and natural and human mediated carbon sinks on land.

Bishop, J. K.

2007-12-01

49

Global Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide in 2000 (WMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This visualization shows global carbon monoxide concentrations at the 500 millibar altitude in the atmosphere from March 1, 2000 through December 31, 2000. Areas in red have 200 parts per billion of carbon monoxide or more at that altitude (around 5,500 meters), while areas in blue are 50 parts per billion or less. Carbon monoxide is an atmospheric pollutant and the highest concentrations come from grassland and forest fires in Africa and South America, although there is evidence that industrial sources may also be a factor. Atmospheric circulation rapidly moves the carbon monoxide to other parts of the world once it has reached this altitude. This data was measured by the MOPITT instrument on the Terra satellite.

Sokolowsky, Eric; Williams, James; Gille, John; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

2004-02-12

50

Global biodiversity and the ancient carbon cycle  

PubMed Central

Paleontological data for the diversity of marine animals and land plants are shown to correlate significantly with a concurrent measure of stable carbon isotope fractionation for approximately the last 400 million years. The correlations can be deduced from the assumption that increasing plant diversity led to increasing chemical weathering of rocks and therefore an increasing flux of carbon from the atmosphere to rocks, and nutrients from the continents to the oceans. The CO2 concentration dependence of photosynthetic carbon isotope fractionation then indicates that the diversification of land plants led to decreasing CO2 levels, while the diversification of marine animals derived from increasing nutrient availability. Under the explicit assumption that global biodiversity grows with global biomass, the conservation of carbon shows that the long-term fluctuations of CO2 levels were dominated by complementary changes in the biological and fluid reservoirs of carbon, while the much larger geological reservoir remained relatively constant in size. As a consequence, the paleontological record of biodiversity provides an indirect estimate of the fluctuations of ancient CO2 levels.

Rothman, Daniel H.

2001-01-01

51

Managing the global supply base through purchasing portfolio management  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘How to source globally’ has become a critical strategic decision for companies competing on a global basis. Despite an increased focus on global sourcing and supply chain management, little is known about the challenges and solutions surrounding such sourcing practices. Extant literature points at the critical importance of developing and sharing knowledge in multinational companies (MNCs). However, little work has

Cees J. Gelderman; Janjaap Semeijn

2006-01-01

52

Carbon management and biodiversity.  

PubMed

International efforts to mitigate human-caused changes in the Earth's climate are considering a system of incentives (debits and credits) that would encourage specific changes in land use that can help to reduce the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide. The two primary land-based activities that would help to minimize atmospheric carbon dioxide are carbon storage in the terrestrial biosphere and the efficient substitution of biomass fuels and bio-based products for fossil fuels and energy-intensive products. These two activities have very different land requirements and different implications for the preservation of biodiversity and the maintenance of other ecosystem services. Carbon sequestration in living forests can be pursued on lands with low productivity, i.e. on lands that are least suitable for agriculture or intensive forestry, and are compatible with the preservation of biodiversity over large areas. In contrast, intensive harvest-and-use systems for biomass fuels and products generally need more productive land to be economically viable. Intensive harvest-and-use systems may compete with agriculture or they may shift intensive land uses onto the less productive lands that currently harbor most of the Earth's biodiversity. Win-win solutions for carbon dioxide control and biodiversity are possible, but careful evaluation and planning are needed to avoid practices that reduce biodiversity with little net decrease in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Planning is more complex on a politically subdivided Earth where issues of local interest, national sovereignty, and equity come into play. PMID:12659806

Huston, Michael A; Marland, Gregg

2003-01-01

53

Tropical deforestation and the global carbon budget  

SciTech Connect

The CO{sub 2} concentration of the atmosphere has increased by almost 30% since 1800. This increase is due largely to two factors: the combustion of fossil fuel and deforestation to create croplands and pastures. Deforestation results in a net flux of carbon to the atmospheric because forests contain 20--50 times more carbon per unit area than agricultural lands. In recent decades, the tropics have been the primary region of deforestation.The annual rate of CO{sub 2} released due to tropical deforestation during the early 1990s has been estimated at between 1.2 and 2.3 gigatons C. The range represents uncertainties about both the rates of deforestation and the amounts of carbon stored in different types of tropical forests at the time of cutting. An evaluation of the role of tropical regions in the global carbon budget must include both the carbon flux to the atmosphere due to deforestation and carbon accumulation, if any, in intact forests. In the early 1990s, the release of CO{sub 2} from tropical deforestation appears to have been mostly offset by CO{sub 2} uptake occurring elsewhere in the tropics, according to an analysis of recent trends in the atmospheric concentrations of O{sub 2} and N{sub 2}. Interannual variations in climate and/or CO{sub 2} fertilization may have been responsible for the CO{sub 2} uptake in intact forests. These mechanisms are consistent with site-specific measurements of net carbon fluxes between tropical forests and the atmosphere, and with regional and global simulations using process-based biogeochemistry models. 86 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

Melillo, J.M.; Kicklighter, D.W. [Ecosystems Center, Woods Hole, MA (United States). Marine Biological Lab.] [Ecosystems Center, Woods Hole, MA (United States). Marine Biological Lab.; Houghton, R.A. [Woods Hole Research Center, MA (United States)] [Woods Hole Research Center, MA (United States); McGuire, A.D. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)] [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

1996-12-31

54

China's terrestrial carbon balance: Contributions from multiple global change factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnitude, spatial, and temporal patterns of the terrestrial carbon sink and the underlying mechanisms remain uncertain and need to be investigated. China is important in determining the global carbon balance in terms of both carbon emission and carbon uptake. Of particular importance to climate-change policy and carbon management is the ability to evaluate the relative contributions of multiple environmental factors to net carbon source and sink in China's terrestrial ecosystems. Here the effects of multiple environmental factors (climate, atmospheric CO2, ozone pollution, nitrogen deposition, nitrogen fertilizer application, and land cover/land use change) on net carbon balance in terrestrial ecosystems of China for the period 1961-2005 were modeled with newly developed, detailed historical information of these changes. For this period, results from two models indicated a mean land sink of 0.21 Pg C per year, with a multimodel range from 0.18 to 0.24 Pg C per year. The models' results are consistent with field observations and national inventory data and provide insights into the biogeochemical mechanisms responsible for the carbon sink in China's land ecosystems. In the simulations, nitrogen deposition and fertilizer applications together accounted for 61 percent of the net carbon storage in China's land ecosystems in recent decades, with atmospheric CO2 increases and land use also functioning to stimulate carbon storage. The size of the modeled carbon sink over the period 1961-2005 was reduced by both ozone pollution and climate change. The modeled carbon sink in response to per unit nitrogen deposition shows a leveling off or a decline in some areas in recent years, although the nitrogen input levels have continued to increase.

Tian, Hanqin; Melillo, Jerry; Lu, Chaoqun; Kicklighter, David; Liu, Mingliang; Ren, Wei; Xu, Xiaofeng; Chen, Guangsheng; Zhang, Chi; Pan, Shufen; Liu, Jiyuan; Running, Steven

2011-03-01

55

The global carbon budget 1959-2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate assessments of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the climate policy process, and project future climate change. Present-day analysis requires the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. Here we describe datasets and a methodology developed by the global carbon cycle science community to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, and methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics, while emissions from Land-Use Change (ELUC), including deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land cover change data, fire activity in regions undergoing deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. Finally, the global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms. For the last decade available (2002-2011), EFF was 8.3 ± 0.4 PgC yr-1, ELUC 1.0 ± 0.5 PgC yr-1, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1PgC yr-1, SOCEAN 2.5 ± 0.5 PgC yr-1, and SLAND 2.6 ± 0.8 PgC yr-1. For year 2011 alone, EFF was 9.5 ± 0.5 PgC yr-1, 3.0 percent above 2010, reflecting a continued trend in these emissions; ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 PgC yr-1, approximately constant throughout the decade; GATM was 3.6 ± 0.2 PgC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.7 ± 0.5 PgC yr-1, and SLAND was 4.1 ± 0.9 PgC yr-1. GATM was low in 2011 compared to the 2002-2011 average because of a high uptake by the land probably in response to natural climate variability associated to La Niña conditions in the Pacific Ocean. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 391.31 ± 0.13 ppm at the end of year 2011. We estimate that EFF will have increased by 2.6% (1.9-3.5%) in 2012 based on projections of gross world product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy. All uncertainties are reported as ±1 sigma (68% confidence assuming Gaussian error distributions that the real value lies within the given interval), reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. This paper is intended to provide a baseline to keep track of annual carbon budgets in the future. All data presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_V2013).

Le Quéré, C.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T.; Conway, T.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Marland, G.; Peters, G. P.; van der Werf, G. R.; Ahlström, A.; Andrew, R. M.; Bopp, L.; Canadell, J. G.; Ciais, P.; Doney, S. C.; Enright, C.; Friedlingstein, P.; Huntingford, C.; Jain, A. K.; Jourdain, C.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Levis, S.; Levy, P.; Lomas, M.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Schwinger, J.; Sitch, S.; Stocker, B. D.; Viovy, N.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

2013-05-01

56

Research Spotlight: Global carbon cycle influenced by peatlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands, which contain large amounts of decaying plant matter, hold significant stores of carbon and can release that carbon into the atmosphere, affecting the global carbon cycle. Although previous studies have investigated the dynamics of peatlands within a particular region, few studies have looked at peatland dynamics globally over a long time period, and estimates of the amount of carbon stored in peatlands vary.

Kumar, Mohi; Ofori, Leslie; Tretkoff, Ernie

2010-12-01

57

The global waste management challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author states that the problem of solid waste management is not unique to the USA, and that almost all industrial nations are having to modify their policies regarding waste management. Many countries are having policy changes about heavy metals, dioxins, acid gases, ash disposal, and waste-facility operator training.

Goldstein

1987-01-01

58

Carbon sequestration, biological diversity, and sustainable development: Integrated forest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical deforestation provides a significant contribution to anthropogenic increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration that may lead to global warming. Forestation and other forest management options to sequester CO2 in the tropical latitudes may fail unless they address local economic, social, environmental, and political needs of people in the developing world. Forest management is discussed in terms of three objectives: carbon

Michael A. Cairns; Richard A. Meganck

1994-01-01

59

Managing a global supply chain partnership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a survey of the global supply chain management (GSCM) literature with specific emphasis on the application of the process, services and products used by organizations to achieve competitive advantage and market position. Through case studies, we look at the current management practice used by multinational corporations such as Campbell Soup, Kmart, Dell Computer, Hewlett-Packard, Digital Equipment Corporation, and Volvo

Jaideep Motwani; Lars Larson; Suraj Ahuja

1998-01-01

60

Global supply chain risk management strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Global supply chains are more risky than domestic supply chains due to numerous links interconnecting a wide network of firms. These links are prone to disruptions, bankruptcies, breakdowns, macroeconomic and political changes, and disasters leading to higher risks and making risk management difficult. The purpose of this paper is to explore the phenomenon of risk management and risk

Ila Manuj; John T. Mentzer

2008-01-01

61

Decision models in global supply chain management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrative decision making is key to effective supply chain management (SCM). This article examines five illustrative supply chain decision models that demonstrate the importance of integrating the decisions across the supply chain. The models that are discussed illustrate the diversity of analytical approaches and their usefulness in managing global supply chain issues. The paper identifies potential areas of additional research

Ram Narasimhan; Santosh Mahapatra

2004-01-01

62

Sustainable forest management: global trends and opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data are reviewed on the extent of global forests, management, protection, certification and ownership, as well as implications for sustainable forest management as defined by the Montreal Process criteria. According to FAO, as of 2000, the world had 3.9 billion hectares (ha) of forests with 187 million ha (5%) in forest plantations. Drawing on additional surveys and our research, we

Jacek P. Siry; Frederick W. Cubbage; Miyan Rukunuddin Ahmed

2005-01-01

63

Global atmospheric black carbon inferred from AERONET.  

PubMed

AERONET, a network of well calibrated sunphotometers, provides data on aerosol optical depth and absorption optical depth at >250 sites around the world. The spectral range of AERONET allows discrimination between constituents that absorb most strongly in the UV region, such as soil dust and organic carbon, and the more ubiquitously absorbing black carbon (BC). AERONET locations, primarily continental, are not representative of the global mean, but they can be used to calibrate global aerosol climatologies produced by tracer transport models. We find that the amount of BC in current climatologies must be increased by a factor of 2-4 to yield best agreement with AERONET, in the approximation in which BC is externally mixed with other aerosols. The inferred climate forcing by BC, regardless of whether it is internally or externally mixed, is approximately 1 W/m2, most of which is probably anthropogenic. This positive forcing (warming) by BC must substantially counterbalance cooling by anthropogenic reflective aerosols. Thus, especially if reflective aerosols such as sulfates are reduced, it is important to reduce BC to minimize global warming. PMID:12746494

Sato, Makiko; Hansen, James; Koch, Dorothy; Lacis, Andrew; Ruedy, Reto; Dubovik, Oleg; Holben, Brent; Chin, Mian; Novakov, Tica

2003-05-27

64

Global atmospheric black carbon inferred from AERONET  

PubMed Central

AERONET, a network of well calibrated sunphotometers, provides data on aerosol optical depth and absorption optical depth at >250 sites around the world. The spectral range of AERONET allows discrimination between constituents that absorb most strongly in the UV region, such as soil dust and organic carbon, and the more ubiquitously absorbing black carbon (BC). AERONET locations, primarily continental, are not representative of the global mean, but they can be used to calibrate global aerosol climatologies produced by tracer transport models. We find that the amount of BC in current climatologies must be increased by a factor of 2–4 to yield best agreement with AERONET, in the approximation in which BC is externally mixed with other aerosols. The inferred climate forcing by BC, regardless of whether it is internally or externally mixed, is ?1 W/m2, most of which is probably anthropogenic. This positive forcing (warming) by BC must substantially counterbalance cooling by anthropogenic reflective aerosols. Thus, especially if reflective aerosols such as sulfates are reduced, it is important to reduce BC to minimize global warming.

Sato, Makiko; Hansen, James; Koch, Dorothy; Lacis, Andrew; Ruedy, Reto; Dubovik, Oleg; Holben, Brent; Chin, Mian; Novakov, Tica

2003-01-01

65

Global atmospheric black carbon inferred from AERONET  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AERONET, a network of well calibrated sunphotometers, provides data on aerosol optical depth and absorption optical depth at >250 sites around the world. The spectral range of AERONET allows discrimination between constituents that absorb most strongly in the UV region, such as soil dust and organic carbon, and the more ubiquitously absorbing black carbon (BC). AERONET locations, primarily continental, are not representative of the global mean, but they can be used to calibrate global aerosol climatologies produced by tracer transport models. We find that the amount of BC in current climatologies must be increased by a factor of 2-4 to yield best agreement with AERONET, in the approximation in which BC is externally mixed with other aerosols. The inferred climate forcing by BC, regardless of whether it is internally or externally mixed, is 1 W/m2, most of which is probably anthropogenic. This positive forcing (warming) by BC must substantially counterbalance cooling by anthropogenic reflective aerosols. Thus, especially if reflective aerosols such as sulfates are reduced, it is important to reduce BC to minimize global warming. aerosols | air pollution | climate change

Sato, Makiko; Hansen, James; Koch, Dorothy; Lacis, Andrew; Ruedy, Reto; Dubovik, Oleg; Holben, Brent; Chin, Mian; Novakov, Tica

2003-05-01

66

Human Impacts and Management of Carbon Sources  

SciTech Connect

The energy system dominates human-induced carbon flows on our planet. Globally, six billion tons of carbon are contained in the fossil fuels removed from below the ground every year. More than 90% of the carbon in fossil fuels is used for energy purposes, with carbon dioxide as the carbon product and the atmosphere as the initial destination for the carbon dioxide. Significantly affecting the carbon flows associated with fossil fuels is an immense undertaking. Four principal technological approaches are available to affect these carbon flows: (1) Fossil fuels and other energy resources can be utilized more efficiently; (2) Energy sources other than fossil fuels can be used; (3) Carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels can be trapped and redirected, preventing it from reaching the atmosphere (fossil carbon sequestration); and (4) One can work outside the energy system to remove carbon dioxide biologically from the atmosphere (biological carbon sequestration). An optimum carbon management strategy will surely implement all four approaches and a wise R&D program will have vigorous sub-programs in all four areas. These programs can be effective by integrating scenario analyses into the planning process. A number of future scenarios must be evaluated to determine the need for the new technologies in a future energy mix. This planning activity must be an iterative process. At present, R&D in the first two areas--energy efficiency and non-fossil fuel energy resources--is relatively well developed. By contrast, R&D in the third and the fourth areas--the two carbon sequestration options--is less well developed. The task before the workshop was to recommend ways to initiate a vigorous carbon sequestration research program without compromising the strength of the current programs in the first two areas. We recommend that this task be fulfilled by initiating several new programs in parallel. First, we recommend that a vigorous carbon sequestration program be launched. We have confidence that the time is ripe for this new undertaking. Several studies conducted over the past two years have scoped out the research issues that need to be explored and have revealed a wide variety of technological approaches that call out for detailed analysis and field testing. Second, we recommend that R&D efforts in the areas of efficient energy use and clean energy (technologies not using fossil resources or significantly reducing carbon emissions per unit of energy generated) be maintained and strengthened. The lead times necessary for market penetration of successful technologies when they are needed require a robust federally funded R&D program. Third, we recommend that a broad carbon management research program be properly integrated into all four of the approaches listed above. Specifically, we recommend four elements of such a program: (1) A program in support of decision-oriented research, emphasizing life-cycle analysis systems and risk analysis, with the concomitant development of tools for technology assessment, cross-technology comparison, and analysis of externalities. (2) A program designed to support a small number of research centers, each focusing on a specific area of carbon management, creatively combining several disciplinary approaches and featuring strong industry participation. (3) A program in support of investigator-initiated research; and (4) A program focused on effective means of engaging the public. All of these initiatives must give considerable weight to the consideration of the social implications of the technologies under investigation. We believe that public acceptance will be and should be a critical determinant of the evolution of the technologies, whose promise the proposed program is designed to explore.

Benson, S.; Edmonds, J.; Socolow, R.; Surles, T.

1999-08-20

67

Forest management for fixing and sequestering carbon  

SciTech Connect

The concept of planting trees as part of a strategy to confront the possibility of global climate change is now widely accepted. As trees grow they remove CO[sub 2] from the atmosphere and thus slow the atmospheric build-up of CO[sub 2], an important greenhouse gas. Within the global-climate-change context, there are two fundamental problems with managing trees to store carbon. First, the magnitude of fossil-fuel related emissions of CO[sub 2] is so large, 6 billion metric tons of carbon per year that it takes very large areas of tree planting to make a significant impact. Second, as trees mature their rate of growth, and hence rate of net carbon uptake, declines. lie large demand on land area suggests that there is a limit to the fraction of total CO[sub 2] emissions that we might reasonably expect to offset with growing trees. The ultimate maturation of forests suggests that there is a limit on the length of time over which offsets are feasible and that we need to ask what to do as the rate of C uptake declines. Acknowledging a that the availability of land will constrain the ability of tree planting to offset industrial emissions of CO[sub 2], we consider how the land which is available can be used most effectively. This report speculates on how much land might be available for a forest management strategy motivated (at least partially) by concerns about climate change, but our principal focus is on how a given land area can be best used to minimize net emissions of CO[sub 2] and how much might be achieved on a unit of land. We do not suggest that carbon management should be the principal criteria for land management, but we discuss the implications if it were. Confronting global and local changes in climate will be one of many objectives in land management and we explore for the most effective strategy for pursuing this objective.

Marland, G.; Dale, V.; Graham, R.; Luxmoore, R.; Marland, S.; McLaughlin, S.; Norby, R.; Post, W.M.; Tschaplinski, T.; Tuskan, J.; Wright, L.

1993-01-01

68

Forest management for fixing and sequestering carbon  

SciTech Connect

The concept of planting trees as part of a strategy to confront the possibility of global climate change is now widely accepted. As trees grow they remove CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere and thus slow the atmospheric build-up of CO{sub 2}, an important greenhouse gas. Within the global-climate-change context, there are two fundamental problems with managing trees to store carbon. First, the magnitude of fossil-fuel related emissions of CO{sub 2} is so large, 6 billion metric tons of carbon per year that it takes very large areas of tree planting to make a significant impact. Second, as trees mature their rate of growth, and hence rate of net carbon uptake, declines. lie large demand on land area suggests that there is a limit to the fraction of total CO{sub 2} emissions that we might reasonably expect to offset with growing trees. The ultimate maturation of forests suggests that there is a limit on the length of time over which offsets are feasible and that we need to ask what to do as the rate of C uptake declines. Acknowledging a that the availability of land will constrain the ability of tree planting to offset industrial emissions of CO{sub 2}, we consider how the land which is available can be used most effectively. This report speculates on how much land might be available for a forest management strategy motivated (at least partially) by concerns about climate change, but our principal focus is on how a given land area can be best used to minimize net emissions of CO{sub 2} and how much might be achieved on a unit of land. We do not suggest that carbon management should be the principal criteria for land management, but we discuss the implications if it were. Confronting global and local changes in climate will be one of many objectives in land management and we explore for the most effective strategy for pursuing this objective.

Marland, G.; Dale, V.; Graham, R.; Luxmoore, R.; Marland, S.; McLaughlin, S.; Norby, R.; Post, W.M.; Tschaplinski, T.; Tuskan, J.; Wright, L.

1993-06-01

69

Global carbon sequestration in tidal, saline wetland soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetlands represent the largest component of the terrestrial biological carbon pool and thus play an important role in global carbon cycles. Most global carbon budgets, however, have focused on dry land ecosystems that extend over large areas and have not accounted for the many small, scattered carbonstoring ecosystems such as tidal saline wetlands. We compiled data for 154 sites in

Gail L. Chmura; Shimon C. Anisfeld; Donald R. Cahoon; James C. Lynch

2003-01-01

70

Global decrease in atmospheric carbon monoxide concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CARBON monoxide plays an important role in the oxidizing capacity of the Earth's atmosphere, and may thereby indirectly affect the concentrations of many man-made and natural trace gases, which in turn affect climate, atmospheric chemistry and the ozone layer1. CO is produced in the atmosphere by the oxidation of methane and other hydrocarbons, and is released into the atmosphere from automobiles, agricultural waste and the burning of savanna1-4. Recent estimates1 show that human activities such as these are presently responsible for more than half the annual emissions of CO. During the 1980s there was evidence that atmospheric CO concentrations were increasing at ~1.2+/-0.6% per year, leading to feedbacks that could amplify global warming. Here we present a continuation of these measurements which show that from 1988 to 1992 global CO concentrations have started to decline rapidly at a rate of about -2.6+/-0.8% per year. A recent study5 has verified our findings with data from the past 3-4 years. The rate of decrease is particularly rapid in the Southern Hemisphere; we hypothesize that this may reflect a reduction in tropical biomass burning. The total amount of carbon monoxide in the atmosphere is less now than a decade ago.

Khalil, M. A. K.; Rasmussen, R. A.

1994-08-01

71

Global synchronous changes in the carbon isotopic composition of carbonate sediments unrelated to changes in the global carbon cycle  

PubMed Central

The carbon isotopic (?13C) composition of bulk carbonate sediments deposited off the margins of four carbonate platforms/ramp systems (Bahamas, Maldives, Queensland Plateau, and Great Australian Bight) show synchronous changes over the past 0 to 10 million years. However, these variations are different from the established global pattern in the ?13C measured in the open oceans over the same time period. For example, from 10 Ma to the present, the ?13C of open oceanic carbonate has decreased, whereas platform margin sediments analyzed here show an increase. It is suggested that the ?13C patterns in the marginal platform deposits are produced through admixing of aragonite-rich sediments, which have relatively positive ?13C values, with pelagic materials, which have lower ?13C values. As the more isotopically positive shallow-water carbonate sediments are only produced when the platforms are flooded, there is a connection between changes in global sea level and the ?13C of sediments in marginal settings. These data indicate that globally synchronous changes in ?13C can take place that are completely unrelated to variations in the global carbon cycle. Fluctuations in the ?13C of carbonate sediments measured during previous geological periods may also be subject to similar processes, and global synchroniety of ?13C can no longer necessarily be considered an indicator that such changes are related to, or caused by, variations in the burial of organic carbon. Inferences regarding the interpretation of changes in the cycling of organic carbon derived from ?13C records should be reconsidered in light of the findings presented here.

Swart, Peter K.

2008-01-01

72

Key issues in global supply base management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing effective business relationships with suppliers is hard work, especially when suppliers are located in different parts of the globe. Doing business with a supplier in China entails a very different set of fundamental elements than with one in the United States or Europe. As such, managers cannot rely on information systems to conduct business with global suppliers, but in

Robert B. Handfield; Ernest L. Nichols

2004-01-01

73

Information technology in managing global supply chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

As organizations strive to become more competitive in today’s challenging business environment, global supply chain management (GSCM) infused by information technology (IT) is being offered as a paradigm to achieve dramatic improvements in cost and time. This study examines the critical role played by IT to improve GSCM practices. The paper starts by classifying all the IT related articles dealing

Jaideep Motwani; Manu Madan; A. Gunasekaran

2000-01-01

74

Supply Chain Management in a Global Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

With globalization and integration of the world economy, the concept of extended enterprise has taken root, leading to an increasingly important role played by the entire supply chain management, including procurement, logistics and distribution for ensuring a consistently high degree of customer satisfaction in terms of quality, delivery and cost. Through examples from the Middle East and South Asia I

Janak Mehta

2004-01-01

75

(The ocean's role in the global carbon cycle)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler collaborated with Dr. J. L. Sarmiento of the Program in Atmospheric Sciences, Princeton University, and Dr. U. Siegenthaler of the University of Bern in box-model studies of the potential enhancement of oceanic CO{sub 2} uptake by fertilizing the southern ocean with iron. As a result of this collaboration, a letter describing the results was submitted to the journal Nature. Sensitivity studies were carried out to gain a better understanding of the processes involved for a hypothetical iron fertilization of the ocean. An article that describes this work has been submitted to the journal Global Biogeochemical Cycles. The traveler and U. Siegenthaler are preparing a journal article describing a box model of the global carbon cycle that is an extension of the one-dimensional box-diffusion model. The traveler attended Oceanography 590b at the University of Washington in Friday Harbor. While at Friday Harbor, he started to collaborate with Drs. M. Warner, R. Gammon, and J. Bullister, all from the University of Washington, Seattle, to calibrate the global carbon cycle model with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-11 and CFC-12. The traveler started collaboration with Drs. J. C. Orr and J. L. Sarmiento to calculate apparent eddy diffusivities from the Princeton three-dimensional ocean model. The work is conducted by the University of Bern, Switzerland (the traveler is principal investigator), for a US Department of Energy program managed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Joos, L.F.

1990-12-20

76

Terrestrial Carbon Management Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

DOE Data Explorer

CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, and models and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Collections under the broad heading of Terrestrial Carbon Management are organized as Carbon Accumulation with Cropland Management, Carbon Accumulation with Grassland Management, Carbon Loss Following Cultivation, Carbon Accumulation Following Afforestation, and Carbon Sources and Sinks Associated with U.S. Cropland Production.

77

Global demographic trends and future carbon emissions  

PubMed Central

Substantial changes in population size, age structure, and urbanization are expected in many parts of the world this century. Although such changes can affect energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, emissions scenario analyses have either left them out or treated them in a fragmentary or overly simplified manner. We carry out a comprehensive assessment of the implications of demographic change for global emissions of carbon dioxide. Using an energy–economic growth model that accounts for a range of demographic dynamics, we show that slowing population growth could provide 16–29% of the emissions reductions suggested to be necessary by 2050 to avoid dangerous climate change. We also find that aging and urbanization can substantially influence emissions in particular world regions.

O'Neill, Brian C.; Dalton, Michael; Fuchs, Regina; Jiang, Leiwen; Pachauri, Shonali; Zigova, Katarina

2010-01-01

78

Simulating the effects of forest managements on carbon sequestration: TREPLEX- Management model development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With common concern surrounding the impact of increased atmospheric CO2 on global climate change, the role of forest management (i.e. thinning) on carbon sequestration is growing as a hotspot in the post Kyoto period. However, the combination strategies between forest management and carbon management are less established. Jack pine is one of the most important commercial and reforestation species in lake states of the United States and Canada, and the specie was reported to show stronger response to forest management like thinning. Obviously, there is an urgent need for understanding how harvesting intensity (i.e., thinning) affects C sequestration in jack pine stands. The aim of this study is to quantify and predict the biomass and carbon sequestration in thinned jack pine stands in eastern Canada. TRIPLEX is a generic hybrid model for predicting forest growth and carbon and nitrogen dynamics. The TRIPLEX-Management concept model was developed. The following carbon components were considered: above ground live biomass carbon, standing dead biomass carbon, harvested wood product carbon and soil organic carbon. Thinning was linked with LAI (Leaf Area Index), stand density and soil conditions and included in NPP and biomass production and allocation models. The model was also integrated with DBH distribution models, biomass allometric models, and wood products C models as well as the established height-diameter models. It is expected to optimize thinning regimes for carbon and forest management in order to mitigate climate change impacts.

Wang, W.; Peng, C.; Lei, X.; Zhang, T.; Kneeshaw, D.; Larocque, G.

2009-05-01

79

Global Coastal Carbon Program Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

DOE Data Explorer

CDIAC provides data management support for the Global Coastal Carbon Data Project. The coastal regions data are very important for the understanding of carbon cycle on the continental margins. The Coastal Project data include the bottle (discrete) and surface (underway) carbon-related measurements from coastal research cruises, the data from time series cruises, and coastal moorings. The data from US East Coast, US West Coast, and European Coastal areas are available. CDIAC provides a map interface with vessel or platform names. Clicking on the name brings up information about the vessel or the scientific platform, the kinds of measurements collected and the timeframe, links to project pages, when available, and the links to the data files themselves.

80

Model-based estimation of the global carbon budget and its uncertainty from carbon dioxide and carbon isotope records  

Microsoft Academic Search

A global carbon cycle model is used to reconstruct the carbon budget, balancing emissions from fossil fuel and land use with carbon uptake by the oceans, and the terrestrial biosphere. We apply Bayesian statistics to estimate uncertainty of carbon uptake by the oceans and the terrestrial biosphere based on carbon dioxide and carbon isotope records, and prior information on model

Haroon S. Kheshgi; Atul K. Jain; Donald J. Wuebbles

1999-01-01

81

Towards understanding global variability in ocean carbon-13  

Microsoft Academic Search

We include a prognostic parameterization of carbon-13 into a global ocean-biogeochemistry model to investigate the spatiotemporal variability in ocean carbon-13 between 1860 and 2000. Carbon-13 was included in all 10 existing carbon pools, with dynamic fractionations occurring during photosynthesis, gas exchange and carbonate chemistry. We find that ocean distributions of ?13CDIC at any point in time are controlled by the

Alessandro Tagliabue; Laurent Bopp

2008-01-01

82

Isotropic simple global carbon model: The use of carbon isotopes for model development. Ph.D. Thesis  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide is a major greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. Anthropogenic CO2 emissions from fossil fuel use and deforestation have perturbed the natural global carbon cycle. As a result, the atmospheric CO2 concentration has rapidly increased, causing the potential for global warming. A twenty four compartment isotopic simple global carbon model (IS-GCM) has been developed for scenario analysis, research needs prioritization, and for recommending strategies to stabilize the atmospheric CO2 level. CO2 fertilization and temperature effects are included in the terrestrial biosphere, and the ocean includes inorganic chemistry which, with ocean water circulation, enables the calculation of time-variable oceanic carbon uptake. The eight compartment simple global carbon model (SGCM) served as the basis of the ISGCM model development. Carbon isotopes, C-13 (stable carbon) and C-14(radiocarbon), were used for model constraints as well as results from SGCM that led to multiple compartments in ISGCM. The ISGCM was calibrated with the observed CO2 concentrations, delta C-13, and Delta C-14 in the atmosphere, Delta C-14 in the soil and Delta C-14 in the ocean. Also, ISGCM was constrained by literature values of oceanic carbon uptake (gas exchange) and CO2 emissions from deforestation. Inputs (forcing functions in the model) were the CO2 emissions from fossil fuel use and deforestation. Scenario analysis, together with emission strategies tests, indicate that urgent action to reduce anthropogenic emissions would need to be taken to stabilize atmospheric CO2. Results showed that quantitatively, forest management is just as effective as the reduction of fossil fuel emissions in controlling atmospheric CO2. Sensitivity analysis of temperature feedback suggests that future global warming would cause an additional perturbation in the global-carbon cycle, resulting in depletion of soil organic carbon, accumulation of plant biomass, and the increase of atmospheric CO2.

Kwon, O.Y.

1994-01-01

83

Carbon's corner in the global climate challange  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unlike on other planets in the Solar System, most of the carbon in carbon dioxide (CO2) that degassed from Earth during its formation nearly 4.5 billion years ago is in limestone as the mineral calcite (CaCO3). Consequently, the small percentage (about 0.04) of CO2 in Earth's atmosphere can be changed easily by the combustion of fossil fuels. Since the early 1950s when accurate measurements of atmospheric CO2 began, it has been documented that the amount of CO2 in Earth's atmosphere is increasing at an exponential rate (Report of U.S. National Academy of Science, 2007). This course is a science elective that embraces the ideals of SENCER (Science Education for New Civic Engagements and Responsibilities) that connects science and civic engagement by teaching through complex, contested, current, and unresolved societal issues to basic science. Specifically, the instruction invites students to put scientific knowledge and the scientific method to practical use on matters of immediate interest not only to the students but also to the general public. This is done through a careful examination of the ecological and environmental issues surrounding the build-up of CO2 in the atmosphere as presented in CO2 Rising - The World's Greatest Environmental Challenge by Tyler Volk. A reflective reading of Volk's non-technical but engaging book, complemented by weekly 180-minutes of in-class instruction, results in an understanding of topics that are necessary for an informed public that continues the discussion about catastrophic global warming that might result from unchecked burning of fossil fuels by humans.

Liddicoat, Joseph

2010-05-01

84

Carbon sequestration, biological diversity, and sustainable development: Integrated forest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical deforestation provides a significant contribution to anthropogenic increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration that may lead to global warming. Forestation and other forest management options to sequester CO2 in the tropical latitudes may fail unless they address local economic, social, environmental, and political needs of people\\u000a in the developing world. Forest management is discussed in terms of three objectives: carbon

Michael A. Cairns; Richard A. Meganck

1994-01-01

85

Bringing Control to Global Supply Management Business Process Management (BPM) and Advanced Project Management Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the largest sources of aid to more than 100 developing countries, The World Bank has improved global sourcing and supplier management utilizing Business Process Management and proven project management practices. This workshop will focus on how The World Bank was able to more quickly and effectively manage project lifecycles using BPM for supply management. Presentation Objective. The World

Jason Klemow; Francine Holloway

86

Global civil aviation black carbon emissions.  

PubMed

Aircraft black carbon (BC) emissions contribute to climate forcing, but few estimates of BC emitted by aircraft at cruise exist. For the majority of aircraft engines the only BC-related measurement available is smoke number (SN)-a filter based optical method designed to measure near-ground plume visibility, not mass. While the first order approximation (FOA3) technique has been developed to estimate BC mass emissions normalized by fuel burn [EI(BC)] from SN, it is shown that it underestimates EI(BC) by >90% in 35% of directly measured cases (R(2) = -0.10). As there are no plans to measure BC emissions from all existing certified engines-which will be in service for several decades-it is necessary to estimate EI(BC) for existing aircraft on the ground and at cruise. An alternative method, called FOX, that is independent of the SN is developed to estimate BC emissions. Estimates of EI(BC) at ground level are significantly improved (R(2) = 0.68), whereas estimates at cruise are within 30% of measurements. Implementing this approach for global civil aviation estimated aircraft BC emissions are revised upward by a factor of ~3. Direct radiative forcing (RF) due to aviation BC emissions is estimated to be ~9.5 mW/m(2), equivalent to ~1/3 of the current RF due to aviation CO2 emissions. PMID:23844612

Stettler, Marc E J; Boies, Adam M; Petzold, Andreas; Barrett, Steven R H

2013-09-17

87

Optimizing carbon sequestration in commercial forests by integrating carbon management objectives in wood supply modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a methodology for generating forest management plans, which explicitly maximize carbon (C) sequestration at the forest-landscape level. This paper takes advantage of concepts first presented in a paper\\u000a by Meng et al. (2003; Mitigation Adaptation Strategies Global Change 8:371–403) by integrating C-sequestration objective functions in existing\\u000a wood supply models. Carbon-stock calculations performed in WoodstockTM (RemSoft Inc.) are based

Charles P.-A. Bourque; Eric T. Neilson; Chris Gruenwald; Samantha F. Perrin; Jason C. Hiltz; Yvon A. Blin; Geoffrey V. Horsman; Matthew S. Parker; Christie B. Thorburn; Michael M. Corey; Fan-rui Meng; D. Edwin Swift

2007-01-01

88

Integrated Global Nuclear Materials Management Preliminary Concepts  

SciTech Connect

The world is at a turning point, moving away from the Cold War nuclear legacy towards a future global nuclear enterprise; and this presents a transformational challenge for nuclear materials management. Achieving safety and security during this transition is complicated by the diversified spectrum of threat 'players' that has greatly impacted nonproliferation, counterterrorism, and homeland security requirements. Rogue states and non-state actors no longer need self-contained national nuclear expertise, materials, and equipment due to availability from various sources in the nuclear market, thereby reducing the time, effort and cost for acquiring a nuclear weapon (i.e., manifestations of latency). The terrorist threat has changed the nature of military and national security requirements to protect these materials. An Integrated Global Nuclear Materials Management (IGNMM) approach would address the existing legacy nuclear materials and the evolution towards a nuclear energy future, while strengthening a regime to prevent nuclear weapon proliferation. In this paper, some preliminary concepts and studies of IGNMM will be presented. A systematic analysis of nuclear materials, activities, and controls can lead to a tractable, integrated global nuclear materials management architecture that can help remediate the past and manage the future. A systems approach is best suited to achieve multi-dimensional and interdependent solutions, including comprehensive, end-to-end capabilities; coordinated diverse elements for enhanced functionality with economy; and translation of goals/objectives or standards into locally optimized solutions. A risk-informed basis is excellent for evaluating system alternatives and performances, and it is especially appropriate for the security arena. Risk management strategies--such as defense-in-depth, diversity, and control quality--help to weave together various technologies and practices into a strong and robust security fabric. Effective policy, science/technology, and intelligence elements are all crucial and must be harmonized. It is envisioned that integrated solutions will include reducing and securing nuclear/radiological materials at their source; improved monitoring and tracking; and enhancing detection, interdiction, and response. An active architecture, artfully combined of many synergistic elements, would support national actions and international collaboration in nuclear materials management, and it would help navigate a transition toward global nuclear sustainability.

Jones, E; Dreicer, M

2006-06-19

89

Carbon Management In the Post-Cap-and-Trade Carbon Economy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global carbon management is a pressing issue and will remain so for the balance of the 21st century. Without a worldwide comprehensive carbon management strategy in place,the economic, social, military, and humanitarian impact of excess carbon in our biosphere will preoccupy humanity until an efficient and effective strategy for carbon pricing can be implemented. In this paper, we discuss a possible strategy and construct model for comprehensive carbon management for the balance of this century. The focus of our strategy is an economic model with a carbon construct and metric that assigns a value to all states and forms of carbon involved with any anthropogenic activity. Any changes in the state or form of carbon due to anthropogenic activity will thereby generate discrete, finite, and measurable economic costs, or tolls, for the associated activity. All activities within a jurisdiction (or between jurisdictions with equivalent carbon toll treatment) that lack any change in the state or form of carbon will be free of any carbon toll. All goods and services crossing jurisdictions with dissimilar toll treatment will be assessed (or credited) to reflect the carbon toll differential. This model has three clear advantages. First, the carbon pricing and cost scheme uses existing and generally accepted accounting and economic methodologies to ensure the veracity and verifiability of carbon management efforts with minimal effort and expense using standard, existing auditing protocols. Implementing this model will not require any new, special, unique, or additional training, tools, or systems for any entity to achieve their minimum carbon target goals within their jurisdictional framework. Second, given the wide spectrum of carbon affinities across jurisdictions worldwide, our strategy recognizes and provides for flexible carbon pricing regimes, but does not undermine or penalize domestic carbon-consuming producers subject to imports from exporters in lower carbon pricing jurisdictions. Thus, this strategy avoids a key shortcoming of cap-and-trade carbon pricing, and eliminates any incentive to shift carbon consumption to jurisdictions with lower carbon tolls. Third, the model is a comprehensive, efficient, and effective strategy that allows for the implementation of a carbon pricing structure without the complete, explicit agreement of carbon consumers worldwide.

DeGroff, F. A.

2012-12-01

90

Investigations into Wetland Carbon Sequestration as Remediation for Global Warming  

SciTech Connect

Wetlands can potentially sequester vast amounts of carbon. However, over 50% of wetlands globally have been degraded or lost. Restoration of wetland systems may therefore result in increased sequestration of carbon. Preliminary results of our investigations into atmospheric carbon sequestration by restored coastal wetlands indicate that carbon can be sequestered in substantial quantities in the first 2-50 years after restoration of natural hydrology and sediment accretion processes.

