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1

An introduction to global carbon-cycle management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Past and current human activities have fundamentally altered the global carbon cycle. Potential future efforts to control atmospheric CO2 will also involve significant changes in the global carbon cycle. Carbon cycle scientists and engineers now face not only the difficulties of recording and understanding past and present changes but also the challenge of providing information and tools for new management strategies that are responsive to societal needs. The challenge is nothing less than managing the global carbon cycle.

Sundquist, Eric T.; Ackerman, Katherine V.; Parker, Lauren; Huntzinger, Deborah N.

2009-01-01

2

The Century-Long Challenge of Global Carbon Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time scale of the global carbon management is a century, not a decade and not a millennium. A century is the ratio of 1000 billion metric tons of carbon [Gt(C)] to 10 Gt(C)\\/yr. 1000 Gt(C) is the future emissions that will lead to approximately a doubling of the pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration, 280 ppm, assuming the total net ocean

R. Socolow

2002-01-01

3

The Century-Long Challenge of Global Carbon Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time scale of the global carbon management is a century, not a decade and not a millennium. A century is the ratio of 1000 billion metric tons of carbon [Gt(C)] to 10 Gt(C)/yr. 1000 Gt(C) is the future emissions that will lead to approximately a doubling of the pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration, 280 ppm, assuming the total net ocean plus terrestrial sink remains at half the strength of this source - since 2.1 Gt (C) = 1 ppm, and the concentration today is already 370 ppm. Doubling is the most widely used boundary between acceptable and unacceptable Greenhouse-related environmental disruption, or, in the language of the Framework Convention on Climate Change, the onset of "dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system." And 10 Gt(C)/yr is a conservative estimate of the average annual fossil-fuel carbon source over the century; it is now between 6 and 7 Gt(C). Conventional oil and gas are not sufficiently abundant to generate a serious Greenhouse problem on their own. Well before their cumulative carbon emissions reach 1000 Gt(C), both are expected to become non-competitive as a result of growing costs of access (costs related to resources being very deep underground, or below very deep water, or very remote, or very small.) But several times 1000 Gt(C) of coal resources will probably be competitive with non-fossil fuel alternatives, as will "unconventional" oil and gas resources, such as tar sands. The world will not be saved from a serious Greenhouse problem by fossil fuel depletion. There are four mitigation strategies for avoiding dangerous interference with the climate system. Fossil fuels can cease to dominate the global energy system well before the end of the century, yielding large market share to some combination of renewable energy and nuclear (fission and fusion) energy sources. Fossil fuels can continue to dominate, but most of the carbon in the century's fossil fuels can be prevented from reaching the atmosphere (fossil-carbon sequestration). Carbon can be removed directly from the air by biological or chemical processes. Or the climate system can become so well understood that effective compensating actions can be implemented. If human beings implement none of these strategies, we will have chosen, in effect, to adapt to climate change. Not unlikely will be a mix of all four mitigation strategies plus adaptation. In recent years, as the intrinsic complexity and monumental scale of global carbon management has become better appreciated, new coalitions supportive of policies intended to mitigate climate change have emerged.

Socolow, R.

2002-05-01

4

GLOBAL TERRESTRIAL CARBON CYCLE  

EPA Science Inventory

There is great uncertainty with regard to the future role of the terrestrial biosphere in the global carbon cycle, arising from both an inadequate understanding of current pools and fluxes as well as the potential effects of rising atmospheric concentrations of CO, on natural eco...

5

Global carbon budget 2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated for the first time in this budget with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2 and land cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). All uncertainties are reported as ±1?, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2003-2012), EFF was 8.6 ± 0.4 GtC yr-1, ELUC 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN 2.5 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND 2.8 ± 0.8 GtC yr-1. For year 2012 alone, EFF grew to 9.7 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, 2.2% above 2011, reflecting a continued growing trend in these emissions, GATM was 5.1 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and assuming an ELUC of 1.0 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1 (based on the 2001-2010 average), SLAND was 2.7 ± 0.9 GtC yr-1. GATM was high in 2012 compared to the 2003-2012 average, almost entirely reflecting the high EFF. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 392.52 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2012. We estimate that EFF will increase by 2.1% (1.1-3.1%) to 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC in 2013, 61% above emissions in 1990, based on projections of world gross domestic product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy. With this projection, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 535 ± 55 GtC for 1870-2013, about 70% from EFF (390 ± 20 GtC) and 30% from ELUC (145 ± 50 GtC). This paper also documents any changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget from previous budgets (Le Quéré et al., 2013). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2013_V2.3).

Le Quéré, C.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Andrew, R. M.; Boden, T. A.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Houghton, R. A.; Marland, G.; Moriarty, R.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Arvanitis, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Bopp, L.; Canadell, J. G.; Chini, L. P.; Doney, S. C.; Harper, A.; Harris, I.; House, J. I.; Jain, A. K.; Jones, S. D.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Körtzinger, A.; Koven, C.; Lefèvre, N.; Maignan, F.; Omar, A.; Ono, T.; Park, G.-H.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schwinger, J.; Segschneider, J.; Stocker, B. D.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van Heuven, S.; Viovy, N.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.

2014-06-01

6

Global carbon budget 2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe datasets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics, while emissions from Land-Use Change (ELUC), including deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity in regions undergoing deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated for the first time in this budget with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of Dynamic Global Vegetation Models. All uncertainties are reported as ± 1 sigma, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2003-2012), EFF was 8.6 ± 0.4 GtC yr-1, ELUC 0.8 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND 2.6 ± 0.8 GtC yr-1. For year 2012 alone, EFF grew to 9.7 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, 2.2% above 2011, reflecting a continued trend in these emissions; GATM was 5.2 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and assuming and ELUC of 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1 (based on 2001-2010 average), SLAND was 2.5 ± 0.9 GtC yr-1. GATM was high in 2012 compared to the 2003-2012 average, almost entirely reflecting the high EFF. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 392.52 ± 0.10 ppm on average over 2012. We estimate that EFF will increase by 2.1% (1.1-3.1%) to 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC in 2013, 61% above emissions in 1990, based on projections of World Gross Domestic Product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy. With this projection, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 550 ± 60 GtC for 1870-2013, 70% from EFF (390 ± 20 GtC) and 30% from ELUC (160 ± 55 GtC). This paper is intended to provide a baseline to keep track of annual carbon budgets in the future. All data presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2013_v1.1).

Le Quéré, C.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Andrew, R. M.; Boden, T.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Houghton, R. A.; Marland, G.; Moriarty, R.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Arvanitis, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Bopp, L.; Canadell, J. G.; Chini, L. P.; Doney, S. C.; Harper, A.; Harris, I.; House, J. I.; Jain, A. K.; Jones, S. D.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Körtzinger, A.; Koven, C.; Lefèvre, N.; Omar, A.; Ono, T.; Park, G.-H.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schwinger, J.; Segschneider, J.; Stocker, B. D.; Tilbrook, B.; van Heuven, S.; Viovy, N.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Yue, C.

2013-11-01

7

Global carbon budget 2014  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe datasets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from Land-Use Change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent Dynamic Global Vegetation Models forced by observed climate, CO2 and land cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the variability and mean land and ocean fluxes to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1?, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2004-2013), EFF was 8.9 ± 0.4 GtC yr-1, ELUC 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND 2.9 ± 0.8 GtC yr-1. For year 2013 alone, EFF grew to 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, 2.3% above 2012, contining the growth trend in these emissions. ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM was 5.4 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1 and SLAND was 2.5 ± 0.9 GtC yr-1. GATM was high in 2013 reflecting a steady increase in EFF and smaller and opposite changes between SOCEAN and SLAND compared to the past decade (2004-2013). The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 395.31 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2013. We estimate that EFF will increase by 2.5% (1.3-3.5%) to 10.1 ± 0.6 GtC in 2014 (37.0 ± 2.2 GtCO2 yr-1), 65% above emissions in 1990, based on projections of World Gross Domestic Product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2014, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 545 ± 55 GtC (2000 ± 200 GtCO2) for 1870-2014, about 75% from EFF and 25% from ELUC. This paper documents changes in the methods and datasets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this living dataset (Le Quéré et al., 2013, 2014). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2014). Italic font highlights significant methodological changes and results compared to the Le Quéré et al. (2014) manuscript that accompanies the previous version of this living data.

Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Boden, T. A.; Bopp, L.; Bozec, Y.; Canadell, J. G.; Chevallier, F.; Cosca, C. E.; Harris, I.; Hoppema, M.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Jain, A.; Johannessen, T.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landa, C. S.; Landschützer, P.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Marland, G.; Mathis, J. T.; Metzl, N.; Nojiri, Y.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Peters, W.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Salisbury, J. E.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Segschneider, J.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Viovy, N.; Wang, Y.-P.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zeng, N.

2014-09-01

8

Trends in Global Demonstrations of Carbon Management Technologies to Advance Coal- Based Power Generation With Carbon Capture and Storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric CO2 concentrations increased an estimated 35% since preindustrial levels two centuries ago, reportedly due to the burning of fossil fuels combined with increased deforestation. In the U.S., energy-related activities account for 75% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, with more than 50% from large stationary sources such as power plants and about one-third from transportation. Mitigation technologies for CO2 atmospheric stabilization based on energy and economic scenarios include coal-based power plant- carbon capture and storage (CCS), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is assessing CCS operations and supporting technologies at U.S. locations and opportunities abroad reported here. The Algerian In Salah Joint Industry Project injecting 1 million tons CO2 (MtCO2)/year into a gas field sandstone, and the Canadian Weyburn-Midale CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project injecting over 1.8 MtCO2/year into carbonate oil reservoirs are ongoing industrial-scale storage operations DOE participates in. DOE also supports mid-scale CCS demonstrations at the Australian Otway Project and CO2SINK in Germany. Enhanced oil recovery operations conducted for decades in west Texas and elsewhere have provided the industrial experience to build on, and early pilots such as Frio-I Texas in 2004 have spearheaded technology deployment. While injecting 1,600 tons of CO2 into a saline sandstone at Frio, time-lapse borehole and surface seismic detected P-wave velocity decreases and reflection amplitude changes resulting from the replacement of brine with CO2 in the reservoir. Just two of many cutting-edge technologies tested at Frio, these and others are now deployed by U.S. researchers with international teams to evaluate reservoir injectivity, capacity, and integrity, as well as to assess CO2 spatial distribution, trapping, and unlikely leakage. Time-lapse Vertical Seismic Profiling at Otway and microseismic at In Salah and Otway, monitor injection and reservoir conditions with geophysics. Borehole-based technologies include a novel geochemical two-phase reservoir sampler deployed at Otway, and thermal-based measurements at CO2SINK for coupled hydrologic-geochemical reservoir analyses. Seismic, geomechanical, hydrologic, geochemical, and core studies are used in a multidisciplinary approach to assess CO2 trapping and reservoir integrity at In Salah. With estimated lifetime storage of 17 MtCO2 at In Salah, this and other CCS demonstrations provide opportunities to gain commercial experience for advancing coal-based power generation-CCS for carbon management.

Cohen, K. K.; Plasynski, S.; Feeley, T. J.

2008-05-01

9

Global distribution of carbon monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the evolution and distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) using the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory three-dimensional global chemical transport model (GFDL GCTM). The work aims to gain an improved understanding of the global carbon monoxide budget, specifically focusing on the contribution of each of the four source terms to the seasonal variability

Tracey Holloway; Hiram Levy; Prasad Kasibhatla

2000-01-01

10

China's terrestrial carbon balance: Contributions from multiple global change factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnitude, spatial, and temporal patterns of the terrestrial carbon sink and the underlying mechanisms remain uncertain and need to be investigated. China is important in determining the global carbon balance in terms of both carbon emission and carbon uptake. Of particular importance to climate-change policy and carbon management is the ability to evaluate the relative contributions of multiple environmental

Hanqin Tian; Jerry Melillo; Chaoqun Lu; David Kicklighter; Mingliang Liu; Wei Ren; Xiaofeng Xu; Guangsheng Chen; Chi Zhang; Shufen Pan; Jiyuan Liu; Steven Running

2011-01-01

11

Carbon sequestration and its role in the global carbon cycle  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For carbon sequestration the issues of monitoring, risk assessment, and verification of carbon content and storage efficacy are perhaps the most uncertain. Yet these issues are also the most critical challenges facing the broader context of carbon sequestration as a means for addressing climate change. In response to these challenges, Carbon Sequestration and Its Role in the Global Carbon Cycle presents current perspectives and research that combine five major areas: • The global carbon cycle and verification and assessment of global carbon sources and sinks • Potential capacity and temporal/spatial scales of terrestrial, oceanic, and geologic carbon storage • Assessing risks and benefits associated with terrestrial, oceanic, and geologic carbon storage • Predicting, monitoring, and verifying effectiveness of different forms of carbon storage • Suggested new CO2 sequestration research and management paradigms for the future. The volume is based on a Chapman Conference and will appeal to the rapidly growing group of scientists and engineers examining methods for deliberate carbon sequestration through storage in plants, soils, the oceans, and geological repositories.

McPherson, Brian J.; Sundquist, Eric T.

2009-01-01

12

Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons  

E-print Network

in the atmosphere causes global warming and other forms of climate disruption, while that portion that entersCumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons R.T. Pierrehumbert* Abstract. Introduction............................................... 528 II. The Global Carbon Commons

Pierrehumbert, Raymond

13

Tropical Forests and the Global Carbon Cycle  

E-print Network

and inform foresters of sustainable management practices. Periodic cambial dormancy (interruption of growth, Poussart and colleagues are surveying species growing in seasonally dry forests of Brazil, PanamaTropical Forests and the Global Carbon Cycle Pascale Poussart Tropical forests play a key role

Duffy, Thomas S.

14

Understanding the Global Carbon Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The site offers charts and graphs to aid in a detailed explanation of where carbon comes from and where it goes. Supplementing the main topic, links lead to the topics Carbon and Land Use, Missing Carbon Sink, and Forest Sequestered Carbon Dioxide. Their conclusion is that the major contributor to climatic change, and hence the human activity most in need of change, is use of fossil fuels for energy. Advances in the technology of renewable energy sources, including wood-derived fuels, might reduce our reliance on fossil fuels and thus reduce global emissions of carbon dioxide significantly.

15

Global Financial Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Campbell Harvey, Professor of International Business in the Fuqua School of Business at Duke University, has created this web site as a supplement to his course in Global Financial Management. The course introduces students to the "fundamental principles of asset valuation and financing in competitive global financial market." Visitors will find a syllabus for the course, a short introduction to Financial Mathematics, and supplementary notes on topics covered in the course. Assignments and learning modules for the course can also be found at the site.

Harvey, Campbell R.

1969-12-31

16

The Global Carbon Cycle Radiative forcing  

E-print Network

The Global Carbon Cycle Radiative forcing Global carbon reservoirs Glacial-interglacial cycles-interglacial change? Fate of anthropogenic CO2? #12;Radiative forcing due to CO2 #12;Global carbon reservoirs #12 Respiration #12;Distribution of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere Well mixed throughout atmosphere Global

Follows, Mick

17

The Global Carbon Cycle Radiative forcing  

E-print Network

The Global Carbon Cycle Radiative forcing Global carbon reservoirs Glacial-interglacial cycles due to CO2 #12;Global carbon reservoirs #12;Geologic timescales #12;Pre-industrial Carbon Cycle throughout atmosphere Global increase due to anthropogenic emissions Elevated northern hemisphere

Follows, Mick

18

Wildland Soil Carbon Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the era of climate change, traditional wildland management practices have come into question, especially with respect to their impact on soil carbon sequestration. Over half of the land area of the United States and Puerto Rico is either in forest or grassland ecosystems, i.e. 302 million hectares of forested lands and 247 million hectares of grasslands and pasture lands. Forested lands hold approximately 35.5 Pg of soil carbon to a depth of 100cm. Private grasslands hold approximately 21 Pg of soil carbon to a depth of 200cm. The difficulty of managing for carbon sequestration becomes more evident when one surveys the variety of complex ecosystems being managed. This presentation highlights implications for wildland management for promoting soil carbon sequestration for sustaining forest and grassland ecosystems in the United States. We will address key considerations, strategies, and opportunities to incorporate soil carbon management into wildland management. Examples of vegetation management influence on soil carbon will be discussed including fire, soil amendments and best management practices for maintaining and/or improving soil carbon sequestration. The USDA Forest Service has established a soil management policy that seeks to conserve soil quality and protect soil carbon on National Forest System lands. Aspects of this national policy will also be presented.

Davis, R. L.; Swanston, C.

2009-12-01

19

Managing Global Networks: The Role of the Global Account Manager  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the business environment takes on a global perspective for many business-to-business organisations, so the area of Global Account Management has become an increasingly important issue for both researchers and practitioners. This working paper outlines a research project2 on the role of the Global Account Manager in managing global business-to-business relationships. At the buyer-seller interface, the globalisation of business is

Sue Holt

20

Managing global accounts.  

PubMed

Global account management--which treats a multinational customer's operations as one integrated account, with coherent terms for pricing, product specifications, and service--has proliferated over the past decade. Yet according to the authors' research, only about a third of the suppliers that have offered GAM are pleased with the results. The unhappy majority may be suffering from confusion about when, how, and to whom to provide it. Yip, the director of research and innovation at Capgemini, and Bink, the head of marketing communications at Uxbridge College, have found that GAM can improve customer satisfaction by 20% or more and can raise both profits and revenues by at least 15% within just a few years of its introduction. They provide guidelines to help companies achieve similar results. The first steps are determining whether your products or services are appropriate for GAM, whether your customers want such a program, whether those customers are crucial to your strategy, and how GAM might affect your competitive advantage. If moving forward makes sense, the authors' exhibit, "A Scorecard for Selecting Global Accounts," can help you target the right customers. The final step is deciding which of three basic forms to offer: coordination GAM (in which national operations remain relatively strong), control GAM (in which the global operation and the national operations are fairly balanced), and separate GAM (in which a new business unit has total responsibility for global accounts). Given the difficulty and expense of providing multiple varieties, the vast majority of companies should initially customize just one---and they should be careful not to start with a choice that is too ambitious for either themselves or their customers to handle. PMID:17886487

Yip, George S; Bink, Audrey J M

2007-09-01

21

Forests, carbon and global climate.  

