Sample records for global carbon management

  1. An introduction to global carbon cycle management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundquist, Eric T.; Ackerman, Katherine V.; Parker, Lauren; Huntzinger, Deborah N.

    Past and current human activities have fundamentally altered the global carbon cycle. Potential future efforts to control atmospheric CO2 will also involve significant changes in the global carbon cycle. Carbon cycle scientists and engineers now face not only the difficulties of recording and understanding past and present changes but also the challenge of providing information and tools for new management strategies that are responsive to societal needs. The challenge is nothing less than managing the global carbon cycle.

  2. Understanding and managing the global carbon cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Grace

    2004-01-01

    Summary 1 Biological carbon sinks develop in mature ecosystems that have high carbon storage when these systems are stimulated to increase productivity, so that carbon gains by photosynthesis run ahead of carbon losses by heterotrophic respiration, and the stocks of carbon therefore increase. This stimulation may occur through elevated CO 2 con- centration, nitrogen deposition or by changes in climate.

  3. CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE: GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS OF SOIL CARBON MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural carbon (C) sequestration may be one of the most cost effective ways to slow processes of global warming. Numerous environmental benefits may result from agricultural activities that sequester soil C and contribute to environmental security. As part of no-regret strategies, practices tha...

  4. Global climate change and carbon management in multifunctional forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deep Narayan Pandey

    Fossil-fuel burning and deforestation have emerged as principal anthropogenic sources of rising atmospheric CO2 and consequential global warming. Variability in temperature, precipitation, snow cover, sea level and extreme weather events provide collateral evi- dence of global climate change. I review recent advances on causes and consequences of global climate change and its impact on nature and society. I also examine

  5. Global Energy Management System 

    E-print Network

    Eidt, B. D.

    2005-01-01

    - saving the cumulative equivalent of 1.8 billion barrels of oil and reducing carbon dioxide emissions by over 200 million tonnes. In 2000, we redoubled our efforts with deployment of our Global Energy Management System (GEMS), which utilizes international...

  6. Global terrestrial carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.M.; Cramer, W.P.; Dixon, R.K.; Leemans, R.; Neilson, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    There is great uncertainty with regard to the future role of the terrestrial biosphere in the global carbon cycle. The uncertainty arises from both an inadequate understanding of current pools and fluxes as well as the potential effects of rising atmospheric concentrations of CO2 on natural ecosystems. Despite these limitations, a number of studies have estimated current and future patterns of terrestrial carbon storage. Future estimates focus on the effects of a climate change associated with a doubled atmospheric concentration of CO2. Available models for examining the dynamics of terrestrial carbon storage and the potential role of forest management and landuse practices on carbon conservation and sequestration are discussed. (Copyright (c) 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers.)

  7. Information management for global environmental change, including the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    SciTech Connect

    Stoss, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    1994-06-01

    The issue of global change is international in scope. A body of international organizations oversees the worldwide coordination of research and policy initiatives. In the US the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) was established in November of 1993 to provide coordination of science, space, and technology policies throughout the federal government. NSTC is organized into nine proposed committees. The Committee on Environmental and Natural Resources (CERN) oversees the US Department of Energy`s Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). As part of the USGCRP, the US Department of Energy`s Global Change Research Program aims to improve the understanding of Earth systems and to strengthen the scientific basis for the evaluation of policy and government action in response to potential global environmental changes. This paper examines the information and data management roles of several international and national programs, including Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) global change information programs. An emphasis will be placed on the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), which also serves as the World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases.

  8. The global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Sedjo, R.A. (Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (USA))

    1990-10-01

    The author discusses the global carbon cycle and cites the results of several recently completed research projects, that seem to indicate that the temperate zone forests are a sink for carbon rather than a source, as was previously believed.

  9. ESTIMATING THE GLOBAL POTENTIAL OF FOREST AND AGROFOREST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES TO SEQUESTER CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forests play a prominent role in the global C cycle. ccupying one-third of the earth's land area, forest vegetation nd soils contain about 60% of the total terrestrial C. Forest biomass productivity can be enhanced by management practices,, which suggests that by this means, fore...

  10. Global carbon balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, Ken

    2015-03-01

    Human emissions of CO2 now outpace natural sources by two orders of magnitude. The current concentration of CO2 has not been substantially exceeded in the past 30 million years. Multiple model exercises indicate that consuming all fossil fuels would result in concentrations more than double present levels, even after 10,000 years. The global warming effect of carbon emissions appears within 5-7 years. However, since the effect of present infrastructure over its expected life would only modestly increase CO2 concentrations and global temperature, human choices over its replacement will decisively influence ultimate carbon impacts, both short-term and long-term.

  11. GLOBAL TERRESTRIAL CARBON CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is great uncertainty with regard to the future role of the terrestrial biosphere in the global carbon cycle, arising from both an inadequate understanding of current pools and fluxes as well as the potential effects of rising atmospheric concentrations of CO, on natural eco...

  12. Global carbon budget 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Boden, T. A.; Bopp, L.; Bozec, Y.; Canadell, J. G.; Chini, L. P.; Chevallier, F.; Cosca, C. E.; Harris, I.; Hoppema, M.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Jain, A. K.; Johannessen, T.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landa, C. S.; Landschützer, P.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Marland, G.; Mathis, J. T.; Metzl, N.; Nojiri, Y.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Peng, S.; Peters, W.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Salisbury, J. E.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Segschneider, J.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Viovy, N.; Wang, Y.-P.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zeng, N.

    2015-05-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1?, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2004-2013), EFF was 8.9 ± 0.4 GtC yr-1, ELUC 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND 2.9 ± 0.8 GtC yr-1. For year 2013 alone, EFF grew to 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, 2.3% above 2012, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM was 5.4 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 2.5 ± 0.9 GtC yr-1. GATM was high in 2013, reflecting a steady increase in EFF and smaller and opposite changes between SOCEAN and SLAND compared to the past decade (2004-2013). The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 395.31 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2013. We estimate that EFF will increase by 2.5% (1.3-3.5%) to 10.1 ± 0.6 GtC in 2014 (37.0 ± 2.2 GtCO2 yr-1), 65% above emissions in 1990, based on projections of world gross domestic product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2014, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 545 ± 55 GtC (2000 ± 200 GtCO2) for 1870-2014, about 75% from EFF and 25% from ELUC. This paper documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this living data set (Le Quéré et al., 2013, 2014). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2014).

  13. Trends in Global Demonstrations of Carbon Management Technologies to Advance Coal- Based Power Generation With Carbon Capture and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, K. K.; Plasynski, S.; Feeley, T. J.

    2008-05-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentrations increased an estimated 35% since preindustrial levels two centuries ago, reportedly due to the burning of fossil fuels combined with increased deforestation. In the U.S., energy-related activities account for 75% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, with more than 50% from large stationary sources such as power plants and about one-third from transportation. Mitigation technologies for CO2 atmospheric stabilization based on energy and economic scenarios include coal-based power plant- carbon capture and storage (CCS), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is assessing CCS operations and supporting technologies at U.S. locations and opportunities abroad reported here. The Algerian In Salah Joint Industry Project injecting 1 million tons CO2 (MtCO2)/year into a gas field sandstone, and the Canadian Weyburn-Midale CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project injecting over 1.8 MtCO2/year into carbonate oil reservoirs are ongoing industrial-scale storage operations DOE participates in. DOE also supports mid-scale CCS demonstrations at the Australian Otway Project and CO2SINK in Germany. Enhanced oil recovery operations conducted for decades in west Texas and elsewhere have provided the industrial experience to build on, and early pilots such as Frio-I Texas in 2004 have spearheaded technology deployment. While injecting 1,600 tons of CO2 into a saline sandstone at Frio, time-lapse borehole and surface seismic detected P-wave velocity decreases and reflection amplitude changes resulting from the replacement of brine with CO2 in the reservoir. Just two of many cutting-edge technologies tested at Frio, these and others are now deployed by U.S. researchers with international teams to evaluate reservoir injectivity, capacity, and integrity, as well as to assess CO2 spatial distribution, trapping, and unlikely leakage. Time-lapse Vertical Seismic Profiling at Otway and microseismic at In Salah and Otway, monitor injection and reservoir conditions with geophysics. Borehole-based technologies include a novel geochemical two-phase reservoir sampler deployed at Otway, and thermal-based measurements at CO2SINK for coupled hydrologic-geochemical reservoir analyses. Seismic, geomechanical, hydrologic, geochemical, and core studies are used in a multidisciplinary approach to assess CO2 trapping and reservoir integrity at In Salah. With estimated lifetime storage of 17 MtCO2 at In Salah, this and other CCS demonstrations provide opportunities to gain commercial experience for advancing coal-based power generation-CCS for carbon management.

  14. The Intergovernmental Marine Bioenergy and Carbon Sequestration Protocol: Environmental and Political Risk Reduction of Global Carbon Management (The IMBECS Protocol Draft)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, M.

    2014-12-01

    The IMBECS Protocol concept employs large cultivation and biorefinery installations, within the five Subtropical Convergence Zones (STCZs), to support the production of commodities such as carbon negative biofuels, seafood, organic fertilizer, polymers and freshwater, as a flexible and cost effective means of Global Warming Mitigation (GWM) with the primary objective being the global scale replacement of fossil fuels (FF). This governance approach is categorically distinct from all other large scale GWM governance concepts. Yet, many of the current marine related GWM technologies are adaptable to this proposals. The IMBECS technology would be managed by an intergovernmentally sanctioned non-profit foundation which would have the following functions/mission: Synthesises relevant treaty language Performs R&D activities and purchases relevant patents Under intergovernmental commission, functions as the primary responsible international actorfor environmental standards, production quotas and operational integrity Licence technology to for-profit actors under strict production/environmental standards Enforce production and environmental standards along with production quotas Provide a high level of transparency to all stakeholders Provide legal defence The IMBECS Protocol is conceptually related to the work found in the following documents/links. This list is not exhaustive: Climate Change Geoengineering The Science and Politics of Global Climate Change: A guide to the debate IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy and Climate Change Mitigation DoE Roadmap for Algae Biofuels PodEnergy Ocean Agronomy development leaders and progenitor of this proposal. Artificial Upwelling of Deep Seawater Using the Perpetual Salt Fountain for Cultivation of Ocean Desert NASAs' OMEGA study. Cool Planet; Land based version of a carbon negative biofuel concept. Cellana; Leading developer of algae based bioproducts. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture Mariculture: A global analysis of production trends since 1950 BECCS /Biochar/ Olivine UNFCCC/IMO/CBD The President's Climate Action Plan The conclusion of this analysis calls for funding of an investigational deployment of the relevant technologies for an open evaluation at the intergovernmental level.

  15. Global climate change and carbon dioxide: Assessing weed biology and management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both increasing carbon dioxide and climate change are likely to alter weed biology in a myriad of ways. In this chapter, I provide an overview of the methodology by which rising carbon dioxide and climate uncertainty are likely to effect weed establishment, growth and fecundity, the implications fo...

  16. Globalization of Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruner, Robert F.; Iannarelli, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    A new study, sponsored by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, presented a comprehensive new perspective on the globalization of management education, (AACSB International, 2011). Its findings are sobering: with regard to emerging global trends in higher education and cross-border business, the report reveals a sizable gap…

  17. Carbon Sequestration and Its Role in the Global Carbon Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPherson, Brian J.; Sundquist, Eric T.

    For carbon sequestration the issues of monitoring, risk assessment, and verification of carbon content and storage efficacy are perhaps the most uncertain. Yet these issues are also the most critical challenges facing the broader context of carbon sequestration as a means for addressing climate change. In response to these challenges, Carbon Sequestration and Its Role in the Global Carbon Cycle presents current perspectives and research that combine five major areas: • The global carbon cycle and verification and assessment of global carbon sources and sinks • Potential capacity and temporal/spatial scales of terrestrial, oceanic, and geologic carbon storage • Assessing risks and benefits associated with terrestrial, oceanic, and geologic carbon storage • Predicting, monitoring, and verifying effectiveness of different forms of carbon storage • Suggested new CO2 sequestration research and management paradigms for the future. The volume is based on a Chapman Conference and will appeal to the rapidly growing group of scientists and engineers examining methods for deliberate carbon sequestration through storage in plants, soils, the oceans, and geological repositories.

  18. Carbon sequestration and its role in the global carbon cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPherson, Brian J.; Sundquist, Eric T.

    2009-01-01

    For carbon sequestration the issues of monitoring, risk assessment, and verification of carbon content and storage efficacy are perhaps the most uncertain. Yet these issues are also the most critical challenges facing the broader context of carbon sequestration as a means for addressing climate change. In response to these challenges, Carbon Sequestration and Its Role in the Global Carbon Cycle presents current perspectives and research that combine five major areas: • The global carbon cycle and verification and assessment of global carbon sources and sinks • Potential capacity and temporal/spatial scales of terrestrial, oceanic, and geologic carbon storage • Assessing risks and benefits associated with terrestrial, oceanic, and geologic carbon storage • Predicting, monitoring, and verifying effectiveness of different forms of carbon storage • Suggested new CO2 sequestration research and management paradigms for the future. The volume is based on a Chapman Conference and will appeal to the rapidly growing group of scientists and engineers examining methods for deliberate carbon sequestration through storage in plants, soils, the oceans, and geological repositories.

  19. Final Report for ''SOURCES AND SINKS OF CARBON FROM LAND-USE CHANGE AND MANAGEMENT: A GLOBAL SYNTHESIS'' Project Period September 15, 2001--September 14, 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Houghton, R.A.

    2003-12-12

    Land management and land-use change can either release carbon (as CO{sub 2}) to the atmosphere, for example when forests are converted to agricultural lands, or withdraw carbon from the atmosphere as forests grow on cleared lands or as management practices sequester carbon in soil. The purpose of this work was to calculate the annual sources and sinks of carbon from changes in land use and management, globally and for nine world regions, over the period 1850 to 2000. The approach had three components. First, rates of land-use change were reconstructed from historical information on the areas of croplands, pastures, forests, and other lands and from data on wood harvests. In most regions, land-use change included the conversion of natural ecosystems to cultivated lands and pastures, including shifting cultivation, harvest of wood (for timber and fuel), and the establishment of tree plantations. In the U.S., woody encroachment and woodland thickening as a result of fire suppression were also included. Second, the amount of carbon per hectare in vegetation and soils and changes in that carbon as a result of land-use change were determined from data obtained in the ecological and forestry literature. These data on land-use change and carbon stocks were then used in a bookkeeping model (third component) to calculate regional and global changes in terrestrial carbon. The results indicate that for the period 1850-2000 the net flux of carbon from changes in land use was 156 PgC. For comparison, emissions of carbon from combustion of fossil fuels were approximately 280 PgC during the same interval. Annual emissions from land-use change exceeded emissions from fossil fuels before about 1920. Somewhat more that half (60%) of the long-term flux was from the tropics. Average annual fluxes during the 1980s and 1990s were 2.0 and 2.2 ({+-}0.8) PgC yr{sup -1} (30-40% of fossil fuel emissions), respectively. In these decades, the global sources of carbon were almost entirely from the tropics. Outside the tropics, the average net flux of carbon attributable to land-use change and management decreased from a source of 0.06 PgC yr{sup -1} during the 1980s to a sink of 0.03 PgC yr{sup -1} during the 1990s. According to these analyses, changes in land use were responsible for sinks in North America and Europe and for small sources in other non-tropical regions.

  20. Understanding the global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, J.

    1994-07-01

    Efforts to mitigate possible climate change due to rising atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases focus mostly on manipulation of the global carbon cycle - the movement and storage of carbon among the world`s oceans, atmosphere, and terrestrial systems. But predicting the likely effectiveness of various strategies to ameliorate global warming requires careful modeling of the complex processes that drive carbon cycling and determine atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide, and some of these processes are still not well understood. A new EPRI microcomputer model called GLOCO simulates many of the processes and can be used to perform quick {open_quotes}what if{close_quotes} strategy analyses. In addition, ongoing field studies are providing important new insights into the uptake of atmospheric carbon by forest and grassland ecosystems. Efforts are also under way to develop a much more complex computer program that can model the global carbon cycle with reference to specific geographic patterns. These efforts are discussed.

  1. GLOBAL ASSESSMENT OF PROMISING FOREST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The assessment produced productivity and cost data for forest and agroforestry management practices in 94 nations. hat is, out of a total of 140 nations in the world with forest resources, about two-thirds are represented in the database at present. he total forest and woodland a...

  2. Wildland Soil Carbon Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, R. L.; Swanston, C.

    2009-12-01

    In the era of climate change, traditional wildland management practices have come into question, especially with respect to their impact on soil carbon sequestration. Over half of the land area of the United States and Puerto Rico is either in forest or grassland ecosystems, i.e. 302 million hectares of forested lands and 247 million hectares of grasslands and pasture lands. Forested lands hold approximately 35.5 Pg of soil carbon to a depth of 100cm. Private grasslands hold approximately 21 Pg of soil carbon to a depth of 200cm. The difficulty of managing for carbon sequestration becomes more evident when one surveys the variety of complex ecosystems being managed. This presentation highlights implications for wildland management for promoting soil carbon sequestration for sustaining forest and grassland ecosystems in the United States. We will address key considerations, strategies, and opportunities to incorporate soil carbon management into wildland management. Examples of vegetation management influence on soil carbon will be discussed including fire, soil amendments and best management practices for maintaining and/or improving soil carbon sequestration. The USDA Forest Service has established a soil management policy that seeks to conserve soil quality and protect soil carbon on National Forest System lands. Aspects of this national policy will also be presented.

  3. Understanding the Global Carbon Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The site offers charts and graphs to aid in a detailed explanation of where carbon comes from and where it goes. Supplementing the main topic, links lead to the topics Carbon and Land Use, Missing Carbon Sink, and Forest Sequestered Carbon Dioxide. Their conclusion is that the major contributor to climatic change, and hence the human activity most in need of change, is use of fossil fuels for energy. Advances in the technology of renewable energy sources, including wood-derived fuels, might reduce our reliance on fossil fuels and thus reduce global emissions of carbon dioxide significantly.

  4. Managing Global Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, C. Maxwell

    The book examines the historical background of and accomplishments in seven global problem areas. It is hypothesized that effective management within today's framework is the only way to progress toward the political and economic order that is necessary to assure peace and security, justice, and human rights, and to improve the quality of life. It…

  5. Global Energy Management System

    E-print Network

    Eidt, B. D.

    2005-01-01

    , layered stewardship, and structured communications emphasize personal accountability for operating results and system performance. Figure 1. GEMS Design GEMS DEVELOPMENT Early in the development phase, experts from across our global... DESIGN Management Leadership Major Equipment Project Design Process Units Utilities Systems Organizational Commitment System Performance Operating Results Stewardship Personal Accountability Continuous Improvement Mid-way up the pyramid ? Diagnostic...

  6. Global Financial Management

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Harvey, Campbell R.

    1969-12-31

    Campbell Harvey, Professor of International Business in the Fuqua School of Business at Duke University, has created this web site as a supplement to his course in Global Financial Management. The course introduces students to the "fundamental principles of asset valuation and financing in competitive global financial market." Visitors will find a syllabus for the course, a short introduction to Financial Mathematics, and supplementary notes on topics covered in the course. Assignments and learning modules for the course can also be found at the site.

  7. Global carbon cycle and climate change. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    The production of greenhouse gases due to anthropogenic activities may have begun to change the global climate. The global carbon cycle plays a significant role in projected climate change. However, considerable uncertainty exists regarding pools and flux in the global cycle. Given the authors present understanding of current global carbon sources and sinks, feedbacks from the biosphere are likely to influence the process of climate change. Opportunities may exist to manage the biosphere and reduce the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The four chapters in this section survey the role of the global carbon cycle in projected climate change.

  8. The Global Carbon Cycle Radiative forcing

    E-print Network

    Follows, Mick

    elemental ratio of plankton C:N:P = 106:16:1 Carbon typically plentiful Availability of light or otherThe Global Carbon Cycle Radiative forcing Global carbon reservoirs Glacial-interglacial cycles Anthropogenic CO2 Ocean-atmosphere partitioning Ocean carbon cycle Carbon distribution in the ocean

  9. Tropical Forests and the Global Carbon Cycle

    E-print Network

    Duffy, Thomas S.

    Tropical Forests and the Global Carbon Cycle Pascale Poussart Tropical forests play a key role in the global carbon cycle, encompass diverse ecosystems and are sensitive to extreme events such as El Niño

  10. Managing global accounts.

    PubMed

    Yip, George S; Bink, Audrey J M

    2007-09-01

    Global account management--which treats a multinational customer's operations as one integrated account, with coherent terms for pricing, product specifications, and service--has proliferated over the past decade. Yet according to the authors' research, only about a third of the suppliers that have offered GAM are pleased with the results. The unhappy majority may be suffering from confusion about when, how, and to whom to provide it. Yip, the director of research and innovation at Capgemini, and Bink, the head of marketing communications at Uxbridge College, have found that GAM can improve customer satisfaction by 20% or more and can raise both profits and revenues by at least 15% within just a few years of its introduction. They provide guidelines to help companies achieve similar results. The first steps are determining whether your products or services are appropriate for GAM, whether your customers want such a program, whether those customers are crucial to your strategy, and how GAM might affect your competitive advantage. If moving forward makes sense, the authors' exhibit, "A Scorecard for Selecting Global Accounts," can help you target the right customers. The final step is deciding which of three basic forms to offer: coordination GAM (in which national operations remain relatively strong), control GAM (in which the global operation and the national operations are fairly balanced), and separate GAM (in which a new business unit has total responsibility for global accounts). Given the difficulty and expense of providing multiple varieties, the vast majority of companies should initially customize just one---and they should be careful not to start with a choice that is too ambitious for either themselves or their customers to handle. PMID:17886487

  11. Global deforestation: contribution to atmospheric carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Woodwell, G.M.; Hobbie, J.E.; Houghton, R.A.; Melillo, J.M.; Moore, B.; Peterson, B.J.; Shaver, G.R.

    1983-12-09

    A study of effects of terrestrial biota on the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere suggests that the global net release of carbon due to forest clearing between 1960 and 1980 was between 135 X 10/sup 15/ and 228 X 10/sup 15/ grams. Between 1.8 X 10/sup 15/ and 4.7 X 10/sup 15/ grams of carbon were released in 1980, of which nearly 80 percent was due to deforestation, principally in the tropics. The annual release of carbon from the biota and soils exceeded the release from fossil fuels until about 1960. Because the biotic release has been and remains much larger than is commonly assumed, the airborne fraction, usually considered to be about 50 percent of the releases from fossil fuels, was probably between 22 and 43 percent of the total carbon released in 1980. The increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is thought by some to be increasing the storage of carbon in the earth's remaining forests sufficiently to offset the release from deforestation. The interpretation of the evidence presented here suggests no such effect; deforestation appears to be the dominant biotic effect on atmospheric carbon dioxide. If deforestation increases in proportion to population, the biotic release of carbon will reach 9 X 10/sup 15/ grams per year before forests are exhausted early in the next century. The possibilities for limiting the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere through reduction in use of fossil fuels and through management of forests may be greater than is commonly assumed.

  12. (Managing the global environment)

    SciTech Connect

    Rayner, S.F.

    1989-10-03

    The conference was stimulated by concern that policy makers increasingly have to make environmental management decisions in the absence of solidly established scientific consensus about ecological processes and the consequences of human actions. Often, as in the case of climate change, some decisions may have to be made in the absence of information that is desirable but may not be available for years to come, if ever. Six topics were identified as running throughout the Congress. These were: the epistemology and history of the sciences or disciplines concerned with the environment, including the scientific basis of rationality and modes of dealing with uncertainty and complexity; the social, economic, and institutional conditions for the production of knowledge bearing on the environment, including the politics of research and the improvement of scientific data; the structuring and institutionalization of expert assessments on national and international levels, including the global distribution of expertise; the means of establishing scientific information, the role of the media in transmitting and processing knowledge about the environment, and the organization of public environmental debate; and decision making and management under conditions of uncertainty; and, finally the relationship between science and ethics. 13 refs.

  13. Global climate change and pedogenic carbonates

    SciTech Connect

    Lal, R.; Kimble, J.M.; Stewart, B.A.; Eswaran, H. [eds.

    1999-11-01

    Global Climate Change summarizes what is known about soil inorganic carbon and develops strategies that could lead to the retention of more carbon in the soil. It covers basic concepts, analytical methods, secondary carbonates, and research and development priorities. With this book one will get a better understanding of the global carbon cycle, organic and inorganic carbon, and their roles, or what is known of them, in the greenhouse effect.

  14. CDIAC -WHPO/CCHDO Data Management Plan for CTD/Hydrographic/CO2/Tracer Data for the Global Ocean Carbon and

    E-print Network

    Carbon and Repeat Hydrography Program Alex Kozyr Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Environmental Institution of Oceanography is to see that WOCE Hydrographic Program data, CLIVAR repeat hydrography data hydrography, global ocean carbon hydrography, and similar programs which make use of high quality ocean

  15. Africa and the global carbon cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher A Williams; Niall P Hanan; Jason C Neff; Robert J Scholes; Joseph A Berry; A Scott Denning; David F Baker

    2007-01-01

    The African continent has a large and growing role in the global carbon cycle, with potentially important climate change implications. However, the sparse observation network in and around the African continent means that Africa is one of the weakest links in our understanding of the global carbon cycle. Here, we combine data from regional and global inventories as well as

  16. Global Carbon Reservoir Oxidative Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiello, C. A.; Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.

    2010-12-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration move carbon and oxygen between the atmosphere and the biosphere at a ratio that is characteristic of the biogeochemical processes involved. This ratio is called the oxidative ratio (OR) of photosynthesis and respiration, and is defined as the ratio of moles of O2 per moles of CO2. This O2/CO2 ratio is a characteristic of biosphere-atmosphere gas fluxes, much like the 13C signature of CO2 transferred between the biosphere and the atmosphere has a characteristic signature. OR values vary on a scale of 0 (CO2) to 2 (CH4), with most ecosystem values clustered between 0.9 and 1.2. Just as 13C can be measured for both carbon fluxes and carbon pools, OR can also be measured for fluxes and pools and can provide information about the processes involved in carbon and oxygen cycling. OR values also provide information about reservoir organic geochemistry because pool OR values are proportional to the oxidation state of carbon (Cox) in the reservoir. OR may prove to be a particularly valuable biogeochemical tracer because of its ability to couple information about ecosystem gas fluxes with ecosystem organic geochemistry. We have developed 3 methods to measure the OR of ecosystem carbon reservoirs and intercalibrated them to assure that they yield accurate, intercomparable data. Using these tools we have built a large enough database of biomass and soil OR values that it is now possible to consider the implications of global patterns in ecosystem OR values. Here we present a map of the natural range in ecosystem OR values and begin to consider its implications. One striking pattern is an apparent offset between soil and biospheric OR values: soil OR values are frequently higher than that of their source biomass. We discuss this trend in the context of soil organic geochemistry and gas fluxes.

  17. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Trabalka, J R [ed.

    1985-12-01

    This state-of-the-art volume presents discussions on the global cycle of carbon, the dynamic balance among global atmospheric CO2 sources and sinks. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

  18. Changing carbon cycle: a global analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Trabalka, J.R.; Reichle, D.E. (eds.)

    1986-01-01

    An attempt is made to examine current knowledge about the fluxes, sources, and sinks in the global carbon cycle, as well as our ability to predict changes in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration resulting from anthropogenic influences. The reader will find authoritative discussions of: past and expected releases of CO/sub 2/ from fossil fuels; the historical record and implications of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ increases; isotopic and geological records of past carbon cycle processes; the role of the oceans in the global carbon cycle; the influence of the world biosphere on changes in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ levels; and, evidence linking the components of the global carbon cycle.

  19. What is a global manager?

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Christopher A; Ghoshal, Sumantra

    2003-08-01

    Riven by ideology, religion, and mistrust, the world seems more fragmented than at any time since, arguably, World War II. But however deep the political divisions, business operations continue to span the globe, and executives still have to figure out how to run them efficiently and well. In "What Is a Global Manager?" (first published in September-October 1992), business professors Christopher Bartlett and Sumantra Ghoshal lay out a model for a management structure that balances the local, regional, and global demands placed on companies operating across the world's many borders. In the volatile world of transnational corporations, there is no such thing as a "universal" global manager, the authors say. Rather, there are three groups of specialists: business managers, country managers, and functional managers. And there are the top executives at corporate headquarters who manage the complex interactions between the three--and can identify and develop the talented executives a successful transnational requires. This kind of organizational structure characterizes a transnational rather than an old-line multinational, international, or global company. Transnationals integrate assets, resources, and diverse people in operating units around the world. Through a flexible management process, in which business, country, and functional managers form a triad of different perspectives that balance one another, transnational companies can build three strategic capabilities: global-scale efficiency and competitiveness; national-level responsiveness and flexibility; and cross-market capacity to leverage learning on a worldwide basis. Through a close look at the successful careers of Leif Johansson of Electrolux, Howard Gottlieb of NEC, and Wahib Zaki of Procter & Gamble, the authors illustrate the skills that each managerial specialist requires. PMID:12884670

  20. GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The production of greenhouse gases due to anthropogenic activities may have begun to change the global climate. he global carbon cycle plays a significant role in projected climate change. owever, considerable uncertainty exists regarding pools and flux in the global cycle. iven ...

  1. Global estimates of boreal forest carbon stocks and flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, Corey J. A.; Warkentin, Ian G.

    2015-05-01

    The boreal ecosystem is an important global reservoir of stored carbon and a haven for diverse biological communities. The natural disturbance dynamics there have historically been driven by fire and insects, with human-mediated disturbances increasing faster than in other biomes globally. Previous research on the total boreal carbon stock and predictions of its future flux reveal high uncertainty in regional patterns. We reviewed and standardised this extensive body of quantitative literature to provide the most up-to-date and comprehensive estimates of the global carbon balance in the boreal forest. We also compiled century-scale predictions of the carbon budget flux. Our review and standardisation confirmed high uncertainty in the available data, but there is evidence that the region's total carbon stock has been underestimated. We found a total carbon store of 367.3 to 1715.8 Pg (1015 g), the mid-point of which (1095 Pg) is between 1.3 and 3.8 times larger than any previous mean estimates. Most boreal carbon resides in its soils and peatlands, although estimates are highly uncertain. We found evidence that the region might become a net carbon source following a reduction in carbon uptake rate from at least the 1980s. Given that the boreal potentially constitutes the largest terrestrial carbon source in the world, in one of the most rapidly warming parts of the globe (Walsh, 2014), how we manage these stocks will be influential on future climate dynamics.

  2. Carbon Management Plan 1. Executive summary 5

    E-print Network

    Haase, Markus

    Carbon Management Plan June 2011 #12;2 #12;3 CONTENTS 1. Executive summary 5 2. Introduction 15 3. Background and context 16 4. Carbon management strategy 18 5. Carbon emissions baseline and projections 22 6. Past actions and achievements 30 7. Carbon Management Plan implementation 33 8. Carbon Management Plan

  3. Modelling photodegradation in the global carbon cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bente Foereid; Maria J. Rivero; Oscar Primo; Inmaculada Ortiz

    2011-01-01

    Photodegradation has been shown to play a role in plant litter degradation in some ecosystems, and therefore potentially in the global carbon cycle. To introduce photodegradation into models of carbon turnover we need an equation that relates mass loss to incident radiation. Based on experimental data from the literature we developed a linear equation for photodegradation as a function of

  4. Global deforestation: contribution to atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Woodwell; J. E. Hobbie; R. A. Houghton; J. M. Melillo; B. Moore; B. J. Peterson; G. R. Shaver

    1983-01-01

    A study of effects of terrestrial biota on the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere suggests that the global net release of carbon due to forest clearing between 1960 and 1980 was between 135 X 10¹⁵ and 228 X 10¹⁵ grams. Between 1.8 X 10¹⁵ and 4.7 X 10¹⁵ grams of carbon were released in 1980, of which nearly

  5. SOILS AND THE GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE1 Susan E. Trumbore

    E-print Network

    Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan

    SOILS AND THE GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE1 Susan E. Trumbore and Margaret S. Torn§ Earth System Science in the global carbon cycle. Soil organic matter (SOM) is one of the largest carbon reservoirs that is in rapid: Trumbore, S.E. and M.S. Torn. Soils and the Global Carbon Cycle. In EA Holland, ed. Soils and Global Change

  6. Impact of carbon storage through restoration of drylands on the global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, A.A. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). School of Environmental Science and Management] [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). School of Environmental Science and Management; Goldstein, R.A. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)] [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The authors evaluate the potential for global carbon storage in drylands as one of several policy options to reduce buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. They use the GLOCO model, a global carbon cycle model with eight terrestrial biomes that are described mechanistically in detail in terms of the biological processes that involve carbon and nitrogen cycling and the effect of temperature on these processes. GLOCO also considers low-latitude and high-latitude oceans, each divided further into a surface layer and several deeper layers, with an explicit description of biogeochemical processes occurring in each layer, and exchanges among ocean reservoirs and the atmosphere. GLOCO is used to study the transient response of actual vegetation, which is more realistic than looking at equilibrium conditions of potential vegetation. Using estimates of land suitable for restoration in woodlands, grasslands, and deserts, as well as estimates of the rate at which restoration can proceed, the authors estimate that carbon storage in these biomes can range up to 0.8 billion tons of carbon per year for a combination of land management strategies. A global strategy for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration will require the implementation of multiple options. The advantage of carbon storage in restored drylands is that it comes as a side benefit to programs that are also justifiable in terms of land management.

  7. Global carbon dioxide emissions from inland waters.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Peter A; Hartmann, Jens; Lauerwald, Ronny; Sobek, Sebastian; McDonald, Cory; Hoover, Mark; Butman, David; Striegl, Robert; Mayorga, Emilio; Humborg, Christoph; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Dürr, Hans; Meybeck, Michel; Ciais, Philippe; Guth, Peter

    2013-11-21

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) transfer from inland waters to the atmosphere, known as CO2 evasion, is a component of the global carbon cycle. Global estimates of CO2 evasion have been hampered, however, by the lack of a framework for estimating the inland water surface area and gas transfer velocity and by the absence of a global CO2 database. Here we report regional variations in global inland water surface area, dissolved CO2 and gas transfer velocity. We obtain global CO2 evasion rates of 1.8(+0.25)(-0.25)? petagrams of carbon (Pg?C) per year from streams and rivers and 0.32(+0.52)(-0.26)? Pg?C?yr(-1) from lakes and reservoirs, where the upper and lower limits are respectively the 5th and 95th confidence interval percentiles. The resulting global evasion rate of 2.1?Pg?C?yr(-1) is higher than previous estimates owing to a larger stream and river evasion rate. Our analysis predicts global hotspots in stream and river evasion, with about 70 per cent of the flux occurring over just 20 per cent of the land surface. The source of inland water CO2 is still not known with certainty and new studies are needed to research the mechanisms controlling CO2 evasion globally. PMID:24256802

  8. Royal College of Art Carbon Management Programme Carbon Management Plan working with

    E-print Network

    Subramanian, Sriram

    , saving resources for our core activities. The development of this Carbon Management Plan not only commitsRoyal College of Art Carbon Management Programme Carbon Management Plan working with Page 1 Royal College of Art Carbon Management Programme Carbon Management Plan (CMP) Date: 25 February 2011 Final

  9. Terrestrial carbon histories: Implications for future global carbon cycle dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, A.M.; Webb. T.; Prentice, I.C. (Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis (United States) Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States) Univ. of Lund (Sweden))

    1993-06-01

    One of the most recalcitrant scientific questions during the past 20 years of research on increasing atmospheric CO[sub 2] is whether (and how much) the earth is a net source or a net sink for carbon now, and, whether (and how much) it will be so in the future. The answer is critical to cleaning international response strategies as well as to predicting biospheric futures with or without effects of political action. Here, we examine the potential value of information available in paleoecological data for defining the role of the terrestrial biosphere in global carbon cycle variations. The data describe histories of carbon in the atmosphere (primarily from stratigrapheric CO[sub 2] concentrations embedded in polar ice caps), above-ground biomass (primarily vegetation reconstructed from fossil pollen data in lacustrine sediments) and soil carbon pools (primarily from soil carbon inventories and landscape histories). After discussing the implications of inferences on the nature of global carbon cycling which are directly obtainable from the data, we evaluate the paleoecological information for formulating and testing predictive models written to describe future carbon cycle dynamics. Finally, we apply one such model to project future dynamics of the terrestrial carbon cycle, and use the obvious uncertainties in the results to define the paleoecological research agenda required for definitive solution of the carbon sequestration question.

  10. The changing carbon cycle: A global analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Trabalka, J.R.; Reichle, D.E. (eds.)

    1986-01-01

    The Sixth Annual Oak Ridge National Laboratory Life Sciences Symposium was devoted to the topic of ''The Global Carbon Cycle: Analysis of the Natural Cycle and Implications of Anthropogenic alterations for the Next Century.'' This volume is the result of the presentations at the symposium, carefully selected and critically reviewed to represent a summary of our understanding of some of the most important scientific issues relative to the global carbon cycle. The book examines current knowledge about the fluxes, sources, and sinks in the global carbon cycle as well as our ability to apply this knowledge to the prediction of changes in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration resulting from anthropogenic influences. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual presentations. (ACR)

  11. Plumbing the Global Carbon Cycle: Integrating Inland Waters into the

    E-print Network

    Berkowitz, Alan R.

    Plumbing the Global Carbon Cycle: Integrating Inland Waters into the Terrestrial Carbon Budget J. J constructed a budget for the role of inland water ecosystems in the global carbon cycle. Our analysis: terrestrial, oceanic and atmospheric. Simplified depictions of the global carbon cycle have generally

  12. Sediments and the Global Carbon Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Elana Leithold

    A series of activities designed to introduce students to the role of sediments and sedimentary rocks in the global carbon cycle and the use of stable carbon isotopes to reconstruct ancient sedimentary environments. Students will make some simple calculations, think about the implications of their results, and see an optional demonstration of the density separation of a sediment sample into a light, organic and a heavier mineral fraction.

  13. Carbon emission from global hydroelectric reservoirs revisited.

    PubMed

    Li, Siyue; Zhang, Quanfa

    2014-12-01

    Substantial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from hydropower reservoirs have been of great concerns recently, yet the significant carbon emitters of drawdown area and reservoir downstream (including spillways and turbines as well as river reaches below dams) have not been included in global carbon budget. Here, we revisit GHG emission from hydropower reservoirs by considering reservoir surface area, drawdown zone and reservoir downstream. Our estimates demonstrate around 301.3 Tg carbon dioxide (CO2)/year and 18.7 Tg methane (CH4)/year from global hydroelectric reservoirs, which are much higher than recent observations. The sum of drawdown and downstream emission, which is generally overlooked, represents 42 % CO2 and 67 % CH4 of the total emissions from hydropower reservoirs. Accordingly, the global average emissions from hydropower are estimated to be 92 g CO2/kWh and 5.7 g CH4/kWh. Nonetheless, global hydroelectricity could currently reduce approximate 2,351 Tg CO2eq/year with respect to fuel fossil plant alternative. The new findings show a substantial revision of carbon emission from the global hydropower reservoirs. PMID:24943886

  14. Global agriculture and carbon trade-offs

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Justin Andrew; Runge, Carlisle Ford; Senauer, Benjamin; Foley, Jonathan; Polasky, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Feeding a growing and increasingly affluent world will require expanded agricultural production, which may require converting grasslands and forests into cropland. Such conversions can reduce carbon storage, habitat provision, and other ecosystem services, presenting difficult societal trade-offs. In this paper, we use spatially explicit data on agricultural productivity and carbon storage in a global analysis to find where agricultural extensification should occur to meet growing demand while minimizing carbon emissions from land use change. Selective extensification saves ?6 billion metric tons of carbon compared with a business-as-usual approach, with a value of approximately $1 trillion (2012 US dollars) using recent estimates of the social cost of carbon. This type of spatially explicit geospatial analysis can be expanded to include other ecosystem services and other industries to analyze how to minimize conflicts between economic development and environmental sustainability. PMID:25114254

  15. The global carbon dioxide budget

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundquist, E.T.

    1993-01-01

    The increase in atmospheric CO2 levels during the last deglaciation was comparable in magnitude to the recent historical increase. However, global CO2 budgets for these changes reflect fundamental differences in rates and in sources and sinks. The modern oceans are a rapid net CO2 sink, whereas the oceans were a gradual source during the deglaciation. Unidentified terrestrial CO2 sinks are important uncertainties in both the deglacial and recent CO2 budgets. The deglacial CO2 budget represents a complexity of long-term dynamic behavior that is not adequately addressed by current models used to forecast future atmospheric CO2 levels.

  16. The global carbon dioxide budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundquist, Eric T.

    1993-02-01

    The increase in atmospheric CO2 levels during the last deglaciation was comparable in magnitude to the recent historical increase. However, global CO2 budgets for these changes reflect fundamental differences in rates and in sources and sinks. The modern oceans are a rapid net CO2 sink, whereas the oceans were a gradual source during the deglaciation. Unidentified terrestrial CO2 sinks are important uncertainties in both the deglacial and recent CO2 budgets. The deglacial CO2 budget represents a complexity of long-term dynamic behavior that is not adequately addressed by current models used to forecast future atmospheric CO2 levels.

  17. Global Synchronous Changes in the Carbon Isotopic Composition of Carbonate Sediments Unrelated to Changes in the Global Carbon Cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter K. Swart

    2008-01-01

    The carbon isotopic (?¹³C) composition of bulk carbonate sediments deposited off the margins of four carbonate platforms\\/ramp systems (Bahamas, Maldives, Queensland Plateau, and Great Australian Bight) show synchronous changes over the past 0 to 10 million years. However, these variations are different from the established global pattern in the ?¹³C measured in the open oceans over the same time period.

  18. Changing carbon cycle: a global analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Trabalka, J.R.; Reichle, D.E. (eds.)

    1986-01-01

    An attempt is made to examine current knowledge about the fluxes, sources, and sinks in the global carbon cycle as well as the ability to apply this knowledge to the prediction of changes in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration resulting from anthropogenic influences. The reader will find authoritative discussions of: past and expected releases of CO/sub 2/ from fossil fuels; the historical record and implications of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ increases; isotopic and geological records of past carbon cycle processes; the role of the oceans in the global carbon cycle; the influence of the world biosphere on changes in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ levels; evidence linking the components of the global carbon cycle. This important new book will provide scientists and environmental decision makers with a major source of current information and ideas on a topic that is not only the subject of intense scientific investigation but is also relevant to key societal issues. Separate abstracts are included for 26 chapters for inclusion in the data base.

  19. Atmospheric chemistry impacts and feedbacks on the global carbon cycle

    E-print Network

    Atmospheric chemistry impacts and feedbacks on the global carbon cycle David Erickson, Don Wuebbles assessment of uncertainty in the global carbon cycle. The main thrust of this project is to quantify and implement feed backs between atmospheric chemistry and the global carbon cycle. The project includes

  20. The Global Carbon Cycle: It's a Small World!

    E-print Network

    The Global Carbon Cycle: It's a Small World! Phil Ineson University of York UK #12;An "Empty" #12;The Global Carbon Cycle (Pg C and Pg C/yr) Atmosphere 730 Accumulation + 3.2 Fossil fuels & cement meaningful Earth System analogue models? #12;The Global Carbon Cycle (Pg C and Pg C/yr) Fossil fuels & cement

  1. A brief history of the ESRL global carbon cycle

    E-print Network

    A brief history of the ESRL global carbon cycle observing system Pieter Tans Earth System Research flask sites 5000 per year HISTORY OF NOAA/ESRL GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE OBSERVING SYSTEM #12;#12;1968 Flask sink 13C/12C, 18O/16O HISTORY OF NOAA/ESRL GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE OBSERVING SYSTEM #12;#12;1968 flask

  2. Organic carbon in soil and the global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Post, W.M. III.

    1991-01-01

    Soil organic matter is, simultaneously, the most inert carbon cycle component of terrestrial ecosystems, and the most dynamic component of terrestrail geologic systems placing it in a pivotal position in the biogeochemistry of carbon. The large size and potentially long residence time of the soil organic matter pool make it an important component of the global carbon cycle. Net terrestrial primary production of about 60 Pg C{center dot}yr{sup {minus}1} is, over a several-year period of time, balanced by an equivalent flux of litter production and subsequent decomposition of detritus and soil organic matter. However, the input rates and decomposition rates for different terrestrial ecosystems vary over several orders of magnitude resulting in widely different amounts and turnover rates of soil organic matter. The amounts of carbon stored in soils and the rates of exchange of soil carbon with the atmosphere depend on many factors related to the chemistry, biology, and physics of soil and soil organic matter. This report discusses work on organic carbon in soil and aspects of the carbon cycle.

  3. Organic carbon in soil and the global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Post, W.M. III

    1991-12-31

    Soil organic matter is, simultaneously, the most inert carbon cycle component of terrestrial ecosystems, and the most dynamic component of terrestrail geologic systems placing it in a pivotal position in the biogeochemistry of carbon. The large size and potentially long residence time of the soil organic matter pool make it an important component of the global carbon cycle. Net terrestrial primary production of about 60 Pg C{center_dot}yr{sup {minus}1} is, over a several-year period of time, balanced by an equivalent flux of litter production and subsequent decomposition of detritus and soil organic matter. However, the input rates and decomposition rates for different terrestrial ecosystems vary over several orders of magnitude resulting in widely different amounts and turnover rates of soil organic matter. The amounts of carbon stored in soils and the rates of exchange of soil carbon with the atmosphere depend on many factors related to the chemistry, biology, and physics of soil and soil organic matter. This report discusses work on organic carbon in soil and aspects of the carbon cycle.

  4. Tropical deforestation and the global carbon budget

    SciTech Connect

    Melillo, J.M.; Kicklighter, D.W. [Ecosystems Center, Woods Hole, MA (United States). Marine Biological Lab.] [Ecosystems Center, Woods Hole, MA (United States). Marine Biological Lab.; Houghton, R.A. [Woods Hole Research Center, MA (United States)] [Woods Hole Research Center, MA (United States); McGuire, A.D. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)] [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The CO{sub 2} concentration of the atmosphere has increased by almost 30% since 1800. This increase is due largely to two factors: the combustion of fossil fuel and deforestation to create croplands and pastures. Deforestation results in a net flux of carbon to the atmospheric because forests contain 20--50 times more carbon per unit area than agricultural lands. In recent decades, the tropics have been the primary region of deforestation.The annual rate of CO{sub 2} released due to tropical deforestation during the early 1990s has been estimated at between 1.2 and 2.3 gigatons C. The range represents uncertainties about both the rates of deforestation and the amounts of carbon stored in different types of tropical forests at the time of cutting. An evaluation of the role of tropical regions in the global carbon budget must include both the carbon flux to the atmosphere due to deforestation and carbon accumulation, if any, in intact forests. In the early 1990s, the release of CO{sub 2} from tropical deforestation appears to have been mostly offset by CO{sub 2} uptake occurring elsewhere in the tropics, according to an analysis of recent trends in the atmospheric concentrations of O{sub 2} and N{sub 2}. Interannual variations in climate and/or CO{sub 2} fertilization may have been responsible for the CO{sub 2} uptake in intact forests. These mechanisms are consistent with site-specific measurements of net carbon fluxes between tropical forests and the atmosphere, and with regional and global simulations using process-based biogeochemistry models. 86 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  5. Carbon Losses due to Tropical Forest Fragmentation: A Forgotten Process in the Global Carbon Cycle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huth, Andreas; Brinck, Katharina; Fischer, Rico; Groeneveld, Juergen; Puetz, Sandro

    2014-05-01

    Tropical forests play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Thereby, deforestation is not only responsible for direct carbon emissions but also alters the forest structure and extends the forest edge area in which trees suffer increased mortality due to altered microclimatic conditions. Our aim is to quantify the global amount of anthropogenically created forest edge area and the resulting additional CO2-emissions by combining remote sensing data with previous empirical and modelling results. We found that 1,106 million ha and thereby 10% of the global tropical forested area lies within the forest edge area and that 84% of this area is anthropogenically created. From this area, a total amount of 8 Gt C is emitted due to tropical forest fragmentation, which accounts for an annual loss of 0.25 Gt C equalling 17% of the annual carbon losses due to deforestation. Fragmentation in the tropics hence augments carbon loss from deforestation substantially and should be taken into account both when analysing the role of vegetation in the global carbon balance and when adopting new management strategies in tropical forests.

  6. Globalization Implications for Human Resource Management Roles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry A. Friedman

    2007-01-01

    Globalization influences organizations that compete for customers with high expectations for performance, quality, and cost.\\u000a Globalization also exerts pressure on the Human Resource Management (HRM) function to adapt to changing organizational needs\\u000a and add greater value. This paper first reviews global trends, HRM roles, and the implications of globalization and culture\\u000a for HRM. Using Ulrich’s (Human resource champions: The new

  7. Global atmospheric black carbon inferred from AERONET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Makiko; Hansen, James; Koch, Dorothy; Lacis, Andrew; Ruedy, Reto; Dubovik, Oleg; Holben, Brent; Chin, Mian; Novakov, Tica

    2003-05-01

    AERONET, a network of well calibrated sunphotometers, provides data on aerosol optical depth and absorption optical depth at >250 sites around the world. The spectral range of AERONET allows discrimination between constituents that absorb most strongly in the UV region, such as soil dust and organic carbon, and the more ubiquitously absorbing black carbon (BC). AERONET locations, primarily continental, are not representative of the global mean, but they can be used to calibrate global aerosol climatologies produced by tracer transport models. We find that the amount of BC in current climatologies must be increased by a factor of 2-4 to yield best agreement with AERONET, in the approximation in which BC is externally mixed with other aerosols. The inferred climate forcing by BC, regardless of whether it is internally or externally mixed, is 1 W/m2, most of which is probably anthropogenic. This positive forcing (warming) by BC must substantially counterbalance cooling by anthropogenic reflective aerosols. Thus, especially if reflective aerosols such as sulfates are reduced, it is important to reduce BC to minimize global warming. aerosols | air pollution | climate change

  8. Global atmospheric black carbon inferred from AERONET

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Makiko; Hansen, James; Koch, Dorothy; Lacis, Andrew; Ruedy, Reto; Dubovik, Oleg; Holben, Brent; Chin, Mian; Novakov, Tica

    2003-01-01

    AERONET, a network of well calibrated sunphotometers, provides data on aerosol optical depth and absorption optical depth at >250 sites around the world. The spectral range of AERONET allows discrimination between constituents that absorb most strongly in the UV region, such as soil dust and organic carbon, and the more ubiquitously absorbing black carbon (BC). AERONET locations, primarily continental, are not representative of the global mean, but they can be used to calibrate global aerosol climatologies produced by tracer transport models. We find that the amount of BC in current climatologies must be increased by a factor of 2–4 to yield best agreement with AERONET, in the approximation in which BC is externally mixed with other aerosols. The inferred climate forcing by BC, regardless of whether it is internally or externally mixed, is ?1 W/m2, most of which is probably anthropogenic. This positive forcing (warming) by BC must substantially counterbalance cooling by anthropogenic reflective aerosols. Thus, especially if reflective aerosols such as sulfates are reduced, it is important to reduce BC to minimize global warming. PMID:12746494

  9. Atmospheric carbon dioxide, climate, and global vegetation change

    SciTech Connect

    Post, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    Over the past several decades, significant progress has been made in measuring and understanding the global carbon cycle and in developing methods for projecting future changes in the atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration. During this time, a natural starting point was to check the balance sheet that accounts for all carbon as it exchanged between the major global carbon reservoirs. While it is possible to achieve a balance for a single instant in time, it is not possible with current information to balance carbon fluxes for decade or longer time periods. The inability to account for all carbon exchanges indicated an insufficient knowledge of global carbon cycle processes. In this paper, I outline the scale of the discrepancies involved and offer hypotheses concerning previously underappreciated carbon fluxes that suggest new research directions. These hypotheses postulate global vegetation change at several time scales as a plausible reason for our inability to ''balance'' the global carbon cycle over long time periods. 47 refs.

  10. Global carbon sequestration in tidal, saline wetland soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail L. Chmura; Shimon C. Anisfeld; Donald R. Cahoon; James C. Lynch

    2003-01-01

    Wetlands represent the largest component of the terrestrial biological carbon pool and thus play an important role in global carbon cycles. Most global carbon budgets, however, have focused on dry land ecosystems that extend over large areas and have not accounted for the many small, scattered carbonstoring ecosystems such as tidal saline wetlands. We compiled data for 154 sites in

  11. Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear"

    E-print Network

    Rust, Bert W.

    Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear" Bert W. Rust Mathematical- tioned the connection between global warming and increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide by pointing out of these plots to global warming have spilled over to the real world, inviting both praise [4, 17] and scorn [15

  12. Global synchronous changes in the carbon isotopic composition of carbonate sediments unrelated to changes in the global carbon cycle

    PubMed Central

    Swart, Peter K.

    2008-01-01

    The carbon isotopic (?13C) composition of bulk carbonate sediments deposited off the margins of four carbonate platforms/ramp systems (Bahamas, Maldives, Queensland Plateau, and Great Australian Bight) show synchronous changes over the past 0 to 10 million years. However, these variations are different from the established global pattern in the ?13C measured in the open oceans over the same time period. For example, from 10 Ma to the present, the ?13C of open oceanic carbonate has decreased, whereas platform margin sediments analyzed here show an increase. It is suggested that the ?13C patterns in the marginal platform deposits are produced through admixing of aragonite-rich sediments, which have relatively positive ?13C values, with pelagic materials, which have lower ?13C values. As the more isotopically positive shallow-water carbonate sediments are only produced when the platforms are flooded, there is a connection between changes in global sea level and the ?13C of sediments in marginal settings. These data indicate that globally synchronous changes in ?13C can take place that are completely unrelated to variations in the global carbon cycle. Fluctuations in the ?13C of carbonate sediments measured during previous geological periods may also be subject to similar processes, and global synchroniety of ?13C can no longer necessarily be considered an indicator that such changes are related to, or caused by, variations in the burial of organic carbon. Inferences regarding the interpretation of changes in the cycling of organic carbon derived from ?13C records should be reconsidered in light of the findings presented here. PMID:18772393

  13. Poker Chip Model: Global Carbon Pools and Fluxes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center

    This short activity provides a way to improve understanding of a frequently-published diagram of global carbon pools and fluxes. Students create a scaled 3-D visual of carbon pools and net fluxes between pools.