Thom, Ronald M.; Blanton, Susan L.; Borde, Amy B.; Williams, Greg D.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Huesemann, Michael H.; KW Nehring and SE Brauning

2002-01-01

91

Developing Student Global Perspectives through Undergraduate Family Resource Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An undergraduate home economics program at the University of North Dakota infuses global concepts in courses on consumer issues, personal and family finances, and family management. Substantive themes center around values, family resource management patterns, interdependence, global issues/problems, critical thinking, and global actors. (SK)

Crawford, Glinda

1993-01-01

92

Data management and global change research: Technology and infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a consensus among many scientists who would perform global change research that global-scale scientific data management programs and enabling policies need to be developed and implemented concomitantly with, if not in advance of, global change research programs. They are hopeful that US Federal government policies for scientific and technical data and information management will provide timely archival, analysis,

W Morrissey

1993-01-01

93

Towards global environmental information and data management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Belmont Forum, a coalition of national science agencies from 13 countries, is supporting an 18-month effort to implement a 'Knowledge Hub' community-building and strategy development program as a first step to coordinate and streamline international efforts on community governance, interoperability and system architectures so that environmental data and information can be exchanged internationally and across subject domains easily and efficiently. This initiative represents a first step to build collaboratively an international capacity and e-infrastructure framework to address societally relevant global environmental change challenges. The project will deliver a community-owned strategy and implementation plan, which will prioritize international funding opportunities for Belmont Forum members to build pilots and exemplars in order to accelerate delivery of end-to end global change decision support systems. In 2012, the Belmont Forum held a series of public town hall meetings, and a two-day scoping meeting of scientists and program officers, which concluded that transformative approaches and innovative technologies are needed for heterogeneous data/information to be integrated and made interoperable for researchers in disparate fields and for myriad uses across international, institutional, disciplinary, spatial and temporal boundaries. Pooling Belmont Forum members' resources to bring communities together for further integration, cooperation, and leveraging of existing initiatives and resources has the potential to develop the e-infrastructure framework necessary to solve pressing environmental problems, and to support the aims of many international data sharing initiatives. The plan is expected to serve as the foundation of future Belmont Forum calls for proposals for e-Infrastructures and Data Management. The Belmont Forum is uniquely able to align resources of major national funders to support global environmental change research on specific technical and governance challenges, and the development of focused pilot systems that could be complementary to other initiatives such as GEOSS, ICSU World Data System, and Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS). The development of this Belmont Forum Knowledge Hub represents an extraordinary effort to bring together international leaders in interoperability, governance and other fields pertinent to decision-support systems in global environmental change research. It is also addressing related issues such as ensuring a cohort of environmental scientists who can use up-to-date computing techniques for data and information management, and investigating which legal issues need common international attention.

Gurney, Robert; Allison, Lee; Cesar, Roberto; Cossu, Roberto; Dietz, Volkmar; Gemeinholzer, Birgit; Koike, Toshio; Mokrane, Mustapha; Peters, Dale; Thaller-Honold, Svetlana; Treloar, Andrew; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Waldmann, Christoph

2014-05-01

94

Carbon sequestration, biological diversity, and sustainable development: Integrated forest management  

SciTech Connect

Tropical deforestation provides a significant contribution to anthropogenic increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration that may lead to global warming. Forestation and other forest management options to sequester CO2 in the tropical latitudes may fail unless they address local economic, social, environmental, and political needs of people in the developing world. Forest management is discussed in terms of three objectives: carbon sequestration; sustainable development; and biodiversity conservation. An integrated forest management strategy of land-use planning is proposed to achieve these objectives, and is centered around: preservation of primary forests; intensified use of non-timber resources; agroforestry, and selective use of plantation forestry.

Cairns, M.A.; Meganck, R.A.

1994-01-01

95

Carbon sequestration, biological diversity, and sustainable development: Integrated forest management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical deforestation provides a significant contribution to anthropogenic increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration that may lead to global warming. Forestation and other forest management options to sequester CO2 in the tropical latitudes may fail unless they address local economic, social, environmental, and political needs of people in the developing world. Forest management is discussed in terms of three objectives: carbon sequestration, sustainable development, and biodiversity conservation. An integrated forest management strategy of land-use planning is proposed to achieve these objectives and is centered around: preservation of primary forest, intensified use of nontimber resources, agroforestry, and selective use of plantation forestry.

Cairns, Michael A.; Meganck, Richard A.

1994-01-01

96

Global Impacts (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

ScienceCinema

Ashok Gadgil, Faculty Senior Scientist and Acting Director, EETD, also Professor of Environmental Engineering, UC Berkeley, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

97

Global Impacts (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

ScienceCinema

Ashok Gadgil, Faculty Senior Scientist and Acting Director, EETD, also Professor of Environmental Engineering, UC Berkeley, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Gadgil, Ashok [EETD and UC Berkeley

2011-06-08

98

Carbon Pools and Flux of Global Forest Ecosystems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Forest systems cover more than 4.1 x 10(9) hectares of the Earth's land area. Globally, forest vegetation and soils contain about 1146 petagrams of carbon, with approximately 37 percent of this carbon in low-latitude forests, 14 percent in mid-latitudes, ...

R. K. Dixon S. Brown R. A. Houghton A. M. Solomon M. C. Trexler

1994-01-01

99

The carbon-sequestration potential of a global afforestation program  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the changes in the carbon cycle that could be achieved with a global, largescale afforestation program that is economically, politically, and technically feasible. We estimated that of the areas regarded as suitable for large-scale plantations, only about 345 million ha would actually be available for plantations and agroforestry for the sole purpose of sequestering carbon. The maximum annual

Sten Nilsson; Wolfgang Schopfhauser

1995-01-01

100

Carbon Management Response Curves: Estimates of Temporal Soil Carbon Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of the change in soil carbon that accompanies a change in land use (e.g., forest to agriculture) or management (e.g., conventional tillage to no-till) can be complex and expensive, may require reference plots, and is subject to the variability of statistical sampling and short-term variability in weather. In this paper, we develop Carbon Management Response (CMR) curves that could

Tristram O. West; Gregg Marland; Anthony W. King; Wilfred M. Post; Atul K. Jain; Kenneth Andrasko

2004-01-01

101

Global atmospheric black carbon inferred from AERONET  

Microsoft Academic Search

AERONET, a network of well calibrated sunphotometers, provides data on aerosol optical depth and absorption optical depth at >250 sites around the world. The spectral range of AERONET allows discrimination between constituents that absorb most strongly in the UV region, such as soil dust and organic carbon, and the more ubiquitously absorbing black carbon (BC). AERONET locations, primarily continental, are

Makiko Sato; James Hansen; Dorothy Koch; Andrew Lacis; Reto Ruedy; Oleg Dubovik; Brent Holben; Mian Chin; Tica Novakov

2003-01-01

102

Carbon pools and flux of global forest ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest systems cover more than 4.1 x 10[sup 9] hectares of the Earth's land area. Globally, forest vegetation and soils contain about 1146 petagrams of carbon, with approximately 37 percent of this carbon in low-latitude forests, 14 percent in mid-latitudes, and 49 percent at high latitudes. Over two-thirds of the carbon in forest ecosystems is contained in soils and associated

R. K. Dixon; A. M. Solomon; R. A. Houghton; M. C. Trexler; J. Wisniewski

1994-01-01

103

A dynamic interaction of the global timber market, global warming, and carbon flux of forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest management around the globe has been discussed and emphasized as one of the practical environmental protection policies. The Kyoto protocol proposed that promotion of sustainable forest management through afforestation and reforestation will increase the potential carbon sink of forest and thus ameliorate the accumulation of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. In this sense, in order not only to improve

Dug Lee; Kenneth Lyon

2001-01-01

104

Importance of biomass in the global carbon cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our knowledge of the distribution and amount of terrestrial biomass is based almost entirely on ground measurements over an extremely small, and possibly biased sample, with many regions still unmeasured. Our understanding of changes in terrestrial biomass is even more rudimentary, although changes in land use, largely tropical deforestation, are estimated to have reduced biomass, globally. At the same time, however, the global carbon balance requires that terrestrial carbon storage has increased, albeit the exact magnitude, location, and causes of this residual terrestrial sink are still not well quantified. A satellite mission capable of measuring aboveground woody biomass could help reduce these uncertainties by delivering three products. First, a global map of aboveground woody biomass density would halve the uncertainty of estimated carbon emissions from land use change. Second, an annual, global map of natural disturbances could define the unknown but potentially large proportion of the residual terrestrial sink attributable to biomass recovery from such disturbances. Third, direct measurement of changes in aboveground biomass density (without classification of land cover or carbon modeling) would indicate the magnitude and distribution of at least the largest carbon sources (from deforestation and degradation) and sinks (from woody growth). The information would increase our understanding of the carbon cycle, including better information on the magnitude, location, and mechanisms responsible for terrestrial sources and sinks of carbon. This paper lays out the accuracy, spatial resolution, and coverage required for a satellite mission that would generate these products.

Houghton, R. A.; Hall, Forrest; Goetz, Scott J.

2009-06-01

105

A global urban carbon monitoring system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon emissions associated with cities - including megacities, smaller urban areas, and power plants - represent the single largest human contribution to climate change. Robust validation of emission changes due to growth or stabilization policies requires that we establish measurement baselines today and begin monitoring representative megacities immediately. An observing system designed to monitor urban carbon emissions must include a tiered set of surface, airborne, and satellite sensors. We present a vision, strategy, requirements, and roadmap for an international framework to assess directly the carbon emission trends of the world's urban areas and megacities. We discuss the LA Megacities Carbon Project as an example of a testbed for developing and validating multiple observational techniques ranging from continuous in-situ analysis to geostationary and polar orbiting sounders to mobile boundary layer profiling.

Duren, R. M.; Miller, C. E.

2013-12-01

106

A global ocean carbon climatology: Results from Global Data Analysis Project (GLODAP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1990s, ocean sampling expeditions were carried out as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), and the Ocean Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study (OACES). Subsequently, a group of U.S. scientists synthesized the data into easily usable and readily available products. This collaboration is known as the Global Ocean Data Analysis Project

Robert Key; Alexander Kozyr; Chris Sabine; K. Lee; R. Wanninkhof; J. L. Bullister; R. A. Feely; F. J. Millero; C. Mordy; T.-H. Peng

2004-01-01

107

Information technologies for global resources management and environmental assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent advances in computer and communications technologies offer unprecedented opportunities to develop sophisticated information resources management systems for global resources management and environment assessment in an efficient, effective, and syst...

A. P. Campbell H. Wang

1992-01-01

108

Low carbon economy and innovative management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low carbon economy has been becoming the mainstream in the development of world economy. The paper elaborates the close relationship between low carbon economy and advancing the innovative management, and sets forth about increasing efficiency and profit to achieve sustainable development through the innovation in thinking, technology, system and integration which would help reduce consumption, emission and pollution.

Liu XiFa

2010-01-01

109

Global simulation of the carbon isotope exchange of terrestrial ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There remain large uncertainties in our quantification of global carbon cycle, which has close interactions with the climate system and is subject to human-induced global environmental change. Information on carbon isotopes is expected to reduce the uncertainty by providing additional constraints on net atmosphere-ecosystem exchange. This study attempted to simulate the dynamics of carbon isotopes at the global scale, using a process-based terrestrial ecosystem model: Vegetation Integrative SImulator for Trace gases (VISIT). The base-model of carbon cycle (Sim-CYCLE, Ito 2003) has already considered stable carbon isotope composition (13C/12C), and here radioactive carbon isotope (14C) was included. The isotope ratios characterize various aspects of terrestrial carbon cycle, which is difficult to be constrained by sole mass balance. For example, isotopic discrimination by photosynthetic assimilation is closely related with leaf stomatal conductance and composition of C3 and C4 plant in grasslands. Isotopic disequilibrium represents mean residence time of terrestrial carbon pools. In this study, global simulations (spatial resolution 0.5-deg, time-step 1-month) were conducted during the period 1901 to 2100 on the basis of observed and projected atmospheric CO2, climate, and land-use conditions. As anthropogenic CO2 accumulates in the atmosphere, heavier stable carbon isotope (13C) was diluted, while radioactive carbon isotope (14C) is strongly affected by atomic bomb experiments mainly in the 1950s and 1960s. The model simulated the decadal change in carbon isotope compositions. Leaf carbon with shorter mean residence time responded rapidly to the atmospheric change, while plant stems and soil humus showed substantial time-lag, leading to large isotopic disequilibrium. In the future, the isotopic disequilibrium was estimated to augment, due to accelerated rate of anthropogenic CO2 accumulation. Spatial distribution of stable isotope composition (12C/13C, or d13C) was primarily dominated by C3/C4 plant composition and then ancillary environmental conditions. Along latitude, plant and litter carbon pools in northern ecosystems have slower turnover rates (i.e., higher 14C/12C) than those in tropical ecosystems. However, humus carbon in northern ecosystems with very long mean residence times has lower 14C/12C ratio, most of bomb-derived radioactive carbon lingered still in plant biomass. Now, we are attempting to examine the model estimations by comparing with atmospheric measurements.

Ito, A.; Terao, Y.; Mukai, H.

2009-12-01

110

Global carbon cycles: A coupled atmosphere-ocean-sediment model  

SciTech Connect

A simple one-dimensional advective-diffusive ocean model with a polar outcrop is developed and calibrated to fit modern ocean temperature, phosphorus, oxygen, total carbon, and total alkalinity data. The ocean model includes an atmospheric box which predicts atmospheric P[sub CO2] and oxygen concentrations. In addition, a sediment model is designed to reproduce modern sediment profiles of solid organic carbon and calcite, and pore water oxygen, sulfate, carbonate bicarbonate and carbon dioxide. The organic matter sediment model is used to investigate the interplay of sedimentation rate, bioturbation and microbial kinetics on the total rates of organic carbon and phosphorus regeneration and accumulation in marine sediments. This is done for sediments ranging from coastal to deep ocean. The model is sensitive to the organic carbon flux, sedimentation rate, bottom water oxygen concentration, degradation kinetics and bioturbation rate. The type of diagenetic environment and the extent of remineralization is very dependent on these variables which are currently poorly constrained. The carbonate model uses organic carbon, oxygen and sulfate profiles from the organic sediment as input in addition to the total carbon and alkalinity of the overlying water. It predicts the carbonate, bicarbonate and carbon dioxide pore water concentrations and the sedimentary carbonate fraction. The lysocline and carbonate compensation depth are sensitive to the calcite dissolution rate, the organic to inorganic carbon ratio and organic matter degradation. The sediment and ocean models are combined to form an atmosphere-ocean-sediment model which is used to test the hypothesis that decreased polar surface nutrients and carbon is the cause of the 80 ppm reduction in atmospheric P[sub CO2] observed during the last ice age. The coupled model suggests that sediments play an important role in the global carbon budget.

Tromp, T.K.

1992-01-01

111

Global carbon sequestration in tidal, saline wetland soils  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wetlands represent the largest component of the terrestrial biological carbon pool and thus play an important role in global carbon cycles. Most global carbon budgets, however, have focused on dry land ecosystems that extend over large areas and have not accounted for the many small, scattered carbon-storing ecosystems such as tidal saline wetlands. We compiled data for 154 sites in mangroves and salt marshes from the western and eastern Atlantic and Pacific coasts, as well as the Indian Ocean, Mediterranean Ocean, and Gulf of Mexico. The set of sites spans a latitudinal range from 22.4??S in the Indian Ocean to 55.5??N in the northeastern Atlantic. The average soil carbon density of mangrove swamps (0.055 ?? 0.004 g cm-3) is significantly higher than the salt marsh average (0.039 ?? 0.003 g cm-3). Soil carbon density in mangrove swamps and Spartina patens marshes declines with increasing average annual temperature, probably due to increased decay rates at higher temperatures. In contrast, carbon sequestration rates were not significantly different between mangrove swamps and salt marshes. Variability in sediment accumulation rates within marshes is a major control of carbon sequestration rates masking any relationship with climatic parameters. Globally, these combined wetlands store at least 44.6 Tg C yr-1 and probably more, as detailed areal inventories are not available for salt marshes in China and South America. Much attention has been given to the role of freshwater wetlands, particularly northern peatlands, as carbon sinks. In contrast to peatlands, salt marshes and mangroves release negligible amounts of greenhouse gases and store more carbon per unit area. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

Chmura, G. L.; Anisfeld, S. C.; Cahoon, D. R.; Lynch, J. C.

2003-01-01

112

Global carbon sequestration in tidal, saline wetland soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands represent the largest component of the terrestrial biological carbon pool and thus play an important role in global carbon cycles. Most global carbon budgets, however, have focused on dry land ecosystems that extend over large areas and have not accounted for the many small, scattered carbon-storing ecosystems such as tidal saline wetlands. We compiled data for 154 sites in mangroves and salt marshes from the western and eastern Atlantic and Pacific coasts, as well as the Indian Ocean, Mediterranean Ocean, and Gulf of Mexico. The set of sites spans a latitudinal range from 22.4°S in the Indian Ocean to 55.5°N in the northeastern Atlantic. The average soil carbon density of mangrove swamps (0.055 ± 0.004 g cm-3) is significantly higher than the salt marsh average (0.039 ± 0.003 g cm-3). Soil carbon density in mangrove swamps and Spartina patens marshes declines with increasing average annual temperature, probably due to increased decay rates at higher temperatures. In contrast, carbon sequestration rates were not significantly different between mangrove swamps and salt marshes. Variability in sediment accumulation rates within marshes is a major control of carbon sequestration rates masking any relationship with climatic parameters. Globally, these combined wetlands store at least 44.6 Tg C yr-1 and probably more, as detailed areal inventories are not available for salt marshes in China and South America. Much attention has been given to the role of freshwater wetlands, particularly northern peatlands, as carbon sinks. In contrast to peatlands, salt marshes and mangroves release negligible amounts of greenhouse gases and store more carbon per unit area.

Chmura, Gail L.; Anisfeld, Shimon C.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Lynch, James C.

2003-12-01

113

Linking Forest Carbon Monitoring with Management Decisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Managing forests to increase carbon stocks or reduce emissions requires knowledge of how management practices effect carbon pools over time, and inexpensive techniques to monitor activities. Here we discuss our approach to integrate the multi-tier monitoring data from the North American Carbon Program (NACP) with management decisions by linking bottom-up and top-down ecosystem models with decision-support tools. Monitoring carbon stocks and fluxes in the NACP involves a multi-tier hierarchy of observation methods: remote sensing, inventories, landscape biometrics, and flux towers. We use the GIS version of PnET-CN to scale up and map observations from flux towers, landscape biometrics, and inventories to areas of approximately 50 km2 around flux tower sites. The NASA-CASA model is used to scale down remote sensing observations from the MODIS sensor and biophysical maps to the same areas. Mapped estimates of productivity and biomass that embed consequences of land disturbances and forest age structure are used to compare and reconcile the top-down and bottom-up approaches, and to provide input to decision-support tools. Key information for the decision-support tools includes (1) estimates of carbon stocks and quantified impacts of management activity; (2) estimates of net ecosystem production (NEP) and changes in carbon pools; and (3) estimates of forest/atmosphere carbon fluxes and relevant effects from various environmental controls. To demonstrate the relevance of this work to land managers, we illustrate how this information can be used for estimating and reporting carbon stocks and changes in carbon stocks to the national greenhouse gas registry.

Birdsey, R.; Pan, Y.; Potter, C.; Hom, J.; Clark, K.; van Tuyl, S.

2006-12-01

114

Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) (Global Carbon Cycle)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This bimonthly contractor progress report covers the operation, maintenance and data management of the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar and the Airborne Topographic Mapper. Monthly activities included: mission planning, sensor operation and calibration, data processing, data analysis, network development and maintenance and instrument maintenance engineering and fabrication.

2003-01-01

115

Communicating complex connectivity: Studying global management and global training from a communicative perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the study was to produce a set of guidelines for and exemplars of global training that reflect the richness and complexity of today's global work experience. Meta-analytic methods are combined with field research spanning five international sites and over 80 interviews with aviation maintenance professionals, managers, and area managers to produce a theoretically driven and grounded research

Stephanie Reding Galarneault

2003-01-01

116

The ocean as part of the global carbon cycle.  

PubMed

The ocean plays a central role in the global carbon cycle being by far the largest active reservoir. Atmospheric CO2 level depends on the CO2concentration in the ocean surface layer, which is relatively low compared to mean oceanic values due to biological and physical carbon pumps. Although the ocean may take up much of the carbon released by the increased burning of fossil fuels, this capacity is limited because of the chemical buffering and a mismatch in time scales (oceanic mixing is much slower than anthropogenic perturbations). PMID:24234214

Wolf-Gladrow, D

1994-03-01

117

Isotropic simple global carbon model: The use of carbon isotopes for model development. Ph.D. Thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide is a major greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. Anthropogenic CO2 emissions from fossil fuel use and deforestation have perturbed the natural global carbon cycle. As a result, the atmospheric CO2 concentration has rapidly increased, causing the potential for global warming. A twenty four compartment isotopic simple global carbon model (IS-GCM) has been developed for scenario analysis, research needs

1994-01-01

118

Trade-offs between solar radiation management, carbon dioxide removal, emissions mitigation and adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible use of solar radiation control strategies to counteract global warming is explored through a number scenarios of different anthropogenic CO2 emission reduction pathways and carbon dioxide removal interventions. Using a simple Earth system model, we illustrate the trade-offs between CO2 emission reduction, the use of carbon dioxide removal geoengineering interventions (`negative emissions') and solar radiation management (SRM). These

Naomi Vaughan; Timothy Lenton

2010-01-01

119

Implementation of Emission Trading in Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Optimization Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an effective mid- and long- term solution for large-scale mitigation of industrial CO2 emissions, CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) has been paid more and more attention in the past decades. A general CCS management system has complex characteristics of multiple emission sources, multiple mitigation technologies, multiple sequestration sites, and multiple project periods. Trade-off exists among numerous environmental, economic, political, and technical factors, leading to varied system features. Sound decision alternatives are thus desired for provide decision supports for decision makers or managers for managing such a CCS system from capture to the final geologic storage phases. Carbon emission trading has been developed as a cost-effective tool for reducing the global greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, a carbon capture and sequestration optimization management model is proposed to address the above issues. The carbon emission trading is integrated into the model, and its impacts on the resulting management decisions are analyzed. A multi-source multi-period case study is provided to justify the applicability of the modeling approach, where uncertainties in modeling parameters are also dealt with.

Zhang, X.; Duncan, I.

2013-12-01

120

Globally significant oceanic source of organic carbon aerosol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant concentrations of organic carbon (OC) aerosol are observed at three oceanic surface sites (Amsterdam Island, Azores and Mace Head). Two global chemical transport models (CTMs) underpredict OC concentrations at these sites (normalised mean bias of -67% and -58%). During periods of high biological activity monthly mean concentrations are underpredicted by a factor of 5-20. At Amsterdam Island and Mace

Dominick V. Spracklen; Steve R. Arnold; Jean Sciare; Kenneth S. Carslaw; Casimiro Pio

2008-01-01

121

Global Warming: Carbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment demonstrates carbon dioxide's role in the greenhouse effect and explains how increasing concentrations of C02 in the atmosphere may be contributing to global warming. Video includes an unusual demonstration of C02's heat-absorbing properties, using infrared film, a researcher's face, and a stream of C02 between them.

Frontline/nova; Foundation, Wgbh E.; Domain, Teachers'

122

Soil carbon sequestration impacts on global climate change and food security.  

PubMed

The carbon sink capacity of the world's agricultural and degraded soils is 50 to 66% of the historic carbon loss of 42 to 78 gigatons of carbon. The rate of soil organic carbon sequestration with adoption of recommended technologies depends on soil texture and structure, rainfall, temperature, farming system, and soil management. Strategies to increase the soil carbon pool include soil restoration and woodland regeneration, no-till farming, cover crops, nutrient management, manuring and sludge application, improved grazing, water conservation and harvesting, efficient irrigation, agroforestry practices, and growing energy crops on spare lands. An increase of 1 ton of soil carbon pool of degraded cropland soils may increase crop yield by 20 to 40 kilograms per hectare (kg/ha) for wheat, 10 to 20 kg/ha for maize, and 0.5 to 1 kg/ha for cowpeas. As well as enhancing food security, carbon sequestration has the potential to offset fossil fuel emissions by 0.4 to 1.2 gigatons of carbon per year, or 5 to 15% of the global fossil-fuel emissions. PMID:15192216

Lal, R

2004-06-11

123

Soil Carbon Sequestration Impacts on Global Climate Change and Food Security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The carbon sink capacity of the world's agricultural and degraded soils is 50 to 66% of the historic carbon loss of 42 to 78 gigatons of carbon. The rate of soil organic carbon sequestration with adoption of recommended technologies depends on soil texture and structure, rainfall, temperature, farming system, and soil management. Strategies to increase the soil carbon pool include soil restoration and woodland regeneration, no-till farming, cover crops, nutrient management, manuring and sludge application, improved grazing, water conservation and harvesting, efficient irrigation, agroforestry practices, and growing energy crops on spare lands. An increase of 1 ton of soil carbon pool of degraded cropland soils may increase crop yield by 20 to 40 kilograms per hectare (kg/ha) for wheat, 10 to 20 kg/ha for maize, and 0.5 to 1 kg/ha for cowpeas. As well as enhancing food security, carbon sequestration has the potential to offset fossil-fuel emissions by 0.4 to 1.2 gigatons of carbon per year, or 5 to 15% of the global fossil-fuel emissions.

Lal, R.

2004-06-01

124

Global Supply of Biomass for Energy and Carbon Sequestration from Afforestation\\/Reforestation Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we provide an analytical framework to estimate the joint production of biomass and carbon sequestration from\\u000a afforestation and reforestation activities. The analysis is based on geographical explicit information on a half-degree resolution.\\u000a For each grid-cell the model estimates forest growth using a global vegetation model and chooses forest management rules.\\u000a Land prices, cost of forest production and

Michael Obersteiner; G. Alexandrov; Pablo C. Benítez; Ian McCallum; Florian Kraxner; Keywan Riahi; Dmitry Rokityanskiy; Yoshiki Yamagata

2006-01-01

125

BIOMASS, BIOENERGY, AND CARBON MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass is a significant contributor to the United States economy % agriculture, forest and paper products, food and related products account for 5% of our GDP. While the forest products industry self generates some of their energy, other sectors are importers. Bioenergy can contribute to economic development and to the environment. Examples of bioenergy routes suggest that atmospheric carbon can

Raymond Costello; Helena L. Chum

126

Global Management Education Graduate Survey, 2011. Survey Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year for the past 12 years, the Graduate Management Admission Council[R] (GMAC[R]) has conducted a survey of graduate management education students in their final year of business school. This Global Management Education Graduate Survey is distributed to students at participating business schools. The survey allows students to express their…

Schoenfeld, Gregg

2011-01-01

127

2012 Global Management Education Graduate Survey. Survey Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year for the past 13 years, the Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC) has conducted a survey of graduate management education students in their final year of business school. The Global Management Education Graduate Survey is distributed to students at participating schools. The survey allows students to express their opinions about…

Leach, Laura

2012-01-01

128

Management Opportunities for Enhancing Terrestrial Carbon Dioxide Sinks  

SciTech Connect

The potential for mitigating increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations through the use of terrestrial biological carbon (C) sequestration is substantial. Here, we estimate the amount of C being sequestered by natural processes at global, North American, and national US scales. We present and quantify, where possible, the potential for deliberate human actions – through forestry, agriculture, and use of biomass-based fuels – to augment these natural sinks. Carbon sequestration may potentially be achieved through some of these activities but at the expense of substantial changes in land-use management. Some practices (eg reduced tillage, improved silviculture, woody bioenergy crops) are already being implemented because of their economic benefits and associated ecosystem services. Given their cumulative greenhouse-gas impacts, other strategies (eg the use of biochar and cellulosic bioenergy crops) require further evaluation to determine whether widespread implementation is warranted.

Post, W. M.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; West, Tristram O.; Liebig, Mark A.; King, Anthony W.

2012-12-01

129

Carbon composites for thermal management applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A family of high thermal conductivity carbon fiber reinforced composites has been developed for thermal management applications in spacecraft and electronic packaging. Light weight Carbon-Carbon (C-C) composites can offer extremely high thermal conductivity in the fiber direction along with high stiffness and zero coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Thermal doubler and radiator face sheet are potential applications. On the other hand, metal impregnated C-C composites provides matching CTE to electronic packaging substrates, such as alumina and silicon. Avionic thermal planes and thermal spreader/heat sinks are possible applications.

Shih, Wei

1996-03-01

130

Methane hydrate in the global organic carbon cycle  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The global occurrence of methane hydrate in outer continental margins and in polar regions, and the magnitude of the amount of methane sequestered in methane hydrate suggest that methane hydrate is an important component in the global organic carbon cycle. Various versions of this cycle have emphasized the importance of methane hydrate, and in the latest version the role of methane hydrate is considered to be analogous to the workings of an electrical circuit. In this circuit the methane hydrate is a condenser and the consequences of methane hydrate dissociation are depicted as a resistor and inductor, reflecting temperature change and changes in earth surface history. These consequences may have implications for global change including global climate change.

Kvenvolden, K. A.

2002-01-01

131

Globalization--Education and Management Agendas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chapters in this book include: (1) Internationalization and Globalization in Higher Education (Douglas E. Mitchell and Selin Yildiz Nielsen); (2) Higher Educational Reform Values and the Dilemmas of Change: Challenging Secular Neo-Liberalism (James Campbell); (3) "Red Light" in Chile: Parents Participating as Consumers of Education Under Global…

Cuadra-Montiel, Hector, Ed.

2012-01-01

132

Global environmental management: a historical perspective.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our understanding of the Earth system has been developing rapidly over the past few decades in response to major global environmental problems such as the depletion of the ozone layer and the impact of global climate change. Our desire to understand the E...

J. Taylor

2000-01-01

133

Timing of carbon emissions from global forest clearance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-use change, primarily from conventional agricultural expansion and deforestation, contributes to approximately 17% of global greenhouse-gas emissions. The fate of cleared wood and subsequent carbon storage as wood products, however, has not been consistently estimated, and is largely ignored or oversimplified by most models estimating greenhouse-gas emissions from global land-use conversion. Here, we estimate the fate of cleared wood and timing of atmospheric carbon emissions for 169 countries. We show that 30 years after forest clearance the percentage of carbon stored in wood products and landfills ranges from about 0% to 62% globally. For 90 countries, less than 5% of carbon remains after 30 years, whereas 34 countries have more than 25% in storage. Higher storage rates result primarily from a greater percentage of long-lived products such as wood panels and lumber, and tend to occur in countries with predominantly temperate forests. Alternatively, lower storage rates are associated with a greater fraction of non-merchantable wood and more wood used for energy and paper production, which tend to occur in countries with predominantly tropical forests. Hence, the country and fate of cleared wood can considerably affect the timing of greenhouse-gas emissions from forest clearance.

Mason Earles, J.; Yeh, Sonia; Skog, Kenneth E.

2012-09-01

134

Marine Bacterium Suspected To Play Role in Global Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles  

NSF Publications Database

... Microorganism Suspected to Play Role in Global Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles Scientists successfully ... may play a key role in global nitrogen and carbon cycling. Credit and Larger Version September ...

135

Carbon dioxide laser management cervical intraepithelial neoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report we describe the use of the carbon dioxide laser for the outpatient management of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). A comparison of treatment effectiveness for different grades of CIN is also included. Two hundred fifty-six cases were evaluated by colposcopy, cytology, and histopathology, treated by at least 5 to 6 mm of laser vaporization, and followed up for

J. H. Bellina; V. C. Wright; J. I. Voros; M. A. Riopelle; V. Hohenschutz

1981-01-01

136

Responsibility, opportunity, and vision for higher education in urban and regional carbon management.  

PubMed

This is a summary of the conversation among scholars attending the special session on "Responsibility, Opportunity, and Vision for Higher Education in Urban and Regional Carbon Management" at the First International Conference on Carbon Management at Urban and Regional Levels: Connecting Development Decisions to Global Issues in Mexico City Sept. 4-8, 2006. It includes The Declaration for Carbon Management Education, agreed upon by the participants. Obstacles to such a vision were discussed along with exemplar models of transdisciplinary curricula and suggestions for scholarship. PMID:17118193

Canan, Penelope; Schienke, Erich W

2006-01-01

137

Responsibility, opportunity, and vision for higher education in urban and regional carbon management  

PubMed Central

This is a summary of the conversation among scholars attending the special session on "Responsibility, Opportunity, and Vision for Higher Education in Urban and Regional Carbon Management" at the First International Conference on Carbon Management at Urban and Regional Levels: Connecting Development Decisions to Global Issues in Mexico City Sept. 4–8, 2006. It includes The Declaration for Carbon Management Education, agreed upon by the participants. Obstacles to such a vision were discussed along with exemplar models of transdisciplinary curricula and suggestions for scholarship.

Canan, Penelope; Schienke, Erich W

2006-01-01

138

Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract global warming?  

SciTech Connect

Field measurements and model results have recently shown that aerosols may have important climatic impacts. One line of inquiry has investigated whether reducing climate-warming soot or black carbon aerosol emissions can form a viable component of mitigating global warming. Black carbon is produced by poor combustion, from our example hard coal cooking fires for and industrial pulverized coal boilers. The authors review and acknowledge scientific arguments against considering aerosols and greenhouse gases in a common framework, including the differences in the physical mechanisms of climate change and relevant time scales. It is argued that such a joint consideration is consistent with the language of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Results from published climate-modeling studies are synthesized to obtain a global warming potential for black carbon relative to that of CO{sub 2} (680 on a 100 year basis). This calculation enables a discussion of cost-effectiveness for mitigating the largest sources of black carbon. It is found that many emission reductions are either expensive or difficult to enact when compared with greenhouse gases, particularly in Annex I countries. Finally, a role for black carbon in climate mitigation strategies is proposed that is consistent with the apparently conflicting arguments raised during the discussion. Addressing these emissions is a promising way to reduce climatic interference primarily for nations that have not yet agreed to address greenhouse gas emissions and provides the potential for a parallel climate agreement. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Tami C. Bond; Haolin Sun [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (US)

2005-08-15

139

Managing complexity in agile global fashion industry supply chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the agile supply chain management practices adopted by UK clothing retailers in order to effectively manage the supply of innovative, high-margin, high-fashion content product offerings in a complex global environment. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A case study approach was adopted examining the whole of the global retail fashion supply chain, from typical

Ron Masson; Laura Iosif; Grant MacKerron; June Fernie

2007-01-01

140

Section 4: Evaluation of carbon management requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chapters in this section are perhaps the broadest of the book. They discuss the integrated set of factors that affect carbon management in general. Roed-Larsen and Flach start the section with a detailed summary of current accreditation schemes. Verification of carbon credits is critical for validation of monetary sequestration incentives. Commercial-scale geologic sequestration will likely not advance unless such financial incentives are implemented. The type of incentive also is critical. For example, in the one country where a carbon tax is in place, Norway, commercial geologic sequestration has been underway since 1996. In other countries, where a cap-and-trade system is in place, and of course in countries where no incentives are offered, no commercial carbon sequestration is taking place.

141

Aboveground Forest Biomass and the Global Carbon Balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere has been dominated by two factors: changes in the area of forests and per hectare changes in forest biomass resulting from management and regrowth. While these factors are reasonably well documented in countries of the northern mid-latitudes as a result of systematic forest inventories, they are uncertain in

R. A. H OUGHTON

2005-01-01

142

Management of carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of illness and death in the United States. Most cases result from exposure to the internal combustion engine and to stoves burning fossil fuels. Most cases of accidental exposure are preventable if proper precautions are taken; however, when cases arise, their presenting signs and symptoms are nonspecific and often lead to a misdiagnosis resembling a flu-like viral illness. As a result, the incidence of acute CO poisoning is underestimated. The effects of CO poisoning are due to tissue hypoxia, with the CNS and the heart being the most susceptible target organs due to their high oxygen needs. Prolonged hypoxia due to high CO levels may lead to cardiac arrhythmias or arrest (or both) and a variety of neurologic sequelae. Treatment is directed toward the relief of tissue hypoxia and the removal of CO from the body. Severity of poisoning can be divided into three levels based on CO levels in the blood. Administration of normobaric 100 percent oxygen is the therapy of choice for most cases, while hyperbaric oxygen therapy is reserved for severe poisonings. PMID:2403894

Ilano, A L; Raffin, T A

1990-01-01

143

Global estimate of net annual carbon flow to phenylpropanoid metabolism  

SciTech Connect

The steady increase in the concentration of CO[sub 2] in the atmosphere is the focus of renewed interest in the global carbon cycle. Current research is centered upon modeling the effects of the increasing CO[sub 2] concentrations, and thus global warning, on global plant homeostasis. It has been estimated that the annual net primary production (NPP) values for terrestrial and oceanic biomes are 59.9 and 35 Pg C-yr[sup [minus]1], respectively (Melillo et al., 1990). Based on these NPP values, we have estimated the annual C flow to phenlpropanoid metabolism. In our calculation, lignin was used as a surrogate for phenylpropanoid compounds, as lignin is the second most abundant plant polymer. This approach means that our estimate defines the lower limit of C flow to phenylpropanoid metabolism. Each biome was considered separately to determine the percent of the NPP which was directed to the biosynthesis of leaves, stems/branches, and roots. From published values of the lignin content of these organs, the total amount of C directed to the biosynthesis of lignin in each biome was determined. This was used to obtain a global value. Implications of these estimates will be discussed with reference to plant carbon and nitrogen metabolism.

Walton, A.B.; Norman, E.G.; Turpin, D.H. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

1993-05-01

144

Formulating energy policies related to fossil fuel use: Critical uncertainties in the global carbon cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global carbon cycle is the dynamic interaction among the earth's carbon sources and sinks. Four reservoirs can be identified, including the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and sediments. Atmospheric COâ concentration is determined by characteristics of carbon fluxes among major reservoirs of the global carbon cycle. The objective of this paper is to document the knowns, and unknowns and uncertainties

W. M. Post; V. H. Dale; D. L. DeAngelis; L. K. Mann; P. J. Mulholland; R. V. ONeill; T.-H. Peng; M. P. Farrell

1990-01-01

145

Fossil Plants as Indicators of the Phanerozoic Global Carbon Cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developments in plant physiology since the 1980s have led to the realization that fossil plants archive both the isotopic composition of atmospheric CO2 and its concentration, both critical integrators of carbon cycle processes through geologic time. These two carbon cycle signals can be read by analyzing the stable carbon isotope composition ([delta ]13) of fossilized terrestrial organic matter and by determining the stomatal characters of well-preserved fossil leaves, respectively. We critically evaluate the use of fossil plants in this way at abrupt climatic boundaries associated with mass extinctions and during times of extreme global warmth. Particular emphasis is placed on evaluating the potential to extract a quantitative estimate of the [delta ]13 of atmospheric CO2 because of the key role it plays in understanding the carbon cycle. We critically discuss the use of stomatal index and stomatal ratios for reconstructing atmospheric CO2 levels, especially the need for adequate replication, and present a newly derived CO2 record for the Mesozoic that supports levels calculated from geochemical modeling of the long-term carbon cycle. Several suggestions for future research using stable carbon isotope analyses of fossil terrestrial organic matter and stomatal measurements are highlighted.

Beerling, D. J.; Royer, D. L.

146

Data Management and Global Change Research: Technology and Infrastructure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the problem of how to amass and organize large volumes of global change research data. Public policy issues relating to U.S. data and information management, technological challenges, proposed digital data generation and collection activities, and other data management activities are covered. (58 references) (KRN)

Morrissey, Wayne A.

1993-01-01

147

Global Biogeochemistry Models and Global Carbon Cycle Research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The climate modeling community has long envisioned an evolution from physical climate models to ''earth system'' models that include the effects of biology and chemistry, particularly those processes related to the global carbon cycle. The widely reproduced Box 3, Figure 1 from the 2001 IPCC Scientific Assessment schematically describes that evolution. The community generally accepts the premise that understanding and predicting global and regional climate change requires the inclusion of carbon cycle processes in models to fully simulate the feedbacks between the climate system and the carbon cycle. Moreover, models will ultimately be employed to predict atmospheric concentrations of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases as a function of anthropogenic and natural processes, such as industrial emissions, terrestrial carbon fixation, sequestration, land use patterns, etc. Nevertheless, the development of coupled climate-carbon models with demonstrable quantitative skill will require a significant amount of effort and time to understand and validate their behavior at both the process level and as integrated systems. It is important to consider objectively whether the currently proposed strategies to develop and validate earth system models are optimal, or even sufficient, and whether alternative strategies should be pursued. Carbon-climate models are going to be complex, with the carbon cycle strongly interacting with many other components. Off-line process validation will be insufficient. As was found in coupled atmosphere-ocean GCMs, feedbacks between model components can amplify small errors and uncertainties in one process to produce large biases in the simulated climate. The persistent tropical western Pacific Ocean ''double ITCZ'' and upper troposphere ''cold pole'' problems are examples. Finding and fixing similar types of problems in coupled carbon-climate models especially will be difficult, given the lack of observations required for diagnosis and validation of biogeochemical processes.

Covey, C; Caldeira, K; Guilderson, T; Cameron-Smith, P; Govindasamy, B; Swanston, C; Wickett, M; Mirin, A; Bader, D

2005-05-27

148

Some aspects of understanding changes in the global carbon cycle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The collective character of carbon exchanges between the atmosphere and other pools is partially revealed by comparing the record of CO2 concentration beginning in 1958 with estimates of the releases from fossil fuels during this period. In analyzing the secular increase in CO2 concentration induced by fossil fuel use, the atmosphere is generally treated as a single well-mixed reservoir; however, to study finer structure in the CO2 records, the influence of atmospheric circulation must be more carefully considered. The rate of carbon uptake by the oceans, the primary sink for fossil fuel CO2, is assessed more reliably than influences on the atmosphere due to interactions with other pools. Models of the global carbon cycle are being substantially refined while data that reflect the response of the cycle to fossil fuel use and other perturbations are being extended.

Emanuel, W. R.; Moore, B., III; Shugart, H. H.

1984-01-01

149

Theoretical analysis of the global land carbon cycle: what determines the trajectory of future carbon uptake?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global land surface has taken up about 29% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions since preindustrial times. Yet it remains uncertain whether this significant buffer to the effects of anthropogenic climate change will continue in future. Some models predict that the global land biosphere will remain a carbon sink by the end of this century, but others predict it to become a major source. It is therefore important to understand what causes this divergence in predictions. In this presentation, we combined numerical and mathematical analysis to reveal general behaviour of global land models. Our analysis is based on the recognition that the terrestrial carbon cycle generally can be mathematically expressed by a system of first-order linear ordinary differential equations subject to an initial condition as follows: dC/dt = x(t)AC+BU(t) with C(t=0)=C0 where C(t) is the C pool size, A is the C transfer matrix, U is the photosynthetic input, B is a vector of partitioning coefficients, C0 is the initial value of the C pool, and x is an environmental scalar. In this equation, the linear carbon transfer among pools within one ecosystem is represented by matrix A and vector B, and the nonlinearity of environmental influences is represented by environmental scalar x(t) on carbon transfer and U(t) for carbon influx. We investigate how important variation in parameters controlling terrestrial carbon cycling are for three key predictions of the dynamics of future land carbon: the maximum carbon uptake, Fmax, the number of years it takes to reach Fmax, tmax, and the year in which the land biosphere changes from a carbon sink to a source, t1 (if it happens). The parameters included the sensitivity of net primary production to atmospheric [CO2], ?, the temperature sensitivity of soil carbon decomposition, Q10, and the sensitivity of global mean land surface to atmospheric [CO2],?. Our theoretical analyses reveal that a theoretical maximal amount carbon accumulated by land biosphere can be estimated from Fmax and the residence times of the different carbon pools, and that an estimate on the time it takes for the system to approach its new equilibrium can be obtained from the residence time of the slowest pool. Our numerical analyses reveal that a 3-D parameter space can bound the range of land carbon uptake trajectories from 1850 to 2100 predicted by all Earth System Models for the 5th assessment report of the IPCC. The maximal amount of carbon accumulated, tmax and t1 increases with ? and decreases with Q10 and ?. The sensitivities of all three model predictions to ? and Q10 increase with ? .