PubMed

This review places into context the role that forest ecosystems play in the global carbon cycle, and their potential interactions with climate change. We first examine the natural, preindustrial carbon cycle. Every year forest gross photosynthesis cycles approximately one-twelfth of the atmospheric stock of carbon dioxide, accounting for 50% of terrestrial photosynthesis. This cycling has remained almost constant since the end of the last ice age, but since the Industrial Revolution it has undergone substantial disruption as a result of the injection of 480 PgC into the atmosphere through fossil-fuel combustion and land-use change, including forest clearance. In the second part of this paper we review this 'carbon disruption', and its impact on the oceans, atmosphere and biosphere. Tropical deforestation is resulting in a release of 1.7 PgC yr(-1) into the atmosphere. However, there is also strong evidence for a 'sink' for carbon in natural vegetation (carbon absorption), which can be explained partly by the regrowth of forests on abandoned lands, and partly by a global change factor, the most likely cause being 'fertilization' resulting from the increase in atmospheric CO(2). In the 1990s this biosphere sink was estimated to be sequestering 3.2 PgC yr(-1) and is likely to have substantial effects on the dynamics, structure and biodiversity of all forests. Finally, we examine the potential for forest protection and afforestation to mitigate climate change. An extensive global carbon sequestration programme has the potential to make a particularly significant contribution to controlling the rise in CO2 emissions in the next few decades. In the course of the whole century, however, even the maximum amount of carbon that could be sequestered will be dwarfed by the magnitude of (projected) fossil-fuel emissions. Forest carbon sequestration should only be viewed as a component of a mitigation strategy, not as a substitute for the changes in energy supply, use and technology that will be required if atmospheric CO(2) concentrations are to be stabilized. PMID:12460485

Malhi, Yadvinder; Meir, Patrick; Brown, Sandra

2002-08-15

22

(Managing the global environment)  

SciTech Connect

The conference was stimulated by concern that policy makers increasingly have to make environmental management decisions in the absence of solidly established scientific consensus about ecological processes and the consequences of human actions. Often, as in the case of climate change, some decisions may have to be made in the absence of information that is desirable but may not be available for years to come, if ever. Six topics were identified as running throughout the Congress. These were: the epistemology and history of the sciences or disciplines concerned with the environment, including the scientific basis of rationality and modes of dealing with uncertainty and complexity; the social, economic, and institutional conditions for the production of knowledge bearing on the environment, including the politics of research and the improvement of scientific data; the structuring and institutionalization of expert assessments on national and international levels, including the global distribution of expertise; the means of establishing scientific information, the role of the media in transmitting and processing knowledge about the environment, and the organization of public environmental debate; and decision making and management under conditions of uncertainty; and, finally the relationship between science and ethics. 13 refs.

Rayner, S.F.

1989-10-03

23

Global deforestation: contribution to atmospheric carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

A study of effects of terrestrial biota on the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere suggests that the global net release of carbon due to forest clearing between 1960 and 1980 was between 135 X 10/sup 15/ and 228 X 10/sup 15/ grams. Between 1.8 X 10/sup 15/ and 4.7 X 10/sup 15/ grams of carbon were released in 1980, of which nearly 80 percent was due to deforestation, principally in the tropics. The annual release of carbon from the biota and soils exceeded the release from fossil fuels until about 1960. Because the biotic release has been and remains much larger than is commonly assumed, the airborne fraction, usually considered to be about 50 percent of the releases from fossil fuels, was probably between 22 and 43 percent of the total carbon released in 1980. The increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is thought by some to be increasing the storage of carbon in the earth's remaining forests sufficiently to offset the release from deforestation. The interpretation of the evidence presented here suggests no such effect; deforestation appears to be the dominant biotic effect on atmospheric carbon dioxide. If deforestation increases in proportion to population, the biotic release of carbon will reach 9 X 10/sup 15/ grams per year before forests are exhausted early in the next century. The possibilities for limiting the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere through reduction in use of fossil fuels and through management of forests may be greater than is commonly assumed.

Woodwell, G.M.; Hobbie, J.E.; Houghton, R.A.; Melillo, J.M.; Moore, B.; Peterson, B.J.; Shaver, G.R.

1983-12-09

24

Global Carbon Reservoir Oxidative Ratios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photosynthesis and respiration move carbon and oxygen between the atmosphere and the biosphere at a ratio that is characteristic of the biogeochemical processes involved. This ratio is called the oxidative ratio (OR) of photosynthesis and respiration, and is defined as the ratio of moles of O2 per moles of CO2. This O2/CO2 ratio is a characteristic of biosphere-atmosphere gas fluxes, much like the 13C signature of CO2 transferred between the biosphere and the atmosphere has a characteristic signature. OR values vary on a scale of 0 (CO2) to 2 (CH4), with most ecosystem values clustered between 0.9 and 1.2. Just as 13C can be measured for both carbon fluxes and carbon pools, OR can also be measured for fluxes and pools and can provide information about the processes involved in carbon and oxygen cycling. OR values also provide information about reservoir organic geochemistry because pool OR values are proportional to the oxidation state of carbon (Cox) in the reservoir. OR may prove to be a particularly valuable biogeochemical tracer because of its ability to couple information about ecosystem gas fluxes with ecosystem organic geochemistry. We have developed 3 methods to measure the OR of ecosystem carbon reservoirs and intercalibrated them to assure that they yield accurate, intercomparable data. Using these tools we have built a large enough database of biomass and soil OR values that it is now possible to consider the implications of global patterns in ecosystem OR values. Here we present a map of the natural range in ecosystem OR values and begin to consider its implications. One striking pattern is an apparent offset between soil and biospheric OR values: soil OR values are frequently higher than that of their source biomass. We discuss this trend in the context of soil organic geochemistry and gas fluxes.

Masiello, C. A.; Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.

2010-12-01

25

Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons  

E-print Network

in the atmosphere causes global warming and other forms of climate disruption, while that portion that enters--notably methane--also contribute to global warming, but these do not merit consideration on an equal footingCumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons R.T. Pierrehumbert1

Pierrehumbert, Raymond

26

Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the global carbon cycle  

SciTech Connect

This state-of-the-art volume presents discussions on the global cycle of carbon, the dynamic balance among global atmospheric CO2 sources and sinks. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

Trabalka, J R [ed.

1985-12-01

27

What is a global manager?  

PubMed

To compete around the world, a company needs three strategic capabilities: global-scale efficiency, local responsiveness, and the ability to leverage learning worldwide. No single "global" manager can build these capabilities. Rather, groups of specialized managers must integrate assets, resources, and people in diverse operating units. Such managers are made, not born. And how to make them is--and must be--the foremost question for corporate managers. Drawing on their research with leading transnational corporations, Christopher Bartlett and Sumantra Ghoshal identify three types of global managers. They also illustrate the responsibilities each position involves through a close look at the careers of successful executives: Leif Johansson of Electrolux, Howard Gottlieb of NEC, and Wahib Zaki of Procter & Gamble. The first type is the global business or product-division manager who must build worldwide efficiency and competitiveness. These managers recognize cross-border opportunities and risks as well as link activities and capabilities around the world. The second is the country manager whose unit is the building block for worldwide operations. These managers are responsible for understanding and interpreting local markets, building local resources and capabilities, and contributing to--and participating in--the development of global strategy. Finally, there are worldwide functional specialists--the managers whose potential is least appreciated in many traditional multinational companies. To transfer expertise from one unit to another and leverage learning, these managers must scan the company for good ideas and best practice, cross-pollinate among units, and champion innovations with worldwide applications. PMID:10121314

Bartlett, C A; Ghoshal, S

1992-01-01

28

What is a global manager?  

PubMed

Riven by ideology, religion, and mistrust, the world seems more fragmented than at any time since, arguably, World War II. But however deep the political divisions, business operations continue to span the globe, and executives still have to figure out how to run them efficiently and well. In "What Is a Global Manager?" (first published in September-October 1992), business professors Christopher Bartlett and Sumantra Ghoshal lay out a model for a management structure that balances the local, regional, and global demands placed on companies operating across the world's many borders. In the volatile world of transnational corporations, there is no such thing as a "universal" global manager, the authors say. Rather, there are three groups of specialists: business managers, country managers, and functional managers. And there are the top executives at corporate headquarters who manage the complex interactions between the three--and can identify and develop the talented executives a successful transnational requires. This kind of organizational structure characterizes a transnational rather than an old-line multinational, international, or global company. Transnationals integrate assets, resources, and diverse people in operating units around the world. Through a flexible management process, in which business, country, and functional managers form a triad of different perspectives that balance one another, transnational companies can build three strategic capabilities: global-scale efficiency and competitiveness; national-level responsiveness and flexibility; and cross-market capacity to leverage learning on a worldwide basis. Through a close look at the successful careers of Leif Johansson of Electrolux, Howard Gottlieb of NEC, and Wahib Zaki of Procter & Gamble, the authors illustrate the skills that each managerial specialist requires. PMID:12884670

Bartlett, Christopher A; Ghoshal, Sumantra

2003-08-01

29

Global Trends in Mercury Management  

PubMed Central

The United Nations Environmental Program Governing Council has regulated mercury as a global pollutant since 2001 and has been preparing the mercury convention, which will have a strongly binding force through Global Mercury Assessment, Global Mercury Partnership Activities, and establishment of the Open-Ended Working Group on Mercury. The European Union maintains an inclusive strategy on risks and contamination of mercury, and has executed the Mercury Export Ban Act since December in 2010. The US Environmental Protection Agency established the Mercury Action Plan (1998) and the Mercury Roadmap (2006) and has proposed systematic mercury management methods to reduce the health risks posed by mercury exposure. Japan, which experienced Minamata disease, aims vigorously at perfection in mercury management in several ways. In Korea, the Ministry of Environment established the Comprehensive Plan and Countermeasures for Mercury Management to prepare for the mercury convention and to reduce risks of mercury to protect public health. PMID:23230466

Choi, Kyunghee

2012-01-01

30

GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The production of greenhouse gases due to anthropogenic activities may have begun to change the global climate. he global carbon cycle plays a significant role in projected climate change. owever, considerable uncertainty exists regarding pools and flux in the global cycle. iven ...

31

Understanding Climate Change: The Global Carbon  

E-print Network

­ convenient? Temperature Changes #12;Global Warming Past + Present (From: Mann and Kump, 2009) During the pastUnderstanding Climate Change: The Global Carbon Budget and Ocean Chemistry Talk Overview - Climate Change Basics - CO2 and Temperature Relationship - Global C Budget - High Latitude Climate Change - Ocean

Parker, Matthew D. Brown

32

Merck Global Energy Management Program  

E-print Network

MERCK GLOBAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Keith Williams, Merck & Co., Inc. Company: Merck & Co., Inc. Category: Energy Efficiency Program ? Corporate In April 2000, Merck & Co., Inc. launched its comprehensive program to reduce energy... improvement in energy conservation. The program monitors energy consumption, environmental emissions, and spending. It is challenging employees to exceed past savings and implement additional opportunities. Keith Williams Merck & Co. Inc. 1 Merck...

Williams, K.

2005-01-01

33

Getting to Know Global Carbon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

GLOBE Carbon Cycle is focused on bringing the most cutting edge research and research techniques in the field of terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycling into the classroom. Students can collect data about their school field site through existing GLOBE protocols of phenology, land cover and soils as well as through new protocols focused on biomass and carbon stocks in vegetation.

2013-01-01

34

Carbon dioxide affects global ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Man's activities are changing the carbon dioxide and oxygen content of the entire atmosphere. These changes may, in turn, affect worldwide weather and the growth of plants. Under normal conditions, the amounts of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the atmosphere remain approximately in equilibrium on a year-to-year basis. The atmosphere today contains about 21% oxygen and about 0.032% carbon dioxide

Eugene K. Peterson

1969-01-01

35

Global deforestation: contribution to atmospheric carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of effects of terrestrial biota on the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere suggests that the global net release of carbon due to forest clearing between 1960 and 1980 was between 135 X 10¹⁵ and 228 X 10¹⁵ grams. Between 1.8 X 10¹⁵ and 4.7 X 10¹⁵ grams of carbon were released in 1980, of which nearly

G. M. Woodwell; J. E. Hobbie; R. A. Houghton; J. M. Melillo; B. Moore; B. J. Peterson; G. R. Shaver

1983-01-01

36

Black carbon contribution to global warming  

SciTech Connect

Before the onset of industrial revolution the only important source of black carbon in the atmosphere was biomass burning. Today, black carbon production is divided between the biomass and fossil fuel burning. Black carbon is a major agent responsible for absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols. Thus black carbon makes other aerosols less efficient in their role of reflecting solar radiation and cooling the earth-atmosphere system. Black carbon also contributes to the absorption of solar radiation by clouds and snow cover. The authors present the results of black carbon concentrations measurements in the atmosphere, in cloud water, in rain and snow melt water collected during the 1992--1996 time period over the southern Nova Scotia. Their results are put into the global and historical perspective by comparing them with the compilation of past measurements at diverse locations and with their measurements of black carbon concentrations in the Greenland and Antarctic ice cores. Black carbon contribution to the global warming is estimated, and compared to the carbon dioxide warming, using the radiative forcing caused by the black carbon at the top of the atmosphere.

Chylek, P.; Johnson, B.; Kou, L.; Wong, J.

1996-12-31

37

Royal College of Art Carbon Management Programme Carbon Management Plan working with  

E-print Network

Royal College of Art Carbon Management Programme Carbon Management Plan working with Page 1 Royal College of Art Carbon Management Programme Carbon Management Plan (CMP) Date: 25 February 2011 Final Board Approval status: Draft #12;Royal College of Art Carbon Management Programme Carbon Management Plan

Subramanian, Sriram

38

5, 45994639, 2005 Global carbon  

E-print Network

by the GEOS-CHEM 3D CTM, highlighting the ability of IMG to capture the horizontal as well as the vertical Abstract Introduction Conclusions References Tables Figures Back Close Full Screen / Esc Print Version / Esc Print Version Interactive Discussion EGU Abstract This paper presents the first global

39

The global carbon budget 1959-2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the climate policy process, and project future climate change. Present-day analysis requires the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. Here we describe datasets and a methodology developed by the global carbon cycle science community to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, and methodology and data limitations. Based on energy statistics, we estimate that the global emissions of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion and cement production were 9.5 ± 0.5 PgC yr-1 in 2011, 3.0 percent above 2010 levels. We project these emissions will increase by 2.6% (1.9-3.5%) in 2012 based on projections of Gross World Product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy. Global net CO2 emissions from Land-Use Change, including deforestation, are more difficult to update annually because of data availability, but combined evidence from land cover change data, fire activity in regions undergoing deforestation and models suggests those net emissions were 0.9 ± 0.5 PgC yr-1 in 2011. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and reached 391.38 ± 0.13 ppm at the end of year 2011, increasing 1.70 ± 0.09 ppm yr-1 or 3.6 ± 0.2 PgC yr-1 in 2011. Estimates from four ocean models suggest that the ocean CO2 sink was 2.6 ± 0.5 PgC yr-1 in 2011, implying a global residual terrestrial CO2 sink of 4.1 ± 0.9 PgC yr-1. All uncertainties are reported as ±1 sigma (68% confidence assuming Gaussian error distributions that the real value lies within the given interval), reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. This paper is intended to provide a baseline to keep track of annual carbon budgets in the future. All carbon data presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_V2012).

Le Quéré, C.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T.; Conway, T.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Marland, G.; Peters, G. P.; van der Werf, G.; Ahlström, A.; Andrew, R. M.; Bopp, L.; Canadell, J. G.; Ciais, P.; Doney, S. C.; Enright, C.; Friedlingstein, P.; Huntingford, C.; Jain, A. K.; Jourdain, C.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Levis, S.; Levy, P.; Lomas, M.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Schwinger, J.; Sitch, S.; Stocker, B. D.; Viovy, N.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

2012-12-01

40

University of Aberdeen Carbon Management Plan  

E-print Network

of Aberdeen is committed to reducing its carbon footprint and to playing its part in limiting the worstUniversity of Aberdeen Carbon Management Plan Higher Education Carbon Management Programme working with Page 1 The University of Aberdeen Carbon Management Programme Carbon Management Plan (CMP

Levi, Ran

41

Impact of carbon storage through restoration of drylands on the global carbon cycle  

SciTech Connect

The authors evaluate the potential for global carbon storage in drylands as one of several policy options to reduce buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. They use the GLOCO model, a global carbon cycle model with eight terrestrial biomes that are described mechanistically in detail in terms of the biological processes that involve carbon and nitrogen cycling and the effect of temperature on these processes. GLOCO also considers low-latitude and high-latitude oceans, each divided further into a surface layer and several deeper layers, with an explicit description of biogeochemical processes occurring in each layer, and exchanges among ocean reservoirs and the atmosphere. GLOCO is used to study the transient response of actual vegetation, which is more realistic than looking at equilibrium conditions of potential vegetation. Using estimates of land suitable for restoration in woodlands, grasslands, and deserts, as well as estimates of the rate at which restoration can proceed, the authors estimate that carbon storage in these biomes can range up to 0.8 billion tons of carbon per year for a combination of land management strategies. A global strategy for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration will require the implementation of multiple options. The advantage of carbon storage in restored drylands is that it comes as a side benefit to programs that are also justifiable in terms of land management.

Keller, A.A. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). School of Environmental Science and Management] [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). School of Environmental Science and Management; Goldstein, R.A. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)] [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1998-09-01

42

Carbon emission from global hydroelectric reservoirs revisited.  

PubMed

Substantial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from hydropower reservoirs have been of great concerns recently, yet the significant carbon emitters of drawdown area and reservoir downstream (including spillways and turbines as well as river reaches below dams) have not been included in global carbon budget. Here, we revisit GHG emission from hydropower reservoirs by considering reservoir surface area, drawdown zone and reservoir downstream. Our estimates demonstrate around 301.3 Tg carbon dioxide (CO2)/year and 18.7 Tg methane (CH4)/year from global hydroelectric reservoirs, which are much higher than recent observations. The sum of drawdown and downstream emission, which is generally overlooked, represents 42 % CO2 and 67 % CH4 of the total emissions from hydropower reservoirs. Accordingly, the global average emissions from hydropower are estimated to be 92 g CO2/kWh and 5.7 g CH4/kWh. Nonetheless, global hydroelectricity could currently reduce approximate 2,351 Tg CO2eq/year with respect to fuel fossil plant alternative. The new findings show a substantial revision of carbon emission from the global hydropower reservoirs. PMID:24943886

Li, Siyue; Zhang, Quanfa

2014-12-01

43

Sediments and the Global Carbon Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A series of activities designed to introduce students to the role of sediments and sedimentary rocks in the global carbon cycle and the use of stable carbon isotopes to reconstruct ancient sedimentary environments. Students will make some simple calculations, think about the implications of their results, and see an optional demonstration of the density separation of a sediment sample into a light, organic and a heavier mineral fraction.

Leithold, Elana; University, North C.; Science Education Resource Center At Carleton College, On T.