  14. World fossil fuel subsidies and global carbon emissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bjorn Larsen; Anwar Shah

    1992-01-01

    Larsen and Shah present evidence on the level of fossil fuel subsidies and their implications for carbon dioxide emissions. They conclude that substantial fossil fuel subsidies prevail in a handful of large, carbon-emitting countries. Removing such subsidies could substantially reduce national carbon emissions in some countries. Global carbon emissions could be reduced by 9 percent, assuming no change in world

  15. Model-based estimation of the global carbon budget and its uncertainty from carbon dioxide and carbon isotope records

    E-print Network

    Jain, Atul K.

    Model-based estimation of the global carbon budget and its uncertainty from carbon dioxide and the terrestrial biosphere based on carbon dioxide and carbon isotope records, and prior information on model of carbon dioxide and the resulting atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide determined from the behavior

  16. Global Coastal Carbon Program Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer

    CDIAC provides data management support for the Global Coastal Carbon Data Project. The coastal regions data are very important for the understanding of carbon cycle on the continental margins. The Coastal Project data include the bottle (discrete) and surface (underway) carbon-related measurements from coastal research cruises, the data from time series cruises, and coastal moorings. The data from US East Coast, US West Coast, and European Coastal areas are available. CDIAC provides a map interface with vessel or platform names. Clicking on the name brings up information about the vessel or the scientific platform, the kinds of measurements collected and the timeframe, links to project pages, when available, and the links to the data files themselves.

  17. Knowledge Management and Global Information Dissemination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umunadi, Ejiwoke Kennedy

    2014-01-01

    The paper looked at knowledge management and global information dissemination. Knowledge is a very powerful tool for survival, growth and development. It can be seen as the information, understanding and skills that you gain through education or experience. The paper was addressed under the following sub-headings: Knowledge management knowledge…

  18. Developing global supply chain quality management systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chu-hua Kuei; Christian N. Madu; Chinho Lin

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a global supply chain quality management (SCQM) framework as an extension of the traditional supply chain operations and quality management. Three distinct groups of variables are adopted in this study to illustrate the conceptual framework: a hierarchy of design variables, a hierarchy of system variables, and a hierarchy of problem solving methods. The aim of this theoretical

  19. (The ocean's role in the global carbon cycle)

    SciTech Connect

    Joos, L.F.

    1990-12-20

    The traveler collaborated with Dr. J. L. Sarmiento of the Program in Atmospheric Sciences, Princeton University, and Dr. U. Siegenthaler of the University of Bern in box-model studies of the potential enhancement of oceanic CO{sub 2} uptake by fertilizing the southern ocean with iron. As a result of this collaboration, a letter describing the results was submitted to the journal Nature. Sensitivity studies were carried out to gain a better understanding of the processes involved for a hypothetical iron fertilization of the ocean. An article that describes this work has been submitted to the journal Global Biogeochemical Cycles. The traveler and U. Siegenthaler are preparing a journal article describing a box model of the global carbon cycle that is an extension of the one-dimensional box-diffusion model. The traveler attended Oceanography 590b at the University of Washington in Friday Harbor. While at Friday Harbor, he started to collaborate with Drs. M. Warner, R. Gammon, and J. Bullister, all from the University of Washington, Seattle, to calibrate the global carbon cycle model with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-11 and CFC-12. The traveler started collaboration with Drs. J. C. Orr and J. L. Sarmiento to calculate apparent eddy diffusivities from the Princeton three-dimensional ocean model. The work is conducted by the University of Bern, Switzerland (the traveler is principal investigator), for a US Department of Energy program managed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  20. The global waste management challenge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Goldstein

    1987-01-01

    The author states that the problem of solid waste management is not unique to the USA, and that almost all industrial nations are having to modify their policies regarding waste management. Many countries are having policy changes about heavy metals, dioxins, acid gases, ash disposal, and waste-facility operator training.

  1. Carbon Input and Soil Carbon Dioxide Emission Affected by Land Use and Management Practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land use and management practices may influence C inputs and soil CO2 emission, a greenhouse gas responsible for global warming. Carbon inputs and soil CO2 emission were monitored from crop- and grassland with various irrigation and cropping systems from 2006 to 2008 in western North Dakota, USA. Tr...

  2. Isotropic simple global carbon model: The use of carbon isotopes for model development. Ph.D. Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, O.Y.

    1994-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is a major greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. Anthropogenic CO2 emissions from fossil fuel use and deforestation have perturbed the natural global carbon cycle. As a result, the atmospheric CO2 concentration has rapidly increased, causing the potential for global warming. A twenty four compartment isotopic simple global carbon model (IS-GCM) has been developed for scenario analysis, research needs prioritization, and for recommending strategies to stabilize the atmospheric CO2 level. CO2 fertilization and temperature effects are included in the terrestrial biosphere, and the ocean includes inorganic chemistry which, with ocean water circulation, enables the calculation of time-variable oceanic carbon uptake. The eight compartment simple global carbon model (SGCM) served as the basis of the ISGCM model development. Carbon isotopes, C-13 (stable carbon) and C-14(radiocarbon), were used for model constraints as well as results from SGCM that led to multiple compartments in ISGCM. The ISGCM was calibrated with the observed CO2 concentrations, delta C-13, and Delta C-14 in the atmosphere, Delta C-14 in the soil and Delta C-14 in the ocean. Also, ISGCM was constrained by literature values of oceanic carbon uptake (gas exchange) and CO2 emissions from deforestation. Inputs (forcing functions in the model) were the CO2 emissions from fossil fuel use and deforestation. Scenario analysis, together with emission strategies tests, indicate that urgent action to reduce anthropogenic emissions would need to be taken to stabilize atmospheric CO2. Results showed that quantitatively, forest management is just as effective as the reduction of fossil fuel emissions in controlling atmospheric CO2. Sensitivity analysis of temperature feedback suggests that future global warming would cause an additional perturbation in the global-carbon cycle, resulting in depletion of soil organic carbon, accumulation of plant biomass, and the increase of atmospheric CO2.

  3. Risk of natural disturbances makes future contribution of Canada's forests to the global carbon cycle highly uncertain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Werner A. Kurz; Graham Stinson; Gregory J. Rampley; Caren C. Dymond; Eric T. Neilson

    2008-01-01

    A large carbon sink in northern land surfaces inferred from global carbon cycle inversion models led to concerns during Kyoto Protocol negotiations that countries might be able to avoid efforts to reduce fossil fuel emissions by claiming large sinks in their managed forests. The greenhouse gas balance of Canada's managed forest is strongly affected by naturally occurring fire with high

  4. Global patterns of carbon dioxide emissions from soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James W. Raich; Christopher S. Potter

    1995-01-01

    We use semi-mechanistic, empirically based statistical models to predict the spatial and temporal patterns of global carbon dioxide emissions from terrestrial soils. Emissions include the respiration of both soil organisms and plant roots. At the global scale, rates of soil COâ efflux correlate significantly with temperature and precipitation; they do not correlated well with soil carbon pools, soil nitrogen pools,

  5. Accounting for agriculture in modelling the global terrestrial carbon cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bondeau; P. Smith; S. Schaphoff; S. Zaehle; B. Smith; S. Sitch; D. Gerten; B. Schröder; W. Lucht; W. Cramer

    2003-01-01

    Among the different approaches that investigate the role of the terrestrial biosphere within the global carbon cycle, Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) are an important tool. They represent the major biogeochemical mechanisms (carbon and water fluxes), depending on climate and soil, in order to simulate vegetation type (tree\\/grass, evergreen\\/deciduous, etc) as well as ecosystem function. The models should be validated

  6. Can carbon in bioenergy crops mitigate global climate change?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different forms of carbon cycle continuously through several pools in natural and managed ecosystems and spheres. Carbon’s recent "commodification," as a negative environmental externality, rendered it a "scarce" and "tradable" element. Although the carbon supply in nature is not limited, energy is ...

  7. Global toxification: A manageable problem?

    SciTech Connect

    Meent, D. van de [RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Verbruggen, E.M.J. [RITOX, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Using the multimedia fate model GLOBETOX, concentration-time series of chemicals in air, water, sediment, and soil, on continental and global spatial scales, are predicted from former, present and future emissions, on the basis of transport and transformation rate constants. GLOBETOX was designed as a sub-model for RIVM`s decision support system TARGETS, an integrated assessment tool for analyzing the environmental consequences of socioeconomic developments. GLOBETOX is a nested version of the Mackay-type multimedia model SIMPLEBOX. GLOBETOX models the global environment as consisting of continental islands (air, water, sediment, soil), embedded in a global oceanic background (air and water only). The ``islands`` considered are generic representations of the main continents: North America, Europe, Asia, and the combined continents on the southern hemisphere (South America, Africa, Australia). The fully mechanistic GLCBETOX model was applied, without further calibration of the parameters to the actual situation, to four test chemicals: DDT, PCBs, DEHP and lead. The predicted concentrations were interpreted as spatially averaged values and compared with available monitoring data. The results indicate that the model simulations do reflect reality in the sense that (1) predicted concentrations have the right order of magnitude and (2) predicted time-responses seem reasonable. This preliminary analysis gives reason for moderate optimism about the potential for controlling global toxification. While the use of organic chemicals will increase, rapid response to emission reduction programs and to shift towards use of more degradable alternatives can be expected. Metals remain a source of concern, mainly because of their absolute non-degradability. The effects of local exposure in many hot spots may be of more concern than the effects of continental-scale background exposure.

  8. Role of volcanic forcing on future global carbon cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Tjiputra; O. H. Otterå

    2011-01-01

    Using a fully coupled global climate-carbon cycle model, we assess the potential role of volcanic eruptions on future projection of climate change and its associated carbon cycle feedback. The volcanic-like forcings are applied together with business-as-usual IPCC-A2 carbon emissions scenario. We show that very large volcanic eruptions similar to Tambora lead to short-term substantial global cooling. However, over a long

  9. Role of volcanic forcing on future global carbon cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Tjiputra; O. H. Otterå

    2011-01-01

    Using a fully coupled global climate-carbon cycle model, we assess the potential role of volcanic eruptions on future projection of climate change and its associated carbon cycle feedback. The volcanic-like forcings are applied together with a business-as-usual IPCC-A2 carbon emissions scenario. We show that very large volcanic eruptions similar to Tambora lead to short-term substantial global cooling. However, over a

  10. Old-growth forests as global carbon sinks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastiaan Luyssaert; E.-Detlef Schulze; Annett Börner; Alexander Knohl; Dominik Hessenmöller; Beverly E. Law; Philippe Ciais; John Grace

    2008-01-01

    Old-growth forests remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere at rates that vary with climate and nitrogen deposition. The sequestered carbon dioxide is stored in live woody tissues and slowly decomposing organic matter in litter and soil. Old-growth forests therefore serve as a global carbon dioxide sink, but they are not protected by international treaties, because it is generally thought that

  11. Merck Global Energy Management Program

    E-print Network

    Williams, K.

    2005-01-01

    practice implementation, and program awareness. Additionally, the GEMP has the leadership commitment of Senior Merck management. The GEMP is consistent with Merck?s Operational Excellence initiatives, which are part of Merck?s new Operating Priorities... to achieve a higher level of performance excellence. The GEMP?s performance is incorporated into the Merck Manufacturing Division?s performance grid along with other quality, safety, environmental, and financial targets. Other GEMP highlights include a...

  12. Carbon's corner in the global climate challange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, Joseph

    2010-05-01

    Unlike on other planets in the Solar System, most of the carbon in carbon dioxide (CO2) that degassed from Earth during its formation nearly 4.5 billion years ago is in limestone as the mineral calcite (CaCO3). Consequently, the small percentage (about 0.04) of CO2 in Earth's atmosphere can be changed easily by the combustion of fossil fuels. Since the early 1950s when accurate measurements of atmospheric CO2 began, it has been documented that the amount of CO2 in Earth's atmosphere is increasing at an exponential rate (Report of U.S. National Academy of Science, 2007). This course is a science elective that embraces the ideals of SENCER (Science Education for New Civic Engagements and Responsibilities) that connects science and civic engagement by teaching through complex, contested, current, and unresolved societal issues to basic science. Specifically, the instruction invites students to put scientific knowledge and the scientific method to practical use on matters of immediate interest not only to the students but also to the general public. This is done through a careful examination of the ecological and environmental issues surrounding the build-up of CO2 in the atmosphere as presented in CO2 Rising - The World's Greatest Environmental Challenge by Tyler Volk. A reflective reading of Volk's non-technical but engaging book, complemented by weekly 180-minutes of in-class instruction, results in an understanding of topics that are necessary for an informed public that continues the discussion about catastrophic global warming that might result from unchecked burning of fossil fuels by humans.

  13. Fate of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide and the Global Carbon Budget

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. S. Broecker; T. Takahashi; H. J. Simpson; T.-H. Peng

    1979-01-01

    The fate of fossil fuel carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere depends on the exchange rates of carbon between the atmosphere and three major carbon reservoirs, namely, the oceans, shallow-water sediments, and the terrestrial biosphere. Various assumptions and models used to estimate the global carbon budget for the last 20 years are reviewed and evaluated. Several versions of recent atmosphere-ocean

  14. Carbon Sequestration and Its Role in the Global Carbon Cycle Geophysical Monograph Series 183

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    73 Carbon Sequestration and Its Role in the Global Carbon Cycle Geophysical Monograph Series 183. Blaine Metting2 The purpose of this chapter is to review terrestrial biological carbon sequestration Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, USA. #12;74 TERRESTRIAL BIOLOGICAL CARBON SEqUESTRATION

  15. Global Carbon Cycle and the Optimal Time Path of a Carbon Tax

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. H. Farzin; O. Tahvonen

    1996-01-01

    The existing models of fossil fuel consumption with carbon accumulation imply that the optimal time path of carbon tax is either hump-shaped or monotonically decreasing. These models specify the decay of atmospheric carbon as a constant rate of total concentration. The authors extend this specification to more accurately reflect the global carbon cycle models of climatologists and show that this

  16. The Effects of Grazing Management on Soil Carbon (Carbon Sequestration)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard T. Conant; Keith Paustian

    This component of the VA RLEP consists of a field based sampling and research effort to document the efficacy of Management intensive Grazing (MiG) techniques to enhance the soil's inherent capacity to serve as a sink for carbon (four data collection sites were developed in VA). To the extent that MiG and associated conservation practices increase the storage of carbon

  17. Global change and the global carbon cycle: A critical thinking exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Brewer; J. M. Beiswenger

    1994-01-01

    The increasing concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and its probable impact on climate is receiving considerable attention in the press. Most biology students are aware of the increase of atmospheric CO[sub 2] and of some of its possible consequences (e.g., global warming). This activity enhances their understanding of global warming and of the carbon cycle. Students are asked

  18. Forest biomes are major reserves for terrestrial carbon, and major components of global primary productivity.

    E-print Network

    Malhi, Yadvinder

    a large impact on the global carbon cycle. In this paper, we discuss the climatic influences on the carbon interactions; carbon di- oxide; eddy covariance; forests; global carbon cycle; global change. INTRODUCTION be emphasized that the above figures for the global carbon cycle, although fre- quently quoted, are the mean

  19. Integrated Global Nuclear Materials Management Preliminary Concepts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Jones; M Dreicer

    2006-01-01

    The world is at a turning point, moving away from the Cold War nuclear legacy towards a future global nuclear enterprise; and this presents a transformational challenge for nuclear materials management. Achieving safety and security during this transition is complicated by the diversified spectrum of threat 'players' that has greatly impacted nonproliferation, counterterrorism, and homeland security requirements. Rogue states and

  20. Internationalizing Business Education for Globally Competent Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kedia, Ben L.; Englis, Paula D.

    2011-01-01

    The world is shrinking as developments in technology and transportation rapidly increase global opportunities and challenges for businesses. Furthermore, developing markets are becoming increasingly important, creating new challenges for managers. Business education must step in and prepare graduates to work in and with these markets. This article…

  1. Global carbon cycle and climate change: Responses and feedbacks from below-ground systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.K.; Turner, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    According to most global climate models, a continued build-up of CO2 and other greenhouse gases will lead to significant changes in temperature and precipitation patterns over large parts of the Earth. Belowground processes will strongly influence the response of the biosphere to climate change and are likely to contribute to positive or negative biospheric feedbacks to climate change. Current global carbon budgets suggest that as much as 2000 Pg of carbon exists in soil systems. There is considerable disagreement, however, over pool sizes and flux (e.g. CO2, CH4) for various ecosystems. An equilibrium analysis of changes in global belowground carbon storage due to a double-CO2 climate suggests a range from a possible sink of 41 Pg to a possible source of 101 Pg. Components of the terrestrial biosphere could be managed to sequester or conserve carbon and mitigate accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. (Copyright (c) 1991 Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd, England.)

  2. A global model of carbon-nutrient interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Berrien, III; Gildea, Patricia; Vorosmarty, Charles; Mellilo, Jerry M.; Peterson, Bruce J.

    1985-01-01

    The global biogeochemical model presented has two primary objectives. First, it characterizes natural elemental cycles and their linkages for the four elements significant to Earth's biota: C, N, S, and P. Second, it describes changes in these cycles due to human activity. Global nutrient cycles were studied within the drainage basins of several major world rivers on each continent. The initial study region was the Mississippi drainage basin, concentrating on carbon and nitrogen. The model first establishes the nutrient budgets of the undisturbed ecosystems in a study region. It then uses a data set of land use histories for that region to document the changes in these budgets due to land uses. Nutrient movement was followed over time (1800 to 1980) for 30 ecosystems and 10 land use categories. A geographically referenced ecological information system (GREIS) was developed to manage the digital global data bases of 0.5 x 0.5 grid cells needed to run the model: potential vegetation, drainage basins, precipitation, runoff, contemporary land cover, and FAO soil maps of the world. The results show the contributions of land use categories to river nutrient loads on a continental scale; shifts in nutrient cycling patterns from closed, steady state systems to mobile transient or open, steady state systems; soil organic matter depletion patterns in U.S. agricultural lands; changing nutrient ratios due to land use changes; and the effect of using heavy fertilizer on aquatic systems.

  3. High rates of organic carbon burial in fjord sediments globally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Richard W.; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Allison, Mead; Savage, Candida; Galy, Valier

    2015-06-01

    The deposition and long-term burial of organic carbon in marine sediments has played a key role in controlling atmospheric O2 and CO2 concentrations over the past 500 million years. Marine carbon burial represents the dominant natural mechanism of long-term organic carbon sequestration. Fjords--deep, glacially carved estuaries at high latitudes--have been hypothesized to be hotspots of organic carbon burial, because they receive high rates of organic material fluxes from the watershed. Here we compile organic carbon concentrations from 573 fjord surface sediment samples and 124 sediment cores from nearly all fjord systems globally. We use sediment organic carbon content and sediment delivery rates to calculate rates of organic carbon burial in fjord systems across the globe. We estimate that about 18 Mt of organic carbon are buried in fjord sediments each year, equivalent to 11% of annual marine carbon burial globally. Per unit area, fjord organic carbon burial rates are one hundred times as large as the global ocean average, and fjord sediments contain twice as much organic carbon as biogenous sediments underlying the upwelling regions of the ocean. We conclude that fjords may play an important role in climate regulation on glacial-interglacial timescales.

  4. Combustion of biomass as a global carbon sink

    E-print Network

    Ball, Rowena

    2008-01-01

    This note is intended to highlight the important role of black carbon produced from biomass burning in the global carbon cycle, and encourage further research in this area. Consideration of the fundamental physical chemistry of cellulose thermal decomposition suggests that suppression of biomass burning or biasing burning practices to produce soot-free flames must inevitably transfer more carbon to the atmosphere. A simple order-of-magnitude quantitative analysis indicates that black carbon may be a significant carbon reservoir that persists over geological time scales.

  5. Bringing Control to Global Supply Management Business Process Management (BPM) and Advanced Project Management Practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason Klemow; Francine Holloway

    One of the largest sources of aid to more than 100 developing countries, The World Bank has improved global sourcing and supplier management utilizing Business Process Management and proven project management practices. This workshop will focus on how The World Bank was able to more quickly and effectively manage project lifecycles using BPM for supply management. Presentation Objective. The World

  6. The carbon-sequestration potential of a global afforestation program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sten Nilsson; Wolfgang Schopfhauser

    1995-01-01

    We analyzed the changes in the carbon cycle that could be achieved with a global, largescale afforestation program that is economically, politically, and technically feasible. We estimated that of the areas regarded as suitable for large-scale plantations, only about 345 million ha would actually be available for plantations and agroforestry for the sole purpose of sequestering carbon. The maximum annual

  7. The importance of continental margins in the global carbon cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank E. Muller-Karger; Ramon Varela; Robert Thunell; Remy Luerssen; Chuanmin Hu; John J. Walsh

    2005-01-01

    Approximately half of the world's net annual photosynthesis occurs in the oceans (?48 Pg C y?1). Areas bordering continents (bottom 40% of the carbon sequestration in the ocean. These regions must be accounted for in realistic models of the global carbon cycle and its linkages to climate change.

  8. Carbon Dioxide and Global Warming: A Failed Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Global warming is a current environmental issue that has been linked to an increase in anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. To raise awareness of the problem, various simple experiments have been proposed to demonstrate the effect of carbon dioxide on the planet's temperature. This article describes a similar experiment, which…

  9. Seagrass meadows as a globally significant carbonate reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazarrasa, I.; Marbà, N.; Lovelock, C. E.; Serrano, O.; Lavery, P. S.; Fourqurean, J. W.; Kennedy, H.; Mateo, M. A.; Krause-Jensen, D.; Steven, A. D. L.; Duarte, C. M.

    2015-03-01

    There has been a growing interest in quantifying the capacity of seagrass ecosystems to act as carbon sinks as a natural way of offsetting anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. However, most of the efforts have focused on the organic carbon (POC) stocks and accumulation rates and ignored the inorganic carbon (PIC) fraction, despite important carbonate pools associated with calcifying organisms inhabiting the meadows, such as epiphytes and benthic invertebrates, and despite the relevance that carbonate precipitation and dissolution processes have in the global carbon cycle. This study offers the first assessment of the global PIC stocks in seagrass sediments using a synthesis of published and unpublished data on sediment carbonate concentration from 402 vegetated and 34 adjacent un-vegetated sites. PIC stocks in the top 1 m sediments ranged between 3 and 1660 Mg PIC ha-1, with an average of 654 ± 24 Mg PIC ha-1, exceeding about 5 fold those of POC reported in previous studies. Sedimentary carbonate stocks varied across seagrass communities, with meadows dominated by Halodule, Thalassia or Cymodocea supporting the highest PIC stocks, and tended to decrease polewards at a rate of -8 ± 2 Mg PIC ha-1 degree-1 of latitude (GLM, p < 0.0003). Using PIC concentration and estimates of sediment accretion in seagrass meadows, mean PIC accumulation rates in seagrass sediments is 126.3 ± 0.7 g PIC m-2 y-1. Based on the global extent of seagrass meadows (177 000 to 600 000 km2), these ecosystems globally store between 11 and 39 Pg of PIC in the top meter of sediment and accumulate between 22 and 76 Tg PIC y-1, representing a significant contribution to the carbonate dynamics of coastal areas. Despite that these high rates of carbonate accumulation imply CO2 emissions from precipitation, seagrass meadows are still strong CO2 sinks as demonstrates the comparison of carbon (POC and POC) stocks between vegetated and adjacent un-vegetated sediments.

  10. The ocean as part of the global carbon cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dieter Wolf-Gladrow

    1994-01-01

    The ocean plays a central role in the global carbon cycle being by far the largest active reservoir. Atmospheric CO2 level depends on the CO2concentration in the ocean surface layer, which is relatively low compared to mean oceanic values due to biological and physical\\u000a carbon pumps. Although the ocean may take up much of the carbon released by the increased

  11. Carbon pools and flux of global forest ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Dixon; A. M. Solomon; R. A. Houghton; M. C. Trexler; J. Wisniewski

    1994-01-01

    Forest systems cover more than 4.1 x 10[sup 9] hectares of the Earth's land area. Globally, forest vegetation and soils contain about 1146 petagrams of carbon, with approximately 37 percent of this carbon in low-latitude forests, 14 percent in mid-latitudes, and 49 percent at high latitudes. Over two-thirds of the carbon in forest ecosystems is contained in soils and associated

  12. Fire, global warming, and the carbon balance of boreal forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. Kasischke; N. L. Jr. Christensen; B. J. Stocks

    1995-01-01

    Fire strongly influences carbon cycling and storage in boreal forests. In the near-term, if global warming occurs, the frequency and intensity of fires in boreal forests are likely to increase significantly. A sensitivity analysis on the relationship between fire and carbon storage in the living-biomass and ground-layer compartments of boreal forests was performed to determine how the carbon stocks would

  13. Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Joseph Andres; J. S. Gregg; London M Losey; Gregg Marland; Thomas A Boden

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950-2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80% of global total emissions. These data were then used in a Monte Carlo approach to

  14. Approach to assessment of management impacts on agricultural-soil carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Barnwell, T.O.; Jackson, R.B.; Elliott, E.T.; Burke, I.C.; Cole, C.V.

    1992-01-01

    Agroecosystems contain about 12% of the terrestrial soil carbon and play an important role in the global carbon cycle. The authors describe a project to evaluate the degree to which management practices can affect soil carbon in agroecosystems. The objectives of the project are to determine whether agricultural systems can be managed to conserve and sequester carbon and thereby reduce the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and to provide reference datasets and methodologies for agricultural assessments. (Copyright (c) 1992 Kluwer Academic Publishers.)

  15. Carbon Dioxide Fluxes in the Global Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Watson; James C. Orr

    \\u000a Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is one of the key variables of the ‘Earth system’ — the web of interactions between\\u000a the atmosphere, oceans, soils and living things that determines conditions at the Earth surface. Atmospheric CO2 plays several roles in this system. For example, it is the carbon source for nearly all terrestrial green plants, and the\\u000a source of carbonic

  16. Global distribution of carbon turnover times in terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalhais, Nuno; Forkel, Matthias; Khomik, Myroslava; Bellarby, Jessica; Jung, Martin; Migliavacca, Mirco; Mu, Mingquan; Saatchi, Sassan; Santoro, Maurizio; Thurner, Martin; Weber, Ulrich; Ahrens, Bernhard; Beer, Christian; Cescatti, Alessandro; Randerson, James T.; Reichstein, Markus

    2015-04-01

    The response of the carbon cycle in terrestrial ecosystems to climate variability remains one of the largest uncertainties affecting future projections of climate change. This feedback between the terrestrial carbon cycle and climate is partly determined by the response of carbon uptake and by changes in the residence time of carbon in land ecosystems, which depend on climate, soil, and vegetation type. Thus, it is of foremost importance to quantify the turnover times of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems and its spatial co-variability with climate. Here, we develop a global, spatially explicit and observation-based assessment of whole-ecosystem carbon turnover times (?) to investigate its co-variation with climate at global scale. Assuming a balance between uptake (gross primary production, GPP) and emission fluxes, ? can be defined as the ratio between the total stock (C_total) and the output or input fluxes (GPP). The estimation of vegetation (C_veg) stocks relies on new remote sensing-based estimates from Saatchi et al (2011) and Thurner et al (2014), while soil carbon stocks (C_soil) are estimated based on state of the art global (Harmonized World Soil Database) and regional (Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database) datasets. The uptake flux estimates are based on global observation-based fields of GPP (Jung et al., 2011). Globally, we find an overall mean global carbon turnover time of 23-4+7 years (95% confidence interval). A strong spatial variability globally is also observed, from shorter residence times in equatorial regions to longer periods at latitudes north of 75°N (mean ? of 15 and 255 years, respectively). The observed latitudinal pattern reflect the clear dependencies on temperature, showing increases from the equator to the poles, which is consistent with our current understanding of temperature controls on ecosystem dynamics. However, long turnover times are also observed in semi-arid and forest-herbaceous transition regions. Furthermore, based on a local correlation analysis, our results reveal a similarly strong association between ? and precipitation. A further analysis of carbon turnover times as simulated by state-of-the-art coupled climate carbon-cycle models from the CMIP5 experiments reveals wide variations between models and a tendency to underestimate the global ? by 36%. The latitudinal patterns correlate significantly with the observation-based patterns. However, the models show stronger associations between ? and temperature than the observation-based estimates. In general, the stronger relationship between ? and precipitation is not reproduced and the modeled turnover times are significantly faster in many semi-arid regions. Ultimately, these results suggest a strong role of the hydrological cycle in the carbon cycle-climate interactions, which is not currently reproduced by Earth system models.

  17. Global atmospheric black carbon inferred from AERONET

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makiko Sato; James Hansen; Dorothy Koch; Andrew Lacis; Reto Ruedy; Oleg Dubovik; Brent Holben; Mian Chin; Tica Novakov

    2003-01-01

    AERONET, a network of well calibrated sunphotometers, provides data on aerosol optical depth and absorption optical depth at >250 sites around the world. The spectral range of AERONET allows discrimination between constituents that absorb most strongly in the UV region, such as soil dust and organic carbon, and the more ubiquitously absorbing black carbon (BC). AERONET locations, primarily continental, are

  18. Integrated Global Nuclear Materials Management Preliminary Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E; Dreicer, M

    2006-06-19

    The world is at a turning point, moving away from the Cold War nuclear legacy towards a future global nuclear enterprise; and this presents a transformational challenge for nuclear materials management. Achieving safety and security during this transition is complicated by the diversified spectrum of threat 'players' that has greatly impacted nonproliferation, counterterrorism, and homeland security requirements. Rogue states and non-state actors no longer need self-contained national nuclear expertise, materials, and equipment due to availability from various sources in the nuclear market, thereby reducing the time, effort and cost for acquiring a nuclear weapon (i.e., manifestations of latency). The terrorist threat has changed the nature of military and national security requirements to protect these materials. An Integrated Global Nuclear Materials Management (IGNMM) approach would address the existing legacy nuclear materials and the evolution towards a nuclear energy future, while strengthening a regime to prevent nuclear weapon proliferation. In this paper, some preliminary concepts and studies of IGNMM will be presented. A systematic analysis of nuclear materials, activities, and controls can lead to a tractable, integrated global nuclear materials management architecture that can help remediate the past and manage the future. A systems approach is best suited to achieve multi-dimensional and interdependent solutions, including comprehensive, end-to-end capabilities; coordinated diverse elements for enhanced functionality with economy; and translation of goals/objectives or standards into locally optimized solutions. A risk-informed basis is excellent for evaluating system alternatives and performances, and it is especially appropriate for the security arena. Risk management strategies--such as defense-in-depth, diversity, and control quality--help to weave together various technologies and practices into a strong and robust security fabric. Effective policy, science/technology, and intelligence elements are all crucial and must be harmonized. It is envisioned that integrated solutions will include reducing and securing nuclear/radiological materials at their source; improved monitoring and tracking; and enhancing detection, interdiction, and response. An active architecture, artfully combined of many synergistic elements, would support national actions and international collaboration in nuclear materials management, and it would help navigate a transition toward global nuclear sustainability.

  19. Global change and the global carbon cycle: A critical thinking exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, C.A.; Beiswenger, J.M. (Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States))

    1994-06-01

    The increasing concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and its probable impact on climate is receiving considerable attention in the press. Most biology students are aware of the increase of atmospheric CO[sub 2] and of some of its possible consequences (e.g., global warming). This activity enhances their understanding of global warming and of the carbon cycle. Students are asked to balance carbon sources and sinks using information about carbon fluxes from the scientific literature. To relate the increased CO[sub 2] and global warming to their personal lives, we ask them to explore the impact of CO[sub 2]-induced rise in global temperature on the corn agroecosystem of the United States. Finally, students are asked to think about (1) human impact on this cycle; (2) how we might mitigate problems associated with increased greenhouse gases; and (3) to consider a variety of potential impacts (e.g., aesthetic, health, economic) resulting from their proposed solutions.

  20. Implementation of Emission Trading in Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Optimization Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Duncan, I.

    2013-12-01

    As an effective mid- and long- term solution for large-scale mitigation of industrial CO2 emissions, CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) has been paid more and more attention in the past decades. A general CCS management system has complex characteristics of multiple emission sources, multiple mitigation technologies, multiple sequestration sites, and multiple project periods. Trade-off exists among numerous environmental, economic, political, and technical factors, leading to varied system features. Sound decision alternatives are thus desired for provide decision supports for decision makers or managers for managing such a CCS system from capture to the final geologic storage phases. Carbon emission trading has been developed as a cost-effective tool for reducing the global greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, a carbon capture and sequestration optimization management model is proposed to address the above issues. The carbon emission trading is integrated into the model, and its impacts on the resulting management decisions are analyzed. A multi-source multi-period case study is provided to justify the applicability of the modeling approach, where uncertainties in modeling parameters are also dealt with.

  1. Research on low carbon management using a scientific classification method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shanna Qi; Meiting Ju; Meng Duan; Wei Xing

    This research is aimed at the rapid development of a low-carbon economy, in which we propose the classification and application\\u000a of relevant management measures to affect the development of environmental management ideas and measures of the low-carbon\\u000a economy, which we called as low carbon management measures. According to scientific analysis of the low-carbon economy, we\\u000a can divide low-carbon management measures

  2. Global change and the groundwater management challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelick, Steven M.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2015-05-01

    With rivers in critical regions already exploited to capacity throughout the world and groundwater overdraft as well as large-scale contamination occurring in many areas, we have entered an era in which multiple simultaneous stresses will drive water management. Increasingly, groundwater resources are taking a more prominent role in providing freshwater supplies. We discuss the competing fresh groundwater needs for human consumption, food production, energy, and the environment, as well as physical hazards, and conflicts due to transboundary overexploitation. During the past 50 years, groundwater management modeling has focused on combining simulation with optimization methods to inspect important problems ranging from contaminant remediation to agricultural irrigation management. The compound challenges now faced by water planners require a new generation of aquifer management models that address the broad impacts of global change on aquifer storage and depletion trajectory management, land subsidence, groundwater-dependent ecosystems, seawater intrusion, anthropogenic and geogenic contamination, supply vulnerability, and long-term sustainability. The scope of research efforts is only beginning to address complex interactions using multiagent system models that are not readily formulated as optimization problems and that consider a suite of human behavioral responses.

  3. The Global Carbon Budget 1960 - 2100

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Galen McKinley

    This simulation allows the user to project CO2 sources and sinks by adjusting the points on a graph and then running the simulation to see projections for the impact on atmospheric CO2 and global temperatures.

  4. Global carbon cycles: A coupled atmosphere-ocean-sediment model

    SciTech Connect

    Tromp, T.K.

    1992-01-01

    A simple one-dimensional advective-diffusive ocean model with a polar outcrop is developed and calibrated to fit modern ocean temperature, phosphorus, oxygen, total carbon, and total alkalinity data. The ocean model includes an atmospheric box which predicts atmospheric P[sub CO2] and oxygen concentrations. In addition, a sediment model is designed to reproduce modern sediment profiles of solid organic carbon and calcite, and pore water oxygen, sulfate, carbonate bicarbonate and carbon dioxide. The organic matter sediment model is used to investigate the interplay of sedimentation rate, bioturbation and microbial kinetics on the total rates of organic carbon and phosphorus regeneration and accumulation in marine sediments. This is done for sediments ranging from coastal to deep ocean. The model is sensitive to the organic carbon flux, sedimentation rate, bottom water oxygen concentration, degradation kinetics and bioturbation rate. The type of diagenetic environment and the extent of remineralization is very dependent on these variables which are currently poorly constrained. The carbonate model uses organic carbon, oxygen and sulfate profiles from the organic sediment as input in addition to the total carbon and alkalinity of the overlying water. It predicts the carbonate, bicarbonate and carbon dioxide pore water concentrations and the sedimentary carbonate fraction. The lysocline and carbonate compensation depth are sensitive to the calcite dissolution rate, the organic to inorganic carbon ratio and organic matter degradation. The sediment and ocean models are combined to form an atmosphere-ocean-sediment model which is used to test the hypothesis that decreased polar surface nutrients and carbon is the cause of the 80 ppm reduction in atmospheric P[sub CO2] observed during the last ice age. The coupled model suggests that sediments play an important role in the global carbon budget.

  5. Global simulation of the carbon isotope exchange of terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, A.; Terao, Y.; Mukai, H.

    2009-12-01

    There remain large uncertainties in our quantification of global carbon cycle, which has close interactions with the climate system and is subject to human-induced global environmental change. Information on carbon isotopes is expected to reduce the uncertainty by providing additional constraints on net atmosphere-ecosystem exchange. This study attempted to simulate the dynamics of carbon isotopes at the global scale, using a process-based terrestrial ecosystem model: Vegetation Integrative SImulator for Trace gases (VISIT). The base-model of carbon cycle (Sim-CYCLE, Ito 2003) has already considered stable carbon isotope composition (13C/12C), and here radioactive carbon isotope (14C) was included. The isotope ratios characterize various aspects of terrestrial carbon cycle, which is difficult to be constrained by sole mass balance. For example, isotopic discrimination by photosynthetic assimilation is closely related with leaf stomatal conductance and composition of C3 and C4 plant in grasslands. Isotopic disequilibrium represents mean residence time of terrestrial carbon pools. In this study, global simulations (spatial resolution 0.5-deg, time-step 1-month) were conducted during the period 1901 to 2100 on the basis of observed and projected atmospheric CO2, climate, and land-use conditions. As anthropogenic CO2 accumulates in the atmosphere, heavier stable carbon isotope (13C) was diluted, while radioactive carbon isotope (14C) is strongly affected by atomic bomb experiments mainly in the 1950s and 1960s. The model simulated the decadal change in carbon isotope compositions. Leaf carbon with shorter mean residence time responded rapidly to the atmospheric change, while plant stems and soil humus showed substantial time-lag, leading to large isotopic disequilibrium. In the future, the isotopic disequilibrium was estimated to augment, due to accelerated rate of anthropogenic CO2 accumulation. Spatial distribution of stable isotope composition (12C/13C, or d13C) was primarily dominated by C3/C4 plant composition and then ancillary environmental conditions. Along latitude, plant and litter carbon pools in northern ecosystems have slower turnover rates (i.e., higher 14C/12C) than those in tropical ecosystems. However, humus carbon in northern ecosystems with very long mean residence times has lower 14C/12C ratio, most of bomb-derived radioactive carbon lingered still in plant biomass. Now, we are attempting to examine the model estimations by comparing with atmospheric measurements.

  6. A global ocean carbon climatology: Results from Global Data Analysis Project (GLODAP)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Key; A. Kozyr; C. L. Sabine; K. Lee; R. Wanninkhof; J. L. Bullister; R. A. Feely; F. J. Millero; C. Mordy; T.-H. Peng

    2004-01-01

    During the 1990s, ocean sampling expeditions were carried out as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), and the Ocean Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study (OACES). Subsequently, a group of U.S. scientists synthesized the data into easily usable and readily available products. This collaboration is known as the Global Ocean Data Analysis Project

  7. Estimating global "blue carbon" emissions from conversion and degradation of vegetated coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Pendleton, Linwood; Donato, Daniel C; Murray, Brian C; Crooks, Stephen; Jenkins, W Aaron; Sifleet, Samantha; Craft, Christopher; Fourqurean, James W; Kauffman, J Boone; Marbà, Núria; Megonigal, Patrick; Pidgeon, Emily; Herr, Dorothee; Gordon, David; Baldera, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Recent attention has focused on the high rates of annual carbon sequestration in vegetated coastal ecosystems--marshes, mangroves, and seagrasses--that may be lost with habitat destruction ('conversion'). Relatively unappreciated, however, is that conversion of these coastal ecosystems also impacts very large pools of previously-sequestered carbon. Residing mostly in sediments, this 'blue carbon' can be released to the atmosphere when these ecosystems are converted or degraded. Here we provide the first global estimates of this impact and evaluate its economic implications. Combining the best available data on global area, land-use conversion rates, and near-surface carbon stocks in each of the three ecosystems, using an uncertainty-propagation approach, we estimate that 0.15-1.02 Pg (billion tons) of carbon dioxide are being released annually, several times higher than previous estimates that account only for lost sequestration. These emissions are equivalent to 3-19% of those from deforestation globally, and result in economic damages of $US 6-42 billion annually. The largest sources of uncertainty in these estimates stems from limited certitude in global area and rates of land-use conversion, but research is also needed on the fates of ecosystem carbon upon conversion. Currently, carbon emissions from the conversion of vegetated coastal ecosystems are not included in emissions accounting or carbon market protocols, but this analysis suggests they may be disproportionally important to both. Although the relevant science supporting these initial estimates will need to be refined in coming years, it is clear that policies encouraging the sustainable management of coastal ecosystems could significantly reduce carbon emissions from the land-use sector, in addition to sustaining the well-recognized ecosystem services of coastal habitats. PMID:22962585

  8. Management Opportunities for Enhancing Terrestrial Carbon Dioxide Sinks

    SciTech Connect

    Post, W. M.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; West, Tristram O.; Liebig, Mark A.; King, Anthony W.

    2012-12-01

    The potential for mitigating increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations through the use of terrestrial biological carbon (C) sequestration is substantial. Here, we estimate the amount of C being sequestered by natural processes at global, North American, and national US scales. We present and quantify, where possible, the potential for deliberate human actions – through forestry, agriculture, and use of biomass-based fuels – to augment these natural sinks. Carbon sequestration may potentially be achieved through some of these activities but at the expense of substantial changes in land-use management. Some practices (eg reduced tillage, improved silviculture, woody bioenergy crops) are already being implemented because of their economic benefits and associated ecosystem services. Given their cumulative greenhouse-gas impacts, other strategies (eg the use of biochar and cellulosic bioenergy crops) require further evaluation to determine whether widespread implementation is warranted.

  9. Global carbon export from the terrestrial biosphere controlled by erosion.

    PubMed

    Galy, Valier; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Eglinton, Timothy

    2015-05-14

    Riverine export of particulate organic carbon (POC) to the ocean affects the atmospheric carbon inventory over a broad range of timescales. On geological timescales, the balance between sequestration of POC from the terrestrial biosphere and oxidation of rock-derived (petrogenic) organic carbon sets the magnitude of the atmospheric carbon and oxygen reservoirs. Over shorter timescales, variations in the rate of exchange between carbon reservoirs, such as soils and marine sediments, also modulate atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. The respective fluxes of biospheric and petrogenic organic carbon are poorly constrained, however, and mechanisms controlling POC export have remained elusive, limiting our ability to predict POC fluxes quantitatively as a result of climatic or tectonic changes. Here we estimate biospheric and petrogenic POC fluxes for a suite of river systems representative of the natural variability in catchment properties. We show that export yields of both biospheric and petrogenic POC are positively related to the yield of suspended sediment, revealing that POC export is mostly controlled by physical erosion. Using a global compilation of gauged suspended sediment flux, we derive separate estimates of global biospheric and petrogenic POC fluxes of 157(+74)(-50) and 43(+61)(-25) megatonnes of carbon per year, respectively. We find that biospheric POC export is primarily controlled by the capacity of rivers to mobilize and transport POC, and is largely insensitive to the magnitude of terrestrial primary production. Globally, physical erosion rates affect the rate of biospheric POC burial in marine sediments more strongly than carbon sequestration through silicate weathering. We conclude that burial of biospheric POC in marine sediments becomes the dominant long-term atmospheric carbon dioxide sink under enhanced physical erosion. PMID:25971513

  10. Global carbon sequestration in tidal, saline wetland soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chmura, G.L.; Anisfeld, S.C.; Cahoon, D.R.; Lynch, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Wetlands represent the largest component of the terrestrial biological carbon pool and thus play an important role in global carbon cycles. Most global carbon budgets, however, have focused on dry land ecosystems that extend over large areas and have not accounted for the many small, scattered carbon-storing ecosystems such as tidal saline wetlands. We compiled data for 154 sites in mangroves and salt marshes from the western and eastern Atlantic and Pacific coasts, as well as the Indian Ocean, Mediterranean Ocean, and Gulf of Mexico. The set of sites spans a latitudinal range from 22.4??S in the Indian Ocean to 55.5??N in the northeastern Atlantic. The average soil carbon density of mangrove swamps (0.055 ?? 0.004 g cm-3) is significantly higher than the salt marsh average (0.039 ?? 0.003 g cm-3). Soil carbon density in mangrove swamps and Spartina patens marshes declines with increasing average annual temperature, probably due to increased decay rates at higher temperatures. In contrast, carbon sequestration rates were not significantly different between mangrove swamps and salt marshes. Variability in sediment accumulation rates within marshes is a major control of carbon sequestration rates masking any relationship with climatic parameters. Globally, these combined wetlands store at least 44.6 Tg C yr-1 and probably more, as detailed areal inventories are not available for salt marshes in China and South America. Much attention has been given to the role of freshwater wetlands, particularly northern peatlands, as carbon sinks. In contrast to peatlands, salt marshes and mangroves release negligible amounts of greenhouse gases and store more carbon per unit area. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Energy saving and carbon reduction management indicators for natural attractions: a case study in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeou-Shyan Horng; Meng-Lei Hu; Chih-Ching Teng; Lin Lin

    2012-01-01

    The growing impact of global warming has made energy saving and carbon reduction (ESCR) by natural attractions an important issue. A set of clear and defined ESCR management indicators could help manage and control attractions, thereby facilitating sustainable development at those places. This study consists of three sub-studies in Taiwan. The first adopted qualitative methods to review related literature and

  12. Seasonal resolution of global patterns in soil carbon dioxide fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Raich, J.W.; Potter, C.S. (Iowa State Univ., Ames (United States) NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Soil respiration is a major flux in the global carbon cycle. Seasonal variation in soil-CO[sub 2] efflux rates is often high, yet current global summaries are generally confined to annual estimates. We have developed an empirical model that resolves temporal (monthly) and spatial (0.51 latitude-longitude) patterns of soil CO[sub 2] emissions at the global scale. Published estimates of soil respiration rates were used to derive a statistically based model. Maximum rates of soil CO[sub 2] flux increase with increasing mean monthly temperatures, but temperature alone is a poor predictor of emissions. Addition of mean monthly precipitation, along with information on soil type and texture, soil carbon contents, vegetation type and fractional wetland coverage accounted for much of the residual seasonal variation in soil CO[sub 2] fluxes. Global annual CO[sub 2] production from soils is estimated at 62-67 Pg C.

  13. Insensitivity of global warming potentials to carbon dioxide emission scenarios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Caldeira; James F. Kasting

    1993-01-01

    GLOBAL warming potentials for radiatively active trace gases (such as methane and chlorofluorocarbons) have generally been expressed1-2 relative to the time-integrated climate forcing per unit emission of carbon dioxide. Previous attempts to estimate the integrated climate forcing per unit CO2 emitted have focused on perturbations to steady-state conditions in carbon-cycle models. But for non-steady-state conditions, the integrated climate forcing from

  14. Inland aquatic ecosystems and the perturbed global-carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, P.J.

    1981-08-01

    The role of inland aquatic ecosystems in the global carbon cycle is significant, although small compared to that of terrestrial systems and the oceans. Plants in inland waters fix about 0.5 x 10/sup 15/ gC yr/sup -1/ worldwide, compared to the 26 x 10/sup 15/ gC yr/sup -1/ fixed in the oceans. However, a larger fraction of the carbon fixed in inland aquatic ecosystems is preserved in organic form in sediments as a result of relatively shallow depths, low dissolved oxygen levels in bottom waters, high production rates per unit area, and high rates of total sedimentation in many inland waters. In addition, inland aquatic ecosystems receive inputs of organic carbon from terrestrial ecosystems. Estimates of the contribution of inland aquatic ecosystems to the budget of the perturbed global carbon cycle are summarized. It is concluded that rivers, lakes, and reservoirs may be responsible for recent increases in carbon accumulation in inland sediments and the ocean of about 0.6 x 10/sup 15/ to 0.8 x 10/sup 15/ gC yr/sup -1/, a small but not insignificant portion of the 0.5 to 4.5 x 10/sup 15/ g yr/sup -1/ of carbon missing in budget estimates of the perturbed global carbon cycle. However, the most important issue linking inland aquatic ecosystems and global carbon dynamics may be the impact of CO/sub 2/-induced regional changes in temperature and precipitation on the ecological character of inland aquatic systems, water quality and availability, and estuarine productivity.

  15. Evaluating global ocean carbon models: The importance of realistic physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Doney; K. Lindsay; K. Caldeira; J.-M. Campin; H. Drange; J.-C. Dutay; M. Follows; Y. Gao; A. Gnanadesikan; N. Gruber; A. Ishida; F. Joos; G. Madec; E. Maier-Reimer; J. C. Marshall; R. J. Matear; P. Monfray; A. Mouchet; R. Najjar; J. C. Orr; G.-K. Plattner; J. Sarmiento; R. Schlitzer; R. Slater; I. J. Totterdell; M.-F. Weirig; Y. Yamanaka; A. Yool

    2004-01-01

    A suite of standard ocean hydrographic and circulation metrics are applied to the equilibrium physical solutions from 13 global carbon models participating in phase 2 of the Ocean Carbon-cycle Model Intercomparison Project (OCMIP-2). Model-data comparisons are presented for sea surface temperature and salinity, seasonal mixed layer depth, meridional heat and freshwater transport, 3-D hydrographic fields, and meridional overturning. Considerable variation

  16. Peatlands and Their Role in the Global Carbon Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zicheng; Beilman, D. W.; Frolking, S.; MacDonald, G. M.; Roulet, N. T.; Camill, P.; Charman, D. J.

    2011-03-01

    Global peatlands store a very large carbon (C) pool located within a few meters of the atmosphere. Thus, peatland-atmosphere C exchange should be a major concern to global change scientists: Will large amounts of respired belowground C be released in a warmer climate, causing the climate to further warm (a positive climate feedback)? Will more C be sequestered due to increased plant growth in a warmer climate? How will land use change, fires, and permafrost thaw affect the magnitude and direction of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) exchange with the atmosphere? These questions remain challenging, but some significant progress has been made recently.

  17. NASA's Global Imagery Management System: TIE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarcon, C.; Roberts, J. T.; Huang, T.; Thompson, C. K.; Cechini, M. F.; Hall, J. R.; Murphy, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)' Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) is a system that provides full resolution imagery from a broad set of Earth science disciplines to the public. Using well-accepted standard protocols such as the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Tile Service (WMTS), GIBS delivers global imagery efficiently and responsively. Behind this service, lies The Imagery Exchange (TIE), a workflow data management solution developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. TIE is an Open Archival Information System responsible for orchestrating the workflow for acquisition, preparation, generation, and archiving of imagery to be served by the GIBS' web mapping tile service, OnEarth. The workflow collects imagery provenance throughout a product's lifecycle by leveraging the EOS Clearing House (ECHO) and other long-term metadata repositories in order to promote reproducibility. Through this focus on metadata, TIE provides spatial and temporal searching capabilities such as an OpenSearch interface as well as facilitating the generation of metadata standards such as the OGC GetCapabilities. Designed as a scalable system, TIE's subsystems can scale-up or scale-down depending on the data volume it handles through the usage of popular open source technologies such as Apache Zookeeper and Grails. This presentation will cover the challenges and solutions to developing such a horizontally scalable data management system where science products are often varied with disparate provenance pertaining to source platforms and instruments, spatial resolutions, processing algorithms, metadata models and packaging specifications.

  18. Carbon foams for thermal management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nidia C. Gallego; James W. Klett

    2003-01-01

    A unique process for the fabrication of high-thermal-conductivity carbon foam was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This process does not require the traditional blowing and stabilization steps and therefore is less costly. The resulting foam can have density values of between 0.2 and 0.6 g\\/cc and can develop a bulk thermal conductivity of between 40 and 180 W\\/m

  19. Chemistry of organic carbon in soil with relationship to the global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Post, W.M. III (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1988-09-01

    Soil organic carbon in active exchange with the atmosphere constitutes approximately two-thirds of the carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. The large size and long residence time of this pool make it an important component of the global carbon cycle. The amount of carbon stored in soils and the rate of exchange of soil carbon with the atmosphere depends on many factors related to the chemistry of soil organic matter. The amount of carbon stored in soil is determined by the balance of two biotic processes associated with productivity of terrestrial vegetation and decomposition of organic matter. Each of these processes have strong physical controls that can be related to the climate variables temperature and precipitation at a regional or global scale. Soil carbon density generally increases with increasing precipitation, and there is an increase in soil carbon with decreasing temperature for any particular level of precipitation. Various ecosystem disturbances alter the balances between production and decomposition and therefore change the amount of carbon in soil. The most severe perturbation is conversion of natural vegetation to cultivation. The amount of soil carbon and nitrogen change resulting from cultivation depends on the initial amounts of each. Average changes in nitrogen are about one half to one forth the corresponding average carbon changes. Analysis of carbon and nitrogen linkages in soil shed some light on soil carbon dynamics after conversion to agriculture. The amount of initial carbon lost is associated with the amount of carbon in excess of C/N ratio of about 12 to 14. Soils with a high C/N ratio lose a larger fraction of the initial carbon then those with low C/N ratios. Soils with high C/N ratios have a larger percentage of organic matter in slowly decomposing forms. Cultivation results in a lowered input of slowly decomposing material which causes a reduction in overall carbon levels.