Wang, Y.; Smith, M. J.; Luo, Y.; Leite, M.; Agusto, F.; Chen, B.; Hoffman, F. M.; Medlyn, B. E.; Rasmussen, M.

2013-12-01

150

Developing Global Perspectives through International Management Degrees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Internationalisation has risen high on the agenda of many higher education institutions, and the need to develop graduates with global perspectives is well recognised. Much attention has been given to institutional strategies for internationalisation, international students, and dealing with culturally diverse learning styles. To date, however,…

Brookes, Maureen; Becket, Nina

2011-01-01

151

Plumbing the Global Carbon Cycle: Integrating Inland Waters into the Terrestrial Carbon Budget  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because freshwater covers such a small fraction of the Earth’s surface area, inland freshwater ecosystems (particularly lakes,\\u000a rivers, and reservoirs) have rarely been considered as potentially important quantitative components of the carbon cycle at\\u000a either global or regional scales. By taking published estimates of gas exchange, sediment accumulation, and carbon transport\\u000a for a variety of aquatic systems, we have constructed

J. J. Cole; Y. T. Prairie; N. F. Caraco; W. H. McDowell; L. J. Tranvik; R. G. Striegl; C. M. Duarte; P. Kortelainen; J. A. Downing; J. J. Middelburg; J. Melack

2007-01-01

152

Global Tides of Change: Significant Recent Events and Trends Affecting Globalization of the Project Management Profession  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past year, several significant economic, industrial and geopolitical events occurred in the world which might have lasting effects on the project management profession. Advances continued in computing and communications technologies, with Internet and worldwide web- based commercial activity growing rapidly. Within the project management profession, global cooperation increased, while PMI's relations with government agencies expanded, along with the

David Pells

153

Global Carbon Budget from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

DOE Data Explorer

The Global Carbon Project (GCP) was established in 2001 in recognition of the scientific challenge and critical importance of the carbon cycle for Earth's sustainability. The growing realization that anthropogenic climate change is a reality has focused the attention of the scientific community, policymakers and the general public on the rising concentration of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere, and on the carbon cycle in general. Initial attempts, through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol, are underway to slow the rate of increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. These societal actions require a scientific understanding of the carbon cycle, and are placing increasing demands on the international science community to establish a common, mutually agreed knowledge base to support policy debate and action. The Global Carbon Project is responding to this challenge through a shared partnership between the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP), the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and Diversitas. This partnership constitutes the Earth Systems Science Partnership (ESSP). This CDIAC collection includes datasets, images, videos, presentations, and archived data from previous years.

154

Implementing a learning management system globally: An innovative change management approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes how Aventis Pharmaceuticals, in partnership with IBM, is implementing a learning management system (LMS) globally both in the Research and Development organization and in clinical groups within the Commercial Operations organization. It also discusses how Aventis is applying an innovative change management approach that meets challenges to this implementation globally across its matrix organization. The LMS relies

Kathleen Martin; Mark A. Quigley; S. Rogers

2005-01-01

155

A LEO Hyperspectral Mission Implementation for Global Carbon Cycle Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For both terrestrial and ocean carbon cycle science objectives, high resolution (less than l0 nm) imaging spectrometers capable of acquiring multiple regional to global scale observations per day should enable the development of new remote sensing measurements for important but as yet unobservable variables, with the overall goal of linking both terrestrial and ocean carbon cycle processes to climate variability. For terrestrial research, accurate estimates of carbon, water and energy (CWE) exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere a needed to id- the geographical locations and temporal dynamics of carbon sources/sinks and to improve regional climate models and climate change assessments. It is an enormous challenge to estimate CWE exchange from the infrequent temporal coverage and sparse spectral information provided by most single polar-orbiting, earth-looking satellite. The available satellite observations lack a sufficient number of well-placed narrow bands from which to derive spectral indices that capture vegetation responses to stress conditions associated with down-regulation of photosynthesis. Physiological status can best be assessed with spectral indices based on continuous, narrow bands in the visible/near infrared spectra, as can seasonal and annual terrestrial productivity. For coastal and ocean constituents, narrow-band observations in the ultraviolet and visible are essential to investigate the variability, dynamics and biogeochemical cycles of the world's coastal and open ocean regions, which will in turn help in measuring ocean productivity and predicting the variability of ocean carbon uptake and its role in climate change.

Gervin, Janette C.; Esper, Jaime; McClain, Charles R.; Hall, Forrest G.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Gregg, Watson W.; Mannino, Antonio; Knox, Robert G.; Huemmrich, K. Fred

2004-01-01

156

Information technologies for global resources management and environmental assessment  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in computer and communications technologies offer unprecedented opportunities to develop sophisticated information resources management systems for global resources management and environment assessment in an efficient, effective, and systematic manner. In this paper, the emerging global energy and environmental issues are identified. Since satellite-based remote sensing systems are becoming increasingly available and produce massive data collections, the utilization of imaging processing techniques and their applications for regional and global resources management and environmental studies are described. Interoperability and interconnectivity among heterogeneous computer systems are major issues in designing a totally integrated, multimedia-based, information resources management system that operates in a networking environment. Discussions of the future technology trends are focused on a number of emerging information management technologies and communications standards which will aid in achieving seamless system integration and offer user-friendly operations. It can be foreseen that advances in computer and communications technologies, increasingly sophisticated image processing techniques and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and the development of globally comprehensive data bases will bring global visualization'' onto multimedia desktop computers before the end of this decade.

Campbell, A.P.; Wang, Hua.

1992-01-01

157

Information technologies for global resources management and environmental assessment  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in computer and communications technologies offer unprecedented opportunities to develop sophisticated information resources management systems for global resources management and environment assessment in an efficient, effective, and systematic manner. In this paper, the emerging global energy and environmental issues are identified. Since satellite-based remote sensing systems are becoming increasingly available and produce massive data collections, the utilization of imaging processing techniques and their applications for regional and global resources management and environmental studies are described. Interoperability and interconnectivity among heterogeneous computer systems are major issues in designing a totally integrated, multimedia-based, information resources management system that operates in a networking environment. Discussions of the future technology trends are focused on a number of emerging information management technologies and communications standards which will aid in achieving seamless system integration and offer user-friendly operations. It can be foreseen that advances in computer and communications technologies, increasingly sophisticated image processing techniques and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and the development of globally comprehensive data bases will bring ``global visualization`` onto multimedia desktop computers before the end of this decade.

Campbell, A.P.; Wang, Hua

1992-09-01

158

Permafrost carbon-climate feedbacks accelerate global warming  

PubMed Central

Permafrost soils contain enormous amounts of organic carbon, which could act as a positive feedback to global climate change due to enhanced respiration rates with warming. We have used a terrestrial ecosystem model that includes permafrost carbon dynamics, inhibition of respiration in frozen soil layers, vertical mixing of soil carbon from surface to permafrost layers, and CH4 emissions from flooded areas, and which better matches new circumpolar inventories of soil carbon stocks, to explore the potential for carbon-climate feedbacks at high latitudes. Contrary to model results for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC AR4), when permafrost processes are included, terrestrial ecosystems north of 60°N could shift from being a sink to a source of CO2 by the end of the 21st century when forced by a Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A2 climate change scenario. Between 1860 and 2100, the model response to combined CO2 fertilization and climate change changes from a sink of 68 Pg to a 27 + -7 Pg sink to 4 + -18 Pg source, depending on the processes and parameter values used. The integrated change in carbon due to climate change shifts from near zero, which is within the range of previous model estimates, to a climate-induced loss of carbon by ecosystems in the range of 25 + -3 to 85 + -16 Pg C, depending on processes included in the model, with a best estimate of a 62 + -7 Pg C loss. Methane emissions from high-latitude regions are calculated to increase from 34 Tg CH4/y to 41–70 Tg CH4/y, with increases due to CO2 fertilization, permafrost thaw, and warming-induced increased CH4 flux densities partially offset by a reduction in wetland extent.

Koven, Charles D.; Ringeval, Bruno; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Ciais, Philippe; Cadule, Patricia; Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Krinner, Gerhard; Tarnocai, Charles

2011-01-01

159

The budget approach: A framework for a global transformation toward a low-carbon economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latest research shows that there is only a realistic chance of restricting global warming to 2 °C if a limit is set to the total amount of CO2 emitted globally between now and 2050 (global carbon dioxide budget). We move this global budget to the forefront of our considerations regarding a new global climate treaty in the post-Copenhagen process. [The

Dirk Messner; John Schellnhuber; Stefan Rahmstorf; Daniel Klingenfeld

2010-01-01

160

Propagation of uncertainty in carbon emission scenarios through the global carbon cycle  

SciTech Connect

The authors used the GLOCO model, which is a carbon cycling model that considers seven terrestrial biomes, two oceans and one atmosphere, to evaluate the rise in atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentration, (pCO[sub 2]) and the partitioning of carbon to the global compartments (ocean, atmosphere and terrestrial) as a function of time for a number of possible anthropogenic carbon emission scenarios, based on different energy policies as developed by the Energy Modeling Forum (EMF-12). The authors then evaluated the possible uncertainty in carbon emission scenarios and the propagation of this uncertainty in carbon emission scenarios and the propagation of this uncertainty throughout the model to obtain an envelope for the rise in pCO[sub 2]. Large fluctuations in the input signal are smoothed by the carbon cycle, resulting in more than a four-fold reduction in uncertainty in the output signal (pCO[sub 2]). In addition, they looked at the effect that other model variables have on the pCO[sub 2] envelope, specifically the ratio of carbon to nitrogen in the emissions. The carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N) will vary throughout the next century depending on the mix on energy sources chosen. More nitrogen in the emissions can produce a cofertilization effect in the terrestrial biomes, which would lead to sequestration of additional carbon. The uncertainty in C:N will enlarge the pCO[sub 2] uncertainty envelope by up to 20 ppm.

Keller, A.A.; Goldstein, R.A. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States))

1994-09-01

161

Extending Global Tool Integration Environment towards Lifecycle Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development and verification of complex systems requires close collaboration between different disciplines and specialists operating in a global development environment with various tools and product data storage. Fluent integration of the tools and databases facilitate a productive development environment by enabling the user to easily launch tools and transfer information between the disconnected databases and tools. The concept of Application Lifecycle Management (ALM) was established to indicate the coordination of activities and the management of artefacts during the software product's lifecycle. This paper presents the analysis of an open source global tool integration environment called ToolChain, and proposes improvement ideas for it towards application lifecycle management. The demonstration of ToolChain and the collection of improvement proposals were carried out in the telecommunication industry. The analysis was made using the ALM framework and Global Software Development (GSD) patterns developed in previous studies in the automation industry.

Kääriäinen, Jukka; Eskeli, Juho; Teppola, Susanna; Välimäki, Antti; Tuuttila, Pekka; Piippola, Markus

162

Potential Impacts of the Permafrost Carbon Feedback on Global Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We estimate potential temperature increases in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate projections due to the Permafrost Carbon Feedback (PCF) using published estimates of permafrost emissions and statistical estimates of individual model climate sensitivities. The PCF is the amplification of anthropogenic warming due to carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions from thawing permafrost. The average of the eleven published estimates of permafrost emissions is 94×53 Gt C in 2100, but only four of these estimates include impacts on global temperature. None of the CMIP5 climate projections account for impacts of the PCF on global temperature. Adding the PCF to the CMIP5 models and re-running the projections is time consuming and computationally expensive, so we use a statistical analysis of current projections to estimate temperature impacts in 2100. We use linear curve fits to estimate the short-term sensitivities of simulated temperature to changes in atmospheric CO2 for individual CMIP5 models. We estimate changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration due to permafrost emissions using the published estimates, assuming half of the emissions are absorbed by the land and ocean. Multiplying the temperature sensitivities by the changes in atmospheric CO2 provides useful estimates of the temperature impacts of the PCF. We focus on Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP8.5), the scenario used in nearly all published estimates of permafrost emissions. We account for CH4 by converting permafrost CH4 estimates to CO2 equivalents and use Guassian error propagation to estimate uncertainties in estimated temperature impacts. We validate our results by running the CESM4 model with and without permafrost emissions. Our results indicate that the impact of the PCF on global temperature is proportional to the fraction of total carbon emissions that come from thawing permafrost.

Schaefer, K. M.; Jafarov, E. E.; Zhang, T.; Li, Z.; Schwalm, C. R.; Williams, C. A.

2013-12-01

163

Global carbon dioxide emission to the atmosphere by volcanoes  

SciTech Connect

Global emission of carbon dioxide by subaerial volcanoes is calculated, using CO{sub 2}/SO{sub 2} from volcanic gas analyses and SO{sub 2} flux, to be 34 {plus minus} 24 {times} 10{sup 12} g CO{sub 2}/yr from passive degassing and 31 {plus minus} 22 {times} 10{sup 12} g CO{sub 2}/yr from eruptions. Volcanic CO{sub 2} presently represents only 0.22% of anthropogenic emissions but may have contributed to significant greenhouse' effects at times in Earth history. Models of climate response to CO{sub 2} increases may be tested against geological data.

Williams, S.N.; Schaefer, S.J. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (United States)); Calvache V., M.L. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (United States) Observatorio Vulcanologico de Colombia, Pasto (Colombia)); Lopez, D. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

1992-04-01

164

An Assessment of Global Organic Carbon Flux Along Continental Margins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project was designed to use real-time and historical SeaWiFS and AVHRR data, and real-time MODIS data in order to estimate the global vertical carbon flux along continental margins. This required construction of an empirical model relating surface ocean color and physical variables like temperature and wind to vertical settling flux at sites co-located with sediment trap observations (Santa Barbara Basin, Cariaco Basin, Gulf of California, Hawaii, and Bermuda, etc), and application of the model to imagery in order to obtain spatially-weighted estimates.

Thunell, Robert

2004-01-01

165

Aged Carbon in the Mississippi and Six Other Major Global Rivers: Implications for Global Carbon Budgets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnitude of riverine C fluxes, including sedimentation, degassing and export to the oceans, is currently estimated at ~ 3 Pg yr-1 globally, and is comparable to other net fluxes in the global C cycle. However, the characteristics of the C exported by major world rivers have largely been defined by studies of a single system--the Amazon. Here we present new findings on the C age structure of particulate organic C, dissolved organic C, and dissolved inorganic C in the Mississippi River system and compare these findings to those for the Amazon River, and to five other major world rivers for which C isotope data (?14C and ?13C) have recently become available: the Yukon, Mackenzie, Yellow (or Huanghe), Changjiang (or Yangtze), and Congo (or Zaire). Based on the collective data, general similarities in ?14C and ?13C signatures across these large rivers suggest that broadly similar C sources and processes operate within diverse coupled watershed-river systems. Of particular note is that in all seven rivers, some fraction of fossil (> 50,000 yr) or highly-aged (e.g., ~ 5,000 yr) C was likely present in each of the major C pools. For the majority of these rivers, estimated fossil C contributions to each C pool ranged from 0 % up to 20 % (95 % CI). Range estimates for a composite old C fraction (i.e., fossil C plus highly-aged C) were slightly higher than those of fossil C exclusively. These data suggest that of the ~ 3 Pg yr-1 of C estimated to be exported from land to inland waters globally, only ~ 2 Pg yr-1 of the C derives from modern net primary production (i.e., only two-thirds of the estimated land to inland water C export is not highly-aged or fossil C). Global C budgets and models must begin to incorporate this growing body of evidence on the non-modern ages of river C reservoirs.

Hossler, K.; Bauer, J. E.

2013-12-01

166

Calibration and testing or models of the global carbon cycle  

SciTech Connect

A ten-compartment model of the global biogeochemical cycle of carbon is presented. The two less-abundant isotopes of carbon, /sup 13/C and /sup 14/C, as well as total carbon, are considered. The cycling of carbon in the ocean is represented by two well-mixed compartments and in the world's terrestrial ecosystems by seven compartments, five which are dynamic and two with instantaneous transfer. An internally consistent procedure for calibrating this model against an assumed initial steady state is discussed. In particular, the constraint that the average /sup 13/C//sup 12/C ratio in the total flux from the terrestrial component of the model to the atmosphere be equal to that of the steady-state atmosphere is investigated. With this additional constraint, the model provides a more accurate representation of the influence of the terrestrial system on the /sup 13/C//sup 12/C ratio of the atmosphere and provides an improved basis for interpreting records, such as tree rings, reflecting historical changes in this ratio.

Emanuel, W.R.; Killough, G.G.; Shugart, H.H. Jr.

1980-01-01

167

Understanding Carbon Sequestration Options in the United States: Capabilities of a Carbon Management Geographic Information System  

SciTech Connect

While one can discuss various sequestration options at a national or global level, the actual carbon management approach is highly site specific. In response to the need for a better understanding of carbon management options, Battelle in collaboration with Mitsubishi Corporation, has developed a state-of-the-art Geographic Information System (GIS) focused on carbon capture and sequestration opportunities in the United States. The GIS system contains information (e.g., fuel type, location, vintage, ownership, rated capacity) on all fossil-fired generation capacity in the Untied States with a rated capacity of at least 100 MW. There are also data on other CO2 sources (i.e., natural domes, gas processing plants, etc.) and associated pipelines currently serving enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects. Data on current and prospective CO2 EOR projects include location, operator, reservoir and oil characteristics, production, and CO2 source. The system also contains information on priority deep saline aquifers and coal bed methane basins with potential for sequestering CO2. The GIS application not only enables data storage, flexible map making, and visualization capabilities, but also facilitates the spatial analyses required to solve complex linking of CO2 sources with appropriate and cost-effective sinks. A variety of screening criteria (spatial, geophysical, and economic) can be employed to identify sources and sinks most likely amenable to deployment of carbon capture and sequestration systems. The system is easily updateable, allowing it to stay on the leading edge of capture and sequestration technology as well as the ever-changing business landscape. Our paper and presentation will describe the development of this GIS and demonstrate its uses for carbon management analysis.

Dahowski, Robert T.; Dooley, James J.; Brown, Daryl R.; Mizoguchi, Akiyoshi; Shiozaki, Mai

2001-04-03

168

Forest management and agroforestry to sequester and conserve atmospheric carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Global Change Research Program of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), an assessment was initiated in 1990 to evaluate forest establishment and management options to sequester carbon and reduce the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Three specific objectives are to: identify site-suitable technologies and practices that could be utilized to manage forests and agroforestry systems to sequester and conserve carbon; assess available data on site-level costs of promising forest and agroforestry management practices; evaluate estimates of technically suitable land in forested nations and biomes of the world to help meet the Noordwijk forestation targets.

Schriwder, P.E.; Dixon, R.K.; Winjum, J.K.

1993-01-01

169

Route Choice of low-carbon industry for global climatechange: an issue of China tourism reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years saw the global wave of new low-carbon economy which is a new strategic measure to cope with global warming, and it has gained lots of concerns from many government s. China is undertaking the “common, but different responsibility for global climate change” and it has made a lot of guidelines of low-carbon economy development. Under this circumstance, as

Jing Luo; Mu Zhang

2011-01-01

170

Sensitivity studies for space-based global measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is well known as the primary forcing agent of global warming. Although the climate forcing due to CO2 is well known, the sources and sinks of CO2 are not well understood. Currently the lack of global atmospheric CO2 observations limits our ability to diagnose the global carbon budget (e.g., finding the so-called \\

J. Mao; S. R. Kawa

2001-01-01

171

Evaluating the role of cogeneration for carbon management in Alberta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing long-term carbon control strategies is important in energy intensive industries such as the oil sands operations in Alberta. We examine the use of cogeneration to satisfy the energy demands of oil sands operations in Alberta in the context of carbon management. This paper evaluates the role of cogeneration in meeting Provincial carbon management goals and discusses the arbitrary characteristics

G. H. Doluweera; S. M. Jordaan; M. C. Moore; D. W. Keith; J. A. Bergerson

2011-01-01

172

Global Distribution of Total Inorganic Carbon and Total Alkalinity below the Deepest Winter Mixed Layer Depths  

SciTech Connect

Modeling the global ocean-atmosphere carbon dioxide system is becoming increasingly important to greenhouse gas policy. These models require initialization with realistic three-dimensional (3-D) oceanic carbon fields. This report presents an approach to establishing these initial conditions from an extensive global database of ocean carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) system measurements and well-developed interpolation methods.

Goyet, C.; Healy, R.; Ryan, J.; Kozyr, A.

2000-05-01

173

Global content management services for product providers and purchasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research defines a method for developing eXtended Markup Language (XML)-based content management services for global product manufacturers and distributors. Content management services for multi-channel trades play an important role in e-business because it enables the seamless flow of product information between suppliers, manufacturers, distributors and customers. In today’s business world, transactions over the Internet are growing rapidly requiring constant

Amy J. C. Trappey; Charles V. Trappey

2004-01-01

174

The changing global carbon cycle: Linking plant-soil carbon dynamics to global consequences  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most current climate-carbon cycle models that include the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle are based on a model developed 40 years ago by Woodwell & Whittaker (1968) and omit advances in biogeochemical understanding since that time. Their model treats net C emissions from ecosystems as the balance between net primary production (NPP) and heterotrophic respiration (HR, i.e. primarily decomposition). Under conditions near steady state, geographic patterns of decomposition closely match those of NPP, and net C emissions are adequately described as a simple balance of NPP and HR (the Woodwell-Whittaker model). This close coupling between NPP and HR occurs largely because of tight coupling between C and N (nitrogen) cycles and because NPP constrains the food available to heterotrophs. Processes in addition to NPP and HR become important to understanding net C emissions from ecosystems under conditions of rapid changes in climate, hydrology, atmospheric CO2, land cover, species composition and/or N deposition. Inclusion of these processes in climate-C cycle models would improve their capacity to simulate recent and future climatic change. Processes that appear critical to soil C dynamics but warrant further research before incorporation into ecosystem models include below-ground C flux and its partitioning among roots, mycorrhizas and exudates; microbial community effects on C sequestration; and the effects of temperature and labile C on decomposition. The controls over and consequences of these processes are still unclear at the ecosystem scale. Carbon fluxes in addition to NPP and HR exert strong influences over the climate system under conditions of rapid change. These fluxes include methane release, wildfire, and lateral transfers of food and fibre among ecosystems. Water and energy exchanges are important complements to C cycle feedbacks to the climate system, particularly under non-steady-state conditions. An integrated understanding of multiple ecosystem-climate feedbacks provides a strong foundation for policies to mitigate climate change. Synthesis. Current climate systems models that include only NPP and HR are inadequate under conditions of rapid change. Many of the recent advances in biogeochemical understanding are sufficiently mature to substantially improve representation of ecosystem C dynamics in these models. ?? 2009 British Ecological Society.

Chapin, III, F. S.; McFarland, J.; David, McGuire, A.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Ruess, R. W.; Kielland, K.

2009-01-01

175

The phase relation between atmospheric carbon dioxide and global temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using data series on atmospheric carbon dioxide and global temperatures we investigate the phase relation (leads/lags) between these for the period January 1980 to December 2011. Ice cores show atmospheric CO2 variations to lag behind atmospheric temperature changes on a century to millennium scale, but modern temperature is expected to lag changes in atmospheric CO2, as the atmospheric temperature increase since about 1975 generally is assumed to be caused by the modern increase in CO2. In our analysis we use eight well-known datasets: 1) globally averaged well-mixed marine boundary layer CO2 data, 2) HadCRUT3 surface air temperature data, 3) GISS surface air temperature data, 4) NCDC surface air temperature data, 5) HadSST2 sea surface data, 6) UAH lower troposphere temperature data series, 7) CDIAC data on release of anthropogene CO2, and 8) GWP data on volcanic eruptions. Annual cycles are present in all datasets except 7) and 8), and to remove the influence of these we analyze 12-month averaged data. We find a high degree of co-variation between all data series except 7) and 8), but with changes in CO2 always lagging changes in temperature. The maximum positive correlation between CO2 and temperature is found for CO2 lagging 11-12 months in relation to global sea surface temperature, 9.5-10 months to global surface air temperature, and about 9 months to global lower troposphere temperature. The correlation between changes in ocean temperatures and atmospheric CO2 is high, but do not explain all observed changes.

Humlum, Ole; Stordahl, Kjell; Solheim, Jan-Erik

2013-01-01

176

Effects of Management on Soil Carbon Pools in California Rangeland Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rangeland ecosystems managed for livestock production represent the largest land-use footprint globally, covering more than one-quarter of the world's land surface (Asner et al. 2004). In California, rangelands cover an estimated 17 million hectares or approximately 40% of the land area (FRAP 2003). These ecosystems have considerable potential to sequester carbon (C) in soil and offset greenhouse gas emissions through

W. L. Silver; R. Ryals; D. J. Lewis; J. Creque; M. Wacker; S. Larson

2008-01-01

177

Effects of land management on large trees and carbon stocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large trees are important and unique organisms in forests, providing ecosystem services including carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere and long-term storage. There is concern about reports of global decline of big trees. Based on observations from Finland and the United States we report that trends of big trees during recent decades have been surprisingly variable among regions. In southern Finland, the growing stock volume of trees larger than 30 cm at breast height increased nearly five-fold during the second half of the 20th century, yet more recently ceased to expand. In the United States, large hardwood trees have become increasingly common since the 1950s, while large softwood trees declined until the mid 1990's as a consequence of harvests in the Pacific region, and then rebounded when harvesting there was reduced. We conclude that in the regions studied, the history of land use and forest management governs changes of tree populations especially with reference to large trees. Large trees affect greatly the carbon density of forests and usually have deeper roots and relatively lower mortality than small trees. An accumulating stock of large trees in forests may have negligible direct biophysical effects on climate because from changes in transpiration or forest albedo. Large trees have particular ecological importance and often constitute an unusually large proportion of biomass carbon stocks in a forest. Understanding the changes in big tree distributions in different regions of the world and the demography of tree populations makes a contribution to estimating the past impact and future potential of the role of forests in the global carbon budget.

Kauppi, P. E.; Birdsey, R. A.; Pan, Y.; Ihalainen, A.; Nöjd, P.; Lehtonen, A.

2014-02-01

178

Global supply chain management: a reinforcement learning approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, researchers and practitioners alike have devoted a great deal of attention to supply chain management (SCM). The main focus of SCM is the need to integrate operations along the supply chain as part of an overall logistic support function. At the same time, the need for globalization requires that the solution of SCM problems be performed in

Pierpaolo Pontrandolfo; A. Gosavi; O. G. Okogbaa; T. K. Das

2002-01-01

179

Managing global network operations along the engineering value chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to improve understanding of how to manage global network operations from an engineering perspective. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This research adopted a theory building approach based on case studies. Grounded in the existing literature, the theoretical framework was refined and enriched through nine in-depth case studies in the industry sectors of aerospace, automotives, defence and electrics and

Yufeng Zhang; Mike Gregory

2011-01-01

180

Assessment of carbon stores in tree biomass for two management scenarios in Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate quantification of terrestrial carbon storage and its change is of key importance to improved understanding of global carbon dynamics. Forest management influences carbon sequestration and release patterns, and gap models are well suited for evaluating carbon storage. An individual-based gap model of forest dynamics, FAREAST, is applied across Russia to estimate aboveground carbon storage under management scenarios. Current biomass from inventoried forests across Russia is compared to model-based estimates and potential levels of biomass are estimated for a set of simplified forestry practices. Current carbon storage in eastern Russia was lower than for the northwest and south, and lower than model estimates likely due to high rates of disturbance. Model-derived carbon storage in all regions was not significantly different between the simulated ‘current’ and hypothetical ‘even-aged’ management strategies using rotations of 150 and 210 years. Simulations allowing natural maturation and harvest after 150 years show a significant increase in aboveground carbon in all regions. However, it is unlikely that forests would be left unharvested to 150 years of age to attain this condition. These applications indicate the value of stand simulators, applied over broad regions such as Russia, as tools to evaluate the effect of management regimes on aboveground carbon storage.

Shuman, Jacquelyn K.; Shugart, Herman H.; Krankina, Olga N.

2013-12-01

181

Global soil carbon projections are improved by modelling microbial processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Society relies on Earth system models (ESMs) to project future climate and carbon (C) cycle feedbacks. However, the soil C response to climate change is highly uncertain in these models and they omit key biogeochemical mechanisms. Specifically, the traditional approach in ESMs lacks direct microbial control over soil C dynamics. Thus, we tested a new model that explicitly represents microbial mechanisms of soil C cycling on the global scale. Compared with traditional models, the microbial model simulates soil C pools that more closely match contemporary observations. It also projects a much wider range of soil C responses to climate change over the twenty-first century. Global soils accumulate C if microbial growth efficiency declines with warming in the microbial model. If growth efficiency adapts to warming, the microbial model projects large soil C losses. By comparison, traditional models project modest soil C losses with global warming. Microbes also change the soil response to increased C inputs, as might occur with CO2 or nutrient fertilization. In the microbial model, microbes consume these additional inputs; whereas in traditional models, additional inputs lead to C storage. Our results indicate that ESMs should simulate microbial physiology to more accurately project climate change feedbacks.

Wieder, William R.; Bonan, Gordon B.; Allison, Steven D.

2013-10-01

182

Improved parameterization of managed grassland in a global process-based vegetation model using Bayesian statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than a quarter of the Earth’s land surface is covered by grassland, which is also the major part (~ 70 %) of the agricultural area. Most of this area is used for livestock production in different degrees of intensity. The dynamic global vegetation model LPJmL (Sitch et al., Global Change Biology, 2003; Bondeau et al., Global Change Biology, 2007) is one of few process-based model that simulates biomass production on managed grasslands at the global scale. The implementation of managed grasslands and its evaluation has received little attention so far, as reference data on grassland productivity are scarce and the definition of grassland extent and usage are highly uncertain. However, grassland productivity is related to large areas, and strongly influences global estimates of carbon and water budgets and should thus be improved. Plants are implemented in LPJmL in an aggregated form as plant functional types assuming that processes concerning carbon and water fluxes are quite similar between species of the same type. Therefore, the parameterization of a functional type is possible with parameters in a physiologically meaningful range of values. The actual choice of the parameter values from the possible and reasonable phase space should satisfy the condition of the best fit of model results and measured data. In order to improve the parameterization of managed grass we follow a combined procedure using model output and measured data of carbon and water fluxes. By comparing carbon and water fluxes simultaneously, we expect well-balanced refinements and avoid over-tuning of the model in only one direction. The comparison of annual biomass from grassland to data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) per country provide an overview about the order of magnitude and the identification of deviations. The comparison of daily net primary productivity, soil respiration and water fluxes at specific sites (FluxNet Data) provides information on boundary conditions such as water and light availability or temperature sensibility. Based on the given limitation factors, a number of sensitive parameters are chosen, e.g. for the phenological development, biomass allocation, and different management regimes. These are introduced to a sensitivity analysis and Bayesian parameter evaluation using the R package FME (Soetart & Petzoldt, Journal of Statistical Software, 2010). Given the extremely different climatic conditions at the FluxNet grass sites, the premises for the global sensitivity analysis are very promising.

Rolinski, S.; Müller, C.; Lotze-Campen, H.; Bondeau, A.

2010-12-01

183

Phenology as a strategy for carbon optimality: a global model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenology is essential to our understanding of biogeochemical cycles and the climate system. We develop a global mechanistic model of leaf phenology based on the hypothesis that phenology is a strategy for optimal carbon gain at the canopy level so that trees adjust leaf gains and losses in response to environmental factors such as light, temperature and soil moisture, to achieve maximum carbon assimilation. We fit this model to five years of satellite observations of leaf area index (LAI) using a Bayesian fitting algorithm. We show that our model is able to reproduce phenological patterns for all vegetation types and use it to explore variations in growing season length and the climate factors that limit leaf growth for different biomes. Phenology in wet tropical areas is limited by leaf age physiological constraints while at higher latitude leaf seasonality is limited by low temperature and light availability. Leaf growth in grassland regions is limited by water availability but often in combination with other factors. This model will advance the current understanding of phenology for ecosystem carbon models and our ability to predict future phenological behaviour.

Caldararu, S.; Purves, D. W.; Palmer, P. I.

2013-09-01

184

Phenology as a strategy for carbon optimality: a global model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenology is essential to our understanding of biogeochemical cycles and the climate system. We develop a global mechanistic model of leaf phenology based on the hypothesis that phenology is a strategy for optimal carbon gain at the canopy level so that trees adjust leaf gains and losses in response to environmental factors such as light, temperature and soil moisture, to achieve maximum carbon assimilation. We fit this model to five years of satellite observations of leaf area index (LAI) using a Bayesian fitting algorithm. We show that our model is able to reproduce phenological patterns for all vegetation types and use it to explore variations in growing season length and the climate factors that limit leaf growth for different biomes. Phenology in wet tropical areas is limited by leaf age physiological constraints while at higher latitude leaf seasonality is limited by low temperature and light availability. Leaf growth in grassland regions is limited by water availability but often in combination with other factors. This model will advance the current understanding of phenology for ecosystem carbon models and our ability to predict future phenological behaviour.

Caldararu, S.; Purves, D. W.; Palmer, P. I.

2014-02-01

185

Research Needs for Carbon Management in Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improved management of terrestrial carbon in agriculture, forestry, and other land use sectors is a necessary part of climate change mitigation. It is likely that governments will agree in Copenhagen in December 2009 to incentives for improved management of some forms of terrestrial carbon, including maintaining existing terrestrial carbon (e.g., avoiding deforestation) and creating new terrestrial carbon (e.g., afforestation, soil management). To translate incentives into changes in land management and terrestrial carbon stocks, a robust technical and scientific information base is required. All terrestrial carbon pools (and other greenhouse gases from the terrestrial system) that interact with the atmosphere at timescales less than centuries, and all land uses, have documented mitigation potential, however, most activity has focused on above-ground forest biomass. Despite research advances in understanding emissions reduction and sequestration associated with different land management techniques, there has not yet been broad-scale implementation of land-based mitigation activity in croplands, peatlands, grasslands and other land uses. To maximize long-term global terrestrial carbon volumes, further development of relevant data, methodologies and technologies are needed to complement policy and financial incentives. The Terrestrial Carbon Group, in partnership with UN-REDD agencies, the World Bank and CGIAR institutions, is reviewing literature, convening leading experts and surveying key research institutions to develop a Roadmap for Terrestrial Carbon: Research Needs for Implementation of Carbon Management in Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses. This work will summarize the existing knowledge base for emissions reductions and sequestration through land management as well as the current availability of tools and methods for measurement and monitoring of terrestrial carbon. Preliminary findings indicate a number of areas for future work. Enhanced information systems and process-level understanding of historical, current and potential emissions and sequestration in grasslands, drylands, wetlands and peatlands are needed. Research and information synthesis have not been equally distributed across regions of the world. Monitoring and reporting guidance and capacity vary across and among geographic scales and sectors. There are concerns about continuity and interpretation capability for commonly used remote sensing data products. Most research synthesis and data compilation occurs at the international level although some institutions work across scales both supporting location-specific research and development and synthesizing information up to regional and international scales. This presentation will describe findings from the Roadmap for Terrestrial Carbon for: (1) critical science and technology gaps, globally and in specific regions, for improved management and quantification of terrestrial carbon; (2) technical investments and research priorities for acceleration of avoided emissions and sequestration of terrestrial carbon; (3) opportunities for multi-lateral, multi-scale coordination and integration across research institutions.

Negra, C.; Lovejoy, T.; Ojima, D. S.; Ashton, R.; Havemann, T.; Eaton, J.

2009-12-01

186

Global learning on carbon capture and storage: A call for strong international cooperation on CCS demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Closing the gap between carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) rhetoric and technical progress is critically important to global climate mitigation efforts. Developing strong international cooperation on CCS demonstration with global coordination, transparency, cost-sharing and communication as guiding principles would facilitate efficient and cost-effective collaborative global learning on CCS, would allow for improved understanding of the global capacity and applicability

Heleen de Coninck; Jennie C. Stephens; Bert Metz

2009-01-01

187

Management Education in a Globalizing World: Lessons from the French Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assesses the challenges posed by the talk of globalization for French management education. Analyzes the strategies adopted by French business schools for coping with the globalization imperative. (DDR)

Kumar, Rajesh; Usunier, Jean-Claude

2001-01-01

188

Carbon monoxide fluxes over a managed mountain meadow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic trace gas with an atmospheric lifetime of 1-3 months and an average atmospheric concentration of 100 ppb. CO mole fractions exhibit a pronounced seasonal cycle with lows in summer and highs in winter. Carbon monoxide has an indirect global warming potential by increasing the lifetime of methane (CH4), as the main sink of CO is the reaction with the hydroxyl (OH) radical, which in turn is also the main sink for CH4. Regarding the warming potential, it is estimated that 100 kg CO are equivalent to an emission of 5 kg CH4. In addition, carbon monoxide interferes with the building and destruction of ozone. Emission into and uptake from the atmosphere of CO are thus relevant for global climate and regional air quality. Sources and sinks of CO on a global scale are still highly uncertain, mainly due to general scarcity of empirical data and the lack of ecosystem-scale CO exchange measurements, i.e. CO flux data that encompass all sources and sinks within an ecosystem. Here we present eddy covariance CO fluxes over a managed temperate mountain grassland near Neustift, Austria, whereby volume mixing ratios of CO were quantified by a dual-laser mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL). First analyses of fluxes captured in April 2013 showed that the QCL is well able to capture CO fluxes at the study site during springtime. During the same time period, both significant net uptake and deposition of CO were observed, with high emission and deposition fluxes on the order of +/- 5 nmol m-2 s-1, respectively. In addition, CO fluxes exhibited a clear diurnal cycle during certain time periods, indicating a continuous release or uptake of the compound with peak flux rates around noon. In this presentation, we will analyze 12 months of carbon monoxide fluxes between January and December 2013 with regard to possible abiotic and biotic drivers of CO exchange. As an additional step towards a full understanding of the greenhouse gas exchange of the meadow, we will relate observed CO fluxes to concurrently measured CO2, CH4 and N2O exchange rates in terms of CO2-equivalents and - where applicable - carbon.

Hörtnagl, Lukas; Hammerle, Albin; Wohlfahrt, Georg

2014-05-01

189

Appropriate measures for conservation of terrestrial carbon stocks—Analysis of trends of forest management in Southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 21st century has brought new challenges for forest management at a time when global climate change is becoming increasingly apparent. Additional to various goods and services being provided to human beings, forest ecosystems are a large store of terrestrial carbon and account for a major part of the carbon exchange between the atmosphere and the land surface. Depending on

Nophea Kim Phat; Wolfgang Knorr; Sophanarith Kim

2004-01-01

190

Soil Carbon Sequestration Impacts on Global Climate Change and Food Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carbon sink capacity of the world's agricultural and degraded soils is 50 to 66% of the historic carbon loss of 42 to 78 gigatons of carbon. The rate of soil organic carbon sequestration with adoption of recommended technologies depends on soil texture and structure, rainfall, temperature, farming system, and soil management. Strategies to increase the soil carbon pool include

R. Lal

2004-01-01

191

Regional carbon dynamics in monsoon Asia and its implications for the global carbon cycle  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data on three major determinants of the carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems are used with the process-based Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) to simulate the combined effect of climate variability, increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, and cropland establishment and abandonment on the exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and monsoon Asian ecosystems. During 1860-1990, modeled results suggest that monsoon Asia as a whole released 29.0 Pg C, which represents 50% of the global carbon release for this period. Carbon release varied across three subregions: East Asia (4.3 Pg C), South Asia (6.6 Pg C), and Southeast Asia (18.1 Pg C). For the entire region, the simulations indicate that land-use change alone has led to a loss of 42.6 Pg C. However, increasing CO2 and climate variability have added carbon to terrestrial ecosystems to compensate for 23% and 8% of the losses due to land-use change, respectively. During 1980-1989, monsoon Asia as a whole acted as a source of carbon to the atmosphere, releasing an average of 0.158 Pg C per year. Two of the subregions acted as net carbon source and one acted as a net carbon sink. Southeast Asia and South Asia were sources of 0.288 and 0.02 Pg C per year, respectively, while East Asia was a sink of 0.149 Pg C per year. Substantial interannual and decadal variations occur in the annual net carbon storage estimated by TEM due to comparable variations in summer precipitation and its effect on net primary production (NPP). At longer time scales, land-use change appears to be the important control on carbon dynamics in this region. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Tian, H.; Melillo, J. M.; Kicklighter, D. W.; Pan, S.; Liu, J.; McGuire, A. D.; Moore, III, B.

2003-01-01

192

A global ocean carbon climatology: Results from Global Data Analysis Project (GLODAP)  

SciTech Connect

During the 1990s, ocean sampling expeditions were carried out as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), and the Ocean Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study (OACES). Subsequently, a group of U.S. scientists synthesized the data into easily usable and readily available products. This collaboration is known as the Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP). Results were merged into a common format data set, segregated by ocean. For comparison purposes, each ocean data set includes a small number of high-quality historical cruises. The data were subjected to rigorous quality control procedures to eliminate systematic data measurement biases. The calibrated 1990s data were used to estimate anthropogenic CO{sub 2}, potential alkalinity, CFC watermass ages, CFC partial pressure, bomb-produced radiocarbon, and natural radiocarbon. These quantities were merged into the measured data files. The data were used to produce objectively gridded property maps at a 1{sup o} resolution on 33 depth surfaces chosen to match existing climatologies for temperature, salinity, oxygen, and nutrients. The mapped fields are interpreted as an annual mean distribution in spite of the inaccuracy in that assumption. Both the calibrated data and the gridded products are available from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. Here we describe the important details of the data treatment and the mapping procedure, and present summary quantities and integrals for the various parameters.