44

Plumbing the Global Carbon Cycle: Integrating Inland Waters into the  

E-print Network

Plumbing the Global Carbon Cycle: Integrating Inland Waters into the Terrestrial Carbon Budget J. J components of the carbon cycle at either global or regional scales. By taking published estimates of gas constructed a budget for the role of inland water ecosystems in the global carbon cycle. Our analysis

Berkowitz, Alan R.

45

Biogeochemical carbon coupling influences global precipitation in geoengineering experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract Climate model studies in which CO2-induced <span class="hlt">global</span> warming is offset by engineered decreases of incoming solar radiation are generally robust in their prediction of reduced amounts of <span class="hlt">global</span> precipitation. While this precipitation response has been explained on the basis of changes in net radiation controlling evaporative processes at the surface, there has been relatively little consideration of the relative role of biogeochemical <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-cycle interactions. To address this issue, we employ an Earth System Model that includes oceanic and terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> components to isolate the impact of biogeochemical <span class="hlt">carbon</span> coupling on the precipitation response in geoengineering experiments for two types of solar radiation <span class="hlt">management</span>. We show that <span class="hlt">carbon</span> coupling is responsible for a large fraction of the <span class="hlt">global</span> precipitation reduction in such geoengineering experiments and that the primary effect comes from reduced transpiration through the leaves of plants and trees in the terrestrial component of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle due to elevated CO2. Our results suggest that biogeochemical interactions are as important as changes in net radiation and that climate models that do not account for such <span class="hlt">carbon</span> coupling may significantly underestimate precipitation reductions in a geoengineered world.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fyfe, J. C.; Cole, J. N. S.; Arora, V. K.; Scinocca, J. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">46</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35567440"> <span id="translatedtitle">Strategic <span class="hlt">Global</span> Human Resource <span class="hlt">Management</span>: The Role of Inpatriate <span class="hlt">Managers</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The need for highly qualified multicultural <span class="hlt">managers</span> will increase as more organizations <span class="hlt">globalize</span> their operations. These <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">managers</span> may be perceived as organizational resources and, therefore, a resource-based view of human resource <span class="hlt">management</span> is utilized. At the same time, relational view of human capital provides insight into the value of <span class="hlt">managers</span> who have unique local market knowledge (i.e., social knowledge).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael G Harvey; Cheri Speier; Milorad M Novicevic</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">47</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a000000/a002900/a002900/index.html"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Monoxide in 2000 (WMS)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This visualization shows <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> monoxide concentrations at the 500 millibar altitude in the atmosphere from March 1, 2000 through December 31, 2000. Areas in red have 200 parts per billion of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> monoxide or more at that altitude (around 5,500 meters), while areas in blue are 50 parts per billion or less. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> monoxide is an atmospheric pollutant and the highest concentrations come from grassland and forest fires in Africa and South America, although there is evidence that industrial sources may also be a factor. Atmospheric circulation rapidly moves the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> monoxide to other parts of the world once it has reached this altitude. This data was measured by the MOPITT instrument on the Terra satellite.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sokolowsky, Eric; Williams, James; Gille, John; Lamarque, Jean-Francois</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-02-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">48</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cdiac.ornl.gov/oceans/glodap/glodap_pdfs/2004GB002247.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">global</span> ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> climatology: Results from <span class="hlt">Global</span> Data Analysis Project (GLODAP)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">global</span> ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> climatology: Results from <span class="hlt">Global</span> Data Analysis Project (GLODAP) R. M. Key,1 A on 33 depth surfaces chosen to match existing climatologies for temperature, salinity, oxygen (2004), A <span class="hlt">global</span> ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> climatology: Results from <span class="hlt">Global</span> Data Analysis Project (GLODAP), <span class="hlt">Global</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">49</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/415577"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tropical deforestation and the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The CO{sub 2} concentration of the atmosphere has increased by almost 30% since 1800. This increase is due largely to two factors: the combustion of fossil fuel and deforestation to create croplands and pastures. Deforestation results in a net flux of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> to the atmospheric because forests contain 20--50 times more <span class="hlt">carbon</span> per unit area than agricultural lands. In recent decades, the tropics have been the primary region of deforestation.The annual rate of CO{sub 2} released due to tropical deforestation during the early 1990s has been estimated at between 1.2 and 2.3 gigatons C. The range represents uncertainties about both the rates of deforestation and the amounts of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stored in different types of tropical forests at the time of cutting. An evaluation of the role of tropical regions in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget must include both the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux to the atmosphere due to deforestation and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> accumulation, if any, in intact forests. In the early 1990s, the release of CO{sub 2} from tropical deforestation appears to have been mostly offset by CO{sub 2} uptake occurring elsewhere in the tropics, according to an analysis of recent trends in the atmospheric concentrations of O{sub 2} and N{sub 2}. Interannual variations in climate and/or CO{sub 2} fertilization may have been responsible for the CO{sub 2} uptake in intact forests. These mechanisms are consistent with site-specific measurements of net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes between tropical forests and the atmosphere, and with regional and <span class="hlt">global</span> simulations using process-based biogeochemistry models. 86 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Melillo, J.M.; Kicklighter, D.W. [Ecosystems Center, Woods Hole, MA (United States). Marine Biological Lab.] [Ecosystems Center, Woods Hole, MA (United States). Marine Biological Lab.; Houghton, R.A. [Woods Hole Research Center, MA (United States)] [Woods Hole Research Center, MA (United States); McGuire, A.D. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)] [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-12-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">50</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58439488"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> and <span class="hlt">Management</span> Education in Developing Countries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">globalization</span> process is significantly affecting the economic and commercial life of nations. With increasing <span class="hlt">global</span> competition and the rapidly advancing technologies, the business organizations and business models as well as <span class="hlt">management</span> systems and practices are undergoing continuous change. To cope up with these changes, the <span class="hlt">management</span> education is also being restructured and refocused. For one thing, the leading business</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sayed Mushtaq Hussain</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">51</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://esd.lbl.gov/FILES/about/staff/margarettorn/nato_soilcarbon.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">SOILS AND THE <span class="hlt">GLOBAL</span> <span class="hlt">CARBON</span> CYCLE1 Susan E. Trumbore</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">SOILS AND THE <span class="hlt">GLOBAL</span> <span class="hlt">CARBON</span> CYCLE1 Susan E. Trumbore and Margaret S. Torn§ Earth System Science in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. Soil organic matter (SOM) is one of the largest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> reservoirs that is in rapid present research on the soil C cycle include: Are soils now acting as a net source or sink of <span class="hlt">carbon</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">52</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ESSD....5..165L"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget 1959-2011</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Accurate assessments of anthropogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle, support the climate policy process, and project future climate change. Present-day analysis requires the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. Here we describe datasets and a methodology developed by the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle science community to quantify all major components of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget, including their uncertainties. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, and methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics, while emissions from Land-Use Change (ELUC), including deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land cover change data, fire activity in regions undergoing deforestation, and models. The <span class="hlt">global</span> atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. Finally, the <span class="hlt">global</span> residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms. For the last decade available (2002-2011), EFF was 8.3 ± 0.4 PgC yr-1, ELUC 1.0 ± 0.5 PgC yr-1, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1PgC yr-1, SOCEAN 2.5 ± 0.5 PgC yr-1, and SLAND 2.6 ± 0.8 PgC yr-1. For year 2011 alone, EFF was 9.5 ± 0.5 PgC yr-1, 3.0 percent above 2010, reflecting a continued trend in these emissions; ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 PgC yr-1, approximately constant throughout the decade; GATM was 3.6 ± 0.2 PgC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.7 ± 0.5 PgC yr-1, and SLAND was 4.1 ± 0.9 PgC yr-1. GATM was low in 2011 compared to the 2002-2011 average because of a high uptake by the land probably in response to natural climate variability associated to La Niña conditions in the Pacific Ocean. The <span class="hlt">global</span> atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 391.31 ± 0.13 ppm at the end of year 2011. We estimate that EFF will have increased by 2.6% (1.9-3.5%) in 2012 based on projections of gross world product and recent changes in the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> intensity of the economy. All uncertainties are reported as ±1 sigma (68% confidence assuming Gaussian error distributions that the real value lies within the given interval), reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget. This paper is intended to provide a baseline to keep track of annual <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budgets in the future. All data presented here can be downloaded from the <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dioxide Information Analysis Center (<a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_V2013"target="_blank">doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_V2013</a>).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Le Quéré, C.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T.; Conway, T.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Marland, G.; Peters, G. P.; van der Werf, G. R.; Ahlström, A.; Andrew, R. M.; Bopp, L.; Canadell, J. G.; Ciais, P.; Doney, S. C.; Enright, C.; Friedlingstein, P.; Huntingford, C.; Jain, A. K.; Jourdain, C.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Levis, S.; Levy, P.; Lomas, M.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Schwinger, J.; Sitch, S.; Stocker, B. D.; Viovy, N.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">53</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37826271"> <span id="translatedtitle">Think <span class="hlt">globally</span> - act locally! Competences for <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">management</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Multinational organizations’ value chains spread around the world and this demands a new competence - <span class="hlt">global</span> leadership. Describes how Mobil Oil has funded the International <span class="hlt">Management</span> Development Consortium to design a programme for top <span class="hlt">management</span> to acquire such skills. The first programme has been delivered and was structured around an interactive project involving a strategic analysis of marketing a telecommunications</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrew Sheridan May</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">54</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gla.ac.uk/media/media_192265_en.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">University of Glasgow <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span> Programme <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span> Plan working with</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">fully in the initiatives which will help us reduce our <span class="hlt">carbon</span> footprint and combat climate changeUniversity of Glasgow <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span> Programme <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span> Plan working with Page 1 <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span> Programme <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span> Plan (CMP) Albert Young, 3 November 2009 #12;University of Glasgow</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mottram, Nigel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">55</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1612878H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Losses due to Tropical Forest Fragmentation: A Forgotten Process in the <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tropical forests play an important role in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. Thereby, deforestation is not only responsible for direct <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions but also alters the forest structure and extends the forest edge area in which trees suffer increased mortality due to altered microclimatic conditions. Our aim is to quantify the <span class="hlt">global</span> amount of anthropogenically created forest edge area and the resulting additional CO2-emissions by combining remote sensing data with previous empirical and modelling results. We found that 1,106 million ha and thereby 10% of the <span class="hlt">global</span> tropical forested area lies within the forest edge area and that 84% of this area is anthropogenically created. From this area, a total amount of 8 Gt C is emitted due to tropical forest fragmentation, which accounts for an annual loss of 0.25 Gt C equalling 17% of the annual <span class="hlt">carbon</span> losses due to deforestation. Fragmentation in the tropics hence augments <span class="hlt">carbon</span> loss from deforestation substantially and should be taken into account both when analysing the role of vegetation in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance and when adopting new <span class="hlt">management</span> strategies in tropical forests.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huth, Andreas; Brinck, Katharina; Fischer, Rico; Groeneveld, Juergen; Puetz, Sandro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">56</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=164444"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> atmospheric black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> inferred from AERONET</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">AERONET, a network of well calibrated sunphotometers, provides data on aerosol optical depth and absorption optical depth at >250 sites around the world. The spectral range of AERONET allows discrimination between constituents that absorb most strongly in the UV region, such as soil dust and organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, and the more ubiquitously absorbing black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (BC). AERONET locations, primarily continental, are not representative of the <span class="hlt">global</span> mean, but they can be used to calibrate <span class="hlt">global</span> aerosol climatologies produced by tracer transport models. We find that the amount of BC in current climatologies must be increased by a factor of 2–4 to yield best agreement with AERONET, in the approximation in which BC is externally mixed with other aerosols. The inferred climate forcing by BC, regardless of whether it is internally or externally mixed, is ?1 W/m2, most of which is probably anthropogenic. This positive forcing (warming) by BC must substantially counterbalance cooling by anthropogenic reflective aerosols. Thus, especially if reflective aerosols such as sulfates are reduced, it is important to reduce BC to minimize <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. PMID:12746494</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sato, Makiko; Hansen, James; Koch, Dorothy; Lacis, Andrew; Ruedy, Reto; Dubovik, Oleg; Holben, Brent; Chin, Mian; Novakov, Tica</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">57</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PNAS..100.6319S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> atmospheric black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> inferred from AERONET</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">AERONET, a network of well calibrated sunphotometers, provides data on aerosol optical depth and absorption optical depth at >250 sites around the world. The spectral range of AERONET allows discrimination between constituents that absorb most strongly in the UV region, such as soil dust and organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, and the more ubiquitously absorbing black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (BC). AERONET locations, primarily continental, are not representative of the <span class="hlt">global</span> mean, but they can be used to calibrate <span class="hlt">global</span> aerosol climatologies produced by tracer transport models. We find that the amount of BC in current climatologies must be increased by a factor of 2-4 to yield best agreement with AERONET, in the approximation in which BC is externally mixed with other aerosols. The inferred climate forcing by BC, regardless of whether it is internally or externally mixed, is 1 W/m2, most of which is probably anthropogenic. This positive forcing (warming) by BC must substantially counterbalance cooling by anthropogenic reflective aerosols. Thus, especially if reflective aerosols such as sulfates are reduced, it is important to reduce BC to minimize <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. aerosols | air pollution | climate change</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sato, Makiko; Hansen, James; Koch, Dorothy; Lacis, Andrew; Ruedy, Reto; Dubovik, Oleg; Holben, Brent; Chin, Mian; Novakov, Tica</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">58</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://secure.ntsg.umt.edu/publications/2011/TMLKLRXCZPLR11/2010GB003838.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">China's terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance: Contributions from multiple <span class="hlt">global</span> change factors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake. Of particular importance to climatechange policy and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> is the ability from the spatial and temporal perspectives. [3] Of particular importance to climatechange policy</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Montana, University of</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">59</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.esd.ornl.gov/~wmp/publications.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span>/Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle Publications Baes, C. F., H. E. Goeller, J. S. Olson, and R. M. Rotty. 1977. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> dioxide and climate: The</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">. Rotty. 1977. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> dioxide and climate: The uncontrolled experiment. American Scientist 65.S. and the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide problem. Journal of Environmental <span class="hlt">Management</span> 10:37­49. Gardner, R. H., J. B. Mankin <span class="hlt">Carbon</span>. CONF-8108131. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dioxide Research Division, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. Post</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Post, Wilfred M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">60</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://people.oregonstate.edu/~schmita2/pdf/J/joos99sci.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming and Marine <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle Feedbacks on</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming and Marine <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle Feedbacks on Future Atmospheric CO2 Fortunat Joos,* Gian-biogeochemical climate model was used to project at- mospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide and <span class="hlt">global</span> warming for scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The North Atlantic thermohaline circulation weakens in all <span class="hlt">global</span> warming</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schmittner, Andreas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a 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<img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">61</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://spectare.ucl.slu.se/adm/adm/2010/H_doktor/3_P_Ineson.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle: It's a Small World!</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle: It's a Small World! Phil Ineson University of York UK #12;An "Empty" #12;The <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle (Pg C and Pg C/yr) Atmosphere 730 Accumulation + 3.2 Fossil fuels & cement uptake in different coupled models of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle-climate system, from Heimann & Reichstein (2008</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">62</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://environment.yale.edu/uploads/publications/Anisfeld-pub04.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration in tidal, saline wetland soils</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wetlands represent the largest component of the terrestrial biological <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pool and thus play an important role in <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycles. Most <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budgets, however, have focused on dry land ecosystems that extend over large areas and have not accounted for the many small, scattered carbonstoring ecosystems such as tidal saline wetlands. We compiled data for 154 sites in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gail L. Chmura; Shimon C. Anisfeld; Donald R. Cahoon; James C. Lynch</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">63</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2544524"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> synchronous changes in the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotopic composition of <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> sediments unrelated to changes in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotopic (?13C) composition of bulk <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> sediments deposited off the margins of four <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> platforms/ramp systems (Bahamas, Maldives, Queensland Plateau, and Great Australian Bight) show synchronous changes over the past 0 to 10 million years. However, these variations are different from the established <span class="hlt">global</span> pattern in the ?13C measured in the open oceans over the same time period. For example, from 10 Ma to the present, the ?13C of open oceanic <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> has decreased, whereas platform margin sediments analyzed here show an increase. It is suggested that the ?13C patterns in the marginal platform deposits are produced through admixing of aragonite-rich sediments, which have relatively positive ?13C values, with pelagic materials, which have lower ?13C values. As the more isotopically positive shallow-water <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> sediments are only produced when the platforms are flooded, there is a connection between changes in <span class="hlt">global</span> sea level and the ?13C of sediments in marginal settings. These data indicate that <span class="hlt">globally</span> synchronous changes in ?13C can take place that are completely unrelated to variations in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. Fluctuations in the ?13C of <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> sediments measured during previous geological periods may also be subject to similar processes, and <span class="hlt">global</span> synchroniety of ?13C can no longer necessarily be considered an indicator that such changes are related to, or caused by, variations in the burial of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Inferences regarding the interpretation of changes in the cycling of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> derived from ?13C records should be reconsidered in light of the findings presented here. PMID:18772393</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Swart, Peter K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">64</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1274090"> <span id="translatedtitle">The CharXive Challenge. Regulation of <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycles by vegetation fires</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is an open, but not unanswerable, question as to how much atmospheric CO2 is sequestered <span class="hlt">globally</span> by vegetation fires. In this work I conceptualise the question in terms of the general CharXive Challenge, discuss a mechanism by which thermoconversion of biomass may regulate the <span class="hlt">global</span> distribution of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> between reservoirs, show how suppression of vegetation fires by human activities may increase the fraction of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in the atmospheric pool, and pose three specific CharXive Challenges of crucial strategic significance to our <span class="hlt">management</span> of <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycles.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ball, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">65</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Knowledge+Management%22&id=EJ1034275"> <span id="translatedtitle">Knowledge <span class="hlt">Management</span> and <span class="hlt">Global</span> Information Dissemination</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper looked at knowledge <span class="hlt">management</span> and <span class="hlt">global</span> information dissemination. Knowledge is a very powerful tool for survival, growth and development. It can be seen as the information, understanding and skills that you gain through education or experience. The paper was addressed under the following sub-headings: Knowledge <span class="hlt">management</span> knowledge…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Umunadi, Ejiwoke Kennedy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">66</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nasstrac.org/membersonly/ArticlesOnline/PDFs/2008/NASSTRAC_Global_Supply_Chain_Risk_Management.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> supply chain risk <span class="hlt">management</span> strategies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose – <span class="hlt">Global</span> supply chains are more risky than domestic supply chains due to numerous links interconnecting a wide network of firms. These links are prone to disruptions, bankruptcies, breakdowns, macroeconomic and political changes, and disasters leading to higher risks and making risk <span class="hlt">management</span> difficult. The purpose of this paper is to explore the phenomenon of risk <span class="hlt">management</span> and risk</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ila Manuj; John T. Mentzer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">67</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.glbrc.org/education-and-outreach/teachers-12"> <span id="translatedtitle">Poker Chip Model: <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Pools and Fluxes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This short activity provides a way to improve understanding of a frequently-published diagram of <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pools and fluxes. Students create a scaled 3-D visual of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pools and net fluxes between pools.