  20. Terrestrial carbon histories: Implications for future global carbon cycle dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Solomon; Webb. T; I. C. Prentice

    1993-01-01

    One of the most recalcitrant scientific questions during the past 20 years of research on increasing atmospheric CO[sub 2] is whether (and how much) the earth is a net source or a net sink for carbon now, and, whether (and how much) it will be so in the future. The answer is critical to cleaning international response strategies as well

  1. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the global carbon cycle: The key uncertainties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. H. Peng; W. M. Post; D. L. DeAngelis; V. H. Dale; M. P. Farrell

    1987-01-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of carbon between its sources and sinks determines the rate of increase in atmospheric COâ concentrations. The observed increase in atmospheric COâ content is less than the estimated release from fossil fuel consumption and deforestation. This discrepancy can be explained by interactions between the atmosphere and other global carbon reservoirs such as the oceans, and the terrestrial

  2. Sensor needs for agricultural and carbon management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a wide variety of sensors and platforms available for agricultural and carbon management. Two areas of concern are monitoring plant nutrients and crop residue over agricultural watersheds. Excess plant nutrients and agricultural chemicals may runoff into the water supply, degrading water ...

  3. Terrestrial nitrogen–carbon cycle interactions at the global scale

    PubMed Central

    Zaehle, S.

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between the terrestrial nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) cycles shape the response of ecosystems to global change. However, the global distribution of nitrogen availability and its importance in global biogeochemistry and biogeochemical interactions with the climate system remain uncertain. Based on projections of a terrestrial biosphere model scaling ecological understanding of nitrogen–carbon cycle interactions to global scales, anthropogenic nitrogen additions since 1860 are estimated to have enriched the terrestrial biosphere by 1.3 Pg N, supporting the sequestration of 11.2 Pg C. Over the same time period, CO2 fertilization has increased terrestrial carbon storage by 134.0 Pg C, increasing the terrestrial nitrogen stock by 1.2 Pg N. In 2001–2010, terrestrial ecosystems sequestered an estimated total of 27 Tg N yr?1 (1.9 Pg C yr?1), of which 10 Tg N yr?1 (0.2 Pg C yr?1) are due to anthropogenic nitrogen deposition. Nitrogen availability already limits terrestrial carbon sequestration in the boreal and temperate zone, and will constrain future carbon sequestration in response to CO2 fertilization (regionally by up to 70% compared with an estimate without considering nitrogen–carbon interactions). This reduced terrestrial carbon uptake will probably dominate the role of the terrestrial nitrogen cycle in the climate system, as it accelerates the accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere. However, increases of N2O emissions owing to anthropogenic nitrogen and climate change (at a rate of approx. 0.5 Tg N yr?1 per 1°C degree climate warming) will add an important long-term climate forcing. PMID:23713123

  4. CARBON CYCLE MANAGEMENT IN CROPLAND

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies of cropping system and land-use management impacts on climate change are being conducted in both countries and a general consensus was noted that intensification of agricultural production will be required to achieve the food and fiber needs of a growing world population. Interactions among...

  5. Globalization at NTT DoCoMo : implementing global business management strategies

    E-print Network

    Takagi, Katsuyuki, 1964-

    2004-01-01

    Global business management has become one of the most important issues facing companies today, and global economic dynamics provide companies with both tremendous opportunities and formidable challenges. Countries are ...

  6. Phase relation between global temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide

    E-print Network

    Stallinga, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The primary ingredient of Anthropogenic Global Warming hypothesis is the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide variations are the cause for temperature variations. In this paper we discuss this assumption and analyze it on basis of bi-centenary measurements and using a relaxation model which causes phase shifts and delays.

  7. The Global Carbon Cycle: It's a Small World

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip Ineson; Alexander Milcu; Jens-Arne Subke; Dennis Wildman; Robert Anderson; Peter Manning; Andreas Heinemeyer

    2010-01-01

    Predicting future atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), together with the impacts of these changes on global climate, are some of the most urgent and important challenges facing mankind. Modelling is the only way in which such predictions can be made, leading to the current generation of increasingly complex computer simulations, with associated concerns about embedded assumptions and conflicting model

  8. Eocene bipolar glaciation associated with global carbon cycle changes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aradhna Tripati; Jan Backman; Henry Elderfield; Patrizia Ferretti

    2005-01-01

    The transition from the extreme global warmth of the early Eocene `greenhouse' climate ~55 million years ago to the present glaciated state is one of the most prominent changes in Earth's climatic evolution. It is widely accepted that large ice sheets first appeared on Antarctica ~34 million years ago, coincident with decreasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and a deepening of

  9. The GLOBCARBON initiative global biophysical products for terrestrial carbon studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Plummer; Olivier Arino; Franck Ranera; Kevin Tansey; Jing Chen; G. Dedieu; H. Eva; I. Piccolini; R. Leigh; G. Borstlap; B. Beusen; Walter Heyns; Riccardo Benedetti

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the spatial and temporal variation in carbon fluxes is essential to constrain models that predict climate change. However, our current knowledge of spatial and temporal patterns is uncertain, particularly over land. The ESA GLOBCARBON project aims to generate estimates of at-land products quasi-independent of the original Earth Observation source for use in Dynamic Global Vegetation Models, a central component

  10. TECHNOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR PLANNING THE GLOBAL CARBON FUTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The atmospheric level of carbon dioxide (CO2) is the dominant variable in the anthropogenic influence of future global climate change. Thus, it is critical to understand the long-term factors affecting its level, especially the longer-range technological considerations. Most rece...

  11. Digital Simulation of the Global Transport of Carbon Monoxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Langlois; R. A. Ellefsen

    1971-01-01

    A numerical model of the general atmospheric circulation is used to simulate the global transport of carbon monoxide. The sources are estimated from gasoline consumption data. Since the strongest sources lie in the northern hemisphere belt of strong prevailing westerly winds, \\

  12. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) (Global Carbon Cycle)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This bimonthly contractor progress report covers the operation, maintenance and data management of the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar and the Airborne Topographic Mapper. Monthly activities included: mission planning, sensor operation and calibration, data processing, data analysis, network development and maintenance and instrument maintenance engineering and fabrication.

  13. Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Andres, Robert Joseph [ORNL; Gregg, JS [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark; Losey, London M [ORNL; Marland, Gregg [ORNL; Boden, Thomas A [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950 2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80% of global total emissions. These data were then used in a Monte Carlo approach to proxy for all remaining countries. The proportional-proxy methodology estimates by fuel group the fraction of annual emissions emitted in each country and month. Emissions from solid, liquid and gas fuels are explicitly modelled by the proportional-proxy method. The primary conclusion from this study is the global monthly time series is statistically significantly different from a uniform distribution throughout the year. Uncertainty analysis of the data presented show that the proportional-proxy method used faithfully reproduces monthly patterns in the data and the global monthly pattern of emissions is relatively insensitive to the exact proxy assignments used. The data and results presented here should lead to a better understanding of global and regional carbon cycles, especially when the mass data are combined with the stable carbon isotope data in atmospheric transport models.

  14. Ebola revisited: lessons in managing global epidemics.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Jacqueline

    2015-07-01

    The latest statistics for the number of new cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa point to the near containment of the virus. While the current threat will not be deemed over until 42 days after the last case to be diagnosed has twice tested negative, there is now a shift in focus from an emphasis on containment to that of policy review and capacity building in light of lessons learned. This article primarily focuses on Sierra Leone. It revisits the issues surrounding the epidemic, seeking to summarise both the negative and positive aspects of the response at local and global levels, as well as highlights fresh perspectives from healthcare workers in the field for the management of similar epidemics. PMID:26153804

  15. Soil organic matter dynamics and the global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Post, W.M.; Emanuel, W.R.; King, A.W.

    1992-01-01

    The large size and potentially long residence time of the soil organic matter pool make it an important component of the global carbon cycle. Net terrestrial primary production of about 60 Pg C[center dot]yr[sup -1] is, over a several-year period of time, balanced by an equivalent flux of litter production and subsequent decomposition of detritus and soil organic matter. We will review many of the major factors that influence soil organic matter dynamics that need to be explicitly considered in development of global estimates of carbon turnover in the world's soils. We will also discuss current decomposition models that are general enough to be used to develop a representation of global soil organic matter dynamics.

  16. Soil organic matter dynamics and the global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Post, W.M.; Emanuel, W.R.; King, A.W.

    1992-12-01

    The large size and potentially long residence time of the soil organic matter pool make it an important component of the global carbon cycle. Net terrestrial primary production of about 60 Pg C{center_dot}yr{sup -1} is, over a several-year period of time, balanced by an equivalent flux of litter production and subsequent decomposition of detritus and soil organic matter. We will review many of the major factors that influence soil organic matter dynamics that need to be explicitly considered in development of global estimates of carbon turnover in the world`s soils. We will also discuss current decomposition models that are general enough to be used to develop a representation of global soil organic matter dynamics.

  17. Contribution of a Headwater Stream to the Global Carbon Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argerich, A.; Johnson, S. L.; Haggerty, R.; Dosch, N.; Corson-Rikert, H.; Ashkenas, L.; Pennington, R.; Wondzell, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    The carbon cycle has been subject of numerous studies in recent years, primarily due to the role of CO2 and CH4 in global warming. Understanding the components and processes contributing to the global carbon cycle across a landscape is essential to understand climate change drivers and predicting future climate. Although the role of streams and rivers in transporting and processing nutrients from the land to the ocean has been widely recognized, most climate models still consider riverine systems as mere conduits without processing capacity. Evasion of carbon dioxide from inland waters has only been recently acknowledged to be an important source of carbon to the atmosphere and still, these estimations don't take into account evasion from headwater streams due to a lack of data. Here we present a 10-year C budget for a small headwater stream draining a 96-ha watershed in western Oregon, USA. This stream exported ~5000 g C per m2 of stream area, approximately 9% of the ecosystem production of the catchment (NEP). Export is dominated by evasion of CO2 to the atmosphere (~2200 g C per m2/y) and by downstream transport of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, ~1300 g per m2/y). Although highest in-stream pCO2 and DIC concentrations happen during summer low-flows, most stream export happens during winter high flows indicating at least a seasonal lag between CO2 production (i.e., respiration) and carbon export.

  18. Management and fertility control ecosystem carbon allocation to biomass production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campioli, Matteo; Vicca, Sara; Janssens, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Carbon (C) allocation within the ecosystem is one of the least understood processes in plant- and geo-sciences. The proportion of the C assimilated through photosynthesis (gross primary production, GPP) that is used for biomass production (BP) is a key variable of the C allocation process and it has been termed as biomass production efficiency (BPE). We investigated the potential drivers of BPE using a global dataset of BP, GPP, BPE and ancillary ecosystem characteristics (vegetation properties, climatic and environmental variables, anthropogenic impacts) for 131 sites comprising six major ecosystem types: forests, grasslands, croplands, tundra, boreal peatlands and marshes. We obtained two major findings. First, site fertility is the key driver of BPE across forests, with nutrient-rich forests allocating 58% of their photosynthates to BP, whereas this fraction is only 42% for nutrient-poor forests. Second, by disentangling the effect of management from the effect of fertility and by integrating all ecosystem types, we observed that BPE is globally not driven by the 'natural' site fertility, but by the positive effect brought by management on the nutrient availability. This resulted in managed ecosystems having substantially larger BPE than natural ecosystems. These findings will crucially improve our elucidation of the human impact on ecosystem functioning and our predictions of the global C cycle.

  19. Effects of Organic Carbon\\/Carbonate Burial Ratios and Biological Carbon Fixation on the Global Carbon Cycle Over the Past ~200 myr

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Katz; A. J. Milligan; B. S. Cramer; K. Fennel; K. G. Miller; J. D. Wright; P. G. Falkowski

    2004-01-01

    The isotopic composition of the global carbon reservoir integrates large kinetic fractionations from photosynthesis with small thermodynamic fractionations from carbonate precipitation. We present concordant delta 13C records of carbonates (delta 13Ccarb) and organic matter (delta 13Corg), along with new carbonate (Ccarb) and organic carbonate (Corg) fluxes for the past ˜205 myrs (Jurassic-Cenozoic) generated from bulk sediment samples from the Atlantic.

  20. Methane hydrate in the global organic carbon cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.

    2002-01-01

    The global occurrence of methane hydrate in outer continental margins and in polar regions, and the magnitude of the amount of methane sequestered in methane hydrate suggest that methane hydrate is an important component in the global organic carbon cycle. Various versions of this cycle have emphasized the importance of methane hydrate, and in the latest version the role of methane hydrate is considered to be analogous to the workings of an electrical circuit. In this circuit the methane hydrate is a condenser and the consequences of methane hydrate dissociation are depicted as a resistor and inductor, reflecting temperature change and changes in earth surface history. These consequences may have implications for global change including global climate change.

  1. Deep Soil Carbon: The Insight into Global Carbon Estimation and Deforestation Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangmanee, Podjanee; Dell, Bernard; Harper, Richard; Henry, David

    2015-04-01

    World carbon stocks have been dramatically changed by deforestation. The current estimation of carbon loss is based on allometric techniques assisted with satellite imagery and the assumption that, 20% of the total biomass carbon stock is below ground. However, the monitoring of soil carbon is limited to 0.3 m despite many soils being much deeper than this. For example, direct measurement of soil carbon demonstrated the occurrence of two to five times more carbon stored in deep soils of south Western Australia (SWA) compared to what would normally be reported, although the land had been deforested for 80 years. This raises important questions about the dynamics of this deeper carbon and whether it will contribute to global climate change. This paper reports the form and variation of carbon in soil at three adjacent areas at three different depths (0-1, 11-12 and 18-19 m). Techniques were developed to quantitatively and qualitatively determine small concentrations of carbon in deep soils. There were marked differences in carbon compounds with depth. Near the surface these were macromolecular organic compounds derived from lignin, polysaccharides, proteins, terpenes, whereas at depth they were low molecular weight compounds, 13-docosenamide, 13-docosenoate, xanthone, benzophenone. The deeper compounds are likely derived from the roots of the previous forest whereas the surface soils are affected by current land use. The in situ decomposition of deep roots was revealed by the pyridine compound. The variation of compounds and location of carbon in clay could imply the state of decomposition. The result demonstrated that carbon is contained in deep soils and should be considered in global carbon accounting, particularly given ongoing deforestation on deep soils.

  2. IBM Global Business Services Supply Chain Management Executive Report

    E-print Network

    Inventory optimization Supply chain visibility Integration and collaboration with partners GlobalizationIBM Global Business Services Supply Chain Management Executive Report IBM Institute for Business Value New rules for a new decade A vision for smarter supply chain management #12;IBM Institute

  3. Global Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Forum Summary Report and Recommendations

    E-print Network

    Global Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Forum Summary Report and Recommendations This forum;Global Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Forum Acknowledgements This report was compiled by Dr. Karim Landis, MSU IPM Program (Moderador) Dr. Helga Blanco, University of Costa Rica (Co-Moderator) Ms

  4. Impact of 19982002 midlatitude drought and warming on terrestrial ecosystem and the global carbon cycle

    E-print Network

    Zeng, Ning

    models, we analyze the impact of this event on terrestrial ecosystem and the global carbon cycle by agriculture, grazing, irrigation and fire suppression, the strong signature in the global carbon cycle and warming on terrestrial ecosystem and the global carbon cycle, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L22709, doi:10

  5. Future changes in global terrestrial carbon cycle under RCP scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.; Boo, K. O.; Hong, J.; Seong, H.; Heo, T. K.; Seol, K. H.; La, N.; Shim, S.; Lee, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem plays the important role as carbon sink in the global carbon cycle. Understanding of interactions of terrestrial carbon cycle with climate is important for better prediction of future climate change. In this study, terrestrial carbon cycle is investigated by Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model, version 2, Carbon Cycle (HadGEM2-CC) that considers vegetation dynamics and an interactive carbon cycle with climate. The simulation for future projection is based on the three (8.5 / 4.5 / 2.6) representative concentration pathways (RCPs) from 2006 to 2100 and compared with historical land carbon uptake from 1979 to 2005. Projected changes in ecological features such as production, respiration, net ecosystem exchange and climate condition show similar pattern in three RCPs, while the response amplitude in each RCPs are different. For all RCP scenarios, temperature and precipitation increase with rising of the atmospheric CO2. Such climate conditions are favorable for vegetation growth and extension, causing future increase of terrestrial carbon uptakes in all RCPs. At the end of 21st century, the global average of gross and net primary productions and respiration increase in all RCPs and terrestrial ecosystem remains as carbon sink. This enhancement of land CO2uptake is attributed by the vegetated area expansion, increasing LAI (Leaf Area Index), and early onset of growing season. After mid-21st century, temperature rising leads to excessive increase of soil respiration than net primary production and thus the terrestrial carbon uptake begins to fall since that time. Regionally the NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange) average value of East-Asia (90°E-140°E, 20°N-60°N) area is bigger than that of the same latitude band. In the end-21st the NEE mean values in East-Asia area are -2.09 PgC yr-1, -1.12 PgC yr-1, -0.47 PgC yr-1 and zonal mean NEEs of the same latitude region are -1.12 PgC yr-1, -0.55 PgC yr-1, -0.17 PgC yr-1 for RCP 8.5, 4.5, 2.6 . Acknowledgements. This study is supported by the National Institute of Meteorological Research, Korea Meteorological Administration (NIMR-2012-B-2).

  6. Uncertainty in atmospheric CO? predictions from a parametric uncertainty analysis of a global carbon cycle model

    E-print Network

    Holian, Gary L.; Sokolov, Andrei P.; Prinn, Ronald G.

    Key uncertainties in the global carbon cycle are explored with a 2-D model for the oceanic carbon sink. By calibrating the key parameters of this ocean carbon sink model to widely referenced values, it produces an average ...

  7. Formulating energy policies related to fossil fuel use: Critical uncertainties in the global carbon cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. M. Post; V. H. Dale; D. L. DeAngelis; L. K. Mann; P. J. Mulholland; R. V. ONeill; T.-H. Peng; M. P. Farrell

    1990-01-01

    The global carbon cycle is the dynamic interaction among the earth's carbon sources and sinks. Four reservoirs can be identified, including the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and sediments. Atmospheric COâ concentration is determined by characteristics of carbon fluxes among major reservoirs of the global carbon cycle. The objective of this paper is to document the knowns, and unknowns and uncertainties

  8. Global Warming and Marine Carbon Cycle Feedbacks on Future Atmospheric CO2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fortunat Joos; Gian-Kasper Plattner; Thomas F. Stocker; Olivier Marchal; Andreas Schmittner

    1999-01-01

    A low-order physical-biogeochemical climate model was used to project at- mospheric carbon dioxide and global warming for scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The North Atlantic thermohaline circulation weakens in all global warming simulations and collapses at high levels of carbon dioxide. Projected changes in the marine carbon cycle have a modest impact on atmospheric carbon dioxide.

  9. Costs and global impacts of black carbon abatement strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rypdal, Kristin; Rive, Nathan; Berntsen, Terje K.; Klimont, Zbigniew; Mideksa, Torben K.; Myhre, Gunnar; Skeie, Ragnhild B.

    2009-09-01

    Abatement of particulate matter has traditionally been driven by health concerns rather than its role in global warming. Here we assess future abatement strategies in terms of how much they reduce the climate impact of black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) from contained combustion. We develop global scenarios which take into account regional differences in climate impact, costs of abatement and ability to pay, as well as both the direct and indirect (snow-albedo) climate impact of BC and OC. To represent the climate impact, we estimate consistent region-specific values of direct and indirect global warming potential (GWP) and global temperature potential (GTP). The indirect GWP has been estimated using a physical approach and includes the effect of change in albedo from BC deposited on snow. The indirect GWP is highest in the Middle East followed by Russia, Europe and North America, while the total GWP is highest in the Middle East, Africa and South Asia. We conclude that prioritizing emission reductions in Asia represents the most cost-efficient global abatement strategy for BC because Asia is (1) responsible for a large share of total emissions, (2) has lower abatement costs compared to Europe and North America and (3) has large health cobenefits from reduced PM10 emissions.

  10. Theoretical analysis of the global land carbon cycle: what determines the trajectory of future carbon uptake?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Smith, M. J.; Luo, Y.; Leite, M.; Agusto, F.; Chen, B.; Hoffman, F. M.; Medlyn, B. E.; Rasmussen, M.

    2013-12-01

    The global land surface has taken up about 29% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions since preindustrial times. Yet it remains uncertain whether this significant buffer to the effects of anthropogenic climate change will continue in future. Some models predict that the global land biosphere will remain a carbon sink by the end of this century, but others predict it to become a major source. It is therefore important to understand what causes this divergence in predictions. In this presentation, we combined numerical and mathematical analysis to reveal general behaviour of global land models. Our analysis is based on the recognition that the terrestrial carbon cycle generally can be mathematically expressed by a system of first-order linear ordinary differential equations subject to an initial condition as follows: dC/dt = x(t)AC+BU(t) with C(t=0)=C0 where C(t) is the C pool size, A is the C transfer matrix, U is the photosynthetic input, B is a vector of partitioning coefficients, C0 is the initial value of the C pool, and x is an environmental scalar. In this equation, the linear carbon transfer among pools within one ecosystem is represented by matrix A and vector B, and the nonlinearity of environmental influences is represented by environmental scalar x(t) on carbon transfer and U(t) for carbon influx. We investigate how important variation in parameters controlling terrestrial carbon cycling are for three key predictions of the dynamics of future land carbon: the maximum carbon uptake, Fmax, the number of years it takes to reach Fmax, tmax, and the year in which the land biosphere changes from a carbon sink to a source, t1 (if it happens). The parameters included the sensitivity of net primary production to atmospheric [CO2], ?, the temperature sensitivity of soil carbon decomposition, Q10, and the sensitivity of global mean land surface to atmospheric [CO2],?. Our theoretical analyses reveal that a theoretical maximal amount carbon accumulated by land biosphere can be estimated from Fmax and the residence times of the different carbon pools, and that an estimate on the time it takes for the system to approach its new equilibrium can be obtained from the residence time of the slowest pool. Our numerical analyses reveal that a 3-D parameter space can bound the range of land carbon uptake trajectories from 1850 to 2100 predicted by all Earth System Models for the 5th assessment report of the IPCC. The maximal amount of carbon accumulated, tmax and t1 increases with ? and decreases with Q10 and ?. The sensitivities of all three model predictions to ? and Q10 increase with ? .

  11. Global Biogeochemistry Models and Global Carbon Cycle Research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Covey; K Caldeira; T Guilderson; P Cameron-Smith; B Govindasamy; C Swanston; M Wickett; A Mirin; D Bader

    2005-01-01

    The climate modeling community has long envisioned an evolution from physical climate models to ''earth system'' models that include the effects of biology and chemistry, particularly those processes related to the global carbon cycle. The widely reproduced Box 3, Figure 1 from the 2001 IPCC Scientific Assessment schematically describes that evolution. The community generally accepts the premise that understanding and

  12. The GLOBCARBON Initiative: MultiSensor Estimation of Global Biophysical Products for Global Terrestrial Carbon Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Plummer; Olivier Arino; Freddy Fierens; G. Bortstlap; Jing Chen; Gerard Dedieu; F. Ranera; M. Simon

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the spatial and temporal variation in carbon fluxes is essential to constrain models that predict climate change. However, our current knowledge of spatial and temporal patterns is uncertain, particularly over land. The ESA GLOBCARBON project aims to generate fully calibrated estimates of at-land products quasi-independent of the original Earth Observation source for use in Dynamic Global Vegetation Models, a

  13. Volcanic Carbon: Global Variations in Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, T. P.; de Moor, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Magmas degas volatiles during ascent from the mantle and mafic melts with 7 wt% H2O attain volatile saturation at ~15km depth. Magmatic gases are dominated by H2O, CO2 and S species, independent of their tectonic setting. At rift volcanoes, C is sourced from the mantle whereas arc volcanoes sample both mantle and subducted C. Volcanic gases provide detailed information on volatile sources and degassing processes. Comparison of fumarole gases with melt inclusions and volcanic plumes shows that most fumaroles sample degassed magma. Water, CO2 and S vary significantly between tectonic settings. The Kuriles, Japan, and Kamchatka have H2O/CO2 of 40 to 800 while other arcs such as the Cascades, Central America, S. America, Java, and Aeolian have ratios of 1 to 70. Gases from rift volcanoes have H2O/CO2 between 3 and 9. Some of these variations are due to addition of meteoric and subducted water, as evidenced by O and H isotopes. Speciation of H and C in volcanic gases are typically controlled by redox buffer reactions imposed by the Fe3+-Fe2+ (i.e. QFM) rock buffer or the SO2-H2S gas buffer. In more exotic systems such as Poás, hydrothermal S phases such as liquid native S can play a role in high T gas C and H speciation. Arcs dominate the global subaerial volcanic CO2 emission budget and arc total fluxes vary significantly i.e. only about 2 t/yr/km from the Aleutians and about 65 t/yr/km from Central America. Reasons for this are poorly constrained and may include variability in subducted material or slab/mantle conditions at depth. A large uncertainty results from use of generalized arc-wide C/S ratios, used in calculating C fluxes, and the paucity of data for remote arcs. Resolving C fluxes from subducted versus mantle or crustal (assimilated) C relies on C isotope ratios, which can vary spatially and temporally as a function of source or degassing processes. Therefore, when considering the deep C cycle and Cexchange between the interior and surface of the Earth, integrated studies with complete gas compositions, plume C/S and flux measurements, C isotopes and melt inclusions are needed.

  14. Deforestation fire carbon emissions for the last millennium simulated with the global vegetation model JSBACH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engels, Jessica; Kloster, Silvia; Wilkenskjeld, Stiig

    2013-04-01

    Humankind has fundamentally modified the Earth's terrestrial surface to secure food and other resources by conversion of natural ecosystems to managed areas. Until today, these anthropogenic changes in land cover have resulted in an extent of conversion from natural land cover by human activities to managed areas between one-third and one-half of the total Earth's land cover (Vitousek (1997)). Large parts of this conversion take place in the form of deforestation fires, which release atmospheric trace gases and aerosols into the atmosphere. These deforestation fires are climate dependent and follow a strong seasonal cycle, which is important for atmospheric chemistry. In the present study, the offline version of the JSBACH carbon pool model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M) is used to simulate climate dependent deforestation fire carbon emissions over the last millennium (800-2010). For this, the standard carbon allocation scheme is extended by four additional anthropogenic carbon pools. These pools separate the carbon amount released due to anthropogenic land cover change from the carbon amount released due to natural processes to the atmosphere. The climate dependent deforestation fire emissions are simulated in the model by a linear dependency on the soil moisture. This new carbon allocation scheme results in land cover change carbon emissions, which accumulate between 800 and 2010 to 239.8 PgC. Thereby, the climate dependent deforestation fire carbon emissions accumulate over the last millennium to 182.6 PgC yr-1 in the year 2010, which accounts for 76% of the total land cover change carbon emissions. Compared to present day satellite based observational data sets (GFED3) the simulated mean deforestation fire carbon emissions (1422.5 TgC yr-1) averaged over the time period 1997-2009 are about a factor of 4 higher than the observed carbon emissions (386.4 TgC yr-1) on a global scale. However, compared to a field-observational based estimate, the simulations underestimate deforestation fire carbon emissions by around 54% for the time period 1990-2007. Generally, the simulations performed for the present study capture the observed peak fire months of deforestation fire carbon emissions. However, the length of the burning season is slightly overestimated, and the range between the maximum and minimum deforestation fire carbon emissions within a year is underestimated in the model. This study provides a consistent modelling estimate of monthly mean deforestation fire emissions for the last millennium that resolve the seasonal dependent nature of the deforestation process, which can be applied in atmospheric chemistry modelling studies.

  15. Plumbing the Global Carbon Cycle: Integrating Inland Waters into the Terrestrial Carbon Budget

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Cole; Y. T. Prairie; N. F. Caraco; W. H. McDowell; L. J. Tranvik; R. G. Striegl; C. M. Duarte; P. Kortelainen; J. A. Downing; J. J. Middelburg; J. Melack

    2007-01-01

    Because freshwater covers such a small fraction of the Earth’s surface area, inland freshwater ecosystems (particularly lakes,\\u000a rivers, and reservoirs) have rarely been considered as potentially important quantitative components of the carbon cycle at\\u000a either global or regional scales. By taking published estimates of gas exchange, sediment accumulation, and carbon transport\\u000a for a variety of aquatic systems, we have constructed

  16. The impact of the permafrost carbon feedback on global climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Kevin; Lantuit, Hugues; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Witt, Ronald

    2014-08-01

    Degrading permafrost can alter ecosystems, damage infrastructure, and release enough carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) to influence global climate. The permafrost carbon feedback (PCF) is the amplification of surface warming due to CO2 and CH4 emissions from thawing permafrost. An analysis of available estimates PCF strength and timing indicate 120 ± 85 Gt of carbon emissions from thawing permafrost by 2100. This is equivalent to 5.7 ± 4.0% of total anthropogenic emissions for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) representative concentration pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario and would increase global temperatures by 0.29 ± 0.21 °C or 7.8 ± 5.7%. For RCP4.5, the scenario closest to the 2 °C warming target for the climate change treaty, the range of cumulative emissions in 2100 from thawing permafrost decreases to between 27 and 100 Gt C with temperature increases between 0.05 and 0.15 °C, but the relative fraction of permafrost to total emissions increases to between 3% and 11%. Any substantial warming results in a committed, long-term carbon release from thawing permafrost with 60% of emissions occurring after 2100, indicating that not accounting for permafrost emissions risks overshooting the 2 °C warming target. Climate projections in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5), and any emissions targets based on those projections, do not adequately account for emissions from thawing permafrost and the effects of the PCF on global climate. We recommend the IPCC commission a special assessment focusing on the PCF and its impact on global climate to supplement the AR5 in support of treaty negotiation.

  17. Tropical wetlands: A missing link in the global carbon cycle?

    PubMed Central

    Sjögersten, Sofie; Black, Colin R; Evers, Stephanie; Hoyos-Santillan, Jorge; Wright, Emma L; Turner, Benjamin L

    2014-01-01

    Tropical wetlands are not included in Earth system models, despite being an important source of methane (CH4) and contributing a large fraction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from land use, land use change, and forestry in the tropics. This review identifies a remarkable lack of data on the carbon balance and gas fluxes from undisturbed tropical wetlands, which limits the ability of global change models to make accurate predictions about future climate. We show that the available data on in situ carbon gas fluxes in undisturbed forested tropical wetlands indicate marked spatial and temporal variability in CO2 and CH4 emissions, with exceptionally large fluxes in Southeast Asia and the Neotropics. By upscaling short-term measurements, we calculate that approximately 90?±?77 Tg CH4 year?1 and 4540?±?1480 Tg CO2 year?1 are released from tropical wetlands globally. CH4 fluxes are greater from mineral than organic soils, whereas CO2 fluxes do not differ between soil types. The high CO2 and CH4 emissions are mirrored by high rates of net primary productivity and litter decay. Net ecosystem productivity was estimated to be greater in peat-forming wetlands than on mineral soils, but the available data are insufficient to construct reliable carbon balances or estimate gas fluxes at regional scales. We conclude that there is an urgent need for systematic data on carbon dynamics in tropical wetlands to provide a robust understanding of how they differ from well-studied northern wetlands and allow incorporation of tropical wetlands into global climate change models.

  18. Tropical wetlands: A missing link in the global carbon cycle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjögersten, Sofie; Black, Colin R.; Evers, Stephanie; Hoyos-Santillan, Jorge; Wright, Emma L.; Turner, Benjamin L.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical wetlands are not included in Earth system models, despite being an important source of methane (CH4) and contributing a large fraction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from land use, land use change, and forestry in the tropics. This review identifies a remarkable lack of data on the carbon balance and gas fluxes from undisturbed tropical wetlands, which limits the ability of global change models to make accurate predictions about future climate. We show that the available data on in situ carbon gas fluxes in undisturbed forested tropical wetlands indicate marked spatial and temporal variability in CO2 and CH4 emissions, with exceptionally large fluxes in Southeast Asia and the Neotropics. By upscaling short-term measurements, we calculate that approximately 90 ± 77 Tg CH4 year-1 and 4540 ± 1480 Tg CO2 year-1 are released from tropical wetlands globally. CH4 fluxes are greater from mineral than organic soils, whereas CO2 fluxes do not differ between soil types. The high CO2 and CH4 emissions are mirrored by high rates of net primary productivity and litter decay. Net ecosystem productivity was estimated to be greater in peat-forming wetlands than on mineral soils, but the available data are insufficient to construct reliable carbon balances or estimate gas fluxes at regional scales. We conclude that there is an urgent need for systematic data on carbon dynamics in tropical wetlands to provide a robust understanding of how they differ from well-studied northern wetlands and allow incorporation of tropical wetlands into global climate change models.

  19. Global Carbon Budget from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Global Carbon Project (GCP) was established in 2001 in recognition of the scientific challenge and critical importance of the carbon cycle for Earth's sustainability. The growing realization that anthropogenic climate change is a reality has focused the attention of the scientific community, policymakers and the general public on the rising concentration of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere, and on the carbon cycle in general. Initial attempts, through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol, are underway to slow the rate of increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. These societal actions require a scientific understanding of the carbon cycle, and are placing increasing demands on the international science community to establish a common, mutually agreed knowledge base to support policy debate and action. The Global Carbon Project is responding to this challenge through a shared partnership between the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP), the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and Diversitas. This partnership constitutes the Earth Systems Science Partnership (ESSP). This CDIAC collection includes datasets, images, videos, presentations, and archived data from previous years.

  20. Hydroclimatic Controls over Global Variations in Phenology and Carbon Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, Randal; Walker, G.; Thornton, Patti; Collatz, G. J.

    2012-01-01

    The connection between phenological and hydroclimatological variations are quantified through joint analyses of global NDVI, LAI, and precipitation datasets. The global distributions of both NDVI and LAI in the warm season are strongly controlled by three quantities: mean annual precipitation, the standard deviation of annual precipitation, and Budyko's index of dryness. Upon demonstrating that these same basic (if biased) relationships are produced by a dynamic vegetation model (the dynamic vegetation and carbon storage components of the NCAR Community Land Model version 4 combined with the water and energy balance framework of the Catchment Land Surface Model of the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office), we use the model to perform a sensitivity study focusing on how phenology and carbon flux might respond to climatic change. The offline (decoupled from the atmosphere) simulations show us, for example, where on the globe a given small increment in precipitation mean or variability would have the greatest impact on carbon uptake. The analysis framework allows us in addition to quantify the degree to which climatic biases in a free-running GCM are manifested as biases in simulated phenology.

  1. Some aspects of understanding changes in the global carbon cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emanuel, W. R.; Moore, B., III; Shugart, H. H.

    1984-01-01

    The collective character of carbon exchanges between the atmosphere and other pools is partially revealed by comparing the record of CO2 concentration beginning in 1958 with estimates of the releases from fossil fuels during this period. In analyzing the secular increase in CO2 concentration induced by fossil fuel use, the atmosphere is generally treated as a single well-mixed reservoir; however, to study finer structure in the CO2 records, the influence of atmospheric circulation must be more carefully considered. The rate of carbon uptake by the oceans, the primary sink for fossil fuel CO2, is assessed more reliably than influences on the atmosphere due to interactions with other pools. Models of the global carbon cycle are being substantially refined while data that reflect the response of the cycle to fossil fuel use and other perturbations are being extended.

  2. Global Management Education Graduate Survey, 2011. Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Gregg

    2011-01-01

    Each year for the past 12 years, the Graduate Management Admission Council[R] (GMAC[R]) has conducted a survey of graduate management education students in their final year of business school. This Global Management Education Graduate Survey is distributed to students at participating business schools. The survey allows students to express their…

  3. Chemistry of organic carbon in soil with relationship to the global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Post, W.M. III

    1988-01-01

    Various ecosystem disturbances alter the balances between production of organic matter and its decomposition and therefore change the amount of carbon in soil. The most severe perturbation is conversion of natural vegetation to cultivated crops. Conversion of natural vegetation to cultivated crops results in a lowered input of slowly decomposing material which causes a reduction in overall carbon levels. Disruption of soil matrix structure by cultivation leads to lowered physical protection of organic matter resulting in an increased net mineralization rate of soil carbon. Climate change is another perturbation that affects the amount and composition of plant production, litter inputs, and decomposition regimes but does not affect soil structure directly. Nevertheless, large changes in soil carbon storage are probable with anticipated CO2 induced climate change, particularly in northern latitudes where anticipated climate change will be greatest (MacCracken and Luther 1985) and large amounts of soil organic matter are found. It is impossible, given the current state of knowledge of soil organic matter processes and transformations to develop detailed process models of soil carbon dynamics. Largely phenomenological models appear to be developing into predictive tools for understanding the role of soil organic matter in the global carbon cycle. In particular, these models will be useful in quantifying soil carbon changes due to human land-use and to anticipated global climate and vegetation changes. 47 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Atmospheric carbon burial in modern lake basins and its significance for the global carbon budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einsele, Gerhard; Yan, Jianping; Hinderer, Matthias

    2001-10-01

    Lake basins (˜2.7×10 6 km 2, about 0.8% of the ocean surface or 2% of the land surface) bury a surprisingly high amount of atmospheric carbon (˜70×10 6 t/a) which reaches more than one fourth of the annual atmospheric carbon burial in the modern oceans. This is mainly accomplished by the rapid accumulation of lacustrine sediments and a very high preservation factor (on average 50 times higher than that in the oceans). Lakes with relatively large drainage areas commonly display the highest carbon accumulation rates. In most cases, burial of organic matter is more important than that of carbonate carbon produced by silicate weathering, in contrast to the oceans where the burial of atmospheric carbonate carbon almost reaches the same amount as that of organic carbon. Exceptions to this rule are closed lake basins in arid to semiarid climate which precipitate a major part of their atmosphere-derived dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) as carbonate. These results are demonstrated in some detail for L. Qinghai, China, (low contribution of atmospheric carbonate carbon) and L. Turkana, East Africa, (high contribution from silicate rocks). Further data are gained by estimates for a number of closed and open lakes. The drainage areas of the lakes withdraw atmospheric carbon at rates of mostly 1-4 g/m 2/a, calculated from the lacustrine carbon burial. Carbon burial rates in lakes commonly increase with change to wetter and warmer climate (partially larger lake surfaces, higher rates of seasonal carbonate precipitation, trend to stratified lake waters with oxygen-deficient bottom water). Anthropogenic influence mostly enhances the production and preservation of organic carbon in lake basins (often by a factor of 3-4). After the last glacial maximum, the joint action of the globally spreading vegetation, peat growth, and carbon burial in lakes would have been able to reduce the atmospheric carbon pool to one third to one half of its present amount within a time period of 1 ka. However, CO 2 exchange between the atmosphere and the ocean has brought about an overall increase in the atmospheric CO 2 during the Holocene. The contribution of lakes and artificial reservoirs in counteracting man-made CO 2 emissions should not be neglected.

  5. Global Biogeochemistry Models and Global Carbon Cycle Research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Covey, C; Caldeira, K; Guilderson, T; Cameron-Smith, P; Govindasamy, B; Swanston, C; Wickett, M; Mirin, A; Bader, D

    2005-05-27

    The climate modeling community has long envisioned an evolution from physical climate models to ''earth system'' models that include the effects of biology and chemistry, particularly those processes related to the global carbon cycle. The widely reproduced Box 3, Figure 1 from the 2001 IPCC Scientific Assessment schematically describes that evolution. The community generally accepts the premise that understanding and predicting global and regional climate change requires the inclusion of carbon cycle processes in models to fully simulate the feedbacks between the climate system and the carbon cycle. Moreover, models will ultimately be employed to predict atmospheric concentrations of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases as a function of anthropogenic and natural processes, such as industrial emissions, terrestrial carbon fixation, sequestration, land use patterns, etc. Nevertheless, the development of coupled climate-carbon models with demonstrable quantitative skill will require a significant amount of effort and time to understand and validate their behavior at both the process level and as integrated systems. It is important to consider objectively whether the currently proposed strategies to develop and validate earth system models are optimal, or even sufficient, and whether alternative strategies should be pursued. Carbon-climate models are going to be complex, with the carbon cycle strongly interacting with many other components. Off-line process validation will be insufficient. As was found in coupled atmosphere-ocean GCMs, feedbacks between model components can amplify small errors and uncertainties in one process to produce large biases in the simulated climate. The persistent tropical western Pacific Ocean ''double ITCZ'' and upper troposphere ''cold pole'' problems are examples. Finding and fixing similar types of problems in coupled carbon-climate models especially will be difficult, given the lack of observations required for diagnosis and validation of biogeochemical processes.

  6. Mitigating wildfire carbon loss in managed northern peatlands through restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granath, Gustaf; Lukenbach, Max; Moore, Paul; Waddington, James

    2015-04-01

    Wildfire frequency and severity are expected to increase in forested temperate and boreal ecosystems. Recent research indicates that northern peatlands are no exceptions to these risks and may be particularly vulnerable. These ecosystems represent a major component of the global carbon cycle and serve as contemporary and long-term net carbon sink. However, severe, deep burning, fires on these organic soils may not only compromise long-term carbon storage by releasing large amounts of carbon but also impose a real threat to human health and economies through smoke pollution and large costs in fire suppression, respectively. As research in tropical peatlands has revealed, these risks are likely enhanced when northern peatlands are drained and/or mined. Here we examine whether peatland restoration (re-wetting) practices can mitigate the risk of deep burns (>20 cm) and provide management recommendations. We synthesize the effects of drainage on peat moisture content and show how drainage and mining can weaken ecohydrological feedbacks in peatlands, making drained peatlands vulnerable to deep burns and carbon loss. We use bulk density and moisture data from burned, unburned and restored peatlands to evaluate the risk of deep burns under various conditions (differences in peat properties, extent of water table drop) using a new peat smouldering model. Climate change scenarios are shown to explore future risks of deep peat burning in extensively drained areas such as northern Europe. Combining modeling and experimental data we conclude that restoration can successfully lower the risk of deep burns if, for example, a new peat moss layer is established which will ensure a higher moisture content. Considering the large areas of drained and mined peatlands in the northern hemisphere, we will argue that restoration efforts are important to mitigate deep burns and carbon loss in peatlands.

  7. Propagation of uncertainty in carbon emission scenarios through the global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, A.A.; Goldstein, R.A. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States))

    1994-09-01

    The authors used the GLOCO model, which is a carbon cycling model that considers seven terrestrial biomes, two oceans and one atmosphere, to evaluate the rise in atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentration, (pCO[sub 2]) and the partitioning of carbon to the global compartments (ocean, atmosphere and terrestrial) as a function of time for a number of possible anthropogenic carbon emission scenarios, based on different energy policies as developed by the Energy Modeling Forum (EMF-12). The authors then evaluated the possible uncertainty in carbon emission scenarios and the propagation of this uncertainty in carbon emission scenarios and the propagation of this uncertainty throughout the model to obtain an envelope for the rise in pCO[sub 2]. Large fluctuations in the input signal are smoothed by the carbon cycle, resulting in more than a four-fold reduction in uncertainty in the output signal (pCO[sub 2]). In addition, they looked at the effect that other model variables have on the pCO[sub 2] envelope, specifically the ratio of carbon to nitrogen in the emissions. The carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N) will vary throughout the next century depending on the mix on energy sources chosen. More nitrogen in the emissions can produce a cofertilization effect in the terrestrial biomes, which would lead to sequestration of additional carbon. The uncertainty in C:N will enlarge the pCO[sub 2] uncertainty envelope by up to 20 ppm.

  8. Meeting global health challenges through operational research and management science

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper considers how operational research and management science can improve the design of health systems and the delivery of health care, particularly in low-resource settings. It identifies some gaps in the way operational research is typically used in global health and proposes steps to bridge them. It then outlines some analytical tools of operational research and management science and illustrates how their use can inform some typical design and delivery challenges in global health. The paper concludes by considering factors that will increase and improve the contribution of operational research and management science to global health. PMID:21897489

  9. A LEO Hyperspectral Mission Implementation for Global Carbon Cycle Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervin, Janette C.; Esper, Jaime; McClain, Charles R.; Hall, Forrest G.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Gregg, Watson W.; Mannino, Antonio; Knox, Robert G.; Huemmrich, K. Fred

    2004-01-01

    For both terrestrial and ocean carbon cycle science objectives, high resolution (less than l0 nm) imaging spectrometers capable of acquiring multiple regional to global scale observations per day should enable the development of new remote sensing measurements for important but as yet unobservable variables, with the overall goal of linking both terrestrial and ocean carbon cycle processes to climate variability. For terrestrial research, accurate estimates of carbon, water and energy (CWE) exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere a needed to id- the geographical locations and temporal dynamics of carbon sources/sinks and to improve regional climate models and climate change assessments. It is an enormous challenge to estimate CWE exchange from the infrequent temporal coverage and sparse spectral information provided by most single polar-orbiting, earth-looking satellite. The available satellite observations lack a sufficient number of well-placed narrow bands from which to derive spectral indices that capture vegetation responses to stress conditions associated with down-regulation of photosynthesis. Physiological status can best be assessed with spectral indices based on continuous, narrow bands in the visible/near infrared spectra, as can seasonal and annual terrestrial productivity. For coastal and ocean constituents, narrow-band observations in the ultraviolet and visible are essential to investigate the variability, dynamics and biogeochemical cycles of the world's coastal and open ocean regions, which will in turn help in measuring ocean productivity and predicting the variability of ocean carbon uptake and its role in climate change.

  10. Effects of land management on large trees and carbon stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauppi, P. E.; Birdsey, R. A.; Pan, Y.; Ihalainen, A.; Nöjd, P.; Lehtonen, A.

    2015-02-01

    Large trees are important and unique organisms in forests, providing ecosystem services including carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere and long-term storage. Some reports have raised concerns about the global decline of large trees. Based on observations from two regions in Finland and three regions in the United States we report that trends of large trees during recent decades have been surprisingly variable among regions. In southern Finland, the growing stock volume of trees larger than 30 cm at breast height increased nearly five-fold during the second half of the 20th century, yet more recently ceased to expand. In the United States, large hardwood trees have become increasingly common in the Northeast since the 1950s, while large softwood trees declined until the mid 1990s as a consequence of harvests in the Pacific region, and then rebounded when harvesting there was reduced. We conclude that in the regions studied, the history of land use and forest management governs changes of the diameter-class distributions of tree populations. Large trees have significant benefits; for example, they can constitute a large proportion of the carbon stock and affect greatly the carbon density of forests. Large trees usually have deeper roots and long lifetimes. They affect forest structure and function and provide habitats for other species. An accumulating stock of large trees in existing forests may have negligible direct biophysical effects on climate through transpiration or forest albedo. Understanding changes in the demography of tree populations makes a contribution to estimating the past impact and future potential of forests in the global carbon budget and to assessing other ecosystem services of forests.

  11. Effects of land management on large trees and carbon stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauppi, P. E.; Birdsey, R. A.; Pan, Y.; Ihalainen, A.; Nöjd, P.; Lehtonen, A.

    2014-02-01

    Large trees are important and unique organisms in forests, providing ecosystem services including carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere and long-term storage. There is concern about reports of global decline of big trees. Based on observations from Finland and the United States we report that trends of big trees during recent decades have been surprisingly variable among regions. In southern Finland, the growing stock volume of trees larger than 30 cm at breast height increased nearly five-fold during the second half of the 20th century, yet more recently ceased to expand. In the United States, large hardwood trees have become increasingly common since the 1950s, while large softwood trees declined until the mid 1990's as a consequence of harvests in the Pacific region, and then rebounded when harvesting there was reduced. We conclude that in the regions studied, the history of land use and forest management governs changes of tree populations especially with reference to large trees. Large trees affect greatly the carbon density of forests and usually have deeper roots and relatively lower mortality than small trees. An accumulating stock of large trees in forests may have negligible direct biophysical effects on climate because from changes in transpiration or forest albedo. Large trees have particular ecological importance and often constitute an unusually large proportion of biomass carbon stocks in a forest. Understanding the changes in big tree distributions in different regions of the world and the demography of tree populations makes a contribution to estimating the past impact and future potential of the role of forests in the global carbon budget.

  12. Permafrost carbon-climate feedbacks accelerate global warming

    PubMed Central

    Koven, Charles D.; Ringeval, Bruno; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Ciais, Philippe; Cadule, Patricia; Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Krinner, Gerhard; Tarnocai, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Permafrost soils contain enormous amounts of organic carbon, which could act as a positive feedback to global climate change due to enhanced respiration rates with warming. We have used a terrestrial ecosystem model that includes permafrost carbon dynamics, inhibition of respiration in frozen soil layers, vertical mixing of soil carbon from surface to permafrost layers, and CH4 emissions from flooded areas, and which better matches new circumpolar inventories of soil carbon stocks, to explore the potential for carbon-climate feedbacks at high latitudes. Contrary to model results for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC AR4), when permafrost processes are included, terrestrial ecosystems north of 60°N could shift from being a sink to a source of CO2 by the end of the 21st century when forced by a Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A2 climate change scenario. Between 1860 and 2100, the model response to combined CO2 fertilization and climate change changes from a sink of 68 Pg to a 27 + -7 Pg sink to 4 + -18 Pg source, depending on the processes and parameter values used. The integrated change in carbon due to climate change shifts from near zero, which is within the range of previous model estimates, to a climate-induced loss of carbon by ecosystems in the range of 25 + -3 to 85 + -16 Pg C, depending on processes included in the model, with a best estimate of a 62 + -7 Pg C loss. Methane emissions from high-latitude regions are calculated to increase from 34 Tg CH4/y to 41–70 Tg CH4/y, with increases due to CO2 fertilization, permafrost thaw, and warming-induced increased CH4 flux densities partially offset by a reduction in wetland extent. PMID:21852573

  13. Joint MSc programme in Global Innovation Management

    E-print Network

    Mottram, Nigel

    ECTS) · Global Design (5 ECTS) · Supply Chain Operations (5 ECTS) · People Organisation Technology (5 and complementary collaboration of Engineering and Business School academic groups. · Identified a shared

  14. Tethyan carbonate carbon isotope stratigraphy across the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary: An indicator of decelerated global carbon cycling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissert, H.; Channell, J. E. T.

    1989-08-01

    The carbon isotope record in four pelagic carbonate sections from the Southern Alps (northern Italy) across the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary has been correlated to biostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy. The carbon isotope curve from bulk carbonates shows a decrease from Kimmeridgian to Early Tithonian (CM24-CM22) values of ?13C=+2.07 (± 0.14)‰ to Late Tithonian and Berriasian (CM18-CM14) values of ?13C=+1.26 (± 0.16)‰. The change in the carbon isotope record coincides with changes in Tethyan calcite and silica accumulation rates, with a drop in the calcite compensation depth in the Atlantic and Tethys oceans and with changes in organic carbon burial along the Eurasian margin of the Tethys. Reduced surface water productivity due to diminished transfer rates of biolimiting elements into the Atlantic and Tethys oceans can explain these observations. The decreased transfer rates of elements such as silica or phosphorus from continents into the oceans resulted from drier climatic conditions and decreased water runoff on continents bordering the Tethys and Atlantic oceans. The proposed changes in Tithonian - Berriasian ocean chemistry and paleoclimate suggest that variations in the global carbon cycle were coupled with changes in the global hydrological cycle and in associated material cycles.

  15. Globalization--Education and Management Agendas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuadra-Montiel, Hector, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Chapters in this book include: (1) Internationalization and Globalization in Higher Education (Douglas E. Mitchell and Selin Yildiz Nielsen); (2) Higher Educational Reform Values and the Dilemmas of Change: Challenging Secular Neo-Liberalism (James Campbell); (3) "Red Light" in Chile: Parents Participating as Consumers of Education Under Global…

  16. Carbon monoxide fluxes over a managed mountain meadow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörtnagl, Lukas; Hammerle, Albin; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2014-05-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic trace gas with an atmospheric lifetime of 1-3 months and an average atmospheric concentration of 100 ppb. CO mole fractions exhibit a pronounced seasonal cycle with lows in summer and highs in winter. Carbon monoxide has an indirect global warming potential by increasing the lifetime of methane (CH4), as the main sink of CO is the reaction with the hydroxyl (OH) radical, which in turn is also the main sink for CH4. Regarding the warming potential, it is estimated that 100 kg CO are equivalent to an emission of 5 kg CH4. In addition, carbon monoxide interferes with the building and destruction of ozone. Emission into and uptake from the atmosphere of CO are thus relevant for global climate and regional air quality. Sources and sinks of CO on a global scale are still highly uncertain, mainly due to general scarcity of empirical data and the lack of ecosystem-scale CO exchange measurements, i.e. CO flux data that encompass all sources and sinks within an ecosystem. Here we present eddy covariance CO fluxes over a managed temperate mountain grassland near Neustift, Austria, whereby volume mixing ratios of CO were quantified by a dual-laser mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL). First analyses of fluxes captured in April 2013 showed that the QCL is well able to capture CO fluxes at the study site during springtime. During the same time period, both significant net uptake and deposition of CO were observed, with high emission and deposition fluxes on the order of +/- 5 nmol m-2 s-1, respectively. In addition, CO fluxes exhibited a clear diurnal cycle during certain time periods, indicating a continuous release or uptake of the compound with peak flux rates around noon. In this presentation, we will analyze 12 months of carbon monoxide fluxes between January and December 2013 with regard to possible abiotic and biotic drivers of CO exchange. As an additional step towards a full understanding of the greenhouse gas exchange of the meadow, we will relate observed CO fluxes to concurrently measured CO2, CH4 and N2O exchange rates in terms of CO2-equivalents and - where applicable - carbon.