Key, Robert [Princeton University; Kozyr, Alexander [ORNL; Sabine, Chris [NOAA, Seattle, WA; Lee, K. [Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Republic of Korea; Wanninkhof, R. [Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Laboratory, NOAA; Bullister, J.L. [NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory; Feely, R. A. [NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory; Millero, F. J. [University of Miami; Mordy, C. [NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory; Peng, T.-H. [Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Laboratory, NOAA

2004-01-01

193

Potential of Global Cropland Phytolith Carbon Sink from Optimization of Cropping System and Fertilization  

PubMed Central

The occlusion of carbon (C) by phytoliths, the recalcitrant silicified structures deposited within plant tissues, is an important persistent C sink mechanism for croplands and other grass-dominated ecosystems. By constructing a silica content-phytolith content transfer function and calculating the magnitude of phytolith C sink in global croplands with relevant crop production data, this study investigated the present and potential of phytolith C sinks in global croplands and its contribution to the cropland C balance to understand the cropland C cycle and enhance long-term C sequestration in croplands. Our results indicate that the phytolith sink annually sequesters 26.35±10.22 Tg of carbon dioxide (CO2) and may contribute 40±18% of the global net cropland soil C sink for 1961–2100. Rice (25%), wheat (19%) and maize (23%) are the dominant contributing crop species to this phytolith C sink. Continentally, the main contributors are Asia (49%), North America (17%) and Europe (16%). The sink has tripled since 1961, mainly due to fertilizer application and irrigation. Cropland phytolith C sinks may be further enhanced by adopting cropland management practices such as optimization of cropping system and fertilization.

Song, Zhaoliang; Parr, Jeffrey F.; Guo, Fengshan

2013-01-01

194

Carbon monoxide measurement in the global atmospheric sampling program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The carbon monoxide measurement system used in the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is described. The system used a modified version of a commercially available infrared absorption analyzer. The modifications increased the sensitivity of the analyzer to 1 ppmv full scale, with a limit of detectability of 0.02 ppmv. Packaging was modified for automatic, unattended operation in an aircraft environment. The GASP system is described along with analyzer operation, calibration procedures, and measurement errors. Uncertainty of the CO measurement over a 2-year period ranged from + or - 3 to + or - 13 percent of reading, plus an error due to random fluctuation of the output signal + or - 3 to + or - 15 ppbv.

Dudzinski, T. J.

1979-01-01

195

Addressing sources of uncertainty in a global terrestrial carbon model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several sources of uncertainty exist in the parameterization of the land carbon cycle in current Earth System Models (ESMs). For example, recently implemented interactions between the carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycles lead to diverse changes in land-atmosphere C fluxes simulated by different models. Further, although soil organic matter decomposition is commonly parameterized as a first-order decay process, the formulation of the microbial response to changes in soil moisture and soil temperature varies tremendously between models. Here, we examine the sensitivity of historical land-atmosphere C fluxes simulated by an ESM to these two major sources of uncertainty. We implement three soil moisture (SMRF) and three soil temperature (STRF) respiration functions in the CABLE-CASA-CNP land biogeochemical component of the coarse resolution CSIRO Mk3L climate model. Simulations are undertaken using three degrees of biogeochemical nutrient limitation: C-only, C and N, and C and N and P. We first bring all 27 possible combinations of a SMRF with a STRF and a biogeochemical mode to a steady-state in their biogeochemical pools. Then, transient historical (1850-2005) simulations are driven by prescribed atmospheric CO2 concentrations used in the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Similarly to some previously published results, representing N and P limitation on primary production reduces the global land carbon sink while some regions become net C sources over the historical period (1850-2005). However, the uncertainty due to the SMRFs and STRFs does not decrease relative to the inter-annual variability in net uptake when N and P limitations are added. Differences in the SMRFs and STRFs and their effect on the soil C balance can also change the sign of some regional sinks. We show that this response is mostly driven by the pool size achieved at the end of the spin-up procedure. Further, there exists a six-fold range in the level at which global soil C equilibrates in models with the same biogeochemical interactions. As we did not modify the photosynthesis component between these simulations, we can attribute this range to differences in heterotrophic respiration introduced by the various shapes of the SMRF and STRF. This roughly matches the range of global soil C simulated by available CMIP5 models and we therefore see the formulation of these response functions as a potential major source of uncertainty in projections of global soil C feedback on climate change. Our results add to recent concerns on the relevance of the current first-order parameterization of soil carbon decomposition in ESMs, but also highlight issues in terms of how they are initialized. More research is therefore required in that area in order to produce reliable projections of land-atmosphere fluxes and future climate.

Exbrayat, J.; Pitman, A. J.; Zhang, Q.; Abramowitz, G.; Wang, Y.

2013-12-01

196

A study of the global heliospheric modulation of galactic Carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of galactic Carbon in the heliosphere provide a useful tool with which a comprehensive description of the global modulation of cosmic rays both inside and outside off the solar wind termination shock (TS) can be made. This is, in part, because galactic Carbon is not contaminated by anomalous cosmic rays as is the case for oxygen, helium and hydrogen. However, this kind of study requires that there should be reasonable compatibility of model solutions to spacecraft and earthbound observations. In this study, the well-established two-dimensional model that contains a TS, a heliosheath, as well as shock re-acceleration of galactic cosmic rays and particle drifts, is used first to study modulation from solar minimum to moderate maximum activity at Earth. This model can handle any global heliospheric geometry of both the TS and heliopause (HP) positions. Second, the model is applied to study the contribution of drifts and the enhancement of polar perpendicular diffusion in the heliosheath to the total modulation in the heliosphere as a function of energy for both polarity cycles of the magnetic field during solar minimum conditions. This modeling is done with a new heliopause spectrum (HPS, usually referred to as the local interstellar spectrum) at kinetic energy E < ?200 MeV/nuc. This HPS is derived from observations made by the Voyager 1 spacecraft of galactic Carbon at a radial distance of ?122 AU from the Sun. We find that: (1) The model gives realistic modulation for both magnetic polarity cycles of the Sun, from Earth to beyond the TS, and that the level of modulation at Earth between the recent solar minimum and the previous moderate maximum condition exceed that between the HP and Earth in the recent solar minimum. (2) Neglecting drifts in the heliosheath along the Voyager heliolatitude is a reasonable assumption, but in the equatorial plane of the heliosphere drifts are important for heliosheath modulation in the A < 0 polarity cycle, especially when galactic particles are re-accelerated at the TS. (3) The contribution of the enhancement of the polar perpendicular diffusion in the heliosheath to the total modulation seems insignificant. (4) The new HPS as observed by Voyager 1 at E < ?200 MeV/nuc is found to be significantly higher than previous estimates, for example, at E = 100 MeV/nuc by a factor of ?2. We find that the total modulation between the HP and Earth at 10 MeV/nuc causes the intensity at Earth to be only ?4.5% of the HPS, whereas for 100 MeV/nuc it is ?17.5%. Respectively, this means that the global radial gradient for galactic Carbon for this period was ?2.5%/AU and ?1.4%/AU, if the heliopause is taken at 122 AU.

Ngobeni, M. D.; Potgieter, M. S.

2014-06-01

197

The Place of Bend-Fault Carbonation in Earth's Longterm Global Carbon Cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that mid-ocean ridges are a key site for chemical interactions between oceanic crust and the hydrosphere, and that these interactions modulate the chemistry of the oceans. This field is relatively mature. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that the oceanic lithosphere may also strongly interact with the hydrosphere during plate subduction, as it bends — by bend-faulting (cf. Ranero et al., 2003) — when it enters a trench. I review recent seismic evidence that suggests that bend-faulting is associated with ~10% serpentinization in a layer extending at least 10km below the Moho, and potentially more for old subducting lithosphere. The age-depth-dependence of the width of the double-Wadati-Benioff-zone implies that significant serpentinization occurs at lithospheric temperatures of ~300C where net reaction rates are likely to be highest. If this serpentine forms with a 1% carbonate fraction, then bend-fault serpentinization will consume an atmosphere's worth of CO2 every 40,000 years (e.g. of order ~1-2 Tmol/year), and it seems likely that the carbonate storage in serpentinized subducting lithosphere exceeds that in overlying oceanic crust and sediments. (Note that at least 1% carbonation occurs during mid-ocean-ridge serpentinization processes, but the actual fraction of bend-fault carbonation is currently unconstrained by in-situ measurements within partially serpentinized bend-fault mantle.) The rate of mantle ingassing associated with this poorly-understood geological process appears to be similar in magnitude to the rate of carbon outgassing from the mantle at mid-ocean ridges. The implications for Earth's long-term carbon cycle are potentially significant. For example, the initiation of new subduction may be associated with the creation of a significant carbonate sink — a feedback not included within Geologic models for Phanerozoic carbon+climate evolution. It also suggests there may be a direct link between the concentration of CO2 in seawater and the efficiency of global carbonate recycling — and that perhaps bend-fault carbonation played a key role in the regulation of carbon dioxide in Earth's early atmosphere.

Morgan, Jason P.

2014-05-01

198

Managing Global Satellite Data: The GHRSST-PP  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation examines the management of satellite data, specifically the GODAE (Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment) High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature Pilot Project (GHRSST-PP). The objective of the GHRSST-PP is to produce high quality, enhanced Level 2 SST products (known as L2P) from a number of satellite infrared and microwave sources. Topics covered include data organization, access and data discovery, as well as historical continuity.

Armstrong, Edward M.; Vazquez, Jorge; Bingham, Andrew

2004-01-01

199

Managing Commercial Tree Species for Timber Production and Carbon Sequestration: Management Guidelines and Financial Returns  

SciTech Connect

A carbon credit market is developing in the United States. Information is needed by buyers and sellers of carbon credits so that the market functions equitably and efficiently. Analyses have been conducted to determine the optimal forest management regime to employ for each of the major commercial tree species so that profitability of timber production only or the combination of timber production and carbon sequestration is maximized. Because the potential of a forest ecosystem to sequester carbon depends on the tree species, site quality and management regimes utilized, analyses have determined how to optimize carbon sequestration by determining how to optimally manage each species, given a range of site qualities, discount rates, prices of carbon credits and other economic variables. The effects of a carbon credit market on the method and profitability of forest management, the cost of sequestering carbon, the amount of carbon that can be sequestered, and the amount of timber products produced has been determined.

Gary D. Kronrad

2006-09-19

200

Potential increases in natural disturbance rates could offset forest management impacts on ecosystem carbon stocks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Forested ecosystems contain the majority of the world’s terrestrial carbon, and forest management has implications for regional and global carbon cycling. Carbon stored in forests changes with stand age and is affected by natural disturbance and timber harvesting. We examined how harvesting and disturbance interact to influence forest carbon stocks over the Superior National Forest, in northern Minnesota. Forest inventory data from the USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis program were used to characterize current forest age structure and quantify the relationship between age and carbon stocks for eight forest types. Using these findings, we simulated the impact of alternative management scenarios and natural disturbance rates on forest-wide terrestrial carbon stocks over a 100-year horizon. Under low natural mortality, forest-wide total ecosystem carbon stocks increased when 0% or 40% of planned harvests were implemented; however, the majority of forest-wide carbon stocks decreased with greater harvest levels and elevated disturbance rates. Our results suggest that natural disturbance has the potential to exert stronger influence on forest carbon stocks than timber harvesting activities and that maintaining carbon stocks over the long-term may prove difficult if disturbance frequency increases in response to climate change.

Bradford, John B.; Jensen, Nicholas R.; Domke, Grant M.; D’Amato, Anthony W.

2013-01-01

201

Forest management options for sequestering carbon in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies and examines economic response options to avoid carbon emissions and increase carbon sequestration in Mexican forests. A “Policy” scenario covering the years 2000, 2010 and 2030 and a “Technical Potential” scenario (year 2030) are developed to examine the potential carbon sequestration and costs of each response option. Benefit-cost analyses for three case studies, including management of a

Omar R. Masera; Mauricio R. Bellon; Gerardo Segura

1995-01-01

202

Forest carbon management in the United States: 1600-2100.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the effects of past forest management on carbon stocks in the United States, and the challenges for managing forest carbon resources in the 21st century. Forests in the United States were in approximate carbon balance with the atmosphere from 1600-1800. Utilization and land clearing caused a large pulse of forest carbon emissions during the 19th century, followed by regrowth and net forest carbon sequestration in the 20th century. Recent data and knowledge of the general behavior of forests after disturbance suggest that the rate of forest carbon sequestration is declining. A goal of an additional 100 to 200 Tg C/yr of forest carbon sequestration is achievable, but would require investment in inventory and monitoring, development of technology and practices, and assistance for land managers. PMID:16825466

Birdsey, Richard; Pregitzer, Kurt; Lucier, Alan

2006-01-01

203

Global warming factors modelled for 40 generic municipal waste management scenarios.  

PubMed

Global warming factors (kg CO(2)-eq.-tonne(-1) of waste) have been modelled for 40 different municipal waste management scenarios involving a variety of recycling systems (paper, glass, plastic and organics) and residual waste management by landfilling, incineration or mechanical-biological waste treatment. For average European waste composition most waste management scenarios provided negative global warming factors and hence overall savings in greenhouse gas emissions: Scenarios with landfilling saved 0-400, scenarios with incineration saved 200-700, and scenarios with mechanical-biological treatment saved 200- 750 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(- 1) municipal waste depending on recycling scheme and energy recovery. Key parameters were the amount of paper recycled (it was assumed that wood made excessive by paper recycling substituted for fossil fuel), the crediting of the waste management system for the amount of energy recovered (hard-coal-based energy was substituted), and binding of biogenic carbon in landfills. Most other processes were of less importance. Rational waste management can provide significant savings in society's emission of greenhouse gas depending on waste composition and efficient utilization of the energy recovered. PMID:19837711

Christensen, Thomas H; Simion, Federico; Tonini, Davide; Møller, Jacob

2009-11-01

204

Management Impacts on Forest Floor and Soil Organic Carbon in Northern Temperate Forests of the US  

PubMed Central

Background The role of forests in the global carbon cycle has been the subject of a great deal of research recently, but the impact of management practices on forest soil dynamics at the stand level has received less attention. This study used six forest management experimental sites in five northern states of the US to investigate the effects of silvicultural treatments (light thinning, heavy thinning, and clearcutting) on forest floor and soil carbon pools. Results No overall trend was found between forest floor carbon stocks in stands subjected to partial or complete harvest treatments. A few sites had larger stocks in control plots, although estimates were often highly variable. Forest floor carbon pools did show a trend of increasing values from southern to northern sites. Surface soil (0-5 cm) organic carbon content and concentration were similar between treated and untreated plots. Overall soil carbon (0-20 cm) pool size was not significantly different from control values in sites treated with partial or complete harvests. No geographic trends were evident for any of the soil properties examined. Conclusions Results indicate that it is unlikely that mineral soil carbon stocks are adversely affected by typical management practices as applied in northern hardwood forests in the US; however, the findings suggest that the forest floor carbon pool may be susceptible to loss.

2011-01-01

205

Carbon sequestration in croplands: the potential in Europe and the global context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biospheric carbon sinks and sources can be included in attempts to meet emission reduction targets during the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. Forest management, cropland management, grazing land management and re-vegetation are allowable activities under Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol. Soil carbon sinks (and sources) can, therefore, be included under these activities. In this paper, the role

Pete Smith

2004-01-01

206

The global Cretaceous-Tertiary fire: Biomass or fossil carbon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The global soot layer at the K-T boundary indicates a major fire triggered by meteorite impact. However, it is not clear whether the principal fuel was biomass or fossil carbon. Forests are favored by delta value of C-13, which is close to the average for trees, but the total amount of elemental C is approximately 10 percent of the present living carbon, and thus requires very efficient conversion to soot. The PAH was analyzed at Woodside Creek, in the hope of finding a diagnostic molecular marker. A promising candidate is 1-methyl-7-isopropyl phenanthrene (retene,), which is probably derived by low temperature degradation of abietic acid. Unlike other PAH that form by pyrosynthesis at higher temperatures, retene has retained the characteristic side chains of its parent molecule. A total of 11 PAH compounds were identified in the boundary clay. Retene is present in substantial abundance. The identification was confirmed by analysis of a retene standard. Retene is characteristic of the combustion of resinous higher plants. Its formation depends on both temperature and oxygen access, and is apparently highest in oxygen-poor fires. Such fires would also produce soot more efficiently which may explain the high soot abundance. The relatively high level of coronene is not typical of a wood combustion source, however, though it can be produced during high temperature pyrolysis of methane, and presumably other H, C-containing materials. This would require large, hot, low O2 zones, which may occur only in very large fires. The presence of retene indicates that biomass was a significant fuel source for the soot at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. The total amount of elemental C produced requires a greater than 3 percent soot yield, which is higher than typically observed for wildfires. However, retene and presumably coronene imply limited access of O2 and hence high soot yield.

Gilmour, Iain; Guenther, Frank

1988-01-01

207

Multi-century Changes to Global Climate and Carbon Cycle: Results from a Coupled Climate and Carbon Cycle Model  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we use a coupled climate and carbon cycle model to investigate the global climate and carbon cycle changes out to year 2300 that would occur if CO2 emissions from all the currently estimated fossil fuel resources were released to the atmosphere. By year 2300, the global climate warms by about 8 K and atmospheric CO2 reaches 1423 ppmv. In our simulation, the prescribed cumulative emission since pre-industrial period is about 5400 Gt-C by the end of 23rd century. At year 2300, nearly 45 % of cumulative emissions remain in the atmosphere. In our simulations both soils and living biomass are net carbon sinks throughout the simulation. Despite having relatively low climate sensitivity and strong carbon uptake by the land biosphere, our model projections suggest severe long-term consequences for global climate if all the fossil-fuel carbon is ultimately released to the atmosphere.

Bala, G; Caldeira, K; Mirin, A; Wickett, M; Delire, C

2005-06-13

208

Applicability of Montreal Process Criterion 5 — maintenance of rangeland contribution to global carbon cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the Montreal Process, Criterion 5 — Maintenance of Forest Contribution to the Global Carbon Cycle — encompasses: Indicator 26, biomass and carbon pools; Indicator 27, carbon fluxes from these pools; and Indicator 28, contribution of forest products. I have reviewed the applicability of each indicator to rangelands, the potential limitations of these indicators for rangelands ecosystems, the data available

L. A. Joyce

2000-01-01

209

A technology-based global inventory of black and organic carbon emissions from combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a global tabulation of black carbon (BC) and primary organic carbon (OC) particles emitted from combustion. We include emissions from fossil fuels, biofuels, open biomass burning, and burning of urban waste. Previous “bottom-up” inventories of black and organic carbon have assigned emission factors on the basis of fuel type and economic sector alone. Because emission rates are highly

Tami C. Bond; David G. Streets; Kristen F. Yarber; Sibyl M. Nelson; Jung-Hun Woo; Zbigniew Klimont

2004-01-01

210

A simulation study for the global carbon cycle, including man's impact on the biosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simulation model accounts for four major compartments in the global carbon cycle: atmosphere, ocean, terrestrial biosphere and fossil carbon reservoir. The ocean is further compartmentalized into a high and a low latitude surface layer, and into 10 deep sea strata. The oceanic carbon fluxes are caused by massflow of descending and upwelling water, by precipitation of organic material and

J. Goudriaan; P. Ketner

1984-01-01

211

Simulating the effects of climate and agricultural management practices on global crop yield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is expected to significantly impact global food production, and it is important to understand the potential geographic distribution of yield losses and the means to alleviate them. This study presents a new global crop model, PEGASUS 1.0 (Predicting Ecosystem Goods And Services Using Scenarios) that integrates, in addition to climate, the effect of planting dates and cultivar choices, irrigation, and fertilizer application on crop yield for maize, soybean, and spring wheat. PEGASUS combines carbon dynamics for crops with a surface energy and soil water balance model. It also benefits from the recent development of a suite of global data sets and analyses that serve as model inputs or as calibration data. These include data on crop planting and harvesting dates, crop-specific irrigated areas, a global analysis of yield gaps, and harvested area and yield of major crops. Model results for present-day climate and farm management compare reasonably well with global data. Simulated planting and harvesting dates are within the range of crop calendar observations in more than 75% of the total crop-harvested areas. Correlation of simulated and observed crop yields indicates a weighted coefficient of determination, with the weighting based on crop-harvested area, of 0.81 for maize, 0.66 for soybean, and 0.45 for spring wheat. We found that changes in temperature and precipitation as predicted by global climate models for the 2050s lead to a global yield reduction if planting and harvesting dates remain unchanged. However, adapting planting dates and cultivar choices increases yield in temperate regions and avoids 7-18% of global losses.

Deryng, D.; Sacks, W. J.; Barford, C. C.; Ramankutty, N.

2011-06-01

212

Managing haemophilia for life: 4th haemophilia global summit.  

PubMed

The 4th Haemophilia Global Summit was held in Potsdam, Germany, in September 2013 and brought together an international faculty of haemophilia experts and delegates from multidisciplinary backgrounds. The programme was designed by an independent Scientific Steering Committee of haemophilia experts and explored global perspectives in haemophilia care, discussing practical approaches to the optimal management of haemophilia now and in the future. The topics outlined in this supplement were selected by the Scientific Steering Committee for their relevance and potential to influence haemophilia care globally. In this supplement from the meeting, Jan Astermark reviews current understanding of risk factors for the development of inhibitory antibodies and discusses whether this risk can be modulated and minimized. Factors key to the improvement of joint health in people with haemophilia are explored, with Carlo Martinoli and Víctor Jiménez-Yuste discussing the utility of ultrasound for the early detection of haemophilic arthropathy. Other aspects of care necessary for the prevention and management of joint disease in people with haemophilia are outlined by Thomas Hilberg and Sébastian Lobet, who highlight the therapeutic benefits of physiotherapy and sports therapy. Riitta Lassila and Carlo-Federico Perno describe current knowledge surrounding the risk of transmission of infectious agents via clotting factor concentrates. Finally, different types of extended half-life technology are evaluated by Mike Laffan, with a focus on the practicalities and challenges associated with these products. PMID:24924596

Astermark, J; Dolan, G; Hilberg, T; Jiménez-Yuste, V; Laffan, M; Lassila, R; Lobet, S; Martinoli, C; Perno, C-F

2014-07-01

213

Global Gradients of Coral Exposure to Environmental Stresses and Implications for Local Management  

PubMed Central

Background The decline of coral reefs globally underscores the need for a spatial assessment of their exposure to multiple environmental stressors to estimate vulnerability and evaluate potential counter-measures. Methodology/Principal Findings This study combined global spatial gradients of coral exposure to radiation stress factors (temperature, UV light and doldrums), stress-reinforcing factors (sedimentation and eutrophication), and stress-reducing factors (temperature variability and tidal amplitude) to produce a global map of coral exposure and identify areas where exposure depends on factors that can be locally managed. A systems analytical approach was used to define interactions between radiation stress variables, stress reinforcing variables and stress reducing variables. Fuzzy logic and spatial ordinations were employed to quantify coral exposure to these stressors. Globally, corals are exposed to radiation and reinforcing stress, albeit with high spatial variability within regions. Based on ordination of exposure grades, regions group into two clusters. The first cluster was composed of severely exposed regions with high radiation and low reducing stress scores (South East Asia, Micronesia, Eastern Pacific and the central Indian Ocean) or alternatively high reinforcing stress scores (the Middle East and the Western Australia). The second cluster was composed of moderately to highly exposed regions with moderate to high scores in both radiation and reducing factors (Caribbean, Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Central Pacific, Polynesia and the western Indian Ocean) where the GBR was strongly associated with reinforcing stress. Conclusions/Significance Despite radiation stress being the most dominant stressor, the exposure of coral reefs could be reduced by locally managing chronic human impacts that act to reinforce radiation stress. Future research and management efforts should focus on incorporating the factors that mitigate the effect of coral stressors until long-term carbon reductions are achieved through global negotiations.

Maina, Joseph; McClanahan, Tim R.; Venus, Valentijn; Ateweberhan, Mebrahtu; Madin, Joshua

2011-01-01

214

Trend in global black carbon emissions from 1960 to 2007.  

PubMed

Black carbon (BC) plays an important role in both climate change and health impact. Still, BC emissions as well as the historical trends are associated with high uncertainties in existing inventories. In the present study, global BC emissions from 1960 to 2007 were estimated for 64 sources, by using recompiled fuel consumption and emission factor data sets. Annual BC emissions had increased from 5.3 (3.4-8.5 as an interquartile range) to 9.1 (5.6-14.4) teragrams during this period. Our estimations are 11-16% higher than those in previous inventories. Over the period, we found that the BC emission intensity, defined as the amount of BC emitted per unit of energy production, had decreased for all the regions, especially China and India. Improvements in combustion technology and changes in fuel composition had led to an increase in energy use efficiency, and subsequently a decline of BC emission intensities in power plants, the residential sector, and transportation. On the other hand, the BC emission intensities had increased in the industrial and agricultural sectors, mainly due to an expansion of low-efficiency industry (coke and brick production) in developing countries and to an increasing usage of diesel in agriculture in developed countries. PMID:24825392

Wang, Rong; Tao, Shu; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Balkanski, Yves; Boucher, Olivier; Ciais, Philippe; Shen, Guofeng; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Yuanchen; Lin, Nan; Su, Shu; Li, Bengang; Liu, Junfeng; Liu, Wenxin

2014-06-17

215

The Role of Carbon Cycle Observations and Knowledge in Carbon Management  

SciTech Connect

Agriculture and industrial development have led to inadvertent changes in the natural carbon cycle. As a consequence, concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have increased in the atmosphere, leading to potential changes in climate. The current challenge facing society is to develop options for future management of the carbon cycle. A variety of approaches has been suggested: direct reduction of emissions, deliberate manipulation of the natural carbon cycle to enhance sequestration, and capture and isolation of carbon from fossil fuel use. Policy development to date has laid out some of the general principles to which carbon management should adhere. These can be summarized as: how much carbon is stored, by what means, and for how long. To successfully manage carbon for climate purposes requires increased understanding of carbon cycle dynamics and improvement to the scientific capabilities available for measurement as well as policy needs. Specific needs for scientific information to underpin carbon cycle management decisions are not yet broadly known. A stronger dialogue between decision makers and scientists must be developed to foster improved application of scientific knowledge to decisions. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge of the carbon cycle and measurement capabilities, with an emphasis on the continental-scale, and its relevance to carbon sequestration goals.

Dilling, Lisa; Doney, Scott; Edmonds, James A.; Gurney, Kevin R.; Harriss, Robert; Schimel, David; Stephens, Britton; Stokes, Gerald M.

2003-08-14

216

THE ROLE OF CARBON CYCLE OBSERVATIONS AND KNOWLEDGE IN CARBON MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture and industrial development have led to inadvertent changes in the natural carbon cycle. As a consequence, concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have increased in the atmosphere and may lead to changes in climate. The current challenge facing society is to develop options for future management of the carbon cycle. A variety of approaches has been suggested:

Lisa Dilling; Scott C. Doney; James A. Edmonds; Kevin R. Gurney; Robert Harriss; David Schimel; Britton Stephens; Gerald M. Stokes

2003-01-01

217

Black carbon, a 'hidden' player in the global C cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 2011 alone more than 600 scientific papers about black carbon (BC) were published, half of them dealing with soils (ISI Web of Knowledge, accessed 15/01/2012). If the search is extended to the other terms by which BC is commonly named (i.e. biochar, charcoal, pyrogenic C or soot), the number of 2011 publications increases to >2400, 20% of them also related to soils. These figures confirm BC as a well-known feature in the scientific literature and, thus, in our research community. In fact, there is a wide variety of research topics where BC is currently studied: from its potential as long-term C reservoir in soils (man-made biochar), to its effects on the Earth's radiation balance (soot-BC), including its value as indicator in paleoenvironmental studies (charcoal) or, even surprisingly, its use in suicide attempts. BC is thus relevant to many aspects of our environment, making it a very far-reaching, but also very complex topic. When focusing 'only' on the role of BC in the global C cycle, numerous questions arise. For example: (i) how much BC is produced by different sources (i.e. vegetation fires, fossil fuel and biofuel combustion); (ii) what are the main BC forms and their respective proportions generated (i.e. proportion of atmospheric BC [BC-soot] and the solid residues [char-BC]); (iii) where does this BC go (i.e. main mobilization pathways and sinks); (iv) how long does BC stay in the different systems (i.e. residence times in soils, sediments, water and atmosphere); (v) which are the BC stocks and its main transformations within and between the different systems (i.e. BC preservation, alteration and mineralization); (vi) what is the interaction of BC with other elements and how does this influence BC half-life (i.e. physical protection, interaction with pollutants, priming effects in other organic materials)? These questions, and some suggestions about how to tackle these, will be discussed in this contribution. It will focus in particular on the role of black carbon within soil system sciences, but will also consider it from an integrated atmosphere-marine-terrestrial perspective.

Santín, C.; Doerr, S. H.

2012-04-01

218

Soil Carbon Storage in Christmas Tree Farms: Maximizing Ecosystem Management and Sustainability for Carbon Sequestration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Management of agroecosystems for the purpose of manipulating soil carbon stocks could be a viable approach for countering rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, while maximizing sustainability of the agroforestry industry. We investigated the carbon storage potential of Christmas tree farms in the southern Appalachian mountains as a potential model for the impacts of land management on soil carbon. We quantified soil carbon stocks across a gradient of cultivation duration and herbicide management. We compared soil carbon in farms to that in adjacent pastures and native forests that represent a control group to account for variability in other soil-forming factors. We partitioned tree farm soil carbon into fractions delineated by stability, an important determinant of long-term sequestration potential. Soil carbon stocks in the intermediate pool are significantly greater in the tree farms under cultivation for longer periods of time than in the younger tree farms. This pool can be quite large, yet has the ability to repond to biological environmental changes on the centennial time scale. Pasture soil carbon was significantly greater than both forest and tree farm soil carbon, which were not different from each other. These data can help inform land management and soil carbon sequestration strategies.

Chapman, S. K.; Shaw, R.; Langley, A.

2008-12-01

219

Carbon Management In the Post-Cap-and-Trade Carbon Economy: An Economic Model for Limiting Climate Change by Managing Anthropogenic Carbon Flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we discuss an economic model for comprehensive carbon management that focuses on changes in carbon flux in the biosphere due to anthropogenic activity. The two unique features of the model include: 1. A shift in emphasis from primarily carbon emissions, toward changes in carbon flux, mainly carbon extraction, and 2. A carbon price vector (CPV) to express the value of changes in carbon flux, measured in changes in carbon sequestration, or carbon residence time. The key focus with the economic model is the degree to which carbon flux changes due to anthropogenic activity. The economic model has three steps: 1. The CPV metric is used to value all forms of carbon associated with any anthropogenic activity. In this paper, the CPV used is a logarithmic chronological scale to gauge expected carbon residence (or sequestration) time. In future economic models, the CPV may be expanded to include other factors to value carbon. 2. Whenever carbon changes form (and CPV) due to anthropogenic activity, a carbon toll is assessed as determined by the change in the CPV. The standard monetary unit for carbon tolls are carbon toll units, or CTUs. The CTUs multiplied by the quantity of carbon converted (QCC) provides the total carbon toll, or CT. For example, CT = (CTU /mole carbon) x (QCC moles carbon). 3. Whenever embodied carbon (EC) attributable to a good or service moves via trade to a jurisdiction with a different CPV metric, a carbon toll (CT) is assessed representing the CPV difference between the two jurisdictions. This economic model has three clear advantages. First, the carbon pricing and cost scheme use existing and generally accepted accounting methodologies to ensure the veracity and verifiability of carbon management efforts with minimal effort and expense using standard, existing auditing protocols. Implementing this economic model will not require any new, special, unique, or additional training, tools, or systems for any entity to achieve their minimum carbon target goals within their jurisdictional framework. Second, given the wide spectrum of carbon affinities across jurisdictions worldwide, the economic model recognizes and provides for flexible carbon pricing regimes, but does not undermine or penalize domestic carbon-consuming producers subject to imports from exporters in lower carbon pricing jurisdictions. Thus, the economic model avoids a key shortcoming of cap-and-trade carbon pricing, and eliminates any incentive to shift carbon consumption to jurisdictions with lower carbon tolls. Third, the economic model is a comprehensive, efficient, and effective strategy that allows for the implementation of a carbon pricing structure without the complete, explicit agreement of carbon consumers worldwide.

DeGroff, F. A.

2013-05-01

220

A guide to potential soil carbon sequestration; land-use management for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Terrestrial carbon sequestration has a potential role in reducing the recent increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) that is, in part, contributing to global warming. Because the most stable long-term surface reservoir for carbon is the soil, changes in agriculture and forestry can potentially reduce atmospheric CO2 through increased soil-carbon storage. If local governments and regional planning agencies are to effect changes in land-use management that could mitigate the impacts of increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, it is essential to know how carbon is cycled and distributed on the landscape. Only then can a cost/benefit analysis be applied to carbon sequestration as a potential land-use management tool for mitigation of GHG emissions. For the past several years, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been researching the role of terrestrial carbon in the global carbon cycle. Data from these investigations now allow the USGS to begin to (1) 'map' carbon at national, regional, and local scales; (2) calculate present carbon storage at land surface; and (3) identify those areas having the greatest potential to sequester carbon.

Markewich, H. W.; Buell, G. R.

2001-01-01

221

Carbon Cycle 2.0: Ashok Gadgil: global impact  

ScienceCinema

Ashok Gadgil speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Ashok Gadgi

2010-09-01

222

Forests and swamps of Siberia in the global carbon cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of measurements and calculations of carbon budget parameters of forests and swamps of Siberia are reported. The zonal\\u000a variability of reserves (and an increment in reserves) of carbon in forest and swamp ecosystems is characterized, carbon dioxide\\u000a fluxes are measured directly by means of microeddy pulsations, and an uncertainty brought into the calculation of carbon budget\\u000a parameters by forest

E. A. Vaganov; E. F. Vedrova; S. V. Verkhovets; S. P. Efremov; T. T. Efremova; V. B. Kruglov; A. A. Onuchin; A. I. Sukhinin; O. B. Shibistova

2008-01-01

223

Carbon Cycle 2.0: Ashok Gadgil: global impact  

SciTech Connect

Ashok Gadgil speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Ashok Gadgi

2010-02-09

224

Exploring Global Competence with Managers in India, Japan, and the Netherlands: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study explores the meaning of global competence for global managers in three different countries. Thirty interviews were conducted with global managers in India, Japan and the Netherlands through Skype, an internet based software. Findings are reported by country in five major categories: country background, personal…

Ras, Gerard J. M.

2011-01-01

225

Global socioeconomic carbon stocks in long-lived products 1900-2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A better understanding of the global carbon cycle as well as of climate change mitigation options such as carbon sequestration requires the quantification of natural and socioeconomic stocks and flows of carbon. A so-far under-researched aspect of the global carbon budget is the accumulation of carbon in long-lived products such as buildings and furniture. We present a comprehensive assessment of global socioeconomic carbon stocks and the corresponding in- and outflows during the period 1900-2008. These data allowed calculation of the annual carbon sink in socioeconomic stocks during this period. The study covers the most important socioeconomic carbon fractions, i.e. wood, bitumen, plastic and cereals. Our assessment was mainly based on production and consumption data for plastic, bitumen and wood products and the respective fractions remaining in stocks in any given year. Global socioeconomic carbon stocks were 2.3 GtC in 1900 and increased to 11.5 GtC in 2008. The share of wood in total C stocks fell from 97% in 1900 to 60% in 2008, while the shares of plastic and bitumen increased to 16% and 22%, respectively. The rate of gross carbon sequestration in socioeconomic stocks increased from 17 MtC yr-1 in 1900 to a maximum of 247 MtC yr-1 in 2007, corresponding to 2.2%-3.4% of global fossil-fuel-related carbon emissions. We conclude that while socioeconomic carbon stocks are not negligible, their growth over time is not a major climate change mitigation option and there is an only modest potential to mitigate climate change by the increase of socioeconomic carbon stocks.

Lauk, Christian; Haberl, Helmut; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Gingrich, Simone; Krausmann, Fridolin

2012-09-01

226

Fossil Plants as Indicators of the Phanerozoic Global Carbon Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developments in plant physiology since the 1980s have led to the realization that fossil plants archive both the isotopic composition of atmospheric CO2 and its concentration, both critical integrators of carbon cycle processes through geologic time. These two carbon cycle signals can be read by analyzing the stable carbon isotope composition ([delta ]13) of fossilized terrestrial organic matter and by

D. J. Beerling; D. L. Royer

2002-01-01

227

CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN SOILS AND GLOBAL CLIMATIC CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The storage of carbon in soils is a very complex phenomenon. lthough it is not fully characterized or understood, steps can be taken to use soils as a reservoir of carbon. he role of soils in the carbon cycle must be more fully understood to develop strategies to mitigate increas...

228

Cross-cultural management supporting global space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new era of space exploration has begun that may soon expand into a global endeavor mainly driven by socio-economic motives. Currently the main space powers, namely the United States, Russia, Europe, Japan, Canada as well as new rising space powers China and India, are pursuing national exploration programs to explore robotically and later with humans the Earth-Moon-Mars space. New axes of partnerships and cooperation mechanisms have emerged in the last decades. However, in order to achieve highly ambitious goals such as establishing human bases on the Moon, journeys to Mars and the construction of new infrastructures in space, international space cooperation has to be optimized to reduce costs and reap the benefits of worldwide expertise. Future ambitious space exploration endeavors are a long-term undertaking that could influence countries to look beyond their own interests and see the advantages that a larger program can bring. This paper provides new concepts for managing global space exploration in the framework of cross-cultural management, an element often neglected in the planning of future partnerships.

Ehrenfreund, P.; Peter, N.; Schrogl, K. U.; Logsdon, J. M.

2010-01-01

229

An integrated and pragmatic approach: Global plant safety management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bhopal disaster in India in 1984 has compelled manufacturing companies to review their operations in order to minimize their risk exposure. Much study has been done on the subject of risk assessment and in refining safety reviews of plant operations. However, little work has been done to address the broader needs of decision makers in the multinational environment. The corporate headquarters of multinational organizations are concerned with identifying vulnerable areas to assure that appropriate risk-minimization measures are in force or will be taken. But the task of screening global business units for safety prowess is complicated and time consuming. This article takes a step towards simplifying this process by presenting the decisional model developed by the authors. Beginning with an overview of key issues affecting global safety management, the focus shifts to the multinational vulnerability model developed by the authors, which reflects an integration of approaches. The article concludes with a discussion of areas for further research. While the global chemical industry and major incidents therein are used for illustration, the procedures and solutions suggested here are applicable to all manufacturing operations.

McNutt, Jack; Gross, Andrew

1989-05-01

230

Could managed burning of peatlands lead to enhanced carbon storage?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands are the UK's largest single terrestrial carbon store with carbon stored in UK peatlands than in forests of Britain and France combined. Unlike most northern peatlands in the peat soils of the UK are heavily managed for recreation and agriculture and due to their proximity to major centres of population are under more anthropogenic pressure than most peatlands. A typical management strategy on UK upland peats is the use of managed fire to restrict vegetation. Fires are used upon a 10-25 year rotation and are described as "cool" as they are designed to remove the crown of the vegetation without scorching the litter layer or the underlying soil. In this case the fire destroys primary productivity and limits litter production but produces char. Char is a low volume, highly refractory, high carbon content product while litter is a high volume, decomposable, lower carbon content product. Therefore, the question is if there are fire conditions under which the production of char causes more carbon to be stored in the peat than would have been stored if no fire management had been employed. This study combines field studies of recent managed burns and wildfires along with detailed vegetation studies from a long term monitoring site in order to assess litter, biomass and black carbon production. In the laboratory experimental burns were undertaken in order to assess the amount and controls upon char production and the carbon content of that char. Results of field and laboratory observations are used to model carbon accumulation under a series of fire management scenarios and the modelling shows that cools burns at long rotations could lead to higher carbon storage than if no fire had occurred, further in several cases more carbon accumulation occurred even if less depth of peat was generated.

Worrall, F.; Clay, G. D.

2009-04-01

231

Global warming and marine carbon cycle feedbacks on future atmospheric CO2  

PubMed

A low-order physical-biogeochemical climate model was used to project atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming for scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The North Atlantic thermohaline circulation weakens in all global warming simulations and collapses at high levels of carbon dioxide. Projected changes in the marine carbon cycle have a modest impact on atmospheric carbon dioxide. Compared with the control, atmospheric carbon dioxide increased by 4 percent at year 2100 and 20 percent at year 2500. The reduction in ocean carbon uptake can be mainly explained by sea surface warming. The projected changes of the marine biological cycle compensate the reduction in downward mixing of anthropogenic carbon, except when the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation collapses. PMID:10205049

Joos; Plattner; Stocker; Marchal; Schmittner

1999-04-16

232

The potential to mitigate global warming with no-tillage management is only realized when practised in the long term  

Microsoft Academic Search

No-tillage (NT) management has been promoted as a practice capable of offsetting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because of its ability to sequester carbon in soils. However, true mitigation is only possible if the overall impact of NT adoption reduces the net global warming potential (GWP) determined by fluxes of the three major biogenic GHGs (i.e. CO2 ,N 2O, and CH4).

JOHAN S IX; M. O GLE; F. J AY; A R V I N R. Tw

233

Developing policies for soil carbon management in tropical regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued in this paper that two fundamental economic processes prevent resource-poor farmers in tropical countries from managing soil carbon in a sustainable manner. The first process is related to the fact that soil carbon and tropical forests are part of the natural capital of these countries and of the world community. As a consequence, the interests of resource-poor

A.-M. N. Izac

1997-01-01

234

An Ecosystem Evaluation Framework for Global Seamount Conservation and Management  

PubMed Central

In the last twenty years, several global targets for protection of marine biodiversity have been adopted but have failed. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) aims at preserving 10% of all the marine biomes by 2020. For achieving this goal, ecologically or biologically significant areas (EBSA) have to be identified in all biogeographic regions. However, the methodologies for identifying the best suitable areas are still to be agreed. Here, we propose a framework for applying the CBD criteria to locate potential ecologically or biologically significant seamount areas based on the best information currently available. The framework combines the likelihood of a seamount constituting an EBSA and its level of human impact and can be used at global, regional and local scales. This methodology allows the classification of individual seamounts into four major portfolio conservation categories which can help optimize management efforts toward the protection of the most suitable areas. The framework was tested against 1000 dummy seamounts and satisfactorily assigned seamounts to proper EBSA and threats categories. Additionally, the framework was applied to eight case study seamounts that were included in three out of four portfolio categories: areas highly likely to be identified as EBSA with high degree of threat; areas highly likely to be EBSA with low degree of threat; and areas with a low likelihood of being EBSA with high degree of threat. This framework will allow managers to identify seamount EBSAs and to prioritize their policies in terms of protecting undisturbed areas, disturbed areas for recovery of habitats and species, or both based on their management objectives. It also identifies seamount EBSAs and threats considering different ecological groups in both pelagic and benthic communities. Therefore, this framework may represent an important tool to mitigate seamount biodiversity loss and to achieve the 2020 CBD goals.