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Center, Great L.; Energy, U. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">68</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1992/10/01/000009265_3961003153846/Rendered/PDF/multi_page.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">World fossil fuel subsidies and <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Larsen and Shah present evidence on the level of fossil fuel subsidies and their implications for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide emissions. They conclude that substantial fossil fuel subsidies prevail in a handful of large, <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-emitting countries. Removing such subsidies could substantially reduce national <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions in some countries. <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions could be reduced by 9 percent, assuming no change in world</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bjorn Larsen; Anwar Shah</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">69</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer/biblio/1134278"> <span id="translatedtitle">Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span> Data from the <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p class="result-summary">CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, and models and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Collections under the broad heading of Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span> are organized as <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Accumulation with Cropland <span class="hlt">Management</span>, <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Accumulation with Grassland <span class="hlt">Management</span>, <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Loss Following Cultivation, <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Accumulation Following Afforestation, and <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Sources and Sinks Associated with U.S. Cropland Production.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">70</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6144287"> <span id="translatedtitle">(The ocean's role in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The traveler collaborated with Dr. J. L. Sarmiento of the Program in Atmospheric Sciences, Princeton University, and Dr. U. Siegenthaler of the University of Bern in box-model studies of the potential enhancement of oceanic CO{sub 2} uptake by fertilizing the southern ocean with iron. As a result of this collaboration, a letter describing the results was submitted to the journal Nature. Sensitivity studies were carried out to gain a better understanding of the processes involved for a hypothetical iron fertilization of the ocean. An article that describes this work has been submitted to the journal <span class="hlt">Global</span> Biogeochemical Cycles. The traveler and U. Siegenthaler are preparing a journal article describing a box model of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle that is an extension of the one-dimensional box-diffusion model. The traveler attended Oceanography 590b at the University of Washington in Friday Harbor. While at Friday Harbor, he started to collaborate with Drs. M. Warner, R. Gammon, and J. Bullister, all from the University of Washington, Seattle, to calibrate the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle model with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-11 and CFC-12. The traveler started collaboration with Drs. J. C. Orr and J. L. Sarmiento to calculate apparent eddy diffusivities from the Princeton three-dimensional ocean model. The work is conducted by the University of Bern, Switzerland (the traveler is principal investigator), for a US Department of Energy program <span class="hlt">managed</span> by Oak Ridge National Laboratory.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Joos, L.F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-12-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">71</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer/biblio/1077581"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Coastal <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Program Data from the <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p class="result-summary">CDIAC provides data <span class="hlt">management</span> support for the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Coastal <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Data Project. The coastal regions data are very important for the understanding of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle on the continental margins. The Coastal Project data include the bottle (discrete) and surface (underway) <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-related measurements from coastal research cruises, the data from time series cruises, and coastal moorings. The data from US East Coast, US West Coast, and European Coastal areas are available. CDIAC provides a map interface with vessel or platform names. Clicking on the name brings up information about the vessel or the scientific platform, the kinds of measurements collected and the timeframe, links to project pages, when available, and the links to the data files themselves.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">72</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/gb/gb0801/2007GB003037/2007GB003037.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Towards understanding <span class="hlt">global</span> variability in ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-13</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We include a prognostic parameterization of <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-13 into a <span class="hlt">global</span> ocean-biogeochemistry model to investigate the spatiotemporal variability in ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-13 between 1860 and 2000. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span>-13 was included in all 10 existing <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pools, with dynamic fractionations occurring during photosynthesis, gas exchange and <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> chemistry. We find that ocean distributions of ?13CDIC at any point in time are controlled by the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alessandro Tagliabue; Laurent Bopp</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">73</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/218168"> <span id="translatedtitle">Isotropic simple <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> model: The use of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotopes for model development. Ph.D. Thesis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> dioxide is a major greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. Anthropogenic CO2 emissions from fossil fuel use and deforestation have perturbed the natural <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. As a result, the atmospheric CO2 concentration has rapidly increased, causing the potential for <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. A twenty four compartment isotopic simple <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> model (IS-GCM) has been developed for scenario analysis, research needs prioritization, and for recommending strategies to stabilize the atmospheric CO2 level. CO2 fertilization and temperature effects are included in the terrestrial biosphere, and the ocean includes inorganic chemistry which, with ocean water circulation, enables the calculation of time-variable oceanic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake. The eight compartment simple <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> model (SGCM) served as the basis of the ISGCM model development. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> isotopes, C-13 (stable <span class="hlt">carbon</span>) and C-14(radiocarbon), were used for model constraints as well as results from SGCM that led to multiple compartments in ISGCM. The ISGCM was calibrated with the observed CO2 concentrations, delta C-13, and Delta C-14 in the atmosphere, Delta C-14 in the soil and Delta C-14 in the ocean. Also, ISGCM was constrained by literature values of oceanic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake (gas exchange) and CO2 emissions from deforestation. Inputs (forcing functions in the model) were the CO2 emissions from fossil fuel use and deforestation. Scenario analysis, together with emission strategies tests, indicate that urgent action to reduce anthropogenic emissions would need to be taken to stabilize atmospheric CO2. Results showed that quantitatively, forest <span class="hlt">management</span> is just as effective as the reduction of fossil fuel emissions in controlling atmospheric CO2. Sensitivity analysis of temperature feedback suggests that future <span class="hlt">global</span> warming would cause an additional perturbation in the <span class="hlt">global-carbon</span> cycle, resulting in depletion of soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, accumulation of plant biomass, and the increase of atmospheric CO2.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kwon, O.Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">74</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.sel.uaf.edu/manuscripts/059_tian003.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Regional <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics in monsoon Asia and its implications for the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Regional <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics in monsoon Asia and its implications for the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle Hanqin on the exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and monsoon Asian ecosystems. During 1860­1990, modeled results suggest that monsoon Asia as a whole released 29.0 Pg C, which represents 50% of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> release</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McGuire, A. David</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">75</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://climate.atmos.uiuc.edu/atuljain/publications/1999JD900992.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Model-based estimation of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget and its uncertainty from <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotope records</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide by the burning of fossil fuels ( 6 billion tons of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> per year). Possible shiftsModel-based estimation of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget and its uncertainty from <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide, balancing emissions from fossil fuel and land use with <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake by the oceans, and the terrestrial</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jain, Atul K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">76</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15001724"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigations into Wetland <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Sequestration as Remediation for <span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wetlands can potentially sequester vast amounts of <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. However, over 50% of wetlands <span class="hlt">globally</span> have been degraded or lost. Restoration of wetland systems may therefore result in increased sequestration of <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Preliminary results of our investigations into atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration by restored coastal wetlands indicate that <span class="hlt">carbon</span> can be sequestered in substantial quantities in the first 2-50 years after restoration of natural hydrology and sediment accretion processes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thom, Ronald M.; Blanton, Susan L.; Borde, Amy B.; Williams, Greg D.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Huesemann, Michael H.; KW Nehring and SE Brauning</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">77</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53904130"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fate of Fossil Fuel <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dioxide and the <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Budget</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fate of fossil fuel <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide released into the atmosphere depends on the exchange rates of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> between the atmosphere and three major <span class="hlt">carbon</span> reservoirs, namely, the oceans, shallow-water sediments, and the terrestrial biosphere. Various assumptions and models used to estimate the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget for the last 20 years are reviewed and evaluated. Several versions of recent atmosphere-ocean</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. S. Broecker; T. Takahashi; H. J. Simpson; T.-H. Peng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">78</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://info.ornl.gov/sites/publications/Files/Pub10608.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Sequestration and Its Role in the <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle Geophysical Monograph Series 183</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">73 <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Sequestration and Its Role in the <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle Geophysical Monograph Series 183. Blaine Metting2 The purpose of this chapter is to review terrestrial biological <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, USA. #12;74 TERRESTRIAL BIOLOGICAL <span class="hlt">CARBON</span> SEqUESTRATION</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pennycook, Steve</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">79</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/15005169"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fate of fossil fuel <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide and the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fate of fossil fuel <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide released into the atmosphere depends on the exchange rates of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> between the atmosphere and three major <span class="hlt">carbon</span> reservoirs, namely, the oceans, shallow-water sediments, and the terrestrial biosphere. Various assumptions and models used to estimate the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget for the last 20 years are reviewed and evaluated. Several versions of recent atmosphere-ocean</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. S. Broecker; T. Takahashi; H. J. Simpson; T.-H. Peng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">80</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUSM...B31B07H"> <span id="translatedtitle">An International Research Strategy: Towards a Joint IGBP/IHDP/WCRP <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle Project</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP), the International Human Dimensions Programme (IHDP) and the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) have agreed upon a joint project that integrates the biological, ecological, social, and physical climate communities is crucial towards understanding the Earth's <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> system. This joint science project will provide a platform to address the needs of the assessment, observing, and other scientific research communities. The aim is to address the necessary science needs while keeping in mind the policy relevance for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> strategies. The Joint <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle has several fundamental drivers: first, the human-environment system is intimately linked with the biophsysical <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle; second, it is clear that the terrestrial and ocean biosphere respond variably over space and time to fluctuations in atmospheric CO2, however, the patterns and processes that drive these responses in a coupled human-biophysical Earth's systems are largely unknown; and third, to predict and understand a linked human-biophysical <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle, a multiple constraint approach must be utilized that integrates process studies, manipulative experiments, observations and models. Finally, an international Project is necessary to facilitate and coordinate cooperation between national and regional programmes and governments to fit the pieces of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> puzzle in a coherent manner. A central problem in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle research is the synthesis of a wide variety of different measurements to provide the best possible information about the space-time distribution of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes and stores in the human, oceanic and terrestrial biospheres. Three key strategies will be employed to address our uncertainties in <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sources and sinks: (1) To constrain <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes and stores from multiple sources by integrating process studies, experiments, models, observations and case studies; (2) To incorporate institutions as the units (agents) of human-biophysical interactions in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle; and (3) To use the past as a means towards predicting future <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sources and sinks.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hibbard, K. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">4</a> <a 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href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">81</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ischool.berkeley.edu/~parikh/papers/vldb_globalhealth.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Data <span class="hlt">Management</span> for Meeting <span class="hlt">Global</span> Health Challenges Tapan S. Parikh</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Data <span class="hlt">Management</span> for Meeting <span class="hlt">Global</span> Health Challenges Tapan S. Parikh UC Berkeley School <span class="hlt">global</span> health challenges are becoming increasingly data driven. Governments and donors are demanding activities, and responding to remote outbreaks of disease. Data challenges in <span class="hlt">global</span> health intersect</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Parikh, Tapan S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">82</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.biometeorology.umn.edu/pdf/project4.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle Processes within a <span class="hlt">Managed</span> Landscape: An Ecosystem Manipulation and Isotope Tracer Approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Investigation of <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle Processes within a <span class="hlt">Managed</span> Landscape: An Ecosystem Manipulation a better scientific understanding of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle processes within an agricultural landscape characteristic (AmeriFlux, Fluxnet, BASIN, etc), which aim to better understand <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycling and climate change</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Minnesota, University of</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">83</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48831938"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dioxide Fluxes in the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Ocean</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">\\u000a Atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide concentration is one of the key variables of the ‘Earth system’ — the web of interactions between\\u000a the atmosphere, oceans, soils and living things that determines conditions at the Earth surface. Atmospheric CO2 plays several roles in this system. For example, it is the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> source for nearly all terrestrial green plants, and the\\u000a source of <span class="hlt">carbonic</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrew J. Watson; James C. Orr</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">84</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1015160"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Impacts (<span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle 2.0)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/">ScienceCinema</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ashok Gadgil, Faculty Senior Scientist and Acting Director, EETD, also Professor of Environmental Engineering, UC Berkeley, speaks at the <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more <span class="hlt">carbon</span> into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gadgil, Ashok [EETD and UC Berkeley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-06-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">85</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1015160"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Impacts (<span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle 2.0)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ashok Gadgil, Faculty Senior Scientist and Acting Director, EETD, also Professor of Environmental Engineering, UC Berkeley, speaks at the <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more <span class="hlt">carbon</span> into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gadgil, Ashok [EETD and UC Berkeley] [EETD and UC Berkeley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-02-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">86</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EOSTr..92R..75T"> <span id="translatedtitle">In Brief: Reducing black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions could immediately reduce <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature increases</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new assessment by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) shows that measures to reduce emissions of black <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, or soot, which is produced through burning of wood and other biofuels as well as by some industrial processes, could improve public health and help to significantly reduce projected <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature increases. The Integrated Assessment of Black <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> and Tropospheric Ozone highlights how specific measures targeting black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and other emissions from fossil fuel extraction, residential wood-burning cooking, diesel vehicles, waste <span class="hlt">management</span>, agriculture, and small industries could affect climate. Full implementation of a variety of measures to reduce black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and methane emissions could reduce future <span class="hlt">global</span> warming by about 0.5°C, the assessment found. Reducing black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> could have substantial benefits in the Arctic, the Himalayas, and other snow-covered regions because black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> that settles on top of snow absorbs heat, speeding melting of snow and ice. Black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emission reductions would affect <span class="hlt">global</span> temperatures more quickly than <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide emission reductions. Furthermore, reducing black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions would improve public health in the regions that emit large amounts of the harmful air pollutant.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tretkoff, Ernie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">87</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1098570"> <span id="translatedtitle">Combustion of biomass as a <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This note is intended to highlight the important role of black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> produced from biomass burning in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle, and encourage further research in this area. Consideration of the fundamental physical chemistry of cellulose thermal decomposition suggests that suppression of biomass burning or biasing burning practices to produce soot-free flames must inevitably transfer more <span class="hlt">carbon</span> to the atmosphere. A simple order-of-magnitude quantitative analysis indicates that black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> may be a significant <span class="hlt">carbon</span> reservoir that persists over geological time scales.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ball, Rowena</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">88</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40832121"> <span id="translatedtitle">A model of <span class="hlt">global</span> thermal conductivity in laminated <span class="hlt">carbon\\/carbon</span> composites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Starting with thermal conductivity components for the individual continuous unidirectional fiber-reinforced lamina or ply, a method has been developed to determine <span class="hlt">global</span> conductivities in a laminated <span class="hlt">carbon\\/carbon</span> composite. Assuming that all laminae are identical in thickness and in fiber content, effective thermal conductivity in each <span class="hlt">global</span> direction is determined for the laminated composite. Results are reported for a few selected</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. R. Kulkarni; R. P. Brady</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">89</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51248503"> <span id="translatedtitle">Monthly, <span class="hlt">global</span> emissions of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide from fossil fuel consumption</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, <span class="hlt">global</span> time series of fossil-fuel <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide emissions for the years 1950-2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80% of <span class="hlt">global</span> total emissions. These data were then used in a Monte Carlo approach to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robert Joseph Andres; J. S. Gregg; London M Losey; Gregg Marland; Thomas A Boden</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">90</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cafethorium.whoi.edu/website/publications/Siegel_etal_GBC_2014.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> assessment of ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> export by combining satellite observations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Global</span> assessment of ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> export by combining satellite observations and food-web models D, to drive a food-web model that estimates the production of sinking zooplankton feces and algal aggregates of incident photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) is found. Fixed organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in the euphotic zone</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Buesseler, Ken</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">91</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ngee-arctic.ornl.gov/sites/ngee.ornl.gov/files/Koven%20et%20al.%20(2011).pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Permafrost <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-climate feedbacks accelerate <span class="hlt">global</span> warming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Permafrost <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-climate feedbacks accelerate <span class="hlt">global</span> warming Charles D. Kovena,b,1 , Bruno, and approved July 12, 2011 (received for review March 24, 2011) Permafrost soils contain enormous amounts respiration rates with warming. We have used a terrestrial ecosystem model that includes permafrost <span class="hlt">carbon</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">92</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/n2488570q323486v.