  17. Estimation of Methane and Carbon Dioxide Surface Fluxes using a 3-D Global Atmospheric

    E-print Network

    Estimation of Methane and Carbon Dioxide Surface Fluxes using a 3-D Global Atmospheric Chemical@mit.edu Website: http://mit.edu/cgcs/ Printed on recycled paper #12;Estimation of Methane and Carbon Dioxide of Methane and Carbon Dioxide Surface Fluxes using a 3-D Global Atmospheric Chemical Transport Model by Yu

  18. Global Distribution of Total Inorganic Carbon and Total Alkalinity below the Deepest Winter Mixed Layer Depths

    SciTech Connect

    Goyet, C.; Healy, R.; Ryan, J.; Kozyr, A.

    2000-05-01

    Modeling the global ocean-atmosphere carbon dioxide system is becoming increasingly important to greenhouse gas policy. These models require initialization with realistic three-dimensional (3-D) oceanic carbon fields. This report presents an approach to establishing these initial conditions from an extensive global database of ocean carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) system measurements and well-developed interpolation methods.

  19. ATS 760: Global Carbon Cycle 2 Credits http://ats760.atmos.colostate.edu

    E-print Network

    ATS 760: Global Carbon Cycle 2 Credits http://ats760.atmos.colostate.edu People are currently of the material. #12;ATS 760: Global Carbon Cycle 2 Credits http://ats760.atmos.colostate.edu Dates Notes Readings Carbon Cycle 2 Credits http://ats760.atmos.colostate.edu Readings OVERVIEW LeQuere, C. et al. (2013

  20. Global Intermodal Tank Container Management for the Chemical Industry

    E-print Network

    Erera, Alan

    Global Intermodal Tank Container Management for the Chemical Industry Alan L. Erera, Juan C chemical industry is enormous: in 2003, the total value of global production exceeded US$1.7 trillion. International logistics is especially crucial to the high-value chemicals industry, since raw materials sources

  1. Successful knowledge management implementation in global software companies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikhil Mehta

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop and evaluate a concise framework to examine how global software companies with successful knowledge management (KM) programs create KM-enabled value. Design\\/methodology\\/approach - The framework was evaluated at three global software companies with successful KM programs. Data were generated based on 20 interviews with various individuals involved with the KM programs

  2. Calibration and testing or models of the global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Emanuel, W.R.; Killough, G.G.; Shugart, H.H. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A ten-compartment model of the global biogeochemical cycle of carbon is presented. The two less-abundant isotopes of carbon, /sup 13/C and /sup 14/C, as well as total carbon, are considered. The cycling of carbon in the ocean is represented by two well-mixed compartments and in the world's terrestrial ecosystems by seven compartments, five which are dynamic and two with instantaneous transfer. An internally consistent procedure for calibrating this model against an assumed initial steady state is discussed. In particular, the constraint that the average /sup 13/C//sup 12/C ratio in the total flux from the terrestrial component of the model to the atmosphere be equal to that of the steady-state atmosphere is investigated. With this additional constraint, the model provides a more accurate representation of the influence of the terrestrial system on the /sup 13/C//sup 12/C ratio of the atmosphere and provides an improved basis for interpreting records, such as tree rings, reflecting historical changes in this ratio.

  3. Multicentury Changes to the Global Climate and Carbon Cycle: Results from a Coupled Climate and Carbon Cycle Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Bala; K. Caldeira; A. Mirin; M. Wickett; C. Delire

    2005-01-01

    A coupled climate and carbon (CO2) cycle model is used to investigate the global climate and carbon cycle changes out to the year 2300 that would occur if CO2 emissions from all the currently estimated fossil fuel resources were released to the atmosphere. By the year 2300, the global climate warms by about 8 K and atmospheric CO2 reaches 1423

  4. Multi-century Changes to Global Climate and Carbon Cycle: Results from a Coupled Climate and Carbon Cycle Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Bala; K Caldeira; A Mirin; M Wickett; C Delire

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we use a coupled climate and carbon cycle model to investigate the global climate and carbon cycle changes out to year 2300 that would occur if COâ emissions from all the currently estimated fossil fuel resources were released to the atmosphere. By year 2300, the global climate warms by about 8 K and atmospheric COâ reaches 1423

  5. Agricultural Soil Erosion and Global Carbon Cycle: Controversy over?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, N. J.; Hoffmann, T.; Schwanghart, W.; Dotterweich, M.

    2009-04-01

    Recent research on the contribution of soil erosion on agricultural land to atmospheric CO2 emphasizes either the contribution of soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization during transport as source for atmospheric CO2, or the deep burial of SOM-rich sediment in agricultural landscapes as a sink. The contribution of either process is subject to a controversial debate. In this letter, we present preliminary results on our research on interrill Carbon (C) erosion, SOM transport by rill erosion and the stationarity of C erosion during the Holocene. None of those issues has been incorporated comprehensively and with global coverage in the debate on the role of C erosion in the global C cycle. Therefore, we argue that only an eco-geomorphologic perspective on organic C movement through landscapes can reconcile the two positions.

  6. Modelling carbon and water fluxes at global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzarolo, M.; Balsamo, G.; Barbu, A.; Boussetta, S.; Calvet, J.-C.; Chevallier, F.; de Vries, J.; Kullmann, L.; Lafont, S.; Maignan, F.; Papale, D.; Poulter, B.

    2012-04-01

    Modelling and predicting seasonal and inter-annual variability of terrestrial carbon and water fluxes play an important role in understanding processes and interactions between plant-atmosphere and climate. Testing the model's capability to simulate fluxes across and within the ecosystems against eddy covariance data is essential. Thanks to the existing eddy covariance (EC) networks (e.g FLUXNET), where CO2 and water exchanges are continuously measured, it is now possible to verify the model's goodness at global scale. This paper reports the outcomes of the verification activities of the Land Carbon Core Information Service (LC-CIS) of the Geoland2 European project. The three used land surface models are C-TESSEL from ECMWF, SURFEX from CNRM and ORCHIDEE from IPSL. These models differ in their hypotheses used to describe processes and the interactions between ecological compartments (plant, soil and atmosphere) and climate and environmental conditions. Results of the verification and model benchmarking are here presented. Surface fluxes of the models are verified against FLUXNET sites representing main worldwide Plant Functional Types (PFTs: forest, grassland and cropland). The quality and accuracy of the EC data is verified using the CarboEurope database methodology. Modelled carbon and water fluxes magnitude, daily and annual cycles, inter-annual anomalies are verified against eddy covariance data using robust statistical analysis (r, RMSE, E, BE). We also verify the performance of the models in predicting the functional responses of Gross Primary Production (GPP) and RE (Ecosystem Respiration) to the environmental driving variables (i.e. temperature, soil water content and radiation) by comparing the functional relationships obtained from the outputs and observed data. Obtained results suggest some ways of improving such models for global carbon modelling.

  7. An Assessment of Global Organic Carbon Flux Along Continental Margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thunell, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This project was designed to use real-time and historical SeaWiFS and AVHRR data, and real-time MODIS data in order to estimate the global vertical carbon flux along continental margins. This required construction of an empirical model relating surface ocean color and physical variables like temperature and wind to vertical settling flux at sites co-located with sediment trap observations (Santa Barbara Basin, Cariaco Basin, Gulf of California, Hawaii, and Bermuda, etc), and application of the model to imagery in order to obtain spatially-weighted estimates.

  8. Plumbing the global carbon cycle: Integrating inland waters into the terrestrial carbon budget

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, J.J.; Prairie, Y.T.; Caraco, N.F.; McDowell, W.H.; Tranvik, L.J.; Striegl, R.G.; Duarte, C.M.; Kortelainen, P.; Downing, J.A.; Middelburg, J.J.; Melack, J.

    2007-01-01

    Because freshwater covers such a small fraction of the Earth's surface area, inland freshwater ecosystems (particularly lakes, rivers, and reservoirs) have rarely been considered as potentially important quantitative components of the carbon cycle at either global or regional scales. By taking published estimates of gas exchange, sediment accumulation, and carbon transport for a variety of aquatic systems, we have constructed a budget for the role of inland water ecosystems in the global carbon cycle. Our analysis conservatively estimates that inland waters annually receive, from a combination of background and anthropogenically altered sources, on the order of 1.9 Pg C y-1 from the terrestrial landscape, of which about 0.2 is buried in aquatic sediments, at least 0.8 (possibly much more) is returned to the atmosphere as gas exchange while the remaining 0.9 Pg y-1 is delivered to the oceans, roughly equally as inorganic and organic carbon. Thus, roughly twice as much C enters inland aquatic systems from land as is exported from land to the sea. Over prolonged time net carbon fluxes in aquatic systems tend to be greater per unit area than in much of the surrounding land. Although their area is small, these freshwater aquatic systems can affect regional C balances. Further, the inclusion of inland, freshwater ecosystems provides useful insight about the storage, oxidation and transport of terrestrial C, and may warrant a revision of how the modern net C sink on land is described. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  9. Model-based estimation of the global carbon budget and its uncertainty from carbon dioxide and carbon isotope records

    SciTech Connect

    Kheshgi, Haroon S. [Corporate Research Laboratories, Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, New Jersey (United States)] [Corporate Research Laboratories, Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, New Jersey (United States); Jain, Atul K. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana (United States)] [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana (United States); Wuebbles, Donald J. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana (United States)] [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana (United States)

    1999-12-27

    A global carbon cycle model is used to reconstruct the carbon budget, balancing emissions from fossil fuel and land use with carbon uptake by the oceans, and the terrestrial biosphere. We apply Bayesian statistics to estimate uncertainty of carbon uptake by the oceans and the terrestrial biosphere based on carbon dioxide and carbon isotope records, and prior information on model parameter probability distributions. This results in a quantitative reconstruction of past carbon budget and its uncertainty derived from an explicit choice of model, data-based constraints, and prior distribution of parameters. Our estimated ocean sink for the 1980s is 17{+-}7 Gt C (90% confidence interval) and is comparable to the estimate of 20{+-}8 Gt C given in the recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment [Schimel et al., 1996]. Constraint choice is tested to determine which records have the most influence over estimates of the past carbon budget; records individually (e.g., bomb-radiocarbon inventory) have little effect since there are other records which form similar constraints. (c) 1999 American Geophysical Union.

  10. Soil Carbon Sequestration Impacts on Global Climate Change and Food Security

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Lal

    2004-01-01

    The carbon sink capacity of the world's agricultural and degraded soils is 50 to 66% of the historic carbon loss of 42 to 78 gigatons of carbon. The rate of soil organic carbon sequestration with adoption of recommended technologies depends on soil texture and structure, rainfall, temperature, farming system, and soil management. Strategies to increase the soil carbon pool include

  11. Architectural Knowledge Management Practices in Agile Global Software Development

    E-print Network

    van Vliet, Hans

    Architectural Knowledge Management Practices in Agile Global Software Development Viktor Clerc VU University Amsterdam viktor@cs.vu.nl Patricia Lago VU University Amsterdam patricia@cs.vu.nl Hans van Vliet VU University Amsterdam hans@cs.vu.nl Abstract--The management of knowledge, in particular knowledge

  12. Department of Management and Global Business Mark your Calendars!

    E-print Network

    Lin, Xiaodong

    Department of Management and Global Business Mark your Calendars! You are invited to attend a talk alternative asset market. Contrasting much recent research that tends to stress the positive effects presentation and discussion will be geared to the management audience at Rutgers, but please note

  13. Forest management options for sequestering carbon in Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omar R. Masera; Mauricio R. Bellon; Gerardo Segura

    1995-01-01

    This paper identifies and examines economic response options to avoid carbon emissions and increase carbon sequestration in Mexican forests. A “Policy” scenario covering the years 2000, 2010 and 2030 and a “Technical Potential” scenario (year 2030) are developed to examine the potential carbon sequestration and costs of each response option. Benefit-cost analyses for three case studies, including management of a

  14. Managing Commercial Tree Species for Timber Production and Carbon Sequestration: Management Guidelines and Financial Returns

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. Kronrad

    2006-09-19

    A carbon credit market is developing in the United States. Information is needed by buyers and sellers of carbon credits so that the market functions equitably and efficiently. Analyses have been conducted to determine the optimal forest management regime to employ for each of the major commercial tree species so that profitability of timber production only or the combination of timber production and carbon sequestration is maximized. Because the potential of a forest ecosystem to sequester carbon depends on the tree species, site quality and management regimes utilized, analyses have determined how to optimize carbon sequestration by determining how to optimally manage each species, given a range of site qualities, discount rates, prices of carbon credits and other economic variables. The effects of a carbon credit market on the method and profitability of forest management, the cost of sequestering carbon, the amount of carbon that can be sequestered, and the amount of timber products produced has been determined.

  15. Seasonal patterns of forest canopy and their relevance for the global carbon cycle 

    E-print Network

    Mizunuma, Toshie

    2015-06-30

    In the terrestrial biosphere forests have a significant role as a carbon sink. Under recent climate change, it is increasingly important to detect seasonal change or ‘phenology’ that can influence the global carbon cycle. ...

  16. Sustainable Practices in Watershed Management: Global Experiences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sudha Menon

    2007-01-01

    Watershed management is considered by scholars as well as practitioners across the world as the most appropriate approach to ensure the preservation, conservation and sustainability of all land based resources and for improving the living conditions of the people in uplands and low lands. More over watershed management technologies have proven to be effective for mitigating erosion on sloping land,

  17. Regional carbon dynamics in monsoon Asia and its implications for the global carbon cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tian, H.; Melillo, J.M.; Kicklighter, D.W.; Pan, S.; Liu, J.; McGuire, A.D.; Moore, B., III

    2003-01-01

    Data on three major determinants of the carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems are used with the process-based Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) to simulate the combined effect of climate variability, increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, and cropland establishment and abandonment on the exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and monsoon Asian ecosystems. During 1860-1990, modeled results suggest that monsoon Asia as a whole released 29.0 Pg C, which represents 50% of the global carbon release for this period. Carbon release varied across three subregions: East Asia (4.3 Pg C), South Asia (6.6 Pg C), and Southeast Asia (18.1 Pg C). For the entire region, the simulations indicate that land-use change alone has led to a loss of 42.6 Pg C. However, increasing CO2 and climate variability have added carbon to terrestrial ecosystems to compensate for 23% and 8% of the losses due to land-use change, respectively. During 1980-1989, monsoon Asia as a whole acted as a source of carbon to the atmosphere, releasing an average of 0.158 Pg C per year. Two of the subregions acted as net carbon source and one acted as a net carbon sink. Southeast Asia and South Asia were sources of 0.288 and 0.02 Pg C per year, respectively, while East Asia was a sink of 0.149 Pg C per year. Substantial interannual and decadal variations occur in the annual net carbon storage estimated by TEM due to comparable variations in summer precipitation and its effect on net primary production (NPP). At longer time scales, land-use change appears to be the important control on carbon dynamics in this region. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The changing global carbon cycle: Linking plant-soil carbon dynamics to global consequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapin, F. S., III; McFarland, J.; McGuire, David A.; Euskirchen, E.S.; Ruess, R.W.; Kielland, K.

    2009-01-01

    Most current climate-carbon cycle models that include the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle are based on a model developed 40 years ago by Woodwell & Whittaker (1968) and omit advances in biogeochemical understanding since that time. Their model treats net C emissions from ecosystems as the balance between net primary production (NPP) and heterotrophic respiration (HR, i.e. primarily decomposition). Under conditions near steady state, geographic patterns of decomposition closely match those of NPP, and net C emissions are adequately described as a simple balance of NPP and HR (the Woodwell-Whittaker model). This close coupling between NPP and HR occurs largely because of tight coupling between C and N (nitrogen) cycles and because NPP constrains the food available to heterotrophs. Processes in addition to NPP and HR become important to understanding net C emissions from ecosystems under conditions of rapid changes in climate, hydrology, atmospheric CO2, land cover, species composition and/or N deposition. Inclusion of these processes in climate-C cycle models would improve their capacity to simulate recent and future climatic change. Processes that appear critical to soil C dynamics but warrant further research before incorporation into ecosystem models include below-ground C flux and its partitioning among roots, mycorrhizas and exudates; microbial community effects on C sequestration; and the effects of temperature and labile C on decomposition. The controls over and consequences of these processes are still unclear at the ecosystem scale. Carbon fluxes in addition to NPP and HR exert strong influences over the climate system under conditions of rapid change. These fluxes include methane release, wildfire, and lateral transfers of food and fibre among ecosystems. Water and energy exchanges are important complements to C cycle feedbacks to the climate system, particularly under non-steady-state conditions. An integrated understanding of multiple ecosystem-climate feedbacks provides a strong foundation for policies to mitigate climate change. Synthesis. Current climate systems models that include only NPP and HR are inadequate under conditions of rapid change. Many of the recent advances in biogeochemical understanding are sufficiently mature to substantially improve representation of ecosystem C dynamics in these models. ?? 2009 British Ecological Society.

  19. Managing the quality of wheat grain under global change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Howden; P. J. Reyenga; H. Meinke

    Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases are increasing as a result of human activities. These increasing concentrations are already affecting the global climate and more substantial climate change seems likely. Grain yields in Australia are likely to increase substantially with increases in CO2 concentration but at the cost of reducing grain nitrogen (or protein) contents, thereby

  20. Going global, feeling small: an examination of managers' reactions to global restructuring in a multinational organisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clare Kelliher; Caroline Clarke; Veronica Hope Hailey; Elaine Farndale

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with examining the reactions of managers to the process of global restructuring in a large, multinational food-processing company. Much extant research concerning globalisation has focused on the wider economic, political and social outcomes. Perhaps surprisingly, relatively little attention has been given to how globalisation is experienced inside organisations. This paper examines how country-level managers have been

  1. Going global, feeling small: an examination of managers' reactions to global restructuring in a multinational organisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clare Kelliher; Caroline Clarke; Veronica Hope Hailey; Elaine Farndale

    2012-01-01

    This paper is concerned with examining the reactions of managers to the process of global restructuring in a large, multinational food-processing company. Much extant research concerning globalisation has focused on the wider economic, political and social outcomes. Perhaps surprisingly, relatively little attention has been given to how globalisation is experienced inside organisations. This paper examines how country-level managers have been

  2. Soil salinity decreases global soil organic carbon stocks.

    PubMed

    Setia, Raj; Gottschalk, Pia; Smith, Pete; Marschner, Petra; Baldock, Jeff; Setia, Deepika; Smith, Jo

    2013-11-01

    Saline soils cover 3.1% (397 million hectare) of the total land area of the world. The stock of soil organic carbon (SOC) reflects the balance between carbon (C) inputs from plants, and losses through decomposition, leaching and erosion. Soil salinity decreases plant productivity and hence C inputs to the soil, but also microbial activity and therefore SOC decomposition rates. Using a modified Rothamsted Carbon model (RothC) with a newly introduced salinity decomposition rate modifier and a plant input modifier we estimate that, historically, world soils that are currently saline have lost an average of 3.47 tSOC ha(-1) since they became saline. With the extent of saline soils predicted to increase in the future, our modelling suggests that world soils may lose 6.8 Pg SOC due to salinity by the year 2100. Our findings suggest that current models overestimate future global SOC stocks and underestimate net CO2 emissions from the soil-plant system by not taking salinity effects into account. From the perspective of enhancing soil C stocks, however, given the lower SOC decomposition rate in saline soils, salt tolerant plants could be used to sequester C in salt-affected areas. PMID:22959898

  3. Phenology as a strategy for carbon optimality: a global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldararu, S.; Purves, D. W.; Palmer, P. I.

    2014-02-01

    Phenology is essential to our understanding of biogeochemical cycles and the climate system. We develop a global mechanistic model of leaf phenology based on the hypothesis that phenology is a strategy for optimal carbon gain at the canopy level so that trees adjust leaf gains and losses in response to environmental factors such as light, temperature and soil moisture, to achieve maximum carbon assimilation. We fit this model to five years of satellite observations of leaf area index (LAI) using a Bayesian fitting algorithm. We show that our model is able to reproduce phenological patterns for all vegetation types and use it to explore variations in growing season length and the climate factors that limit leaf growth for different biomes. Phenology in wet tropical areas is limited by leaf age physiological constraints while at higher latitude leaf seasonality is limited by low temperature and light availability. Leaf growth in grassland regions is limited by water availability but often in combination with other factors. This model will advance the current understanding of phenology for ecosystem carbon models and our ability to predict future phenological behaviour.

  4. Phenology as a strategy for carbon optimality: a global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldararu, S.; Purves, D. W.; Palmer, P. I.

    2013-09-01

    Phenology is essential to our understanding of biogeochemical cycles and the climate system. We develop a global mechanistic model of leaf phenology based on the hypothesis that phenology is a strategy for optimal carbon gain at the canopy level so that trees adjust leaf gains and losses in response to environmental factors such as light, temperature and soil moisture, to achieve maximum carbon assimilation. We fit this model to five years of satellite observations of leaf area index (LAI) using a Bayesian fitting algorithm. We show that our model is able to reproduce phenological patterns for all vegetation types and use it to explore variations in growing season length and the climate factors that limit leaf growth for different biomes. Phenology in wet tropical areas is limited by leaf age physiological constraints while at higher latitude leaf seasonality is limited by low temperature and light availability. Leaf growth in grassland regions is limited by water availability but often in combination with other factors. This model will advance the current understanding of phenology for ecosystem carbon models and our ability to predict future phenological behaviour.

  5. Global learning on carbon capture and storage: A call for strong international cooperation on CCS demonstration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heleen de Coninck; Jennie C. Stephens; Bert Metz

    2009-01-01

    Closing the gap between carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) rhetoric and technical progress is critically important to global climate mitigation efforts. Developing strong international cooperation on CCS demonstration with global coordination, transparency, cost-sharing and communication as guiding principles would facilitate efficient and cost-effective collaborative global learning on CCS, would allow for improved understanding of the global capacity and applicability

  6. Global efforts in managing rice blast disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast disease caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a major destructive disease threatening global food security. Resistance (R) genes to M. oryzae are effective in preventing infections by strains of M. oryzae carry the corresponding avirulence (AVR) genes. Effectiveness of genetic resist...

  7. Banking channel management : global trends and strategies

    E-print Network

    Catalan, Renato Teixeira

    2004-01-01

    Banking channel management has become a crucial component in the drive for improved efficiency. Since the channel is the interlocutor between customers and products, banks are leveraging their knowledge of channels to ...

  8. Incorporating grassland management in a global vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jinfeng; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Ciais, Philippe; Wang, Tao; Cozic, Anne; Lardy, Romain; Graux, Anne-Isabelle; Klumpp, Katja; Martin, Raphael; Soussana, Jean-François

    2013-04-01

    Grassland is a widespread vegetation type, covering nearly one-fifth of the world's land surface (24 million km2), and playing a significant role in the global carbon (C) cycle. Most of grasslands in Europe are cultivated to feed animals, either directly by grazing or indirectly by grass harvest (cutting). A better understanding of the C fluxes from grassland ecosystems in response to climate and management requires not only field experiments but also the aid of simulation models. ORCHIDEE process-based ecosystem model designed for large-scale applications treats grasslands as being unmanaged, where C / water fluxes are only subject to atmospheric CO2 and climate changes. Our study describes how management of grasslands is included in the ORCHIDEE, and how management affects modeled grassland-atmosphere CO2 fluxes. The new model, ORCHIDEE-GM (Grassland Management) is capable with a management module inspired from a grassland model (PaSim, version 5.0), of accounting for two grassland management practices (cutting and grazing). The evaluation of the results of ORCHIDEE-GM compared with those of ORCHIDEE at 11 European sites equipped with eddy covariance and biometric measurements, show that ORCHIDEE-GM can capture realistically the cut-induced seasonal variation in biometric variables (LAI: Leaf Area Index; AGB: Aboveground Biomass) and in CO2 fluxes (GPP: Gross Primary Productivity; TER: Total Ecosystem Respiration; and NEE: Net Ecosystem Exchange). But improvements at grazing sites are only marginal in ORCHIDEE-GM, which relates to the difficulty in accounting for continuous grazing disturbance and its induced complex animal-vegetation interactions. Both NEE and GPP on monthly to annual timescales can be better simulated in ORCHIDEE-GM than in ORCHIDEE without management. At some sites, the model-observation misfit in ORCHIDEE-GM is found to be more related to ill-constrained parameter values than to model structure. Additionally, ORCHIDEE-GM is able to simulate forage yield, herbage consumption, animal products (e.g. milk), animal respiration and animal CH4 emissions. These new variables combined with organic C fertilizer applied on the field could provide a more complete view of grasslands C fluxes for applications of the model on a grid. The 11 site simulations of this study show that European grasslands generally are C sinks (positive NBP). At grazed grasslands, both C export in the form of milk production and CH4 emissions by animals only consist a minor part of net primary production (NPP), and this means that NBP mainly depends on NPP. On the contrary, the cut sites accumulate less C in soils because a large part of NPP has been exported as forage production. Furthermore, theoretically potential of productivity and livestock density in European grassland can be predicted by ORCHIDEE-GM, based on the strategy modeling of the optimal livestock density and management change.

  9. Information technologies for global resources management and environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, A.P.; Wang, Hua.

    1992-01-01

    Recent advances in computer and communications technologies offer unprecedented opportunities to develop sophisticated information resources management systems for global resources management and environment assessment in an efficient, effective, and systematic manner. In this paper, the emerging global energy and environmental issues are identified. Since satellite-based remote sensing systems are becoming increasingly available and produce massive data collections, the utilization of imaging processing techniques and their applications for regional and global resources management and environmental studies are described. Interoperability and interconnectivity among heterogeneous computer systems are major issues in designing a totally integrated, multimedia-based, information resources management system that operates in a networking environment. Discussions of the future technology trends are focused on a number of emerging information management technologies and communications standards which will aid in achieving seamless system integration and offer user-friendly operations. It can be foreseen that advances in computer and communications technologies, increasingly sophisticated image processing techniques and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and the development of globally comprehensive data bases will bring global visualization'' onto multimedia desktop computers before the end of this decade.

  10. Information technologies for global resources management and environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, A.P.; Wang, Hua

    1992-09-01

    Recent advances in computer and communications technologies offer unprecedented opportunities to develop sophisticated information resources management systems for global resources management and environment assessment in an efficient, effective, and systematic manner. In this paper, the emerging global energy and environmental issues are identified. Since satellite-based remote sensing systems are becoming increasingly available and produce massive data collections, the utilization of imaging processing techniques and their applications for regional and global resources management and environmental studies are described. Interoperability and interconnectivity among heterogeneous computer systems are major issues in designing a totally integrated, multimedia-based, information resources management system that operates in a networking environment. Discussions of the future technology trends are focused on a number of emerging information management technologies and communications standards which will aid in achieving seamless system integration and offer user-friendly operations. It can be foreseen that advances in computer and communications technologies, increasingly sophisticated image processing techniques and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and the development of globally comprehensive data bases will bring ``global visualization`` onto multimedia desktop computers before the end of this decade.

  11. Offset: A Global Carbon Cycle and Climate Change Mobile Game from NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, K. J.; Kasprak, A. H.; Novati, A.; Leon, N.; Bowman, K. W.; Gunson, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    The global carbon cycle—and humans' role in altering it—is key to understanding both how the climate system works and how people can help to affect positive change in the future. Delivering this message to younger audiences will be a crucial step in inspiring the next generation of climate scientists. Here, we demonstrate a new mobile game (iOS) aiming to make the carbon cycle more accessible to students and their educators. This game—called OFFSET—highlights the role humans have as players in the global carbon cycle—both as sources of CO2 and as agents that harm CO2 sinks. OFFSET is a pong-like game and a resource management game all in one. The player simultaneously spends resources to replace old technology with greener technology while he or she actively prevents CO2 molecules from escaping to the atmosphere with a paddle. The game is fast, simple but challenging, and educational. Games like OFFSET can be a powerful tool to teach climate science to younger audiences.

  12. Potential of global cropland phytolith carbon sink from optimization of cropping system and fertilization.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhaoliang; Parr, Jeffrey F; Guo, Fengshan

    2013-01-01

    The occlusion of carbon (C) by phytoliths, the recalcitrant silicified structures deposited within plant tissues, is an important persistent C sink mechanism for croplands and other grass-dominated ecosystems. By constructing a silica content-phytolith content transfer function and calculating the magnitude of phytolith C sink in global croplands with relevant crop production data, this study investigated the present and potential of phytolith C sinks in global croplands and its contribution to the cropland C balance to understand the cropland C cycle and enhance long-term C sequestration in croplands. Our results indicate that the phytolith sink annually sequesters 26.35 ± 10.22 Tg of carbon dioxide (CO2) and may contribute 40 ± 18% of the global net cropland soil C sink for 1961-2100. Rice (25%), wheat (19%) and maize (23%) are the dominant contributing crop species to this phytolith C sink. Continentally, the main contributors are Asia (49%), North America (17%) and Europe (16%). The sink has tripled since 1961, mainly due to fertilizer application and irrigation. Cropland phytolith C sinks may be further enhanced by adopting cropland management practices such as optimization of cropping system and fertilization. PMID:24066067

  13. Al2C monolayer: the planar tetracoordinate carbon global minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yafei; Liao, Yunlong; Schleyer, Paul Von Ragué; Chen, Zhongfang

    2014-08-01

    Inspired by our theoretical finding that C2Al62- has a planar D2h minimum with two planar tetracoordinate carbons (ptCs), we computationally designed a new two-dimensional (2D) inorganic material, an Al2C monolayer. All carbons in this monolayer are ptC's, stabilized inductively by binding to four electropositive Al atoms in the same plane. The Al2C monolayer is semiconducting with an indirect minimum band gap and a slightly larger direct band gap. Good persistence of the Al2C monolayer is indicated by its moderate cohesive energy, the absence of imaginary modes in its phonon spectrum, and the high melting point predicted by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Moreover, a particle-swarm optimization (PSO) global minimum search found the Al2C monolayer to be the lowest-energy 2D structure compared to other Al2C alternatives. Dividing the Al2C monolayer results in one-dimensional (1D) Al2C nanoribbons, which are computed to have quite rich characteristics such as direct or indirect band gaps with various values, depending on the direction of the division and the resulting edge configuration.Inspired by our theoretical finding that C2Al62- has a planar D2h minimum with two planar tetracoordinate carbons (ptCs), we computationally designed a new two-dimensional (2D) inorganic material, an Al2C monolayer. All carbons in this monolayer are ptC's, stabilized inductively by binding to four electropositive Al atoms in the same plane. The Al2C monolayer is semiconducting with an indirect minimum band gap and a slightly larger direct band gap. Good persistence of the Al2C monolayer is indicated by its moderate cohesive energy, the absence of imaginary modes in its phonon spectrum, and the high melting point predicted by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Moreover, a particle-swarm optimization (PSO) global minimum search found the Al2C monolayer to be the lowest-energy 2D structure compared to other Al2C alternatives. Dividing the Al2C monolayer results in one-dimensional (1D) Al2C nanoribbons, which are computed to have quite rich characteristics such as direct or indirect band gaps with various values, depending on the direction of the division and the resulting edge configuration. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Complete citation of ref. 50, the band structure of an Al2C monolayer computed using the HSE06 functional, snapshots of MD simulations, and bulk structures of Al2C-II and Al2C-III. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01972e

  14. Addressing sources of uncertainty in a global terrestrial carbon model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exbrayat, J.; Pitman, A. J.; Zhang, Q.; Abramowitz, G.; Wang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Several sources of uncertainty exist in the parameterization of the land carbon cycle in current Earth System Models (ESMs). For example, recently implemented interactions between the carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycles lead to diverse changes in land-atmosphere C fluxes simulated by different models. Further, although soil organic matter decomposition is commonly parameterized as a first-order decay process, the formulation of the microbial response to changes in soil moisture and soil temperature varies tremendously between models. Here, we examine the sensitivity of historical land-atmosphere C fluxes simulated by an ESM to these two major sources of uncertainty. We implement three soil moisture (SMRF) and three soil temperature (STRF) respiration functions in the CABLE-CASA-CNP land biogeochemical component of the coarse resolution CSIRO Mk3L climate model. Simulations are undertaken using three degrees of biogeochemical nutrient limitation: C-only, C and N, and C and N and P. We first bring all 27 possible combinations of a SMRF with a STRF and a biogeochemical mode to a steady-state in their biogeochemical pools. Then, transient historical (1850-2005) simulations are driven by prescribed atmospheric CO2 concentrations used in the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Similarly to some previously published results, representing N and P limitation on primary production reduces the global land carbon sink while some regions become net C sources over the historical period (1850-2005). However, the uncertainty due to the SMRFs and STRFs does not decrease relative to the inter-annual variability in net uptake when N and P limitations are added. Differences in the SMRFs and STRFs and their effect on the soil C balance can also change the sign of some regional sinks. We show that this response is mostly driven by the pool size achieved at the end of the spin-up procedure. Further, there exists a six-fold range in the level at which global soil C equilibrates in models with the same biogeochemical interactions. As we did not modify the photosynthesis component between these simulations, we can attribute this range to differences in heterotrophic respiration introduced by the various shapes of the SMRF and STRF. This roughly matches the range of global soil C simulated by available CMIP5 models and we therefore see the formulation of these response functions as a potential major source of uncertainty in projections of global soil C feedback on climate change. Our results add to recent concerns on the relevance of the current first-order parameterization of soil carbon decomposition in ESMs, but also highlight issues in terms of how they are initialized. More research is therefore required in that area in order to produce reliable projections of land-atmosphere fluxes and future climate.

  15. Sampling strategy to obtain data used in models of global annual CO2 increase and global carbon cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dale A. Gillette; Kirby J. Hanson

    1983-01-01

    Simple models were constructed to assess with somewhat limited CO2 data the effects of both frequency of sampling and spatial distribution of sampling locations on the variance of estimates of interest to the global carbon cycle. The CO2 data for use in these models were obtained from seven air flask sampling locations, globally distributed in latitude but restricted to the

  16. Sampling strategy to obtain data used in models of global annual COâ increase and global carbon cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dale A. Gillette; Kirby J. Hanson

    1983-01-01

    Simple models were constructed to assess with somewhat limited COâ data the effects of both frequency of sampling and spatial distribution of sampling locations on the variance of estimates of interest to the global carbon cycle. The COâ data for use in these models were obtained from seven air flask sampling locations, globally distributed in latitude but restricted to the

  17. A global ocean carbon climatology: Results from Global Data Analysis Project (GLODAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Key, Robert [Princeton University; Kozyr, Alexander [ORNL; Sabine, Chris [NOAA, Seattle, WA; Lee, K. [Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Republic of Korea; Wanninkhof, R. [Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Laboratory, NOAA; Bullister, J.L. [NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory; Feely, R. A. [NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory; Millero, F. J. [University of Miami; Mordy, C. [NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory; Peng, T.-H. [Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Laboratory, NOAA

    2004-01-01

    During the 1990s, ocean sampling expeditions were carried out as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), and the Ocean Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study (OACES). Subsequently, a group of U.S. scientists synthesized the data into easily usable and readily available products. This collaboration is known as the Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP). Results were merged into a common format data set, segregated by ocean. For comparison purposes, each ocean data set includes a small number of high-quality historical cruises. The data were subjected to rigorous quality control procedures to eliminate systematic data measurement biases. The calibrated 1990s data were used to estimate anthropogenic CO{sub 2}, potential alkalinity, CFC watermass ages, CFC partial pressure, bomb-produced radiocarbon, and natural radiocarbon. These quantities were merged into the measured data files. The data were used to produce objectively gridded property maps at a 1{sup o} resolution on 33 depth surfaces chosen to match existing climatologies for temperature, salinity, oxygen, and nutrients. The mapped fields are interpreted as an annual mean distribution in spite of the inaccuracy in that assumption. Both the calibrated data and the gridded products are available from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. Here we describe the important details of the data treatment and the mapping procedure, and present summary quantities and integrals for the various parameters.

  18. Assessment of Provisional MODIS-derived Surfaces Related to the Global Carbon Cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. B. Cohen; T. K. Maiersperger; D. P. Turner; S. T. Gower; R. E. Kennedy; S. W. Running

    2002-01-01

    The global carbon cycle is one of the most important foci of an emerging global biosphere monitoring system. A key component of such a system is the MODIS sensor, onboard the Terra satellite platform. Biosphere monitoring requires an integrated program of satellite observations, Earth-system models, and in situ data. Related to the carbon cycle, MODIS science teams routinely develop a

  19. Mangrove production and carbon sinks: A revision of global budget estimates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Bouillon; Alberto V. Borges; Edward Castañeda-Moya; Karen Diele; Thorsten Dittmar; Norman C. Duke; Erik Kristensen; Shing Y. Lee; Cyril Marchand; Jack J. Middelburg; Victor H. Rivera-Monroy; Thomas J. Smith; Robert R. Twilley

    2008-01-01

    Mangrove forests are highly productive but globally threatened coastal ecosystems, whose role in the carbon budget of the coastal zone has long been debated. Here we provide a comprehensive synthesis of the available data on carbon fluxes in mangrove ecosystems. A reassessment of global mangrove primary production from the literature results in a conservative estimate of ?218 ± 72 Tg

  20. AN UPDATE ON THE GLOBCARBON INITIATIVE: MULTISENSOR ES TIMATION OF GLOBAL BIOPHYSICAL PRODUCTS FOR GLOBAL TERRESTRIAL CARBON STUDIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isidoro Piccolini; Roland Leigh; Geert Borstlap; Bart Beusen; Freddy Fierens; Walter Heyns; Riccardo Benedetti; Roselyne Lacaze; Sebastien Garrigues; Tristan Quaife; Martin De Kauwe; Shaun Quegan; Michael Raupach; Peter Briggs; Ben Poulter; Alberte Bondeau; Peter Rayner; Martin Schultz; Ian McCallum

    The ESA GLOBCARBON project aims to generate fu lly calibrated estimates of at-land products quasi- independent of the original Earth Observation source for use in Dynamic Global Vegetation Models, a central component of the IGBP-IHDP-WCRP Global Carbon Cycle Joint Project. The service features global estimates of: burned area, fAPAR, LAI and vegetation growth cycle. The demonstrator focused on six complete

  1. A guide to potential soil carbon sequestration; land-use management for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markewich, H.W.; Buell, G.R.

    2001-01-01

    Terrestrial carbon sequestration has a potential role in reducing the recent increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) that is, in part, contributing to global warming. Because the most stable long-term surface reservoir for carbon is the soil, changes in agriculture and forestry can potentially reduce atmospheric CO2 through increased soil-carbon storage. If local governments and regional planning agencies are to effect changes in land-use management that could mitigate the impacts of increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, it is essential to know how carbon is cycled and distributed on the landscape. Only then can a cost/benefit analysis be applied to carbon sequestration as a potential land-use management tool for mitigation of GHG emissions. For the past several years, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been researching the role of terrestrial carbon in the global carbon cycle. Data from these investigations now allow the USGS to begin to (1) 'map' carbon at national, regional, and local scales; (2) calculate present carbon storage at land surface; and (3) identify those areas having the greatest potential to sequester carbon.

  2. Global/Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Publications Baes, C. F., H. E. Goeller, J. S. Olson, and R. M. Rotty. 1977. Carbon dioxide and climate: The

    E-print Network

    Post, Wilfred M.

    scenarios affecting the global carbon cycle. Environment International 4:189­206. Delcourt, H. R., and W. F ecosystems in the global carbon cycle. pp. 803­810. In Proceedings of the 1980 Pittsburgh Conference in the world's terrestrial ecosystems. pp. 335­354. In B. Bolin (ed.) Modeling the Global Carbon Cycle. SCOPE

  3. Carbon sequestration in croplands: the potential in Europe and the global context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pete Smith

    2004-01-01

    Biospheric carbon sinks and sources can be included in attempts to meet emission reduction targets during the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. Forest management, cropland management, grazing land management and re-vegetation are allowable activities under Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol. Soil carbon sinks (and sources) can, therefore, be included under these activities. In this paper, the role

  4. Management: Global positioning and wireless dispatching

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M. [ICC International, Cedar Knolls, NJ (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Over the last several years, my company has been supplying many service companies with wireless dispatching solutions. Recently the impact of the system has been greatly increased with the introduction of a GPS (Global Position Systems) interface. This adds visual recognition as to the whereabouts of each vehicle within the customer service area. The only equipment required in the field for GPS is a transmit/receive device and a wireless modem, one mounted out of the way in the vehicle (under the seat) and a {open_quotes}hockey puck{close_quotes} size unit on the roof of the vehicle. The GPS received unit and wireless modem are used to retrieve the longitude, latitude and ground speed coordinates and transmit them back to the host system.

  5. Managing for interactions between local and global stressors of ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christopher J; Saunders, Megan I; Possingham, Hugh P; Richardson, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    Global stressors, including climate change, are a major threat to ecosystems, but they cannot be halted by local actions. Ecosystem management is thus attempting to compensate for the impacts of global stressors by reducing local stressors, such as overfishing. This approach assumes that stressors interact additively or synergistically, whereby the combined effect of two stressors is at least the sum of their isolated effects. It is not clear, however, how management should proceed for antagonistic interactions among stressors, where multiple stressors do not have an additive or greater impact. Research to date has focussed on identifying synergisms among stressors, but antagonisms may be just as common. We examined the effectiveness of management when faced with different types of interactions in two systems--seagrass and fish communities--where the global stressor was climate change but the local stressors were different. When there were synergisms, mitigating local stressors delivered greater gains, whereas when there were antagonisms, management of local stressors was ineffective or even degraded ecosystems. These results suggest that reducing a local stressor can compensate for climate change impacts if there is a synergistic interaction. Conversely, if there is an antagonistic interaction, management of local stressors will have the greatest benefits in areas of refuge from climate change. A balanced research agenda, investigating both antagonistic and synergistic interaction types, is needed to inform management priorities. PMID:23776542

  6. A study of the global heliospheric modulation of galactic Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngobeni, M. D.; Potgieter, M. S.

    2014-06-01

    Observations of galactic Carbon in the heliosphere provide a useful tool with which a comprehensive description of the global modulation of cosmic rays both inside and outside off the solar wind termination shock (TS) can be made. This is, in part, because galactic Carbon is not contaminated by anomalous cosmic rays as is the case for oxygen, helium and hydrogen. However, this kind of study requires that there should be reasonable compatibility of model solutions to spacecraft and earthbound observations. In this study, the well-established two-dimensional model that contains a TS, a heliosheath, as well as shock re-acceleration of galactic cosmic rays and particle drifts, is used first to study modulation from solar minimum to moderate maximum activity at Earth. This model can handle any global heliospheric geometry of both the TS and heliopause (HP) positions. Second, the model is applied to study the contribution of drifts and the enhancement of polar perpendicular diffusion in the heliosheath to the total modulation in the heliosphere as a function of energy for both polarity cycles of the magnetic field during solar minimum conditions. This modeling is done with a new heliopause spectrum (HPS, usually referred to as the local interstellar spectrum) at kinetic energy E < ?200 MeV/nuc. This HPS is derived from observations made by the Voyager 1 spacecraft of galactic Carbon at a radial distance of ?122 AU from the Sun. We find that: (1) The model gives realistic modulation for both magnetic polarity cycles of the Sun, from Earth to beyond the TS, and that the level of modulation at Earth between the recent solar minimum and the previous moderate maximum condition exceed that between the HP and Earth in the recent solar minimum. (2) Neglecting drifts in the heliosheath along the Voyager heliolatitude is a reasonable assumption, but in the equatorial plane of the heliosphere drifts are important for heliosheath modulation in the A < 0 polarity cycle, especially when galactic particles are re-accelerated at the TS. (3) The contribution of the enhancement of the polar perpendicular diffusion in the heliosheath to the total modulation seems insignificant. (4) The new HPS as observed by Voyager 1 at E < ?200 MeV/nuc is found to be significantly higher than previous estimates, for example, at E = 100 MeV/nuc by a factor of ?2. We find that the total modulation between the HP and Earth at 10 MeV/nuc causes the intensity at Earth to be only ?4.5% of the HPS, whereas for 100 MeV/nuc it is ?17.5%. Respectively, this means that the global radial gradient for galactic Carbon for this period was ?2.5%/AU and ?1.4%/AU, if the heliopause is taken at 122 AU.

  7. Imminent ocean acidification projected with the NCAR global coupled carbon cycle-climate model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Steinacher; F. Joos; T. L. Frölicher; G.-K. Plattner; S. C. Doney

    2008-01-01

    Ocean acidification from the uptake of anthropogenic carbon is simulated for the industrial period and IPCC SRES emission scenarios A2 and B1 with a global coupled carbon cycle-climate model. Earlier studies identified seawater saturation state with respect to aragonite, a mineral phase of calcium carbonate, as a key variable governing impacts on corals and other shell-forming organisms. Globally in the

  8. ECONOMIC MODELING OF THE GLOBAL ADOPTION OF CARBON CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES

    E-print Network

    ECONOMIC MODELING OF THE GLOBAL ADOPTION OF CARBON CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES J. R. Mc of carbon capture and sequestration technologies as applied to electric generating plants. The MIT Emissions, is used to model carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies based on a natural gas combined cycle

  9. Applicability of Montreal Process Criterion 5 — maintenance of rangeland contribution to global carbon cycles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Joyce

    2000-01-01

    Within the Montreal Process, Criterion 5 — Maintenance of Forest Contribution to the Global Carbon Cycle — encompasses: Indicator 26, biomass and carbon pools; Indicator 27, carbon fluxes from these pools; and Indicator 28, contribution of forest products. I have reviewed the applicability of each indicator to rangelands, the potential limitations of these indicators for rangelands ecosystems, the data available

  10. A simulation study for the global carbon cycle, including man's impact on the biosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Goudriaan; P. Ketner

    1984-01-01

    The simulation model accounts for four major compartments in the global carbon cycle: atmosphere, ocean, terrestrial biosphere and fossil carbon reservoir. The ocean is further compartmentalized into a high and a low latitude surface layer, and into 10 deep sea strata. The oceanic carbon fluxes are caused by massflow of descending and upwelling water, by precipitation of organic material and

  11. A technology-based global inventory of black and organic carbon emissions from combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tami C. Bond; David G. Streets; Kristen F. Yarber; Sibyl M. Nelson; Jung-Hun Woo; Zbigniew Klimont

    2004-01-01

    We present a global tabulation of black carbon (BC) and primary organic carbon (OC) particles emitted from combustion. We include emissions from fossil fuels, biofuels, open biomass burning, and burning of urban waste. Previous “bottom-up” inventories of black and organic carbon have assigned emission factors on the basis of fuel type and economic sector alone. Because emission rates are highly

  12. Impact of cultural differences on knowledge management in global projects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vittal S. Anantatmula

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – This study aims to propose a knowledge management process model for global projects. The paper also seeks to generate interest among academic researchers for undertaking further research on this important topic. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This research effort uses literature review findings and past research efforts of the author to develop a generic KM process model and a set of

  13. Aviation Safety + Security Program GLOBAL EXPERTS IN SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    Wang, Hai

    2010- 2011 Aviation Safety + Security Program GLOBAL EXPERTS IN SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Relevance and currency -- that is what drives the Aviation Safety and Security Program of the USC Viterbi School of Engineering. We constantly strive to improve our program and make it as useful to the aviation

  14. Agile Data Management with the Global Change Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggan, B.; Aulenbach, S.; Tilmes, C.; Goldstein, J.

    2013-12-01

    We describe experiences applying agile software development techniques to the realm of data management during the development of the Global Change Information System (GCIS), a web service and API for authoritative global change information under development by the US Global Change Research Program. Some of the challenges during system design and implementation have been : (1) balancing the need for a rigorous mechanism for ensuring information quality with the realities of large data sets whose contents are often in flux, (2) utilizing existing data to inform decisions about the scope and nature of new data, and (3) continuously incorporating new knowledge and concepts into a relational data model. The workflow for managing the content of the system has much in common with the development of the system itself. We examine various aspects of agile software development and discuss whether or how we have been able to use them for data curation as well as software development.

  15. The new management competencies: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Battistella, R M; Weil, T P

    1996-07-01

    How will tighter controls over health expenditures, an increased supply of qualified doctors, and clinical acumen becoming more critical in allocating health resources under market-driven, capitated payment-type plans affect physicians? Throughout the world, they will play a greater role in the management of health facilities and services. To train doctors to provide leadership in these new, more market driven environments, education should focus more on the integration and coordination of clinical and managerial processes, an approach outside the scope of most curricula now offered. New managerial competencies will be required by the paradigm shift away from simply delivering quality health services to tighter cost containment efforts. Physicians will play an increasing role in how medical facilities and services are organized and financed--the blending of clinical and managerial-financial-information science processes will be paramount in these educational pursuits. PMID:10161360

  16. The role of soil microbes in the global carbon cycle: tracking the below-ground microbial processing of plant-derived carbon for manipulating carbon dynamics in agricultural systems

    PubMed Central

    Gougoulias, Christos; Clark, Joanna M; Shaw, Liz J

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) (and other greenhouse gases) have increased markedly as a result of human activity since the industrial revolution. It is perhaps less appreciated that natural and managed soils are an important source and sink for atmospheric CO2 and that, primarily as a result of the activities of soil microorganisms, there is a soil-derived respiratory flux of CO2 to the atmosphere that overshadows by tenfold the annual CO2 flux from fossil fuel emissions. Therefore small changes in the soil carbon cycle could have large impacts on atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Here we discuss the role of soil microbes in the global carbon cycle and review the main methods that have been used to identify the microorganisms responsible for the processing of plant photosynthetic carbon inputs to soil. We discuss whether application of these techniques can provide the information required to underpin the management of agro-ecosystems for carbon sequestration and increased agricultural sustainability. We conclude that, although crucial in enabling the identification of plant-derived carbon-utilising microbes, current technologies lack the high-throughput ability to quantitatively apportion carbon use by phylogentic groups and its use efficiency and destination within the microbial metabolome. It is this information that is required to inform rational manipulation of the plant–soil system to favour organisms or physiologies most important for promoting soil carbon storage in agricultural soil. PMID:24425529

  17. The importance of rapid, disturbance-induced losses in carbon management and sequestration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breshears, D.D.; Allen, C.D.

    2002-01-01

    Management of terrestrial carbon fluxes is being proposed as a means of increasing the amount of carbon sequestered in the terrestrial biosphere. This approach is generally viewed only as an interim strategy for the coming decades while other longer-term strategies are developed and implemented - the most important being the direct reduction of carbon emissions. We are concerned that the potential for rapid, disturbance-induced losses may be much greater than is currently appreciated, especially by the decision-making community. Here we wish to: (1) highlight the complex and threshold-like nature of disturbances - such as fire and drought, as well as the erosion associated with each - that could lead to carbon losses; (2) note the global extent of ecosystems that are at risk of such disturbance-induced carbon losses; and (3) call for increased consideration of and research on the mechanisms by which large, rapid disturbance-induced losses of terrestrial carbon could occur. Our lack of ability as a scientific community to predict such ecosystem dynamics is precluding the effective consideration of these processes into strategies and policies related to carbon management and sequestration. Consequently, scientists need to do more to improve quantification of these potential losses and to integrate them into sound, sustainable policy options.

  18. CARBON SEQUESTRATION, BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY, AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: INTEGRATED FOREST MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tropical deforestation provides a significant contribution to anthropogenic increases atmospheric CO2 concentration that may lead to global warming. orestation and other forest management options to sequester CO2 in the tropical latitudes may fail unless they address local econom...

  19. Biogenic carbon fluxes from global agricultural production and consumption: Gridded, annual estimates of net ecosystem carbon exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, J.; West, T. O.; le Page, Y.; Thomson, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Quantification of biogenic carbon fluxes from agricultural lands is needed to generate globally consistent bottom-up estimates for carbon monitoring and model input. We quantify agricultural carbon fluxes associated with annual (starting in 1961) crop net primary productivity (NPP), harvested biomass, and human and livestock consumption and emissions, with estimates of uncertainty, by applying region- and species-specific carbon parameters to annual crop, livestock, food and trade inventory data, and generate downscaled, gridded (0.05 degree resolution) representations of these fluxes. In 2011, global crop NPP was 5.25 ± 0.46 Pg carbon (excluding root exudates), of which 2.05 ± 0.051 Pg carbon was harvested as primary crops; an additional 0.54 Pg of crop residue carbon was collected for livestock fodder. In 2011, total livestock feed intake was 2.42 ± 0.21 Pg carbon, of which 2.31 ± 0.21 Pg carbon was emitted as carbon dioxide and 0.072 ± 0.005 Pg carbon was emitted as methane. We estimate that livestock grazed 1.18 Pg carbon from non-crop lands in 2011, representing 48.5 % of global total feed intake. In 2009, the latest available data year, we estimate global human food intake (excluding seafood and orchard fruits and nuts) at 0.52 ± 0.03 Pg carbon, with an additional 0.24 ± 0.01 Pg carbon of food supply chain losses. Trends in production and consumption of agricultural carbon between 1961 and recent years, such as increasing dominance of oilcrops and decreasing percent contribution of pasturage to total livestock feed intake, are discussed, and accounting of all agricultural carbon was done for the years 2005 and 2009. Gridded at 0.05 degree resolution, these quantities represent local uptake and release of agricultural biogenic carbon (e.g. biomass production and removal, residue and manure inputs to soils) and may be used with other gridded data to help estimate current and future changes in soil organic carbon.