Taranto, Gerald H.; Kvile, Kristina ?.; Pitcher, Tony J.; Morato, Telmo

2012-01-01

235

Contribution of semi-arid ecosystems to interannual variability of the global carbon cycle.  

PubMed

The land and ocean act as a sink for fossil-fuel emissions, thereby slowing the rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Although the uptake of carbon by oceanic and terrestrial processes has kept pace with accelerating carbon dioxide emissions until now, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations exhibit a large variability on interannual timescales, considered to be driven primarily by terrestrial ecosystem processes dominated by tropical rainforests. We use a terrestrial biogeochemical model, atmospheric carbon dioxide inversion and global carbon budget accounting methods to investigate the evolution of the terrestrial carbon sink over the past 30 years, with a focus on the underlying mechanisms responsible for the exceptionally large land carbon sink reported in 2011 (ref. 2). Here we show that our three terrestrial carbon sink estimates are in good agreement and support the finding of a 2011 record land carbon sink. Surprisingly, we find that the global carbon sink anomaly was driven by growth of semi-arid vegetation in the Southern Hemisphere, with almost 60 per cent of carbon uptake attributed to Australian ecosystems, where prevalent La Niña conditions caused up to six consecutive seasons of increased precipitation. In addition, since 1981, a six per cent expansion of vegetation cover over Australia was associated with a fourfold increase in the sensitivity of continental net carbon uptake to precipitation. Our findings suggest that the higher turnover rates of carbon pools in semi-arid biomes are an increasingly important driver of global carbon cycle inter-annual variability and that tropical rainforests may become less relevant drivers in the future. More research is needed to identify to what extent the carbon stocks accumulated during wet years are vulnerable to rapid decomposition or loss through fire in subsequent years. PMID:24847888

Poulter, Benjamin; Frank, David; Ciais, Philippe; Myneni, Ranga B; Andela, Niels; Bi, Jian; Broquet, Gregoire; Canadell, Josep G; Chevallier, Frederic; Liu, Yi Y; Running, Steven W; Sitch, Stephen; van der Werf, Guido R

2014-05-29

236

The importance of rapid, disturbance-induced losses in carbon management and sequestration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Management of terrestrial carbon fluxes is being proposed as a means of increasing the amount of carbon sequestered in the terrestrial biosphere. This approach is generally viewed only as an interim strategy for the coming decades while other longer-term strategies are developed and implemented - the most important being the direct reduction of carbon emissions. We are concerned that the potential for rapid, disturbance-induced losses may be much greater than is currently appreciated, especially by the decision-making community. Here we wish to: (1) highlight the complex and threshold-like nature of disturbances - such as fire and drought, as well as the erosion associated with each - that could lead to carbon losses; (2) note the global extent of ecosystems that are at risk of such disturbance-induced carbon losses; and (3) call for increased consideration of and research on the mechanisms by which large, rapid disturbance-induced losses of terrestrial carbon could occur. Our lack of ability as a scientific community to predict such ecosystem dynamics is precluding the effective consideration of these processes into strategies and policies related to carbon management and sequestration. Consequently, scientists need to do more to improve quantification of these potential losses and to integrate them into sound, sustainable policy options.

Breshears, D. D.; Allen, C. D.

2002-01-01

237

Vulnerability of permafrost carbon to global warming. Part II: sensitivity of permafrost carbon stock to global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the companion paper (Part I), we presented a model of permafrost carbon cycle to study the sensitivity of frozen carbon stocks to future climate warming. The mobilization of deep carbon stock of the frozen Pleistocene soil in the case of rapid stepwise increase of atmospheric temperature was considered. In this work, we adapted the model to be used also

D. V. Khvorostyanov; P. Ciais; G. Krinner; S. A. Zimov; Ch. Corradi; G. Guggenberger

2008-01-01

238

Availability and Utilization of Opioids for Pain Management: Global Issues  

PubMed Central

Background Pain can significantly influence an individual's health status and can have serious negative consequences: poor nutrition, decreased appetite, abnormal sleep patterns, fatigue, and impairment of daily living activities. Pain can cause psychological impairment and decrease healing and recovery from injuries and illness. A hallmark of many chronic conditions, pain affects more patients' lives than diabetes mellitus, heart disease, and cancer combined. However, many chronic sufferers do not have access to effective pain management for a variety of reasons, including limited access, restrictions, and personal and cultural biases. Methods This review summarizes issues of access, distribution, and cultural bias with regard to opioid agents and seeks to clarify the challenges related to opioid delivery. The considerable negative physical and mental consequences of chronic pain are discussed for the general and palliative care population. Results Opioids are an effective treatment for various intractable painful conditions, but problems in global opioid access for safe and rational use in pain management contribute to unnecessary suffering. These problems persist despite increased understanding in recent years of the pathophysiology of pain. Conclusions Comprehensive guidelines for goal-directed and patient-friendly chronic opiate therapy will potentially enhance the outlook for future chronic pain management. The improvement of pain education in undergraduate and postgraduate training will benefit patients and clinicians. The promise of new medications, along with the utilization of multimodal approaches, has the potential to provide effective pain relief to future generations of sufferers.

Manjiani, Deepak; Paul, D. Baby; Kunnumpurath, Sreekumar; Kaye, Alan David; Vadivelu, Nalini

2014-01-01

239

Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been conjectured that global warming will increase the prevalence of insect pests in many agro-ecosystems. In this paper, we quantitatively assess four of the key pests of maize, one of the most important systems in North American grain production. Using empirically generated estimates of pest overwintering thresholds and degree-day requirements, along with climate change projections from a high-resolution climate model, we project potential future ranges for each of these pests in the United States. Our analysis suggests the possibility of increased winter survival and greater degree-day accumulations for each of the pests surveyed. We find that relaxed cold limitation could expand the range of all four pest taxa, including a substantial range expansion in the case of corn earworm (H. zea), a migratory, cold-intolerant pest. Because the corn earworm is a cosmopolitan pest that has shown resistance to insecticides, our results suggest that this expansion could also threaten other crops, including those in high-value areas of the western United States. Because managing significant additional pressure from this suite of established pests would require additional pest management inputs, the projected decreases in cold limitation and increases in heat accumulation have the potential to significantly alter the pest management landscape for North American maize production. Further, these range expansions could have substantial economic impacts through increased seed and insecticide costs, decreased yields, and the downstream effects of changes in crop yield variability.

Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Krupke, Christian H.; White, Michael A.; Alexander, Corinne E.

2008-10-01

240

FOSSIL PLANTS AS INDICATORS OF THE PHANEROZOIC GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Developments,in plant physiology,since the 1980s have led to the real- ization that fossil plants archive both the isotopic composition,of atmospheric,CO 2 and its concentration, both critical integrators of carbon cycle processes through geologic time. These two carbon cycle signals can be read by analyzing the stable carbon iso- tope composition,(?,C of atmospheric CO2 because,of the key role it

D. J. Beerling; D. L. Royer

2002-01-01

241

Carbon isotope stratigraphy of an ancient (Ordovician) Bahamian-type carbonate platform: Implications for preservation of global seawater trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon isotope stratigraphy has a unique role in the interpretation of Earth history as one of the few geochemical proxies that have been widely applied throughout the geologic time scale, from the Precambrian to the Recent, as both a global correlation tool and proxy for the carbon cycle. However, in addition to consideration of the role of diagenesis, numerous studies have raised awareness of the fact that C-isotope trends derived from ancient carbonate platforms may not be representative of dissolved inorganic carbon from a well-mixed global ocean reservoir. Furthermore, the larger carbon isotopic fractionation in the formation of aragonite versus calcite from seawater must be taken into account. All three of these variables (diagenesis, water mass residence time, % aragonite) may change in response to sea level, producing trends in C-isotopes on ancient carbonate platforms that are unrelated to the global carbon cycle. Global carbon cycle fluxes may also have a cause-effect relationship with sea level changes, further complicating interpretations of stratigraphic trends in carbon isotopes from ancient platform environments. Studies of C-isotopes in modern carbonate platform settings such as the Great Bahama Bank (GBB) provide important analogues in addressing whether or not ancient platforms are likely to preserve a record of carbon cycling in the global ocean. Swart et al. (2009) found that waters of the GBB had generally the same or elevated values (ranging from +0.5‰ to +2.5‰) compared to the global oceans, interpreted as reflecting differential photosynthetic fractionation and precipitation of calcium carbonate (which lowers pH and converts bicarbonate into 12-C enriched carbon dioxide, leaving residual bicarbonate heavier). Carbonate sediments of the GBB have elevated C-isotopes, not only because of the high C-isotope composition of the overlying waters, but also due to the greater fractionation associated with precipitation of aragonite versus calcite. Few studies of ancient carbonates have attempted to explicitly compare C-isotope trends in both restricted platform settings and open marine settings (e.g., Immenhauser et al. 2002). We studied a restricted Bahamian-type carbonate platform of Middle-Late Ordovician (Darriwilian-early Sandbian) age included in the St. Paul Group of Maryland, notable for sedimentologic evidence of severe restriction and a general lack of open marine macrofauna. We are able to correlate the C-isotope curve from the St. Paul Group to other sections globally by using a combination of conodont microfossils and measurement of Sr isotopes on conodont apatite. Coeval C-isotope trends from open marine settings in the western United States and Estonia are comparable to the restricted platform in Maryland. In our Ordovician example, local factors appear to have modified the magnitude of the global trends, but not the timing and direction. A remaining question is whether magnitude differences are a function of sedimentation rate and completeness. We continue to test hypotheses of global correlations of C-isotope trends in the Middle-Late Ordovician by utilizing the rapidly changing Sr isotope curve at that time.

Saltzman, M.; Leslie, S. A.; Edwards, C. T.; Diamond, C. W.; Trigg, C. R.; Sedlacek, A. R.

2013-12-01

242

Remote sensing of global fire patterns, aerosol optical thickness, and carbon monoxide during April 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examines global fire patterns, aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and carbon monoxide concentrations during April 9-19, 1994. Recently, global Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data at nadir ground spatial resolution of 1 km are made available through the NASANOAA Pathfinder project. These data from April 9-19, 1994 are used to map fires over the Earth. Daytime data

S. A. Christopher; Min Wang; Donna V. Kliche; Ronald M. Welch; S. Nolf; V. S. Connors

1997-01-01

243

Feedback mechanisms and sensitivities of ocean carbon uptake under global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming simulations are performed with a coupled climate model of reduced complexity to investigate global warming-marine carbon cycle feedbacks. The model is forced by emissions of CO 2 and other greenhouse agents from scenarios recently developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and by CO 2 stabilization profiles. The uptake of atmospheric CO 2 by the ocean is

G.-K. PLATTNER; F. JOOS; T. F. STOCKER; O. MARCHAL

244

Ocean carbon uptake and storage influenced by wind bias in global climate models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In global climate model pre-industrial control simulations the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds show a systematic bias in position and strength relative to estimates of their actual position and strength. These wind-stress biases impact the simulated transport of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the nature of Southern Ocean water-mass formation and may affect the rate of meridional overturning of the global ocean. The effect they have on oceanic carbon uptake and storage is unknown, however. Here we demonstrate, using a coupled carbon-climate model, that the wind-stress biases reduce equilibrium ocean carbon storage, redistribute carbon within the ocean and increase oceanic carbon uptake in climate change simulations. The wind-stress biases act directly by influencing Ekman pumping dynamics in the Southern Ocean and also seem to have an indirect effect on the overturning circulation and carbon distribution through the Agulhas leakage and Indo-Atlantic salt flux. Our results indicate that carbon-climate model simulations with the typical pre-industrial wind-stress bias will over-estimate ocean carbon sequestration, and thereby under-estimate atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations in the twenty-first century, relative to unbiased simulations. The new generation of coupled carbon-climate models may be subject to these wind biases, which could alter their carbon-climate response, although it is worth noting that the uncertainty arising from wind biases that we demonstrate here is one of several uncertainties that affect modelled ocean carbon uptake.

Swart, N. C.; Fyfe, J. C.

2012-01-01

245

Carbon Management In the Post-Cap-and-Trade Carbon Economy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This abstract outlines an economic model that integrates carbon externalities seamlessly into the national and international economies. The model incorporates a broad carbon metric used to value all carbon in the biosphere, as well as all transnational commerce. The model minimizes the cost associated with carbon management, and allows for the variation in carbon avidity between jurisdictions. When implemented over time, the model reduces the deadweight loss while minimizing social cost, thus maximizing the marginal social benefit commonly associated with Pigouvian taxes. Once implemented, the model provides a comprehensive economic construct for governments, industry and consumers to efficiently weigh the cost of carbon, and effectively participate in helping to reduce their direct and indirect use of carbon, while allowing individual jurisdictions to decide their own carbon value, without the need for explicit, express agreement of all countries. The model uses no credits, requires no caps, and matches climate changing behavior to costs. The steps to implement the model for a particular jurisdiction are: 1) Define the Carbon Metric to value changes in Carbon Quality. 2) Apply the Carbon Metric to assess the Carbon Toll a) for all changes in Carbon Quality and b) for imports and exports. This economic model has 3 clear advantages. 1) The carbon pricing and cost scheme use existing and generally accepted accounting methodologies to ensure the veracity and verifiability of carbon management efforts with minimal effort and expense using standard auditing protocols. Implementing this economic model will not require any special training, tools, or systems for any entity to achieve their minimum carbon target goals within their jurisdictional framework. 2) Given the spectrum of carbon affinities worldwide, the model recognizes and provides for flexible carbon pricing regimes, but does not penalize domestic carbon-consuming producers subject to imports from exporters in lower carbon-pricing jurisdictions. Thus, the economic model avoids a key shortcoming of cap-and-trade carbon pricing, and eliminates any incentive to inefficiently shift carbon consumption to jurisdictions with lower carbon tolls. 3) The economic model is a comprehensive, efficient and effective strategy that allows for the implementation of a carbon-pricing structure without the complete, explicit agreement of carbon consumers worldwide.

DeGroff, F. A.

2013-12-01

246

Evaluating the Contribution of Soil Carbon to Global Climate Change Mitigation in an Integrated Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing the contribution of terrestrial carbon sequestration to national and international climate change mitigation requires integration across scientific and disciplinary boundaries. In a study for the US Climate Change Technology Program, site based measurements and geographic data were used to develop a three- pool, first-order kinetic model of global agricultural soil carbon (C) stock changes over 14 continental scale regions.

A. M. Thomson; R. C. Izaurralde; L. E. Clarke

2006-01-01

247

The Clathrate Gun is firing blanks: evidence from balancing the deglacial global carbon budget  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kennett et al. (2003) have suggested that the large changes seen in the ice core atmospheric methane record are due to gas hydrate dissociation rather than changes in tropical wetlands. We use the global carbon isotope budgeting method to calculate the amount of gas hydrate release which would be required to balance the deglacial carbon isotope shift. Unfortunately a release

M. Maslin; E. Thomas

2003-01-01

248

Carbon dioxide and the ? 18 O record of late-Quaternary climatic change: a global model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamical model for the late-Quaternary global variations of d18O, mean ocean surface tempeature t, ice mass I, deep ocean temperature ?, and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration µ, is constructed. This model consists of two diagnostic equations (for d18O and t), and three prognostic equations (for I, ?, and µ) of a form studied extensively in previous articles. The carbon

Barry Saltzman

1987-01-01

249

The role of European forests in the global carbon cycle—A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first part of this paper presents an overview of national forest carbon balance studies that have been carried out in Europe. Based on these national assessments, an estimate is made of the present role of European forests in the global carbon cycle. Differences in the methodologies applied are discussed. At present, 15 European countries have assessed a national forest

G. J. Nabuurs; R. Päivinen; R. Sikkema; G. M. J. Mohren

1997-01-01

250

The Global Carbon Cycle: A Test of Our Knowledge of Earth as a System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by the rapid increase in atmospheric CO2 due to human activities since the Industrial Revolution, several international scientific research programs have analyzed the role of individual components of the Earth system in the global carbon cycle. Our knowledge of the carbon cycle within the oceans, terrestrial ecosystems, and the atmosphere is sufficiently extensive to permit us to conclude that

P. Falkowski; R. J. Scholes; E. Boyle; J. Canadell; D. Canfield; J. Elser; N. Gruber; K. Hibbard; P. Högberg; S. Linder; F. T. Mackenzie; B. Moore III; T. Pedersen; Y. Rosenthal; S. Seitzinger; V. Smetacek; W. Steffen

2000-01-01

251

A Simple Numerical Model of the Global Carbon Cycle for the Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the STELLA programming software, a numerical model of the global carbon cycle has been developed for educational purposes. The basic model is a somewhat simplified version of box models developed by researchers in the 1980s to explore the cycling of carbon on time scales of years to centuries. The model contains four reservoirs (or \\

J. T. Snow

2003-01-01

252

Could managed burning of peatlands lead to carbon storage?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands are the UK's largest single terrestrial carbon store with carbon stored in UK peatlands than in forests of Britain and France combined. Unlike most northern peatlands in the peat soils of the UK are heavily managed for recreation and agriculture and due to their proximity to major centres of population are under more anthropogenic pressure than most peatlands. A typical management strategy on UK upland peats is the use of managed fire to restrict vegetation. Fires are used upon a 10-25 year rotation and are described as "cool" as they remove the crown of the vegetation without scorching the litter layer or the underlying soil. In this case the fire destroys primary productivity and limits litter production but produces char. Char is a low volume, highly refractory, high carbon content product while litter is a high volume, decomposable, lower carbon content product. Therefore, the question is if there are fire conditions underwhich the production of char causes more carbon to be stored in the peat than would have been stored if no fire management had been employed. This study uses detailed vegetation studies from a long term monitoring site in order to assess litter and biomass production; in laboratory experimental burns were undertaken in order to assess the amount and controls upon char production and the carbon content of that char. Results of field and laboratory observations are used to model carbon accumulation under s aseries of fire management scenarios and the modelling shows that cools burns at long rotations could lead to higher carbon storage than if no fire had occurred, further than in several cases more carbon accumulation occurred even if less depth of peat was generated.

Clay, G.; Worrall, F.

2007-12-01

253

Model of vertical distribution of organic carbon in the bottom deposits, and its role in the global carbon budget  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bottom deposits of oceans, seas and lakes are the long term carbon sinks - particulate organic carbon falls on the bottom and is covered with sediments, being preserved in anoxic conditions. However upper horizons of bottom sediments (‘active layer’) are in interaction with bottom waters through diffusion and bubbling of gasses and bioturbation, so it can act as a carbon sink or source depending on environment conditions change. This layer is often very thin, but accounting for the fact that bigger part of earth surface is covered with bottom deposits, storage of carbon in this reservoir can be compared with storage of carbon in terrestrial soils. Previously, to estimate carbon storage in terrestrial soils we have developed a 1-dimensional model of vertical distribution of carbon in terrestrial soils, accounting for different carbon fractions, process of sediment deposition and permafrost (Zimov et al. 2009). Oxygen is rarely appears to be the limiting factor of decomposition in terrestrial soils, while oxygen diffusion is the main factor that limits the decomposition on the bottom deposits. Here we present a model of vertical carbon distribution in bottom deposits taking into account input of organic carbon on the bottom, sediments porosity, oxygen availability, rates of sedimentation and bioturbation activity. The model allows calculate storage of carbon in the ‘active layer’ and the flux of carbon from the ‘active layer’ into the deeper bottom deposits which occur when sediments accumulate on the bottom. Analyses of the model showed that dynamic of carbon storage in the top horizons of the bottom deposits is in strong (non-linear) dependency from carbon income on the bottom, at this changing not only the concentration of carbon in the ‘active layer’ but also thickness of this layer. Understanding processes of carbon dynamics in the bottom deposits allows of interpreting the global carbon cycle, glacial-interglacial CO2 variations, and conditions which led to caustobiolith accumulations. 1. Zimov, N. S., S. A. Zimov, A. E. Zimova, G. M. Zimova, V. I. Chuprynin, and F. S. Chapin III (2009), Carbon storage in permafrost and soils of the mammoth tundra-steppe biome: Role in the global carbon budget, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L02502, doi:10.1029/2008GL036332.

Zimov, N.; Zimov, S. A.

2009-12-01

254

CARBON POOL AND FLUX OF GLOBAL FOREST ECOSYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Forest systems cover more than 4.1 x 10 9 hectares of the Earth's land area. lobally, forest vegetation and soils contain about 1146 petagrams of carbon, with approximately 37 percent of this carbon in low-latitude forests, 14 percent in mid-latitudes, and 49 percent in high lati...

255

Role of the marine biosphere in the global carbon cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geographical disequilibrium of our planet is due mainly to carbon sequestration by marine organisms over geological time. Changes in atmospheric COâ during interglacial-glacial transitions require biological sequestration of carbon in the oceans. Nutrient-limited export flux from new production in surface waters is the key process in this sequestrian. The most common model for export flux ignores potentially important nutrient

ALAN R. LONGHURST

1991-01-01

256

Remote sensing strategies for global resource exploration and environmental management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1972, satellite remote sensing, when integrated with other exploration techniques, has demonstrated operational exploration and engineering cost savings and reduced exploration risks through improved geological mapping. Land and ocean remote sensing satellite systems under development for the 1990's by the United States, France, Japan, Canada, ESA, Russia, China, and others, will significantly increase our ability to explore for, develop, and manage energy and mineral resources worldwide. A major difference between these systems is the "Open Skies" and "Non-Discriminatory Access to Data" policies as have been practiced by the U.S. and France and the restrictive nationalistic data policies as have been practiced by Russia and India. Global exploration will use satellite remote sensing to better map regional structural and basin-like features that control the distribution of energy and mineral resources. Improved sensors will better map lithologic and stratigraphic units and identify alteration effects in rocks, soils, and vegetation cover indicative of undiscovered subsurface resources. These same sensors will also map and monitor resource development. The use of satellite remote sensing data will grow substantially through increasing integration with other geophysical, geochemical, and geologic data using improved geographic information systems (GIS). International exploration will focus on underdeveloped countries rather than on mature exploration areas such as the United States, Europe, and Japan. Energy and mineral companies and government agencies in these countries and others will utilize available remote sensing data to acquire economic intelligence on global resources. If the "Non-Discriminatory Access to Data" principle is observed by satellite producing countries, exploration will remain competitive "on the ground". In this manner, remote sensing technology will continue to be developed to better explore for and manage the world's needed resources. If, however, satellite producing countries follow the Russian and Indian lead and restrict civil satellite data as tools of their national security and economic policies, remote sensing technology may become internationally competitive in space, redundant, prohibitively expensive, and generally unavailable to the world community.

Henderson, Frederick B.

257

Can Earth System Models Explain the observed 20th Century Global Carbon Sink?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various authors have estimated the net global land carbon flux as a residual from the global budget of atmospheric, oceanic and fossil fuel carbon fluxes. Recently, Tans (2009) used this method to estimate the globally averaged net land carbon inventory changes method from 1850 to near present day. Using ocean model estimates of the oceanic carbon fluxes, he showed the land being a net source of carbon until around 1940, but after that becoming a net sink, with an uncertainty dominated by the net oceanic carbon flux trajectory (~15%; Sabine et al 2004). Recently Ballantyne et al (2012) produced updated estimates of the net carbon fluxes changes from 1960 until present day. They show that the net carbon flux uptake, land plus ocean, increases from around 2 PgC/yr in 1960 to about 5 PgC/yr in 2010. We compare these observationally based estimates with results from the GFDL Earth System Models (ESMs). We show that both GFDL ESMs store too much carbon in the atmosphere, about a 10 to 20 ppm error by 2005. The models have slightly higher mean values than the Tans (2009) oceanic carbon storage changes but fall within the Sabine et al. (2004) uncertainty estimate. While the general shape of the net land carbon changes in Tans (2009) is well simulated by the ESMs, the ESM sign change in land flux occurs about 15-25years later. By 2010, the models simulate the oceanic carbon uptake as ~2.7 PgC/yr, and the land uptake as ~1 PgC/yr for a total of ~4PgC/yr. The land uptake value varies with ensemble member giving evidence for the role of variability in understanding the past carbon changes. This analysis gives us confidence in the models estimates of the climate-carbon feedbacks. The model results will then be analyzed to determine the various causes of those changes.

Stouffer, R. J.; Shevliakova, E.; Malyshev, S.; Krasting, J. P.; Pacala, S.; Dunne, J. P.; John, J. G.

2012-12-01

258

Ocean Margins Program: Closure on the global carbon cycle. Program description  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s Ocean Margins Program (OMP) is designed to quantitatively assess the importance of coastal ocean systems in the global carbon cycle. Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, human energy-related activities have dramatically altered the global carbon cycle, and consequently, this cycle is not presently in a steady-state. To reduce major uncertainties in predicting future global environmental quality, it is imperative to understand the sources and sinks of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, the role of anthropogenic activities in disrupting the natural carbon cycle, and the effects of, and feedbacks between, these activities and the natural carbon cycle. Due to continuously increased loading of nutrients to the margins, which, globally, is related to the rate of human population growth and high population densities in coastal states, biological carbon fixation has been stimulated. Depending on the fate of the fixed carbon, this stimulation has the potential to mitigate the anthropogenically derived Co{sub 2}. Determining the factors that control the magnitude of carbon exchanges between the ocean margins and the atmosphere, and the subsequent fate of this carbon, is crucial to predicting the strength and capacity of the oceans to absorb excess anthropogenic atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The goals of the OMP are to: quantify the ecological and biogeochemical processes and mechanisms that define the cycling, flux, and storage of carbon and other biogenic elements at the land/ocean interface; identify how ocean-margin sources and sinks of carbon change in response to human activities; and determine whether continental shelves are quantitatively significant in removing atmospheric carbon dioxide and isolating it via burial in sediments or export to the interior of the open ocean.

Riches, M.R.

1994-08-01

259

The role of carbon sequestration in a global energy future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Governmental policies and international treaties that aim at curbing the emissions of greenhouse gases and local pollutants can be expected. These regulations will increase the competitiveness of CO2-neutral energy sources, i.e., renewables, nuclear or decarbonisation of fossil fuels with CO2-sequestration. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the potential role carbon sequestration may play if stringent carbon constraints are

Christian Azar; Kristian Lindgren; Björn A. Andersson; Ingrid Råde

260

Potential responses of soil organic carbon to global environmental change  

PubMed Central

Recent improvements in our understanding of the dynamics of soil carbon have shown that 20–40% of the approximately 1,500 Pg of C stored as organic matter in the upper meter of soils has turnover times of centuries or less. This fast-cycling organic matter is largely comprised of undecomposed plant material and hydrolyzable components associated with mineral surfaces. Turnover times of fast-cycling carbon vary with climate and vegetation, and range from <20 years at low latitudes to >60 years at high latitudes. The amount and turnover time of C in passive soil carbon pools (organic matter strongly stabilized on mineral surfaces with turnover times of millennia and longer) depend on factors like soil maturity and mineralogy, which, in turn, reflect long-term climate conditions. Transient sources or sinks in terrestrial carbon pools result from the time lag between photosynthetic uptake of CO2 by plants and the subsequent return of C to the atmosphere through plant, heterotrophic, and microbial respiration. Differential responses of primary production and respiration to climate change or ecosystem fertilization have the potential to cause significant interrannual to decadal imbalances in terrestrial C storage and release. Rates of carbon storage and release in recently disturbed ecosystems can be much larger than rates in more mature ecosystems. Changes in disturbance frequency and regime resulting from future climate change may be more important than equilibrium responses in determining the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems.

Trumbore, Susan E.

1997-01-01

261

Facilitating Cross-Cultural Management Education through Global Faculty Exchanges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the AACSB International (Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business) (AACSB International, 2011), the next big transformational wave to hit business schools is globalization. Globalizing the faculty is one strategy for enhancing the globalization of business schools and using global faculty exchanges is one method to…

Clinebell, Sharon K.; Kvedaraviciene, Ieva

2013-01-01

262

Carbon management: an oil industry perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Projections indicate that future energy use and associated CO2 emissions will grow substantially to fuel economic growth and prosperity. Consequently, restrictions on energy demand would have significant economic and social impacts--- especially in developing countries where efforts to alleviate poverty and meet essential needs, as well as aspirations, will require large increases in future energy use. Global CO2 emissions today

Brian Flannery

2002-01-01

263

Global assessment of ocean carbon export by combining satellite observations and food-web models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

export of organic carbon from the surface ocean by sinking particles is an important, yet highly uncertain, component of the global carbon cycle. Here we introduce a mechanistic assessment of the global ocean carbon export using satellite observations, including determinations of net primary production and the slope of the particle size spectrum, to drive a food-web model that estimates the production of sinking zooplankton feces and algal aggregates comprising the sinking particle flux at the base of the euphotic zone. The synthesis of observations and models reveals fundamentally different and ecologically consistent regional-scale patterns in export and export efficiency not found in previous global carbon export assessments. The model reproduces regional-scale particle export field observations and predicts a climatological mean global carbon export from the euphotic zone of ~6 Pg C yr-1. Global export estimates show small variation (typically < 10%) to factor of 2 changes in model parameter values. The model is also robust to the choices of the satellite data products used and enables interannual changes to be quantified. The present synthesis of observations and models provides a path for quantifying the ocean's biological pump.

Siegel, D. A.; Buesseler, K. O.; Doney, S. C.; Sailley, S. F.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Boyd, P. W.

2014-03-01

264

Crop Management for Soil Carbon Sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) from agriculture is related to increasing and protecting soil organic matter (SOM) concentration. Agricultural soils can be a significant sink for atmospheric carbon (C) through increase of the SOM concentration. The natural ecosystems such as forests or prairies, where C gains are in equilibrium with losses, lose a large fraction of the antecedent C

Marek K. Jarecki; Rattan Lal

2003-01-01

265

Forest carbon management, the greenhouse effect and electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric utilities in the US have initiated forestry projects to conserve energy and to offset carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. In 1995, 40 companies raised US$2.5 million to establish the non-profit UtiliTree Carbon Company which is now sponsoring eight projects representing a mix of rural tree planting, forest preservation, forest management and research efforts at both domestic (Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and

John D. Kinsman; Gary Kaster; Eric C. Kuhn; James A. Smithson; Graham Brown

2000-01-01

266

Multi-century Changes to Global Climate and Carbon Cycle: Results from a Coupled Climate and Carbon Cycle Model  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we use a coupled climate and carbon cycle model to investigate the global climate and carbon cycle changes out to year 2300 that would occur if CO{sub 2} emissions from all the currently estimated fossil fuel resources were released to the atmosphere. By year 2300, the global climate warms by about 8 K and atmospheric CO{sub 2} reaches 1423 ppmv. The warming is higher than anticipated because the sensitivity to radiative forcing increases as the simulation progresses. In our simulation, the rate of emissions peak at over 30 PgC yr{sup -1} early in the 22nd century. Even at year 2300, nearly 50% of cumulative emissions remain in the atmosphere. In our simulations both soils and living biomass are net carbon sinks throughout the simulation. Despite having relatively low climate sensitivity and strong carbon uptake by the land biosphere, our model projections suggest severe long-term consequences for global climate if all the fossil-fuel carbon is ultimately released to the atmosphere.

Bala, G; Caldeira, K; Mirin, A; Wickett, M; Delire, C

2005-02-17

267

The response of belowground carbon allocation in forests to global change.  

SciTech Connect

From Binkley, D. and O. Menyailo (eds). Tree species effects on soils: implications for global change. NATO Science Series, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. Belowground carbon allocation (BCA) in forests regulates soil organic matter formation and influences biotic and abiotic properties of soil such as bulk density, cation exchange capacity, and water holding capacity. On a global scale, the total quantity of carbon allocated below ground by terrestrial plants is enormous, exceeding by an order of magnitude the quantity of carbon emitted to the atmosphere through combustion of fossil fuels. Despite the importance of BCA to the functioning of plant and soil communities, as well as the global carbon budget, controls on BCA are relatively poorly understood. Consequently, our ability to predict how BCA will respond to changes in atmospheric greenhouse gases, climage, nutrient deposition, and plant community composition remains rudimentary. In this synthesis, we examine BCA from three perspectives: coarse-root standing stock, belowground net primary production (BNPP), and total belowground carbon allocation (TBCA). For each, we examine methodologies and terminology. We then examine available data for any predictable variation in BCA due to changes in species composition, mean annual temperature, or elevated CO2 in existing Free Air CO2 Exposure (FACE) experiments. Finally, we discuss what we feel are important future directions for belowground carbon allocation research, with a focus on global change issues.

Giardina, Christian P.; Coleman, Mark D.; Binkley, Dan; Hancock, Jessica E.; King, John S.; Lilleskov, Eric A.; Loya, Wendy M.; Pregitzer, Kurt S.; Ryan, Michael G.; Trettin, Carl C.

2005-01-01

268

Global Research Program At Allianz Dresdner Capital Management (V. 6.2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In early 2002, the co-chief investment officer of Allianz Dresdner Capital Management (ADCM), the fourth-largest asset management firm in the world, reflects on the structure of the firm’s "global research platform" and any changes that might be desirable. The tasks for the student are to map the structure of the global platform, evaluate it, and recommend modifications.

Robert Bruner

269

Applying collaborative transportation management models in global third-party logistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the trends of e-commerce and globalization occurring in the economy, an effective global supply chain (GSC) management has become a business necessity for a multinational corporation seeking to secure market share. Although there has been much discussion on how a company gains competitive advantages through GSC management, the physical distribution of order fulfilment is less discussed in the literature.

J. C. Tyan; F. K. Wang; T Du

2003-01-01

270

U.S. policies on Data Management for Global Change Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1989, the ad hoc Interagency Working Group on Data Management for Global Change has led an effort, on behalf of the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences, to develop and coordinate a set of policy statements on data management for global change research. Seven policy statements were later approved by all U.S. agencies in the Federal Coordinating Council for

Lawrence M. G. Enomoto

1993-01-01

271

Leveraging Global Resources: A Process Maturity Framework for Managing Distributed Software Product Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed software development is pervasive in the software industry as companies vie to leverage global resources. However popular quality and process frameworks do not specifically address the key processes needed for managing distributed software development. We develop an evolutionary process maturity framework for globally distributed software development that incorporates 24 new key process areas essential for managing distributed software product

Narayan Ramasubbu; M. S. Krishnan

2005-01-01

272

Global Scale Methane Emissions from On-Site Wastewater Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pit latrines and other on-site sanitation methods are important forms of wastewater management at the global scale, providing hygienic and low-cost sanitation for more than 1.7 billion people in developing and middle-income regions. Latrines have also been identified as major sources of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) from the anaerobic decomposition of organic waste in pits. Understanding the greenhouse gas footprint of different wastewater systems is essential for sustainable water resource development and management. Despite this importance, CH4 emissions from decentralized wastewater treatment have received little attention in the scientific literature, and the rough calculations underlying government inventories and integrated assessment models do not accurately capture variations in emissions within and between countries. In this study, we improve upon earlier efforts and develop the first spatially explicit approach to quantifying latrine CH4 emissions, combining a high-resolution geospatial analysis of population, urbanization, and water table (as an indicator of anaerobic decomposition pathways) with CH4 emissions factors from the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Country-level health and sanitation surveys were used to determine latrine utilization in 2000 and predict usage in 2015. 18 representative countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America were selected for this analysis to illustrate regional variations in CH4 emissions and to include the greatest emitting nations. Our analysis confirms that pit latrines are a globally significant anthropogenic CH4 source, emitting 4.7 Tg CH4 yr-1 in the countries considered here. This total is projected to decrease ~25% by 2015, however, driven largely by rapid urbanization in China and decreased reliance on latrines in favor of flush toilets. India has the greatest potential for large growth in emissions in the post-2015 period, since public health campaigns to end open defecation, which is currently practiced by more than 600 million people in India, will rely heavily on latrines. Our results emphasize that decisions regarding water and sanitation can significantly influence anthropogenic CH4 emissions, and that discussions around sustainable water resources policy should give full consideration to the greenhouse gas impacts of decentralized sanitation systems like latrines. We conclude with a brief discussion of household biogas and composting toilets as CH4 mitigation options which also allow for harvesting of renewable energy and/or nutrients from wastewater.

Reid, M. C.; Guan, K.; Mauzerall, D. L.

2013-12-01

273

Role of the continental margin in the global carbon balance during the past three centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global continental margins are important sites of deposition and regeneration of terrestrial organic carbon and of calcium carbonate produced in situ. The material balance of organic carbon in the coastal zone determines to a large extent its role as either a source or sink of CO2 relative to the atmosphere. We explore the role of the continental margin in the global cycling of carbon during the recent geologic past using a new model, TOTEM (Terrestrial Ocean aTmosphere Ecosystem Model). We conclude that during the past 300 yr, the coastal zone has been a site of relatively stable calcium carbonate deposition, as well as a site of greater input, recycling, and storage of terrestrial organic carbon. As a result, more organic carbon in the coastal zone is remineralized than produced in situ by photosynthesis (i.e., the coastal zone is net heterotrophic), and this reduces its sink strength for anthropogenic CO2. Continuation of this trend in the future will weaken the ability of the coastal zone to act as a sink for the rising anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere. Reversal of the carbon biogeochemical balance from net remineralization (heterotrophy) to net production (autotrophy) may occur in those continental margin sections where bioproduction is enhanced by elevated inorganic nutrient inputs (e.g., coastal upwelling zones) and/or where there is efficient carbon storage.

MacKenzie, Fred T.; Lerman, Abraham; Ver, Leah May B.

1998-05-01

274

The Clathrate Gun is firing blanks: evidence from balancing the deglacial global carbon budget  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kennett et al. (2003) have suggested that the large changes seen in the ice core atmospheric methane record are due to gas hydrate dissociation rather than changes in tropical wetlands. We use the global carbon isotope budgeting method to calculate the amount of gas hydrate release which would be required to balance the deglacial carbon isotope shift. Unfortunately a release of only ~135 GtC methane, is required to make a biospheric carbon transfer of ~1100 GtC compatible with the marine carbon isotope data. This represents less than 20 percent of the atmospheric methane increase between 18 and 8 ka observed in ice cores. This supports the theory that glacial-interglacial variations in atmospheric methane were driven primarily by changes in the extent of tropical and temperate wetlands and not by methane release from clathrates. Hence the Clathrate Gun Hypothesis is firing blanks. This method also invalidates the carbon isotope budget method as a means of estimating glacial-interglacial land carbon, as the release of very light gas hydrate carbon must be taken into account. This resolves the long running discrepancy isotope and paleovegetation estimates of carbon transfer. Therefore we suggest global carbon models will have to incorporate glacial-interglacial vegetation shifts of at least 1000 GtC, which many of them will currently find difficult.

Maslin, M.; Thomas, E.

2003-04-01

275

Nutrient availability as the key regulator of global forest carbon balance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forests strongly affect climate through the exchange of large amounts of atmospheric CO2 (ref. ). The main drivers of spatial variability in net ecosystem production (NEP) on a global scale are, however, poorly known. As increasing nutrient availability increases the production of biomass per unit of photosynthesis and reduces heterotrophic respiration in forests, we expected nutrients to determine carbon sequestration in forests. Our synthesis study of 92 forests in different climate zones revealed that nutrient availability indeed plays a crucial role in determining NEP and ecosystem carbon-use efficiency (CUEe; that is, the ratio of NEP to gross primary production (GPP)). Forests with high GPP exhibited high NEP only in nutrient-rich forests (CUEe = 33 +/- 4% mean +/- s.e.m.). In nutrient-poor forests, a much larger proportion of GPP was released through ecosystem respiration, resulting in lower CUEe (6 +/- 4%). Our finding that nutrient availability exerts a stronger control on NEP than on carbon input (GPP) conflicts with assumptions of nearly all global coupled carbon cycle-climate models, which assume that carbon inputs through photosynthesis drive biomass production and carbon sequestration. An improved global understanding of nutrient availability would therefore greatly improve carbon cycle modelling and should become a critical focus for future research.

Fernández-Martínez, M.; Vicca, S.; Janssens, I. A.; Sardans, J.; Luyssaert, S.; Campioli, M.; Chapin, F. S., III; Ciais, P.; Malhi, Y.; Obersteiner, M.; Papale, D.; Piao, S. L.; Reichstein, M.; Rodà, F.; Peñuelas, J.

2014-06-01

276

Terrestrial carbon management and electric utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the near future regulations could be imposed affecting emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Carbon offsets should be a component of any such regime. This paper addresses: 1) international and domestic policy actions related to C offset forestry, including the United Nations’ Framework Convention on Climate Change and the U.S. Energy Policy Act of 1992; 2) forestry-related efforts

John D. Kinsman; Mark C. Trexler

1993-01-01

277

How strongly can forest management influence soil carbon sequestration?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reviewed the experimental evidence for long-term carbon (C) sequestration in soils as consequence of specific forest management strategies. Utilization of terrestrial C sinks alleviates the burden of countries which are committed to reducing their greenhouse gas emissions. Land-use changes such as those which result from afforestation and management of fast-growing tree species, have an immediate effect on the regional

Robert Jandl; Marcus Lindner; Lars Vesterdal; B. M. S. D. L. Bauwens; Rainer Baritz; Frank Hagedorn; Dale W. Johnson; Kari Minkkinen; Kenneth A. Byrne

2007-01-01

278

On 50th Anniversary of the Global Carbon Dioxide Record  

PubMed Central

The 50-year global CO2 record led the way in establishing a scientific fact: modern civilization is changing important properties of the global atmosphere, oceans and biosphere. The evidence on which this scientific fact is based will be refined further, but the next challenge for scientists is broader. In addition to its traditional role in providing discovery, diagnosis, and prediction of the changes that are taking place on our planet, science has now also a role in helping society mitigate emissions by objectively quantifying them, and in helping adaptation by providing environmental forecasts on regional scales. Science is also expected to provide new options for society to tackle the transition to a new energy system, and to provide thorough environmental evaluation of all such options. This is what the meeting recognized as planetary responsibilities for scientists in the next 50 years.