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-sequestration potential of a <span class="hlt">global</span> afforestation program</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyzed the changes in the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle that could be achieved with a <span class="hlt">global</span>, largescale afforestation program that is economically, politically, and technically feasible. We estimated that of the areas regarded as suitable for large-scale plantations, only about 345 million ha would actually be available for plantations and agroforestry for the sole purpose of sequestering <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. The maximum annual</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sten Nilsson; Wolfgang Schopfhauser</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">93</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/3103026"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fire, <span class="hlt">global</span> warming, and the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance of boreal forests</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fire strongly influences <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycling and storage in boreal forests. In the near-term, if <span class="hlt">global</span> warming occurs, the frequency and intensity of fires in boreal forests are likely to increase significantly. A sensitivity analysis on the relationship between fire and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage in the living-biomass and ground-layer compartments of boreal forests was performed to determine how the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks would</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. S. Kasischke; N. L. Jr. Christensen; B. J. Stocks</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">94</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2812575"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> pools and flux of <span class="hlt">global</span> forest ecosystems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Forest systems cover more than 4.1 x 10[sup 9] hectares of the Earth's land area. <span class="hlt">Globally</span>, forest vegetation and soils contain about 1146 petagrams of <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, with approximately 37 percent of this <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in low-latitude forests, 14 percent in mid-latitudes, and 49 percent at high latitudes. Over two-thirds of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in forest ecosystems is contained in soils and associated</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. K. Dixon; A. M. Solomon; R. A. Houghton; M. C. Trexler; J. Wisniewski</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">95</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B11D0514S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observatory enabled modeling of the <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A central challenge to <span class="hlt">global</span> modeling of the terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle is the scaling of organism-scale characteristics to large regions. Emerging ground- and space-based <span class="hlt">global</span> observatories will allow coupling observations directly to state and parameter values in a state-of-the-art coupled <span class="hlt">carbon</span> climate model. Model-data fusion will qualitatively improve understanding and forecasting of interannual to centennial scale responses of terrestrial ecosystems and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle to <span class="hlt">global</span> environmental change. This modeling study will use the baseline measures of <span class="hlt">global</span> terrestrial ecosystem biochemical composition to reduce uncertainty in forecasting E&CC responses to climate and land-use change. The NCAR Community Land Model (Community Land Model - <span class="hlt">Carbon</span>/Nitrogen or CLM-CN) simulates <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, water and energy exchange at the land surface and includes detailed parameters governing plant-mediated fluxes and storage NEON and NCAR are developing a data assimilation version of the CLM, designed to work with new observatory data. Data requirements of CLM are quite different from earlier generation land surface models because the nitrogen cycle is explicitly simulated. Nitrogen concentrations regulate plant photosynthesis and decomposition of dead organic matter but their within biome and <span class="hlt">global</span> distributions are poorly constrained by observations. Developing a Observatory-enabled version of the CLM, and the cyberinfrastructure to support it creates a very different set of requirements for modeling and observatory information systems than traditional approaches. In the talk, we will discuss briefly the science of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> data assimilation and the observing requirements it generates.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schimel, D.; Fox, A. M.; Moore, D. J.; Sacks, W. J.; Berukoff, S. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">96</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE200515016353"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Biogeochemstry Models and <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle Research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The climate modeling community has long envisioned an evolution from physical climate models to 'earth system' models that include the effects of biology and chemistry, particularly those processes related to the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. The widely reproduced...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. Covey, K. Caldeira, T. Guilderson, P. Cameron-Smith, B. Govindasamy, C. Swanston, M. Wickett, A. Mirin, D. Bader</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">97</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JOM....64b.285D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Achieving <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Neutrality in the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Aluminum Industry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the 21st century, sustainability is widely regarded as the new corporate culture, and leading manufacturing companies (Toyota, GE, and Alcoa) and service companies (Google and Federal Express) are striving towards <span class="hlt">carbon</span> neutrality. The current <span class="hlt">carbon</span> footprint of the <span class="hlt">global</span> aluminum industry is estimated at 500 million metric tonnes <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide equivalent (CO2eq), representing about 1.7% of <span class="hlt">global</span> emissions from all sources. For the <span class="hlt">global</span> aluminum industry, <span class="hlt">carbon</span> neutrality is defined as a state where the total "in-use" CO2eq saved from all products in current use, including incremental process efficiency improvements, recycling, and urban mining activities, equals the CO2eq expended to produce the <span class="hlt">global</span> output of aluminum. This paper outlines an integrated and quantifiable plan for achieving "<span class="hlt">carbon</span> neutrality" in the <span class="hlt">global</span> aluminum industry by advocating five actionable steps: (1) increase use of "green" electrical energy grid by 8%, (2) reduce process energy needs by 16%, (3) deploy 35% of products in "in-use" energy saving applications, (4) divert 6.1 million metric tonnes/year from landfills, and (5) mine 4.5 million metric tonnes/year from aluminum-rich "urban mines." Since it takes 20 times more energy to make aluminum from bauxite ore than to recycle it from scrap, the <span class="hlt">global</span> aluminum industry could set a reasonable, self-imposed energy/<span class="hlt">carbon</span> neutrality goal to incrementally increase the supply of recycled aluminum by at least 1.05 metric tonnes for every tonne of incremental production via primary aluminum smelter capacity. Furthermore, the aluminum industry can and should take a <span class="hlt">global</span> leadership position by actively developing internationally accepted and approved <span class="hlt">carbon</span> footprint credit protocols.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Das, Subodh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">98</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://carboncycle.aos.wisc.edu/carbon-budget-tool/"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Budget 1960 - 2100</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This simulation allows the user to project CO2 sources and sinks by adjusting the points on a graph and then running the simulation to see projections for the impact on atmospheric CO2 and <span class="hlt">global</span> temperatures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mckinley, Galen; Madison, University O.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">99</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54152688"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> sequestration and its role in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The science of climate change, and the role <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide (CO2) plays in it, was launched into the public consciousness by Charles David Keeling's investigations in the late 1950s. Keeling conducted early atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> measurements high on Hawaii's Mauna Loa volcano and found that even after ruling out natural fluctuations, the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere was increasing year</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Colin Schultz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">100</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.plantsciences.ucdavis.edu/Agroecology/staff/documents/GWP_NT_CT.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The potential to mitigate <span class="hlt">global</span> warming with no-tillage <span class="hlt">management</span> is only realized when practised in the</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The potential to mitigate <span class="hlt">global</span> warming with no-tillage <span class="hlt">management</span> is only realized when practised impact of NT adoption reduces the net <span class="hlt">global</span> warming potential (GWP) determined by fluxes of the three is essential to realize the full benefit from <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage in the soil for purposes of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Six, Johan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">101</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gfdl.gov/bibliography/related_files/rmk0401.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">global</span> ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> climatology: Results from <span class="hlt">Global</span> Data Analysis Project (GLODAP)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the 1990s, ocean sampling expeditions were carried out as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the Joint <span class="hlt">Global</span> Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), and the Ocean Atmosphere <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Exchange Study (OACES). Subsequently, a group of U.S. scientists synthesized the data into easily usable and readily available products. This collaboration is known as the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Ocean Data Analysis Project</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robert Key; Alexander Kozyr; Chris Sabine; K. Lee; R. Wanninkhof; J. L. Bullister; R. A. Feely; F. J. Millero; C. Mordy; T.-H. Peng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">102</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17608597"> <span id="translatedtitle">Strengthening bioterrorism prevention: <span class="hlt">global</span> biological materials <span class="hlt">management</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The anthrax attacks of 2001 demonstrated that bioterrorism poses a significant threat to U.S. national security. This threat is increasing as a result of the rapid expansion in scale and technical capabilities of the <span class="hlt">global</span> biotechnology industry, which is broadening the availability of materials, technologies, and expertise needed to produce a biological weapon and is lowering the barriers to biological weapons terrorism and proliferation. At the same time, there has been a rise of sophisticated yet loosely networked transnational terrorist groups that have shown an interest in bioterrorism. The United States must confront this convergence. Although the U.S. government pursues many different biodefense programs to bolster its ability to detect and respond to a bioterrorist attack, these efforts must be augmented with preventive measures to meet today's international challenges. U.S. Homeland Security Presidential Directive 10 of April 2004 defines "Prevention and Protection" as one of the four essential pillars of the U.S. response to the bioterrorist threat. However, while bioscience and policy experts have proposed a variety of preventive initiatives, the creation of such programs has been slow and limited. <span class="hlt">Global</span> biological materials <span class="hlt">management</span>, which would focus on identifying and protecting those biological materials at the greatest risk of being used maliciously, is one potential solution. Such an approach would augment current U.S. biodefense efforts, provide the international community an effective means of mitigating the <span class="hlt">global</span> threat of bioterrorism, and strengthen the international community's battle against emerging infectious disease. PMID:17608597</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Salerno, Reynolds M; Hickok, Lauren T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">103</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.B53C0405I"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> simulation of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotope exchange of terrestrial ecosystems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There remain large uncertainties in our quantification of <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle, which has close interactions with the climate system and is subject to human-induced <span class="hlt">global</span> environmental change. Information on <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotopes is expected to reduce the uncertainty by providing additional constraints on net atmosphere-ecosystem exchange. This study attempted to simulate the dynamics of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotopes at the <span class="hlt">global</span> scale, using a process-based terrestrial ecosystem model: Vegetation Integrative SImulator for Trace gases (VISIT). The base-model of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle (Sim-CYCLE, Ito 2003) has already considered stable <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotope composition (13C/12C), and here radioactive <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotope (14C) was included. The isotope ratios characterize various aspects of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle, which is difficult to be constrained by sole mass balance. For example, isotopic discrimination by photosynthetic assimilation is closely related with leaf stomatal conductance and composition of C3 and C4 plant in grasslands. Isotopic disequilibrium represents mean residence time of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pools. In this study, <span class="hlt">global</span> simulations (spatial resolution 0.5-deg, time-step 1-month) were conducted during the period 1901 to 2100 on the basis of observed and projected atmospheric CO2, climate, and land-use conditions. As anthropogenic CO2 accumulates in the atmosphere, heavier stable <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotope (13C) was diluted, while radioactive <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotope (14C) is strongly affected by atomic bomb experiments mainly in the 1950s and 1960s. The model simulated the decadal change in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotope compositions. Leaf <span class="hlt">carbon</span> with shorter mean residence time responded rapidly to the atmospheric change, while plant stems and soil humus showed substantial time-lag, leading to large isotopic disequilibrium. In the future, the isotopic disequilibrium was estimated to augment, due to accelerated rate of anthropogenic CO2 accumulation. Spatial distribution of stable isotope composition (12C/13C, or d13C) was primarily dominated by C3/C4 plant composition and then ancillary environmental conditions. Along latitude, plant and litter <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pools in northern ecosystems have slower turnover rates (i.e., higher 14C/12C) than those in tropical ecosystems. However, humus <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in northern ecosystems with very long mean residence times has lower 14C/12C ratio, most of bomb-derived radioactive <span class="hlt">carbon</span> lingered still in plant biomass. Now, we are attempting to examine the model estimations by comparing with atmospheric measurements.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ito, A.; Terao, Y.; Mukai, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">104</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9j4013J"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">global</span> predictive model of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in mangrove soils</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mangroves are among the most threatened and rapidly vanishing natural environments worldwide. They provide a wide range of ecosystem services and have recently become known for their exceptional capacity to store <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Research shows that mangrove conservation may be a low-cost means of reducing CO2 emissions. Accordingly, there is growing interest in developing market mechanisms to credit mangrove conservation projects for associated CO2 emissions reductions. These efforts depend on robust and readily applicable, but currently unavailable, localized estimates of soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Here, we use over 900 soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> measurements, collected in 28 countries by 61 independent studies, to develop a <span class="hlt">global</span> predictive model for mangrove soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Using climatological and locational data as predictors, we explore several predictive modeling alternatives, including machine-learning methods. With our predictive model, we construct a <span class="hlt">global</span> dataset of estimated soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> concentrations and stocks on a high-resolution grid (5 arc min). We estimate that the <span class="hlt">global</span> mangrove soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stock is 5.00 ± 0.94 Pg C (assuming a 1 meter soil depth) and find this stock is highly variable over space. The amount of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> per hectare in the world’s most <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-rich mangroves (approximately 703 ± 38 Mg C ha?1) is roughly a 2.6 ± 0.14 times the amount of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> per hectare in the world’s most <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-poor mangroves (approximately 272 ± 49 Mg C ha?1). Considerable within country variation in mangrove soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> also exists. In Indonesia, the country with the largest mangrove soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stock, we estimate that the most <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-rich mangroves contain 1.5 ± 0.12 times as much <span class="hlt">carbon</span> per hectare as the most <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-poor mangroves. Our results can aid in evaluating benefits from mangrove conservation and designing mangrove conservation policy. Additionally, the results can be used to project changes in mangrove soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks based on changing climatological predictors, e.g. to assess the impacts of climate change on mangrove soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jardine, Sunny L.; Siikamäki, Juha V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">105</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6645133"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycles: A coupled atmosphere-ocean-sediment model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A simple one-dimensional advective-diffusive ocean model with a polar outcrop is developed and calibrated to fit modern ocean temperature, phosphorus, oxygen, total <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, and total alkalinity data. The ocean model includes an atmospheric box which predicts atmospheric P[sub CO2] and oxygen concentrations. In addition, a sediment model is designed to reproduce modern sediment profiles of solid organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and calcite, and pore water oxygen, sulfate, <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> bicarbonate and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide. The organic matter sediment model is used to investigate the interplay of sedimentation rate, bioturbation and microbial kinetics on the total rates of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and phosphorus regeneration and accumulation in marine sediments. This is done for sediments ranging from coastal to deep ocean. The model is sensitive to the organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux, sedimentation rate, bottom water oxygen concentration, degradation kinetics and bioturbation rate. The type of diagenetic environment and the extent of remineralization is very dependent on these variables which are currently poorly constrained. The <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> model uses organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, oxygen and sulfate profiles from the organic sediment as input in addition to the total <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and alkalinity of the overlying water. It predicts the <span class="hlt">carbonate</span>, bicarbonate and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide pore water concentrations and the sedimentary <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> fraction. The lysocline and <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> compensation depth are sensitive to the calcite dissolution rate, the organic to inorganic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> ratio and organic matter degradation. The sediment and ocean models are combined to form an atmosphere-ocean-sediment model which is used to test the hypothesis that decreased polar surface nutrients and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> is the cause of the 80 ppm reduction in atmospheric P[sub CO2] observed during the last ice age. The coupled model suggests that sediments play an important role in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tromp, T.K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">106</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.regional.org.au/au/asssi/supersoil2004/pdf/1489_ricec.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Managing</span> the microbial community for soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration in agriculture may provide offsets for fossil fuel emissions. The activity and composition of the soil microbial community regulates the conversion of plant <span class="hlt">carbon</span> into soil organic matter. Thus changes in the microbial community or its activity may provide opportunities to enhance C sequestration. Plant and soil <span class="hlt">management</span> can directly and indirectly change the microbial community. By</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Charles W. Rice; Paul M. White; Karina P. Fabrizzi; Gail W. T. Wilson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">107</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025344"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration in tidal, saline wetland soils</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wetlands represent the largest component of the terrestrial biological <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pool and thus play an important role in <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycles. Most <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budgets, however, have focused on dry land ecosystems that extend over large areas and have not accounted for the many small, scattered <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-storing ecosystems such as tidal saline wetlands. We compiled data for 154 sites in mangroves and salt marshes from the western and eastern Atlantic and Pacific coasts, as well as the Indian Ocean, Mediterranean Ocean, and Gulf of Mexico. The set of sites spans a latitudinal range from 22.4??S in the Indian Ocean to 55.5??N in the northeastern Atlantic. The average soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> density of mangrove swamps (0.055 ?? 0.004 g cm-3) is significantly higher than the salt marsh average (0.039 ?? 0.003 g cm-3). Soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> density in mangrove swamps and Spartina patens marshes declines with increasing average annual temperature, probably due to increased decay rates at higher temperatures. In contrast, <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration rates were not significantly different between mangrove swamps and salt marshes. Variability in sediment accumulation rates within marshes is a major control of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration rates masking any relationship with climatic parameters. <span class="hlt">Globally</span>, these combined wetlands store at least 44.6 Tg C yr-1 and probably more, as detailed areal inventories are not available for salt marshes in China and South America. Much attention has been given to the role of freshwater wetlands, particularly northern peatlands, as <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinks. In contrast to peatlands, salt marshes and mangroves release negligible amounts of greenhouse gases and store more <span class="hlt">carbon</span> per unit area. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chmura, G.L.; Anisfeld, S.C.; Cahoon, D.R.; Lynch, J.C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">108</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EOSTr..92...97Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Peatlands and Their Role in the <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Global</span> peatlands store a very large <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (C) pool located within a few meters of the atmosphere. Thus, peatland-atmosphere C exchange should be a major concern to <span class="hlt">global</span> change scientists: Will large amounts of respired belowground C be released in a warmer climate, causing the climate to further warm (a positive climate feedback)? Will more C be sequestered due to increased plant growth in a warmer climate? How will land use change, fires, and permafrost thaw affect the magnitude and direction of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) exchange with the atmosphere? These questions remain challenging, but some significant progress has been made recently.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yu, Zicheng; Beilman, D. W.; Frolking, S.; MacDonald, G. M.; Roulet, N. T.; Camill, P.; Charman, D. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">109</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6299262"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> energy futures and the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide problem</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The continued rise in atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide, most of which originates as a result of fossil fuel combustion, poses potentially serious long-term risks to the <span class="hlt">global</span> climate and biological systems. The potential risks associated with moderate increases in the burning of fossil fuels are discussed. The CO2 issue must be incorporated into the development of U.S. and <span class="hlt">global</span> energy policies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Speth, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">110</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/95/23/67/PDF/BONNET_DANMS11.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Situated vs. <span class="hlt">Global</span> Aggregation Schemes for Autonomous <span class="hlt">Management</span> Systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Situated vs. <span class="hlt">Global</span> Aggregation Schemes for Autonomous <span class="hlt">Management</span> Systems Rafik Makhloufi to ensure the efficiency of an autonomous <span class="hlt">management</span> system. Thus, in this paper, we perform an exhaustive <span class="hlt">Managers</span> (AMs) of an autonomous <span class="hlt">management</span> system need to collect <span class="hlt">management</span> information from the network</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">111</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3433453"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimating <span class="hlt">Global</span> "Blue <span class="hlt">Carbon</span>" Emissions from Conversion and Degradation of Vegetated Coastal Ecosystems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent attention has focused on the high rates of annual <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration in vegetated coastal ecosystems—marshes, mangroves, and seagrasses—that may be lost with habitat destruction (‘conversion’). Relatively unappreciated, however, is that conversion of these coastal ecosystems also impacts very large pools of previously-sequestered <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Residing mostly in sediments, this ‘blue <span class="hlt">carbon</span>’ can be released to the atmosphere when these ecosystems are converted or degraded. Here we provide the first <span class="hlt">global</span> estimates of this impact and evaluate its economic implications. Combining the best available data on <span class="hlt">global</span> area, land-use conversion rates, and near-surface <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks in each of the three ecosystems, using an uncertainty-propagation approach, we estimate that 0.15–1.02 Pg (billion tons) of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide are being released annually, several times higher than previous estimates that account only for lost sequestration. These emissions are equivalent to 3–19% of those from deforestation <span class="hlt">globally</span>, and result in economic damages of $US 6–42 billion annually. The largest sources of uncertainty in these estimates stems from limited certitude in <span class="hlt">global</span> area and rates of land-use conversion, but research is also needed on the fates of ecosystem <span class="hlt">carbon</span> upon conversion. Currently, <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions from the conversion of vegetated coastal ecosystems are not included in emissions accounting or <span class="hlt">carbon</span> market protocols, but this analysis suggests they may be disproportionally important to both. Although the relevant science supporting these initial estimates will need to be refined in coming years, it is clear that policies encouraging the sustainable <span class="hlt">management</span> of coastal ecosystems could significantly reduce <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions from the land-use sector, in addition to sustaining the well-recognized ecosystem services of coastal habitats. PMID:22962585</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Murray, Brian C.; Crooks, Stephen; Jenkins, W. Aaron; Sifleet, Samantha; Craft, Christopher; Fourqurean, James W.; Kauffman, J. Boone; Marba, Nuria; Megonigal, Patrick; Pidgeon, Emily; Herr, Dorothee; Gordon, David; Baldera, Alexis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">112</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030033057&hterms=mab&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dmab"> <span id="translatedtitle">Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) (<span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This bimonthly contractor progress report covers the operation, maintenance and data <span class="hlt">management</span> of the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar and the Airborne Topographic Mapper. Monthly activities included: mission planning, sensor operation and calibration, data processing, data analysis, network development and maintenance and instrument maintenance engineering and fabrication.