  20. Spatio-temporal patterns of forest carbon dioxide exchange based on global eddy covariance measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    XingChang Wang; ChuanKuan Wang; GuiRui Yu

    2008-01-01

    Spatio-temporal patterns and driving mechanisms of forest carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange are the key issues on terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycles, which are the basis for developing and validating ecosystem\\u000a carbon cycle models, assessing and predicting the role of forests in global carbon balance. Eddy covariance (EC) technique,\\u000a an important method for measuring energy and material exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and

  1. Formulating energy policies related to fossil fuel use: Critical uncertainties in the global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Post, W.M.; Dale, V.H.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; O'Neill, R.V.; Peng, T.-H.; Farrell, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    The global carbon cycle is the dynamic interaction among the earth's carbon sources and sinks. Four reservoirs can be identified, including the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and sediments. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is determined by characteristics of carbon fluxes among major reservoirs of the global carbon cycle. The objective of this paper is to document the knowns, and unknowns and uncertainties associated with key questions that if answered will increase the understanding of the portion of past, present, and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} attributable to fossil fuel burning. Documented atmospheric increases in CO{sub 2} levels are thought to result primarily from fossil fuel use and, perhaps, deforestation. However, the observed atmospheric CO{sub 2} increase is less than expected from current understanding of the global carbon cycle because of poorly understood interactions among the major carbon reservoirs. 87 refs.

  2. Trend in global black carbon emissions from 1960 to 2007.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Tao, Shu; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Balkanski, Yves; Boucher, Olivier; Ciais, Philippe; Shen, Guofeng; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Yuanchen; Lin, Nan; Su, Shu; Li, Bengang; Liu, Junfeng; Liu, Wenxin

    2014-06-17

    Black carbon (BC) plays an important role in both climate change and health impact. Still, BC emissions as well as the historical trends are associated with high uncertainties in existing inventories. In the present study, global BC emissions from 1960 to 2007 were estimated for 64 sources, by using recompiled fuel consumption and emission factor data sets. Annual BC emissions had increased from 5.3 (3.4-8.5 as an interquartile range) to 9.1 (5.6-14.4) teragrams during this period. Our estimations are 11-16% higher than those in previous inventories. Over the period, we found that the BC emission intensity, defined as the amount of BC emitted per unit of energy production, had decreased for all the regions, especially China and India. Improvements in combustion technology and changes in fuel composition had led to an increase in energy use efficiency, and subsequently a decline of BC emission intensities in power plants, the residential sector, and transportation. On the other hand, the BC emission intensities had increased in the industrial and agricultural sectors, mainly due to an expansion of low-efficiency industry (coke and brick production) in developing countries and to an increasing usage of diesel in agriculture in developed countries. PMID:24825392

  3. GRASSLAND MANAGEMENT AND CONVERSION INTO GRASSLAND: EFFECTS ON SOIL CARBON

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RICHARD T. C ONANT; K EITH PAUSTIAN; EDWARD T. E LLIOTT

    2001-01-01

    Grasslands are heavily relied upon for food and forage production. A key component for sustaining production in grassland ecosystems is the maintenance of soil organic matter (SOM), which can be strongly influenced by management. Many management techniques intended to increase forage production may potentially increase SOM, thus sequestering atmospheric carbon (C). Further, conversion from either cultivation or native vegetation into

  4. Economic and Societal Benefits of Soil Carbon Management (Chapter 1).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many papers and books on soil carbon management have addressed specific ecosystems such as agricultural lands, rangelands, forestlands, etc. This paper introduces a book within which each chapter begins by addressing a particular concern and potential options to manage it, along with their real and...

  5. Description & Careers The Management and Global Business department equips students with necessary tools and skills needed to manage and

    E-print Network

    Lin, Xiaodong

    Description & Careers The Field The Management and Global Business department equips students with necessary tools and skills needed to manage and lead in the globally integrated economy. Management efficiently and effectively. With a focus on organizations and employees, managers are involved in planning

  6. Management effects on labile organic carbon pools

    E-print Network

    Kolodziej, Scott Michael

    2005-08-29

    that agricultural soils may provide a significant carbon (C) sink that may aid in the mitigation of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. Observed differences in lint yield and nitrogen response from a cotton performance study at the Texas A&M University...

  7. Advancing the theory and practice of excellence in global supply chain management

    E-print Network

    Straight, Aaron

    technology, new approaches to supply chain collaboration, and process optimization. Our SociallyAdvancing the theory and practice of excellence in global supply chain management Global Supply Chain Management Forum ("the Forum") is an international research center that works

  8. High-fidelity national carbon mapping for resource management and REDD+

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High fidelity carbon mapping has the potential to greatly advance national resource management and to encourage international action toward climate change mitigation. However, carbon inventories based on field plots alone cannot capture the heterogeneity of carbon stocks, and thus remote sensing-assisted approaches are critically important to carbon mapping at regional to global scales. We advanced a high-resolution, national-scale carbon mapping approach applied to the Republic of Panama – one of the first UN REDD?+?partner countries. Results Integrating measurements of vegetation structure collected by airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) with field inventory plots, we report LiDAR-estimated aboveground carbon stock errors of ~10% on any 1-ha land parcel across a wide range of ecological conditions. Critically, this shows that LiDAR provides a highly reliable replacement for inventory plots in areas lacking field data, both in humid tropical forests and among drier tropical vegetation types. We then scale up a systematically aligned LiDAR sampling of Panama using satellite data on topography, rainfall, and vegetation cover to model carbon stocks at 1-ha resolution with estimated average pixel-level uncertainty of 20.5 Mg C ha-1 nationwide. Conclusions The national carbon map revealed strong abiotic and human controls over Panamanian carbon stocks, and the new level of detail with estimated uncertainties for every individual hectare in the country sets Panama at the forefront in high-resolution ecosystem management. With this repeatable approach, carbon resource decision-making can be made on a geospatially explicit basis, enhancing human welfare and environmental protection. PMID:23866822

  9. Plant invasions in mountains: Global lessons for better management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDougall, K.L.; Khuroo, A.A.; Loope, L.L.; Parks, C.G.; Pauchard, A.; Reshi, Z.A.; Rushworth, I.; Kueffer, C.

    2011-01-01

    Mountains are one of few ecosystems little affected by plant invasions. However, the threat of invasion is likely to increase because of climate change, greater anthropogenic land use, and continuing novel introductions. Preventive management, therefore, will be crucial but can be difficult to promote when more pressing problems are unresolved and predictions are uncertain. In this essay, we use management case studies from 7 mountain regions to identify common lessons for effective preventive action. The degree of plant invasion in mountains was variable in the 7 regions as was the response to invasion, which ranged from lack of awareness by land managers of the potential impact in Chile and Kashmir to well-organized programs of prevention and containment in the United States (Hawaii and the Pacific Northwest), including prevention at low altitude. In Australia, awareness of the threat grew only after disruptive invasions. In South Africa, the economic benefits of removing alien plants are well recognized and funded in the form of employment programs. In the European Alps, there is little need for active management because no invasive species pose an immediate threat. From these case studies, we identify lessons for management of plant invasions in mountain ecosystems: (i) prevention is especially important in mountains because of their rugged terrain, where invasions can quickly become unmanageable; (ii) networks at local to global levels can assist with awareness raising and better prioritization of management actions; (iii) the economic importance of management should be identified and articulated; (iv) public acceptance of management programs will make them more effective; and (v) climate change needs to be considered. We suggest that comparisons of local case studies, such as those we have presented, have a pivotal place in the proactive solution of global change issues. ?? International Mountain Society.

  10. Global distribution of pteropods representing carbonate functional type biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednaršek, N.; Možina, J.; Vu?kovi?, M.; Vogt, M.; O'Brien, C.; Tarling, G. A.

    2012-05-01

    Pteropods are a group of holoplanktonic gastropods for which global biomass distribution patterns remain poorly resolved. The aim of this study was to collect and synthesize existing pteropod (Gymnosomata, Thecosomata and Pseudothecosomata) abundance and biomass data, in order to evaluate the global distribution of pteropod carbon biomass, with a particular emphasis on its seasonal, temporal and vertical patterns. We collected 25 902 data points from several online databases and a number of scientific articles. The biomass data has been gridded onto a 360 × 180° grid, with a vertical resolution of 33 WOA depth levels. Data has been converted to NetCDF format which can be downloaded from PANGAEA, http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.777387. Data were collected between 1951-2010, with sampling depths ranging from 0-1000 m. Pteropod biomass data was either extracted directly or derived through converting abundance to biomass with pteropod specific length to weight conversions. In the Northern Hemisphere (NH) the data were distributed evenly throughout the year, whereas sampling in the Southern Hemisphere was biased towards the austral summer months. 86% of all biomass values were located in the NH, most (42%) within the latitudinal band of 30-50° N. The range of global biomass values spanned over three orders of magnitude, with a mean and median biomass concentration of 8.2 mg C l-1 (SD = 61.4) and 0.25 mg C l-1, respectively for all data points, and with a mean of 9.1 mg C l-1 (SD = 64.8) and a median of 0.25 mg C l-1 for non-zero biomass values. The highest mean and median biomass concentrations were located in the NH between 40-50° S (mean biomass: 68.8 mg C l-1 (SD × 213.4) median biomass: 2.5 mg C l-1) while, in the SH, they were within the 70-80° S latitudinal band (mean: 10.5 mg C l-1 (SD × 38.8) and median: 0.2 mg C l-1). Biomass values were lowest in the equatorial regions. A broad range of biomass concentrations was observed at all depths, with the biomass peak located in the surface layer (0-25 m) and values generally decreasing with depth. However, biomass peaks were located at different depths in different ocean basins: 0-25 m depth in the N Atlantic, 50-100 m in the Pacific, 100-200 m in the Arctic, 200-500 m in the Brazilian region and >500 m in the Indo-Pacific region. Biomass in the NH was relatively invariant over the seasonal cycle, but more seasonally variable in the SH. The collected database provides a valuable tool for modellers for the study of ecosystem processes and global biogeochemical cycles.

  11. Contribution of semi-arid ecosystems to interannual variability of the global carbon cycle.

    PubMed

    Poulter, Benjamin; Frank, David; Ciais, Philippe; Myneni, Ranga B; Andela, Niels; Bi, Jian; Broquet, Gregoire; Canadell, Josep G; Chevallier, Frederic; Liu, Yi Y; Running, Steven W; Sitch, Stephen; van der Werf, Guido R

    2014-05-29

    The land and ocean act as a sink for fossil-fuel emissions, thereby slowing the rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Although the uptake of carbon by oceanic and terrestrial processes has kept pace with accelerating carbon dioxide emissions until now, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations exhibit a large variability on interannual timescales, considered to be driven primarily by terrestrial ecosystem processes dominated by tropical rainforests. We use a terrestrial biogeochemical model, atmospheric carbon dioxide inversion and global carbon budget accounting methods to investigate the evolution of the terrestrial carbon sink over the past 30 years, with a focus on the underlying mechanisms responsible for the exceptionally large land carbon sink reported in 2011 (ref. 2). Here we show that our three terrestrial carbon sink estimates are in good agreement and support the finding of a 2011 record land carbon sink. Surprisingly, we find that the global carbon sink anomaly was driven by growth of semi-arid vegetation in the Southern Hemisphere, with almost 60 per cent of carbon uptake attributed to Australian ecosystems, where prevalent La Niña conditions caused up to six consecutive seasons of increased precipitation. In addition, since 1981, a six per cent expansion of vegetation cover over Australia was associated with a fourfold increase in the sensitivity of continental net carbon uptake to precipitation. Our findings suggest that the higher turnover rates of carbon pools in semi-arid biomes are an increasingly important driver of global carbon cycle inter-annual variability and that tropical rainforests may become less relevant drivers in the future. More research is needed to identify to what extent the carbon stocks accumulated during wet years are vulnerable to rapid decomposition or loss through fire in subsequent years. PMID:24847888

  12. Managing Global Satellite Data: The GHRSST-PP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Edward M.; Vazquez, Jorge; Bingham, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This presentation examines the management of satellite data, specifically the GODAE (Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment) High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature Pilot Project (GHRSST-PP). The objective of the GHRSST-PP is to produce high quality, enhanced Level 2 SST products (known as L2P) from a number of satellite infrared and microwave sources. Topics covered include data organization, access and data discovery, as well as historical continuity.

  13. Effects of harvest management practices on forest biomass and soil carbon in eucalypt forests in New South Wales, Australia: Simulations with the forest succession model LINKAGES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kemachandra Ranatunga; Rodney J. Keenan; Stan D. Wullschleger; Wilfred M. Post; M. Lynn Tharp

    2008-01-01

    Understanding long-term changes in forest ecosystem carbon stocks under forest management practices such as timber harvesting is important for assessing the contribution of forests to the global carbon cycle. Harvesting effects are complicated by the amount, type, and condition of residue left on-site, the decomposition rate of this residue, the incorporation of residue into soil organic matter and the rate

  14. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Ashok Gadgil: global impact

    ScienceCinema

    Ashok Gadgi

    2010-09-01

    Ashok Gadgil speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  15. Managing for Phosphorus and Other Resources in Globalized Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, G. K.; Mueller, N. D.; Bennett, E.; Brauman, K. A.; Gerber, J. S.; Metson, G. S.; West, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural trade has an important effect on the distribution of resource use among regions. Trade is particularly important for understanding human impacts on the phosphorus (P) cycle, as mineral P reserves are geopolitically concentrated. Yet, P use is only one component of the broader agro-environmental dimensions of globalized agriculture. Understanding complex interactions among multiple components of land use and resource management in trade networks is needed. We fuse comprehensive global agricultural datasets illustrating key facets of land use and management with bilateral trade statistics to explore phosphorus-use efficiency in relation to other agro-environmental indicators. Our findings illustrate tradeoffs among phosphorus-use efficiency, nitrogen-use efficiency, crop-water productivity, and overall crop yields embodied within trade networks. Disparities in the land-use intensity of different exporting countries reflect the types of commodities produced, the degree of export-orientation, and the biophysical context of production. Phosphorus inefficiencies could compound other problems, such as water scarcity, but our findings also reveal places with relatively high efficiency across multiple indicators—offering insight on how overall resource management can be balanced for export production. Using the prevailing agricultural systems of key exporting regions as a backdrop, we highlight opportunities to leverage agricultural efficiencies embodied in global trade networks to conserve multiple resources.

  16. CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN SOILS AND GLOBAL CLIMATIC CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The storage of carbon in soils is a very complex phenomenon. lthough it is not fully characterized or understood, steps can be taken to use soils as a reservoir of carbon. he role of soils in the carbon cycle must be more fully understood to develop strategies to mitigate increas...

  17. Forest management strategies for reducing carbon emissions, the French case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, Aude; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Bellassen, Valentin; Vallet, Patrick; Martin, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    International agreements now recognize the role of forest in the mitigation of climate change through the levers of in-situ sequestration, storage in products and energy and product substitution. These three strategies of carbon management are often antagonistic and it is still not clear which strategy would have the most significant impact on atmospheric carbon concentrations. With a focus on France, this study compares several scenarios of forest management in terms of their effect on the overall carbon budget from trees to wood-products. We elaborated four scenarios of forest management that target different wood production objectives. One scenario is 'Business as usual' and reproduces the current forest management and wood production levels. Two scenarios target an increase in bioenergy wood production, with either long-term or short-term goals. One scenario aims at increasing the production of timber for construction. For this, an empirical regression model was developed building on the rich French inventory database. The model can project the current forest resource at a time horizon of 20 years for characteristic variables diameter, standing volume, above-ground biomass, stand age. A simplified life-cycle analysis provides a full carbon budget for each scenario from forest management to wood use and allows the identification of the scenario that most reduces carbon emissions.

  18. Simulating the effects of climate and agricultural management practices on global crop yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deryng, D.; Sacks, W. J.; Barford, C. C.; Ramankutty, N.

    2011-06-01

    Climate change is expected to significantly impact global food production, and it is important to understand the potential geographic distribution of yield losses and the means to alleviate them. This study presents a new global crop model, PEGASUS 1.0 (Predicting Ecosystem Goods And Services Using Scenarios) that integrates, in addition to climate, the effect of planting dates and cultivar choices, irrigation, and fertilizer application on crop yield for maize, soybean, and spring wheat. PEGASUS combines carbon dynamics for crops with a surface energy and soil water balance model. It also benefits from the recent development of a suite of global data sets and analyses that serve as model inputs or as calibration data. These include data on crop planting and harvesting dates, crop-specific irrigated areas, a global analysis of yield gaps, and harvested area and yield of major crops. Model results for present-day climate and farm management compare reasonably well with global data. Simulated planting and harvesting dates are within the range of crop calendar observations in more than 75% of the total crop-harvested areas. Correlation of simulated and observed crop yields indicates a weighted coefficient of determination, with the weighting based on crop-harvested area, of 0.81 for maize, 0.66 for soybean, and 0.45 for spring wheat. We found that changes in temperature and precipitation as predicted by global climate models for the 2050s lead to a global yield reduction if planting and harvesting dates remain unchanged. However, adapting planting dates and cultivar choices increases yield in temperate regions and avoids 7-18% of global losses.

  19. Potential Carbon Negative Commercial Aviation through Land Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    Brazilian terra preta soil and char-enhanced soil agricultural systems have demonstrated both enhanced plant biomass and crop yield and functions as a carbon sink. Similar carbon sinking has been demonstrated for both glycophyte and halophyte plants and plant roots. Within the assumption of 3.7 t-C/ha/yr soils and plant root carbon sinking, it is possible to provide carbon neutral U.S. commercial aviation using about 8.5% of U.S. arable lands. The total airline CO2 release would be offset by carbon credits for properly managed soils and plant rooting, becoming carbon neutral for carbon sequestered synjet processing. If these lands were also used to produce biomass fuel crops such as soybeans at an increased yield of 60 bu/acre (225gal/ha), they would provide over 3.15 10(exp 9) gallons biodiesel fuel. If all this fuel were refined into biojet it would provide a 16% biojet-84% synjet blend. This allows the U.S. aviation industry to become carbon negative (carbon negative commercial aviation through carbon credits). Arid land recovery could yield even greater benefits.

  20. Global Gradients of Coral Exposure to Environmental Stresses and Implications for Local Management

    PubMed Central

    Maina, Joseph; McClanahan, Tim R.; Venus, Valentijn; Ateweberhan, Mebrahtu; Madin, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Background The decline of coral reefs globally underscores the need for a spatial assessment of their exposure to multiple environmental stressors to estimate vulnerability and evaluate potential counter-measures. Methodology/Principal Findings This study combined global spatial gradients of coral exposure to radiation stress factors (temperature, UV light and doldrums), stress-reinforcing factors (sedimentation and eutrophication), and stress-reducing factors (temperature variability and tidal amplitude) to produce a global map of coral exposure and identify areas where exposure depends on factors that can be locally managed. A systems analytical approach was used to define interactions between radiation stress variables, stress reinforcing variables and stress reducing variables. Fuzzy logic and spatial ordinations were employed to quantify coral exposure to these stressors. Globally, corals are exposed to radiation and reinforcing stress, albeit with high spatial variability within regions. Based on ordination of exposure grades, regions group into two clusters. The first cluster was composed of severely exposed regions with high radiation and low reducing stress scores (South East Asia, Micronesia, Eastern Pacific and the central Indian Ocean) or alternatively high reinforcing stress scores (the Middle East and the Western Australia). The second cluster was composed of moderately to highly exposed regions with moderate to high scores in both radiation and reducing factors (Caribbean, Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Central Pacific, Polynesia and the western Indian Ocean) where the GBR was strongly associated with reinforcing stress. Conclusions/Significance Despite radiation stress being the most dominant stressor, the exposure of coral reefs could be reduced by locally managing chronic human impacts that act to reinforce radiation stress. Future research and management efforts should focus on incorporating the factors that mitigate the effect of coral stressors until long-term carbon reductions are achieved through global negotiations. PMID:21860667

  1. The impact of intensive forest management on carbon stores in forest ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Krankina, O.N.; Harmon, M.E. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Forest Science)

    1994-06-01

    The expansion of intensive management of forest resources for timber production with the human population growth may have a profound effect on the role forests play in the global carbon cycle. First, the transition from old-growth to intensively managed second-growth forest with short rotations entails major long-term ecosystems changes including the reduction of total woody biomass. Although the biomass of living trees can be restored within a relatively short period of time, dead wood biomass takes considerably longer to reach pre-harvest levels; therefore commonly used rotations are too short for the latter part of ecosystem to recover fully. As dead trees account for 14--18% of the total woody biomass stores in a natural forest, a considerable amount of carbon can be released if this material is not replaced. Second, economically efficient, intensive forest management systems that include commercial thinning and wood salvage can further reduce the total biomass loading of second-growth forests. Long-term study of live and dead wood in thinning trials in the Pacific Northwest and in northwestern Russia suggest that intensive practices can reduce total woody biomass averaged over rotation to 10--25% that found in a natural old-growth forest. Therefore intensive forest management practices may maximize the supply of raw materials, but they may also generate a major carbon flux into the atmosphere. This flux may be significant despite the fact the land-use type remains the same. Effect of intensive forest management practices should be included in future carbon budgets and in developing forest management strategies aimed at increasing carbon storage in forest ecosystems.

  2. Model of vertical distribution of organic carbon in the bottom deposits, and its role in the global carbon budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimov, N.; Zimov, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    Bottom deposits of oceans, seas and lakes are the long term carbon sinks - particulate organic carbon falls on the bottom and is covered with sediments, being preserved in anoxic conditions. However upper horizons of bottom sediments (‘active layer’) are in interaction with bottom waters through diffusion and bubbling of gasses and bioturbation, so it can act as a carbon sink or source depending on environment conditions change. This layer is often very thin, but accounting for the fact that bigger part of earth surface is covered with bottom deposits, storage of carbon in this reservoir can be compared with storage of carbon in terrestrial soils. Previously, to estimate carbon storage in terrestrial soils we have developed a 1-dimensional model of vertical distribution of carbon in terrestrial soils, accounting for different carbon fractions, process of sediment deposition and permafrost (Zimov et al. 2009). Oxygen is rarely appears to be the limiting factor of decomposition in terrestrial soils, while oxygen diffusion is the main factor that limits the decomposition on the bottom deposits. Here we present a model of vertical carbon distribution in bottom deposits taking into account input of organic carbon on the bottom, sediments porosity, oxygen availability, rates of sedimentation and bioturbation activity. The model allows calculate storage of carbon in the ‘active layer’ and the flux of carbon from the ‘active layer’ into the deeper bottom deposits which occur when sediments accumulate on the bottom. Analyses of the model showed that dynamic of carbon storage in the top horizons of the bottom deposits is in strong (non-linear) dependency from carbon income on the bottom, at this changing not only the concentration of carbon in the ‘active layer’ but also thickness of this layer. Understanding processes of carbon dynamics in the bottom deposits allows of interpreting the global carbon cycle, glacial-interglacial CO2 variations, and conditions which led to caustobiolith accumulations. 1. Zimov, N. S., S. A. Zimov, A. E. Zimova, G. M. Zimova, V. I. Chuprynin, and F. S. Chapin III (2009), Carbon storage in permafrost and soils of the mammoth tundra-steppe biome: Role in the global carbon budget, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L02502, doi:10.1029/2008GL036332.

  3. The effects of household management practices on the global warming potential of urban lawns.

    PubMed

    Gu, Chuanhui; Crane, John; Hornberger, George; Carrico, Amanda

    2015-03-15

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions are an important component of the greenhouse gas (GHG) budget for urban turfgrasses. A biogeochemical model DNDC successfully captured the magnitudes and patterns of N2O emissions observed at an urban turfgrass system at the Richland Creek Watershed in Nashville, TN. The model was then used to study the long-term (i.e. 75 years) impacts of lawn management practice (LMP) on soil organic carbon sequestration rate (dSOC), soil N2O emissions, and net Global Warming Potentials (net GWPs). The model simulated N2O emissions and net GWP from the three management intensity levels over 75 years ranged from 0.75 to 3.57 kg N ha(-1)yr(-1) and 697 to 2443 kg CO2-eq ha(-1)yr(-1), respectively, which suggested that turfgrasses act as a net carbon emitter. Reduction of fertilization is most effective to mitigate the global warming potentials of turfgrasses. Compared to the baseline scenario, halving fertilization rate and clipping recycle as an alternative to synthetic fertilizer can reduce net GWPs by 17% and 12%, respectively. In addition, reducing irrigation and mowing are also effective in lowering net GWPs. The minimum-maintenance LMP without irrigation and fertilization can reduce annual N2O emissions and net GWPs by approximately 53% and 70%, respectively, with the price of gradual depletion of soil organic carbon, when compared to the intensive-maintenance LMP. A lawn age-dependent best management practice is recommended: a high dose fertilizer input at the initial stage of lawn establishment to enhance SOC sequestration, followed by decreasing fertilization rate when the lawn ages to minimize N2O emissions. A minimum-maintained LMP with clipping recycling, and minimum irrigation and mowing, is recommended to mitigate global warming effects from urban turfgrass systems. Among all practices, clipping recycle may be a relatively malleable behavior and, therefore, a good target for interventions seeking to reduce the environmental impacts of lawn management through public education. Our results suggest that a long-term or a chronosequence study of turfgrasses with varying ages is warranted to capture the complete dynamics of contribution of turfgrasses to global warming. PMID:25585139

  4. Mangrove production and carbon sinks: A revision of global budget estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouillon, S.; Borges, A.V.; Castaneda-Moya, E.; Diele, K.; Dittmar, T.; Duke, N.C.; Kristensen, E.; Lee, S.-Y.; Marchand, C.; Middelburg, J.J.; Rivera-Monroy, V. H.; Smith, T. J., III; Twilley, R.R.

    2008-01-01

    Mangrove forests are highly productive but globally threatened coastal ecosystems, whose role in the carbon budget of the coastal zone has long been debated. Here we provide a comprehensive synthesis of the available data on carbon fluxes in mangrove ecosystems. A reassessment of global mangrove primary production from the literature results in a conservative estimate of ???-218 ?? 72 Tg C a-1. When using the best available estimates of various carbon sinks (organic carbon export, sediment burial, and mineralization), it appears that >50% of the carbon fixed by mangrove vegetation is unaccounted for. This unaccounted carbon sink is conservatively estimated at ??? 112 ?? 85 Tg C a-1, equivalent in magnitude to ??? 30-40% of the global riverine organic carbon input to the coastal zone. Our analysis suggests that mineralization is severely underestimated, and that the majority of carbon export from mangroves to adjacent waters occurs as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). CO2 efflux from sediments and creek waters and tidal export of DIC appear to be the major sinks. These processes are quantitatively comparable in magnitude to the unaccounted carbon sink in current budgets, but are not yet adequately constrained with the limited published data available so far. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Simulations of the global carbon cycle and anthropogenic CO{sub 2} transient. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Sarmiento, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    This research focuses on improving the understanding of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide transient using observations and models of the past and present. In addition, an attempt is made to develop an ability to predict the future of the carbon cycle in response to continued anthropogenic perturbations and climate change. Three aspects of the anthropogenic carbon budget were investigated: (1) the globally integrated budget at the present time; (2) the time history of the carbon budget; and (3) the spatial distribution of carbon fluxes. One of the major activities of this study was the participation in the model comparison study of Enting, et al. [1994] carried out in preparation for the IPCC 1994 report.

  6. The impact of agricultural soil erosion on the global carbon cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Oost, Kristof; Quine, T.A.; Govers, G.; De Gryze, S.; Six, J.; Harden, J.W.; Ritchie, J.C.; McCarty, G.W.; Heckrath, G.; Kosmas, C.; Giraldez, J.V.; Marques Da Silva, J.R.; Merckx, R.

    2007-01-01

    Agricultural soil erosion is thought to perturb the global carbon cycle, but estimates of its effect range from a source of 1 petagram per year -1 to a sink of the same magnitude. By using caesium-137 and carbon inventory measurements from a large-scale survey, we found consistent evidence for an erosion-induced sink of atmospheric carbon equivalent to approximately 26% of the carbon transported by erosion. Based on this relationship, we estimated a global carbon sink of 0.12 (range 0.06 to 0.27) petagrams of carbon per year-1 resulting from erosion in the world's agricultural landscapes. Our analysis directly challenges the view that agricultural erosion represents an important source or sink for atmospheric CO2.

  7. Distribution of radiocarbon as a test of global carbon cycle models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atul K. Jain; Haroon S. Kheshgi; Martin I. Hoffert; Donald J. Wuebbles

    1995-01-01

    Accurate global carbon cycle models are needed to estimate the future change of atmospheric CO2 for specified scenarios of CO2 emissions. Model accuracy cannot be tested directly because of the difficulty in estimating the carbon flux to the oceans and the terrestrial biosphere. However, one test of model consistency is the requirement that the model reproduce past changes and spatial

  8. Distribution of radiocarbon as a test of global carbon cycle models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atul K. Jain; D. J. Wuebbles; H. S. Kheshgi

    1995-01-01

    Accurate global carbon cycle models are needed to estimate the future change of atmospheric COâ for specified scenarios of COâ emissions. Model accuracy cannot be tested directly because of the difficulty in estimating the carbon flux to the oceans and the terrestrial biosphere. However, one test of model consistency is the requirement that the model reproduce past changes and spatial

  9. Simple spatially distributed model of the global carbon cycle and its dynamic properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuri M. Svirezhev

    2002-01-01

    A specially simplified spatially distributed model of the global carbon cycle (GCC) is presented that is allowed to get a general solution and to study its basic dynamic properties (like spectral portrait, composition and decomposition of solutions, etc.). Assuming that the productivity depends linearly on concentration of carbon in the atmosphere, the problem is reduced to a standard linear one.

  10. The Impact of Agricultural Soil Erosion on the Global Carbon Cycle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural soil erosion is thought to perturb the global carbon cycle, but estimates of its effect range from a source of 1 Pg/year to a sink of the same magnitude. By using Caesium-137 and carbon inventory measurements from a large-scale survey, we found consistent evidence for an erosion-induced...

  11. The Global Carbon Cycle: A Test of Our Knowledge of Earth as a System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Falkowski; R. J. Scholes; E. Boyle; J. Canadell; D. Canfield; J. Elser; N. Gruber; K. Hibbard; P. Högberg; S. Linder; F. T. Mackenzie; B. Moore III; T. Pedersen; Y. Rosenthal; S. Seitzinger; V. Smetacek; W. Steffen

    2000-01-01

    Motivated by the rapid increase in atmospheric CO2 due to human activities since the Industrial Revolution, several international scientific research programs have analyzed the role of individual components of the Earth system in the global carbon cycle. Our knowledge of the carbon cycle within the oceans, terrestrial ecosystems, and the atmosphere is sufficiently extensive to permit us to conclude that

  12. The role of European forests in the global carbon cycle—A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Nabuurs; R. Päivinen; R. Sikkema; G. M. J. Mohren

    1997-01-01

    The first part of this paper presents an overview of national forest carbon balance studies that have been carried out in Europe. Based on these national assessments, an estimate is made of the present role of European forests in the global carbon cycle. Differences in the methodologies applied are discussed. At present, 15 European countries have assessed a national forest

  13. Iron fertilization in the ocean and consequences for the global carbon cycle

    E-print Network

    Marinov, Irina

    Iron fertilization in the ocean and consequences for the global carbon cycle Eric-Martial Takam Group, University of Cape Town May 24, 2007 #12;Abstract It has been suggested that fertilizing circulation, we study the response of the ocean due to iron fertilization and its consequences for the carbon

  14. The role of the global carbonate cycle in the regulation and evolution of the Earth system

    E-print Network

    Zeebe, Richard E.

    typical marine conditions, carbon dioxide will largely hydrate to form a proton (H+ ) and a bicarbonateFrontiers The role of the global carbonate cycle in the regulation and evolution of the Earth of British Columbia, 6339 Stores Road, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z4 b University of Hawaii

  15. Sustainability: The capacity of smokeless biomass pyrolysis for energy production, global carbon capture and sequestration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of modern smokeless biomass pyrolysis for biochar and biofuel production is potentially a revolutionary approach for global carbon capture and sequestration at gigatons of carbon (GtC) scales. A conversion of about 7% of the annual terrestrial gross photosynthetic product (120 GtC y-1) i...

  16. Global Change Biology (1996)2,169-182 Measurements of carbon sequestration by long-term

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    1996-01-01

    Global Change Biology (1996)2,169-182 Measurements of carbon sequestration by long-term eddy. The integrated carbon sequestration in 1994 was 2.1 t C ha-l y-l with a 90% confidence interval due to sampling an overall uncertainty on the annual carbon sequestration in 1994 of --0.3to +0.8 t C ha-l y-l. Keywords

  17. The Impact of Agricultural Soil Erosion on the Global Carbon Cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Van Oost; T. A. Quine; G. Govers; S. De Gryze; J. W. Harden; J. C. Ritchie; G. W. McCarty; G. Heckrath; C. Kosmas; J. V. Giraldez; J. R. Marques da Silva; R. Merckx

    2007-01-01

    Agricultural soil erosion is thought to perturb the global carbon cycle, but estimates of its effect range from a source of 1 petagram per year-1 to a sink of the same magnitude. By using caesium-137 and carbon inventory measurements from a large-scale survey, we found consistent evidence for an erosion-induced sink of atmospheric carbon equivalent to approximately 26% of the

  18. Numerical evaluation of mechanisms driving Early Jurassic changes in global carbon cycling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Beerling; Stuart J. Brentnall

    2007-01-01

    The Early Jurassic (early Toarcian, ca. 183 Ma) carbon cycle perturbation is characterized by aabout -5 parts per thousand δ ¹³C excursion in the exogenic carbon reservoirs, a 1000 ppm rise in atmospheric COâ, and a 6-7 degrees warming. Two proposed explanations for this presumed global carbon cycle perturbation are the liberation of massive amounts of isotopically light CH4 from

  19. A fast method for updating global fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    We provide a fast and efficient method for calculating global annual mean carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels by combining data from an established data set with BP annual statistics. Using this method it is possible to retrieve an updated estimate of global CO2 emissions six months after the actual emissions occurred. Using this data set we

  20. A fast method for updating global fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Myhre; K. Alterskjær; D. Lowe

    2009-01-01

    We provide a fast and efficient method for calculating global annual mean carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels by combining data from an established data set with BP annual statistics. Using this method it is possible to retrieve an updated estimate of global CO2 emissions six months after the actual emissions occurred. Using this data set we

  1. PLANT-SOIL INTERACTIONS AND THE CARBON CYCLE Integrating plant-soil interactions into global carbon cycle models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas J. Ostle; Pete Smith; Rosie Fisher; F. Ian Woodward; Joshua B. Fisher; Jo U. Smith; David Galbraith; Peter Levy; Patrick Meir; Niall P. McNamara; Richard D. Bardgett

    2009-01-01

    Summary 1. Plant-soil interactions play a central role in the biogeochemical carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and hydrologicalcycles.Inthecontextof globalenvironmentalchange,theyareimportantbothinmod- ulating the impact of climate change and in regulating the feedback of greenhouse gas emissions (CO 2, CH 4and N 2O)tothe climate system. 2. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) represent the most advanced tools available to predict the impacts of global change

  2. Transient carbon isotope changes in complex systems: Finding the global signal, embracing the local signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, G. J.; Schneider-Mor, A.; Filley, T. R.

    2008-12-01

    Global, transient carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) in the geological record are increasingly invoked as evidence of short-lived changes in carbon fluxes to/from the ocean-atmosphere-biosphere (exogenic) system. Reconstructing the dynamics of carbon cycle perturbation and response during such events requires that the global extent, magnitude, and temporal pattern of carbon isotope change are well understood. Unfortunately, no simple, globally integrated measure of exogenic ?13C change exists in the geological record: during major global perturbations even the best-case candidates such as deep-ocean carbonate ?13C values likely respond to a complex of factors including ocean carbonate chemistry and circulation. Here we consider the utility of organic carbon isotope records from two complex depositional systems common in the geological record, fossil soils and continental margin sediments, which are of interest in terms of their relationship to organic carbon cycling and records of past ecological change. Within both systems changes in ecology, climate, carbon source, residence time, and molecular composition have clear potential to modulate the preserved record of global exogenic ?13C change, compromising 1st-order interpretations of bulk or compound-specific isotopic records. Process-explicit eco- geochemical models, ideally combined with multi-substrate data, provide one approach to the isolation of global ?13C change and identification of local or regional processes reflected in such records. Examples from both systems drawn from ongoing work on the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum illustrate the potential pitfalls, as well as opportunities, afforded by coupled data/model assessment of transient ?13C changes in complex systems.

  3. FOSSIL PLANTS AS INDICATORS OF THE PHANEROZOIC GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Beerling; D. L. Royer

    2002-01-01

    ? Abstract Developments,in plant physiology,since the 1980s have led to the real- ization that fossil plants archive both the isotopic composition,of atmospheric,CO 2 and its concentration, both critical integrators of carbon cycle processes through geologic time. These two carbon cycle signals can be read by analyzing the stable carbon iso- tope composition,(?,C of atmospheric CO2 because,of the key role it

  4. Global talent management in science-based firms: an exploratory investigation of the pharmaceutical industry during the global downturn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas N. Garavan

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates global talent management (GTM) in science-based firms during the global downturn. Literature on the resource-based view, the best-fit perspective and resource dependency theory is used to frame a qualitative study of nine global pharmaceutical firms that explores how multiple actors view GTM during the global downturn. The study investigates how actors perceive the strategic priorities of the

  5. Crop Management for Soil Carbon Sequestration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marek K. Jarecki; Rattan Lal

    2003-01-01

    Reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) from agriculture is related to increasing and protecting soil organic matter (SOM) concentration. Agricultural soils can be a significant sink for atmospheric carbon (C) through increase of the SOM concentration. The natural ecosystems such as forests or prairies, where C gains are in equilibrium with losses, lose a large fraction of the antecedent C

  6. The Effect of Ocean Heat Capacity Upon Global Warming Due to Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Cess; Steven D. Goldenberg

    1981-01-01

    .Time-dependent global warming due to increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide has been estimated by employing an ocean-land global climate model. Ocean heat capacity is incorporated by means of a global ocean model having a 70 m deep mixed layer, with heat being transported from the mixed layer to deeper waters by eddy diffusion. The time-dependent increase in atmospheric CO2,

  7. The effect of ocean heat capacity upon global warming due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Cess; Steven D. Goldenberg

    1981-01-01

    Time-dependent global warming due to increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide has been estimated by employing an ocean-land global climate model. Ocean heat capacity is incorporated by means of a global ocean model having a 70 m deep mixed layer, with heat being transported from the mixed layer to deeper waters by eddy diffusion. The time-dependent increase in atmospheric CO2,

  8. Rising Carbon Dioxide Levels and Forest Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent observations and scientific research indicate that climate change, with its greater extremes in meteorological trends and overall temperature increases, is likely to affect land resources. Natural resource managers need to continually update their knowledge concerning potential impacts of cl...

  9. Projecting Impacts of Global Climate Change on the U.S. Forest and Agriculture Sectors and Carbon Budgets

    E-print Network

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    Projecting Impacts of Global Climate Change on the U.S. Forest and Agriculture Sectors and Carbon change scenarios on the U.S. forest and agricultural sectors, including impacts on carbon budgets. Four Impacts of Global Climate Change on the U.S. Forest and Agriculture Sectors and Carbon Budgets

  10. Ocean Margins Program: Closure on the global carbon cycle. Program description

    SciTech Connect

    Riches, M.R.

    1994-08-01

    The Department of Energy`s Ocean Margins Program (OMP) is designed to quantitatively assess the importance of coastal ocean systems in the global carbon cycle. Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, human energy-related activities have dramatically altered the global carbon cycle, and consequently, this cycle is not presently in a steady-state. To reduce major uncertainties in predicting future global environmental quality, it is imperative to understand the sources and sinks of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, the role of anthropogenic activities in disrupting the natural carbon cycle, and the effects of, and feedbacks between, these activities and the natural carbon cycle. Due to continuously increased loading of nutrients to the margins, which, globally, is related to the rate of human population growth and high population densities in coastal states, biological carbon fixation has been stimulated. Depending on the fate of the fixed carbon, this stimulation has the potential to mitigate the anthropogenically derived Co{sub 2}. Determining the factors that control the magnitude of carbon exchanges between the ocean margins and the atmosphere, and the subsequent fate of this carbon, is crucial to predicting the strength and capacity of the oceans to absorb excess anthropogenic atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The goals of the OMP are to: quantify the ecological and biogeochemical processes and mechanisms that define the cycling, flux, and storage of carbon and other biogenic elements at the land/ocean interface; identify how ocean-margin sources and sinks of carbon change in response to human activities; and determine whether continental shelves are quantitatively significant in removing atmospheric carbon dioxide and isolating it via burial in sediments or export to the interior of the open ocean.

  11. How strongly can forest management influence soil carbon sequestration?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Jandl; Marcus Lindner; Lars Vesterdal; B. M. S. D. L. Bauwens; Rainer Baritz; Frank Hagedorn; Dale W. Johnson; Kari Minkkinen; Kenneth A. Byrne

    2007-01-01

    We reviewed the experimental evidence for long-term carbon (C) sequestration in soils as consequence of specific forest management strategies. Utilization of terrestrial C sinks alleviates the burden of countries which are committed to reducing their greenhouse gas emissions. Land-use changes such as those which result from afforestation and management of fast-growing tree species, have an immediate effect on the regional

  12. Managing Liability: Comparing Radioactive Waste Disposal and Carbon Dioxide Storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth J. Wilson; Sara Bergan

    \\u000a Liability issues are a major concern for final disposal of radioactive waste (RW) and for geological storage of carbon dioxide\\u000a (CO2). We develop a list of overarching questions that drive liability and present a discussion of where managing liability for\\u000a geological CO2 storage and RW disposal is fundamentally different and where it is similar. Governments have been trying to manage

  13. Steady state terrestrial ecosystems and the global carbon cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ariel E. Lugo; Sandra Brown

    1986-01-01

    The assumption that landscapes dominated by mature vegetation are presently in carbon steady state with the atmosphere is challenged. Evidence suggests that the vegetation and soils of these landscapes are frequently disturbed and over short time periods (<300 yr) slowly sequester atmospheric carbon. The critical consideration in this argument is the time interval used to evaluate a steady state. Current

  14. Changes in the global carbon cycle and the biosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Olson; H. A. Pfuderer; Y. H. Chan

    1978-01-01

    Increases in atmospheric COâ, risks of climatic change, and impacts from such change are reviewed. Needs for closer scrutiny of changes in organic carbon and in the patterns of the biosphere are explained. The organic carbon pool is considered here as a moderate source of COâ, perhaps 1 to 3 Gtons\\/yr in recent years. The biosphere could become a net

  15. Land and ocean carbon cycle feedback eVects on global warming in a simple Earth system model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TIMOTHY M. LENTON

    2000-01-01

    A simple Earth system model is developed by coupling a box model of the global carbon cycle to an energy-balance approximation of global temperature. The model includes a range of feedback mechanisms between atmospheric CO 2 , surface temperature and land and ocean carbon cycling. It is used to assess their eVect on the global change being driven by anthropo-

  16. Exploiting simultaneous observational constraints on mass and absorption to estimate the global direct radiative forcing of black carbon and brown carbon

    E-print Network

    Schwarz, J. P.

    Atmospheric black carbon (BC) is a leading climate warming agent, yet uncertainties on the global direct radiative forcing (DRF) remain large. Here we expand a global model simulation (GEOS-Chem) of BC to include the ...

  17. NATURE GEOSCIENCE | VOL 4 | MAY 2011 | www.nature.com/naturegeoscience 285 he global carbon cycle is the biogeochemical engine at the

    E-print Network

    Fischer, Woodward

    NATURE GEOSCIENCE | VOL 4 | MAY 2011 | www.nature.com/naturegeoscience 285 T he global carbon cycle a measure of the global carbon cycle at the geological instant of sedimentation. The history of the carbon

  18. Global covariation of carbon turnover times with climate in terrestrial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Carvalhais, Nuno; Forkel, Matthias; Khomik, Myroslava; Bellarby, Jessica; Jung, Martin; Migliavacca, Mirco; Mu, Mingquan; Saatchi, Sassan; Santoro, Maurizio; Thurner, Martin; Weber, Ulrich; Ahrens, Bernhard; Beer, Christian; Cescatti, Alessandro; Randerson, James T; Reichstein, Markus

    2014-10-01

    The response of the terrestrial carbon cycle to climate change is among the largest uncertainties affecting future climate change projections. The feedback between the terrestrial carbon cycle and climate is partly determined by changes in the turnover time of carbon in land ecosystems, which in turn is an ecosystem property that emerges from the interplay between climate, soil and vegetation type. Here we present a global, spatially explicit and observation-based assessment of whole-ecosystem carbon turnover times that combines new estimates of vegetation and soil organic carbon stocks and fluxes. We find that the overall mean global carbon turnover time is 23(+7)(-4) years (95 per cent confidence interval). On average, carbon resides in the vegetation and soil near the Equator for a shorter time than at latitudes north of 75° north (mean turnover times of 15 and 255 years, respectively). We identify a clear dependence of the turnover time on temperature, as expected from our present understanding of temperature controls on ecosystem dynamics. Surprisingly, our analysis also reveals a similarly strong association between turnover time and precipitation. Moreover, we find that the ecosystem carbon turnover times simulated by state-of-the-art coupled climate/carbon-cycle models vary widely and that numerical simulations, on average, tend to underestimate the global carbon turnover time by 36 per cent. The models show stronger spatial relationships with temperature than do observation-based estimates, but generally do not reproduce the strong relationships with precipitation and predict faster carbon turnover in many semi-arid regions. Our findings suggest that future climate/carbon-cycle feedbacks may depend more strongly on changes in the hydrological cycle than is expected at present and is considered in Earth system models. PMID:25252980

  19. A simple model of carbon cycle for upgrading global fossil fuels consumption and carbon emission forecasts validity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamo. S. Demirchian; Karina. K. Demirchian

    1996-01-01

    A set of models for global carbon cycle, World population and atmospheric CO2 are proposed. These set of models works as some tools for validating field and modeling dates. Proposed set of models improved validity of prognoses of future fossil fuel consumption.

  20. QUANTIFYING ABOVEGROUND CARBON STORAGE IN MANAGED FOREST ECOSYSTEMS IN OHIO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Nicodemus; Roger A. Williams

    The amount of carbon sequestered was determined on managed even aged stands on sites in southeastern Ohio. Bottomland hardwood sites that consisted of sycamore (Plantanus occidentalis) and box elder (Acer negundo) were examined. The other forest types studied were monocultures of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), Austrian pine (Pinus nigra), and pitlolly pine (Pinus rigida × taeda), and five sites of

  1. Review of Soil Carbon Management: Economics, Environmental and Societal Benefits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book provides a “big picture” look at the processes and benefits of soil carbon (c) management. The book is targeted to policy makers and gives policy recommendations in addition to providing technical information. The first section of the book contains a summary of current programs that foste...

  2. Managing crop residues for the retention of carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Stewart; P. O. Drawer

    1993-01-01

    Soil organic matter, a major sink for carbon, is controlled by many factors that have complex interactions. The management of crop residues is of primary importance. Reduced tillage and no-tillage practices result in a significant build-up of soil organic matter because they greatly reduce the rates of decomposition of both the native soil organic matter and of the crop residues.

  3. Aligned carbon nanotubes for electrical interconnect and thermal management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lingbo Zhu; Yangyang Sun; Jianwen Xu; Zhuqing Zhang; Dennis W. Hess; C. P. Wong

    2005-01-01

    As IC performance increases, many technical challenges appear in the areas of power delivery, thermal management, I\\/O density, and thermal-mechanical reliability. To address these problems, the use of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is proposed in IC packaging as electrical interconnect and thermal interface materials. The superior electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of CNTs promise to bring revolutionary improvement in reducing

  4. Waste management activities and carbon emissions in Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Couth, R. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Survey and Construction, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Trois, C., E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Survey and Construction, Durban 4041 (South Africa)

    2011-01-15

    This paper summarizes research into waste management activities and carbon emissions from territories in sub-Saharan Africa with the main objective of quantifying emission reductions (ERs) that can be gained through viable improvements to waste management in Africa. It demonstrates that data on waste and carbon emissions is poor and generally inadequate for prediction models. The paper shows that the amount of waste produced and its composition are linked to national Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Waste production per person is around half that in developed countries with a mean around 230 kg/hd/yr. Sub-Saharan territories produce waste with a biogenic carbon content of around 56% (+/-25%), which is approximately 40% greater than developed countries. This waste is disposed in uncontrolled dumps that produce large amounts of methane gas. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste will rise with increasing urbanization and can only be controlled through funding mechanisms from developed countries.

  5. Development of CNT based carbon-carbon composites for thermal management system (TMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Jhon; Krishnakumar, G.; Rajarajan, A.; Rakesh, S.

    2013-06-01

    Carbon-Fibre-Carbon matrix composites having high thermal conductivity per unit density is a competitive material for thermal management for aerospace applications. Due to anisotropic nature of Carbon-Carbon(C-C) composites, the thermal conductivity in the thickness direction which is dominated by the matrix carbon is comparatively low. In the present study, work is carried to increase the thermal conductivity in the thickness direction of 2D-CC composites. Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNT) were functionalised and dispersed in Phenolic Resin. C-C composites were densified with MWNT dispersed Phenolic Resin through impregnation, curing & carbonisation cycle. CNT-CC composites were densified through Chemical Vapor Infiltration process and further graphitised. The effects of MWNT in amorphous carbon for thermal conductivity were investigated. The result shows that Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNT) can induce the ordered arrangement of micro-crystallites in amorphous carbon leading to increase in thermal conductivity of the bulk composites. There exists an optimum MWNT concentration in resin to enhance the thermal conductivity of C-C composites in the perpendicular direction. However, excess MWNT in resin is disadvantageous to enhance the thermal conductivity due to problems like agglomeration, resulting in reduced thermal conductivity. This can be attributed to the interfacial contact resistance due to improper heat transmission channels arising due to agglomeration. Investigation has been carried out to study the effect of agglomeration for the thermal conductivity of the bulk composites.

  6. SOIL CARBON SEQUESTRATION UNDER DIFFERENT MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five management systems: continuous corn (CC), cropland to woodland (CW), cropland to pastures (CP), no-till (NT), and conservation reserve program (CRP), were selected to evaluate their long-term impacts (5, 10 and 15 yr) on soil C sequestration. Nine soil cores from each system were randomly colle...

  7. Vulnerability of Permafrost Carbon to Climate Change: Implications for the Global Carbon Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Edward A. G. Schuur (University of Florida; )

    2008-09-01

    Thawing permafrost and the resulting microbial decomposition of previously frozen organic carbon (C) is one of the most significant potential feedbacks from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere in a changing climate. In this article we present an overview of the global permafrost C pool and of the processes that might transfer this C into the atmosphere, as well as the associated ecosystem changes that occur with thawing. We show that accounting for C stored deep in the permafrost more than doubles previous high-latitude inventory estimates, with this new estimate equivalent to twice the atmospheric C pool. The thawing of permafrost with warming occurs both gradually and catastrophically, exposing organic C to microbial decomposition. Other aspects of ecosystem dynamics can be altered by climate change along with thawing permafrost, such as growing season length, plant growth rates and species composition, and ecosystem energy exchange. However, these processes do not appear to be able to compensate for C release from thawing permafrost, making it likely that the net effect of widespread permafrost thawing will be a positive feedback to a warming climate.

  8. Research Needs for Carbon Management in Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Negra; T. Lovejoy; D. S. Ojima; R. Ashton; T. Havemann; J. Eaton

    2009-01-01

    Improved management of terrestrial carbon in agriculture, forestry, and other land use sectors is a necessary part of climate change mitigation. It is likely that governments will agree in Copenhagen in December 2009 to incentives for improved management of some forms of terrestrial carbon, including maintaining existing terrestrial carbon (e.g., avoiding deforestation) and creating new terrestrial carbon (e.g., afforestation, soil

  9. Cross-cultural management supporting global space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Peter, N.; Schrogl, K. U.; Logsdon, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    A new era of space exploration has begun that may soon expand into a global endeavor mainly driven by socio-economic motives. Currently the main space powers, namely the United States, Russia, Europe, Japan, Canada as well as new rising space powers China and India, are pursuing national exploration programs to explore robotically and later with humans the Earth-Moon-Mars space. New axes of partnerships and cooperation mechanisms have emerged in the last decades. However, in order to achieve highly ambitious goals such as establishing human bases on the Moon, journeys to Mars and the construction of new infrastructures in space, international space cooperation has to be optimized to reduce costs and reap the benefits of worldwide expertise. Future ambitious space exploration endeavors are a long-term undertaking that could influence countries to look beyond their own interests and see the advantages that a larger program can bring. This paper provides new concepts for managing global space exploration in the framework of cross-cultural management, an element often neglected in the planning of future partnerships.

  10. Groundwater assessment and management: implications and opportunities of globalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villholth, Karen G.

    2006-03-01

    The present and predicted increase in groundwater’s share of human freshwater withdrawals, its unprecedented importance for human activities globally, and the emerging threats from escalated and unplanned use and degradation, especially in the developing countries, point to the need for intensified efforts to cope with the imbalances. Despite these facts, there is little intervention by governments in developing countries. Sufficient knowledge, awareness and understanding of the groundwater resources and their proper management are missing in these countries, as well as in the international community. Links and trends are described, which highlight problem areas, such as water contamination, urbanization, and socio-economic factors related to groundwater management practices. Globalization provides novel opportunities for facilitating the process of acquiring and applying the necessary knowledge and can, and should, be further explored and developed. The likely benefits of this are: increase in convergence of understanding and approaches; the sharing of knowledge; and potentially wide-reaching, lasting, and scale-crossing networks. The international development and research community is in a particularly fortunate position to promote and facilitate such a process, which should go hand in hand with well focused and coordinated “on the ground” tasks, such as local networking, field investigations, capacity building, and advocacy activities.