Alexandrov, Georgii A; Heimann, Martin; Jones, Chris D; Tans, Pieter

2007-01-01

279

Energy Prices and Carbon Taxes under Uncertainty about Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends the strategic interactions between producers of fossil fuels concerned about their profits and a taxing\\u000a government concerned about the consumers’ welfare for uncertainty: global warming follows an Itô -process. Stochasticity requires\\u000a to differentiate between reversible and irreversible emissions in contrast to the deterministic version. The unconstrained\\u000a (= reversible) case allows for a closed form solution but not the

Franz Wirl

2007-01-01

280

CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM THE GLOBAL CEMENT INDUSTRY1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The cement industry contributes about 5% to global anthropogenic CO2 emissions, making the cement industry an important sector for CO2-emission mitigation strategies. CO2 is emitted from the calcination process of limestone, from combustion of fuels in the kiln, as well as from power generation. In this paper, we review the total CO2 emissions from cement making, including process and

Ernst Worrell; Lynn Price; Nathan Martin; Chris Hendriks; Leticia Ozawa Meida

2001-01-01

281

Estimating global carbon uptake by lichens and bryophytes with a process-based model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lichens and bryophytes are abundant globally and they may even form the dominant autotrophs in (sub)polar ecosystems, in deserts and at high altitudes. Moreover, they can be found in large amounts as epiphytes in old-growth forests. Here, we present the first process-based model which estimates the net carbon uptake by these organisms at the global scale, thus assessing their significance for biogeochemical cycles. The model uses gridded climate data and key properties of the habitat (e.g. disturbance intervals) to predict processes which control net carbon uptake, namely photosynthesis, respiration, water uptake and evaporation. It relies on equations used in many dynamical vegetation models, which are combined with concepts specific to lichens and bryophytes, such as poikilohydry or the effect of water content on CO2 diffusivity. To incorporate the great functional variation of lichens and bryophytes at the global scale, the model parameters are characterised by broad ranges of possible values instead of a single, globally uniform value. The predicted terrestrial net uptake of 0.34 to 3.3 Gt yr-1 of carbon and global patterns of productivity are in accordance with empirically-derived estimates. Considering that the assimilated carbon can be invested in processes such as weathering or nitrogen fixation, lichens and bryophytes may play a significant role in biogeochemical cycles.

Porada, P.; Weber, B.; Elbert, W.; Pöschl, U.; Kleidon, A.

2013-11-01

282

Global Warming and Carbon Dynamics in Permafrost Soils: Methane Production and Oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arctic plays a key role in the Earth’s climate system, because global warming is predicted to be most pronounced at high\\u000a latitudes, and one third of the global carbon pool is stored in ecosystems of the northern latitudes. The degradation of permafrost\\u000a and the associated intensified release of methane, a climate-relevant trace gas, represent potential environmental hazards.\\u000a The microorganisms

Dirk Wagner; Susanne Liebner

283

Economic value of improved quantification in global sources and sinks of carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

On average, about 45 per cent of global annual anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions remain in the atmosphere, while the remainder are taken up by carbon reservoirs on land and in the oceans-the CO(2) 'sinks'. As sink size and dynamics are highly variable in space and time, cross-verification of reported anthropogenic CO(2) emissions with atmospheric CO(2) measurements is challenging. Highly variable CO(2) sinks also limit the capability to detect anomolous changes in natural carbon reservoirs. This paper argues that significant uncertainty reduction in annual estimates of the global carbon balance could be achieved rapidly through coordinated up-scaling of existing methods, and that this uncertainty reduction would provide incentive for accurate reporting of CO(2) emissions at the country level. We estimate that if 5 per cent of global CO(2) emissions go unreported and undetected, the associated marginal economic impacts could reach approximately US$20 billion each year by 2050. The net present day value of these impacts aggregated until 2200, and discounted back to the present would have a mean value exceeding US$10 trillion. The costs of potential impacts of unreported emissions far outweigh the costs of enhancement of measurement infrastructure to reduce uncertainty in the global carbon balance. PMID:21502170

Durant, A J; Le Quéré, C; Hope, C; Friend, A D

2011-05-28

284

Study of carbon monoxide distribution determinations for a global transport model. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this grant was to further the development of a global transport/chemistry model that simulates the physico-chemical behavior of methane and carbon monoxide in the troposphere. The computer simulation model is designed to analyze the processes that occur as methane and carbon monoxide are transported from their respective sources to their ultimate fate, e.g., final conversion to CO/sub 2/, transport to the stratosphere, deposition at ground level, etc.

Peters, L.K.

1988-12-01

285

The Mid-Cretaceous Super Plume, carbon dioxide, and global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon-dioxide releases associated with a mid-Cretaceous super plume and the emplacement of the Ontong-Java Plateau have been suggested as a principal cause of the mid-Cretaceous global warming. We developed a carbonate-silicate cycle model to quantify the possible climatic effects of these CO2 releases, utilizing four different formulations for the rate of silicate-rock weathering as a function of atmospheric CO2. We

Ken Caldeira; Michael R. Rampino

1991-01-01

286

A study of carbon monoxide distribution determinations for a global transport model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of this grant was to further the development of a global transport/chemistry model that simulates the physico-chemical behavior of methane and carbon monoxide in the troposphere. The computer simulation model is designed to analyze the processes that occur as methane and carbon monoxide are transported from their respective sources to their ultimate fate, e.g., final conversion to CO2, transport to the stratosphere, deposition at ground level, etc.

Peters, Leonard K.

1988-01-01

287

Aligned carbon nanotubes for electrical interconnect and thermal management  

Microsoft Academic Search

As IC performance increases, many technical challenges appear in the areas of power delivery, thermal management, I\\/O density, and thermal-mechanical reliability. To address these problems, the use of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is proposed in IC packaging as electrical interconnect and thermal interface materials. The superior electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of CNTs promise to bring revolutionary improvement in reducing

Lingbo Zhu; Yangyang Sun; Jianwen Xu; Zhuqing Zhang; Dennis W. Hess; C. P. Wong

2005-01-01

288

QUANTIFYING ABOVEGROUND CARBON STORAGE IN MANAGED FOREST ECOSYSTEMS IN OHIO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of carbon sequestered was determined on managed even aged stands on sites in southeastern Ohio. Bottomland hardwood sites that consisted of sycamore (Plantanus occidentalis) and box elder (Acer negundo) were examined. The other forest types studied were monocultures of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), Austrian pine (Pinus nigra), and pitlolly pine (Pinus rigida × taeda), and five sites of

Michael A. Nicodemus; Roger A. Williams

289

STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal)

Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen; Indrek Kulaots

2001-01-01

290

Globalization and the Inward Flow of Immigrants: Issues Associated with the Inpatriation of Global Managers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assembling a diverse global workforce is becoming a critical dimension in gaining successful global performance. In the past, staffing has focused on control of the multinational organization as the primary goal when staffing overseas positions. As organizations globalize their operations, the goal of staffing is shifting from control to…

Harvey, Michael; Kiessling, Tim; Moeller, Miriam

2011-01-01

291

Sources of uncertainties in modelling Black Carbon at the global scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our understanding of the global black carbon cycle is essentially qualitative due to uncertainties in our knowledge of the properties of black carbon. This work investigates uncertainties related to modelling black carbon: due to the use of different schemes for BC ageing and its removal rate in the global Transport-Chemistry model TM5 and due to the uncertainties in the definition and quantification of observed black carbon, which propagate through to both the emission inventories, and the measurements used for the model evaluation. The schemes for the atmospheric processing of black carbon that have been tested with the model are (i) a simple approach considering black carbon as bulk aerosol and a simple treatment in the removal and (ii) a more complete description of microphysical aging within an aerosol dynamics model, where removal is coupled to the microphysical properties of the aerosol. In the first approach a fixed 70% of black carbon is scavenged in clouds and removed when rain is present. The second leads to a global average of 40% black carbon that is scavenged in clouds and subsequently removed by rain, thus resulting in a longer lifetime. This difference is reflected in comparisons between both sets of modelled results and the measurements. Close to the sources, both anthropogenic and vegetation fire source regions, the model results do not differ significantly, showing that the emissions are the prevailing mechanism determining the concentrations and the choice of the aerosol scheme does not influence the levels. In more remote areas such as oceanic and polar regions the differences can be orders of magnitude, due to the differences between the two schemes. The more complete description reproduces the seasonal trend of the black carbon observations in those areas, although not always the magnitude of the signal, while the more simplified approach underestimates black carbon concentrations by orders of magnitude. The sensitivity to wet scavenging has been tested varying in-cloud and below-cloud removals. BC lifetime increases by 10% when large scale and convective scale precipitation are reduced by 30%, while the variation is very small when below-cloud scavenging is zero. Since the emission inventories are representative of elemental carbon-like substance, the model output should be compared to elemental carbon measurements, and, if known, the ratio of black carbon to elemental carbon mass should be taken into account when the model is compared with black carbon observations.

Vignati, E.; Karl, M.; Krol, M.; Wilson, J.; Stier, P.; Cavalli, F.

2009-11-01

292

Global database of surface ocean particulate organic carbon export fluxes diagnosed from the 234Th technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oceanic biological carbon pump is an important factor in the global carbon cycle. Organic carbon is exported from the surface ocean mainly in the form of settling particles derived from plankton production in the upper layers of the ocean. The large variability in current estimates of the global strength of the biological carbon pump emphasises that our knowledge of a major planetary carbon flux remains poorly constrained. We present a database of 723 estimates of organic carbon export from the surface ocean derived from the 234Th technique. The dataset is archived on the data repository PANGEA® (www.pangea.de) under doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.809717. Data were collected from tables in papers published between 1985 and early 2013. We also present sampling dates, publication dates and sampling areas. Most of the open ocean provinces are represented by multiple measurements. However, the western Pacific, the Atlantic Arctic, South Pacific and the southern Indian Ocean are not well represented. There is a variety of integration depths ranging from surface to 300 m. Globally the fluxes ranged from 0 to 1500 mg C m-2 d-1.

Le Moigne, F. A. C.; Henson, S. A.; Sanders, R. J.; Madsen, E.

2013-08-01

293

Global database of surface ocean particulate organic carbon export fluxes diagnosed from the 234Th technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oceanic biological carbon pump is an important factor in the global carbon cycle. Organic carbon is exported from the surface ocean mainly in the form of settling particles derived from plankton production in the upper layers of the ocean. The large variability in current estimates of the global strength of the biological carbon pump emphasises that our knowledge of a major planetary carbon flux remains poorly constrained. We present a database of 723 estimates of organic carbon export from the surface ocean derived from the 234Th technique. The dataset is archived on the data repository PANGEA® (www.pangea.de) under doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.809717. Data were collected from tables in papers published between 1985 and early 2013 only. We also present sampling dates, publication dates and sampling areas. Most of the open ocean provinces are represented by several measurements. However, the Western Pacific, the Atlantic Arctic, South Pacific and the South Indian Ocean are not well represented. There is a variety of integration depths ranging from surface to 220 m. Globally the fluxes ranged from 0 to 1500 mg of C m-2 d-1.

Le Moigne, F. A. C.; Henson, S. A.; Sanders, R. J.; Madsen, E.

2013-05-01

294

The role of soil microbes in the global carbon cycle: tracking the below-ground microbial processing of plant-derived carbon for manipulating carbon dynamics in agricultural systems.  

PubMed

It is well known that atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) (and other greenhouse gases) have increased markedly as a result of human activity since the industrial revolution. It is perhaps less appreciated that natural and managed soils are an important source and sink for atmospheric CO2 and that, primarily as a result of the activities of soil microorganisms, there is a soil-derived respiratory flux of CO2 to the atmosphere that overshadows by tenfold the annual CO2 flux from fossil fuel emissions. Therefore small changes in the soil carbon cycle could have large impacts on atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Here we discuss the role of soil microbes in the global carbon cycle and review the main methods that have been used to identify the microorganisms responsible for the processing of plant photosynthetic carbon inputs to soil. We discuss whether application of these techniques can provide the information required to underpin the management of agro-ecosystems for carbon sequestration and increased agricultural sustainability. We conclude that, although crucial in enabling the identification of plant-derived carbon-utilising microbes, current technologies lack the high-throughput ability to quantitatively apportion carbon use by phylogentic groups and its use efficiency and destination within the microbial metabolome. It is this information that is required to inform rational manipulation of the plant-soil system to favour organisms or physiologies most important for promoting soil carbon storage in agricultural soil. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24425529

Gougoulias, Christos; Clark, Joanna M; Shaw, Liz J

2014-09-01

295

Long time management of fossil fuel resources to limit global warming and avoid ice age onsets  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are about 5000 billion tons of fossil fuel carbon in accessible reserves. Combustion of all this carbon within the next few centuries would force high atmospheric CO2 content and extreme global warming. On the other hand, low atmospheric CO2 content favors the onset of an ice age when changes in the Earth's orbit lead to low summer insolation at

Gary Shaffer

2009-01-01

296

Geographic information systems and global positioning systems for watershed management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taipei Water Resource Management Commission (TWMC) is in charge of watershed management in order to provide sustained water for about four millions population in Taipei. Watershed management is not confined to its traditional scope. Almost everything relevant with water quality and water quantity has to be taken care of. House construction permission, garbage collection and management, water and soil conservation

Yan-Guang Chang; Chiou-Hsiung Chen; Hsiu-Lan Huang; Hua-Hung Miao

2001-01-01

297

Role of the marine biosphere in the global carbon cycle  

SciTech Connect

The geographical disequilibrium of our planet is due mainly to carbon sequestration by marine organisms over geological time. Changes in atmospheric CO{sub 2} during interglacial-glacial transitions require biological sequestration of carbon in the oceans. Nutrient-limited export flux from new production in surface waters is the key process in this sequestrian. The most common model for export flux ignores potentially important nutrient sources and export mechanisms. Export flux occurs as a result of biological processes whose complexity appears not to be accommodated by the principal classes of simulation models, this being especially true for food webs dominated by single-celled protists whose trophic function is more dispersed than among the multicelled metazoa. The fashionable question concerning a hypothetical missing sink' for CO{sub 2} emissions is unanswerable because of imprecision in our knowledge of critical flux rates. This question also diverts attention from more relevant studies of how the biological pump may be perturbed by climatic consequences of CO{sub 2} emissions. Under available scenarios for climate change, such responses may seem more likely to reinforce, rather than mitigate, the rate of increase of atmospheric CO{sub 2}.

Longhurst, A.R. (Bedford Inst. of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia (Canada))

1991-12-01

298

Modeling the role of terrestrial ecosystems in the global carbon cycle  

SciTech Connect

A model for the global biogeochemical cycle of carbon which includes a five-compartment submodel for circulation in terrestrial ecosystems of the world is presented. Although this terrestrial submodel divides carbon into compartments with more functional detail than previous models, the variability in carbon dynamics among ecosystem types and in different climatic zones is not adequately treated. A new model construct which specifically treats this variability by modeling the distribution of ecosystem types as a function of climate on a 0.5/sup 0/ latitude by 0.5/sup 0/ longitude scale of resolution is proposed.

Emanuel, W.R.; Post, W.M.; Shugart, H.H. Jr.

1980-01-01

299

Towards the development of a global inventory for black carbon emissions  

SciTech Connect

The authors have developed a global inventory for black carbon (BC) emi measured ambient concentration ratios of black carbon and SO[sub 2] at locations throughout the world. They have extended the data base for black carbon by using [open quotes]smoke[close quotes] measurements at a variety of monitoring sites and a calibration factor for black carbon derived herein from ambient [open quotes]smoke[close quotes] and BC measurements. They demonstrate that BC to SO[sub 2] ratios are well correlated at most sites and that distinct ratios of BC to SO[sub 2] apply to source areas from economically distinct regions. However, within any one economic region, the ratio of BC to SO[sub 2] appears to be relatively constant. These facts are used to construct a global inventory of black carbon emissions by using previously published inventories for the emissions of sulfur from fossil fuel use. The derived inventory totals nearly 24 Tg C/yr. This inventory is compared to a crude inventory based on emission factors and published fuel use statistics for wood and bagasse burning, diesel fuel, and domestic and commercial coal use. The combined emissions from wood, diesel, and coal can explain more than 75% of the total global emissions and usually are within a factor of two of the derived regional emissions from the BC/S ratio method. The black carbon inventory, totaling nearly 24 Tg C/yr, is used in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory global chemistry/climate model to simulate the world-wide distribution of black carbon. The predicted concentrations are compared with available measurements from throughout the world. This comparison supports the magnitude of the inventory which the authors have derived to within a factor of two, although significant uncertainties with respect to the treatment of scavenging and deposition in the model remain.

Penner, J.E.; Eddleman, H. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Novakov, T. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

1991-10-01

300

Towards the development of a global inventory for black carbon emissions  

SciTech Connect

The authors have developed a global inventory for black carbon (BC) emi measured ambient concentration ratios of black carbon and SO{sub 2} at locations throughout the world. They have extended the data base for black carbon by using {open_quotes}smoke{close_quotes} measurements at a variety of monitoring sites and a calibration factor for black carbon derived herein from ambient {open_quotes}smoke{close_quotes} and BC measurements. They demonstrate that BC to SO{sub 2} ratios are well correlated at most sites and that distinct ratios of BC to SO{sub 2} apply to source areas from economically distinct regions. However, within any one economic region, the ratio of BC to SO{sub 2} appears to be relatively constant. These facts are used to construct a global inventory of black carbon emissions by using previously published inventories for the emissions of sulfur from fossil fuel use. The derived inventory totals nearly 24 Tg C/yr. This inventory is compared to a crude inventory based on emission factors and published fuel use statistics for wood and bagasse burning, diesel fuel, and domestic and commercial coal use. The combined emissions from wood, diesel, and coal can explain more than 75% of the total global emissions and usually are within a factor of two of the derived regional emissions from the BC/S ratio method. The black carbon inventory, totaling nearly 24 Tg C/yr, is used in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory global chemistry/climate model to simulate the world-wide distribution of black carbon. The predicted concentrations are compared with available measurements from throughout the world. This comparison supports the magnitude of the inventory which the authors have derived to within a factor of two, although significant uncertainties with respect to the treatment of scavenging and deposition in the model remain.

Penner, J.E.; Eddleman, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Novakov, T. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1991-10-01

301

Development of CNT based carbon-carbon composites for thermal management system (TMS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon-Fibre-Carbon matrix composites having high thermal conductivity per unit density is a competitive material for thermal management for aerospace applications. Due to anisotropic nature of Carbon-Carbon(C-C) composites, the thermal conductivity in the thickness direction which is dominated by the matrix carbon is comparatively low. In the present study, work is carried to increase the thermal conductivity in the thickness direction of 2D-CC composites. Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNT) were functionalised and dispersed in Phenolic Resin. C-C composites were densified with MWNT dispersed Phenolic Resin through impregnation, curing & carbonisation cycle. CNT-CC composites were densified through Chemical Vapor Infiltration process and further graphitised. The effects of MWNT in amorphous carbon for thermal conductivity were investigated. The result shows that Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNT) can induce the ordered arrangement of micro-crystallites in amorphous carbon leading to increase in thermal conductivity of the bulk composites. There exists an optimum MWNT concentration in resin to enhance the thermal conductivity of C-C composites in the perpendicular direction. However, excess MWNT in resin is disadvantageous to enhance the thermal conductivity due to problems like agglomeration, resulting in reduced thermal conductivity. This can be attributed to the interfacial contact resistance due to improper heat transmission channels arising due to agglomeration. Investigation has been carried out to study the effect of agglomeration for the thermal conductivity of the bulk composites.

Paul, Jhon; Krishnakumar, G.; Rajarajan, A.; Rakesh, S.

2013-06-01

302

Potential impact of ocean ecosystem changes due to global warming on marine organic carbon aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of organic carbon (OC) aerosols by biological activity in the ocean is hypothesized to influence climate change. We employ model sensitivity studies to assess the effects of ocean ecosystem changes on the marine OC fluxes by using an integrated Earth system model. Our modeled estimate of global marine primary OC emission (7 Tg OC yr?1) is comparable with that

Akinori Ito; Michio Kawamiya

2010-01-01

303

Microbial Carbon Pump ---A New Mechanism for Long-Term Carbon Storage in the Global Ocean (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) reservoir, containing carbon equivalent to the total carbon inventory of atmospheric CO2, is an important issue in understanding the role of the ocean in climate change. The known biological mechanism for oceanic carbon sequestration is the biological pump, which depends on vertical transportation of carbon either through particulate organic matter (POM) sedimentation or DOM export by mixing and downwelling. Both the POM and the DOM are subject to microbial mineralization and most of the organic carbon will be returned to dissolved inorganic carbon within a few decades. Only a small fraction of the POM escapes mineralization and reaches the sediment where organic carbon can be buried and stored for thousands and even millions of years. The efficiency of the biological pump is currently the basic measure of the ocean’s ability to store biologically fixed carbon. However, the production and fate of the large pool of recalcitrant DOM with an averaged turnover time of 4000-6000 thousands of years in the water column has not been adequately considered to date. Marine microbes essentially monopolize the utilization of DOM. Although their diverse adaptive strategies for using newly fixed carbon are well known, major gaps exist in our knowledge on how they interact with the large pool of DOM that appears to be recalcitrant. This is an important problem, as DOM molecules that are not degraded for extended periods of time constitute carbon storage in the ocean. A newly proposed concept - the “microbial carbon pump (MCP)” (NATURE REVIEWS Microbiology 2010.8:593-599) (also see diagram below) provides a formalized focus on the significance of microbial processes in carbon storage in the recalcitrant DOM reservoir, and a framework for testing hypotheses on the sources and sinks of DOM and the underlying biogeochemical mechanisms. The MCP, through concessive processing of DOM, transforms some organic carbon from the reactive DOM pools to a recalcitrant carbon reservoir, pumping organic carbon from low concentrations of labile DOM to high concentrations of recalcitrant DOM, building up a huge reservoir for carbon storage over time. Meanwhile the MCP transfers more carbon relative to nitrogen and phosphorus from the reactive organic matter pool into recalcitrant organic matter pool. Compared with the solubility pump, an abiotic mechanism for carbon storage in the ocean which has ocean acidification impacts on marine organisms and biogeochemical cycles, the MCP-driven recalcitrant DOM carbon storage does not appreciably alter the buffering capacity of seawater and has no known negative impact on marine organisms. Furthermore, in the ocean warming scenario, the partitioning of biogenic carbon flow will change, with the flow to POM diminishing and that to DOM increasing, and thus the role of the MCP in carbon storage will most likely enhanced. A working group joined by 26 scientists from 12 countries has been formed under the Scientific Committee for Oceanic Research (SCOR-WG134) to address this multi-faceted biogeochemical issue related to carbon cycling in the ocean and global climate changes.

Jiao, N.; Azam, F.; McP Working Group; Scor Wg134

2010-12-01

304

Research Needs for Carbon Management in Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved management of terrestrial carbon in agriculture, forestry, and other land use sectors is a necessary part of climate change mitigation. It is likely that governments will agree in Copenhagen in December 2009 to incentives for improved management of some forms of terrestrial carbon, including maintaining existing terrestrial carbon (e.g., avoiding deforestation) and creating new terrestrial carbon (e.g., afforestation, soil

C. Negra; T. Lovejoy; D. S. Ojima; R. Ashton; T. Havemann; J. Eaton

2009-01-01

305

Carbon Fiber Composites for Spacecraft Thermal Management Opportunities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under a prime contract (No.F33615-00-C-5009) with the U.S. Air Force Materials Lab, Cytec Carbon Fibers, LLC has completed a program to identify high risk, high payoff thermal management applications for the insertion of high thermal conductivity carbon fiber composite materials in future spacecraft. The program involved the identification of relevant design requirements, the design of components for thermal management applications utilizing the most appropriate high-conductivity carbon fiber composite material solution, the fabrication of prototype test articles, performance and characterization tests on the prototype articles, and test data correlation of measured results. The final step in the program required end-user acceptance or qualification testing of the designed components. This paper provides a technical overview of two of the most recent applications: 1) an aluminum-clad carbon fiber composite as a thermal doubler for efficient, light weight satellite radiator panels, and 2) a laminate-wrapped carbon fiber composite doubler for effective removal or spreading of heat associated with the high energy of a traveling wave tube amplifier (TWTA) unit as currently employed on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

Banisaukas, John J.; Shioleno, Mark A.; Levan, Chris D.; Rawal, Suraj P.; Silverman, Edward M.; Watts, Roland J.

2005-02-01

306

A fast method for updating global fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide a fast and efficient method for calculating global annual mean carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels by combining data from an established data set with BP annual statistics. Using this method it is possible to retrieve an updated estimate of global CO2 emissions six months after the actual emissions occurred. Using this data set we find that atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions have increased by over 40% from 1990 to 2008 with an annual average increase of 3.7% over the five-year period 2003-2007. In 2008 the growth rate in the fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions was smaller than in the preceding five years, but it was still over 2%. Global mean carbon dioxide emissions in 2008 were 8.8 GtC yr-1. For the latter part of the last century emissions of carbon dioxide have been greater from oil than from coal. However during the last few years this situation has changed. The recent strong increase in fossil fuel CO2 emissions is mainly driven by an increase in emissions from coal, whereas emissions from oil and gas to a large degree follow the trend from the 1990s.

Myhre, G.; Alterskjær, K.; Lowe, D.

2009-09-01

307

Global carbon tetrachloride distributions obtained from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first study of the global atmospheric distribution of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), as a function of altitude and latitude, was performed using solar occultation measurements obtained by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) mission using Fourier transform spectroscopy. A total of 8703 profile measurements were used in the study taken between February 2004 and August 2007. The zonal distribution of carbon tetrachloride displays a slight hemispheric asymmetry and decreasing concentration with increasing altitude at all latitudes. Maximum carbon tetrachloride concentrations are situated below 10 km in altitude with VMR (Volume Mixing Ratio) values of 100-130 ppt (parts per trillion). The highest concentrations are located about the equator and at mid-latitudes, particularly for latitudes in heavily industrialised regions (20-45° N), with values declining towards the poles. Global distributions obtained from ACE were compared with predictions from three chemistry transport models. The ACE dataset gives unique global and temporal coverage of carbon tetrachloride and its transport through the atmosphere. An estimated lifetime for carbon tetrachloride of 34±5 years was determined through correlation with CFC-11.

Allen, N. D. C.; Bernath, P. F.; Boone, C. D.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Fu, D.; Manney, G. L.; Toon, G. C.; Weisenstein, D. K.

2009-06-01

308

Global carbon tetrachloride distributions obtained from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first study of the global atmospheric distribution of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), as a function of altitude and latitude, was performed using solar occultation measurements obtained by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) mission using Fourier transform spectroscopy. A total of 8703 profile measurements were taken in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere between February 2004 and August 2007. The zonal distribution of carbon tetrachloride displays a slight hemispheric asymmetry and decreasing concentration with increasing altitude at all latitudes. Maximum carbon tetrachloride concentrations are situated below 10 km in altitude with VMR (Volume Mixing Ratio) values of 100-130 ppt (parts per trillion). The highest concentrations are located about the Equator and at mid-latitudes, particularly for latitudes in heavily industrialised regions (20-45° N), with values declining towards the poles. Global distributions obtained from ACE were compared with predictions from three chemistry transport models showing good agreement in terms of the vertical gradient despite an overall offset. The ACE dataset gives unique global and temporal coverage of carbon tetrachloride and its transport through the atmosphere. An estimated lifetime for carbon tetrachloride of 34±5 years was determined through correlation with CFC-11.

Allen, N. D. C.; Bernath, P. F.; Boone, C. D.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Fu, D.; Manney, G. L.; Oram, D. E.; Toon, G. C.; Weisenstein, D. K.

2009-10-01

309

Managing the trade-off implications of global supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cost versus response trade-off is a growing logistics issue due to many markets being increasingly characterised by demand uncertainty and shorter product life cycles. This is exacerbated further with supply increasingly moving to low-cost global sources. However, the poor response implications of global supply are often not addressed or even acknowledged when undertaking such decisions. Consequently, various practical approaches

Roy Stratton; Roger D. H. Warburton

2006-01-01

310

Creation of Norms for the Purpose of Global Talent Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Personality scores were used to construct three databases of global norms. The composition of the three databases varied according to percentage of cases by global region, occupational group, applicant status, and gender of the job candidate. Comparison of personality scores across the three norms databases revealed that the magnitude of the…

Hedricks, Cynthia A.; Robie, Chet; Harnisher, John V.

2008-01-01

311

Colas and Globalization: Models for Sports and Event Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the marketing world, the colas have been one of the first products to successfully globalize. Colas have progressed to where many of the colas are icons and assume a life of their own within various cultures. The process of globalization within each culture has set a pattern for many other products because the colas have been so successful in

David Groves; William Obenour; Julie Lengfelder

2003-01-01

312

Global Warming and Water Management: Water Allocation and Project Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the sensitivity of the benefits of alternative water allocation schemes and of project evaluation to global warming. If global warming shifts the mean of annual water supplies, there could be large impacts on the expected values of alternative water allocation schemes. The first section of the paper explores how well alternative schemes (such as market mechanisms, prior

Robert Mendelsohn; Lynne L. Bennett

1997-01-01

313

Global warming leads the carbon isotope excursion at the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prominent negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) at the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (55.5 Ma) is generally accepted to reflect a transient, massive input of isotopically light carbon into the ocean- atmosphere system. Many authors have assumed that this carbon led to pronounced global greenhouse warming. Here we show, from an expanded record in New Jersey, that both the onset of the global abundance of the subtropical dinoflagellate Apectodinium and surface-ocean warming as recorded by TEX86 preceded the CIE by several thousands of years. The offset between Apectodinium and the CIE was confirmed in other sites from New Jersey, the North Sea and New Zealand. The approximately 3 kyrs time lag between the onset of warming and the CIE is consistent with the expected lag between bottom water warming and submarine methane hydrate dissociation, suggesting that the latter mechanism indeed caused the CIE.

Sluijs, A.; Brinkhuis, H.; Schouten, S.; Zachos, J. C.; Bohaty, S.; John, C.; Deltrap, R.; Reichart, G.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.; Crouch, E.

2006-12-01

314

New Technical Risk Management Development for Carbon Capture Process  

SciTech Connect

The basic CCSI objective of accelerating technology development and commercial deployment of carbon capture technologies through the extensive use of numerical simulation introduces a degree of unfamiliarity and novelty that potentially increases both of the traditional risk elements. In order to secure investor confidence and successfully accelerate the marketability of carbon capture technologies, it is critical that risk management decision tools be developed in parallel with numerical simulation capabilities and uncertainty quantification efforts. The focus of this paper is on the development of a technical risk model that incorporates the specific technology maturity development (level).

Engel, David W.; Letellier, Bruce; Edwards, Brian; Leclaire, Rene; Jones, Edward

2012-04-30

315

Reassessing the management of the global supply chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focuses on specific elements of supply-chain and partnering arrangements to assess the contribution of these to managing the supply chain and making it more responsive to the changing business environment. The initial sections of the paper articulate the key elements of supply chain management, risk management and relationship marketing. A model is then developed that displays the complementarity of these

Bob Ritchie; Clare Brindley

2002-01-01

316

Integrating Natural Gas Hydrates in the Global Carbon Cycle  

SciTech Connect

We produced a two-dimensional geological time- and basin-scale model of the sedimentary margin in passive and active settings, for the simulation of the deep sedimentary methane cycle including hydrate formation. Simulation of geochemical data required development of parameterizations for bubble transport in the sediment column, and for the impact of the heterogeneity in the sediment pore fluid flow field, which represent new directions in modeling methane hydrates. The model is somewhat less sensitive to changes in ocean temperature than our previous 1-D model, due to the different methane transport mechanisms in the two codes (pore fluid flow vs. bubble migration). The model is very sensitive to reasonable changes in organic carbon deposition through geologic time, and to details of how the bubbles migrate, in particular how efficiently they are trapped as they rise through undersaturated or oxidizing chemical conditions and the hydrate stability zone. The active margin configuration reproduces the elevated hydrate saturations observed in accretionary wedges such as the Cascadia Margin, but predicts a decrease in the methane inventory per meter of coastline relative to a comparable passive margin case, and a decrease in the hydrate inventory with an increase in the plate subduction rate.

David Archer; Bruce Buffett

2011-12-31

317

Sources of uncertainties in modelling black carbon at the global scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our understanding of the global black carbon (BC) cycle is essentially qualitative due to uncertainties in our knowledge of its properties. This work investigates two source of uncertainties in modelling black carbon: those due to the use of different schemes for BC ageing and its removal rate in the global Transport-Chemistry model TM5 and those due to the uncertainties in the definition and quantification of the observations, which propagate through to both the emission inventories, and the measurements used for the model evaluation. The schemes for the atmospheric processing of black carbon that have been tested with the model are (i) a simple approach considering BC as bulk aerosol and a simple treatment of the removal with fixed 70% of in-cloud black carbon concentrations scavenged by clouds and removed when rain is present and (ii) a more complete description of microphysical ageing within an aerosol dynamics model, where removal is coupled to the microphysical properties of the aerosol, which results in a global average of 40% in-cloud black carbon that is scavenged in clouds and subsequently removed by rain, thus resulting in a longer atmospheric lifetime. This difference is reflected in comparisons between both sets of modelled results and the measurements. Close to the sources, both anthropogenic and vegetation fire source regions, the model results do not differ significantly, indicating that the emissions are the prevailing mechanism determining the concentrations and the choice of the aerosol scheme does not influence the levels. In more remote areas such as oceanic and polar regions the differences can be orders of magnitude, due to the differences between the two schemes. The more complete description reproduces the seasonal trend of the black carbon observations in those areas, although not always the magnitude of the signal, while the more simplified approach underestimates black carbon concentrations by orders of magnitude. The sensitivity to wet scavenging has been tested by varying in-cloud and below-cloud removal. BC lifetime increases by 10% when large scale and convective scale precipitation removal efficiency are reduced by 30%, while the variation is very small when below-cloud scavenging is zero. Since the emission inventories are representative of elemental carbon-like substance, the model output should be compared to elemental carbon measurements and if known, the ratio of black carbon to elemental carbon mass should be taken into account when the model is compared with black carbon observations.

Vignati, E.; Karl, M.; Krol, M.; Wilson, J.; Stier, P.; Cavalli, F.

2010-03-01

318

Disentangling residence time and temperature sensitivity of microbial decomposition in a global soil carbon model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have identified the first-order parameterization of microbial decomposition as a major source of uncertainty in simulations and projections of the terrestrial carbon balance. Here, we use a reduced complexity model representative of the current state-of-the-art parameterization of soil organic carbon decomposition. We undertake a systematic sensitivity analysis to disentangle the effect of the time-invariant baseline residence time (k) and the sensitvity of microbial decomposition to temperature (Q10) on soil carbon dynamics at regional and global scales. Our simulations produce a range in total soil carbon at equilibrium of ~ 592 to 2745 Pg C which is similar to the ~ 561 to 2938 Pg C range in pre-industrial soil carbon in models used in the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. This range depends primarily on the value of k, although the impact of Q10 is not trivial at regional scales. As climate changes through the historical period, and into the future, k is primarily responsible for the magnitude of the response in soil carbon, whereas Q10 determines whether the soil remains a sink, or becomes a source in the future mostly by its effect on mid-latitudes carbon balance. If we restrict our simulations to those simulating total soil carbon stocks consistent with observations of current stocks, the projected range in total soil carbon change is reduced by 42% for the historical simulations and 45% for the future projections. However, while this observation-based selection dismisses outliers it does not increase confidence in the future sign of the soil carbon feedback. We conclude that despite this result, future estimates of soil carbon, and how soil carbon responds to climate change should be constrained by available observational data sets.

Exbrayat, J.-F.; Pitman, A. J.; Abramowitz, G.

2014-03-01

319

A critical evaluation of carbon isotope stratigraphy and biostratigraphic implications for Late Cretaceous global correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate variability is driven by a complex interplay of global-scale processes and our understanding of them depends on sufficient temporal resolution of the geologic records and their precise inter-regional correlation, which in most cases cannot be obtained with biostratigraphic methods alone. Chemostratigraphic correlation based on bulk sediment carbon isotopes is increasingly used to facilitate high-resolution correlation over large distances, but complications arise from a multitude of possible influences from local differences in biological, diagenetic and physico-chemical factors on individual ?13C records that can mask the global signal. To better assess the global versus local contribution in a ?13C record it is necessary to compare numerous isotopic records on a global scale. As a contribution to this objective, this paper reviews bulk sediment ?13Ccarb records from the Late Cretaceous in order to identify differences and similarities in secular ?13C trends that help establish a global reference ?13C record for this period. The study presents a global-scale comparison of twenty ?13C records from sections representing various palaeo-latitudes in both hemispheres and different oceanic settings from the Boreal, Tethys, Western Interior, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean, and with various diagenetic overprinting. The isotopic patterns are correlated based on independent dating with biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic data and reveal good agreement of the major isotope events despite offsets in absolute ?13C values and variation in amplitude between the sites. These differences reflect the varying local influences e.g. from depositional settings, bottom water age and diagenetic history, whereas the concordant patterns in ?13C shifts might represent ?13C fluctuations in the global seawater dissolved inorganic carbon. The latter is modulated by variations in organic matter burial relative to re-mineralization, in the global-scale formation of authigenic carbonate, and in partitioning of carbon between organic carbon and carbonate sinks. These variations are mainly controlled by changes in climate and eustasy. Additionally, some globally synchronous shifts in the bulk ?13Ccarb records could result from parallel variation in the contribution of authigenic carbonate to the sediment. Formation of these cements through biologically mediated early diagenetic processes is related to availability of oxygen and organic material and, thus, can be globally synchronized by fluctuations in eustasy, atmospheric and oceanic oxygen levels or in large-scale oceanic circulation. Because the influence of early diagenetic cements on the bulk ?13Ccarb signal can, but need not be synchronized, chemostratigraphy should not be used as a stand-alone method for trans-continental correlation, and especially minor isotopic shifts have to be interpreted with utmost care. Nevertheless, the observed consistency of the ?13C correlations confirms global scale applicability of bulk sediment ?13C chemostratigraphy for the Late Cretaceous, including sediments that underwent lithification and burial diagenesis such as the sediments from the Himalayan and Alpine sections. Limitations arise from increased uncertainties (1) in sediments with very low carbonate content, (2) from larger ?13C variability in sediments from very shallow marine environments, (3) from unrecognized hiatuses or strong changes in sedimentation rates, and (4) in sections with short stratigraphic coverage or with few biostratigraphic marker horizons.

Wendler, Ines

2013-11-01

320

Global monitoring of deforestation emissions of carbon and downscaling to REDD project-level verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emission of carbon dioxide from deforestation and other land cover changes is among the most uncertain components of the global carbon cycle. Inconsistent and unverified information about global deforestation patterns has significant implications for balancing the present-day carbon budget and predicting the future evolution of climate change. The CASA (Carnegie-Ames-Stanford) ecosystem model based on satellite greenness observations has been used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems from 2000 to 2010. The CASA model was driven by NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation cover properties and large-scale (1-km resolution) disturbance events detected in the monthly time series data. This modeling framework has been implemented to estimate historical as well as current monthly patterns in plant carbon fixation, living biomass increments, and long-term decay of woody (slash) pools before, during, and after land cover disturbance events. Sample applications of Landsat imagery as inputs to the CASA model are presented for demonstration of REDD project-level verification of carbon balance.

Potter, C. S.; Klooster, S. A.; Genovese, V. B.; Hiatt, C.; Kumar, V.; Boriah, S.; Mithal, V.

2011-12-01

321

Combined simulation of carbon and water isotopes in a global ocean model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon and water isotopes are included as passive tracers in the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm). The implementation of the carbon isotopes is based on the existing MITgcm carbon cycle component and involves the fractionation processes during photosynthesis and air-sea gas exchange. Special care is given to the use of a real freshwater flux boundary condition in conjunction with the nonlinear free surface of the ocean model. The isotopic content of precipitation and water vapor is obtained from an atmospheric GCM (the NCAR CAM3) and mapped onto the MITgcm grid system, but the kinetic fractionation during evaporation is treated explicitly in the ocean model. In a number of simulations, we test the sensitivity of the carbon isotope distributions to the formulation of fractionation during photosynthesis and compare the results to modern observations of ?13C and ?14C from GEOSECS, WOCE and CLIVAR. Similarly, we compare the resulting distribution of oxygen isotopes to modern ?18O data from the NASA GISS Global Seawater Oxygen-18 Database. The overall agreement is good, but there are discrepancies in the carbon isotope composition of the surface water and the oxygen isotope composition of the intermediate and deep waters. The combined simulation of carbon and water isotopes in a global ocean model will provide a framework for studying present and past states of ocean circulation such as postulated from deep-sea sediment records.

Paul, André; Krandick, Annegret; Gebbie, Jake; Marchal, Olivier; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Losch, Martin; Kurahashi-Nakamura, Takasumi; Tharammal, Thejna

2013-04-01

322

Global patterns in efficiency of particulate organic carbon export and transfer to the deep ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ocean's biological carbon pump is a key component of the global carbon cycle. Only a small fraction of the carbon fixed by primary production is exported to the deep ocean, yet this flux sets to first order the efficiency with which carbon is sequestered out of further contact with the atmosphere on long time scales. Here we examine global patterns in particle export efficiency (PEeff), the proportion of primary production that is exported from the surface ocean, and transfer efficiency (Teff), the fraction of exported organic matter that reaches the deep ocean. Previous studies have found a positive correlation between Teff and deep ocean calcite fluxes recovered from sediment traps, implying that ballasting by calcium carbonate may play an important role in regulating Teff. An alternative explanation is that this correlation is not causative, as regions where the dominant biomineral phase is calcite tend to be subtropical systems, which are hypothesized to produce sinking aggregates highly resistant to degradation. We attempt to distinguish between these alternative hypotheses on the control of Teff by examining the relationship between Teff and biomineral phases exported from the upper ocean, rather than those collected in deep traps. Global scale estimates derived from satellite data show, in keeping with earlier studies, that PEeff is high at high latitudes and low at low latitudes, but that Teff is low at high latitudes and high at low latitudes. However, in contrast to the relationship observed for deep biomineral fluxes in previous studies, we find that Teff is strongly negatively correlated with opal export flux from the upper ocean, but uncorrelated with calcium carbonate export flux. We hypothesize that the underlying factor governing the spatial patterns observed in Teff is ecosystem function, specifically the degree of recycling occurring in the upper ocean, rather than the availability of calcium carbonate for ballasting.