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">113</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3682745"> <span id="translatedtitle">Terrestrial nitrogen-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle interactions at the <span class="hlt">global</span> scale</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Interactions between the terrestrial nitrogen (N) and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (C) cycles shape the response of ecosystems to <span class="hlt">global</span> change. However, the <span class="hlt">global</span> distribution of nitrogen availability and its importance in <span class="hlt">global</span> biogeochemistry and biogeochemical interactions with the climate system remain uncertain. Based on projections of a terrestrial biosphere model scaling ecological understanding of nitrogen–<span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle interactions to <span class="hlt">global</span> scales, anthropogenic nitrogen additions since 1860 are estimated to have enriched the terrestrial biosphere by 1.3 Pg N, supporting the sequestration of 11.2 Pg C. Over the same time period, CO2 fertilization has increased terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage by 134.0 Pg C, increasing the terrestrial nitrogen stock by 1.2 Pg N. In 2001–2010, terrestrial ecosystems sequestered an estimated total of 27 Tg N yr?1 (1.9 Pg C yr?1), of which 10 Tg N yr?1 (0.2 Pg C yr?1) are due to anthropogenic nitrogen deposition. Nitrogen availability already limits terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration in the boreal and temperate zone, and will constrain future <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration in response to CO2 fertilization (regionally by up to 70% compared with an estimate without considering nitrogen–<span class="hlt">carbon</span> interactions). This reduced terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake will probably dominate the role of the terrestrial nitrogen cycle in the climate system, as it accelerates the accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere. However, increases of N2O emissions owing to anthropogenic nitrogen and climate change (at a rate of approx. 0.5 Tg N yr?1 per 1°C degree climate warming) will add an important long-term climate forcing. PMID:23713123</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zaehle, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">114</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://water.usgs.gov/nrp/proj.bib/Publications/2010/waldrop_wickland_etal_2010.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Molecular investigations into a <span class="hlt">globally</span> important <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pool: permafrost-protected <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in Alaskan soils</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Molecular investigations into a <span class="hlt">globally</span> important <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pool: permafrost-protected <span class="hlt">carbon</span>) contained within permafrost in boreal forest environments is an important consideration for the current the microbiology or chemistry of permafrost soils that may affect its decomposition once soils thaw. We tested</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">115</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/phy03.sci.phys.matter.co2/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming: <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dioxide and the Greenhouse Effect</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This video segment demonstrates <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide's role in the greenhouse effect and explains how increasing concentrations of C02 in the atmosphere may be contributing to <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. Video includes an unusual demonstration of C02's heat-absorbing properties, using infrared film, a researcher's face, and a stream of C02 between them.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Frontline/nova; Foundation, Wgbh E.; Domain, Teachers'</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">116</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://math.nist.gov/~BRust/pubs/Interface2005/PrePrint.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dioxide, <span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear"</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">demonstrates the connections between fossil fuel emissions, atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide concentrations coupling that warming to <span class="hlt">global</span> fossil fuel CO2 emissions. 1 #12;2 B. W. Rust Figure 1: Michael Crichton and Statistics, Vol. 37. Abstract In his recent novel, State of Fear (HarperCollins, 2004), Michael Crichton ques</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rust, Bert W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">117</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54507320"> <span id="translatedtitle">Trade-offs between solar radiation <span class="hlt">management</span>, <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide removal, emissions mitigation and adaptation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The possible use of solar radiation control strategies to counteract <span class="hlt">global</span> warming is explored through a number scenarios of different anthropogenic CO2 emission reduction pathways and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide removal interventions. Using a simple Earth system model, we illustrate the trade-offs between CO2 emission reduction, the use of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide removal geoengineering interventions (`negative emissions') and solar radiation <span class="hlt">management</span> (SRM). These</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Naomi Vaughan; Timothy Lenton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">118</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6302821"> <span id="translatedtitle">Data <span class="hlt">management</span> and <span class="hlt">global</span> change research: Technology and infrastructure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is a consensus among many scientists who would perform <span class="hlt">global</span> change research that <span class="hlt">global</span>-scale scientific data <span class="hlt">management</span> programs and enabling policies need to be developed and implemented concomitantly with, if not in advance of, <span class="hlt">global</span> change research programs. They are hopeful that US Federal government policies for scientific and technical data and information <span class="hlt">management</span> will provide timely archival, analysis, and dissemination of <span class="hlt">global</span> change research data and will enable them to share that data with colleagues, internationally. Federal data <span class="hlt">managers</span> believe that data <span class="hlt">management</span> technology and infrastructure requirements for <span class="hlt">global</span> change research programs can be met through existing or planned enhancements to systems in operation used for scientific data gathering, processing, and dissemination. Scientists are concerned, however, that because of the scope and diversity of <span class="hlt">global</span> change research programs entirely new systems and approaches to data <span class="hlt">management</span> may need to be devised.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morrissey, W.A. (Technical Information Specialist, Congressional Research Service, Washington, DC (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">119</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1019358"> <span id="translatedtitle">Monthly, <span class="hlt">global</span> emissions of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide from fossil fuel consumption</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, <span class="hlt">global</span> time series of fossil-fuel <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide emissions for the years 1950 2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80% of <span class="hlt">global</span> total emissions. These data were then used in a Monte Carlo approach to proxy for all remaining countries. The proportional-proxy methodology estimates by fuel group the fraction of annual emissions emitted in each country and month. Emissions from solid, liquid and gas fuels are explicitly modelled by the proportional-proxy method. The primary conclusion from this study is the <span class="hlt">global</span> monthly time series is statistically significantly different from a uniform distribution throughout the year. Uncertainty analysis of the data presented show that the proportional-proxy method used faithfully reproduces monthly patterns in the data and the <span class="hlt">global</span> monthly pattern of emissions is relatively insensitive to the exact proxy assignments used. The data and results presented here should lead to a better understanding of <span class="hlt">global</span> and regional <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycles, especially when the mass data are combined with the stable <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotope data in atmospheric transport models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andres, Robert Joseph [ORNL; Gregg, JS [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark; Losey, London M [ORNL; Marland, Gregg [ORNL; Boden, Thomas A [ORNL</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">120</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011TellB..63..309A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Monthly, <span class="hlt">global</span> emissions of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide from fossil fuel consumption</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, <span class="hlt">global</span> time series of fossil-fuel <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide emissions for the years 1950-2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80% of <span class="hlt">global</span> total emissions. These data were then used in a Monte Carlo approach to proxy for all remaining countries. The proportional-proxy methodology estimates by fuel group the fraction of annual emissions emitted in each country and month. Emissions from solid, liquid and gas fuels are explicitly modelled by the proportional-proxy method. The primary conclusion from this study is the <span class="hlt">global</span> monthly time series is statistically significantly different from a uniform distribution throughout the year. Uncertainty analysis of the data presented show that the proportional-proxy method used faithfully reproduces monthly patterns in the data and the <span class="hlt">global</span> monthly pattern of emissions is relatively insensitive to the exact proxy assignments used. The data and results presented here should lead to a better understanding of <span class="hlt">global</span> and regional <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycles, especially when the mass data are combined with the stable <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotope data in atmospheric transport models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andres, R. J.; Gregg, J. S.; Losey, L.; Marland, G.; Boden, T. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">121</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15192216"> <span id="translatedtitle">Soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration impacts on <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change and food security.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink capacity of the world's agricultural and degraded soils is 50 to 66% of the historic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> loss of 42 to 78 gigatons of <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. The rate of soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration with adoption of recommended technologies depends on soil texture and structure, rainfall, temperature, farming system, and soil <span class="hlt">management</span>. Strategies to increase the soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pool include soil restoration and woodland regeneration, no-till farming, cover crops, nutrient <span class="hlt">management</span>, manuring and sludge application, improved grazing, water conservation and harvesting, efficient irrigation, agroforestry practices, and growing energy crops on spare lands. An increase of 1 ton of soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pool of degraded cropland soils may increase crop yield by 20 to 40 kilograms per hectare (kg/ha) for wheat, 10 to 20 kg/ha for maize, and 0.5 to 1 kg/ha for cowpeas. As well as enhancing food security, <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration has the potential to offset fossil fuel emissions by 0.4 to 1.2 gigatons of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> per year, or 5 to 15% of the <span class="hlt">global</span> fossil-fuel emissions. PMID:15192216</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lal, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-06-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">122</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntu.ac.uk/ecoweb/document_uploads/80856.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">November 2012 Key Performance Indicator (KPI): <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">November 2012 Key Performance Indicator (KPI): <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span> NTU report our <span class="hlt">carbon</span> footprint provided. The <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions are calculated using <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Trust conversion factors, as used in NTU's EMS.64 2011/2012 18,130 4.20 The recorded changes in emissions are a result of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> projects</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Evans, Paul</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">123</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996AIPC..361..857S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> composites for thermal <span class="hlt">management</span> applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A family of high thermal conductivity <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fiber reinforced composites has been developed for thermal <span class="hlt">management</span> applications in spacecraft and electronic packaging. Light weight <span class="hlt">Carbon-Carbon</span> (C-C) composites can offer extremely high thermal conductivity in the fiber direction along with high stiffness and zero coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Thermal doubler and radiator face sheet are potential applications. On the other hand, metal impregnated C-C composites provides matching CTE to electronic packaging substrates, such as alumina and silicon. Avionic thermal planes and thermal spreader/heat sinks are possible applications.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shih, Wei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">124</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37859110"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Management</span> consultancies as <span class="hlt">global</span> change agents? : Evidence from Italy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Examines the role of small, locally based <span class="hlt">management</span> consultancies as <span class="hlt">global</span> change agents. Based on evidence from Italy, shows that these consultancies not only have <span class="hlt">managed</span> to develop successful survival strategies, but also play an important role in the dissemination and translation of new <span class="hlt">management</span> knowledge into a local context, thus contributing to an increasing homogenization of <span class="hlt">management</span> practice. Draws</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cristina Crucini; Matthias Kipping</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">125</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.bath.ac.uk/estates/docs/University_of_Bath_HECM6_Carbon_Management_Plan.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">University of Bath <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span> Plan working with</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Management</span> Team ­ delivering the projects 41 7.3 Risk 44 7.4 Continuity planning for key roles 45 Appendix A <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span> Plan working with Page 3 Glossary BAU Business as Usual BERR (Department for) BusinessUniversity of Bath <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span> Plan working with Page 1 University of Bath <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Burton, Geoffrey R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">126</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024211"> <span id="translatedtitle">Methane hydrate in the <span class="hlt">global</span> organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">global</span> occurrence of methane hydrate in outer continental margins and in polar regions, and the magnitude of the amount of methane sequestered in methane hydrate suggest that methane hydrate is an important component in the <span class="hlt">global</span> organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. Various versions of this cycle have emphasized the importance of methane hydrate, and in the latest version the role of methane hydrate is considered to be analogous to the workings of an electrical circuit. In this circuit the methane hydrate is a condenser and the consequences of methane hydrate dissociation are depicted as a resistor and inductor, reflecting temperature change and changes in earth surface history. These consequences may have implications for <span class="hlt">global</span> change including <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kvenvolden, K.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">127</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57922339"> <span id="translatedtitle">Energy saving and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> reduction <span class="hlt">management</span> indicators for natural attractions: a case study in Taiwan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The growing impact of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming has made energy saving and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> reduction (ESCR) by natural attractions an important issue. A set of clear and defined ESCR <span class="hlt">management</span> indicators could help <span class="hlt">manage</span> and control attractions, thereby facilitating sustainable development at those places. This study consists of three sub-studies in Taiwan. The first adopted qualitative methods to review related literature and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jeou-Shyan Horng; Meng-Lei Hu; Chih-Ching Teng; Lin Lin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">128</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009TellB..61..625R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Costs and <span class="hlt">global</span> impacts of black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> abatement strategies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abatement of particulate matter has traditionally been driven by health concerns rather than its role in <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. Here we assess future abatement strategies in terms of how much they reduce the climate impact of black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (BC) and organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (OC) from contained combustion. We develop <span class="hlt">global</span> scenarios which take into account regional differences in climate impact, costs of abatement and ability to pay, as well as both the direct and indirect (snow-albedo) climate impact of BC and OC. To represent the climate impact, we estimate consistent region-specific values of direct and indirect <span class="hlt">global</span> warming potential (GWP) and <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature potential (GTP). The indirect GWP has been estimated using a physical approach and includes the effect of change in albedo from BC deposited on snow. The indirect GWP is highest in the Middle East followed by Russia, Europe and North America, while the total GWP is highest in the Middle East, Africa and South Asia. We conclude that prioritizing emission reductions in Asia represents the most cost-efficient <span class="hlt">global</span> abatement strategy for BC because Asia is (1) responsible for a large share of total emissions, (2) has lower abatement costs compared to Europe and North America and (3) has large health cobenefits from reduced PM10 emissions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rypdal, Kristin; Rive, Nathan; Berntsen, Terje K.; Klimont, Zbigniew; Mideksa, Torben K.; Myhre, Gunnar; Skeie, Ragnhild B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">129</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhyA..389.3546Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Self-organized <span class="hlt">global</span> control of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is much disagreement concerning how best to control <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions. We explore quantitatively how different control schemes affect the collective emission dynamics of a population of emitting entities. We uncover a complex trade-off which arises between average emissions (affecting the <span class="hlt">global</span> climate), peak pollution levels (affecting citizens’ everyday health), industrial efficiency (affecting the nation’s economy), frequency of institutional intervention (affecting governmental costs), common information (affecting trading behavior) and market volatility (affecting financial stability). Our findings predict that a self-organized free-market approach at the level of a sector, state, country or continent can provide better control than a top-down regulated scheme in terms of market volatility and monthly pollution peaks. The control of volatility also has important implications for any future derivative <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions market.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhao, Zhenyuan; Fenn, Daniel J.; Hui, Pak Ming; Johnson, Neil F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">130</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B51L..02W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Theoretical analysis of the <span class="hlt">global</span> land <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle: what determines the trajectory of future <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">global</span> land surface has taken up about 29% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions since preindustrial times. Yet it remains uncertain whether this significant buffer to the effects of anthropogenic climate change will continue in future. Some models predict that the <span class="hlt">global</span> land biosphere will remain a <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink by the end of this century, but others predict it to become a major source. It is therefore important to understand what causes this divergence in predictions. In this presentation, we combined numerical and mathematical analysis to reveal general behaviour of <span class="hlt">global</span> land models. Our analysis is based on the recognition that the terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle generally can be mathematically expressed by a system of first-order linear ordinary differential equations subject to an initial condition as follows: dC/dt = x(t)AC+BU(t) with C(t=0)=C0 where C(t) is the C pool size, A is the C transfer matrix, U is the photosynthetic input, B is a vector of partitioning coefficients, C0 is the initial value of the C pool, and x is an environmental scalar. In this equation, the linear <span class="hlt">carbon</span> transfer among pools within one ecosystem is represented by matrix A and vector B, and the nonlinearity of environmental influences is represented by environmental scalar x(t) on <span class="hlt">carbon</span> transfer and U(t) for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> influx. We investigate how important variation in parameters controlling terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycling are for three key predictions of the dynamics of future land <span class="hlt">carbon</span>: the maximum <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake, Fmax, the number of years it takes to reach Fmax, tmax, and the year in which the land biosphere changes from a <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink to a source, t1 (if it happens). The parameters included the sensitivity of net primary production to atmospheric [CO2], ?, the temperature sensitivity of soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> decomposition, Q10, and the sensitivity of <span class="hlt">global</span> mean land surface to atmospheric [CO2],?. Our theoretical analyses reveal that a theoretical maximal amount <span class="hlt">carbon</span> accumulated by land biosphere can be estimated from Fmax and the residence times of the different <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pools, and that an estimate on the time it takes for the system to approach its new equilibrium can be obtained from the residence time of the slowest pool. Our numerical analyses reveal that a 3-D parameter space can bound the range of land <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake trajectories from 1850 to 2100 predicted by all Earth System Models for the 5th assessment report of the IPCC. The maximal amount of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> accumulated, tmax and t1 increases with ? and decreases with Q10 and ?. The sensitivities of all three model predictions to ? and Q10 increase with ? .</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Y.; Smith, M. J.; Luo, Y.; Leite, M.; Agusto, F.; Chen, B.; Hoffman, F. M.; Medlyn, B. E.; Rasmussen, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">131</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GBioC..28..927L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recent variability of the <span class="hlt">global</span> ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a new observation-based estimate of the <span class="hlt">global</span> oceanic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide (CO2) sink and its temporal variation on a monthly basis from 1998 through 2011 and at a spatial resolution of 1°×1°. This sink estimate rests upon a neural network-based mapping of <span class="hlt">global</span> surface ocean observations of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) from the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas database. The resulting pCO2 has small biases when evaluated against independent observations in the different ocean basins, but larger randomly distributed differences exist particularly in high latitudes. The seasonal climatology of our neural network-based product agrees overall well with the Takahashi et al. (2009) climatology, although our product produces a stronger seasonal cycle at high latitudes. From our <span class="hlt">global</span> pCO2 product, we compute a mean net <span class="hlt">global</span> ocean (excluding the Arctic Ocean and coastal regions) CO2 uptake flux of -1.42 ± 0.53 Pg C yr-1, which is in good agreement with ocean inversion-based estimates. Our data indicate a moderate level of interannual variability in the ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink (±0.12 Pg C yr-1, 1?) from 1998 through 2011, mostly originating from the equatorial Pacific Ocean, and associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Accounting for steady state riverine and Arctic Ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes our estimate further implies a mean anthropogenic CO2 uptake of -1.99 ± 0.59 Pg C yr-1 over the analysis period. From this estimate plus the most recent estimates for fossil fuel emissions and atmospheric CO2 accumulation, we infer a mean <span class="hlt">global</span> land sink of -2.82 ± 0.85 Pg C yr-1 over the 1998 through 2011 period with strong interannual variation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Landschützer, P.; Gruber, N.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Schuster, U.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">132</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.up.ethz.ch/people/plattner/Publications/joos99sci.