  11. Millennial-Scale Rhythms in Peatlands in the Western Interior of Canada and in the Global Carbon Cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian D. Campbell; Celina Campbell; Zicheng Yu; Dale H. Vitt; Michael J. Apps

    2000-01-01

    Anatural ?1450-yr global Holocene climate periodicity underlies a portion of the present global warming trend. Calibrated basal radiocarbon dates from 71 paludified peatlands across the western interior of Canada demonstrate that this periodicity regulated western Canadian peatland initiation. Peatlands, the largest terrestrial carbon pool, and their carbon-budgets are sensitive to hydrological fluctuations. The global atmospheric carbon-budget experienced corresponding fluctuations, as

  12. An integrated and pragmatic approach: Global plant safety management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, Jack; Gross, Andrew

    1989-05-01

    The Bhopal disaster in India in 1984 has compelled manufacturing companies to review their operations in order to minimize their risk exposure. Much study has been done on the subject of risk assessment and in refining safety reviews of plant operations. However, little work has been done to address the broader needs of decision makers in the multinational environment. The corporate headquarters of multinational organizations are concerned with identifying vulnerable areas to assure that appropriate risk-minimization measures are in force or will be taken. But the task of screening global business units for safety prowess is complicated and time consuming. This article takes a step towards simplifying this process by presenting the decisional model developed by the authors. Beginning with an overview of key issues affecting global safety management, the focus shifts to the multinational vulnerability model developed by the authors, which reflects an integration of approaches. The article concludes with a discussion of areas for further research. While the global chemical industry and major incidents therein are used for illustration, the procedures and solutions suggested here are applicable to all manufacturing operations.

  13. Exploring Carbon Nanotube Bundle Global Interconnects for Chip Multiprocessor Applications

    E-print Network

    Pasricha, Sudeep

    . Conventional copper (Cu) global interconnects have become increasingly susceptible to electromigration at high owing to longer electron mean free path (MFP) lengths in the micrometer range, compared to nanometer

  14. Decadal-to-centennial scale climate-carbon cycle interactions from global climate models simulations forced by anthropogenic emissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor I. Mokhov; Alexey V. Eliseev; Andrey A. Karpenko

    Simulations of the climate-carbon cycle interaction are discussed in comparison with observationally-based estimates for the global carbon cycle characteristics. Since the beginning of the industrial era, the storage of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is smaller than the corresponding anthropogenic emissions. This is due to uptake of the atmospheric carbon dioxide to the terrestrial biota and ocean. Moreover, during

  15. Rapid Global Imagery Management and Generation In Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.; Alarcon, C.; Thompson, C. K.; Roberts, J. T.; Hall, J. R.; Cechini, M. F.; Schmaltz, J. E.; McGann, J. M.; Boller, R. A.; Murphy, K. J.; Bingham, A. W.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) project has positioned itself to be the global imagery solution for the Earth Observation System (EOS), delivering global, full-resolution satellite imagery in a highly responsive manner. This is an ambitious goal for supporting a growing a collection of distributed archives consist of heterogeneous near real-time (NRT) and science products with varied and often disparate provenance pertaining to source platforms and instruments, spatial resolutions, processing algorithms, metadata models and packaging specifications. GIBS consists of two major subsystems, OnEarth and The Imagery Exchange (TIE). OnEarth is the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC)-compliant Web Map Tile Service (WMTS), which efficiently serves multi-resolution imagery to clients (e.g., http://podaac-tools.jpl.nasa.gov/soto/ and http://earthdata.nasa.gov/labs/worldview/). TIE is the GIBS imagery workflow management solution that is a specialization of the horizontally scaled Data Management and Archive System (DMAS) developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Like DMAS, TIE is an Open Archival Information System (OAIS) responsible for orchestrating the workflow for acquisition, preparation, generation, and archiving of imagery to be served by OnEarth. The workflow collects imagery provenance throughout a product's lifecycle by leveraging the EOS Clearing House (ECHO) and other long-term metadata repositories in order to promote reproducibility and retain lineage with source observational artifacts. This talk focuses on the current TIE development activities and some of the patterns and architectures that have proven successful in building a horizontal-scaling workflow data systems. As a data solution developed using open source technologies. This talk also discusses current activities in getting DMAS and TIE to the open source community.

  16. Sampling strategy to obtain data used in models of global annual CO/sub 2/ increase and global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Gillette, D.A.; Hanson, K.J.

    1983-02-20

    Simple models were constructed to assess with somewhat limited CO/sub 2/ data the effects of both frequency of sampling and spatial distribution of sampling locations on the variance of estimates of interest to the global carbon cycle. The CO/sub 2/ data for use in these models were obtained from seven air flask sampling locations, globally distributed in latitude but restricted to the longitude sector 80/sup 0/W to 170/sup 0/W, during the period 1977--1979. The results of analysis with these models show (1) that locations north of 30/sup 0/N are quite important in possibly providing information on carbon cycle exchange processes and that (2) improved sampling techniques including greater sampling frequency would be desirable for sampling locations in the southern hemisphere.

  17. Linking a global terrestrial biogeochemical model and a 2-dimensional climate model: implications for the global carbon budget

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Xiao; D. W. Kicklighter; J. M. Melillo; A. D. McGuire; P. H. Stone; A. P. Sokolov

    1997-01-01

    We used the terrestrial ecosystem model (TEM, version 4.0) to estimate global responses of annual net primary production (NPP) and total carbon storage to changes in climate and atmospheric CO2, driven by the climate outputs from the 2-dimensional MIT L-O climate model and the 3-dimensional GISS and GFDL-q atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs). For contemporary climate with 315 ppmv CO2,

  18. Quantifying the Impact of Agricultural Land Management Practices on Soil Carbon Dynamics at Different Temporal and Spatial Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C. G.; Papanicolaou, T.; Wacha, K.

    2012-12-01

    Vast amounts of rich, organic topsoil are lost from agricultural landscapes each year through the combination of both tillage- and rainfall-induced erosion. The implications of these losses lead to soil and water quality degradation, as well as decreased biomass production and grain yields within a watershed. Further, the effects of land management practices on soil carbon can be felt at a much larger scale in terms of the global carbon cycle, where the interactions of carbon between the atmosphere, vegetation, and soil are highly dynamic. During tillage- and rainfall-induced erosion, organic material encapsulated within soil aggregates are dislodged and redistributed along the hillslope. Additionally, this redistribution increases decomposition rates and the release of carbon dioxide fluxes to the atmosphere by changing soil texture, bulk density, and water holding capacities, which are key parameters that affect microbial activity. In this ongoing study, the combination of extensive field data, geo-spatial tools, and a coupled erosion (Water Erosion Prediction Project) - biogeochemical (CENTURY) model were used to assess the soil carbon sequestration potential for representative crop rotations in a highly productive agricultural watershed, at various spatial and temporal scales. Total Belowground Carbon Allocation was selected as a metric to assess carbon sequestration because it implements a mass balance approach of the various carbon fluxes stemming from soil detachment (erosion/deposition), heterotrophic respiration from microbial decomposition, and plant production. The results from this study show that the use of conservation practices can sequester 35 g C/m2 within the soils of the studied watershed over a 2-year crop rotation. Extrapolating to the watershed scale shows that the system is a net sink of carbon. Providing accurate assessment of the carbon fluxes associated with agricultural land management practices can provide much insight to global climate change and mitigation, determining greenhouse gas emission standards, and the development of incentives for good land stewards.

  19. New Technical Risk Management Development for Carbon Capture Process

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, David W.; Letellier, Bruce; Edwards, Brian; Leclaire, Rene; Jones, Edward

    2012-04-30

    The basic CCSI objective of accelerating technology development and commercial deployment of carbon capture technologies through the extensive use of numerical simulation introduces a degree of unfamiliarity and novelty that potentially increases both of the traditional risk elements. In order to secure investor confidence and successfully accelerate the marketability of carbon capture technologies, it is critical that risk management decision tools be developed in parallel with numerical simulation capabilities and uncertainty quantification efforts. The focus of this paper is on the development of a technical risk model that incorporates the specific technology maturity development (level).

  20. Improving the global carbon capture and storage educational capacity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brendan Beck; John Gale

    2009-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is commonly regarded as a key element in the mitigation of climate change. CCS is of particular interest as it is able to address emissions from fossil fuel power stations, reducing CO2 emissions by 80–90%, without a step change in technology or lifestyle within a country. This is of particular relevance for the large and

  1. Managing Carbon in WisconsinManaging Carbon in Wisconsin Dick WolkowskiDick Wolkowski

    E-print Network

    Balser, Teri C.

    molecules ­­ Cycled through variety of phasesCycled through variety of phases Solid (cellulose)Solid (cellulose) Liquid (gasoline)Liquid (gasoline) Gas (carbon dioxide)Gas (carbon dioxide) #12;Why worry about of soil contains: >100,000,000 bacterial cells>100,000,000 bacterial cells >16,000 species of bacteria>16

  2. The Mid-Cretaceous Super Plume, carbon dioxide, and global warming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Caldeira; Michael R. Rampino

    1991-01-01

    Carbon-dioxide releases associated with a mid-Cretaceous super plume and the emplacement of the Ontong-Java Plateau have been suggested as a principal cause of the mid-Cretaceous global warming. We developed a carbonate-silicate cycle model to quantify the possible climatic effects of these CO2 releases, utilizing four different formulations for the rate of silicate-rock weathering as a function of atmospheric CO2. We

  3. The mid-Cretaceous super plume, carbon dioxide, and global warming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Caldeira; Michael R. Rampino

    1991-01-01

    Carbon-dioxide releases associated with a mid-Cretaceous super plume and the emplacement of the Ontong-Java Plateau have been suggested as a principal cause of the mid-Cretaceous global warming. We developed a carbonate-silicate cycle model to quantify the possible climatic effects of these CO2 releases, utilizing four different formulations for the rate of silicate-rock weakthering as a function of atmospheric CO2. We

  4. Dynamics of a closed low-parameter compartment model of the global carbon cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Ginzburg; N. N. Zavalishin

    2008-01-01

    A closed dynamic compartment model of the global carbon cycle and its modifications with a small number of external parameters,\\u000a which are constructed on the basis of data on the current and preindustrial carbon fluxes and reserves in reservoirs, are\\u000a studied. The first possible controlling parameter is the amount of anthropogenic CO2 emission into the atmosphere. Closure in substance allows

  5. Dynamical prediction of terrestrial ecosystems and the global carbon cycle: A 25-year hindcast experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ning Zeng; Jin-Ho Yoon; Augustin Vintzileos; G. James Collatz; Eugenia Kalnay; Annarita Mariotti; Arun Kumar; Antonio Busalacchi; Stephen Lord

    2008-01-01

    Using a 25-year hindcast experiment, we explore the possibility of seasonal-interannual prediction of terrestrial ecosystems and the global carbon cycle. This has been achieved using a prototype forecasting system in which the dynamic vegetation and terrestrial carbon cycle model VEGAS was forced with 15-member ensemble climate predictions generated by the NOAA\\/NCEP coupled climate forecasting system (CFS) for the period 1981–2005,

  6. Dynamical prediction of terrestrial ecosystems and the global carbon cycle: A 25-year hindcast experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ning Zeng; Jin-Ho Yoon; Augustin Vintzileos; G. James Collatz; Eugenia Kalnay; Annarita Mariotti; Arun Kumar; Antonio Busalacchi; Stephen Lord

    2008-01-01

    Using a 25-year hindcast experiment, we explore the possibility of seasonal-interannual prediction of terrestrial ecosystems and the global carbon cycle. This has been achieved using a prototype forecasting system in which the dynamic vegetation and terrestrial carbon cycle model VEGAS was forced with 15-member ensemble climate predictions generated by the NOAA\\/NCEP coupled climate forecasting system (CFS) for the period 1981-2005,

  7. Advances in modeling ocean primary production and its role in the global carbon cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. K. Nuttle; J. S. Wroblewski; J. L. Sarmiento

    1991-01-01

    The oceans contain a large fraction of the carbon in the Earth's biosphere. Therefore understanding the global carbon cycle, particularly the changes in atmospheric CO2 and their effects on climate, requires an accounting of CO2 exchanges between the atmosphere and the ocean. Primary production in the ocean, i.e. uptake and assimilation of CO2 by phytoplankton, plays an important role in

  8. (The quantitative role of soil cultivation in the global carbon cycle)

    SciTech Connect

    Post, W.M.

    1989-08-21

    The traveler participated in a major international soils conference in The Netherlands with a presentation on the quantitative role of soil cultivation in the global carbon cycle. He also participated in a working group and drafted a portion of the working group report that reviewed the present-day knowledge of the emission of greenhouse gases for world soils and their land cover. Observations from this conference are summarized, with focus on carbon dioxide and global change issues in relation to ongoing projects at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 14 refs.

  9. Global Warming and Carbon Dynamics in Permafrost Soils: Methane Production and Oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dirk Wagner; Susanne Liebner

    The Arctic plays a key role in the Earth’s climate system, because global warming is predicted to be most pronounced at high\\u000a latitudes, and one third of the global carbon pool is stored in ecosystems of the northern latitudes. The degradation of permafrost\\u000a and the associated intensified release of methane, a climate-relevant trace gas, represent potential environmental hazards.\\u000a The microorganisms

  10. CO 2 absorption by alkaline soils and its implication to the global carbon cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingxia Xie; Yan Li; Cuixia Zhai; Chenhua Li; Zhongdong Lan

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by the rapid increase in atmospheric CO2 due to human activities since the Industrial Revolution, and the climate changes it produced, the world’s concerned scientific\\u000a community has made a huge effort to investigate the global carbon cycle. However, the results reveal that the global CO2 budget cannot be balanced, unless a “missing sink” is invoked. Although numerous studies claimed

  11. A physically?based treatment of elemental carbon optics: Implications for global direct forcing of aerosols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Z. Jacobson

    2000-01-01

    To date, global models of direct radiative forcing have treated elemental carbon (EC) as completely externally mixed or well-mixed internally. No global study has treated EC as a core in an internal mixture. It is hypothesized that the well-mixed treatment is unphysical and reality lies between the externally-mixed and core treatments. It is also suggested, but not proven, that most

  12. Global economic potential for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from mangrove loss

    PubMed Central

    Siikamäki, Juha; Sanchirico, James N.; Jardine, Sunny L.

    2012-01-01

    Mangroves are among the most threatened and rapidly disappearing natural environments worldwide. In addition to supporting a wide range of other ecological and economic functions, mangroves store considerable carbon. Here, we consider the global economic potential for protecting mangroves based exclusively on their carbon. We develop unique high-resolution global estimates (5? grid, about 9 × 9 km) of the projected carbon emissions from mangrove loss and the cost of avoiding the emissions. Using these spatial estimates, we derive global and regional supply curves (marginal cost curves) for avoided emissions. Under a broad range of assumptions, we find that the majority of potential emissions from mangroves could be avoided at less than $10 per ton of CO2. Given the recent range of market price for carbon offsets and the cost of reducing emissions from other sources, this finding suggests that protecting mangroves for their carbon is an economically viable proposition. Political-economy considerations related to the ability of doing business in developing countries, however, can severely limit the supply of offsets and increases their price per ton. We also find that although a carbon-focused conservation strategy does not automatically target areas most valuable for biodiversity, implementing a biodiversity-focused strategy would only slightly increase the costs. PMID:22847435

  13. Uncertainties associated with global effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Rotty

    1979-01-01

    Although the evidence is quite clear that the increase in atmospheric CO2 is at least to a large degree a result of fossil fuel burning, and it is equally clear that this increase will result in some change in the global climate, there are quantitative uncertainties that require additional understanding before full assessments can be made. There are also quantitative

  14. Importance of biomass in the global carbon cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Houghton; Forrest Hall; Scott J. Goetz

    2009-01-01

    Our knowledge of the distribution and amount of terrestrial biomass is based almost entirely on ground measurements over an extremely small, and possibly biased sample, with many regions still unmeasured. Our understanding of changes in terrestrial biomass is even more rudimentary, although changes in land use, largely tropical deforestation, are estimated to have reduced biomass, globally. At the same time,

  15. The contribution of semi-arid ecosystems to interannual global carbon cycle variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulter, B.; Frank, D. C.; Ciais, P.; Myneni, R.; Andela, N.; Bi, J.; Broquet, G.; Canadell, J.; Chevallier, F.; Liu, Y.; Running, S. W.; Sitch, S.; van der Werf, G.

    2014-12-01

    Annual carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems is on average equal to about 25% of emissions from anthropogenic fossil fuels and net land cover change. Large year-to-year variability in the terrestrial carbon sink influences the atmospheric CO2 growth rate with the underlying mechanisms of variability poorly constrained and thus the evolution of future land carbon uptake unclear. The exceptionally large land carbon sink in the year 2011, almost 40% of anthropogenic emissions, provided an opportunity to investigate this year-to-year variability using a variety of carbon cycle observation techniques, including a terrestrial biogeochemical model, an atmospheric inversion, and remote sensing data. We found that the global land sink anomaly was driven mainly by semi-arid vegetation activity in the Southern Hemisphere, with almost 60 percent of carbon uptake attributed to Australian ecosystems, where prevalent La Niña conditions caused up to six consecutive seasons of increased precipitation. Since 1981, vegetation expansion over Australia was found to drive a four-fold increase in the sensitivity of continental net carbon uptake to precipitation. These combined results suggest that the higher-turnover rates of carbon pools in semi-arid biomes are an increasingly important driver of global carbon cycle inter-annual variability with implications for the paradigm that tropical rainforests drive carbon cycle variability at inter-annual timescales. More research in semi-arid regions is needed to identify mechanisms of carbon turnover at inter-annual scales and to determine the causes, and their possible interactions, in driving vegetation expansion over longer time scales.

  16. Nitrogen deposition: how important is it for global terrestrial carbon uptake?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, G.; Devaraju, N.; Chaturvedi, R. K.; Caldeira, K.; Nemani, R.

    2013-07-01

    Global carbon budget studies indicate that the terrestrial ecosystems have remained a~large sink for carbon despite widespread deforestation activities. CO2-fertilization, N deposition and re-growth of mid-latitude forests are believed to be key drivers for land carbon uptake. In this study, we assess the importance of N deposition by performing idealized near-equilibrium simulations using the Community Land Model 4.0 (CLM4). In our equilibrium simulations, only 12-17% of the deposited Nitrogen is assimilated into the ecosystem and the corresponding carbon uptake can be inferred from a C : N ratio of 20:1. We calculate the sensitivity of the terrestrial biosphere for CO2-fertilization, climate warming and N deposition as changes in total ecosystem carbon for unit changes in global mean atmospheric CO2 concentration, global mean temperature and Tera grams of Nitrogen deposition per year, respectively. Based on these sensitivities, it is estimated that about 242 PgC could have been taken up by land due to the CO2 fertilization effect and an additional 175 PgC taken up as a result of the increased N deposition since the pre-industrial period. Because of climate warming, terrestrial ecosystem could have lost about 152 PgC during the same period. Therefore, since preindustrial times terrestrial carbon losses due to warming may have been approximately compensated by effects of increased N deposition, whereas the effect of CO2-fertilization is approximately indicative of the current increase in terrestrial carbon stock. Our simulations also suggest that the sensitivity of carbon storage to increased N deposition decreases beyond current levels, indicating climate warming effects on carbon storage may overwhelm N deposition effects in the future.

  17. Remote sensing strategies for global resource exploration and environmental management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Frederick B.

    Since 1972, satellite remote sensing, when integrated with other exploration techniques, has demonstrated operational exploration and engineering cost savings and reduced exploration risks through improved geological mapping. Land and ocean remote sensing satellite systems under development for the 1990's by the United States, France, Japan, Canada, ESA, Russia, China, and others, will significantly increase our ability to explore for, develop, and manage energy and mineral resources worldwide. A major difference between these systems is the "Open Skies" and "Non-Discriminatory Access to Data" policies as have been practiced by the U.S. and France and the restrictive nationalistic data policies as have been practiced by Russia and India. Global exploration will use satellite remote sensing to better map regional structural and basin-like features that control the distribution of energy and mineral resources. Improved sensors will better map lithologic and stratigraphic units and identify alteration effects in rocks, soils, and vegetation cover indicative of undiscovered subsurface resources. These same sensors will also map and monitor resource development. The use of satellite remote sensing data will grow substantially through increasing integration with other geophysical, geochemical, and geologic data using improved geographic information systems (GIS). International exploration will focus on underdeveloped countries rather than on mature exploration areas such as the United States, Europe, and Japan. Energy and mineral companies and government agencies in these countries and others will utilize available remote sensing data to acquire economic intelligence on global resources. If the "Non-Discriminatory Access to Data" principle is observed by satellite producing countries, exploration will remain competitive "on the ground". In this manner, remote sensing technology will continue to be developed to better explore for and manage the world's needed resources. If, however, satellite producing countries follow the Russian and Indian lead and restrict civil satellite data as tools of their national security and economic policies, remote sensing technology may become internationally competitive in space, redundant, prohibitively expensive, and generally unavailable to the world community.

  18. Managing differences: the central challenge of global strategy.

    PubMed

    Ghemawat, Pankaj

    2007-03-01

    The main goal of any international strategy should be to manage the large differences that arise at the borders of markets. Yet executives often fail to exploit market and production discrepancies, focusing instead on the tensions between standardization and localization. In this article, Pankaj Ghemawat presents a new framework that encompasses all three effective responses to the challenges of globalization. He calls it the AAA Triangle. The A's stand for the three distinct types of international strategy. Through adaptation, companies seek to boost revenues and market share by maximizing their local relevance. Through aggregation, they attempt to deliver economies of scale by creating regional, or sometimes global, operations. And through arbitrage, they exploit disparities between national or regional markets, often by locating different parts of the supply chain in different places--for instance, call centers in India, factories in China, and retail shops in Western Europe. Ghemawat draws on several examples that illustrate how organizations use and balance these strategies and describes the trade-offs they make as they do so. Because most enterprises should draw from all three A's to some extent, the framework can be used to develop a summary scorecard indicating how well the company is globalizing. However, given the tensions among the strategies, it's not enough simply to tick off the corresponding boxes. Strategic choice requires some degree of prioritization--and the framework can help with that as well. While it is possible to make progress on all three strategies, companies usually must focus on one or two when trying to build competitive advantage. PMID:17348170

  19. Advanced integrated modeling and measurement: The global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, P. B.

    1998-06-01

    Most of the carbon dioxide added to the atmosphere by human activities comes from burning fossil fuels Only about half the CO2 we release into the atmosphere remains there, however, and the fate of the CO2 that does not remain in the atmosphere is uncertain As carbon dioxidecomes in contact with the sea surface it may be absorbed into the ocean, and as it comes in contact with the leaves of plants it may be absorbed and transformed into plant tissue, but the rates at which the sea or land plants can absorb CO2 are poorly characterized Hence, there is a great deal of uncertainty as to how much of the CO2 we release today will be found in the ocean, or in land plants, or in the atmosphere 10, 20 or 100 years from now The nanowing of these uncertainties is essential to making reliable predictions of the climate consequences of fossil fuel burning and deforestation

  20. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning: Emergency management and hyperbaric oxygen therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Severance, H.W.; Kolb, J.C.; Carlton, F.B.; Jorden, R.C.

    1989-10-01

    An ice storm in February 1989 resulted in numerous incidences of carbon monoxide poisoning in central Mississippi secondary to exposure to open fires in unventilated living spaces. Sixteen cases were treated during this period at the University of Mississippi Medical Center and 6 received Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy. These 6 cases and the mechanisms of CO poisoning are discussed and recommendations for emergency management are reviewed.10 references.

  1. Carbon sink activity and GHG budget of managed European grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumpp, Katja; Herfurth, Damien; Soussana, Jean-Francois; Fluxnet Grassland Pi's, European

    2013-04-01

    In agriculture, a large proportion (89%) of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission saving potential may be achieved by means of soil C sequestration. Recent demonstrations of carbon sink activities of European ecosystemes, however, often questioned the existence of C storing grasslands, as though a net sink of C was observed, uncertainty surrounding this estimate was larger than the sink itself (Janssens et al., 2003, Schulze et al., 2009. Then again, some of these estimates were based on a small number of measurements, and on models. Not surprising, there is still, a paucity of studies demonstrating the existence of grassland systems, where C sequestration would exceed (in CO2 equivalents) methane emissions from the enteric fermentation of ruminants and nitrous oxide emissions from managed soils. Grasslands are heavily relied upon for food and forage production. A key component of the carbon sink activity in grasslands is thus the impact of changes in management practices or effects of past and recent management, such as intensification as well as climate (and -variation). We analysed data (i.e. flux, ecological, management and soil organic carbon) from a network of European grassland flux observation sites (36). These sites covered different types and intensities of management, and offered the opportunity to understand grassland carbon cycling and trade-offs between C sinks and CH4 and N2O emissions. For some sites, the assessment of carbon sink activities were compared using two methods; repeated soil inventory and determination of the ecosystem C budget by continuous measurement of CO2 exchange in combination with quantification of other C imports and exports (net C storage, NCS). In general grassland, were a potential sink of C with 60±12 g C /m2.yr (median; min -456; max 645). Grazed sites had a higher NCS compared to cut sites (median 99 vs 67 g C /m2.yr), while permanent grassland sites tended to have a lower NCS compared to temporary sown grasslands (median 64 vs 125 g C /m2.yr). Including CH4 and N2O emission in the budget , revealed that for most sites, GHG emissions were compensated by NCS. The role of management impact,soil organic C and fluxes driven by interannual climate variation will be dicussed in the presentation.

  2. A Radiocarbon Database for Improving Understanding of Global Soil Carbon Dynamics: Part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torn, M. S.; Trumbore, S.; Smith, L. J.; Nave, L. E.; Sierra, C. A.; Harden, J. W.; Agarwal, D.; van Ingen, C.; Radiocarbon Database Workshop 2011

    2011-12-01

    Soils play a large role in the global carbon cycle, but soil carbon stocks and dynamics remain highly uncertain. Radiocarbon (14C) observations from soils and soil respiration provide one of the only ways to infer terrestrial carbon turnover times or to test ecosystem carbon models. Although a wealth of such observations exists, they are scattered in small data sets held by individual researchers, and have not been compiled in a form easy to use for multi-site analysis, global assessments, or model testing. Here we introduce a new, global radiocarbon database that will synthesize datasets from multiple contributors to facilitate research on three broad questions: (1) What are current patterns of soil carbon dynamics, and what factors influence these patterns? (2) What is the sequestration capacity of different soils? (3) What are likely impacts of global change on the soil resource? (4) How well do models represent important carbon cycle processes, and how can they be improved? In addition to assembling data in a common format for analyses, this database will offer query capabilities and the ability to combine data with gridded global products, such as temporally resolved temperature and precipitation, NPP and GPP, and a climate-based decomposition index. Some of the near-term synthesis goals include analyzing depth profiles of 14C for across gradients in ecosystem state factors (climate, organisms, relief, parent material, time, and human influence) and soil orders; mapping surface-soil 14C values on soil temperature and moisture; and comparing soil carbon turnover times to NPP and soil carbon stocks. We are currently incorporating data from 18 contributors and six continents, with 14C measurements from soils representing nine soil orders, plant and microbial tissues, and respiration fluxes. Our intention is to grow the database and make it available to a wide community of scientists. For example, observations for different disturbance, experimental treatment, or land-use regimes are sought. This presentation will introduce modelers, other data users, and potential new data contributors to this valuable resource for evaluating terrestrial carbon dynamics and responses to global change.

  3. Combining power plant water needs and carbon dioxide storage using saline formations: Implications for carbon dioxide and water management policies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter H. Kobos; Malynda A. Cappelle; Jim L. Krumhansl; Thomas A. Dewers; Andrea McNemar; David J. Borns

    2011-01-01

    Research involving management of carbon dioxide has increased markedly over the last decade as it relates to concerns over climate change. Capturing and storing carbon dioxide (CO2) in geological formations is one of many proposed methods to manage, and likely reduce, CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels in the electricity sector. Saline formations represent a vast storage resource, and the

  4. Disentangling residence time and temperature sensitivity of microbial decomposition in a global soil carbon model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exbrayat, J.-F.; Pitman, A. J.; Abramowitz, G.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have identified the first-order representation of microbial decomposition as a major source of uncertainty in simulations and projections of the terrestrial carbon balance. Here, we use a reduced complexity model representative of current state-of-the-art models of soil organic carbon decomposition. We undertake a systematic sensitivity analysis to disentangle the effect of the time-invariant baseline residence time (k) and the sensitivity of microbial decomposition to temperature (Q10) on soil carbon dynamics at regional and global scales. Our simulations produce a range in total soil carbon at equilibrium of ~ 592 to 2745 Pg C, which is similar to the ~ 561 to 2938 Pg C range in pre-industrial soil carbon in models used in the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). This range depends primarily on the value of k, although the impact of Q10 is not trivial at regional scales. As climate changes through the historical period, and into the future, k is primarily responsible for the magnitude of the response in soil carbon, whereas Q10 determines whether the soil remains a sink, or becomes a source in the future mostly by its effect on mid-latitude carbon balance. If we restrict our simulations to those simulating total soil carbon stocks consistent with observations of current stocks, the projected range in total soil carbon change is reduced by 42% for the historical simulations and 45% for the future projections. However, while this observation-based selection dismisses outliers, it does not increase confidence in the future sign of the soil carbon feedback. We conclude that despite this result, future estimates of soil carbon and how soil carbon responds to climate change should be more constrained by available data sets of carbon stocks.

  5. A global carbon assimilation system using a modified ensemble Kalman filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; Zheng, X.; Chen, J. M.; Chen, Z.; Dan, B.; Yi, X.; Wang, L.; Wu, G.

    2015-03-01

    A Global Carbon Assimilation System based on the ensemble Kalman filter (GCAS-EK) is developed for assimilating atmospheric CO2 data into an ecosystem model to simultaneously estimate the surface carbon fluxes and atmospheric CO2 distribution. This assimilation approach is similar to CarbonTracker, but with several new developments, including inclusion of atmospheric CO2 concentration in state vectors, using the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) with 1-week assimilation windows, using analysis states to iteratively estimate ensemble forecast errors, and a maximum likelihood estimation of the inflation factors of the forecast and observation errors. The proposed assimilation approach is used to estimate the terrestrial ecosystem carbon fluxes and atmospheric CO2 distributions from 2002 to 2008. The results show that this assimilation approach can effectively reduce the biases and uncertainties of the carbon fluxes simulated by the ecosystem model.

  6. Carbon dynamics of intensively managed forest along a full rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreaux, V.; Bosc, A.; Bonnefond, J.; Burlett, R.; Lamaud, E.; Sartore, M.; Trichet, P.; Chipeaux, C.; Lambrot, C.; Kowalski, A. S.; Loustau, D.

    2012-12-01

    Temperate and tropical forests are increasingly exploited for wood and biomass extraction and only one third of forest area was considered as primary in the recent FRA in 2010. Management practices affect the soil-forest-atmosphere continuum through various effects on soil and surface properties. They result ultimately in either positive or negative changes in the biomass and soil carbon pools but, if any, few datasets or modeling tools are available for quantifying their impacts on the net carbon balance of forest stands. To analyse these effects, the net half-hourly fluxes of CO2, water vapour and heat exchanges were monitored for 23 years in two closed stands of maritime pines in southwestern France. Carbon content of the aboveground biomass was measured annually and soil pools 10-early in the younger stand and 5-yearly in the mature stand. For analysing the data collected and disentangling the climate and management effects, we used the three components process-based model GRAECO+ (Loustau et al. this session) linking a 3D radiative transfer and photosynthesis model, MAESTRA, a soil carbon model adapted from ROTH-C and a plant growth model. Eddy flux data were processed, gapfilled and partitioned using the methodological recommendations (Aubinet et al. 2000, Adv. Eco. Res:30, 114-173, Falge et al. 2001, Agr. For. Meteo. : 107, 43-69, Reichstein et al. 2005, Glob. Change Biol., 11:1424-1439). Analysis of the sequence showed that, whether by an increased sensitivity to soil drought compared to the pines or by a rapid re-colonization of the inter-row after understorey removal and plowing, the weeded vegetation contributed to create specific intra-annual dynamics of the fluxes and therefore, controls the dynamics of carbon balance of the stand. After three growing seasons, the stand was already a carbon sink, but the impact of thinning and weeded vegetation removal at the age of 5-year brought the balance to almost neutral. We interpret this change as the combined effects of the reduction of the LAI, the enhancement of the heterotrophic respiration related to the decomposition of dead materials and the improvement of the mineralization of the large stock of soil organic matter by tillage. At the mature stage, the stand remains consistently a carbon sink and CO2 fluxes were insensitive to thinning. Conversely, the carbon balance was sensitive to climate effects as evidenced by repeated drastic reductions in NEP caused by soil drought. Our data underlines the importance of disturbances linked to forest management for the forest carbon balance during the early stage of tree growth. Since management intensification tends to shorten the forest life cycle and enhance the share of the young stages, our results confirm that the consequence of management operations on the carbon cycle in forest may revert intensified forest stands from a net sink to a source and should be accounted for carefully.

  7. Environmental health risk assessment and management for global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, P.

    2014-12-01

    This environmental health risk assessment and management approach for atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) pollution is based almost entirely on IPCC AR5 (2014) content, but the IPCC does not make recommendations. Large climate model uncertainties may be large environmental health risks. In accordance with environmental health risk management, we use the standard (IPCC-endorsed) formula of risk as the product of magnitude times probability, with an extremely high standard of precaution. Atmospheric GHG pollution, causing global warming, climate change and ocean acidification, is increasing as fast as ever. Time is of the essence to inform and make recommendations to governments and the public. While the 2ºC target is the only formally agreed-upon policy limit, for the most vulnerable nations, a 1.5ºC limit is being considered by the UNFCCC Secretariat. The Climate Action Network International (2014), representing civil society, recommends that the 1.5ºC limit be kept open and that emissions decline from 2015. James Hansen et al (2013) have argued that 1ºC is the danger limit. Taking into account committed global warming, its millennial duration, multiple large sources of amplifying climate feedbacks and multiple adverse impacts of global warming and climate change on crops, and population health impacts, all the IPCC AR5 scenarios carry extreme environmental health risks to large human populations and to the future of humanity as a whole. Our risk consideration finds that 2ºC carries high risks of many catastrophic impacts, that 1.5ºC carries high risks of many disastrous impacts, and that 1ºC is the danger limit. IPCC AR4 (2007) showed that emissions must be reversed by 2015 for a 2ºC warming limit. For the IPCC AR5 only the best-case scenario RCP2.6, is projected to stay under 2ºC by 2100 but the upper range is just above 2ºC. It calls for emissions to decline by 2020. We recommend that for catastrophic environmental health risk aversion, emissions decline from 2015 (CAN International 2014), and if policy makers are limited to the IPCC AR5 we recommend RCP2.6, with emissions declining by 2020.

  8. Towards an purely data driven view on the global carbon cycle and its spatiotemporal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zscheischler, Jakob; Mahecha, Miguel; Reichstein, Markus; Avitabile, Valerio; Carvalhais, Nuno; Ciais, Philippe; Gans, Fabian; Gruber, Nicolas; Hartmann, Jens; Herold, Martin; Jung, Martin; Landschützer, Peter; Laruelle, Goulven; Lauerwald, Ronny; Papale, Dario; Peylin, Philippe; Regnier, Pierre; Rödenbeck, Christian; Cuesta, Rosa Maria Roman; Valentini, Ricardo

    2015-04-01

    Constraining carbon (C) fluxes between the Earth's surface and the atmosphere at regional scale via observations is essential for understanding the Earth's carbon budget and predicting future atmospheric C concentrations. Carbon budgets have often been derived based on merging observations, statistical models and process-based models, for example in the Global Carbon Project (GCP). However, it would be helpful to derive global C budgets and fluxes at global scale as independent as possible from model assumptions to obtain an independent reference. Long-term in-situ measurements of land and ocean C stocks and fluxes have enabled the derivation of a new generation of data driven upscaled data products. Here, we combine a wide range of in-situ derived estimates of terrestrial and aquatic C fluxes for one decade. The data were produced and/or collected during the FP7 project GEOCARBON and include surface-atmosphere C fluxes from the terrestrial biosphere, fossil fuels, fires, land use change, rivers, lakes, estuaries and open ocean. By including spatially explicit uncertainties in each dataset we are able to identify regions that are well constrained by observations and areas where more measurements are required. Although the budget cannot be closed at the global scale, we provide, for the first time, global time-varying maps of the most important C fluxes, which are all directly derived from observations. The resulting spatiotemporal patterns of C fluxes and their uncertainties inform us about the needs for intensifying global C observation activities. Likewise, we provide priors for inversion exercises or to identify regions of high (and low) uncertainty of integrated C fluxes. We discuss the reasons for regions of high observational uncertainties, and for biases in the budget. Our data synthesis might also be used as empirical reference for other local and global C budgeting exercises.

  9. Monitoring changes in soil organic carbon pools, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur under different agricultural management practices in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Verma, Bibhash C; Datta, Siba Prasad; Rattan, Raj K; Singh, Anil K

    2010-12-01

    Soil organic matter not only affects sustainability of agricultural ecosystems, but also extremely important in maintaining overall quality of environment as soil contains a significant part of global carbon stock. Hence, we attempted to assess the influence of different tillage and nutrient management practices on various stabilized and active soil organic carbon pools, and their contribution to the extractable nitrogen phosphorus and sulfur. Our study confined to the assessment of impact of agricultural management practices on the soil organic carbon pools and extractable nutrients under three important cropping systems, viz. soybean-wheat, maize-wheat, and rice-wheat. Results indicated that there was marginal improvement in Walkley and Black content in soil under integrated and organic nutrient management treatments in soybean-wheat, maize-wheat, and rice-wheat after completion of four cropping cycles. Improvement in stabilized pools of soil organic carbon (SOC) was not proportional to the applied amount of organic manures. While, labile pools of SOC were increased with the increase in amount of added manures. Apparently, green manure (Sesbania) was more effective in enhancing the lability of SOC as compared to farmyard manure and crop residues. The KMnO(4)-oxidizable SOC proved to be more sensitive and consistent as an index of labile pool of SOC compared to microbial biomass carbon. Under different cropping sequences, labile fractions of soil organic carbon exerted consistent positive effect on the extractable nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur in soil. PMID:20069448

  10. Projecting future concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 with global carbon cycle models: The importance of simulating historical changes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony W. King; William R. Emanuel; Wilfred M. Post

    1992-01-01

    Projections of future atmospheric CO2 concentrations using global carbon cycle models and assumed time series of future anthropogenic CO2 emissions are only useful if simulations agree reasonably well with the observed history of past changes in atmospheric CO2. In this article we compare simulations from a set of eight global carbon cycle models with observations of atmospheric CO2 from the

  11. Projecting future concentrations of atmospheric CO2 with global carbon cycle models: The importance of simulating historical changes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony W. King; William R. Emanuel; Wilfred M. Post

    1992-01-01

    Projections of future atmospheric CO2 concentrations using global carbon cycle models and assumed time series of future anthropogenic CO2 emissions are only useful if simulations agree reasonably well with the observed history of past changes in atmospheric CO2. In this article we compare simulations from a set of eight global carbon cycle models with observations of atmospheric CO2 from the

  12. Carbon profile of the managed forest sector in Canada in the 20th century: sink or source?

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiaxin; Colombo, Stephen J; Ter-Mikaelian, Michael T; Heath, Linda S

    2014-08-19

    Canada contains 10% of global forests and has been one of the world's largest harvested wood products (HWP) producers. Therefore, Canada's managed forest sector, the managed forest area and HWP, has the potential to significantly increase or reduce atmospheric greenhouse gases. Using the most comprehensive carbon balance analysis to date, this study shows Canada's managed forest area and resulting HWP were a sink of 7510 and 849 teragrams carbon (TgC), respectively, in the period 1901-2010, exceeding Canada's fossil fuel-based emissions over this period (7333 TgC). If Canadian HWP were not produced and used for residential construction, and instead more energy intensive materials were used, there would have been an additional 790 TgC fossil fuel-based emissions. Because the forest carbon increases in the 20th century were mainly due to younger growing forests that resulted from disturbances in the 19th century, and future increases in forest carbon stocks appear uncertain, in coming decades most of the mitigation contribution from Canadian forests will likely accrue from wood substitution that reduces fossil fuel-based emissions and stores carbon, so long as those forests are managed sustainably. PMID:25075978

  13. Late Quaternary changes in Amazonian ecosystems and their implications for global carbon cycling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis E. Mayle; David J. Beerling

    The current role of Amazonia in the terrestrial carbon budget is the focus of intensive scientific interest, in large part due to its potential to accelerate global warming. However, its role in mediating CO2 changes over millennial time-scales since the last glacial maximum (LGM) has generally been overlooked and is the subject of speculation. Recent advances in our understanding of

  14. Urbanised territories as a specific component of the Global Carbon Cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anastasia Svirejeva-Hopkins; Hans J Schellnhuber; Valeri L Pomaz

    2004-01-01

    The biosphere role of urbanised territories in the Global Carbon Cycle (GCC) is considered. Indeed, despite the relatively small area of land taken up by urbanised territories (?2% of total land area), these territories are responsible for ca. 97% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. The major sources of these emissions are transport, industries and the conversion of natural to urban land,

  15. Changes in the Global Carbon Cycle and Ocean Circulation on the Millennial Time Scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas F. Stocker

    Carbon dioxide is, after water vapor, the most important greenhouse gas. Naturally, its atmospheric concentration has varied between 190 and 290ppmv over the last half million years. The man-made CO2 increase of the last 250 years has already reached this amplitude with the potential of inducing signiflcant global warming. Climate models suggest that the ocean circulation reacts in a sensitive

  16. Are response function representations of the global carbon cycle ever interpretable?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sile Li; Andrew J. Jarvis; David T. Leedal

    2009-01-01

    Response function models are often used to represent the behaviour of complex, high order global carbon cycle (GCC) and climate models in applications which require short model run times. Although apparently black-box, these response function models need not necessarily be entirely opaque, but instead may also convey useful insights into the properties of the parent model or process. By exploiting

  17. Satellite Remote Sensing Missions for Monitoring Water, Carbon, and global Climate Change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, the subjects of water, carbon, and global climate change have attracted worldwide attention by scientists and the media. Climate change, whether associated with human- induced or natural variations, has and will continue to be important to policy makers and the public. It is clear t...

  18. High levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide necessary for the termination of global glaciation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond T. Pierrehumbert

    2004-01-01

    The possibility that the Earth suffered episodes of global glaciation as recently as the Neoproterozoic period, between about 900 and 543 million years ago, has been widely discussed. Termination of such `hard snowball Earth' climate states has been proposed to proceed from accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Many salient aspects of the snowball scenario depend critically on the

  19. Testing Global Ocean Carbon Cycle Models Using Measurements of Atmospheric O2 and CO2

    E-print Network

    Stephens, Britton B.

    Concentration #12;12 Abstract We present a method for testing the performance of global ocean carbon cycle of an atmospheric transport model which uses ocean-model air-sea fluxes and fossil fuel combustion estimates-observation comparisons include uncertainties associated with the atmospheric measurements, the atmospheric transport

  20. Oceanic carbon dioxide uptake in a model of century-scale global warming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Sarmiento; C. Le Quere

    1996-01-01

    In a model of ocean-atmosphere interaction that excluded biological processes, the oceanic uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (COâ) was substantially reduced in scenarios involving global warming relative to control scenarios. The primary reason for the reduced uptake was the weakening or collapse of the ocean thermohaline circulation. Such a large reduction in this ocean uptake would have a major impact

  1. Evaluation and Improvement of Global Carbon Cycle Models against Soil Carbon and Microbial Data Sets Using a Bayesian MCMC method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hararuk, Oleksandra; Luo, Yiqi

    2015-04-01

    Long-term land carbon-cycle feedback to climate change is largely determined by dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC). However, most evaluation studies conducted so far indicate that global land models predict SOC poorly. We have developed new techniques to evaluate and improve global carbon cycle models against global datavases of soil carbon stock and microbial biomass carbon. We have evaluated and improved one conventional model and two microbial models. We evaluated predictions of SOC by the Community Land Model with Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach biogeochemistry module (CLM-CASA'), investigated underlying causes of mismatches between model predictions and observations, and calibrated model parameters to improve the prediction of SOC. We compared modeled SOC to observed soil C pools provided by IGBP-DIS globally gridded data product and found that CLM-CASA' on average underestimated SOC pools by 65% (r²=0.28). We applied data assimilation to CLM-CASA' to estimate SOC residence times and C partitioning coefficients among the pools, as well as temperature sensitivity of C decomposition. The model with calibrated parameters explained 41% of the global variability in the observed SOC, which was substantial improvement from the initial 27%. The projections differed between models with original and calibrated parameters: over 96 years the calibrated model released 48 Pg C from soil pools and 6.5 Pg C from litter pools less than the original model. Thus, assimilating observed soil carbon data into the model improved fitness between modeled and observed SOC, and reduced the amount of C released under changing climate. We have constrained parameters of two soil microbial models; evaluated the improvements in performance of those calibrated models in predicting contemporary carbon stocks; and compared the SOC responses to climate change and their uncertainties between microbial and conventional models. Microbial models with calibrated parameters explained 51% of variability in the observed total SOC, whereas a calibrated conventional model explained 41%. The microbial models, when forced with climate and soil carbon input predictions from the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), produced stronger soil C responses to 95 years of climate change than any of the 11 CMIP5 models. The calibrated microbial models predicted between 8% (2-pool model) and 11% (4-pool model) soil C losses compared to CMIP5 model projections which ranged from a 7% loss to a 22.6% gain. Lastly, we observed unrealistic oscillatory SOC dynamics in the 2-pool microbial model. The 4-pool model also produced oscillations, but they were less prominent and could be avoided, depending on the parameter values. To further reduce the uncertainty in the soil carbon prediction, we need to explore alternative model structures, improve representation of ecosystems, and develop additional global datasets for constraining model parameters.

  2. Can we reliably estimate managed forest carbon dynamics using remotely sensed data?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smallman, Thomas Luke; Exbrayat, Jean-Francois; Bloom, A. Anthony; Williams, Mathew

    2015-04-01

    Forests are an important part of the global carbon cycle, serving as both a large store of carbon and currently as a net sink of CO2. Forest biomass varies significantly in time and space, linked to climate, soils, natural disturbance and human impacts. This variation means that the global distribution of forest biomass and their dynamics are poorly quantified. Terrestrial ecosystem models (TEMs) are rarely evaluated for their predictions of forest carbon stocks and dynamics, due to a lack of knowledge on site specific factors such as disturbance dates and / or managed interventions. In this regard, managed forests present a valuable opportunity for model calibration and improvement. Spatially explicit datasets of planting dates, species and yield classification, in combination with remote sensing data and an appropriate data assimilation (DA) framework can reduce prediction uncertainty and error. We use a Baysian approach to calibrate the data assimilation linked ecosystem carbon (DALEC) model using a Metropolis Hastings-Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MH-MCMC) framework. Forest management information is incorporated into the data assimilation framework as part of ecological and dynamic constraints (EDCs). The key advantage here is that DALEC simulates a full carbon balance, not just the living biomass, and that both parameter and prediction uncertainties are estimated as part of the DA analysis. DALEC has been calibrated at two managed forests, in the USA (Pinus taeda; Duke Forest) and UK (Picea sitchensis; Griffin Forest). At each site DALEC is calibrated twice (exp1 & exp2). Both calibrations (exp1 & exp2) assimilated MODIS LAI and HWSD estimates of soil carbon stored in soil organic matter, in addition to common management information and prior knowledge included in parameter priors and the EDCs. Calibration exp1 also utilises multiple site level estimates of carbon storage in multiple pools. By comparing simulations we determine the impact of site-level observations on uncertainty and error on predictions, and which observations are key to constraining ecosystem processes. Preliminary simulations indicate that DALEC calibration exp1 accurately simulated the assimilated observations for forest and soil carbon stock estimates including, critically for forestry, standing wood stocks (R2 = 0.92, bias = -4.46 MgC ha-1, RMSE = 5.80 MgC ha-1). The results from exp1 indicate the model is able to find parameters that are both consistent with EDC and observations. In the absence of site-level stock observations (exp2) DALEC accurately estimates foliage and fine root pools, while the median estimate of above ground litter and wood stocks (R2 = 0.92, bias = -48.30 MgC ha-1, RMSE = 50.30 MgC ha-1) are over- and underestimated respectively, site-level observations are within model uncertainty. These results indicate that we can estimate managed forests dynamics using remotely sensed data, particularly as remotely sensed above ground biomass maps become available to provide constraint to correct biases in woody accumulation.

  3. The African contribution to the global climate-carbon cycle feedback of the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedlingstein, P.; Cadule, P.; Piao, S. L.; Ciais, P.; Sitch, S.

    2008-12-01

    Future climate change will have impact on global and regional terrestrial carbon balances. The fate of African tropical forests over the 21st century has been investigated through global coupled climate carbon cycle model simulations. Under the SRES-A2 socio-economic CO2 emission scenario of the IPCC, and using the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace coupled ocean-terrestrial carbon cycle and climate model, IPSL-CM4-LOOP, we found that the warming over African ecosystems induces a reduction of net ecosystem productivity, making a 20% contribution to the global climate-carbon cycle positive feedback. However, the African rainforest ecosystem alone makes only a negligible contribution to the overall feedback, much smaller than the one arising from the Amazon forest. This is first because of the two times smaller area of forest in Africa, but also because of the relatively lower local land carbon cycle sensitivity to climate change. This beneficial role of African forests in mitigating future climate change should be taken into account when designing forest conservation policy.

  4. Leveraging Global Resources: A Process Maturity Framework for Managing Distributed Software Product Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narayan Ramasubbu; M. S. Krishnan

    2005-01-01

    Distributed software development is pervasive in the software industry as companies vie to leverage global resources. However popular quality and process frameworks do not specifically address the key processes needed for managing distributed software development. We develop an evolutionary process maturity framework for globally distributed software development that incorporates 24 new key process areas essential for managing distributed software product

  5. Analyzing global carbon uptake patterns using plant trait data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Weg, M. J.; Musavi, T. S.; Van Bodegom, P.; Kattge, J.; Mahecha, M. D.; Reichstein, M.; Bahn, M.

    2013-12-01

    Environment and climate are two important factors in determining global terrestrial CO2 flux patterns, as well as vegetation type and structure. At the moment, in many global CO2 flux analyses the vegetation is represented by plant functional types (PFTs). However, the variance in plant traits within PFTs is as large as between them, suggesting that PFTs do not necessary represent patterns of plant traits as found world wide. And while the correlations between plant traits (e.g. foliar nutrients, leaf mass per area) and CO2 uptake are well established at plant level, this is not the case at ecosystem level. The recently established plant trait database TRY (www.TRY-db.org), together with FLUXNET data give us now new opportunities to analyze ecosystem CO2fluxes at global scale using species plant traits rather than PFTs. Analyzing worldwide CO2 flux data with plant traits comes with some challenges regarding the different spatio-and temporal nature of both data types. Therefore, rather than directly using CO2 fluxes (for which each FLUXNET sites has a different seasonality and different diurnal pattern), we can derive so called ecosystem functional properties (EFPs), which are emergent properties of the ecosystem in response to environmental drivers and are influenced by the structural and physiological properties of the ecosystem. The plant traits in turn are scaled up in a way they become an average representative value for the sites in the analysis, and become suitable to compare to EFPs. Here we present the results of a first study that analyzed global patterns of the EFP GPP1000 max (the maximum gross primary productivity at light saturation) with plant traits measured in situ and derived from the TRY database. In addition to presenting the results we discuss the importance of differences in data origins and data quality (e.g. in situ traits vs. database derived traits, leaf area index (LAI) data from auxiliary FLUXNET data vs remotely sensed LAI, etc.) for this type of analysis.

  6. Role of the marine biosphere in the global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, A.R. (Bedford Inst. of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia (Canada))

    1991-12-01

    The geographical disequilibrium of our planet is due mainly to carbon sequestration by marine organisms over geological time. Changes in atmospheric CO{sub 2} during interglacial-glacial transitions require biological sequestration of carbon in the oceans. Nutrient-limited export flux from new production in surface waters is the key process in this sequestrian. The most common model for export flux ignores potentially important nutrient sources and export mechanisms. Export flux occurs as a result of biological processes whose complexity appears not to be accommodated by the principal classes of simulation models, this being especially true for food webs dominated by single-celled protists whose trophic function is more dispersed than among the multicelled metazoa. The fashionable question concerning a hypothetical missing sink' for CO{sub 2} emissions is unanswerable because of imprecision in our knowledge of critical flux rates. This question also diverts attention from more relevant studies of how the biological pump may be perturbed by climatic consequences of CO{sub 2} emissions. Under available scenarios for climate change, such responses may seem more likely to reinforce, rather than mitigate, the rate of increase of atmospheric CO{sub 2}.

  7. Facilitating Cross-Cultural Management Education through Global Faculty Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinebell, Sharon K.; Kvedaraviciene, Ieva

    2013-01-01

    According to the AACSB International (Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business) (AACSB International, 2011), the next big transformational wave to hit business schools is globalization. Globalizing the faculty is one strategy for enhancing the globalization of business schools and using global faculty exchanges is one method to…

  8. Modeling Impacts of Management on Carbon Sequestration and Trace Gas Emissions in Forested

    E-print Network

    Modeling Impacts of Management on Carbon Sequestration and Trace Gas Emissions in Forested Wetland-DNDC, was modified to enhance its capacity to predict the impacts of management practices on carbon sequestration nonnegligible roles in mitigation in comparison with carbon sequestration. Forests are recognized for having

  9. Imminent ocean acidification in the Arctic projected with the NCAR global coupled carbon cycle-climate model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Steinacher; F. Joos; T. L. Frölicher; G.-K. Plattner; S. C. Doney

    2009-01-01

    Ocean acidification from the uptake of anthropogenic carbon is simulated for the industrial period and IPCC SRES emission scenarios A2 and B1 with a global coupled carbon cycle-climate model. Earlier studies identified seawater saturation state with respect to aragonite, a mineral phase of calcium carbonate, as a key variable governing impacts on corals and other shell-forming organisms. Globally in the

  10. Metrics to assess the mitigation of global warming by carbon capture and storage in the ocean and in geological reservoirs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter M. Haugan; Fortunat Joos

    2004-01-01

    Different metrics to assess mitigation of global warming by carbon capture and storage are discussed. The climatic impact of capturing 30% of the anthropogenic carbon emission and its storage in the ocean or in geological reservoir are evaluated for different stabilization scenarios using a reduced-form carbon cycle-climate model. The accumulated Global Warming Avoided (GWA) remains, after a ramp-up during the

  11. A global carbon assimilation system based on a dual optimization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, H.; Li, Y.; Chen, J. M.; Wang, T.; Huang, Q.; Huang, W. X.; Wang, L. H.; Li, S. M.; Yuan, W. P.; Zheng, X.; Zhang, S. P.; Chen, Z. Q.; Jiang, F.