Henson, Stephanie A.; Sanders, Richard; Madsen, Esben

2012-03-01

323

Metrics to assess the mitigation of global warming by carbon capture and storage in the ocean and in geological reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different metrics to assess mitigation of global warming by carbon capture and storage are discussed. The climatic impact of capturing 30% of the anthropogenic carbon emission and its storage in the ocean or in geological reservoir are evaluated for different stabilization scenarios using a reduced-form carbon cycle-climate model. The accumulated Global Warming Avoided (GWA) remains, after a ramp-up during the

Peter M. Haugan; Fortunat Joos

2004-01-01

324

Implementing Experiential Action Learning in International Management Education: The Global Business Strategic (GLOBUSTRAT) Consulting Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the theoretical foundations and implementation challenges and outcomes of a unique “hands?on” global consulting program that is integrated into an international EMBA program for mid?career and senior American and European managers. It details the challenges for the integration of experiential action learning, double?loop learning, service learning, and tacit learning into global management education and discusses the value

Shyam Kamath; Jagdish Agrawal; Guido Krickx

2008-01-01

325

Modeling volcanic eruptions to assess the impact of stratospheric sulfur injections on the global carbon cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Injecting sulfate aerosols precursors into the stratosphere has been proposed to mitigate anthropogenic climate change. Volcanic eruptions could serve as a testbed to estimate the potential of geoengineering efforts related to direct manipulation of solar energy input via aerosols. Understanding how volcanoes affect the global carbon cycle and climate could lead to valuable insights into the response of the coupled carbon cycle-climate system to chronic sulfur loading. Major volcanic eruptions can dramatically increase the sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere having several impacts on surface climate. For example, the eruption of Mt Pinatubo was followed by a decrease in global surface solar radiation, temperature and precipitation including drought in South-East Asia, and an increase in diffuse solar radiation, North Hemispheric winter temperature and terrestrial carbon uptake. Yet, the regional impacts of volcanic eruptions on the global carbon cycle and the connection to initial conditions remain unresolved. We assess the short- and long-term impacts of volcanic eruptions with the NCAR CSM1.4-carbon model on both the global and regional scale by performing a suite of sensitivity simulations. The coupled carbon cycle-climate model allows us to investigate the full radiative and dynamical response to volcanic eruptions. First, we use an ensemble of six transient simulations from 1820 to 2100 to show that the composite mean decrease in ocean temperature leads to significant carbon uptake on the regional scale, mainly in the tropical Pacific Ocean, although globally negligible. Additionally, we run one transient simulation over the period 1820 to 2100 without volcanoes. Although volcanic eruptions produce mainly short-term transient atmospheric climate perturbations which last for 2-3 years, the ocean integrates volcanic radiative cooling, and dissolved inorganic carbon and oxygen changes could last well into the 21th century. Second, we run several sensitivity experiments (i) starting from different coupled modes (El Niño vs. La Niña), (ii) starting in different seasons (winter vs. summer), and (iii) using different eruption locations (high vs. low-latitude). We show that the response of volcanic eruptions highly depends on the initial conditions with higher atmospheric CO2 response starting the simulations in El Niño winter season. Finally, we scaled the Mt Pinatubo eruption to investigate the impact of supervolcanoes. Results show that atmospheric surface temperature and CO2 do not linearly decrease with the amount of stratospheric aerosols. We conclude that geoengineering by means of stratospheric sulfate aerosols could have adverse effects on regional scale and depends largely on the location of injection and the state of the climate system. Furthermore, geoengineering techniques will not significantly reduce atmospheric CO2 levels and therefore fail to address the wider effects of rising CO2 including ocean acidification.

Frölicher, Thomas L.; Joos, Fortunat; Raible, Christoph C.

2010-05-01

326

Managing human resource capabilities for sustainable competitive advantage : An empirical analysis from Indian global organisations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this article is to examine the role of human resource capability (HRC) in organisational performance and sustainable competitive advantage (SCA) in Indian global organisations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – To carry out the present study, an empirical research on a random sample of 300 line or human resource managers from nine Indian and foreign global organisations, from New

Aradhana Khandekar; Anuradha Sharma

2005-01-01

327

A comparison of threats, vulnerabilities and management approaches in global seagrass bioregions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global seagrass habitats are threatened by multiple anthropogenic factors. Effective management of seagrasses requires information on the relative impacts of threats; however, this information is rarely available. Our goal was to use the knowledge of experts to assess the relative impacts of anthropogenic activities in six global seagrass bioregions. The activities that threaten seagrasses were identified at an international seagrass

Alana Grech

2012-01-01

328

Incremental method evolution in global software product management: A retrospective case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Company growth in a global setting causes challenges in the adaptation and maintenance of an organization’s methods. In this paper, we will analyze incremental method evolution in software product management in a global environment. We validate a method increment approach, based on method engineering principles, by applying it to a retrospective case study conducted at a large ERP vendor. The

Inge van de Weerd; Sjaak Brinkkemper; Johan Versendaal

2010-01-01

329

Acute carbon monoxide poisoning: Emergency management and hyperbaric oxygen therapy  

SciTech Connect

An ice storm in February 1989 resulted in numerous incidences of carbon monoxide poisoning in central Mississippi secondary to exposure to open fires in unventilated living spaces. Sixteen cases were treated during this period at the University of Mississippi Medical Center and 6 received Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy. These 6 cases and the mechanisms of CO poisoning are discussed and recommendations for emergency management are reviewed.10 references.

Severance, H.W.; Kolb, J.C.; Carlton, F.B.; Jorden, R.C.

1989-10-01

330

Trade-offs between solar radiation management, carbon dioxide removal, emissions mitigation and adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possible use of solar radiation control strategies to counteract global warming is explored through a number scenarios of different anthropogenic CO2 emission reduction pathways and carbon dioxide removal interventions. Using a simple Earth system model, we illustrate the trade-offs between CO2 emission reduction, the use of carbon dioxide removal geoengineering interventions (‘negative emissions') and solar radiation management (SRM). These relationships are illustrated over a multi-centennial timescale, allowing sufficient time for the carbon-cycle to respond to the anthropogenic perturbation. The anthropogenic CO2 emission scenarios (focussing on those from fossil fuel combustion) range from more to less stringent mitigation of emissions and includes the scenario assumed in our previous work on the maximum cooling potential of different geoengineering options. Results are presented in terms of transient atmospheric CO2 concentration and global mean temperature from year 1900 to year 2500. Implementation of solar radiation control strategies requires an understanding of the timing and effect of terminating such an intervention, a so called ‘exit strategy'. The results illustrate a number of considerations regarding exit strategies, including the inherent commitment to either carbon dioxide removal interventions, or the length of time the solar radiation control mechanism must be maintained for. The impacts of the various trade-offs are also discussed in the context of adaptation and adaptive resilience. The results have a bearing on policy and long term planning by illustrating some of the important assumptions regarding implementation of solar radiation management. These include baseline assumptions about emission mitigation efforts, timescale of intervention maintenance and impacts on adaptation.

Vaughan, Naomi; Lenton, Timothy

2010-05-01

331

Global carbon-water cycles patterns inferred from FLUXNET observations - useful for model evaluation? (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current FLUXNET database (www.fluxdata.org) of CO2, water and energy exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere contains almost 1000 site-years with data from more than 250 sites, encompassing all major biomes of the world and being processed in a standardized way (1-3). In this presentation we show that the information in the data is sufficient to derive generalized empirical relationships between vegetation/respective remote sensing information, climate and the biosphere-atmosphere exchanges across global biomes. These empirical patterns are used to generate global grids of the respective fluxes and derived properties (e.g. radiation and water-use efficiencies or climate sensitivities in general, bowen-ratio, AET/PET ratio). For example we re-estimate global “text-book” numbers such as global Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) as ca. 123PgC (4), or global evapotranspiration (ET) as ca. 65km3/yr (5) - for the first time with a more solid and direct empirical basis. Evaluation against independent data at regional to global scale (e.g. atmospheric carbon dioxide inversions, runoff data) lends support to the validity of our almost purely empirical up-scaling approaches. Moreover climate factors such as radiation, temperature and water balance are identified as driving factors for variations and trends of carbon and water fluxes, with distinctly different sensitivities between different regions. Hence, these global fields of biosphere-atmosphere exchange and the inferred relations between climate, vegetation type and fluxes should be used for evaluation or benchmarking of climate models or their land-surface components, while overcoming scale-issues with classical point-to-grid-cell comparisons. 1. M. Reichstein et al., Global Change Biology 11, 1424 (2005). 2. D. Baldocchi, Australian Journal of Botany 56,1 (2008). 3. D. Papale et al., Biogeosciences 3, 571 (2006). 4. Beer et al. Science 329 (2010). 5. Jung et al. Nature in press (doi:10.1038/nature09396).

Reichstein, M.; Jung, M.; Beer, C.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Tomelleri, E.; Papale, D.; Fluxnet Lathuille Synthesis Team (Cf. Www. Fluxdata. Org)

2010-12-01

332

Global forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 and direct impacts on biodiversity and carbon pools.  

PubMed

Urban land-cover change threatens biodiversity and affects ecosystem productivity through loss of habitat, biomass, and carbon storage. However, despite projections that world urban populations will increase to nearly 5 billion by 2030, little is known about future locations, magnitudes, and rates of urban expansion. Here we develop spatially explicit probabilistic forecasts of global urban land-cover change and explore the direct impacts on biodiversity hotspots and tropical carbon biomass. If current trends in population density continue and all areas with high probabilities of urban expansion undergo change, then by 2030, urban land cover will increase by 1.2 million km(2), nearly tripling the global urban land area circa 2000. This increase would result in considerable loss of habitats in key biodiversity hotspots, with the highest rates of forecasted urban growth to take place in regions that were relatively undisturbed by urban development in 2000: the Eastern Afromontane, the Guinean Forests of West Africa, and the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka hotspots. Within the pan-tropics, loss in vegetation biomass from areas with high probability of urban expansion is estimated to be 1.38 PgC (0.05 PgC yr(-1)), equal to ?5% of emissions from tropical deforestation and land-use change. Although urbanization is often considered a local issue, the aggregate global impacts of projected urban expansion will require significant policy changes to affect future growth trajectories to minimize global biodiversity and vegetation carbon losses. PMID:22988086

Seto, Karen C; Güneralp, Burak; Hutyra, Lucy R

2012-10-01

333

Global forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 and direct impacts on biodiversity and carbon pools  

PubMed Central

Urban land-cover change threatens biodiversity and affects ecosystem productivity through loss of habitat, biomass, and carbon storage. However, despite projections that world urban populations will increase to nearly 5 billion by 2030, little is known about future locations, magnitudes, and rates of urban expansion. Here we develop spatially explicit probabilistic forecasts of global urban land-cover change and explore the direct impacts on biodiversity hotspots and tropical carbon biomass. If current trends in population density continue and all areas with high probabilities of urban expansion undergo change, then by 2030, urban land cover will increase by 1.2 million km2, nearly tripling the global urban land area circa 2000. This increase would result in considerable loss of habitats in key biodiversity hotspots, with the highest rates of forecasted urban growth to take place in regions that were relatively undisturbed by urban development in 2000: the Eastern Afromontane, the Guinean Forests of West Africa, and the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka hotspots. Within the pan-tropics, loss in vegetation biomass from areas with high probability of urban expansion is estimated to be 1.38 PgC (0.05 PgC yr?1), equal to ?5% of emissions from tropical deforestation and land-use change. Although urbanization is often considered a local issue, the aggregate global impacts of projected urban expansion will require significant policy changes to affect future growth trajectories to minimize global biodiversity and vegetation carbon losses.

Seto, Karen C.; Guneralp, Burak; Hutyra, Lucy R.

2012-01-01

334

Restoring coastal plants to improve global carbon storage: reaping what we sow.  

PubMed

Long-term carbon capture and storage (CCS) is currently considered a viable strategy for mitigating rising levels of atmospheric CO(2) and associated impacts of global climate change. Until recently, the significant below-ground CCS capacity of coastal vegetation such as seagrasses, salt marshes, and mangroves has largely gone unrecognized in models of global carbon transfer. However, this reservoir of natural, free, and sustainable carbon storage potential is increasingly jeopardized by alarming trends in coastal habitat loss, totalling 30-50% of global abundance over the last century alone. Human intervention to restore lost habitats is a potentially powerful solution to improve natural rates of global CCS, but data suggest this approach is unlikely to substantially improve long-term CCS unless current restoration efforts are increased to an industrial scale. Failure to do so raises the question of whether resources currently used for expensive and time-consuming restoration projects would be more wisely invested in arresting further habitat loss and encouraging natural recovery. PMID:21479244

Irving, Andrew D; Connell, Sean D; Russell, Bayden D

2011-01-01

335

Storing Carbon in Agricultural Soils to Help Head-Off Global Warming and to Combat Desertification  

SciTech Connect

We know for sure that addition of organic matter to soil increases water-holding capacity, imparts fertility with the addition of nutrients, increases soil aggregation and improves tilth. Depeing on it's type, organic matter contains between 40 and 60% carbon. Using agricultural management practices to increase the amount of organic matter and carbon in soils can be an effective strategy to offset carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere as well as to improve the quality of the soil and slow or prevent desertification.

Rosenberg, Norman J.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.

2001-12-31

336

Implementation of Global Carbon Cycle in GISS ModelE GCM: from Leaf to Planetary Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a model of Global Carbon Cycle as it is implemented inside the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) ModelE General Circulation Model (GCM). The model consists of three integral components: 1) the atmospheric model which performs the transport of CO2 by means of Quadratic Upstream Scheme (QUS), 2) the Ocean model which has its own algorithm for tracer transport and which employs Watson Gregg's ocean biogeochemistry model for computation of carbon fluxes and 3) Land Surface model (LSM) which incorporates Ent Dynamic Global Terrestrial Ecosystem model (DGTEM). In this presentation we will mostly concentrate on a Land Surface component. Ent was developed as a process-based vegetation model capable of predicting the seasonal and inter-annual vegetation growth and providing the fast time scale fluxes of water, carbon, and energy between the land-surface and the atmosphere. It employs well-known photosynthesis relationships of Farquhar, von Caemmerer, and Berry and stomatal conductance of Ball and Berry. Soil CO2 fluxes are also computed by the Ent according to the CASA soil biogeochemistry model. We will start with presenting simulations for single Fluxnet sites and then will show the results for fully coupled GCM runs. For GCM simulations, we present results of both equilibrium and transient runs and discuss implications of biases in GCM-predicted climate for accurate modeling of the global carbon cycle.

Aleinov, I. D.; Kiang, N. Y.; Romanou, A.; Puma, M. J.; Moorcroft, P. R.; Kim, Y.

2010-12-01

337

Impacts of physical data assimilation on the Global Ocean Carbonate System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prognostic simulations of ocean carbon distribution are largely dependent on an adequate representation of physical dynamics. In this work we show that the assimilation of temperature and salinity in a coupled ocean-biogeochemical model significantly improves the reconstruction of the carbonate system variables over the last two decades. For this purpose, we use the NEMO ocean global circulation model, coupled to the Biogeochemical Flux Model (BFM) in the global PELAGOS configuration. The assimilation of temperature and salinity is included into the coupled ocean-biogeochemical model by using a variational assimilation method. The use of ocean physics data assimilation improves the simulation of alkalinity and dissolved organic carbon against the control run as assessed by comparing with independent time series and gridded datasets. At the global scale, the effects of the assimilation of physical variables in the simulation of pCO2 improves the seasonal cycle in all basins, getting closer to the SOCAT estimates. Biases in the partial pressure of CO2 with respect to data that are evident in the control run are reduced once the physical data assimilation is used. The root mean squared errors in the pCO2 are reduced by up to 30% depending on the ocean basin considered. In addition, we quantify the relative contribution of biological carbon uptake on surface pCO2 by performing another simulation in which biology is neglected in the assimilated run.

Visinelli, L.; Masina, S.; Vichi, M.; Storto, A.

2014-04-01

338

Carbon isotope anomaly in the major plant C1 pool and its global biogeochemical implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report that the most abundant C1 units of terrestrial plants, the methoxyl groups of pectin and lignin, have a unique carbon isotope signature exceptionally depleted in 13C. Plant-derived C1 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are also anomalously depleted in 13C compared with Cn+1 VOCs. The results confirm that the plant methoxyl pool is the predominant source of biospheric C1 compounds of plant origin such as methanol, chloromethane and bromomethane. Furthermore this pool, comprising ca 2.5% of carbon in plant biomass, could be an important substrate for methanogenesis and thus be envisaged as a possible source of isotopically light methane entering the atmosphere. Our findings have significant implications for the use of carbon isotope ratios in elucidation of global carbon cycling. Moreover methoxyl groups could act as markers for biological activity in organic matter of terrestrial and extraterrestrial origin.

Keppler, F.; Kalin, R. M.; Harper, D. B.; McRoberts, W. C.; Hamilton, J. T. G.

339

Carbon isotope anomaly in the major plant C1 pool and its global biogeochemical implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report that the most abundant C1 units of terrestrial plants, the methoxyl groups of pectin and lignin, have a unique carbon isotope signature exceptionally depleted in 13C. Plant-derived C1 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are also anomalously depleted in 13C compared with Cn+1 VOCs. The results confirm that the plant methoxyl pool is the predominant source of biospheric C1 compounds of plant origin such as methanol, chloromethane and bromomethane. Furthermore this pool, comprising ca. 2.5% of carbon in plant biomass, represents an important substrate for methanogenesis and could be a significant source of isotopically light methane entering the atmosphere. Our findings have significant implications for the use of carbon isotope ratios in elucidation of global carbon cycling. Moreover methoxyl groups could act as markers for biological activity in organic matter of terrestrial and extraterrestrial origin.

Keppler, F.; Kalin, R. M.; Harper, D. B.; McRoberts, W. C.; Hamilton, J. T. G.

2004-08-01

340

Organic carbon burial rates in mangrove sediments: Strengthening the global budget  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangrove wetlands exist in the transition zone between terrestrial and marine environments and as such were historically overlooked in discussions of terrestrial and marine carbon cycling. In recent decades, mangroves have increasingly been credited with producing and burying large quantities of organic carbon (OC). The amount of available data regarding OC burial in mangrove soils has more than doubled since the last primary literature review (2003). This includes data from some of the largest, most developed mangrove forests in the world, providing an opportunity to strengthen the global estimate. First-time representation is now included for mangroves in Brazil, Colombia, Malaysia, Indonesia, China, Japan, Vietnam, and Thailand, along with additional data from Mexico and the United States. Our objective is to recalculate the centennial-scale burial rate of OC at both the local and global scales. Quantification of this rate enables better understanding of the current carbon sink capacity of mangroves as well as helps to quantify and/or validate the other aspects of the mangrove carbon budget such as import, export, and remineralization. Statistical analysis of the data supports use of the geometric mean as the most reliable central tendency measurement. Our estimate is that mangrove systems bury 163 (+40; -31) g OC m-2 yr-1 (95% C.I.). Globally, the 95% confidence interval for the annual burial rate is 26.1 (+6.3; -5.1) Tg OC. This equates to a burial fraction that is 42% larger than that of the most recent mangrove carbon budget (2008), and represents 10-15% of estimated annual mangrove production. This global rate supports previous conclusions that, on a centennial time scale, 8-15% of all OC burial in marine settings occurs in mangrove systems.

Breithaupt, Joshua L.; Smoak, Joseph M.; Smith, Thomas J., III; Sanders, Christian J.; Hoare, Armando

2012-09-01

341

Carbon dynamics of intensively managed forest along a full rotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperate and tropical forests are increasingly exploited for wood and biomass extraction and only one third of forest area was considered as primary in the recent FRA in 2010. Management practices affect the soil-forest-atmosphere continuum through various effects on soil and surface properties. They result ultimately in either positive or negative changes in the biomass and soil carbon pools but, if any, few datasets or modeling tools are available for quantifying their impacts on the net carbon balance of forest stands. To analyse these effects, the net half-hourly fluxes of CO2, water vapour and heat exchanges were monitored for 23 years in two closed stands of maritime pines in southwestern France. Carbon content of the aboveground biomass was measured annually and soil pools 10-early in the younger stand and 5-yearly in the mature stand. For analysing the data collected and disentangling the climate and management effects, we used the three components process-based model GRAECO+ (Loustau et al. this session) linking a 3D radiative transfer and photosynthesis model, MAESTRA, a soil carbon model adapted from ROTH-C and a plant growth model. Eddy flux data were processed, gapfilled and partitioned using the methodological recommendations (Aubinet et al. 2000, Adv. Eco. Res:30, 114-173, Falge et al. 2001, Agr. For. Meteo. : 107, 43-69, Reichstein et al. 2005, Glob. Change Biol., 11:1424-1439). Analysis of the sequence showed that, whether by an increased sensitivity to soil drought compared to the pines or by a rapid re-colonization of the inter-row after understorey removal and plowing, the weeded vegetation contributed to create specific intra-annual dynamics of the fluxes and therefore, controls the dynamics of carbon balance of the stand. After three growing seasons, the stand was already a carbon sink, but the impact of thinning and weeded vegetation removal at the age of 5-year brought the balance to almost neutral. We interpret this change as the combined effects of the reduction of the LAI, the enhancement of the heterotrophic respiration related to the decomposition of dead materials and the improvement of the mineralization of the large stock of soil organic matter by tillage. At the mature stage, the stand remains consistently a carbon sink and CO2 fluxes were insensitive to thinning. Conversely, the carbon balance was sensitive to climate effects as evidenced by repeated drastic reductions in NEP caused by soil drought. Our data underlines the importance of disturbances linked to forest management for the forest carbon balance during the early stage of tree growth. Since management intensification tends to shorten the forest life cycle and enhance the share of the young stages, our results confirm that the consequence of management operations on the carbon cycle in forest may revert intensified forest stands from a net sink to a source and should be accounted for carefully.

Moreaux, V.; Bosc, A.; Bonnefond, J.; Burlett, R.; Lamaud, E.; Sartore, M.; Trichet, P.; Chipeaux, C.; Lambrot, C.; Kowalski, A. S.; Loustau, D.

2012-12-01

342

Attributing Rise in Global Average Temperature to Emissions Traceable to Major Industrial Carbon Producer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of human activity on global climate change has been explored in attribution studies based on the total amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Until now, however, a direct link between emissions traced directly to the major carbon producers has not been addressed. The carbon majors dataset developed by Heede (in review) account for more than 60 percent of the cumulative worldwide emissions of industrial carbon dioxide and methane through 2010. We use a conventional energy balance model coupled to a diffusive ocean, based on Allen et al. 2009, to evaluate the global temperature response to forcing from cumulative emissions traced to these producers. The base case for comparison is the Relative Concentration Pathways 4.5 [RCP4.5 (Moss et al. 2012)] simulation. Sensitivity tests varying climate sensitivity, ocean thermal diffusivity, ocean/atmosphere carbon uptake diffusivity, deep ocean carbon advection, and the carbon cycle temperature-dependent feedback are used to assess whether the fractional attribution for these sources surpasses the uncertainty limits calculated from these parameters The results suggest this dataset can be utilized for an expanded field of climate change impacts. Allen, M. R., D. J. Frame, C. Huntingford, C. D. Jones, J. A. Lowe, M. Meinshausen and N. Meinshausen (2009), Warming caused by cumulative carbon emissions towards the trillionth tonne, Nature, 458, 1163-1166, doi:10.1038/nature08019. Heede, R. (2013), Tracing anthropogenic carbon dioxide and methane emissions to fossil fuel and cement producers, 1854-2010, in review. Moss, R. H., et al. (2010), The next generation of scenarios for climate change research and assessment, Nature, 463, 747-756.

Mera, R. J.; Allen, M. R.; Dalton, M.; Ekwurzel, B.; Frumhoff, P. C.; Heede, R.

2013-12-01

343

Changes in global-mean precipitation in response to warming, greenhouse gas forcing and black carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precipitation changes are a key driver of climate change impacts. On average, global precipitation is expected to increase with warming. However, model projections show that precipitation does not scale linearly with surface air temperature. Instead, global hydrological sensitivity, the relative change of global-mean precipitation per degree of global warming, seems to vary across different scenarios and even with time. Based on output from 20 coupled Atmosphere-Ocean-General-Circulation-Models for up to 7 different scenarios, we discuss to what extent these variations can be explained by changes in the tropospheric energy budget. Our analysis supports earlier findings that long- and shortwave absorbers initially decrease global-mean precipitation. Including these absorbers into a multivariate scaling approach allows to closely reproduce the simulated global-mean precipitation changes. We find a sensitivity of global-mean precipitation to tropospheric greenhouse gas forcing of -0.42 ± 0.23%/(W/m2) (uncertainty given as one std of inter-model variability) and to black carbon emissions of -0.07 ± 0.02%/(Mt/yr). In combination with these two predictors the dominant longer-term effect of surface air temperatures on precipitation is estimated to be 2.2 ± 0.52%/K - much lower than the 6.5%/K that may be expected from the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship.

Frieler, K.; Meinshausen, M.; Schneider von Deimling, T.; Andrews, T.; Forster, P.

2011-02-01

344

Introducing the global carbon cycle to middle school students with a 14C research project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global Climate Change (GCC) is currently not part of the California Science Standards for 7th grade. Required course elements, however, such as the carbon cycle, photosynthesis, and cellular respiration could be linked to global climate change. Here we present a lesson plan developed in collaboration with scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, to involve 7th grade students in monitoring of fossil fuel emissions in the Richmond/San Pablo area of California. -The lesson plan is a Greenhouse Gas/Global Climate Change Unit, with an embedded research project in which students will collect plant samples from various locals for analysis of 14C, to determine if there is a correlation between location and how much CO2 is coming from fossil fuel combustion. Main learning objectives are for students to: 1) understand how fossil fuel emissions impact the global carbon cycle, 2) understand how scientists estimate fossil CO2 emissions, and 3) engage in hypothesis development and testing. This project also engages students in active science learning and helps to develop responsibility, two key factors for adolescentsWe expect to see a correlation between proximity to freeways and levels of fossil fuel emissions. This unit will introduce important GCC concepts to students at a younger age, and increase their knowledge about fossil fuel emissions in their local environment, as well as the regional and global impacts of fossil emissions.

Brodman Larson, L.; Phillips, C. L.; LaFranchi, B. W.

2012-12-01

345

Global vegetation and terrestrial carbon cycle changes after the last ice age.  

PubMed

• In current models, the ecophysiological effects of CO? create both woody thickening and terrestrial carbon uptake, as observed now, and forest cover and terrestrial carbon storage increases that took place after the last glacial maximum (LGM). Here, we aimed to assess the realism of modelled vegetation and carbon storage changes between LGM and the pre-industrial Holocene (PIH). • We applied Land Processes and eXchanges (LPX), a dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM), with lowered CO? and LGM climate anomalies from the Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP II), and compared the model results with palaeodata. • Modelled global gross primary production was reduced by 27-36% and carbon storage by 550-694 Pg C compared with PIH. Comparable reductions have been estimated from stable isotopes. The modelled areal reduction of forests is broadly consistent with pollen records. Despite reduced productivity and biomass, tropical forests accounted for a greater proportion of modelled land carbon storage at LGM (28-32%) than at PIH (25%). • The agreement between palaeodata and model results for LGM is consistent with the hypothesis that the ecophysiological effects of CO? influence tree-grass competition and vegetation productivity, and suggests that these effects are also at work today. PMID:21288244

Prentice, I C; Harrison, S P; Bartlein, P J

2011-03-01

346

Global change and modern coral reefs: New opportunities to understand shallow-water carbonate depositional processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human activities are impacting coral reefs physically, biologically, and chemically. Nutrification, sedimentation, chemical pollution, and overfishing are significant local threats that are occurring worldwide. Ozone depletion and global warming are triggering mass coral-bleaching events; corals under temperature stress lose the ability to synthesize protective sunscreens and become more sensitive to sunlight. Photo-oxidative stress also reduces fitness, rendering reef-building organisms more susceptible to emerging diseases. Increasing concentration of atmospheric CO 2 has already reduced CaCO 3 saturation in surface waters by more than 10%. Doubling of atmospheric CO 2 concentration over pre-industrial concentration in the 21st century may reduce carbonate production in tropical shallow marine environments by as much as 80%. As shallow-water reefs decline worldwide, opportunities abound for researchers to expand understanding of carbonate depositional systems. Coordinated studies of carbonate geochemistry with photozoan physiology and calcification, particularly in cool subtropical-transition zones between photozoan-reef and heterotrophic carbonate-ramp communities, will contribute to understanding of carbonate sedimentation under environmental change, both in the future and in the geologic record. Cyanobacteria are becoming increasingly prominent on declining reefs, as these microbes can tolerate strong solar radiation, higher temperatures, and abundant nutrients. The responses of reef-dwelling cyanobacteria to environmental parameters associated with global change are prime topics for further research, with both ecological and geological implications.

Hallock, Pamela

2005-04-01

347

Integrating business processes for global alignment and supply chain management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a qualitative study of the integration of supply chain management and business process management activities. It reviews published literature in both fields and a number of supporting areas, revealing a minimal overlap in the research. A number of case studies of progressive organisations are examined, including an in-depth study of Nortel Networks Corporation’s recent market repositioning and

Rodney McAdam; Daniel McCormack

2001-01-01

348

Architectural Knowledge Management in Global Software Development: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Architectural Knowledge Management (AKM) aims to coordinate the knowledge produced and used during architecting a software system. Managing architectural knowledge effectively is a task that becomes even more critical and complex when operating in a distributed environment. Thus, software architectural practices, processes, and tools that work in collocated software development don't necessarily scale up in a distributed environment. In this

Nour Ali; Sarah Beecham; I. Mistrik

2010-01-01

349

Australian managers' experience of global human rights issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of Australian managers in relation to human rights issues and corporate responsibility inherent in their international business operations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper reports findings from a qualitative research study; data were gathered from 70 face-to-face interviews with managers in the mining, textile and information technology industries who conducted

Kerry Lynne Pedigo; Verena Mary Marshall

2011-01-01

350

Management Trainee Program of Turkish Airlines: Global Distance Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has always been a contested task to try to present a scientific base for the concept of "management." The concept of management, which has always been of great importance to the institutions and organizations, has gone through periodical changes both in terms of its structure and scope, and improved in a parallel fashion as the time…

Karasar, Sahin; Öztürk, Ömer Faruk

2014-01-01

351

Global Building Inventory for Earthquake Loss Estimation and Risk Management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We develop a global database of building inventories using taxonomy of global building types for use in near-real-time post-earthquake loss estimation and pre-earthquake risk analysis, for the U.S. Geological Survey’s Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) program. The database is available for public use, subject to peer review, scrutiny, and open enhancement. On a country-by-country level, it contains estimates of the distribution of building types categorized by material, lateral force resisting system, and occupancy type (residential or nonresidential, urban or rural). The database draws on and harmonizes numerous sources: (1) UN statistics, (2) UN Habitat’s demographic and health survey (DHS) database, (3) national housing censuses, (4) the World Housing Encyclopedia and (5) other literature.

Kishor Jaiswal; Wald, David; Porter, Keith

2010-01-01

352

The Topology of Non-Linear Global Carbon Dynamics: From Tipping Points to Planetary Boundaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper develops a minimal model of land use and carbon cycle dynamics and explores the relationship between nonlinear dynamics and planetary boundaries. Only the most basic interactions between land cover, terrestrial carbon stocks and atmospheric carbon stocks are considered. The goal is not to predict global carbon dynamics as it occurs in the actual earth system, but rather, to construct a conceptually reasonable representation of a feedback system between different carbon stores like that of the actual earth system and use it to explore the topology of the boundaries of what can be called a ``safe operating space'' for humans. We explore the topology of our Earth System model using stability analysis and numerical bifurcation techniques. The analysis of the model illustrates the potential complexity of planetary boundaries and highlights some challenges associated with navigating them. More specifically, recent work has focused on planetary boundaries in atmospheric carbon, phosphorous, etc. This paper analyzes how such boundaries interact in an earth system model. We present a simple heuristic model that helps organize questions and explore interactions regarding carbon dynamics and land-use change. The main points that emerge from the analysis are: 1) planetary boundaries can be topologically complex and difficult to measure in practice, 2) Non-linear feedbacks can cause planetary boundaries to move rapidly, 3) Climate change policy should move beyond the simple notion of tipping points and move toward the conceptually richer notion of basin boundaries of attractors consistent with a safe operating space for humans.

Anderies, J. M.; Carpenter, S.; Steffen, W.; Rockstrom, J.

2012-12-01

353

Oceanic Carbon Dioxide Uptake in a Model of Century-Scale Global Warming  

PubMed

In a model of ocean-atmosphere interaction that excluded biological processes, the oceanic uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) was substantially reduced in scenarios involving global warming relative to control scenarios. The primary reason for the reduced uptake was the weakening or collapse of the ocean thermohaline circulation. Such a large reduction in this ocean uptake would have a major impact on the future growth rate of atmospheric CO2. Model simulations that include a simple representation of biological processes show a potentially large offsetting effect resulting from the downward flux of biogenic carbon. However, the magnitude of the offset is difficult to quantify with present knowledge. PMID:8910268

Sarmiento; Le Quéré C

1996-11-22

354

Variability of terrestrial carbon cycle and its interaction with climate under global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-atmosphere carbon exchange makes a significant contribution to the variability of atmospheric CO2 concentration on time scales of seasons to centuries. In this thesis, a terrestrial vegetation and carbon model, VEgetation-Global-Atmosphere-Soil (VEGAS), is used to study the interactions between the terrestrial carbon cycle and climate over a wide-range of temporal and spatial scales. The VEGAS model was first evaluated by comparison with FLUXNET observations. One primary focus of the thesis was to investigate the interannual variability of terrestrial carbon cycle related to climate variations, in particular to El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Our analysis indicates that VEGAS can properly capture the response of terrestrial carbon cycle to ENSO: suppression of vegetative activity coupled with enhancement of soil decomposition, due to predominant warmer and drier climate patterns over tropical land associated with El Nino. The combined affect of these forcings causes substantial carbon flux into the atmosphere. A unique aspect of this work is to quantify the direct and indirect effects of soil wetness vegetation activities and consequently on land-atmosphere carbon fluxes. Besides this canonic dominance of the tropical response to ENSO, our modeling study simulated a large carbon flux from the northern mid-latitudes, triggered by the 1998-2002 drought and warming in the region. Our modeling indicates that this drought could be responsible for the abnormally high increase in atmospheric CO2 growth rate (2 ppm/yr) during 2002-2003. We then investigated the carbon cycle-climate feedback in the 21 st century. A modest feedback was identified, and the result was incorporated into the Coupled Carbon Cycle Climate Model Inter-comparison Project (C4MIP). Using the fully coupled carbon cycle-climate simulations from C4MIP, we examined the carbon uptake in the Northern High Latitudes poleward of 60°N (NHL) in the 21st century. C4MIP model results project that the NHL will be a carbon sink by 2100, as CO2 fertilization and warming stimulate vegetation growth, canceling the effect of enhancement of soil decomposition by warming. However, such competing mechanisms may lead to a switch of NHL from a net carbon sink to source after 2100. All these effects are enhanced as a result of positive carbon cycle-climate feedbacks.

Qian, Haifeng

355

Entrepreneurial leadership, human capital management, and global competitiveness : An empirical study of Taiwanese MNCs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationships among top management teams' (TMS) entrepreneurial leadership, international human capital management (IHCM), and global competitiveness. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Given the exploratory nature of this research, the authors adopted a purposive sampling process and targeted companies headquartered in Taiwan but with foreign subsidiaries. In addition to in-depth interview, a questionnaires

Ya-Hui Ling; Bih-Shiaw Jaw

2011-01-01

356

Interviewing Key Informants: Strategic Planning for a Global Public Health Management Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Sustainable Management Development Program (SMDP) partners with low- and middle-resource countries to develop management capacity so that effective global public health programs can be implemented and better health outcomes can be achieved. The program's impact however, was variable. Hence, there…

Kun, Karen E.; Kassim, Anisa; Howze, Elizabeth; MacDonald, Goldie

2013-01-01

357

Aftershocks: How Significant Global Events Can Affect the Project Management Profession  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last two years, a number of significant global events have occurred which might impact the project management profession worldwide. The potential impact of some of those events were discussed in a paper presented by the author at PMI'98 in Long Beach, California. (Pells 1998) That paper also presented a multi-dimensional model for possible use by project management organizations

David L. Pells

358

Socialization of Inpatriate Managers to the Headquarters of Global Organizations: A Social Learning Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the intricacies of managing the life cycle of international personnel is a conundrum that continues to perplex HR managers in the global business arena. Although the notion of adjusting to a socioeconomically and culturally distant environment has been explored extensively from the expatriate perspective, the critical issue to…

Moeller, Miriam; Harvey, Michael; Williams, Wallace

2010-01-01

359

Monitoring changes in soil organic carbon pools, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur under different agricultural management practices in the tropics.  

PubMed

Soil organic matter not only affects sustainability of agricultural ecosystems, but also extremely important in maintaining overall quality of environment as soil contains a significant part of global carbon stock. Hence, we attempted to assess the influence of different tillage and nutrient management practices on various stabilized and active soil organic carbon pools, and their contribution to the extractable nitrogen phosphorus and sulfur. Our study confined to the assessment of impact of agricultural management practices on the soil organic carbon pools and extractable nutrients under three important cropping systems, viz. soybean-wheat, maize-wheat, and rice-wheat. Results indicated that there was marginal improvement in Walkley and Black content in soil under integrated and organic nutrient management treatments in soybean-wheat, maize-wheat, and rice-wheat after completion of four cropping cycles. Improvement in stabilized pools of soil organic carbon (SOC) was not proportional to the applied amount of organic manures. While, labile pools of SOC were increased with the increase in amount of added manures. Apparently, green manure (Sesbania) was more effective in enhancing the lability of SOC as compared to farmyard manure and crop residues. The KMnO(4)-oxidizable SOC proved to be more sensitive and consistent as an index of labile pool of SOC compared to microbial biomass carbon. Under different cropping sequences, labile fractions of soil organic carbon exerted consistent positive effect on the extractable nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur in soil. PMID:20069448

Verma, Bibhash C; Datta, Siba Prasad; Rattan, Raj K; Singh, Anil K

2010-12-01

360

Variability in the carbon storage of seagrass habitats and its implications for global estimates of blue carbon ecosystem service.  

PubMed

The recent focus on carbon trading has intensified interest in 'Blue Carbon'-carbon sequestered by coastal vegetated ecosystems, particularly seagrasses. Most information on seagrass carbon storage is derived from studies of a single species, Posidonia oceanica, from the Mediterranean Sea. We surveyed 17 Australian seagrass habitats to assess the variability in their sedimentary organic carbon (C org) stocks. The habitats encompassed 10 species, in mono-specific or mixed meadows, depositional to exposed habitats and temperate to tropical habitats. There was an 18-fold difference in the Corg stock (1.09-20.14 mg C org cm(-3) for a temperate Posidonia sinuosa and a temperate, estuarine P. australis meadow, respectively). Integrated over the top 25 cm of sediment, this equated to an areal stock of 262-4833 g C org m(-2). For some species, there was an effect of water depth on the C org stocks, with greater stocks in deeper sites; no differences were found among sub-tidal and inter-tidal habitats. The estimated carbon storage in Australian seagrass ecosystems, taking into account inter-habitat variability, was 155 Mt. At a 2014-15 fixed carbon price of A$25.40 t(-1) and an estimated market price of $35 t(-1) in 2020, the C org stock in the top 25 cm of seagrass habitats has a potential value of $AUD 3.9-5.4 bill. The estimates of annual C org accumulation by Australian seagrasses ranged from 0.093 to 6.15 Mt, with a most probable estimate of 0.93 Mt y(-1) (10.1 t. km(-2) y(-1)). These estimates, while large, were one-third of those that would be calculated if inter-habitat variability in carbon stocks were not taken into account. We conclude that there is an urgent need for more information on the variability in seagrass carbon stock and accumulation rates, and the factors driving this variability, in order to improve global estimates of seagrass Blue Carbon storage. PMID:24040052

Lavery, Paul S; Mateo, Miguel-Ángel; Serrano, Oscar; Rozaimi, Mohammad

2013-01-01

361

Big Data for Big Questions: Global Soil Change and the National Soil Carbon Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many major questions related to global soil change are too large to be answered through primary research alone. Although independent, intensive primary research at discrete study sites advances our mechanistic understanding of how specific soils change, scientists can assess larger patterns of soil change by synthesizing existing primary research, and linking individual studies via research networks. Here, we illustrate how primary research can be synthesized into large databases to answer questions beyond the reach of individual studies, using examples from a meta-analysis of forest management effects on soil C storage. Questions of interest to the synthesis included: does forest harvesting have a consistent effect on soil C storage? And, how does fire affect forest soil C storage? To answer these questions, we derived >600 soil C response ratios from >100 temperate forest harvest and fire papers. Despite ample underlying variation, meta-analysis detected a significant harvesting effect on soil C storage (-13 ±4%), and also identified factors driving variation in this overall effect. Specifically, harvesting had different effects on forest floor vs. mineral soil C storage, with forest floors showing significant C losses (-30 ±6%), and mineral soils showing no overall change. Within harvested forest floors, variation in C storage shifts was best explained by forest composition (conifer presence mitigated C losses), while soil type explained the most variation in mineral soil C responses to harvest. In our synthesis of fire effects on temperate forest soil C storage, meta-analysis revealed an overall C storage reduction of 35 ±8%. As with forest harvesting, fire had no overall effect on mineral soils, but forest floor C storage declined by 59 ±7%. Forest floors from conifer stands lost more C than those from hardwood and mixed forests, and fire type also mattered—wildfires caused significantly greater forest floor C losses than prescribed burns. Across all studies, the mean recovery time for forest floor C was 128 yr. In a broader context, these results demonstrate that combining database work with quantitative synthesis (such as meta-analysis) allows scientists to detect large-scale patterns that are obscured by variation within individual studies. And, in addition to improving analytical capacity for addressing large questions, large databases are useful for identifying data gaps in global soil change research. In light of these benefits, now is an opportune time to advance the study of global soil change by networking and sharing data with the National Soil Carbon Network. The NSCN seeks participants in an effort to compile databases, answer big-picture, predictive questions about soil C vulnerability, and identify and fill data gaps and research needs. The NSCN seeks to be a facilitator that links existing resources rather than reinvents them, and offers opportunities for a variety of activities, including sharing sites, data, archives, and lab infrastructure. The NSCN is fundamentally collaborative, and operates under the assumption that our shared scientific interest in global soil change will be best advanced if we work together rather than in isolation.