    2015-02-01

    Ecological models are effective tools for simulating the distribution of global carbon sources and sinks. However, these models often suffer from substantial biases due to inaccurate simulations of complex ecological processes. We introduce a set of scaling factors (parameters) to an ecological model on the basis of plant functional type (PFT) and latitudes. A global carbon assimilation system (GCAS-DOM) is developed by employing a dual optimization method (DOM) to invert the time-dependent ecological model parameter state and the net carbon flux state simultaneously. We use GCAS-DOM to estimate the global distribution of the CO2 flux on 1° × 1° grid cells for the period from 2001 to 2007. Results show that land and ocean absorb -3.63 ± 0.50 and -1.82 ± 0.16 Pg C yr-1, respectively. North America, Europe and China contribute -0.98 ± 0.15, -0.42 ± 0.08 and -0.20 ± 0.29 Pg C yr-1, respectively. The uncertainties in the flux after optimization by GCAS-DOM have been remarkably reduced by more than 60%. Through parameter optimization, GCAS-DOM can provide improved estimates of the carbon flux for each PFT. Coniferous forest (-0.97 ± 0.27 Pg C yr-1) is the largest contributor to the global carbon sink. Fluxes of once-dominant deciduous forest generated by the Boreal Ecosystems Productivity Simulator (BEPS) are reduced to -0.78 ± 0.23 Pg C yr-1, the third largest carbon sink.

  12. REGIONAL IMPACTS OF THE GLOBAL CARBON STAKES: LONG-TERM PROSPECTIVE WITH THE TIMES INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT MODEL

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , ETSAP/TIAM-FR, Long-term modelling, International agreements, Carbon Capture and Storage (CCSREGIONAL IMPACTS OF THE GLOBAL CARBON STAKES: LONG-TERM PROSPECTIVE WITH THE TIMES INTEGRATED to reach CO2 mitigation targets during the period 2005-2050. Using regional carbon constraint scenarios, we

  13. A Description of the Global, Monthly, Fossil-Fuel Carbon Dioxide Time Series Based on National Estimates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Andres; T. A. Boden; J. S. Gregg; L. Losey; G. Marland

    2008-01-01

    Increased analysis has led to the realization that a detailed, mechanistic understanding of the global carbon cycle needs more detailed description in multiple dimensions (e.g., finer spatial scales, finer temporal scales, more accurate and precise mass fluxes, isotopic descriptions, ...). Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels are central to the increased interest in the carbon cycle and are critical toward

  14. in press, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, April 18, 2007 Carbon dioxide and oxygen fluxes in the Southern Ocean

    E-print Network

    Marshall, John

    in press, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, April 18, 2007 Carbon dioxide and oxygen fluxes College, London, UK Abstract. We analyze the variability of air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide and oxygen. The Southern Annular Mode (SAM), known to impact the variability of air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide, is also

  15. Biogeochemical Transformations of Silicon Along the Land–Ocean Continuum and Implications for the Global Carbon Cycle 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Ragueneau; Daniel J. Conley; Dave J. DeMaster; Hans H. Dürr; Nicolas Dittert

    \\u000a In the context of a changing Earth, one central interest is an improved understanding of the global carbon cycle and an improved\\u000a prediction of its likely changes as consequence of global changes. Largescale programs investigated the oceanic cycling of\\u000a carbon (C) and associated biogenic elements, mainly nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), as limiting nutrients of the global production\\u000a by marine

  16. Inverse modeling of global atmospheric carbon dioxide by Global Eulerian-Lagrangian Coupled Atmospheric Model (GELCA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, T.; Ishizawa, M.; Zhuravlev, R.; Ganshin, A.; Belikov, D.; Saito, M.; Oda, T.; Valsala, V.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Tans, P. P.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Global monthly CO2 flux distributions for 2001-2011 were estimated using an atmospheric inverse modeling system, which is based on combination of two transport models, called GELCA (Global Eulerian-Lagrangian Coupled Atmospheric model). This coupled model approach has several advantages over inversions to a single model alone: the use of Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) to simulate the transport in the vicinity of the observation points enables us to avoid numerical diffusion of Eulerian models, and is suitable to represent observations at high spatial and temporal resolutions. The global background concentration field generated by an Eulerian model is used as time-variant boundary conditions for an LPDM that performs backward simulations from each receptor point (observation event). In the GELCA inversion system, National Institute for Environmental Studies-Transport Model (NIES-TM) version 8.1i was used as an Eulerian global transport model coupled with FLEXPART version 8.0 as an LPDM. The meteorological fields for driving both models were taken from JMA Climate Data Assimilation System (JCDAS) with a spatial resolution of 1.25° x 1.25°, 40 vertical levels and a temporal resolution of 6 hours. Our prior CO2 fluxes consist of daily terrestrial biospheric fluxes, monthly oceanic fluxes, monthly biomass burning emissions, and monthly fossil fuel CO2 emissions. We employed a Kalman Smoother optimization technique with fixed lag of 3 months, estimating monthly CO2 fluxes for 42 land and 22 ocean regions. We have been using two different global networks of CO2 observations. The Observation Package (ObsPack) data products contain more measurement information in space and time than the NOAA global cooperative air sampling network which basically consists of approximately weekly sampling at background sites. The global total flux and its large-scale distribution optimized with two different global observation networks agreed overall with other previous studies. At regional scales, estimated seasonal CO2 fluxes were altered by assimilating the ObsPack measurements, especially where the NOAA network is sparse. To see how the inversion improved in reproducing CO2 concentration field, we compared the forward simulation results using the a posteriori fluxes with observed CO2 concentrations at selected monitoring sites. We investigated how observation-model misfit varies with observation sites and assessed the impact of observation network selection. The observation-model misfit was reduced in the Obspack-based inversion, indicating the potential for wider coverage observation to better constrain regional fluxes.

  17. Alternative spatial resolutions and estimation of carbon flux over a managed forest landscape in Western Oregon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David P. Turner; Warren B. Cohen; Robert E. Kennedy

    2000-01-01

    Spatially-distributed estimates of biologically-driven CO 2 flux are of interest in relation to understanding the global carbon cycle. Global coverage by satellite sensors offers an opportunity to assess terrestrial carbon (C) flux using a variety of approaches and corresponding spatial resolutions. An important consideration in evaluating the ap- proaches concerns the scale of the spatial heterogeneity in land cover over

  18. The impact of different management techniques on carbon balance of a pine stand after windthrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemblinska, Klaudia; Urbaniak, Marek; Merbold, Lutz; Chojnicki, Bogdan H.; Olejnik, Janusz

    2015-04-01

    Forest ecosystems cover approximately 1/3 of the global land area (and 29.8% in Poland). Since forests are constantly exposed to various types of disturbances - both natural and anthropogenic such as fires, wind, insects outbreaks or clear cuts - it is important to investigate the impact of such damages on the carbon dynamics. This becomes even more important due to the fact that future climate change will most likely result in a higher frequency and intensity of extreme climatic events. Even though wind damages cause large disturbances to forests only few places in the world exist where continuous measurements of carbon exchange (CO2) in windthrown sites are carried out. Besides the opportunity to assess the carbon dynamics following wind disturbance, there is an additional possibility of evaluating differences in post windthrow forest management practices. To fill this knowledge gap we set up two measuring stations in north-western Poland in the 500ha area of pine forest damaged by tornado in July 2012, to assess the impact of such disturbance on CO2 and H2O exchange by use of Eddy Covariance (EC) technique (Tlen I and Tlen II). Both sites are characterized by similar climatic as well as soil conditions and are located 3km from each other. While at the site Tlen I all biomass (coarse and fine woody debris were collected together with stumps) was removed and ploughed thereafter, at Tlen II only trunks and main branches were taken out from the site without ploughing. Total harvested biomass per hectare, as derived from local forest inventory, were almost 18 % higher at Tlen I than Tlen II site (where uprooted stumps were left to decompose). First analysis of the eddy covariance data shows that both sites are significant carbon sources. Emissions of carbon dioxide from the non-ploughed site (Tlen II) are higher than from the ploughed site (Tlen I). Both sites released more than 8.1 t of CO2 per ha during a three month time period (mid July to mid August 2014) after being prepared for reforestation as described above . Future analysis and continuation of the measurements will help to answer the following remaining questions: How does the carbon flux change in time at both sites? When does either system reach a compensation point (NEP0)? How large are the differences in CO2 loss between both sites? Which management technique appears to be more "carbon friendly" (less CO2 released to the atmosphere per decade). If these questions are answered they will allow to adapt current post-windthrow management activities and provide potential mitigation abilities in disturbed forest ecosystems.

  19. Predicting broad-scale carbon loss and recovery in managed tropical forests

    E-print Network

    Lichstein, Jeremy W.

    Predicting broad-scale carbon loss and recovery in managed tropical forests Editorial Carbon: Tel.: +1 352 328 9945; E-mail: mark.vanderwel@ufl.edu Keywords: carbon storage n forest degradation n demography Reducing carbon emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation, as formalized

  20. Joining and Integration of Advanced Carbon-Carbon Composites to Metallic Systems for Thermal Management Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Asthana, R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent research and development activities in joining and integration of carbon-carbon (C/C) composites to metals such as Ti and Cu-clad-Mo for thermal management applications are presented with focus on advanced brazing techniques. A wide variety of carbon-carbon composites with CVI and resin-derived matrices were joined to Ti and Cu-clad Mo using a number of active braze alloys. The brazed joints revealed good interfacial bonding, preferential precipitation of active elements (e.g., Ti) at the composite/braze interface. Extensive braze penetration of the inter-fiber channels in the CVI C/C composites was observed. The chemical and thermomechanical compatibility between C/C and metals at elevated temperatures is assessed. The role of residual stresses and thermal conduction in brazed C/C joints is discussed. Theoretical predictions of the effective thermal resistance suggest that composite-to-metal brazed joints may be promising for lightweight thermal management applications.

  1. Global Scale Methane Emissions from On-Site Wastewater Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, M. C.; Guan, K.; Mauzerall, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    Pit latrines and other on-site sanitation methods are important forms of wastewater management at the global scale, providing hygienic and low-cost sanitation for more than 1.7 billion people in developing and middle-income regions. Latrines have also been identified as major sources of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) from the anaerobic decomposition of organic waste in pits. Understanding the greenhouse gas footprint of different wastewater systems is essential for sustainable water resource development and management. Despite this importance, CH4 emissions from decentralized wastewater treatment have received little attention in the scientific literature, and the rough calculations underlying government inventories and integrated assessment models do not accurately capture variations in emissions within and between countries. In this study, we improve upon earlier efforts and develop the first spatially explicit approach to quantifying latrine CH4 emissions, combining a high-resolution geospatial analysis of population, urbanization, and water table (as an indicator of anaerobic decomposition pathways) with CH4 emissions factors from the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Country-level health and sanitation surveys were used to determine latrine utilization in 2000 and predict usage in 2015. 18 representative countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America were selected for this analysis to illustrate regional variations in CH4 emissions and to include the greatest emitting nations. Our analysis confirms that pit latrines are a globally significant anthropogenic CH4 source, emitting 4.7 Tg CH4 yr-1 in the countries considered here. This total is projected to decrease ~25% by 2015, however, driven largely by rapid urbanization in China and decreased reliance on latrines in favor of flush toilets. India has the greatest potential for large growth in emissions in the post-2015 period, since public health campaigns to end open defecation, which is currently practiced by more than 600 million people in India, will rely heavily on latrines. Our results emphasize that decisions regarding water and sanitation can significantly influence anthropogenic CH4 emissions, and that discussions around sustainable water resources policy should give full consideration to the greenhouse gas impacts of decentralized sanitation systems like latrines. We conclude with a brief discussion of household biogas and composting toilets as CH4 mitigation options which also allow for harvesting of renewable energy and/or nutrients from wastewater.

  2. Organic Carbon Cycling During Himalayan Erosion: Processes, Fluxes and Consequences for the Global Carbon Cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valier Galy; Christian France-Lanord; Olivier Beyssac; Bruno Lartiges; Mustafizur Rhaman

    \\u000a The net effect of organic carbon cycling during continental erosion depends on the balance between rock-derived organic carbon\\u000a oxidation and ­biospheric organic carbon burial in sediments. Himalayan erosion is dominated by physical transport and each\\u000a year up to two billion tons of sediments eroded from the Himalaya are delivered to the Bengal Fan through the Ganga–Brahmaputra\\u000a (G–B) fluvial system.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a We

  3. Is the basinwide warming in the North Atlantic Ocean related to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming?

    E-print Network

    Wang, Chunzai

    to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming? Chunzai Wang1 and Shenfu Dong1,2 Received 31 January 2010 is controversial. Some studies argued that the warming is due to global warming in association with the secular sea surface temperature. Here we show that both global warming and AMO variability make a contribution

  4. WHAT TO DO ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE? Slowing the rate of carbon burning won't stop global warming

    E-print Network

    Baez, John

    WHAT TO DO ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE? #12;Slowing the rate of carbon burning won't stop global warming: most CO2 stays in the air over a century, though individual molecules come and go. Global warming. But we need to research it -- starting now. If global warming gets bad, public opinion may suddently flip

  5. Strongyloidiasis—An Insight into Its Global Prevalence and Management

    PubMed Central

    Puthiyakunnon, Santhosh; Boddu, Swapna; Li, Yiji; Zhou, Xiaohong; Wang, Chunmei; Li, Juan; Chen, Xiaoguang

    2014-01-01

    Background Strongyloides stercoralis, an intestinal parasitic nematode, infects more than 100 million people worldwide. Strongyloides are unique in their ability to exist as a free-living and autoinfective cycle. Strongyloidiasis can occur without any symptoms or as a potentially fatal hyperinfection or disseminated infection. The most common risk factors for these complications are immunosuppression caused by corticosteroids and infection with human T-lymphotropic virus or human immunodeficiency virus. Even though the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis is improved by advanced instrumentation techniques in isolated and complicated cases of hyperinfection or dissemination, efficient guidelines for screening the population in epidemiological surveys are lacking. Methodology and Results In this review, we have discussed various conventional methods for the diagnosis and management of this disease, with an emphasis on recently developed molecular and serological methods that could be implemented to establish guidelines for precise diagnosis of infection in patients and screening in epidemiological surveys. A comprehensive analysis of various cases reported worldwide from different endemic and nonendemic foci of the disease for the last 40 years was evaluated in an effort to delineate the global prevalence of this disease. We also updated the current knowledge of the various clinical spectrum of this parasitic disease, with an emphasis on newer molecular diagnostic methods, treatment, and management of cases in immunosuppressed patients. Conclusion Strongyloidiasis is considered a neglected tropical disease and is probably an underdiagnosed parasitic disease due to its low parasitic load and uncertain clinical symptoms. Increased infectivity rates in many developed countries and nonendemic regions nearing those in the most prevalent endemic regions of this parasite and the increasing transmission potential to immigrants, travelers, and immunosuppressed populations are indications for initiating an integrated approach towards prompt diagnosis and control of this parasitic disease. PMID:25121962

  6. A Global Carbon Assimilation System using a modified EnKF assimilation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; Zheng, X.; Chen, Z.; Dan, B.; Chen, J. M.; Yi, X.; Wang, L.; Wu, G.

    2014-10-01

    A Global Carbon Assimilation System based on Ensemble Kalman filter (GCAS-EK) is developed for assimilating atmospheric CO2 abundance data into an ecosystem model to simultaneously estimate the surface carbon fluxes and atmospheric CO2 distribution. This assimilation approach is based on the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), but with several new developments, including using analysis states to iteratively estimate ensemble forecast errors, and a maximum likelihood estimation of the inflation factors of the forecast and observation errors. The proposed assimilation approach is tested in observing system simulation experiments and then used to estimate the terrestrial ecosystem carbon fluxes and atmospheric CO2 distributions from 2002 to 2008. The results showed that this assimilation approach can effectively reduce the biases and uncertainties of the carbon fluxes simulated by the ecosystem model.

  7. FOREST MANAGEMENT AND AGROFORESTRY TO SEQUESTER AND CONSERVE ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Overall, the biological opportunity to conserve and sequester carbon in the terrestrial biosphere, especially in forest systems, appears significant. ith careful planning and implementation, management practices useful for this carbon benefit would appear to have potential to pro...

  8. STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen

    2002-09-10

    The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this fourth project period we completed the characterization of ozone-treated carbon surfaces and wrote a comprehensive report on the mechanism through which ozone suppresses the adsorption of concrete surfactants.

  9. Modelling the role of fires in the terrestrial carbon balance by incorporating SPITFIRE into the global vegetation model ORCHIDEE - Part 2: Carbon emissions and the role of fires in the global carbon balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, C.; Ciais, P.; Cadule, P.; Thonicke, K.; van Leeuwen, T. T.

    2015-05-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions from wild and anthropogenic fires return the carbon absorbed by plants to the atmosphere, and decrease the sequestration of carbon by land ecosystems. Future climate warming will likely increase the frequency of fire-triggering drought, so that the future terrestrial carbon uptake will depend on how fires respond to altered climate variation. In this study, we modelled the role of fires in the global terrestrial carbon balance for 1901-2012, using the ORCHIDEE global vegetation model equipped with the SPITFIRE model. We conducted two simulations with and without the fire module being activated, using a static land cover. The simulated global fire carbon emissions for 1997-2009 are 2.1 Pg C yr-1, which is close to the 2.0 Pg C yr-1 as estimated by GFED3.1. The simulated land carbon uptake after accounting for emissions for 2003-2012 is 3.1 Pg C yr-1, which is within the uncertainty of the residual carbon sink estimation (2.8 ± 0.8 Pg C yr-1). Fires are found to reduce the terrestrial carbon uptake by 0.32 Pg C yr-1 over 1901-2012, or 20% of the total carbon sink in a world without fire. The fire-induced land sink reduction (SRfire) is significantly correlated with climate variability, with larger sink reduction occurring in warm and dry years, in particular during El Niño events. Our results suggest a "fire respiration partial compensation". During the 10 lowest SRfire years (SRfire = 0.17 Pg C yr-1), fires mainly compensate for the heterotrophic respiration that would occur in a world without fire. By contrast, during the 10 highest SRfire fire years (SRfire = 0.49 Pg C yr-1), fire emissions far exceed their respiration partial compensation and create a larger reduction in terrestrial carbon uptake. Our findings have important implications for the future role of fires in the terrestrial carbon balance, because the capacity of terrestrial ecosystems to sequester carbon will be diminished by future climate change characterized by increased frequency of droughts and extreme El Niño events.

  10. Integrating Natural Gas Hydrates in the Global Carbon Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    David Archer; Bruce Buffett

    2011-12-31

    We produced a two-dimensional geological time- and basin-scale model of the sedimentary margin in passive and active settings, for the simulation of the deep sedimentary methane cycle including hydrate formation. Simulation of geochemical data required development of parameterizations for bubble transport in the sediment column, and for the impact of the heterogeneity in the sediment pore fluid flow field, which represent new directions in modeling methane hydrates. The model is somewhat less sensitive to changes in ocean temperature than our previous 1-D model, due to the different methane transport mechanisms in the two codes (pore fluid flow vs. bubble migration). The model is very sensitive to reasonable changes in organic carbon deposition through geologic time, and to details of how the bubbles migrate, in particular how efficiently they are trapped as they rise through undersaturated or oxidizing chemical conditions and the hydrate stability zone. The active margin configuration reproduces the elevated hydrate saturations observed in accretionary wedges such as the Cascadia Margin, but predicts a decrease in the methane inventory per meter of coastline relative to a comparable passive margin case, and a decrease in the hydrate inventory with an increase in the plate subduction rate.

  11. Restoring coastal plants to improve global carbon storage: reaping what we sow.

    PubMed

    Irving, Andrew D; Connell, Sean D; Russell, Bayden D

    2011-01-01

    Long-term carbon capture and storage (CCS) is currently considered a viable strategy for mitigating rising levels of atmospheric CO(2) and associated impacts of global climate change. Until recently, the significant below-ground CCS capacity of coastal vegetation such as seagrasses, salt marshes, and mangroves has largely gone unrecognized in models of global carbon transfer. However, this reservoir of natural, free, and sustainable carbon storage potential is increasingly jeopardized by alarming trends in coastal habitat loss, totalling 30-50% of global abundance over the last century alone. Human intervention to restore lost habitats is a potentially powerful solution to improve natural rates of global CCS, but data suggest this approach is unlikely to substantially improve long-term CCS unless current restoration efforts are increased to an industrial scale. Failure to do so raises the question of whether resources currently used for expensive and time-consuming restoration projects would be more wisely invested in arresting further habitat loss and encouraging natural recovery. PMID:21479244

  12. Global forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 and direct impacts on biodiversity and carbon pools.

    PubMed

    Seto, Karen C; Güneralp, Burak; Hutyra, Lucy R

    2012-10-01

    Urban land-cover change threatens biodiversity and affects ecosystem productivity through loss of habitat, biomass, and carbon storage. However, despite projections that world urban populations will increase to nearly 5 billion by 2030, little is known about future locations, magnitudes, and rates of urban expansion. Here we develop spatially explicit probabilistic forecasts of global urban land-cover change and explore the direct impacts on biodiversity hotspots and tropical carbon biomass. If current trends in population density continue and all areas with high probabilities of urban expansion undergo change, then by 2030, urban land cover will increase by 1.2 million km(2), nearly tripling the global urban land area circa 2000. This increase would result in considerable loss of habitats in key biodiversity hotspots, with the highest rates of forecasted urban growth to take place in regions that were relatively undisturbed by urban development in 2000: the Eastern Afromontane, the Guinean Forests of West Africa, and the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka hotspots. Within the pan-tropics, loss in vegetation biomass from areas with high probability of urban expansion is estimated to be 1.38 PgC (0.05 PgC yr(-1)), equal to ?5% of emissions from tropical deforestation and land-use change. Although urbanization is often considered a local issue, the aggregate global impacts of projected urban expansion will require significant policy changes to affect future growth trajectories to minimize global biodiversity and vegetation carbon losses. PMID:22988086

  13. Organic carbon burial rates in mangrove sediments: strengthening the global budget

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breithaupt, J.; Smoak, Joseph M.; Smith, Thomas J., III; Sanders, Christian J.; Hoare, Armando

    2012-01-01

    Mangrove wetlands exist in the transition zone between terrestrial and marine environments and as such were historically overlooked in discussions of terrestrial and marine carbon cycling. In recent decades, mangroves have increasingly been credited with producing and burying large quantities of organic carbon (OC). The amount of available data regarding OC burial in mangrove soils has more than doubled since the last primary literature review (2003). This includes data from some of the largest, most developed mangrove forests in the world, providing an opportunity to strengthen the global estimate. First-time representation is now included for mangroves in Brazil, Colombia, Malaysia, Indonesia, China, Japan, Vietnam, and Thailand, along with additional data from Mexico and the United States. Our objective is to recalculate the centennial-scale burial rate of OC at both the local and global scales. Quantification of this rate enables better understanding of the current carbon sink capacity of mangroves as well as helps to quantify and/or validate the other aspects of the mangrove carbon budget such as import, export, and remineralization. Statistical analysis of the data supports use of the geometric mean as the most reliable central tendency measurement. Our estimate is that mangrove systems bury 163 (+40; -31) g OC m-2 yr-1 (95% C.I.). Globally, the 95% confidence interval for the annual burial rate is 26.1 (+6.3; -5.1) Tg OC. This equates to a burial fraction that is 42% larger than that of the most recent mangrove carbon budget (2008), and represents 10–15% of estimated annual mangrove production. This global rate supports previous conclusions that, on a centennial time scale, 8–15% of all OC burial in marine settings occurs in mangrove systems.

  14. R E V I E W : C L I M A T E C H A N G E The Global Carbon Cycle: A Test of Our

    E-print Network

    Falkowski, Paul G.

    R E V I E W : C L I M A T E C H A N G E The Global Carbon Cycle: A Test of Our Knowledge of Earth activ- ities have altered the global carbon cycle significantly. Understanding the consequences international scientific studies have focused on elucidating various aspects of the global carbon cycle over

  15. Simulating options for carbon sequestration through improved management of a lowland tropical rainforest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARCO BOSCOLO; JOSEPH BUONGIORNO; THEODORE PANAYOTOU

    1997-01-01

    The growing evidence that increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are related to global warming has prompted several countries to consider options for reducing and offsetting current carbon dioxide emissions. Opportunities for carbon sequestration with forestry activities have been analysed in detail primarily in industrialized nations, mainly because of data availability. This article presents a model that simulates

  16. Nitrogen attenuation of terrestrial carbon cycle response to global environmental factors

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Atul [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Yang, Xiaojuan [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Kheshgi, Haroon [Exxon Mobil Research and Engineering; Mcguire, David [University of Alaska; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen cycle dynamics have the capacity to attenuate the magnitude of global terrestrial carbon sinks and sources driven by CO2 fertilization and changes in climate. In this study, two versions of the terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycle components of the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM) are used to evaluate how variation in nitrogen availability influences terrestrial carbon sinks and sources in response to changes over the 20th century in global environmental factors including atmospheric CO2 concentration, nitrogen inputs, temperature, precipitation and land use. The two versions of ISAM vary in their treatment of nitrogen availability: ISAM-NC has a terrestrial carbon cycle model coupled to a fully dynamic nitrogen cycle while ISAM-C has an identical carbon cycle model but nitrogen availability is always in sufficient supply. Overall, the two versions of the model estimate approximately the same amount of global mean carbon uptake over the 20th century. However, comparisons of results of ISAM-NC relative to ISAM-C reveal that nitrogen dynamics: (1) reduced the 1990s carbon sink associated with increasing atmospheric CO2 by 0.53 PgC yr1 (1 Pg = 1015g), (2) reduced the 1990s carbon source associated with changes in temperature and precipitation of 0.34 PgC yr1 in the 1990s, (3) an enhanced sink associated with nitrogen inputs by 0.26 PgC yr1, and (4) enhanced the 1990s carbon source associated with changes in land use by 0.08 PgC yr1 in the 1990s. These effects of nitrogen limitation influenced the spatial distribution of the estimated exchange of CO2 with greater sink activity in high latitudes associated with climate effects and a smaller sink of CO2 in the southeastern United States caused by N limitation associated with both CO2 fertilization and forest regrowth. These results indicate that the dynamics of nitrogen availability are important to consider in assessing the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of terrestrial carbon sources and sinks.

  17. A model ensemble for explaining the seasonal cycle of globally averaged atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, Georgii; Eliseev, Alexey

    2015-04-01

    The seasonal cycle of the globally averaged atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations results from the seasonal changes in the gas exchange between the atmosphere and other carbon pools. Terrestrial pools are the most important. Boreal and temperate ecosystems provide a sink for carbon dioxide only during the warm period of the year, and, therefore, the summertime reduction in the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is usually explained by the seasonal changes in the magnitude of terrestrial carbon sink. Although this explanation seems almost obvious, it is surprisingly difficult to support it by calculations of the seasonal changes in the strength of the sink provided by boreal and temperate ecosystems. The traditional conceptual framework for modelling net ecosystem exchange (NEE) leads to the estimates of the NEE seasonal cycle amplitude which are too low for explaining the amplitude of the seasonal cycle of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. To propose a more suitable conceptual framework we develop a model ensemble that consists of nine structurally different models and covers various approaches to modelling gross primary production and heterotrophic respiration, including the effects of light saturation, limited light use efficiency, limited water use efficiency, substrate limitation and microbiological priming. The use of model ensembles is a well recognized methodology for evaluating structural uncertainty of model-based predictions. In this study we use this methodology for exploratory modelling analysis - that is, to identify the mechanisms that cause the observed amplitude of the seasonal cycle of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and its slow but steady growth.

  18. Global carbon-water cycles patterns inferred from FLUXNET observations - useful for model evaluation? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichstein, M.; Jung, M.; Beer, C.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Tomelleri, E.; Papale, D.; Fluxnet Lathuille Synthesis Team (Cf. Www. Fluxdata. Org)

    2010-12-01

    The current FLUXNET database (www.fluxdata.org) of CO2, water and energy exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere contains almost 1000 site-years with data from more than 250 sites, encompassing all major biomes of the world and being processed in a standardized way (1-3). In this presentation we show that the information in the data is sufficient to derive generalized empirical relationships between vegetation/respective remote sensing information, climate and the biosphere-atmosphere exchanges across global biomes. These empirical patterns are used to generate global grids of the respective fluxes and derived properties (e.g. radiation and water-use efficiencies or climate sensitivities in general, bowen-ratio, AET/PET ratio). For example we re-estimate global “text-book” numbers such as global Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) as ca. 123PgC (4), or global evapotranspiration (ET) as ca. 65km3/yr (5) - for the first time with a more solid and direct empirical basis. Evaluation against independent data at regional to global scale (e.g. atmospheric carbon dioxide inversions, runoff data) lends support to the validity of our almost purely empirical up-scaling approaches. Moreover climate factors such as radiation, temperature and water balance are identified as driving factors for variations and trends of carbon and water fluxes, with distinctly different sensitivities between different regions. Hence, these global fields of biosphere-atmosphere exchange and the inferred relations between climate, vegetation type and fluxes should be used for evaluation or benchmarking of climate models or their land-surface components, while overcoming scale-issues with classical point-to-grid-cell comparisons. 1. M. Reichstein et al., Global Change Biology 11, 1424 (2005). 2. D. Baldocchi, Australian Journal of Botany 56,1 (2008). 3. D. Papale et al., Biogeosciences 3, 571 (2006). 4. Beer et al. Science 329 (2010). 5. Jung et al. Nature in press (doi:10.1038/nature09396).

  19. Optimal Data Quality in Project Management for Global Software Developments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ismael Caballero; Aurora Vizcaíno; Mario Piattini

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, globalization of markets is a well-consolidated and an ever increasing growing fact. Within ICT field, one of the areas experiencing a faster growth is Global Software Development (GSD). GSD evolves the participation of multi-skilled people and the use of different managerial and technological resources, globally distributed, in order to obtain software with the greatest quality level as possible, but

  20. PLANT-SOIL INTERACTIONS AND THE CARBON CYCLE The changing global carbon cycle: linking plant-soil carbon dynamics to global consequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Stuart Chapin III; Jack McFarland; A. David McGuire; Eugenie S. Euskirchen; Roger W. Ruess; Knut Kielland

    Summary 1. Most current climate-carbon cycle models that include the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle are based on a model developed 40 years ago by Woodwell & Whittaker (1968) and omit advances in biogeo- chemical understanding since that time. Their model treats net C emissions from ecosystems as the balance between net primary production (NPP) and heterotrophic respiration (HR, i.e. primarily

  1. Global change and modern coral reefs: New opportunities to understand shallow-water carbonate depositional processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallock, Pamela

    2005-04-01

    Human activities are impacting coral reefs physically, biologically, and chemically. Nutrification, sedimentation, chemical pollution, and overfishing are significant local threats that are occurring worldwide. Ozone depletion and global warming are triggering mass coral-bleaching events; corals under temperature stress lose the ability to synthesize protective sunscreens and become more sensitive to sunlight. Photo-oxidative stress also reduces fitness, rendering reef-building organisms more susceptible to emerging diseases. Increasing concentration of atmospheric CO 2 has already reduced CaCO 3 saturation in surface waters by more than 10%. Doubling of atmospheric CO 2 concentration over pre-industrial concentration in the 21st century may reduce carbonate production in tropical shallow marine environments by as much as 80%. As shallow-water reefs decline worldwide, opportunities abound for researchers to expand understanding of carbonate depositional systems. Coordinated studies of carbonate geochemistry with photozoan physiology and calcification, particularly in cool subtropical-transition zones between photozoan-reef and heterotrophic carbonate-ramp communities, will contribute to understanding of carbonate sedimentation under environmental change, both in the future and in the geologic record. Cyanobacteria are becoming increasingly prominent on declining reefs, as these microbes can tolerate strong solar radiation, higher temperatures, and abundant nutrients. The responses of reef-dwelling cyanobacteria to environmental parameters associated with global change are prime topics for further research, with both ecological and geological implications.

  2. Thermometry and thermal management of carbon nanotube circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayle, Scott; Gupta, Tanuj; Davis, Sam; Chandrasekhar, Venkat; Shafraniuk, Serhii

    2015-05-01

    Monitoring of the intrinsic temperature and the thermal management is discussed for the carbon nanotube nano-circuits. The experimental results concerning fabricating and testing of a thermometer able to monitor the intrinsic temperature on nanoscale are reported. We also suggest a model which describes a bi-metal multilayer system able to filter the heat flow, based on separating the electron and phonon components one from another. The bi-metal multilayer structure minimizes the phonon component of the heat flow, while retaining the electronic part. The method allows one to improve the overall performance of the electronic nano-circuits due to minimizing the energy dissipation.

  3. http://isdm.univ-tln.fr GLOBAL APPROACH FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN DESIGN

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    http://isdm.univ-tln.fr GLOBAL APPROACH FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN DESIGN Stephane Brunel's not really a new field. It appears that the merge between design and knowledge management propose some very, reorganisation and using of knowledge from design process. What about knowledge and their management in some

  4. The Global Business concentration prepares students to manage effectively in a complex and dynamic global business environment. Building on a foundational course

    E-print Network

    Lin, Xiaodong

    for students who choose a second concentration in areas such as Strategy and Leadership, Finance, Supply Chain Global Business Development Global Supply Chain Manager International Brand Manager Country/Area Managers, international trade and finance, and marketing. The department also regularly offers courses that involve travel

  5. Correspondence Between Long Term Carbon Sequestration and Measurable Variables in a Global Land Surface Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, S.; Muller, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    The response of net atmosphere-land carbon exchange under future warming and increasing CO2 is key to the projection of future climate change. However, current land-surface model differ widely in their prediction of the land carbon sink by 2100. These models are increasingly complex and entail a large array of mechanisms. Consequently, the number of "knobs"(i.e. model parameters) available to tune model results has increased drastically. In principal, objectively tuning all parameters of a model to the measurements at hand should yield a best configuration. But in practice, it is important to know structure of data that helps best to improve a model's long-term carbon sink trajectory; or alternatively whether there are variables where a model data mismatch would not necessarily compromise the model outcome. We performed a sensitivity analysis of LM3VN, a land surface model with a prognostic nitrogen cycle, by varying 60 parameters, and checked for correspondence between the sensitivity of the model's long-term (1850-2100) carbon sink and contemporary (1980-2006) calibration variables. We found, that few parameters had a strong impact on the long term carbon sequestration, showing that the model entails a number of negative feedbacks. Importantly, the parameters to which the model was most sensitive were found to vary between individual gridcells, supporting the idea of point-specific and regional model assessment. The model's prediction of the current total carbon inventory correlated well with the prediction of the long term carbon sink, indicating that evaluation of models against current carbon inventories could improve their prediction of carbon sequestration over the this century, although the aggregation of such data is challenging. A promising correspondence is that of the interannual variability of net carbon exchange, we found this the correlation to be significant in a majority of gridcells (73%) but weak if globally aggregated. Overall, such targeted sensitivity analysis may help to select data sets and inform observation networks in order to constrain the response of the terrestrial carbon cycle to global change factors, particularly if broadened across models and scenarios.

  6. Simulations of the global carbon cycle and anthropogenic CO{sub 2} transient. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Joos, F.; Stocker, T.

    1996-11-01

    The major emphasis of our DOE funded research was to study the redistribution of anthropogenic carbon in the climate system and to constrain the global budgets of anthropogenic carbon and the carbon isotopes {sup 13}C and {sup 14}C for the historical period. We have continued the development of box models of the ocean carbon cycle (HILDA model) and the land biota. The coupled model (Bern model) was chosen as the reference model for scenario calculations and the calculations of global warming potential by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. These models were applied (1) to estimate the uptake of anthropogenic carbon by the ocean and the land biosphere for the last 200 years; (2) to investigate uncertainties in deconvolved fertilization fluxes into the land biota due to uncertainties in ice core CO{sub 2} data; (3) to study the relationship between future atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels and carbon emissions; (4) to investigate the budgets of bomb-produced radiocarbon and fossil {sup 13}C. We assessed the utility of bomb-produced and natural {sup 13}C observations to validate ocean models of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} uptake and tested the eddy diffusion parameterization of large-scale vertical transport in ocean box models. For this, vertical tracer transport in box-diffusion models and the 3-D ocean general circulation model from GFDL/Princeton was compared. We analyzed the distribution of the conservative property {Delta}C* to obtain a direct estimate based on marine measurements of the uptake of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} by the North Atlantic. We contribute to the missing sink debate by using atmospheric CO{sub 2} and {sup 13}C levels to disentangle the net carbon fluxes into the land biota and the ocean. A simplified representation for 4 different ocean models of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} uptake based on mixed-layer pulse response functions was developed.

  7. The simulated climate of the Last Glacial Maximum and the insights into the global carbon cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matear, R. J.; Lenton, A.; Etheridge, D.; Phipps, S. J.

    2015-03-01

    Global climate models (GCMs) provide an important tool for simulating the earth's climate. Here we present a GCM simulation of the climate of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), which was obtained by setting atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and the earth's orbital parameters to the values which prevailed at 21 000 years before present (BP). During the LGM, we simulate a significant cooling of the ocean and a dramatic expansion of the sea-ice extent. This behaviour agrees with reconstructions from paleoclimate archives. In the ocean, the LGM simulation produces a significant redistribution of dissolved oxygen and carbon. The oxygen levels rise and the volume of anoxic water declines by more than 50%, which is consistent with paleoclimate reconstructions of denitrification. The simulated LGM climate also stores more carbon in the deep ocean (below 2000 m), but with a reduced atmospheric CO2 level the total carbon stored in the ocean declines by 600 Pg C. The LGM ocean circulation preconditions the ocean to store carbon in the deep; however, the ocean circulation and sea-ice changes are insufficient alone to increase the total carbon stored in the ocean and modifications to the ocean biogeochemical cycles are required. With modifications to organic and inorganic carbon export and organic carbon remineralization one can increase ocean carbon storage (240 Pg C) to a level that is sufficient to explain the reduction in atmospheric and land carbon during the LGM (520 ± 400 Pg C). With the modified biogeochemical cycling in the ocean, the simulated aragonite lysocline depth and dissolved oxygen become more consistent with paleo-reconstructions.

  8. Management of water extracted from carbon sequestration projects

    SciTech Connect

    Harto, C. B.; Veil, J. A. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-03-11

    Throughout the past decade, frequent discussions and debates have centered on the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). For sequestration to have a reasonably positive impact on atmospheric carbon levels, the anticipated volume of CO{sub 2} that would need to be injected is very large (many millions of tons per year). Many stakeholders have expressed concern about elevated formation pressure following the extended injection of CO{sub 2}. The injected CO{sub 2} plume could potentially extend for many kilometers from the injection well. If not properly managed and monitored, the increased formation pressure could stimulate new fractures or enlarge existing natural cracks or faults, so the CO{sub 2} or the brine pushed ahead of the plume could migrate vertically. One possible tool for management of formation pressure would be to extract water already residing in the formation where CO{sub 2} is being stored. The concept is that by removing water from the receiving formations (referred to as 'extracted water' to distinguish it from 'oil and gas produced water'), the pressure gradients caused by injection could be reduced, and additional pore space could be freed up to sequester CO{sub 2}. Such water extraction would occur away from the CO{sub 2} plume to avoid extracting a portion of the sequestered CO{sub 2} along with the formation water. While water extraction would not be a mandatory component of large-scale carbon storage programs, it could provide many benefits, such as reduction of pressure, increased space for CO{sub 2} storage, and potentially, 'plume steering.' Argonne National Laboratory is developing information for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to evaluate management of extracted water. If water is extracted from geological formations designated to receive injected CO{sub 2} for sequestration, the project operator will need to identify methods for managing very large volumes of water most of which will contain large quantities of salt and other dissolved minerals. Produced water from oil and gas production also typically contains large quantities of dissolved solids. Therefore, many of the same practices that are established and used for managing produced water also may be applicable for extracted water. This report describes the probable composition of the extracted water that is removed from the formations, options for managing the extracted water, the pros and cons of those options, and some opportunities for beneficial use of the water. Following the introductory material in Chapter 1, the report is divided into chapters covering the following topics: (Chapter 2) examines the formations that are likely candidates for CO{sub 2} sequestration and provides a general evaluation of the geochemical characteristics of the formations; (Chapter 3) makes some preliminary estimates of the volume of water that could be extracted; (Chapter 4) provides a qualitative review of many potential technologies and practices for managing extracted water and for each technology or management practice, pros and cons are provided; (Chapter 5) explores the potential costs of water management; and (Chapter 6) presents the conclusions.

  9. Carbon cycle: 1985 glacial to interglacial changes in the operation of the global carbon cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Broecker; T. H. Peng

    1986-01-01

    The hottest topic for those interested in the earth's carbon cycles is the change in atmospheric COâ content between glacial and interglacial time. What caused it. What is its role in glacial cycles. The authors evaluate here the hypotheses that have been put forward to explain the COâ change with evidence from deep sea sediments. They conclude that all the

  10. STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth

    2001-12-26

    The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. This first project period, experiments were carried out to better understand the fundamental nature of the ozonation effect on ash. Carbon surfaces were characterized by surfactant adsorption, and by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy before and after oxidation, both by air at 440 C and by ozone at room temperature. The results strongly suggest that the beneficial effect of ozonation is in large part due to chemical modification of the carbon surfaces.

  11. Urban Land Use Change Effects on Below and Aboveground Carbon Stocks—a Global Perspective and Future Research Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouyat, R. V.; Chen, Y.; Yesilonis, I.; Day, S.

    2014-12-01

    Land use change (LUC) has a significant impact on both above- and below-ground carbon (C) stocks; however, little is known about the net effects of urban LUC on the C cycle and climate system. Moreover, as climate change becomes an increasingly pressing concern, there is growing evidence that urban policy and management decisions can have significant regional impacts on C dynamics. Soil organic carbon (SOC) varies significantly across ecoregions at global and continental scales due to differential sensitivity of primary production, substrate quality, and organic matter decay to changes in temperature and soil moisture. These factors are highly modified by urban LUC due to vegetation removal, soil relocation and disruption, pollution, urban heat island effects, and increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations. As a result, on a global scale urban LUC differentially affects the C cycle from ecoregion to ecoregion. For urban ecosystems, the data collected thus far suggests urbanization can lead to both an increase and decrease in soil C pools and fluxes, depending on the native ecosystem being impacted by urban development. For example, in drier climates, urban landscapes accumulate higher C densities than the native ecosystems they replaced. Results suggest also that soil C storage in urban ecosystems is highly variable with very high (> 20.0) and low (< 2.0) C densities (kg m-2 to a 1 m depth) present in the landscape at any one time. Moreover, similar to non-urban soils, total SOC densities are consistently 2-fold greater than aboveground stocks. For those soils with low SOC densities, there is potential to increase C sequestration through management, but specific urban related management practices need to be evaluated. In addition, urban LUC is a human-driven process and thus can be modified or adjusted to reduce its impacts on the C cycle. For example, policies that influence development patterns, population density, management practices, and other human factors can greatly ameliorate the impact of urban LUC on the C cycle. However, even with the recent and rapid expansion of newly acquired data, the net effects of urban LUC on C stocks and fluxes have not been comprehensively addressed. Furthermore, how sensitive these changes are to urban planning, policy decisions, and site management needs to be explored.

  12. What atmospheric oxygen measurements can tell us about the global carbon cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph F. Keeling; Raymond P. Najjar; Michael L. Bender; Pieter P. Tans

    1993-01-01

    This paper explores the role that measurements of changes in atmospheric oxygen, detected through changes in the O2\\/N2 ratio of air, can play in improving our understanding of the global carbon cycle. Simple conceptual models are presented in order to clarify the biological and physical controls on the exchanges of O2, CO2, N2, and Ar across the air-sea interface and

  13. Climate change during Cenozoic inferred from global carbon cycle model including igneous and hydrothermal activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirohiko Kashiwagi; Naotatsu Shikazono

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses climate change in the Cenozoic by constructing a global carbon cycle model which is based on the GEOCARB-type model. Major improvements over previous models in this study are as follows. Previous models have not considered CO2 behavior at subduction sufficiently. They do not distinguish at subduction zones between the CO2 degassing from a back-arc basin (BAB) and

  14. Rethinking the global carbon cycle with a large, dynamic and microbially mediated gas hydrate capacitor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald R. Dickens

    2003-01-01

    Prominent negative ?13C excursions characterize several past intervals of abrupt (2.5‰ drop across the Paleocene\\/Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) ca. 55.5 Ma, command our attention because they lack explanation with conventional models for global carbon cycling. Increasingly, Earth scientists have argued that they signify massive release of CH4 from marine gas hydrates, although typically without considering the underlying process or the

  15. Evaluation of atmospheric aerosol and tropospheric ozone effects on global terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Min

    The increasing human activities have produced large amounts of air pollutants ejected into the atmosphere, in which atmospheric aerosols and tropospheric ozone are considered to be especially important because of their negative impacts on human health and their impacts on global climate through either their direct radiative effect or indirect effect on land-atmosphere CO2 exchange. This dissertation dedicates to quantifying and evaluating the aerosol and tropospheric ozone effects on global terrestrial ecosystem dynamics using a modeling approach. An ecosystem model, the integrated Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (iTem), is developed to simulate biophysical and biogeochemical processes in terrestrial ecosystems. A two-broad-band atmospheric radiative transfer model together with the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measured atmospheric parameters are used to well estimate global downward solar radiation and the direct and diffuse components in comparison with observations. The atmospheric radiative transfer modeling framework were used to quantify the aerosol direct radiative effect, showing that aerosol loadings cause 18.7 and 12.8 W m -2 decrease of direct-beam Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR) and Near Infrared Radiation (NIR) respectively, and 5.2 and 4.4 W m -2 increase of diffuse PAR and NIR, respectively, leading to a total 21.9 W m-2 decrease of total downward solar radiation over the global land surface during the period of 2003-2010. The results also suggested that the aerosol effect may be overwhelmed by clouds because of the stronger extinction and scattering ability of clouds. Applications of the iTem with solar radiation data and with or without considering the aerosol loadings shows that aerosol loading enhances the terrestrial productions [Gross Primary Production (GPP), Net Primary Production (NPP) and Net Ecosystem Production (NEP)] and carbon emissions through plant respiration (RA) in global terrestrial ecosystems over the period of 2003-2010. Ecosystem heterotrophic respiration (RH) was negatively affected by the aerosol loading. These results support previous conclusions of the advantage of aerosol light scattering effect on plant productions in other studies but suggest there is strong spatial variation. This study finds indirect aerosol effects on terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics through affecting plant phenology, thermal and hydrological environments. All these evidences suggested that the aerosol direct radiative effect on global terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics should be considered to better understand the global carbon cycle and climate change. An ozone sub-model is developed in this dissertation and fully coupled with iTem. The coupled model, named iTemO3 considers the processes of ozone stomatal deposition, plant defense to ozone influx, ozone damage and plant repairing mechanism. By using a global atmospheric chemical transport model (GACTM) estimated ground-level ozone concentration data, the model estimated global annual stomatal ozone deposition is 234.0 Tg O3 yr-1 and indicates which regions have high ozone damage risk. Different plant functional types, sunlit and shaded leaves are shown to have different responses to ozone. The model predictions suggest that ozone has caused considerable change on global terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage and carbon exchanges over the study period 2004-2008. The study suggests that uncertainty of the key parameters in iTemO3 could result in large errors in model predictions. Thus more experimental data for better model parameterization is highly needed.

  16. Impact of changes in diffuse radiation on the global land carbon sink.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Lina M; Bellouin, Nicolas; Sitch, Stephen; Boucher, Olivier; Huntingford, Chris; Wild, Martin; Cox, Peter M

    2009-04-23

    Plant photosynthesis tends to increase with irradiance. However, recent theoretical and observational studies have demonstrated that photosynthesis is also more efficient under diffuse light conditions. Changes in cloud cover or atmospheric aerosol loadings, arising from either volcanic or anthropogenic emissions, alter both the total photosynthetically active radiation reaching the surface and the fraction of this radiation that is diffuse, with uncertain overall effects on global plant productivity and the land carbon sink. Here we estimate the impact of variations in diffuse fraction on the land carbon sink using a global model modified to account for the effects of variations in both direct and diffuse radiation on canopy photosynthesis. We estimate that variations in diffuse fraction, associated largely with the 'global dimming' period, enhanced the land carbon sink by approximately one-quarter between 1960 and 1999. However, under a climate mitigation scenario for the twenty-first century in which sulphate aerosols decline before atmospheric CO(2) is stabilized, this 'diffuse-radiation' fertilization effect declines rapidly to near zero by the end of the twenty-first century. PMID:19396143

  17. Equilibrium responses of global net primary production and carbon storage to doubled atmospheric carbon dioxide: Sensitivity to changes in vegetation nitrogen concentration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. David McGuire; Jerry M. Melillo; David W. Kicklighter; Yude Pan; Xiangming Xiao; John Helfrich; Berrien Moore; Charles J. Vorosmarty; Annette L. Schloss

    1997-01-01

    We ran the terrestrial ecosystem model (TEM) for the globe at 0.5° resolution for atmospheric CO2 concentrations of 340 and 680 parts per million by volume (ppmv) to evaluate global and regional responses of net primary production (NPP) and carbon storage to elevated CO2 for their sensitivity to changes in vegetation nitrogen concentration. At 340 ppmv, TEM estimated global NPP

  18. Assessing global potential and implications of Carbon Dioxide Removal: how much, for how long, and where might it take us?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, V.

    2014-12-01

    Aiming to keep cumulative anthropogenic carbon release within the 2 degrees C warming budget, useful energy services and value of fossil carbon might be retained if its extraction is balanced by carbon dioxide capture and carbon storage creation. Here, we examine this proposition: assessing the global resource available for carbon storage, the reliable duration of storage, and exploring the resulting hierarchy of different storage types. The balance between fossil carbon supply, and the sufficiency (size) and capability (technology, security) of candidate carbon stores is assessed. The timescale of carbon retention by the variety of proposed stores has potentially important consequences for future climates. A distinction between 'permanent' and 'temporary' carbon storage is considered, and the results and implications for the usage of 'temporary' stores discussed.

  19. STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; JOhn Veranth

    2002-08-30

    The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this third project period, an extensive battery of surface analysis tools was used to characterize the surfaces of untreated, air-oxidized, and ozone-treated carbons. Most of the work focused on carbon black chosen as a model carbon material suitable for understanding the fundamental surface mechanisms without interference from inorganic matter. In addition to the XPS work described in previous reports, the overall analytical test battery includes: FTIR spectrometry, thermal desorption in nitrogen and in hydrogen/helium, mixtures, surface acidity, hygroscopic behavior, contact angle measurement with standard liquids to determine surface energy and its polar and dispersive components. Most of this characterization work was completed this quarter, with the remainder planned for next quarter. The present report gives only a brief overview of the new data. By the end of next quarter, a complete picture of the ozone surface mechanism should be at hand and a comprehensive discussion of this phase of the work will be presented in that report--the fourth period covering March 1, 2002 to August 31, 3002.

  20. An Alternative Mechanism for Producing Global Changes in the Carbon Isotopic Composition of Platform Derived Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swart, P. K.

    2007-12-01

    The stable carbon isotopic composition of the skeletons of carbonate organisms and sediments has been widely used not only in order to derive information upon the burial of organic material throughout the geological record, but also for correlative purposes. While the preferred type of material for analysis in sediments younger than ~ 200 Ma are microfossils derived from oceanic sediments, in older deposits one is forced to use the ?13C of bulk sediments deposited on and surrounding carbonate platforms. Such sediments are often problematic as a result of diagenesis and the fact that they are derived from a variety of different sources which have differing ?13C values. This can lead to the correlation of the ?13C in age equivalent strata prograding from a carbonate platform. A notable example of this is shown in the Bahamas which show good correlations between individual sequences, but little correlation to global carbon curves derived from planktonic and benthonic foraminifera. In order to assess whether similar phenomenon are present surrounding other carbonate edifices over the same time period, the ?13C was measured in Holocene to Miocene aged material from cores taken off the Maldives (Ocean Drilling Program Site 716), the Queensland Plateau (Site 817), the Great Barrier Reef (Sites 821 and 822), and the Great Australian Bight (Site 1126). All these sites showed similar patterns in the ?13C values of the bulk sediments compared to the Bahamas between the present day and the middle Miocene and no correlation with the global ?13C curve. It is suggested that the synchronous variations in the ?13C values in sediments of equivalent age are related to variations in sea level which flood the platform, allowing the production of carbonate sediments with positive ?13C values. These sediments become admixed into pelagic sediments producing an apparent global signal. These results have obvious implications on the use of ?13C records in carbonate derived sediments to interpret the paleocarbon cycle in that widespread changes in the ?13C cannot be used as evidence that variations are related to the burial and oxidation of organic material.

  1. The role of tropical deforestation in the global carbon cycle: Spatial and temporal dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houghton, R. A.; Skole, David; Moore, Berrien; Melillo, Jerry; Steudler, Paul

    1995-01-01

    'The Role of Tropical Deforestation in the Global Carbon cycle: Spatial and Temporal Dynamics', was a joint project involving the University of New Hampshire, the Marine Biological Laboratory, and the Woods Hole Research Center. The contribution of the Woods Hole Research Center consisted of three tasks: (1) assist University of New Hampshire in determining the net flux of carbon between the Brazilian Amazon and the atmosphere by means of a terrestrial carbon model; (2) address the spatial distribution of biomass across the Amazon Basin; and (3) assist NASA Headquarters in development of a science plan for the Terrestrial Ecology component of the NASA-Brazilian field campaign (anticipated for 1997-2001). Progress on these three tasks is briefly described.

  2. Low carbon technology performance vs infrastructure vulnerability: analysis through the local and global properties space.

    PubMed

    Dawson, David A; Purnell, Phil; Roelich, Katy; Busch, Jonathan; Steinberger, Julia K

    2014-11-01

    Renewable energy technologies, necessary for low-carbon infrastructure networks, are being adopted to help reduce fossil fuel dependence and meet carbon mitigation targets. The evolution of these technologies has progressed based on the enhancement of technology-specific performance criteria, without explicitly considering the wider system (global) impacts. This paper presents a methodology for simultaneously assessing local (technology) and global (infrastructure) performance, allowing key technological interventions to be evaluated with respect to their effect on the vulnerability of wider infrastructure systems. We use exposure of low carbon infrastructure to critical material supply disruption (criticality) to demonstrate the methodology. A series of local performance changes are analyzed; and by extension of this approach, a method for assessing the combined criticality of multiple materials for one specific technology is proposed. Via a case study of wind turbines at both the material (magnets) and technology (turbine generators) levels, we demonstrate that analysis of a given intervention at different levels can lead to differing conclusions regarding the effect on vulnerability. Infrastructure design decisions should take a systemic approach; without these multilevel considerations, strategic goals aimed to help meet low-carbon targets, that is, through long-term infrastructure transitions, could be significantly jeopardized. PMID:25296295

  3. Global Perturbation of the Carbon Cycle at the Onset of the Miocene Climatic Optimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbourn, A. E.; Kuhnt, W.; Kochhann, K. G. D.; Andersen, N.

    2014-12-01

    The processes driving high-amplitude climate variability and sustaining global warmth during the Miocene climatic optimum (~17-14.7 Ma) are highly enigmatic. We present high-resolution benthic and bulk carbonate isotope records in an exceptional sedimentary archive (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1337, eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean), which offer a new view of climate evolution over the onset of the climatic optimum. A sharp decline in benthic and bulk carbonate ?18O and ?13C at ~16.9 Ma, contemporaneous with a massive increase in carbonate dissolution, demonstrates that abrupt climate warming was coupled to an intense perturbation of the carbon cycle. We conclude that elevated atmospheric pCO2 acted as an amplifier of climate variability after 16.9 Ma, driving profound changes in the global carbon reservoir. Comparison with a high-resolution ?13C record spanning the onset of the Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a (~120 Ma ago) reveals common forcing factors and climatic responses during two unusually warm episodes of Earth's history with widely differing boundary conditions: the virtually ice-free Cretaceous "Super Greenhouse" and the Miocene "Icehouse" with dominant Southern Hemisphere ice cover. In both periods, rapid CO2 addition to the atmosphere induced abrupt climate warming and drove fundamental changes in the carbon cycle that were only mitigated over long timescales (>100 kyr). Despite obvious differences with the modern ocean/climate system, these results provide a useful perspective to evaluate future climate impacts in response to anthropogenic CO2 rise.

  4. The assessments of uncertainties in global vegetation and soil carbon projections in ISI-MIP study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishina, K.; Ito, A.; Beerling, D.; Cadule, P.; Ciais, P.; Clark, D. B.; Falloon, P.; Friend, A. D.; Kahana, R.; Kato, E.; Keribin, R. M.; Lucht, W.; Lomas, M. R.; Rademacher, T.; Pavlick, R.; Schaphoff, S.; Vuichard, N.; Warszawski, L.; Yokohata, T.

    2013-12-01

    Temperature and precipitation are critical factors in determining the feedback of terrestrial ecosystems to atmospheric CO2. However, the changes in temperature and precipitation in the future climate have large uncertainty both spatially and temporally even at the same radiative forcing levels. This difference in spatial and temporal patterns of climate change among model projections could affect the global C budget of terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we examined the global soil organic carbon (SOC) and vegetation carbon (VegC) stock dynamics estimated by 6 ecosystem models obtained from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Inter-comparison Project (ISI-MIP). Simulation results using 5 global climate models (GCMs) under forced 4 Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios (RCPs) were used. We aimed at exploring the uncertainties in the future carbon budget projected by current ecosystem models. To clarify which of the 3 components (emission scenarios, climate projections, and biome models) has the largest contribution to estimation uncertainty, we applied wavelet clustering to the time-series data of global C stock simulated under 4 RCP scenarios for all GCMs. This cluster analysis procedure enabled us to consider the variability and trend in the time-series domains and to cope with aperiodic components, noise, and transient dynamics. During the projection period (2000-2099), the estimated changes in the global VegC stock for all GCM projections ranged from -20 Pg-C to 200 Pg-C, and corresponding changes in the global SOC stock ranged from -195 Pg-C to 471 Pg-C. The clustering wavelet spectra of SOC time-series data revealed that the 70 simulations were classified into 5 major groups. We focused on these 5 clusters, which mostly of biome models rather than RCPs and GCMs. Considering results of each biome model, the RCPs appropriately differentiated the clusters between the lowest and highest emission scenario. By combining RCP scenarios, GCM climates, and biome models, we found that uncertainties in the global SOC and VegC projection caused by biome models were greater than those caused by driving scenarios, i.e., RCPs and GCMs. The uncertainties associated with the SOC projections are significantly high and it was estimated that global SOC would act as either CO2 sources and or sinks by 2099, depending on biome models used, even though these models reasonably captured similar historical VegC and SOC trends.

  5. Global transfer of terrestrial organic carbon to the Ocean: an erosional control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galy, V.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Eglinton, T. I.

    2012-12-01

    Riverine export of organic carbon (OC) to the ocean fundamentally affects the atmospheric C inventory over a wide range of timescales. Over geological timescales, the balance between biospheric OC sequestration and rock-derived (petrogenic) C oxidation sets the magnitude of atmospheric C sequestration. Over shorter timescales, variations of the rate of exchange between C reservoirs, such as soils and marine sediment, modulate atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. Heretofore, the respective fluxes of biospheric and petrogenic C have been poorly constrained and the mechanisms controlling OC export have remained elusive, impeding our ability to make quantitative predictions of OC fluxes under forcing scenarios. Here, we present petrogenic and biospheric OC flux estimates for a set of river systems representative of the natural variability in catchment properties. We show that the efficiency of both petrogenic and biospheric OC export is positively related to suspended sediment yield, revealing a global control of OC export by physical erosion. Using a global compilation of gauged suspended sediment flux, we propose new estimates of global biospheric and petrogenic OC fluxes of 165 and 55 Mt/yr, respectively, showing that petrogenic C accounts for ca. 25% of the global riverine transfer of OC to the ocean. Biospheric OC export is to the first order controlled by the capacity of rivers to mobilize and transport OC, and rather insensitive to primary production. We conclude that the primary drivers of terrestrial OC cycling are climate and tectonics over short and long timescales, respectively.

  6. Constraining the Extent and Intensity of Ocean De-oxygenation During Global Carbon Cycle Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgwell, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The extent and intensity of oxygen minimum zones have a first order relationship with the efficiency of nutrient and trace metal recycling in the oceans, global burial rates of organic carbon, and the availability of aerobe habitat. Reconstructing how the extent and intensity of oxygen depletion has varied with past changes in climate and global carbon cycle perturbation would enable something of the sensitivity of de-oxyenation (and its attendant impacts) to CO2 release to be quantified. However, even the extent of past de-oxygenation is notoriously difficult to constrain from the scattered and generally ocean margin and interior seaway dominated availability of observations. Spatially resolved global biogeochemical models can help, as by placing the distribution of records of any particular proxy into a global, mechanistic framework, one can make a more quantitative assessment of the observations. Moreover, multiple proxies with differing controls and sensitivities to redox state can be assessed simultaneously to help further constrain the interpretation. In this talk I will illustrate this (model-data) approach, taking examples from OAE2 and OAE1a, proxy records of seafloor anoxia and photic zone euxinia, and using the 'GENIE' Earth system model (http://mycgenie.seao2.org). I will also discuss what records and model-data approaches might be used to help better understand much subtler de-oxygenation events such as the PETM.

  7. Sensitivity Studies for Space-Based Global Measurements of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Jian-Ping; Kawa, S. Randolph; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is well known as the primary forcing agent of global warming. Although the climate forcing due to CO2 is well known, the sources and sinks of CO2 are not well understood. Currently the lack of global atmospheric CO2 observations limits our ability to diagnose the global carbon budget (e.g., finding the so-called "missing sink") and thus limits our ability to understand past climate change and predict future climate response. Space-based techniques are being developed to make high-resolution and high-precision global column CO2 measurements. One of the proposed techniques utilizes the passive remote sensing of Earth's reflected solar radiation at the weaker vibration-rotation band of CO2 in the near infrared (approx. 1.57 micron). We use a line-by-line radiative transfer model to explore the potential of this method. Results of sensitivity studies for CO2 concentration variation and geophysical conditions (i.e., atmospheric temperature, surface reflectivity, solar zenith angle, aerosol, and cirrus cloud) will be presented. We will also present sensitivity results for an O2 A-band (approx. 0.76 micron) sensor that will be needed along with CO2 to make surface pressure and cloud height measurements.

  8. Regional carbon dynamics in monsoon Asia and its implications for the global carbon cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanqin Tian; Jerry M. Melillosupcs; David W. Kicklighter; Shufen Pan; Jiyuan Liu; A. David McGuire; Berrien Moore III

    2003-01-01

    Data on three major determinants of the carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems are used with the process-based Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) to simulate the combined effect of climate variability, increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, and cropland establishment and abandonment on the exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and monsoon Asian ecosystems. During 1860–1990, modeled results suggest that monsoon Asia as a

  9. Globalization of Human Resource Management: A Cross-Cultural Perspective for the Public Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Pan Suk

    1999-01-01

    Presents a framework for a global perspective in the education of human-resource-management professionals that includes negotiation skills, cross-cultural training based on social-learningl theory, and a mix of instrumental and experiential learning. (SK)

  10. South Korea Manages Globalization: Strategies of Self-Definition and Cultural Preservation 

    E-print Network

    Stewart, Evan W

    2014-04-10

    The nation of South Korea transitioned from being one of the poorest countries worldwide to becoming the 15th largest economy. South Korea has attempted to manage globalization by actively developing and supporting cultural based entertainment...

  11. A Basic Strategy to Manage Global Health with Reference to Livestock Production in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Hall, David C.; Le, Quynh Ba

    2011-01-01

    Newly emerging infectious diseases (nEIDs) have increased rapidly presenting alarming challenges to global health. We argue that for effective management of global health a basic strategy should include at least three essential tactical forms: actions of a directly focused nature, institutional coordination, and disciplinary integration in approaches to health management. Each level of action is illustrated with examples from the livestock sector in Asia. No clear example of all three tactical forms in place can be found from developing countries where food security is a significant threat although Vietnam is developing a comprehensive strategy. Finally, an ecosystem health approach to global health management is advocated; such an approach moves away from the traditional single disciplinary approach. Stronger guidance is needed to direct ecohealth research and application in the management of global health. PMID:22135772

  12. South Korea Manages Globalization: Strategies of Self-Definition and Cultural Preservation

    E-print Network

    Stewart, Evan W

    2014-04-10

    The nation of South Korea transitioned from being one of the poorest countries worldwide to becoming the 15th largest economy. South Korea has attempted to manage globalization by actively developing and supporting cultural based entertainment...

  13. An examination of Boeing's supply chain management practices within the context of the global aerospace industry

    E-print Network

    Çizmeci, DaÄŸ lar

    2005-01-01

    This thesis examines the supply chain management practices of the Boeing Commercial Airplane Company within the context of the global aerospace industry. The methodology used for this study includes a study of emerging ...

  14. Management implications of global change for Great Plains rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Just as water and temperature drive the ecology of Great Plains rangelands, we predict that the impacts of global change on this region will be experienced largely through changes in these two important environmental variables. A third global change factor which will impact rangelands is increasing ...

  15. Global managers: developing a mindset for global competitiveness 1 1 A version of this paper was presented at the NIBS International Seminar, Rennes International School of Business, France in March, 1997

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben L Kedia; Ananda Mukherji

    1999-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that large scale globalization is rendering traditional ways of doing business largely irrelevant. There is a growing need for managers to become global managers with a global perspective. We suggest that a global perspective consists of a global mindset supported by appropriate skills and knowledge. Managers have a number of mindsets that range from the domestically-oriented

  16. Soil carbon management in large-scale Earth system modelling: implications for crop yields and nitrogen leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olin, S.; Lindeskog, M.; Pugh, T. A. M.; Schurgers, G.; Wårlind, D.; Mishurov, M.; Zaehle, S.; Stocker, B. D.; Smith, B.; Arneth, A.

    2015-06-01

    We explore cropland management alternatives and the effect these can have on future C and N pools and fluxes using the land use-enabled dynamic vegetation model LPJ-GUESS. Simulated crop production, cropland carbon storage, carbon sequestration and nitrogen leaching from croplands are evaluated and discussed. Compared to the version of LPJ-GUESS that does not include land use dynamics, estimates of soil carbon stocks and nitrogen leaching from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems were improved. We explore trade-offs between important ecosystem services that can be provided from agricultural fields such as crop yields, retention of nitrogen and carbon storage. These trade-offs are evaluated for current land use and climate and further explored for future conditions within the two future climate change scenarios, RCP 2.6 and 8.5. Our results show that the potential for carbon sequestration due to typical cropland management practices such as no-till and cover-crops proposed in literature is not realised, globally or over larger climatic regions. Our results highlight important considerations to be made when modelling C-N interactions in agricultural ecosystems under future environmental change, and the effects these have on terrestrial biogeochemical cycles.

  17. Global transport and inter-reservoir exchange of carbon dioxide with particular reference to stable isotopic distributions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. I. Pearman; P. Hyson

    1986-01-01

    A two-dimensional model of global atmospheric transport is used to relate estimated air-to-surface exchanges of carbon dioxide (CO2) to spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric CO2 concentrations and isotopic composition. The atmospheric model coupled with models of the biosphere and mixed layer of the ocean describes the gross features of the global carbon cycle. In particular this paper considers the

  18. The global integration of diversity management: a longitudinal case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aulikki Sippola; Adam Smale

    2007-01-01

    Whilst the extant diversity management literature has provided a comprehensive array of theoretical frameworks and empirical studies on how organizations can and have approached the management of a diverse workforce, the same cannot be said about the literature on diversity in an international setting. Indeed, from a diversity management perspective we know surprisingly little about how multinational firms are responding

  19. Graduate management of technology education: a global survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Nambisan; D. Wilemon

    1999-01-01

    Summary form only given. The Management of Technology (MOT) field has emerged from its relative obscurity of the 1970s and 1980s to the mainstream of business management. The rapid emergence of powerful and innovative technologies in the manufacturing, computing, and telecommunications areas have made the strategic management of technological assets a crucial task in organizations. Several universities now offer graduate

  20. A comparison of threats, vulnerabilities and management approaches in global seagrass bioregions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alana Grech

    2012-01-01

    Global seagrass habitats are threatened by multiple anthropogenic factors. Effective management of seagrasses requires information on the relative impacts of threats; however, this information is rarely available. Our goal was to use the knowledge of experts to assess the relative impacts of anthropogenic activities in six global seagrass bioregions. The activities that threaten seagrasses were identified at an international seagrass

  1. What is the optimal heather moorland management regime for carbon sequestration?

    E-print Network

    Guo, Zaoyang

    What is the optimal heather moorland management regime for carbon sequestration? Supervisors: Prof, the Muirburn Code has no evidence base with regard to carbon sequestration. Given the increased concern use moorland carbon sequestration to offset emissions, it is essential that the most appropriate land

  2. The Effect of Land Use and Its Management Practices on Plant Nutrient Availability and Carbon Sequestration

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    on soil degradation on both physical and chemical property of soil as well as on soil carbon sequestration availability and soil carbon sequestration in Bezawit Sub- Watershed, near Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. More The Effect of Land Use and Its Management Practices on Plant Nutrient Availability and Carbon

  3. Catalysis Research of Relevance to Carbon Management: Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hironori Arakawa; Michele Aresta; John Armor; Mark Barteau; Eric J. Beckman; Alexis T. Bell; John E. Bercaw; Carol Creutz; Eckhard Dinjus; David A. Dixon; Kazunari Domen; Daniel L. Dubois; Juergen Eckert; Etsuko Fujita; Dorothy H. Gibson; William A. Goddard; Wayne D. Goodman; Jay Keller; Gregory J. Kubas; Harold H. Kung; James E. Lyons; Leo Manzer; Tobin J. Marks; Keiji Morokuma; Kenneth M. Nicholas; Roy Periana; Lawrence Que; Jens Rostrup-Nielson; Woflgang M H. Sachtler; Lanny D. Schmidt; Ayusman Sen; Gabor A. Somorjai; Peter C. Stair; Bailey R. Stults; William Tumas

    2001-01-01

    The goal of the 'Opportunities for Catalysis Research in Carbon Management' workshop was to review within the context of greenhouse gas\\/carbon issues the current state of knowledge, barriers to further scientific and technological progress, and basic scientific research needs in the areas of H generation and utilization, light hydrocarbon activation and utilization, carbon dioxide activation, utilization, and sequestration, emerging techniques

  4. Nitrogen management and the future of food: Lessons from the management of energy and carbon

    PubMed Central

    Socolow, Robert H.

    1999-01-01

    The food system dominates anthropogenic disruption of the nitrogen cycle by generating excess fixed nitrogen. Excess fixed nitrogen, in various guises, augments the greenhouse effect, diminishes stratospheric ozone, promotes smog, contaminates drinking water, acidifies rain, eutrophies bays and estuaries, and stresses ecosystems. Yet, to date, regulatory efforts to limit these disruptions largely ignore the food system. There are many parallels between food and energy. Food is to nitrogen as energy is to carbon. Nitrogen fertilizer is analogous to fossil fuel. Organic agriculture and agricultural biotechnology play roles analogous to renewable energy and nuclear power in political discourse. Nutrition research resembles energy end-use analysis. Meat is the electricity of food. As the agriculture and food system evolves to contain its impacts on the nitrogen cycle, several lessons can be extracted from energy and carbon: (i) set the goal of ecosystem stabilization; (ii) search the entire production and consumption system (grain, livestock, food distribution, and diet) for opportunities to improve efficiency; (iii) implement cap-and-trade systems for fixed nitrogen; (iv) expand research at the intersection of agriculture and ecology, and (v) focus on the food choices of the prosperous. There are important nitrogen-carbon links. The global increase in fixed nitrogen may be fertilizing the Earth, transferring significant amounts of carbon from the atmosphere to the biosphere, and mitigating global warming. A modern biofuels industry someday may produce biofuels from crop residues or dedicated energy crops, reducing the rate of fossil fuel use, while losses of nitrogen and other nutrients are minimized. PMID:10339531

  5. The contribution of harvest residue to ecosystem carbon balance over the production cycle of managed forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Noormets; S. McNulty; J. Domec; M. J. Gavazzi; E. Treasure; G. Sun; J. S. King; J. Chen

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that forests could be managed for carbon sequestration to mitigate the increase in atmospheric CO2. However, intensive management tends to deplete ecosystem resources (e.g. nutrients and soil organic matter) that make high productivity possible, thus potentially undermining the sustainability of such practices. In forest ecosystems, we have seen soil carbon loss exceed new litter inputs. While

  6. Community forest management in Mexico: carbon mitigation and biodiversity conservation through rural development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Klooster; Omar Masera

    2000-01-01

    Forest management is an important carbon mitigation strategy for developing countries. As demonstrated by the case of Mexico, community forest management is especially effective because it offers tangible local benefits while conserving forests and sequestering carbon. Community forestry receives minimal government support now, but the clean development mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol could leverage additional resources to promote the

  7. Latitudinal Variation in Carbon Storage Can Help Predict Changes in Swamps Affected by Global Warming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.; McKee, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Plants may offer our best hope of removing greenhouse gases (gases that contribute to global warming) emitted to the atmosphere from the burning of fossil fuels. At the same time, global warming could change environments so that natural plant communities will either need to shift into cooler climate zones, or become extirpated (Prasad and Iverson, 1999; Crumpacker and others, 2001; Davis and Shaw, 2001). It is impossible to know the future, but studies combining field observation of production and modeling can help us make predictions about what may happen to these wetland communities in the future. Widespread wetland types such as baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) swamps in the southeastern portion of the United States could be especially good at carbon sequestration (amount of CO2 stored by forests) from the atmosphere. They have high levels of production and sometimes store undecomposed dead plant material in wet conditions with low oxygen, thus keeping gases stored that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere (fig. 1). To study the ability of baldcypress swamps to store carbon, our project has taken two approaches. The first analysis looked at published data to develop an idea (hypothesis) of how production levels change across a temperature gradient in the baldcypress region (published data study). The second study tested this idea by comparing production levels across a latitudinal range by using swamps in similar field conditions (ongoing carbon storage study). These studies will help us make predictions about the future ability of baldcypress swamps to store carbon in soil and plant biomass, as well as the ability of these forests to shift northward with global warming.

  8. Estimating Changes in Carbon Stocks and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Sustainable Land Management Projects: Component A of the Carbon Benefits Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Eleanor; Paustian, Keith; Easter, Mark; Batjes, Nico; Cerri, Carlos Ep; Kamoni, P.; Gicheru, P.; Oladipo, Eo; Alvaro Fuentes, Jorge; Stocking, M.

    2010-05-01

    Given the fact that human activities currently emit greenhouse gases (GHG) equivalent to over 50 billion tonnes of CO2 yr-1 and that approximately 30% come from land use and land use change, natural resource management (NRM) and sustainable land management (SLM) activities could have a large role to play in climate change mitigation. The types of land management activities covered by such projects vary widely and these activities have different C and GHG impacts. The Carbon Benefits Project (CBP) is working to produce a standardized system for Global Environmental Facility (GEF) and other sustainable land management (SLM) projects to measure, monitor and model carbon stock changes and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These projects vary in size from tens of thousands to tens of kilometres squared. One of the challenges is, therefore, to produce a system that can be applied at a range of different scales including the plot, the watershed and the sub-regional scale. The CBP project builds on existing C-inventory tools, of different methodological complexity, developed over the past 15 years at Colorado State University. The CBP will produce a modular, web-based system which allows the user to collate, store, analyze, project and report net C stock changes and GHG emissions for baseline and project scenarios in SLM interventions. Existing SLM projects in Brazil, China, Kenya and the transboundary area between Niger and Nigeria are being used as test cases.

  9. Sensitivity of global-scale climate change attribution results to inclusion of fossil fuel black carbon aerosol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gareth S. Jones; Andy Jones; David L. Roberts; Peter A. Stott; Keith D. Williams

    2005-01-01

    It is likely that greenhouse gas emissions caused most of the global mean warming observed during the 20th century, and that sulphate aerosols counteracted this warming to some extent, by reflecting solar radiation to space and thereby cooling the planet. However, the importance of another aerosol, namely black carbon, could be underestimated. Here we include fossil fuel black carbon aerosol

  10. An approach to estimate global biomass burning emissions of organic and black carbon from MODIS fire radiative power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Vermote; Evan Ellicott; Oleg Dubovik; Tatyana Lapyonok; Mian Chin; Louis Giglio; Gareth J. Roberts

    2009-01-01

    Biomass burning is the main global source of fine primary carbonaceous aerosols in the form of organic carbon (OC) and black carbon (BC). We present an approach to estimate biomass burning aerosol emissions based on the measurement of radiative energy released during combustion. We make use of both Aqua and Terra MODIS observations to estimate the fire radiative energy using

  11. Global pattern of temperature sensitivity of soil heterotrophic respiration (Q10) and its implications for carbon-climate feedback

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Zhou; Peijun Shi; Dafeng Hui; Yiqi Luo

    2009-01-01

    Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (Q10) is an important parameter in modeling effects of global warming on ecosystem carbon release. Experimental studies of soil respiration have ubiquitously indicated that Q10 has high spatial heterogeneity. However, most biogeochemical models still use a globally constant Q10 in projecting future climate change, partly because no spatial pattern of Q10 values has been derived.

  12. Influence of the human perturbation on carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen biogeochemical cycles in the global coastal ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Rabouille; Fred T. Mackenzie; Leah May Ver

    2001-01-01

    The responses to human perturbations of the biogeochemical cycles of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and oxygen (O) in the global coastal ocean were evaluated using a process-based model. In this model, the global coastal ocean is represented by two distinct zones: the proximal zone which includes large bays, the open water part of estuaries, deltas, inland seas, and salt marshes;

  13. Perspectives on Global Supply Chain Supply-Side Risk Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Foroughi; M. Albin; M. Kocakulah

    2006-01-01

    Recent geo-political events, such as terrorism and political instability, and geological and climatologic disasters, have underscored the potential risks to global supply chains and their catastrophic financial impact on global companies. Disruptions can occur anywhere along the supply chain-at the inbound or supplier side, during the internal processes inside the company's facilities, or at the outbound or customer-facing side. This

  14. An inventory-based approach for estimating the managed China's forest biomass carbon stock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, M.; Yu, G.; Yue, X.; Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    China's forests cover a large area and have the characteristics of young age thus have the potential for a major role in mitigate the rate of global climate change. On the basis of forest inventory data and spatial distribution of forest stand age and forest type, we developed an approach for estimating yearly China's forest biomass carbon stocks change. Using this approach, we estimated the changes of forest carbon stock due to management practice and forest age structure change, respectively, and predicted China's future carbon potential based on national forest expansion plan. We also discussed sustainable harvesting intensity for the expanded forest of 2020. The spatial pattern of forest biomass carbon density in 2001 showed high in southwestern and northeastern areas, and low in the other regions, meanwhile the high C sinks appeared in the southwestern and northeastern young-aged forests and low in the southwestern and northeastern old-aged forests. The total forest biomass C stock of China increased from 6.06 Pg C in 2001 to 7.88 Pg C in 2013, giving a total increase of 1.82 Pg C, in which 0.45 Pg C is caused by forest expansion. The average C sink during 2002-2013 was 151.83 Tg C, in which 75.5% is the results of forest growth and 24.5% is caused by forest expansion. With the assumption of China's forest area will expand by 40 million hectares from 2006 to 2020, the forest C stock in 2020 is predicted as 9.04 Pg C. Harvesting intensity experiments conducted on the expanded forest of 2020 shown higher harvesting level will lead to decline in forest biomass in long term. The harvesting level of 2% is an optimal harvesting intensity for sustainable development of China's forest resources.

  15. a Radiocarbon Database for Improved Understanding of Global Soil Carbon Dynamics: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumbore, S.; Torn, M. S.; Sierra, C. A.; Smith, L. J.; Nave, L. E.; Workshop Paritipants, R.

    2011-12-01

    We report results of a workshop to initiate a global database of radiocarbon measurements in soil and other ecosystem compartments. Radiocarbon provides critical information for understanding the rate of exchange of soil carbon with the atmosphere and hydrosphere. For example, radiocarbon has been used to demonstrate the importance of short range order minerals in stabilizing organic carbon on millennial timescales in some soils. On decadal to centennial timescales, the infiltration of 'bomb' radiocarbon provides a measure of the amount and nature of soil carbon that responds on the timescale of most human impacts. The radiocarbon sigature of chemically or physically fractionated soil, or even in specific organic compounds, can yield clues as to controls on organic matter cycling on a range of timescales. Radiocarbon in microbial biomass or respiration can be a sensitive indicator of shifts in substrate use with vegetation, nutrient availability or temperature change. Taken toghether, such measurements can provide critical tests for models of soil carbon dynamics, while patterns in soil C dynamics with edaphic factors can be used to help parameterize models at spatial scales ranging from profile to landscape to global. The advent and proliferation of accelerator mass spectrometry since the early 1990s has vastly increased the number of radiocarbon analyses carried out in soils. However, these studies have usually been carried out by individual investigators within specific sites or regions, and to date the results have not been assembled, interpreted or compared at larger spatial scales. Given the expense of radiocarbon measurements, and the need for global synthesis products to evaluate and/or develop models of soil carbon response to climate and land use changes across a range of spatial scales, our goals are to: (1) bring together in one place existing radiocarbon measurements and provide a continuing common repository for new analyses; (2) supply ancillary information and simple modeling frameworks for interpreting radiocarbon data in consistent ways; and (3) provide synthesis products to help understand the dynamic nature of soil C under global change. Examples of early synthesis products will target questions like: Are there predictable relationships between the age of organic matter with depth across a range of soil types? How do human activities modify the dynamics of C in soils, and does that response vary with soil type? How important is soil mineralogy as a control of C cycling over a range of timescales? This presentation will focus on the how synthesis might begin to answer these questions in ways that provide critical tests for models and increase our understanding of C cycling in soils in an era of acellerating climate and land use change.

  16. Alternative spatial resolutions and estimation of carbon flux over a managed forest landscape in Western Oregon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David P. Turner; Warren B. Cohen; Robert E. Kennedy

    2000-01-01

    Spatially-distributed estimates of biologically-driven CO2 flux are of interest in relation to understanding the global carbon cycle. Global coverage by satellite sensors offers an opportunity to assess terrestrial carbon (C) flux using a variety of approaches and corresponding spatial resolutions. An important consideration in evaluating the approaches concerns the scale of the spatial heterogeneity in land cover over the domain

  17. Global Approach for Technical Data Management Application to Ship Equipment Part Families

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Global Approach for Technical Data Management Application to Ship Equipment Part Families J. Le approach that enables technical data to be managed and used throughout the product life a company environment that designs and produces families of ship equipment parts. This case study

  18. Standards Panel: 1. Stephen Diamond, General Manager, Industry Standards Office and Global Standards Officer, EMC

    E-print Network

    Corporation, and Global Standards Officer in the Office of the CTO. Before EMC, he was responsible for cloud Standards Officer, EMC Corporation, Office of the CTO Steve Diamond has 30 years of management, marketing was President of the IEEE Computer Society. Steve is General Manager of the Industry Standards Office at EMC

  19. Interviewing Key Informants: Strategic Planning for a Global Public Health Management Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kun, Karen E.; Kassim, Anisa; Howze, Elizabeth; MacDonald, Goldie

    2013-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Sustainable Management Development Program (SMDP) partners with low- and middle-resource countries to develop management capacity so that effective global public health programs can be implemented and better health outcomes can be achieved. The program's impact however, was variable. Hence, there…

  20. Entrepreneurial leadership, human capital management, and global competitiveness : An empirical study of Taiwanese MNCs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ya-Hui Ling; Bih-Shiaw Jaw

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationships among top management teams' (TMS) entrepreneurial leadership, international human capital management (IHCM), and global competitiveness. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Given the exploratory nature of this research, the authors adopted a purposive sampling process and targeted companies headquartered in Taiwan but with foreign subsidiaries. In addition to in-depth interview, a questionnaires

  1. MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING IN THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT Instructor: Scott B. Jackson, Ph.D., CPA

    E-print Network

    Almor, Amit

    information for decision-making, and (iii) management control systems. In addition, students are expected exam 40% Cases 15% Articles quizzes and discussions 15% Letter grades will be determined from yourDMSB 717 MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING IN THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT FALL 2007 Instructor: Scott B. Jackson, Ph

  2. The importance of human resources management in health care: a global context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefane M. Kabene; Carole Orchard; John M. Howard; Mark A. Soriano; Raymond Leduc

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper addresses the health care system from a global perspective and the importance of human resources management (HRM) in improving overall patient health outcomes and delivery of health care services. METHODS: We explored the published literature and collected data through secondary sources. RESULTS: Various key success factors emerge that clearly affect health care practices and human resources management.

  3. The mid-Cretaceous super plume, carbon dioxide, and global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Caldeira, K. (New York Univ., New York (United States)); Rampino, M.R. (New York Univ., New York (United States) NASA Goddard Inst. for Space Studies, New York, NY (United States))

    1991-06-01

    Carbon-dioxide releases associated with a mid-Cretaceous super plume and the emplacement of the Ontong-Java Plateau have been suggested as a principal cause of the mid-Cretaceous global warming. The authors developed a carbonate-silicate cycle model to quantify the possible climatic effects of these CO{sub 2} releases, utilizing four different formulations for the rate of silicate-rock weathering as a function of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. They find that CO{sub 2} emissions resulting from super-plume tectonics could have produced atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels from 3.7 to 14.7 times the modern pre-industrial value of 285 ppm. Based on the temperature sensitivity to CO{sub 2} increases used in the weathering-rate formulations, this would cause a global warming of from 2.8 to 7.7C over today's global mean temperature. Altered continental positions and higher sea level may have been contributed about 4.8C to mid-Cretaceous warming. Thus, the combined effects of paleogeographic changes and super-plume related CO{sub 2} emissions could be in the range of 7.6 to 12.5C, within the 6 to 14C range previously estimated for mid-Cretaceous warming. CO{sub 2} releases from oceanic plateaus alone are unlikely to have been directly responsible for more than 20% of the mid-Cretaceous increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2}.

  4. Molecular investigations into a globally important carbon pool: permafrost-protected carbon in Alaskan soils

    SciTech Connect

    Waldrop, Mark P.; Wickland, Kimberly P.; White III, R.; Berhe, Asmeret A.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.

    2010-09-01

    The fate of carbon (C) contained within permafrost in boreal forest environments is an important consideration for the current and future carbon cycle as soils warm in northern latitudes. Currently, little is known about the microbiology or chemistry of permafrost soils that may affect its decomposition once soils thaw. We tested the hypothesis that low microbial abundances and activities in permafrost soils limit decomposition rates compared with active layer soils. We examined active layer and permafrost soils near Fairbanks, AK, the Yukon River, and the Arctic Circle. Soils were incubated in the lab under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Gas fluxes at -5 and 5ºC were measured to calculate temperature response quotients (Q??). The Q?? was lower in permafrost soils (average 2.7) compared with active layer soils (average 7.5). Soil nutrients, leachable dissolved organic C (DOC) quality and quantity, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the soils revealed that the organic matter within permafrost soils is as labile, or even more so, than surface soils. Microbial abundances (fungi, bacteria, and subgroups: methanogens and Basidiomycetes) and exoenzyme activities involved in decomposition were lower in permafrost soils compared with active layer soils, which, together with the chemical data, supports the reduced Q?? values. CH? fluxes were correlated with methanogen abundance and the highest CH? production came from active layer soils. These results suggest that permafrost soils have high inherent decomposability, but low microbial abundances and activities reduce the temperature sensitivity of C fluxes. Despite these inherent limitations, however, respiration per unit soil C was higher in permafrost soils compared with active layer soils, suggesting that decomposition and heterotrophic respiration may contribute to a positive feedback to warming of this eco region.

  5. Molecular investigations into a globally important carbon pool: Permafrost-protected carbon in Alaskan soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldrop, M.P.; Wickland, K.P.; White, R.; Berhe, A.A.; Harden, J.W.; Romanovsky, V.E.

    2010-01-01

    The fate of carbon (C) contained within permafrost in boreal forest environments is an important consideration for the current and future carbon cycle as soils warm in northern latitudes. Currently, little is known about the microbiology or chemistry of permafrost soils that may affect its decomposition once soils thaw. We tested the hypothesis that low microbial abundances and activities in permafrost soils limit decomposition rates compared with active layer soils. We examined active layer and permafrost soils near Fairbanks, AK, the Yukon River, and the Arctic Circle. Soils were incubated in the lab under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Gas fluxes at -5 and 5 ??C were measured to calculate temperature response quotients (Q10). The Q10 was lower in permafrost soils (average 2.7) compared with active layer soils (average 7.5). Soil nutrients, leachable dissolved organic C (DOC) quality and quantity, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the soils revealed that the organic matter within permafrost soils is as labile, or even more so, than surface soils. Microbial abundances (fungi, bacteria, and subgroups: methanogens and Basidiomycetes) and exoenzyme activities involved in decomposition were lower in permafrost soils compared with active layer soils, which, together with the chemical data, supports the reduced Q10 values. CH4 fluxes were correlated with methanogen abundance and the highest CH4 production came from active layer soils. These results suggest that permafrost soils have high inherent decomposability, but low microbial abundances and activities reduce the temperature sensitivity of C fluxes. Despite these inherent limitations, however, respiration per unit soil C was higher in permafrost soils compared with active layer soils, suggesting that decomposition and heterotrophic respiration may contribute to a positive feedback to warming of this eco region. Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Modelling soil organic carbon stocks in global change scenarios: a CarboSOIL application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Rojas, M.; Jordán, A.; Zavala, L. M.; González-Peñaloza, F. A.; De la Rosa, D.; Pino-Mejias, R.; Anaya-Romero, M.

    2013-12-01

    Global climate change, as a consequence of the increasing levels of atmospheric CO2 concentration, may significantly affect both soil organic C storage and soil capacity for C sequestration. CarboSOIL is an empirical model based on regression techniques and developed as a geographical information system tool to predict soil organic carbon (SOC) contents at different depths. This model is a new component of the agro-ecological decision support system for land evaluation MicroLEIS, which assists decision-makers in facing specific agro-ecological problems, particularly in Mediterranean regions. In this study, the CarboSOIL model was used to study the effects of climate change on SOC dynamics in a Mediterranean region (Andalusia, S Spain). Different downscaled climate models were applied based on BCCR-BCM2, CNRMCM3, and ECHAM5 and driven by SRES scenarios (A1B, A2 and B2). Output data were linked to spatial data sets (soil and land use) to quantify SOC stocks. The CarboSOIL model has proved its ability to predict the short-, medium- and long-term trends (2040s, 2070s and 2100s) of SOC dynamics and sequestration under projected future scenarios of climate change. Results have shown an overall trend towards decreasing of SOC stocks in the upper soil sections (0-25 cm and 25-50 cm) for most soil types and land uses, but predicted SOC stocks tend to increase in the deeper soil section (0-75 cm). Soil types as Arenosols, Planosols and Solonchaks and land uses as "permanent crops" and "open spaces with little or no vegetation" would be severely affected by climate change with large decreases of SOC stocks, in particular under the medium-high emission scenario A2 by 2100. The information developed in this study might support decision-making in land management and climate adaptation strategies in Mediterranean regions, and the methodology could be applied to other Mediterranean areas with available soil, land use and climate data.

  7. Management Trainee Program of Turkish Airlines: Global Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karasar, Sahin; Öztürk, Ömer Faruk

    2014-01-01

    It has always been a contested task to try to present a scientific base for the concept of "management." The concept of management, which has always been of great importance to the institutions and organizations, has gone through periodical changes both in terms of its structure and scope, and improved in a parallel fashion as the time…

  8. Architectural Knowledge Management in Global Software Development: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nour Ali; Sarah Beecham; I. Mistrik

    2010-01-01

    Architectural Knowledge Management (AKM) aims to coordinate the knowledge produced and used during architecting a software system. Managing architectural knowledge effectively is a task that becomes even more critical and complex when operating in a distributed environment. Thus, software architectural practices, processes, and tools that work in collocated software development don't necessarily scale up in a distributed environment. In this

  9. Managing Political Risk in Global Business: Beiersdorf 1914-1990

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GEOFFREY JONES; CHRISTINA LUBINSKI

    This article is concerned with business strategies of political risk management during the twentieth century. It focuses especially on Beiersdorf, a pharmaceutical and skin care company in Germany. During World War I, the expropriation of its brands and trademarks revealed its vulnerability to political risk. Following the advent of the Nazi regime in 1933, the largely Jewish owned and managed

  10. Developing and applying uncertain global climate change projections for regional water management planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David G. Groves; David Yates; Claudia Tebaldi

    2008-01-01

    Climate change may impact water resources management conditions in difficult-to-predict ways. A key challenge for water managers is how to incorporate highly uncertain information about potential climate change from global models into local- and regional-scale water management models and tools to support local planning. This paper presents a new method for developing large ensembles of local daily weather that reflect

  11. Transitions towards adaptive management of water facing climate and global change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Pahl-Wostl

    2007-01-01

    Water management is facing major challenges due to increasing uncertainties caused by climate and global change and by fast\\u000a changing socio-economic boundary conditions. More attention has to be devoted to understanding and managing the transition\\u000a from current management regimes to more adaptive regimes that take into account environmental, technological, economic, institutional\\u000a and cultural characteristics of river basins. This implies a

  12. Current state and prospects of carbon management in high latitudes of Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Shvidenko, Anatoly

    2010-05-01

    The current state and trajectories of future development of natural landscapes in high latitudes of Northern Eurasia are defined inter alia by (1) current unsatisfactory social and economic situation in boreal Northern Eurasia; (2) the dramatic magnitude of on-going and expected climatic change (warming up to 10-12oC under global warming at 4oC); (3) increasing anthropogenic pressure, particularly in regions of intensive oil and gas exploration and extraction; (4) large areas of sparsely populated and practically unmanaged land; (5) vulnerability of northern ecosystems which historically developed under cold climates and buffering capacity of which is not well known; (6) risk of catastrophic natural disturbances (fire, insect outbreaks) whose frequency and severity have accelerated during recent decades; and (7) high probability of irreversible changes of vegetation cover. These specifics are overlapped with insufficient governance of natural renewable resources (e.g., forests) and destructed practice of industrial development of new territories (oil and gas extraction and exploration, metallurgy etc.). Based on a full carbon account for terrestrial vegetation ecosystems of Northern Eurasia, we analyze the relative impacts of major drivers on magnitude and uncertainty of the Net Ecosystem Carbon Balance (NECB) under current and expected climate and environment. Dynamic trends and interannual variability of NECB are mostly dependent on weather conditions during growth seasons of individual years, regimes of natural disturbances, and anthropogenic impacts on ecosystems. In a short term, disturbances and human impacts cause a theoretically 'manageable' part of the full carbon account, which on average is estimated to be of about 20% of annual net primary production. In a long term, thawing of permafrost and change of hydrological regimes of vast territories may result in a catastrophic decline of the forested area and wide distribution of 'green desertification'. The paradigm of sustainable forest management (SFM) is a cornerstone of integrated landscape management in boreal regions and a basic prerequisite of proper management of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Basic drivers which generate major threats for terrestrial ecosystems and particularly for forests are increasing aridity of climate over major part of Asian Russia (the trend already clearly observed during the last 50 years), intra-seasonal variability of weather and irreversible changes of the hydrological regime. Development of an efficient system of forest protection is a crucial prerequisite. Current fire protection requires principal improvement of all its components (monitoring; technical and financial capacity; education of population; etc). Preparation of boreal landscape structure against the increasing threat of catastrophic fire is an urgent today's problem. However, transition to SFM is hindered by economic stagnation of vast territories (outside of areas of intensively exploited natural resources) and unsatisfactory demographic processes. Introduction of ecologically friendly methods of industrial development and integrated land management on a landscape basis is one of the very few ways to introduce proper carbon management in the region. A number of socio-economic and land use - land cover scenarios for such development indicate the existence of possible methods to do so if appropriate national policies will be developed and implemented.

  13. Soil tillage conservation and its effect on erosion control, water management and carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, Dr.; Gus, Dr.; Bogdan, Dr.; Moraru, Dr.; Pop, Dr.; Clapa, Dr.; Pop, Drd.

    2009-04-01

    The energetic function of the soil expressed through the potential energy accumulated through humus, the biogeochemical function (the circuit of the nutrient elements) are significantly influenced by its hydrophysical function and especially by the state of the bedding- consolidation, soil capacity of retaining an optimal quantity of water, and then its gradual disponibility for plant consumption. The understanding of soil functions and management including nutrient production, stocking, filtering and transforming minerals, water , organic matter , gas circuit and furnishing breeding material, all make the basis of human activity, Earth's past, present and especially future. The minimum tillage soil systems - paraplow, chisel or rotary grape - are polyvalent alternatives for basic preparation, germination bed preparation and sowing, for fields and crops with moderate loose requirements being optimized technologies for: soil natural fertility activation and rationalization, reduction of erosion, increasing the accumulation capacity for water and realization of sowing in the optimal period. By continuously applying for 10 years the minimum tillage system in a crop rotation: corn - soy-bean - wheat - potato / rape, an improvement in physical, hydro-physical and biological properties of soil was observed, together with the rebuilt of structure and increase of water permeability of soil. The minimum tillage systems ensure an adequate aerial-hydrical regime for the biological activity intensity and for the nutrients solubility equilibrium. The vegetal material remaining at the soil surface or superficially incorporated has its contribution to intensifying the biological activity, being an important resource of organic matter. The minimum tillage systems rebuild the soil structure, improving the global drainage of soil which allows a rapid infiltration of water in soil. The result is a more productive soil, better protected against wind and water erosion and needing less fuel for preparing the germination bed. Presently it is necessary a change concerning the concept of conservation practices and a new approach regarding the control of erosion. The real conservation of soil must be expanded beyond the traditional understanding of soil erosion. The real soil conservation is represented by carbon management. We need to focus to another level concerning conservation by focusing on of soil quality. Carbon management is necessary for a complex of matters including soil, water management, field productivity, biological fuel and climatic change. Profound research is necessary in order to establish the carbon sequestration practices and their implementation impact.

  14. Quantifying the effects of CO2-fertilized vegetation on future global climate and carbon dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, S L; Govindasamy, B; Mirin, A; Caldeira, K; Delire, C; Milovich, J; Wickett, M; Erickson, D

    2004-10-13

    Climate and the global carbon cycle are a tightly coupled system where changes in climate affect exchange of atmospheric CO{sup 2} with the land biosphere and the ocean, and vice-versa. In particular, the response of the land biosphere to the ongoing increase in atmospheric CO{sup 2} is not well understood. To evaluate the approximate upper and lower limits of land carbon uptake, we perform simulations using a comprehensive climate-carbon model. In one case the land biosphere is vigorously fertilized by added CO{sup 2} and sequesters carbon throughout the 21st century. In a second case, CO{sup 2} fertilization saturates in year 2000; here the land becomes an additional source of CO{sup 2} by 2050. The predicted atmospheric CO{sup 2} concentration at year 2100 differs by 40% between the two cases. We show that current uncertainties preclude determination of whether the land biosphere will amplify or damp atmospheric CO{sup 2} increases by the end of the century.

  15. Numerical evaluation of mechanisms driving Early Jurassic changes in global carbon cycling

    SciTech Connect

    Beerling, D.J.; Brentnall, S.J. [University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-15

    The Early Jurassic (early Toarcian, ca. 183 Ma) carbon cycle perturbation is characterized by aabout -5 parts per thousand {delta} {sup 13}C excursion in the exogenic carbon reservoirs, a 1000 ppm rise in atmospheric CO{sub 2}, and a 6-7 degrees warming. Two proposed explanations for this presumed global carbon cycle perturbation are the liberation of massive amounts of isotopically light CH4 from (1) Gondwanan coals by heating during the intrusive eruption of the Karoo-Ferrar large igneous province (LIP) or (2) the thermal dissociation of gas hydrates. Carbon cycle modeling indicates that the release of CH4 from Gondwanan coals synchronous with the eruption of the Karoo-Ferrar LIP fails to reproduce the magnitude or timing of the CO{sub 2} and {delta} {sup 13}C excursions. However, sensitivity analyses constrained by a marine cyclostratigraphically dated {delta}{sup 13}C record indicate that both features of geologic record can be explained with the huge input of about 15,340-24,750 Gt C over about 220 k.y., a result possibly pointing to the involvement of hydrothermal vent complexes in the Karoo Basin. The simulated release of > 6000 Gt C from gas hydrates also reproduces aspects of the early Toarcian rock record, but the large mass involved raises fundamental questions about its formation, storage, and release.

  16. Grazing in Arctic peatlands—an unknown agent in the global carbon budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Sari; Ylänne, Henni

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have offered strong evidence that grazers alter the vegetation composition and ecosystem carbon (C) balance in ecosystems. In Arctic peatlands, however, the role of grazing has remained largely uninvestigated. Falk et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 045001) showed that grazing by muskoxen in a high Arctic mire significantly affected both the vegetation and release of greenhouse gases. This finding highlights the potential of grazers to alter ecosystem processes in Arctic peatlands and, thus, to act as a major player in the global C budget.

  17. Predicting Seasonal Cycles of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide from Global Temperature Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangborn, W. V.

    2009-12-01

    Seasonal fluctuations in the concentration of atmospheric CO2 are produced by the growth and decay of vegetation in the biosphere, which is controlled by global temperature variations. A major change in the atmosphere-biosphere link, which occurred during the 1977-78 climate shift, is manifested by greater sensitivity of the daily change in CO2 to global temperature variations. The underlying cause for the change is thought to be higher sea-surface temperatures, which reduced the effectiveness of the oceans as a carbon sink, resulting in a critical change in the interaction between temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide. To examine the interaction, maximum and minimum daily temperature anomalies compiled by the Hadley Climate Center at 3000 global weather stations for 1950-2008, are used to predict daily changes in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide observations. Daily changes in atmospheric CO2 are derived from the monthly record of observations collected at Mauna Loa, Hawaii since 1958. During the past 50 years there has been a significant change in the influence of maximum and minimum temperature anomalies on the daily change in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Prior to the 1976-77 climate-shift, the correlation between daily changes in atmospheric CO2 and the temperature range for a single year are mostly positive (above normal temperatures tend to cause the daily change in atmospheric CO2 to be positive), while after 1978 correlations are strongly negative (above normal temperatures cause CO2 changes to become more negative). Figure 1 shows the dependency of the probable error on the correlation when determining the daily change in CO2 from temperature. Each point represents one year of regressing daily values. Generally, correlations are positive before the climate shift and negative after the shift. The exceptions are the eruptions of El Chichon in 1982 and Mt Pinatubo in 1991, which greatly weakened the CO2-temperature link for 4-5 years following each eruption by reducing both the growth and decay rates of vegetation. Observed versus simulated seasonal cycles of CO2 (the Keeling Curve) based on global temperature observations produce R2 as high as 0.90 for some years after 1978. Figure 1. Relationship of probable error and correlation when regressing daily change in atmospheric CO2 and temperature anomlies..

  18. Global warming preceded by increasing carbon dioxide concentrations during the last deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Shakun, Jeremy D; Clark, Peter U; He, Feng; Marcott, Shaun A; Mix, Alan C; Liu, Zhengyu; Otto-Bliesner, Bette; Schmittner, Andreas; Bard, Edouard

    2012-04-01

    The covariation of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) concentration and temperature in Antarctic ice-core records suggests a close link between CO(2) and climate during the Pleistocene ice ages. The role and relative importance of CO(2) in producing these climate changes remains unclear, however, in part because the ice-core deuterium record reflects local rather than global temperature. Here we construct a record of global surface temperature from 80 proxy records and show that temperature is correlated with and generally lags CO(2) during the last (that is, the most recent) deglaciation. Differences between the respective temperature changes of the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere parallel variations in the strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation recorded in marine sediments. These observations, together with transient global climate model simulations, support the conclusion that an antiphased hemispheric temperature response to ocean circulation changes superimposed on globally in-phase warming driven by increasing CO(2) concentrations is an explanation for much of the temperature change at the end of the most recent ice age. PMID:22481357

  19. Assessment of Provisional MODIS-derived Surfaces Related to the Global Carbon Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, W. B.; Maiersperger, T. K.; Turner, D. P.; Gower, S. T.; Kennedy, R. E.; Running, S. W.

    2002-12-01

    The global carbon cycle is one of the most important foci of an emerging global biosphere monitoring system. A key component of such a system is the MODIS sensor, onboard the Terra satellite platform. Biosphere monitoring requires an integrated program of satellite observations, Earth-system models, and in situ data. Related to the carbon cycle, MODIS science teams routinely develop a variety of global surfaces such as land cover, leaf area index, and net primary production using MODIS data and functional algorithms. The quality of these surfaces must be evaluated to determine their effectiveness for global biosphere monitoring. A project called BigFoot (http://www.fsl.orst.edu/larse/bigfoot/) is an organized effort across nine biomes to assess the quality of the abovementioned surfaces: (1) Arctic tundra; (2) boreal evergreen needle-leaved forest; temperate (3) cropland, (4) grassland, (5) evergreen needle-leaved forest, and (6) deciduous broad-leaved forest; desert (7) grassland and (8) shrubland; and (9) tropical evergreen broad-leaved forest. Each biome is represented by a site that has an eddy-covariance flux tower that measures water vapor and CO2 fluxes. Flux tower footprints are relatively small-approximately 1 km2. BigFoot characterizes 25 km2 around each tower, using field data, Landsat ETM+ image data, and ecosystem process models. Our innovative field sampling design incorporates a nested spatial series to facilitate geostatistical analyses, samples the ecological variability at a site, and is logistically efficient. Field data are used both to develop site-specific algorithms for mapping/modeling the variables of interest and to characterize the errors in derived BigFoot surfaces. Direct comparisons of BigFoot- and MODIS-derived surfaces are made to help understand the sources of error in MODIS-derived surfaces and to facilitate improvements to MODIS algorithms. Results from four BigFoot sites will be presented.

  20. Global Mobility Management by Replicated Databases in Personal Communication Networks*

    E-print Network

    Leung, Kin K.

    [GPM92] has been established as an industry standard in the Global System for Mobile Telecommunication with industry protocol standards - and compare them with the traditional, centralized database scheme telecommunication services, such as Personal Communication and Software Defined Network (SDN) services, today