Nave, L. E.; Swanston, C.

2010-12-01

362

Conceptual approaches for incorporating climatic change into the development of forest management options for sequestering carbon  

SciTech Connect

The potential for significant enviromental change over the next 100 years has resulted in efforts to develop mitigation options for reducing the rate of increase of carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere. One of the more promising options is management of forest and agroforestry systems. However, most of the assessments of the potential of forest management options to sequester carbon have not factored in future environmental change (climate and CO2 concentration) into their analyses. Climate and ecological models that could be used to incorporate environmental change into forest mitigation planning efforts are reviewed in the paper in terms of their relative strengths and limitations for this particular application. Recommendations are then made as to how to use the available models to estimate the global and regional potential for sequestering carbon in the terrestrial biosphere, incorporating future environmental change into the analyses. Recommendations are also made as to how to target the most promising regions for reforestation efforts given the likelihood of future environmental change. (Copyright (c) Inter-Research 1993.)

King, G.A.

1993-01-01

363

Managing the Global Dataset in Block-index based on ESSG  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth observation system, which can realize global coverage in three dimensions, has provided massive data from earth observations at global scale for Earth System Science (ESS) and global change researches. It is named SDOG-based ESSG that the Spheroid Degenerated Octree Grid (SDOG) was chosen as an initial grid to develop an Earth System Spatial Grid (ESSG), which provides storage strategy and management framework based on triple (C, T, A) and SDOG grid coding for massive data. The objection of this paper is to provide an effective spatial data organization and indexing method, which organizes triple units into block and encodes for each triples block and converts multi-source global scale datasets into triples block so as to manage massive raster data at global scale.

Yang, Y. Z.; Wu, L. X.; Yu, J. Q.

2013-10-01

364

Preindustrial, historical, and fertilization simulations using a global ocean carbon model with new parameterizations of iron limitation, calcification, and N 2 fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canadian Model of Ocean Carbon (CMOC) has been developed as part of a global coupled climate carbon model. In a stand-alone integration to preindustrial equilibrium, the model ecosystem and global ocean carbon cycle are in general agreement with estimates based on observations. CMOC reproduces global mean estimates and spatial distributions of various indicators of the strength of the biological

Konstantin Zahariev; James R. Christian; Kenneth L. Denman

2008-01-01

365

Consumer nationalism and corporate reputation management in the global era  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Drawing on an interdisciplinary scholarship, this study seeks to explore and explain the nature and characteristics of the emerging phenomenon of “consumer nationalism” and its critical impact on corporate reputation in the global marketplace. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper sets out to define the concept of consumer nationalism and then formulate an analytical framework of consumer nationalism dynamics that

Jay Wang

2005-01-01

366

Managing Educational Transformation in the Globalized World: A Deweyan Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the globalization scenarios we currently face, educational systems are challenged by different and sometimes competing pressures and requests. These call for a deep transformation of the organization, role, and social function of educational systems. Within this context, the very concept of education has come to be understood in different ways,…

Striano, Maura

2009-01-01

367

International Management: Creating a More Realistic Global Planning Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the need for realistic global planning environments in international business education, introducing a strategic planning model that has teams interacting with teams to strategically analyze a selected multinational company. This dynamic process must result in a single integrated written analysis that specifies an optimal strategy for…

Waldron, Darryl G.

2000-01-01

368

Managing Global Virtual Teams across Classrooms, Students and Faculty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virtual teams are becoming commonplace in business today so our business school students should have experience in effectively working in virtual teams. Based on a month-long virtual team project conducted by the authors between classes in South Africa and the United States, this paper discusses the opportunities and challenges of using global…

Shea, Timothy P.; Sherer, Pamela D.; Quilling, Rosemary D.; Blewett, Craig N.

2011-01-01

369

Evaluation of atmospheric aerosol and tropospheric ozone effects on global terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing human activities have produced large amounts of air pollutants ejected into the atmosphere, in which atmospheric aerosols and tropospheric ozone are considered to be especially important because of their negative impacts on human health and their impacts on global climate through either their direct radiative effect or indirect effect on land-atmosphere CO2 exchange. This dissertation dedicates to quantifying and evaluating the aerosol and tropospheric ozone effects on global terrestrial ecosystem dynamics using a modeling approach. An ecosystem model, the integrated Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (iTem), is developed to simulate biophysical and biogeochemical processes in terrestrial ecosystems. A two-broad-band atmospheric radiative transfer model together with the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measured atmospheric parameters are used to well estimate global downward solar radiation and the direct and diffuse components in comparison with observations. The atmospheric radiative transfer modeling framework were used to quantify the aerosol direct radiative effect, showing that aerosol loadings cause 18.7 and 12.8 W m -2 decrease of direct-beam Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR) and Near Infrared Radiation (NIR) respectively, and 5.2 and 4.4 W m -2 increase of diffuse PAR and NIR, respectively, leading to a total 21.9 W m-2 decrease of total downward solar radiation over the global land surface during the period of 2003-2010. The results also suggested that the aerosol effect may be overwhelmed by clouds because of the stronger extinction and scattering ability of clouds. Applications of the iTem with solar radiation data and with or without considering the aerosol loadings shows that aerosol loading enhances the terrestrial productions [Gross Primary Production (GPP), Net Primary Production (NPP) and Net Ecosystem Production (NEP)] and carbon emissions through plant respiration (RA) in global terrestrial ecosystems over the period of 2003-2010. Ecosystem heterotrophic respiration (RH) was negatively affected by the aerosol loading. These results support previous conclusions of the advantage of aerosol light scattering effect on plant productions in other studies but suggest there is strong spatial variation. This study finds indirect aerosol effects on terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics through affecting plant phenology, thermal and hydrological environments. All these evidences suggested that the aerosol direct radiative effect on global terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics should be considered to better understand the global carbon cycle and climate change. An ozone sub-model is developed in this dissertation and fully coupled with iTem. The coupled model, named iTemO3 considers the processes of ozone stomatal deposition, plant defense to ozone influx, ozone damage and plant repairing mechanism. By using a global atmospheric chemical transport model (GACTM) estimated ground-level ozone concentration data, the model estimated global annual stomatal ozone deposition is 234.0 Tg O3 yr-1 and indicates which regions have high ozone damage risk. Different plant functional types, sunlit and shaded leaves are shown to have different responses to ozone. The model predictions suggest that ozone has caused considerable change on global terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage and carbon exchanges over the study period 2004-2008. The study suggests that uncertainty of the key parameters in iTemO3 could result in large errors in model predictions. Thus more experimental data for better model parameterization is highly needed.

Chen, Min

370

Leakage and spillover effects of forest management on carbon storage: theoretical insights from a simple model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leakage (spillover) refers to the unintended negative (positive) consequences of forest carbon (C) management in one area on C storage elsewhere. For example, the local C storage benefit of less intensive harvesting in one area may be offset, partly or completely, by intensified harvesting elsewhere in order to meet global timber demand. We present the results of a theoretical study aimed at identifying the key factors determining leakage and spillover, as a prerequisite for more realistic numerical studies. We use a simple model of C storage in managed forest ecosystems and their wood products to derive approximate analytical expressions for the leakage induced by decreasing the harvesting frequency of existing forest, and the spillover induced by establishing new plantations, assuming a fixed total wood production from local and remote (non-local) forests combined. We find that leakage and spillover depend crucially on the growth rates, wood product lifetimes and woody litter decomposition rates of local and remote forests. In particular, our results reveal critical thresholds for leakage and spillover, beyond which effects of forest management on remote C storage exceed local effects. Order of magnitude estimates of leakage indicate its potential importance at global scales.

Magnani, Federico; Dewar, Roderick C.; Borghetti, Marco

2009-04-01

371

Estimates of anthropogenic carbon uptake from four three-dimensional global ocean models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have compared simulations of anthropogenic CO2 in the four three-dimensional ocean models that participated in the first phase of the Ocean Carbon-Cycle Model Intercomparison Project (OCMIP), as a means to identify their major differences. Simulated global uptake agrees to within +\\/- 19%, giving a range of 1.85+\\/-0.35PgCyr-1 for the 1980-1989 average. Regionally, the Southern Ocean dominates the present-day air-sea

James C. Orr; Ernst Maier-Reimer; Uwe Mikolajewicz; Patrick Monfray; Jorge L. Sarmiento; J. R. Toggweiler; Nicholas K. Taylor; Jonathan Palmer; Nicolas Gruber; Christopher L. Sabine; Corinne Le Quéré; Robert M. Key; Jacqueline Boutin

2001-01-01

372

Global distribution of C3 and C4 vegetation: Carbon cycle implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global distribution of C3 and C4 plants is required for accurately simulating exchanges of CO2, water, and energy between the land surface and atmosphere. It is also important to know the C3\\/C4 distribution for simulations of the carbon isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 owing to the distinct fractionations displayed by each photosynthetic type. Large areas of the land surface

Christopher J. Still; Joseph A. Berry; G. James Collatz; Ruth S. DeFries

2003-01-01

373

Testing Global Approaches for Optical Remote Sensing of Carbon Fluxes Using EO-1 Hyperion Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the dynamics of the global carbon cycle requires an accurate description of the spatial and temporal distribution of photosynthetic CO2 uptake by terrestrial vegetation. Can a single algorithm driven by hyperspectral satellite data provide an estimate of carbon flux variables over a wide range of sites? To examine this question ecosystem carbon flux data measured with the existing global network of eddy covariance towers in the LaThuile Fluxnet synthesis analysis were matched to Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) Hyperion imaging spectrometer observations. The synthesis dataset provided data from multiple sites processed in a consistent way, and 33 globally distributed flux tower sites, representing a variety of different vegetation types, were identified that were observed by EO-1 during mid-growing season over the period from 2001 to 2007. This provided 80 usable observations with both flux and spectra extracted from 77 Hyperion scenes. Spectra were compared with Ecosystem Respiration (Reco) and Light Use Efficiency (LUE) calculated from the flux tower data. The best spectral vegetation index (SVI), out of 107 tested, for LUE was the first derivative of the reflectance spectra at 732 nm divided by the derivative at 712 nm (R2=0.5). The best SVI for Reco was the Normalized Difference Water Index, the normalized difference of reflectances at 876 and 1245 nm (R2=0.50). Partial Least Squares analysis, which utilizes all of the spectral information, developed using randomly selected training subsets applied to the rest of the data produce R2 values over 0.7 for LUE. For this study Hyperion on EO-1 provides the capability of collecting consistent hyperspectral observations of globally-distributed sites along with the ability to make repeated measurements of a site. The analysis suggests multiple different approaches and spectral bands may be used to provide usable estimates of carbon flux parameters.

Huemmrich, K. F.; Campbell, P. K.; Middleton, E.

2012-12-01

374

Impact of desertification and global warming on soil carbon in northern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the global rise in mean day\\/night and seasonal air temperatures (ATE) of recent decades is well documented, its influence on levels of soil-sequestered organic carbon, and on emission rates of CO2 and other greenhouse gases emanating therefrom, is only beginning to garner serious attention. This has resulted in a limited but growing understanding, particularly in the context of the

Feng Qi; Liu Wei; Liu Yansui; Z. Yanwu; S. Yonghong

2004-01-01

375

Climate change during Cenozoic inferred from global carbon cycle model including igneous and hydrothermal activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses climate change in the Cenozoic by constructing a global carbon cycle model which is based on the GEOCARB-type model. Major improvements over previous models in this study are as follows. Previous models have not considered CO2 behavior at subduction sufficiently. They do not distinguish at subduction zones between the CO2 degassing from a back-arc basin (BAB) and

Hirohiko Kashiwagi; Naotatsu Shikazono

2003-01-01

376

Partial oxidation of methane, methanol, formaldehyde, and carbon monoxide over silica: global reaction kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidation of methane (848–898K), methanol (648–748K), formaldehyde (623–673K), and carbon monoxide (673–833K) over a precipitated silica catalyst has been examined over a range of reactant and oxygen partial pressures. Conversion–selectivity relationships are used to assess the reaction network and differential reactor experiments are employed to determine the global reaction kinetics. All reactions exhibited a positive-order dependence on oxygen, partial pressure

Robert L. McCormick; Mohammad B. Al-Sahali; Gokhan O. Alptekin

2002-01-01

377

Transitions towards adaptive management of water facing climate and global change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water management is facing major challenges due to increasing uncertainties caused by climate and global change and by fast\\u000a changing socio-economic boundary conditions. More attention has to be devoted to understanding and managing the transition\\u000a from current management regimes to more adaptive regimes that take into account environmental, technological, economic, institutional\\u000a and cultural characteristics of river basins. This implies a

Claudia Pahl-Wostl

2007-01-01

378

The Misalignment of Management Education and Globalization: Conceptual, Contextual and Praxeological Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As globalization intensifies attacks on management education have become increasingly more critical. Business school programs\\u000a have been vilified for being dysfunctional with the charges becoming so damning against the current ‘condition’ of management\\u000a education that a uni-causal link has been made between the dystopia of management education and a dystopian corporate world.\\u000a The chapter unravels and discusses the intense and

Roulla S. Hagen

379

Improved modelling of the global terrestrial carbon cycle by application of a Carbon Cycle Data Assimilation System (CCDAS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncertainties of land surface models are to a large extent a consequence of uncertainties in process representations and associated parameter values. Understanding and reducing these uncertainties is important to reduce the spread in projections of the global carbon cycle and climate change. For this purpose we developed a Carbon Cycle Data Assimilation System (CCDAS) for the land surface scheme (JSBACH) of the MPI Earth system model as a tool to systematically confront the model with observations. In a first step, the phasing and magnitude of the modelled vegetation activity has been improved. We used satellite observations of the Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) derived by the Two-stream Inversion Package (TIP) to constrain phenology parameters for 7 different plant functional types. The result was a notable improvement of the model's capacity to reproduce the observed temporal and spatial dynamics of FAPAR for the period of 2005 to 2011, which is a prerequisite to modelling the seasonal and inter-annual variability of the land-atmosphere net CO2 flux. In a second step, processes controlling the biosphere's photosynthesis and respiration have been constrained by CO2 mixing ratios observed at a network of atmospheric monitoring stations. Those observations provide a large-scale integrated view of the terrestrial carbon cycle at seasonal and inter-annual time scales and have been widely used by atmospheric inversion studies to constrain the net land-atmosphere CO2 fluxes. We coupled JSBACH with the Jacobian of the atmospheric transport model TM3 to constrain model parameters affecting the photosynthetic and ecosystem respiration rate. The application of the CCDAS provides an improved, data-constrained and process-based estimate of the contemporary global land carbon cycle. The remote-sensing constraints of vegetation activity were especially important in dry climatic regions, where the optimised parameters lead to a better representation of drought-related phenology. But also in boreal regions, the phenology was improved by reducing the total leaf area, leading overall to a reduced global productivity. In addition to this, the constraints given by the CO2 data further reduce the productivity of boreal needleleaf forests, thereby further correcting biases in the seasonal amplitude of the CO2 mixing ratio at high-latitude stations. In general, both the improvements in phenology and in photosynthesis lead to a reduction of the overall global gross productivity of the model by about 20 %. Several experiments with various observational station densities and different prior uncertainties were preformed to assess the robustness of these findings.

Schürmann, Gregor; Köstler, Christoph; Kaminski, Thomas; Giering, Ralf; Scholze, Marko; Knorr, Wolfgang; Kattge, Jens; Carvalhais, Nuno; Voßbeck, Michael; Rödenbeck, Christian; Reick, Christian; Zaehle, Sönke

2014-05-01

380

[The management of risks by the global risk analysis].  

PubMed

After a reminder on the fundamental concepts of the management of risk, the author describes the overall analysis of risk (AGR), name given by the author to the up-to-date APR method which after several changes of the initial process aims to cover a perimeter of analysis and broader management both at the level of structural that business risks of any kind throughout the system development life cycle, of the study of its feasibility to dismantling. PMID:23602675

Desroches, A

2013-05-01

381

Derivation of a northern-hemispheric biomass map for use in global carbon cycle models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying the state and the change of the World's forests is crucial because of their ecological, social and economic value. Concerning their ecological importance, forests provide important feedbacks on the global carbon, energy and water cycles. In addition to their influence on albedo and evapotranspiration, they have the potential to sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide and thus to mitigate global warming. The current state and inter-annual variability of forest carbon stocks remain relatively unexplored, but remote sensing can serve to overcome this shortcoming. While for the tropics wall-to-wall estimates of above-ground biomass have been recently published, up to now there was a lack of similar products covering boreal and temperate forests. Recently, estimates of forest growing stock volume (GSV) were derived from ENVISAT ASAR C-band data for latitudes above 30° N. Utilizing a wood density and a biomass compartment database, a forest carbon density map covering North-America, Europe and Asia with 0.01° resolution could be derived out of this dataset. Allometric functions between stem, branches, root and foliage biomass were fitted and applied for different leaf types (broadleaf, needleleaf deciduous, needleleaf evergreen forest). Additionally, this method enabled uncertainty estimation of the resulting carbon density map. Intercomparisons with inventory-based biomass products in Russia, Europe and the USA proved the high accuracy of this approach at a regional scale (r2 = 0.70 - 0.90). Based on the final biomass map, the forest carbon stocks and densities (excluding understorey vegetation) for three biomes were estimated across three continents. While 40.7 ± 15.7 Gt of carbon were found to be stored in boreal forests, temperate broadleaf/mixed forests and temperate conifer forests contain 24.5 ± 9.4 Gt(C) and 14.5 ± 4.8 Gt(C), respectively. In terms of carbon density, most of the carbon per area is stored in temperate conifer (62.1 ± 20.7 Mg(C)/ha(Forest)) and broadleaf/mixed forests (58.0 ± 22.1 Mg(C)/ha(Forest)), whereas boreal forests have a carbon density of only 40.0 ± 15.4 Mg(C)/ha(Forest). While European forest carbon stocks are relatively small, the carbon density is higher compared to the other continents. The derived biomass map substantially improves the knowledge on the current carbon stocks of the northern-hemispheric boreal and temperate forests, serving as a new benchmark for spatially explicit and consistent biomass mapping with moderate spatial resolution. This product can be of great value for global carbon cycle models as well as national carbon monitoring systems. Further investigations concentrate on improving biomass parameterizations and representations in such kind of models. The presented map will help to improve the simulation of biomass spatial patterns and variability and enables identifying the dominant influential factors like climatic conditions and disturbances.

Thurner, Martin; Beer, Christian; Santoro, Maurizio; Carvalhais, Nuno; Wutzler, Thomas; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Shvidenko, Anatoly; Kompter, Elisabeth; Levick, Shaun; Schmullius, Christiane

2013-04-01

382

A model of Phanerozoic cycles of carbon and calcium in the global ocean: Evaluation and constraints on ocean chemistry and input fluxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between the global carbon cycle and paleo-climates on short and long time scales have been based on studies of accumulation rate of the two main components of the sedimentary carbon reservoir, organic carbon and carbonate carbon. Variations in the rate and proportion of carbonate burial through Phanerozoic time have been attributed to the effects of tectonics on eustasy,

Robert E. Locklair; Abraham Lerman

2005-01-01

383

The Global Carbon Cycle Simulated by a Climate System Model BCC_CSM and the Possible Uncertainties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A land surface process model with dynamic vegetation and soil carbon decomposition modules, Beijing Climate Center Atmosphere-Vegetation-Interaction Model (BCC_AVIM) was employed to simulate the global terrestrial carbon cycle in both offline and online ways. Forced by the NCEP reanalysis data, BCC_AVIM reproduce the global net primary productivity (NPP) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) reasonably well, its simulations about the temporal and spatial patterns of terrestrial carbon sources and sinks approximately agree with other model estimates or observations. The Beijing Climate Center Climate System Model version 1.1 (BCC_CSM1.1) can reproduce historical trends of observed atmospheric CO2 and global surface air temperature from 1850 to 2005 under forcing by historical emissions of CO2 from fossil fuels and land-use change. Global land acted as an important carbon sink in the 20th century. The main centers of net carbon sink are located in east America, east China, west Europe, and Oceans in higher latitudes. The net carbon sources are located in the equatorial Pacific and the equatorial Atlantic Ocean. The response of the land carbon cycle to the global warming is much larger than that of the ocean carbon cycle. The potential ability of carbon uptake by land and ocean are obviously enhanced along with the increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration. The total CO2 uptake by global land and ocean is 3.6 and 4.0 Gt C yr-1 in the 1980s and 1990s, which accounts for 54% and 53% of the anthropogenic carbon emissions for those two decades respectively. The simulated interannual variability of global atmospheric CO2 concentration is closely correlated with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle, in agreement with observations. The interannual variation of land-to-atmosphere net carbon flux is positively correlated with air temperature while negatively correlated with soil moisture for most continental areas. It suggests a positive temperature-carbon feedback but a negative soil moisture-carbon feedback at interannual time scale in BCC_CSM1.1. Discrepancies between parameterization schemes, different parameter values, and insufficient understanding about the carbon-climate feedback mechanisms contribute to the uncertainties in global carbon cycle modeling.; Correlation coefficient between annual net carbon flux (positive upward) and (a) Ts and (b) top 1m soil moisture

Li, W.; Zhang, Y.; Ji, J.; Wu, T.; Xin, X.; Li, J.

2012-12-01

384

Management of Global Nuclear Materials for International Security  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear materials were first used to end the World War II. They were produced and maintained during the cold war for global security reasons. In the succeeding 50 years since the Atoms for Peace Initiative, nuclear materials were produced and used in global civilian reactors and fuel cycles intended for peaceful purposes. The Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1970 established a framework for appropriate applications of both defense and civilian nuclear activities by nuclear weapons states and non-nuclear weapons states. As global inventories of nuclear materials continue to grow, in a diverse and dynamically changing manner, it is time to evaluate current and future trends and needed actions: what are the current circumstances, what has been done to date, what has worked and what hasn't? The aim is to identify mutually reinforcing programmatic directions, leading to global partnerships that measurably enhance international security. Essential elements are material protection, control and accountability (MPC&A) of separated nuclear materials, interim storage, and geologic repositories for all nuclear materials destined for final disposal. Cooperation among key partners, such as the MPC&A program between the U.S. and Russia for nuclear materials from dismantled weapons, is necessary for interim storage and final disposal of nuclear materials. Such cooperative partnerships can lead to a new nuclear regime where a complete fuel cycle service with fuel leasing and spent fuel take-back can be offered to reactor users. The service can effectively minimize or even eliminate the incentive or rationale for the user-countries to develop their indigenous enrichment and reprocessing technologies. International cooperation, supported by governments of key countries can be best to facilitate the forum for formation of such cooperative partnerships.

Isaacs, T; Choi, J-S

2003-09-18

385

Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been conjectured that global warming will increase the prevalence of insect pests in many agro-ecosystems. In this paper, we quantitatively assess four of the key pests of maize, one of the most important systems in North American grain production. Using empirically generated estimates of pest overwintering thresholds and degree-day requirements, along with climate change projections from a high-resolution

Noah S Diffenbaugh; Christian H Krupke; Michael A White; Corinne E Alexander

2008-01-01

386

An audit of the global carbon budget: identifying and reducing sources of uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncertainties in our carbon accounting practices may limit our ability to objectively verify emission reductions on regional scales. Furthermore uncertainties in the global C budget must be reduced to benchmark Earth System Models that incorporate carbon-climate interactions. Here we present an audit of the global C budget where we try to identify sources of uncertainty for major terms in the global C budget. The atmospheric growth rate of CO2 has increased significantly over the last 50 years, while the uncertainty in calculating the global atmospheric growth rate has been reduced from 0.4 ppm/yr to 0.2 ppm/yr (95% confidence). Although we have greatly reduced global CO2 growth rate uncertainties, there remain regions, such as the Southern Hemisphere, Tropics and Arctic, where changes in regional sources/sinks will remain difficult to detect without additional observations. Increases in fossil fuel (FF) emissions are the primary factor driving the increase in global CO2 growth rate; however, our confidence in FF emission estimates has actually gone down. Based on a comparison of multiple estimates, FF emissions have increased from 2.45 ± 0.12 PgC/yr in 1959 to 9.40 ± 0.66 PgC/yr in 2010. Major sources of increasing FF emission uncertainty are increased emissions from emerging economies, such as China and India, as well as subtle differences in accounting practices. Lastly, we evaluate emission estimates from Land Use Change (LUC). Although relative errors in emission estimates from LUC are quite high (2 sigma ~ 50%), LUC emissions have remained fairly constant in recent decades. We evaluate the three commonly used approaches to estimating LUC emissions- Bookkeeping, Satellite Imagery, and Model Simulations- to identify their main sources of error and their ability to detect net emissions from LUC.; Uncertainties in Fossil Fuel Emissions over the last 50 years.

Ballantyne, A. P.; Tans, P. P.; Marland, G.; Stocker, B. D.

2012-12-01

387

Robust global sensitivity analysis of a river management model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simulation of routing and distribution of water through a regulated river system with a river management model will quickly results in complex and non-linear model behaviour. A robust sensitivity analysis increases the transparency of the model and provide both the modeller and the system manager with better understanding and insight on how the model simulates reality and management operations. In this study, a robust, density-based sensitivity analysis, developed by Plischke et al. (2013), is applied to an eWater Source river management model. The sensitivity analysis is extended to not only account for main but also for interaction effects and is able to identify major linear effects as well as subtle minor and non-linear effects. The case study is an idealised river management model representing typical conditions of the Southern Murray-Darling Basin in Australia for which the sensitivity of a variety of model outcomes to variations in the driving forces, inflow to the system, rainfall and potential evapotranspiration, is examined. The model outcomes are most sensitive to the inflow to the system, but the sensitivity analysis identified minor effects of potential evapotranspiration as well as non-linear interaction effects between inflow and potential evapotranspiration.

Peeters, L. J. M.; Podger, G. M.; Smith, T.; Pickett, T.; Bark, R.; Cuddy, S. M.

2014-03-01

388

The role of tropical deforestation in the global carbon cycle: Spatial and temporal dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

'The Role of Tropical Deforestation in the Global Carbon cycle: Spatial and Temporal Dynamics', was a joint project involving the University of New Hampshire, the Marine Biological Laboratory, and the Woods Hole Research Center. The contribution of the Woods Hole Research Center consisted of three tasks: (1) assist University of New Hampshire in determining the net flux of carbon between the Brazilian Amazon and the atmosphere by means of a terrestrial carbon model; (2) address the spatial distribution of biomass across the Amazon Basin; and (3) assist NASA Headquarters in development of a science plan for the Terrestrial Ecology component of the NASA-Brazilian field campaign (anticipated for 1997-2001). Progress on these three tasks is briefly described.

Houghton, R. A.; Skole, David; Moore, Berrien; Melillo, Jerry; Steudler, Paul

1995-01-01

389

Effects of Management on Soil Carbon Pools in California Rangeland Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rangeland ecosystems managed for livestock production represent the largest land-use footprint globally, covering more than one-quarter of the world's land surface (Asner et al. 2004). In California, rangelands cover an estimated 17 million hectares or approximately 40% of the land area (FRAP 2003). These ecosystems have considerable potential to sequester carbon (C) in soil and offset greenhouse gas emissions through changes in land management practices. Climate policies and C markets may provide incentives for rangeland managers to pursue strategies that optimize soil C storage, yet we lack a thorough understanding of the effects of management on soil C pools in rangelands over time and space. We sampled soil C pools on rangelands in a 260 km2 region of Marin and Sonoma counties to determine if patterns in soil C storage exist with management. Replicate soil samples were collected from 35 fields that spanned the dominant soil orders, plant communities, and management practices in the region while controlling for slope and bioclimatic zone (n = 1050). Management practices included organic amendments, intensive (dairy) and extensive (other) grazing practices, and subsoiling. Soil C pools ranged from approximately 50 to 140 Mg C ha-1 to 1 m depth, with a mean of 99 ± 22 (sd) Mg C ha-1. Differences among sites were due primarily to C concentrations, which exhibited a much larger coefficient of variation than bulk density at all depths. There were no statistically significant differences among the dominant soil orders. Subsoiling appeared to significantly increase soil C content in the top 50 cm, even though subsoiling had only occurred for the first time the previous Nov. Organic amendments also appeared to greatly increase soil C pools, and was the dominant factor that distinguished soil C pools in intensive and extensive land uses. Our results indicate that management has the potential to significantly increase soil C pools. Future research will determine the location of sequestered C within the soil matrix and its turnover time.

Silver, W. L.; Ryals, R.; Lewis, D. J.; Creque, J.; Wacker, M.; Larson, S.

2008-12-01

390

STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this fourth project period we completed the characterization of ozone-treated carbon surfaces and wrote a comprehensive report on the mechanism through which ozone suppresses the adsorption of concrete surfactants.

Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen

2003-05-20

391

STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this fourth project period we completed the characterization of ozone-treated carbon surfaces and wrote a comprehensive report on the mechanism through which ozone suppresses the adsorption of concrete surfactants.

Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen

2002-09-10

392

Global wheat production potentials and management flexibility under the representative concentration pathways  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global wheat production is strongly linked with food security as wheat is one of the main sources of human nutrition. Increasing or stabilizing wheat yields in response to climate change is therefore imperative. To do so will require agricultural management interventions that have different levels of flexibility at regional level. Climate change is expected to worsen wheat growing conditions in many places and thus negatively impact on future management opportunities for sustainable intensification. We quantified, in a spatially explicit manner, global wheat yield developments under the envelope of Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP 2.6, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.5) under current and alternative fertilization and irrigation management to estimate future flexibility to cope with climate change impacts. A large-scale implementation of the EPIC model was integrated with the most recent information on global wheat cultivation currently available, and it was used to simulate regional and global wheat yields and production under historical climate and the RCP-driven and bias-corrected HadGEM2-ES climate projections. Fertilization and irrigation management scenarios were designed to project actual and exploitable (under current irrigation infrastructure) yields as well as the climate- and water-limited yield potentials. With current nutrient and water management, and across all RCPs, the global wheat production at the end of the century decreased from 50 to 100 Mt - with RCP2.6 having the lowest and RCP8.5 the highest impact. Despite the decrease in global wheat production potential on current cropland, the exploitable and climatic production gap of respectively 350 and 580 Mt indicates a considerable flexibility to counteract negative climate change impacts across all RCPs. Agricultural management could increase global wheat production by approximately 30% through intensified fertilization and 50% through improved fertilization and extended irrigation if nutrients or water were not limiting.

Balkovic, Juraj; van der Velde, Marijn; Skalsky, Rastislav; Xiong, Wei; Folberth, Christian; Khabarov, Nikolay; Smirnov, Alexey

2014-05-01

393

A regional and global analysis of carbon dioxide physiological forcing and its impact on climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration has both a radiative (greenhouse) effect and a physiological effect on climate. The physiological effect forces climate as plant stomata do not open as wide under enhanced CO2 levels and this alters the surface energy balance by reducing the evapotranspiration flux to the atmosphere, a process referred to as `carbon dioxide physiological forcing'. Here the climate impact of the carbon dioxide physiological forcing is isolated using an ensemble of twelve 5-year experiments with the Met Office Hadley Centre HadCM3LC fully coupled atmosphere-ocean model where atmospheric carbon dioxide levels are instantaneously quadrupled and thereafter held constant. Fast responses (within a few months) to carbon dioxide physiological forcing are analyzed at a global and regional scale. Results show a strong influence of the physiological forcing on the land surface energy budget, hydrological cycle and near surface climate. For example, global precipitation rate reduces by ~3% with significant decreases over most land-regions, mainly from reductions to convective rainfall. This fast hydrological response is still evident after 5 years of model integration. Decreased evapotranspiration over land also leads to land surface warming and a drying of near surface air, both of which lead to significant reductions in near surface relative humidity (~6%) and cloud fraction (~3%). Patterns of fast responses consistently show that results are largest in the Amazon and central African forest, and to a lesser extent in the boreal and temperate forest. Carbon dioxide physiological forcing could be a source of uncertainty in many model predicted quantities, such as climate sensitivity, transient climate response and the hydrological sensitivity. These results highlight the importance of including biological components of the Earth system in climate change studies.

Andrews, Timothy; Doutriaux-Boucher, Marie; Boucher, Olivier; Forster, Piers M.

2011-02-01

394

Global patterns of organic carbon export and sequestration in the ocean (Arne Richter Award for Outstanding Young Scientists)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major term in the global carbon cycle is the ocean's biological carbon pump which is dominated by sinking of small organic particles from the surface ocean to its interior. Here we examine global patterns in particle export efficiency (PEeff), the proportion of primary production that is exported from the surface ocean, and transfer efficiency (Teff), the fraction of exported organic matter that reaches the deep ocean. This is achieved through extrapolating from in situ estimates of particulate organic carbon export to the global scale using satellite-derived data. Global scale estimates derived from satellite data show, in keeping with earlier studies, that PEeff is high at high latitudes and low at low latitudes, but that Teff is low at high latitudes and high at low latitudes. However, in contrast to the relationship observed for deep biomineral fluxes in previous studies, we find that Teff is strongly negatively correlated with opal export flux from the upper ocean, but uncorrelated with calcium carbonate export flux. We hypothesise that the underlying factor governing the spatial patterns observed in Teff is ecosystem function, specifically the degree of recycling occurring in the upper ocean, rather than the availability of calcium carbonate for ballasting. Finally, our estimate of global integrated carbon export is only 50% of previous estimates. The lack of consensus amongst different methodologies on the strength of the biological carbon pump emphasises that our knowledge of a major planetary carbon flux remains incomplete.

Henson, S.; Sanders, R.; Madsen, E.; Le Moigne, F.; Quartly, G.

2012-04-01

395

The global distribution of pteropods and their contribution to carbonate and carbon biomass in the modern ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pteropods are a group of holoplanktonic gastropods for which global biomass distribution patterns remain poorly described. The aim of this study was to collect and synthesise existing pteropod (Gymnosomata, Thecosomata and Pseudothecosomata) abundance and biomass data, in order to evaluate the global distribution of pteropod carbon biomass, with a particular emphasis on temporal and spatial patterns. We collected 25 939 data points from several online databases and 41 scientific articles. These data points corresponded to observations from 15 134 stations, where 93% of observations were of shelled pteropods (Thecosomata) and 7% of non-shelled pteropods (Gymnosomata). The biomass data has been gridded onto a 360 × 180° grid, with a vertical resolution of 33 depth levels. Both the raw data file and the gridded data in NetCDF format can be downloaded from PANGAEA, doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.777387. Data were collected between 1950-2010, with sampling depths ranging from 0-2000 m. Pteropod biomass data was either extracted directly or derived through converting abundance to biomass with pteropod-specific length to carbon biomass conversion algorithms. In the Northern Hemisphere (NH), the data were distributed quite evenly throughout the year, whereas sampling in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) was biased towards winter and summer values. 86% of all biomass values were located in the NH, most (37%) within the latitudinal band of 30-60° N. The range of global biomass values spanned over four orders of magnitude, with mean and median (non-zero) biomass values of 4.6 mg C m-3 (SD = 62.5) and 0.015 mg C m-3, respectively. The highest mean biomass was located in the SH within the 70-80° S latitudinal band (39.71 mg C m-3, SD = 93.00), while the highest median biomass was in the NH, between 40-50° S (0.06 mg C m-3, SD = 79.94). Shelled pteropods constituted a mean global carbonate biomass of 23.17 mg CaCO3 m-3 (based on non-zero records). Total biomass values were lowest in the equatorial regions and equally high at both poles. Pteropods were found at least to depths of 1000 m, with the highest biomass values located in the surface layer (0-10 m) and gradually decreasing with depth, with values in excess of 100 mg C m-3 only found above 200 m depth. Tropical species tended to concentrate at greater depths than temperate or high-latitude species. Global biomass levels in the NH were relatively invariant over the seasonal cycle, but more seasonally variable in the SH. The collected database provides a valuable tool for modellers for the study of marine ecosystem processes and global biogeochemical cycles. By extrapolating regional biomass to a global scale, we established global pteropod biomass to add up to 500 Tg C.

Bednaršek, N.; Možina, J.; Vogt, M.; O'Brien, C.; Tarling, G. A.

2012-12-01

396

Black carbon formation by savanna fires: Measurements and implications for the global carbon cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a field study in southern Africa [Southern African Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative (SAFARI-92)], black carbon formation was quantified in the residues of savanna fires. The volatilization ratios of C, H, N, and S were determined by measuring their contents in the fuel and residue loads on six experimental sites. The volatilization of sulfur (86+\\/-8%) was significantly higher than previously reported.

T. A. J. Kuhlbusch; M. O. Andreae; H. Cachier; J. G. Goldammer; J.-P. Lacaux; R. Shea; P. J. Crutzen

1996-01-01

397

Global and regional ocean carbon uptake and climate change: sensitivity to a substantial mitigation scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under future scenarios of business-as-usual emissions, the ocean storage of anthropogenic carbon is anticipated to decrease because of ocean chemistry constraints and positive feedbacks in the carbon-climate dynamics, whereas it is still unknown how the oceanic carbon cycle will respond to more substantial mitigation scenarios. To evaluate the natural system response to prescribed atmospheric "target" concentrations and assess the response of the ocean carbon pool to these values, 2 centennial projection simulations have been performed with an Earth System Model that includes a fully coupled carbon cycle, forced in one case with a mitigation scenario and the other with the SRES A1B scenario. End of century ocean uptake with the mitigation scenario is projected to return to the same magnitude of carbon fluxes as simulated in 1960 in the Pacific Ocean and to lower values in the Atlantic. With A1B, the major ocean basins are instead projected to decrease the capacity for carbon uptake globally as found with simpler carbon cycle models, while at the regional level the response is contrasting. The model indicates that the equatorial Pacific may increase the carbon uptake rates in both scenarios, owing to enhancement of the biological carbon pump evidenced by an increase in Net Community Production (NCP) following changes in the subsurface equatorial circulation and enhanced iron availability from extratropical regions. NCP is a proxy of the bulk organic carbon made available to the higher trophic levels and potentially exportable from the surface layers. The model results indicate that, besides the localized increase in the equatorial Pacific, the NCP of lower trophic levels in the northern Pacific and Atlantic oceans is projected to be halved with respect to the current climate under a substantial mitigation scenario at the end of the twenty-first century. It is thus suggested that changes due to cumulative carbon emissions up to present and the projected concentration pathways of aerosol in the next decades control the evolution of surface ocean biogeochemistry in the second half of this century more than the specific pathways of atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

Vichi, Marcello; Manzini, Elisa; Fogli, Pier Giuseppe; Alessandri, Andrea; Patara, Lavinia; Scoccimarro, Enrico; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio

2011-11-01

398

Technologies for water resources management: an integrated approach to manage global and regional water resources  

SciTech Connect

Recent droughts in California have highlighted and refocused attention on the problem of providing reliable sources of water to sustain the State`s future economic development. Specific elements of concern include not only the stability and availability of future water supplies in the State, but also how current surface and groundwater storage and distribution systems may be more effectively managed and upgraded, how treated wastewater may be more widely recycled, and how legislative and regulatory processes may be used or modified to address conflicts between advocates of urban growth, industrial, agricultural, and environmental concerns. California is not alone with respect to these issues. They are clearly relevant throughout the West, and are becoming more so in other parts of the US. They have become increasingly important in developing and highly populated nations such as China, India, and Mexico. They are critically important in the Middle East and Southeast Asia, especially as they relate to regional stability and security issues. Indeed, in almost all cases, there are underlying themes of `reliability` and `sustainability` that pertain to the assurance of current and future water supplies, as well as a broader set of `stability` and `security` issues that relate to these assurances--or lack thereof--to the political and economic future of various countries and regions. In this latter sense, and with respect to regions such as China, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia, water resource issues may take on a very serious strategic nature, one that is most illustrative and central to the emerging notion of `environmental security.` In this report, we have identified a suite of technical tools that, when developed and integrated together, may prove effective in providing regional governments the ability to manage their water resources. Our goal is to formulate a framework for an Integrated Systems Analysis (ISA): As a strategic planning tool for managing regional water resources; As an evaluation tool for selecting appropriate remediation technologies for reclaiming water; and As an assessment tool for determining the effectiveness of implementing the remediation technologies. We have included a discussion on the appropriate strategy for LLNL to integrate its technical tools into the global business, geopolitical, and academic communities, whereby LLNL can form partnerships with technology proponents in the commercial, industrial, and public sectors.

Tao, W. C., LLNL

1998-03-23

399

Applying component technology to improve global supply chain network management  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key requirement of supply chain management strategies is information sharing. Component technology facilitates information sharing by providing a means for integrating heterogeneous information systems into virtual information systems. The component environment makes possible new strategies to reshape and improve supply chain networks. These strategies include modularization and encapsulation, plug-and-play component development, enterprise specialization, dynamic supply chain network configuration, and

Gek Woo Tan; Michael J. Shaw

1998-01-01

400

Access to opioids: a global pain management crisis.  

PubMed

The lack of availability of opioids in many countries has created a pain management crisis. Because the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs requires governments to report annual opioid statistics, there is a need for methods to calculate individual nations' opioid needs. Ways to address this need are discussed. PMID:23527674

Buitrago, Rosa

2013-03-01

401

Cultures of Funding, Management and Learning in the Global Mainstream  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines changes over the last 20 years which have shaped international human development assistance for the alleviation of poverty and inclusion and what it achieves. With reference to labour market restructuring and the contemporary rhetoric, design and management of human development interventions, it describes a study into how these…

Preston, R.

2005-01-01

402

PENSION FUND MANAGEMENT AND INTERNATIONAL INVESTMENT - A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the potential and actual role played by international inve