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming and Marine <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle Feedbacks on Future Atmospheric CO2</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A low-order physical-biogeochemical climate model was used to project at- mospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide and <span class="hlt">global</span> warming for scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The North Atlantic thermohaline circulation weakens in all <span class="hlt">global</span> warming simulations and collapses at high levels of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide. Projected changes in the marine <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle have a modest impact on atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fortunat Joos; Gian-Kasper Plattner; Thomas F. Stocker; Olivier Marchal; Andreas Schmittner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">133</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/3565"> <span id="translatedtitle">Uncertainty in atmospheric CO? predictions from a parametric uncertainty analysis of a <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Key uncertainties in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle are explored with a 2-D model for the oceanic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink. By calibrating the key parameters of this ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink model to widely referenced values, it produces an average ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holian, Gary L.; Sokolov, Andrei P.; Prinn, Ronald G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">134</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=ftp://public.dhe.ibm.com/common/ssi/ecm/en/gbe03369usen/GBE03369USEN.PDF"> <span id="translatedtitle">IBM <span class="hlt">Global</span> Business Services Supply Chain <span class="hlt">Management</span> Executive Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">IBM <span class="hlt">Global</span> Business Services Supply Chain <span class="hlt">Management</span> Executive Report IBM Institute for Business Value New rules for a new decade A vision for smarter supply chain <span class="hlt">management</span> #12;IBM Institute progress" ­ the IBM Institute for Business Value surveyed 664 supply chain <span class="hlt">management</span> executives in 29</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">135</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cs.vu.nl/~hans/publications/y2011/AGSE.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Architectural Knowledge <span class="hlt">Management</span> Practices in Agile <span class="hlt">Global</span> Software Development</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Architectural Knowledge <span class="hlt">Management</span> Practices in Agile <span class="hlt">Global</span> Software Development Viktor Clerc VU architectural knowledge <span class="hlt">management</span> in a distributed setting. In this paper, we report on a large survey practices for architectural knowledge <span class="hlt">management</span> in GSD are used in practice. The results show that the case</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">van Vliet, Hans</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">136</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6251575"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> estimate of net annual <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flow to phenylpropanoid metabolism</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The steady increase in the concentration of CO[sub 2] in the atmosphere is the focus of renewed interest in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. Current research is centered upon modeling the effects of the increasing CO[sub 2] concentrations, and thus <span class="hlt">global</span> warning, on <span class="hlt">global</span> plant homeostasis. It has been estimated that the annual net primary production (NPP) values for terrestrial and oceanic biomes are 59.9 and 35 Pg C-yr[sup [minus]1], respectively (Melillo et al., 1990). Based on these NPP values, we have estimated the annual C flow to phenlpropanoid metabolism. In our calculation, lignin was used as a surrogate for phenylpropanoid compounds, as lignin is the second most abundant plant polymer. This approach means that our estimate defines the lower limit of C flow to phenylpropanoid metabolism. Each biome was considered separately to determine the percent of the NPP which was directed to the biosynthesis of leaves, stems/branches, and roots. From published values of the lignin content of these organs, the total amount of C directed to the biosynthesis of lignin in each biome was determined. This was used to obtain a <span class="hlt">global</span> value. Implications of these estimates will be discussed with reference to plant <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and nitrogen metabolism.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Walton, A.B.; Norman, E.G.; Turpin, D.H. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">137</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850005877&hterms=Carbon+cycle&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DCarbon%2Bcycle"> <span id="translatedtitle">Some aspects of understanding changes in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The collective character of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> exchanges between the atmosphere and other pools is partially revealed by comparing the record of CO2 concentration beginning in 1958 with estimates of the releases from fossil fuels during this period. In analyzing the secular increase in CO2 concentration induced by fossil fuel use, the atmosphere is generally treated as a single well-mixed reservoir; however, to study finer structure in the CO2 records, the influence of atmospheric circulation must be more carefully considered. The rate of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake by the oceans, the primary sink for fossil fuel CO2, is assessed more reliably than influences on the atmosphere due to interactions with other pools. Models of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle are being substantially refined while data that reflect the response of the cycle to fossil fuel use and other perturbations are being extended.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Emanuel, W. R.; Moore, B., III; Shugart, H. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">138</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/d160302t0v704545.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Plumbing the <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle: Integrating Inland Waters into the Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Budget</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Because freshwater covers such a small fraction of the Earth’s surface area, inland freshwater ecosystems (particularly lakes,\\u000a rivers, and reservoirs) have rarely been considered as potentially important quantitative components of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle at\\u000a either <span class="hlt">global</span> or regional scales. By taking published estimates of gas exchange, sediment accumulation, and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> transport\\u000a for a variety of aquatic systems, we have constructed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. J. Cole; Y. T. Prairie; N. F. Caraco; W. H. McDowell; L. J. Tranvik; R. G. Striegl; C. M. Duarte; P. Kortelainen; J. A. Downing; J. J. Middelburg; J. Melack</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">139</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15016353"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Biogeochemistry Models and <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle Research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The climate modeling community has long envisioned an evolution from physical climate models to ''earth system'' models that include the effects of biology and chemistry, particularly those processes related to the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. The widely reproduced Box 3, Figure 1 from the 2001 IPCC Scientific Assessment schematically describes that evolution. The community generally accepts the premise that understanding and predicting <span class="hlt">global</span> and regional climate change requires the inclusion of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle processes in models to fully simulate the feedbacks between the climate system and the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. Moreover, models will ultimately be employed to predict atmospheric concentrations of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases as a function of anthropogenic and natural processes, such as industrial emissions, terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fixation, sequestration, land use patterns, etc. Nevertheless, the development of coupled climate-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> models with demonstrable quantitative skill will require a significant amount of effort and time to understand and validate their behavior at both the process level and as integrated systems. It is important to consider objectively whether the currently proposed strategies to develop and validate earth system models are optimal, or even sufficient, and whether alternative strategies should be pursued. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span>-climate models are going to be complex, with the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle strongly interacting with many other components. Off-line process validation will be insufficient. As was found in coupled atmosphere-ocean GCMs, feedbacks between model components can amplify small errors and uncertainties in one process to produce large biases in the simulated climate. The persistent tropical western Pacific Ocean ''double ITCZ'' and upper troposphere ''cold pole'' problems are examples. Finding and fixing similar types of problems in coupled <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-climate models especially will be difficult, given the lack of observations required for diagnosis and validation of biogeochemical processes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Covey, C; Caldeira, K; Guilderson, T; Cameron-Smith, P; Govindasamy, B; Swanston, C; Wickett, M; Mirin, A; Bader, D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-05-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">140</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3165975"> <span id="translatedtitle">Meeting <span class="hlt">global</span> health challenges through operational research and <span class="hlt">management</span> science</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract This paper considers how operational research and <span class="hlt">management</span> science can improve the design of health systems and the delivery of health care, particularly in low-resource settings. It identifies some gaps in the way operational research is typically used in <span class="hlt">global</span> health and proposes steps to bridge them. It then outlines some analytical tools of operational research and <span class="hlt">management</span> science and illustrates how their use can inform some typical design and delivery challenges in <span class="hlt">global</span> health. The paper concludes by considering factors that will increase and improve the contribution of operational research and <span class="hlt">management</span> science to <span class="hlt">global</span> health. PMID:21897489</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">141</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer/biblio/1077270"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Budget from the <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Project (GCP) was established in 2001 in recognition of the scientific challenge and critical importance of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle for Earth's sustainability. The growing realization that anthropogenic climate change is a reality has focused the attention of the scientific community, policymakers and the general public on the rising concentration of greenhouse gases, especially <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere, and on the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle in general. Initial attempts, through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol, are underway to slow the rate of increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. These societal actions require a scientific understanding of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle, and are placing increasing demands on the international science community to establish a common, mutually agreed knowledge base to support policy debate and action. The <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Project is responding to this challenge through a shared partnership between the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), the International Human Dimensions Programme on <span class="hlt">Global</span> Environmental Change (IHDP), the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and Diversitas. This partnership constitutes the Earth Systems Science Partnership (ESSP). This CDIAC collection includes datasets, images, videos, presentations, and archived data from previous years.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">142</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49533328"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> talent <span class="hlt">management</span> and <span class="hlt">global</span> talent challenges: Strategic opportunities for IHRM</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The need for multinational firms to be as competitive in the <span class="hlt">global</span> marketplace as possible has increased dramatically over the past twenty years. For international human resource <span class="hlt">management</span> this has meant many strategic opportunities to international human resource <span class="hlt">management</span>. An excellent example of such an opportunity is that which exists regarding the <span class="hlt">management</span> of talent. This opportunity began to develop</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Randall S. Schuler; Susan E. Jackson; Ibraiz Tarique</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">143</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6787697"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chemistry of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in soil with relationship to the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Various ecosystem disturbances alter the balances between production of organic matter and its decomposition and therefore change the amount of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in soil. The most severe perturbation is conversion of natural vegetation to cultivated crops. Conversion of natural vegetation to cultivated crops results in a lowered input of slowly decomposing material which causes a reduction in overall <span class="hlt">carbon</span> levels. Disruption of soil matrix structure by cultivation leads to lowered physical protection of organic matter resulting in an increased net mineralization rate of soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Climate change is another perturbation that affects the amount and composition of plant production, litter inputs, and decomposition regimes but does not affect soil structure directly. Nevertheless, large changes in soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage are probable with anticipated CO2 induced climate change, particularly in northern latitudes where anticipated climate change will be greatest (MacCracken and Luther 1985) and large amounts of soil organic matter are found. It is impossible, given the current state of knowledge of soil organic matter processes and transformations to develop detailed process models of soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics. Largely phenomenological models appear to be developing into predictive tools for understanding the role of soil organic matter in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. In particular, these models will be useful in quantifying soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> changes due to human land-use and to anticipated <span class="hlt">global</span> climate and vegetation changes. 47 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Post, W.M. III</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">144</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/people/chengh/papers/dns-reflection10.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A DNS Reflection Method for <span class="hlt">Global</span> Traffic <span class="hlt">Management</span> Cheng Huang</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A DNS Reflection Method for <span class="hlt">Global</span> Traffic <span class="hlt">Management</span> Cheng Huang Microsoft Research Nick Holt Microsoft Corporation Y. Angela Wang Polytechnic Institute of NYU Albert Greenberg Microsoft Research Jin Li</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chou, Philip A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">145</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3169129"> <span id="translatedtitle">Permafrost <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-climate feedbacks accelerate <span class="hlt">global</span> warming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Permafrost soils contain enormous amounts of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, which could act as a positive feedback to <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change due to enhanced respiration rates with warming. We have used a terrestrial ecosystem model that includes permafrost <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics, inhibition of respiration in frozen soil layers, vertical mixing of soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> from surface to permafrost layers, and CH4 emissions from flooded areas, and which better matches new circumpolar inventories of soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks, to explore the potential for <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-climate feedbacks at high latitudes. Contrary to model results for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC AR4), when permafrost processes are included, terrestrial ecosystems north of 60°N could shift from being a sink to a source of CO2 by the end of the 21st century when forced by a Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A2 climate change scenario. Between 1860 and 2100, the model response to combined CO2 fertilization and climate change changes from a sink of 68 Pg to a 27 + -7 Pg sink to 4 + -18 Pg source, depending on the processes and parameter values used. The integrated change in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> due to climate change shifts from near zero, which is within the range of previous model estimates, to a climate-induced loss of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> by ecosystems in the range of 25 + -3 to 85 + -16 Pg C, depending on processes included in the model, with a best estimate of a 62 + -7 Pg C loss. Methane emissions from high-latitude regions are calculated to increase from 34 Tg CH4/y to 41–70 Tg CH4/y, with increases due to CO2 fertilization, permafrost thaw, and warming-induced increased CH4 flux densities partially offset by a reduction in wetland extent. PMID:21852573</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koven, Charles D.; Ringeval, Bruno; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Ciais, Philippe; Cadule, Patricia; Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Krinner, Gerhard; Tarnocai, Charles</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">146</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6596587"> <span id="translatedtitle">Propagation of uncertainty in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emission scenarios through the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors used the GLOCO model, which is a <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycling model that considers seven terrestrial biomes, two oceans and one atmosphere, to evaluate the rise in atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentration, (pCO[sub 2]) and the partitioning of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> to the <span class="hlt">global</span> compartments (ocean, atmosphere and terrestrial) as a function of time for a number of possible anthropogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emission scenarios, based on different energy policies as developed by the Energy Modeling Forum (EMF-12). The authors then evaluated the possible uncertainty in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emission scenarios and the propagation of this uncertainty in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emission scenarios and the propagation of this uncertainty throughout the model to obtain an envelope for the rise in pCO[sub 2]. Large fluctuations in the input signal are smoothed by the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle, resulting in more than a four-fold reduction in uncertainty in the output signal (pCO[sub 2]). In addition, they looked at the effect that other model variables have on the pCO[sub 2] envelope, specifically the ratio of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> to nitrogen in the emissions. The <span class="hlt">carbon</span> to nitrogen ratio (C:N) will vary throughout the next century depending on the mix on energy sources chosen. More nitrogen in the emissions can produce a cofertilization effect in the terrestrial biomes, which would lead to sequestration of additional <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. The uncertainty in C:N will enlarge the pCO[sub 2] uncertainty envelope by up to 20 ppm.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Keller, A.A.; Goldstein, R.A. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">147</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37839503"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Managing</span> complexity in agile <span class="hlt">global</span> fashion industry supply chains</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the agile supply chain <span class="hlt">management</span> practices adopted by UK clothing retailers in order to effectively <span class="hlt">manage</span> the supply of innovative, high-margin, high-fashion content product offerings in a complex <span class="hlt">global</span> environment. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A case study approach was adopted examining the whole of the <span class="hlt">global</span> retail fashion supply chain, from typical</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ron Masson; Laura Iosif; Grant MacKerron; June Fernie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">148</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20111303"> <span id="translatedtitle">Derived crop <span class="hlt">management</span> data for the Land<span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Project</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Land<span class="hlt">Carbon</span> project is assessing potential <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pools and greenhouse gas fluxes under various scenarios and land <span class="hlt">management</span> regimes to provide information to support the formulation of policies governing climate change mitigation, adaptation and land <span class="hlt">management</span> strategies. The project is unique in that spatially explicit maps of annual land cover and land-use change are created at the 250-meter pixel resolution. The project uses vast amounts of data as input to the models, including satellite, climate, land cover, soil, and land <span class="hlt">management</span> data. <span class="hlt">Management</span> data have been obtained from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) and USDA Economic Research Service (ERS) that provides information regarding crop type, crop harvesting, manure, fertilizer, tillage, and cover crop (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2011a, b, c). The Land<span class="hlt">Carbon</span> team queried the USDA databases to pull historic crop-related <span class="hlt">management</span> data relative to the needs of the project. The data obtained was in table form with the County or State Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) and the year as the primary and secondary keys. Future projections were generated for the A1B, A2, B1, and B2 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) scenarios using the historic data values along with coefficients generated by the project. The PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) Integrated Model to Assess the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Environment (IMAGE) modeling framework (Integrated Model to Assess the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Environment, 2006) was used to develop coefficients for each IPCC SRES scenario, which were applied to the historic <span class="hlt">management</span> data to produce future land <span class="hlt">management</span> practice projections. The Land<span class="hlt">Carbon</span> project developed algorithms for deriving gridded data, using these tabular <span class="hlt">management</span> data products as input. The derived gridded crop type, crop harvesting, manure, fertilizer, tillage, and cover crop products are used as input to the Land<span class="hlt">Carbon</span> models to represent the historic and the future scenario <span class="hlt">management</span> data. The overall algorithm to generate each of the gridded <span class="hlt">management</span> products is based on the land cover and the derived crop type. For each year in the land cover dataset, the algorithm loops through each 250-meter pixel in the ecoregion. If the current pixel in the land cover dataset is an agriculture pixel, then the crop type is determined. Once the crop type is derived, then the crop harvest, manure, fertilizer, tillage, and cover crop values are derived independently for that crop type. The following is the overall algorithm used for the set of derived grids. The specific algorithm to generate each <span class="hlt">management</span> dataset is discussed in the respective section for that dataset, along with special data handling and a description of the output product.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schmidt, Gail; Liu, Shuguang; Oeding, Jennifer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">149</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040191312&hterms=Continental+Shelf&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DContinental%2BShelf"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Assessment of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Organic <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Flux Along Continental Margins</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This project was designed to use real-time and historical SeaWiFS and AVHRR data, and real-time MODIS data in order to estimate the <span class="hlt">global</span> vertical <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux along continental margins. This required construction of an empirical model relating surface ocean color and physical variables like temperature and wind to vertical settling flux at sites co-located with sediment trap observations (Santa Barbara Basin, Cariaco Basin, Gulf of California, Hawaii, and Bermuda, etc), and application of the model to imagery in order to obtain spatially-weighted estimates.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thunell, Robert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">150</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5271302"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide emission to the atmosphere by volcanoes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Global</span> emission of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide by subaerial volcanoes is calculated, using CO{sub 2}/SO{sub 2} from volcanic gas analyses and SO{sub 2} flux, to be 34 {plus minus} 24 {times} 10{sup 12} g CO{sub 2}/yr from passive degassing and 31 {plus minus} 22 {times} 10{sup 12} g CO{sub 2}/yr from eruptions. Volcanic CO{sub 2} presently represents only 0.22% of anthropogenic emissions but may have contributed to significant greenhouse' effects at times in Earth history. Models of climate response to CO{sub 2} increases may be tested against geological data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Williams, S.N.; Schaefer, S.J. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (United States)); Calvache V., M.L. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (United States) Observatorio Vulcanologico de Colombia, Pasto (Colombia)); Lopez, D. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">151</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS53A1678H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aged <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> in the Mississippi and Six Other Major <span class="hlt">Global</span> Rivers: Implications for <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Budgets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The magnitude of riverine C fluxes, including sedimentation, degassing and export to the oceans, is currently estimated at ~ 3 Pg yr-1 <span class="hlt">globally</span>, and is comparable to other net fluxes in the <span class="hlt">global</span> C cycle. However, the characteristics of the C exported by major world rivers have largely been defined by studies of a single system--the Amazon. Here we present new findings on the C age structure of particulate organic C, dissolved organic C, and dissolved inorganic C in the Mississippi River system and compare these findings to those for the Amazon River, and to five other major world rivers for which C isotope data (?14C and ?13C) have recently become available: the Yukon, Mackenzie, Yellow (or Huanghe), Changjiang (or Yangtze), and Congo (or Zaire). Based on the collective data, general similarities in ?14C and ?13C signatures across these large rivers suggest that broadly similar C sources and processes operate within diverse coupled watershed-river systems. Of particular note is that in all seven rivers, some fraction of fossil (> 50,000 yr) or highly-aged (e.g., ~ 5,000 yr) C was likely present in each of the major C pools. For the majority of these rivers, estimated fossil C contributions to each C pool ranged from 0 % up to 20 % (95 % CI). Range estimates for a composite old C fraction (i.e., fossil C plus highly-aged C) were slightly higher than those of fossil C exclusively. These data suggest that of the ~ 3 Pg yr-1 of C estimated to be exported from land to inland waters <span class="hlt">globally</span>, only ~ 2 Pg yr-1 of the C derives from modern net primary production (i.e., only two-thirds of the estimated land to inland water C export is not highly-aged or fossil C). <span class="hlt">Global</span> C budgets and models must begin to incorporate this growing body of evidence on the non-modern ages of river C reservoirs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hossler, K.; Bauer, J. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">152</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://viterbi.usc.edu/aviation/assets/002/77191.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aviation Safety + Security Program <span class="hlt">GLOBAL</span> EXPERTS IN SAFETY <span class="hlt">MANAGEMENT</span> SYSTEMS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Organization (ICAO) has recognized the critical nature of implementing the Safety <span class="hlt">Management</span> Systems (SMS2011- 2012 Aviation Safety + Security Program <span class="hlt">GLOBAL</span> EXPERTS IN SAFETY <span class="hlt">MANAGEMENT</span> SYSTEMS Systems, is so necessary in ensuring the safety of aviation operations. The International Civil Aviation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Hai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">153</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49671834"> <span id="translatedtitle">Route Choice of low-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> industry for <span class="hlt">global</span> climatechange: an issue of China tourism reform</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent years saw the <span class="hlt">global</span> wave of new low-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> economy which is a new strategic measure to cope with <span class="hlt">global</span> warming, and it has gained lots of concerns from many government s. China is undertaking the “common, but different responsibility for <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change” and it has made a lot of guidelines of low-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> economy development. Under this circumstance, as</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jing Luo; Mu Zhang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">154</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.atmos.colostate.edu/gradprog/syllabi/ATS%20760%20syllabus.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">ATS 760: <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle 2 Credits http://ats760.atmos.colostate.edu</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">ATS 760: <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle 2 Credits http://ats760.atmos.colostate.edu People are currently will conclude with a study of changes in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycling in the past and future, including predictions by coupled of the material. #12;ATS 760: <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle 2 Credits http://ats760.atmos.colostate.edu Dates Notes Readings</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">155</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/760546"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Distribution of Total Inorganic <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> and Total Alkalinity below the Deepest Winter Mixed Layer Depths</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Modeling the <span class="hlt">global</span> ocean-atmosphere <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide system is becoming increasingly important to greenhouse gas policy. These models require initialization with realistic three-dimensional (3-D) oceanic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fields. This report presents an approach to establishing these initial conditions from an extensive <span class="hlt">global</span> database of ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide (CO{sub 2}) system measurements and well-developed interpolation methods.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goyet, C.; Healy, R.; Ryan, J.; Kozyr, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">156</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://globalchange.mit.edu/files/document/MIT_CGCS_Rpt73.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of Methane and <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dioxide Surface Fluxes using a 3-D <span class="hlt">Global</span> Atmospheric</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Estimation of Methane and <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dioxide Surface Fluxes using a 3-D <span class="hlt">Global</span> Atmospheric Chemical@mit.edu Website: http://mit.edu/cgcs/ Printed on recycled paper #12;Estimation of Methane and <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dioxide of Methane and <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dioxide Surface Fluxes using a 3-D <span class="hlt">Global</span> Atmospheric Chemical Transport Model by Yu</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">157</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://repository.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2009-08-863"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Managing</span> Tensions In A <span class="hlt">Globalizing</span> Environment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">in order to identify the tensions that intersect with multinationalism and how they are <span class="hlt">managed</span>. The tensions identified include: choosing a language where two are privileged, providing an intercultural environment as described by the mission statement..., and <span class="hlt">managing</span> pedagogy/co-teaching practices. Choosing a language is often described in a dual dimension between choosing French/choosing English where language groups are sometimes seen as oppositional and vying for privileged status even though the iv...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shoemaker, Martha McArdell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">158</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6145594"> <span id="translatedtitle">Forest <span class="hlt">management</span> and agroforestry to sequester and conserve atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As part of the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Change Research Program of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), an assessment was initiated in 1990 to evaluate forest establishment and <span class="hlt">management</span> options to sequester <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and reduce the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Three specific objectives are to: identify site-suitable technologies and practices that could be utilized to <span class="hlt">manage</span> forests and agroforestry systems to sequester and conserve <span class="hlt">carbon</span>; assess available data on site-level costs of promising forest and agroforestry <span class="hlt">management</span> practices; evaluate estimates of technically suitable land in forested nations and biomes of the world to help meet the Noordwijk forestation targets.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schriwder, P.E.; Dixon, R.K.; Winjum, J.K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">159</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70037014"> <span id="translatedtitle">The changing <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle: Linking plant-soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics to <span class="hlt">global</span> consequences</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most current climate-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle models that include the terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (C) cycle are based on a model developed 40 years ago by Woodwell & Whittaker (1968) and omit advances in biogeochemical understanding since that time. Their model treats net C emissions from ecosystems as the balance between net primary production (NPP) and heterotrophic respiration (HR, i.e. primarily decomposition). Under conditions near steady state, geographic patterns of decomposition closely match those of NPP, and net C emissions are adequately described as a simple balance of NPP and HR (the Woodwell-Whittaker model). This close coupling between NPP and HR occurs largely because of tight coupling between C and N (nitrogen) cycles and because NPP constrains the food available to heterotrophs. Processes in addition to NPP and HR become important to understanding net C emissions from ecosystems under conditions of rapid changes in climate, hydrology, atmospheric CO2, land cover, species composition and/or N deposition. Inclusion of these processes in climate-C cycle models would improve their capacity to simulate recent and future climatic change. Processes that appear critical to soil C dynamics but warrant further research before incorporation into ecosystem models include below-ground C flux and its partitioning among roots, mycorrhizas and exudates; microbial community effects on C sequestration; and the effects of temperature and labile C on decomposition. The controls over and consequences of these processes are still unclear at the ecosystem scale. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> fluxes in addition to NPP and HR exert strong influences over the climate system under conditions of rapid change. These fluxes include methane release, wildfire, and lateral transfers of food and fibre among ecosystems. Water and energy exchanges are important complements to C cycle feedbacks to the climate system, particularly under non-steady-state conditions. An integrated understanding of multiple ecosystem-climate feedbacks provides a strong foundation for policies to mitigate climate change. Synthesis. Current climate systems models that include only NPP and HR are inadequate under conditions of rapid change. Many of the recent advances in biogeochemical understanding are sufficiently mature to substantially improve representation of ecosystem C dynamics in these models. ?? 2009 British Ecological Society.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chapin, F. S., III; McFarland, J.; McGuire, David A.; Euskirchen, E.S.; Ruess, R.W.; Kielland, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">160</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032956"> <span id="translatedtitle">Plumbing the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle: Integrating inland waters into the terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Because freshwater covers such a small fraction of the Earth's surface area, inland freshwater ecosystems (particularly lakes, rivers, and reservoirs) have rarely been considered as potentially important quantitative components of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle at either <span class="hlt">global</span> or regional scales. By taking published estimates of gas exchange, sediment accumulation, and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> transport for a variety of aquatic systems, we have constructed a budget for the role of inland water ecosystems in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. Our analysis conservatively estimates that inland waters annually receive, from a combination of background and anthropogenically altered sources, on the order of 1.9 Pg C y-1 from the terrestrial landscape, of which about 0.2 is buried in aquatic sediments, at least 0.8 (possibly much more) is returned to the atmosphere as gas exchange while the remaining 0.9 Pg y-1 is delivered to the oceans, roughly equally as inorganic and organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Thus, roughly twice as much C enters inland aquatic systems from land as is exported from land to the sea. Over prolonged time net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes in aquatic systems tend to be greater per unit area than in much of the surrounding land. Although their area is small, these freshwater aquatic systems can affect regional C balances. Further, the inclusion of inland, freshwater ecosystems provides useful insight about the storage, oxidation and transport of terrestrial C, and may warrant a revision of how the modern net C sink on land is described. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cole, J.J.; Prairie, Y.T.; Caraco, N.F.; McDowell, W.H.; Tranvik, L.J.; Striegl, R.G.; Duarte, C.M.; Kortelainen, P.; Downing, J.A.; Middelburg, J.J.; Melack, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a 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href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">161</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/m4450v42t1843040.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tools for <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span>: Potential <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Footprint Reduction Through Fuel Switching</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">\\u000a As institutions of higher education try to meet the American College and University Presidents’ Climate Commitment for moving\\u000a toward a <span class="hlt">carbon</span> neutral campus, they can utilize a number of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> tools, including greenhouse gas accounting\\u000a protocols, <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-friendly technologies, and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> markets. However, <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> strategies may have substantial costs,\\u000a and it may be prudent to take a cost\\/benefit approach</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Parikhit Sinha; David M. Cass</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">162</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1213257I"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle: It's a Small World</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Predicting future atmospheric concentrations of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide (CO2), together with the impacts of these changes on <span class="hlt">global</span> climate, are some of the most urgent and important challenges facing mankind. Modelling is the only way in which such predictions can be made, leading to the current generation of increasingly complex computer simulations, with associated concerns about embedded assumptions and conflicting model outputs. Alongside analysis of past climates, the GCMs currently represent our only hope of establishing the importance of potential runaway positive feedbacks linking climate change and atmospheric greenhouse gases yet the incorporation of necessary biospheric responses into GCMs markedly increases the uncertainty of predictions. Analysis of the importance of the major components of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (C) cycle reveals that an understanding of the conditions under which the terrestrial biosphere could switch from an overall <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (C) sink to a source is critical to our ability to make future climate predictions. Here we present an alternative approach to assessing the short term biotic (plant and soil) sensitivities to elevated temperature and atmospheric CO2 through the use of a purely physical analogue. Centred on the concept of materially-closed systems containing scaled-down ratios of the <span class="hlt">global</span> C stocks for the atmosphere, vegetation and soil we show that, in these model systems, the terrestrial biosphere is able to buffer a rise of 3oC even when coupled to very strong CO2-temperature positive feedbacks. The system respiratory response appears to be extremely well linked to temperature and is critical in deciding atmospheric concentrations of CO2. Simulated anthropogenic emissions of CO2 into the model systems showed an initial corresponding increase in atmospheric CO2 but, somewhat surprisingly, CO2 concentrations levelled off at ca. 480 p.p.m.v., despite continuing additions of CO2. Experiments were performed in which reversion of atmospheric temperatures, or cessation of CO2 additions, showed rapid and proportionate decreases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The results indicate that short term terrestrial feedbacks are not sufficient to induce a CO2-temperature runaway scenario and suggest that predictions of atmospheric CO2 by current GCMs may under-estimate the CO2 fertilisation effect on plants and, hence, over-estimate future atmospheric CO2 increases. Perhaps, more importantly, the experiments show that the impacts of imposed elevated CO2 and temperature increase can be reversed. Whilst clearly representing a simplified version of terrestrial CO2 dynamics, it is proposed that closed system research represents a new form of test-bed for validation of processes represented within digital <span class="hlt">global</span> CO2 models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ineson, Philip; Milcu, Alexander; Subke, Jens-Arne; Wildman, Dennis; Anderson, Robert; Manning, Peter; Heinemeyer, Andreas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52352726"> <span id="translatedtitle">On Farm <span class="hlt">Management</span> and its Effect on <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Sequestration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The interest in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration in soils is increasing and how different farm <span class="hlt">management</span> practices affect <span class="hlt">carbon</span> is of interest to farmers and land <span class="hlt">managers</span>. Much of the work in the past has been done on experimental plots and not in fields with the <span class="hlt">management</span> found on producing or working farms. This work reports on studies on farms under normal</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. M. Kimble; S. Samson-Liebig; R. F. Follett</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10180422"> <span id="translatedtitle">Information technologies for <span class="hlt">global</span> resources <span class="hlt">management</span> and environmental assessment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent advances in computer and communications technologies offer unprecedented opportunities to develop sophisticated information resources <span class="hlt">management</span> systems for <span class="hlt">global</span> resources <span class="hlt">management</span> and environment assessment in an efficient, effective, and systematic manner. In this paper, the emerging <span class="hlt">global</span> energy and environmental issues are identified. Since satellite-based remote sensing systems are becoming increasingly available and produce massive data collections, the utilization of imaging processing techniques and their applications for regional and <span class="hlt">global</span> resources <span class="hlt">management</span> and environmental studies are described. Interoperability and interconnectivity among heterogeneous computer systems are major issues in designing a totally integrated, multimedia-based, information resources <span class="hlt">management</span> system that operates in a networking environment. Discussions of the future technology trends are focused on a number of emerging information <span class="hlt">management</span> technologies and communications standards which will aid in achieving seamless system integration and offer user-friendly operations. It can be foreseen that advances in computer and communications technologies, increasingly sophisticated image processing techniques and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and the development of <span class="hlt">globally</span> comprehensive data bases will bring ``<span class="hlt">global</span> visualization`` onto multimedia desktop computers before the end of this decade.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Campbell, A.P.; Wang, Hua</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7245220"> <span id="translatedtitle">Information technologies for <span class="hlt">global</span> resources <span class="hlt">management</span> and environmental assessment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent advances in computer and communications technologies offer unprecedented opportunities to develop sophisticated information resources <span class="hlt">management</span> systems for <span class="hlt">global</span> resources <span class="hlt">management</span> and environment assessment in an efficient, effective, and systematic manner. In this paper, the emerging <span class="hlt">global</span> energy and environmental issues are identified. Since satellite-based remote sensing systems are becoming increasingly available and produce massive data collections, the utilization of imaging processing techniques and their applications for regional and <span class="hlt">global</span> resources <span class="hlt">management</span> and environmental studies are described. Interoperability and interconnectivity among heterogeneous computer systems are major issues in designing a totally integrated, multimedia-based, information resources <span class="hlt">management</span> system that operates in a networking environment. Discussions of the future technology trends are focused on a number of emerging information <span class="hlt">management</span> technologies and communications standards which will aid in achieving seamless system integration and offer user-friendly operations. It can be foreseen that advances in computer and communications technologies, increasingly sophisticated image processing techniques and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and the development of <span class="hlt">globally</span> comprehensive data bases will bring <span class="hlt">global</span> visualization'' onto multimedia desktop computers before the end of this decade.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Campbell, A.P.; Wang, Hua.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nccr-north-south.unibe.ch/publications/Infosystem/On-line%20Dokumente/Upload/21_Breu(1).pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">21 Sustainable Land <span class="hlt">Management</span> and <span class="hlt">Global</span> Development</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">of land-related themes such as food security, climate change, and desertification. Other key causes on desertification, climate change, and biodiversity ­ UNCCD, UNFCC, and UNCBD. Indeed, SLM contributes substantially of a major international programme. Adop- tion of sustainable land <span class="hlt">management</span> practices by land users can</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richner, Heinz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.hpl.hp.com/research/ssp/papers/HPL-SSP-2001-1.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Towards <span class="hlt">Global</span> Storage <span class="hlt">Management</span> and Data Placement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">As users' and companies' dependence on shared, net- worked information services continues to increase, we will see continued growth in large data centers and service pro- viders. This will happen both as new services arise, and as services and servers are consolidated on one hand (for ease of <span class="hlt">management</span>, outsourcing, and reduced duplication), and further distributed on the other hand</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alistair C. Veitch; Erik Riedel; Simon J. Towers; John Wilkes</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGC13A0716N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Research Needs for <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span> in Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Improved <span class="hlt">management</span> of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in agriculture, forestry, and other land use sectors is a necessary part of climate change mitigation. It is likely that governments will agree in Copenhagen in December 2009 to incentives for improved <span class="hlt">management</span> of some forms of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, including maintaining existing terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (e.g., avoiding deforestation) and creating new terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (e.g., afforestation, soil <span class="hlt">management</span>). To translate incentives into changes in land <span class="hlt">management</span> and terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks, a robust technical and scientific information base is required. All terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pools (and other greenhouse gases from the terrestrial system) that interact with the atmosphere at timescales less than centuries, and all land uses, have documented mitigation potential, however, most activity has focused on above-ground forest biomass. Despite research advances in understanding emissions reduction and sequestration associated with different land <span class="hlt">management</span> techniques, there has not yet been broad-scale implementation of land-based mitigation activity in croplands, peatlands, grasslands and other land uses. To maximize long-term <span class="hlt">global</span> terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> volumes, further development of relevant data, methodologies and technologies are needed to complement policy and financial incentives. The Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Group, in partnership with UN-REDD agencies, the World Bank and CGIAR institutions, is reviewing literature, convening leading experts and surveying key research institutions to develop a Roadmap for Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Carbon</span>: Research Needs for Implementation of <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span> in Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses. This work will summarize the existing knowledge base for emissions reductions and sequestration through land <span class="hlt">management</span> as well as the current availability of tools and methods for measurement and monitoring of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Preliminary findings indicate a number of areas for future work. Enhanced information systems and process-level understanding of historical, current and potential emissions and sequestration in grasslands, drylands, wetlands and peatlands are needed. Research and information synthesis have not been equally distributed across regions of the world. Monitoring and reporting guidance and capacity vary across and among geographic scales and sectors. There are concerns about continuity and interpretation capability for commonly used remote sensing data products. Most research synthesis and data compilation occurs at the international level although some institutions work across scales both supporting location-specific research and development and synthesizing information up to regional and international scales. This presentation will describe findings from the Roadmap for Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> for: (1) critical science and technology gaps, <span class="hlt">globally</span> and in specific regions, for improved <span class="hlt">management</span> and quantification of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span>; (2) technical investments and research priorities for acceleration of avoided emissions and sequestration of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span>; (3) opportunities for multi-lateral, multi-scale coordination and integration across research institutions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Negra, C.; Lovejoy, T.; Ojima, D. S.; Ashton, R.; Havemann, T.; Eaton, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.6216C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Incorporating grassland <span class="hlt">management</span> in a <span class="hlt">global</span> vegetation model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Grassland is a widespread vegetation type, covering nearly one-fifth of the world's land surface (24 million km2), and playing a significant role in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (C) cycle. Most of grasslands in Europe are cultivated to feed animals, either directly by grazing or indirectly by grass harvest (cutting). A better understanding of the C fluxes from grassland ecosystems in response to climate and <span class="hlt">management</span> requires not only field experiments but also the aid of simulation models. ORCHIDEE process-based ecosystem model designed for large-scale applications treats grasslands as being unmanaged, where C / water fluxes are only subject to atmospheric CO2 and climate changes. Our study describes how <span class="hlt">management</span> of grasslands is included in the ORCHIDEE, and how <span class="hlt">management</span> affects modeled grassland-atmosphere CO2 fluxes. The new model, ORCHIDEE-GM (Grassland <span class="hlt">Management</span>) is capable with a <span class="hlt">management</span> module inspired from a grassland model (PaSim, version 5.0), of accounting for two grassland <span class="hlt">management</span> practices (cutting and grazing). The evaluation of the results of ORCHIDEE-GM compared with those of ORCHIDEE at 11 European sites equipped with eddy covariance and biometric measurements, show that ORCHIDEE-GM can capture realistically the cut-induced seasonal variation in biometric variables (LAI: Leaf Area Index; AGB: Aboveground Biomass) and in CO2 fluxes (GPP: Gross Primary Productivity; TER: Total Ecosystem Respiration; and NEE: Net Ecosystem Exchange). But improvements at grazing sites are only marginal in ORCHIDEE-GM, which relates to the difficulty in accounting for continuous grazing disturbance and its induced complex animal-vegetation interactions. Both NEE and GPP on monthly to annual timescales can be better simulated in ORCHIDEE-GM than in ORCHIDEE without <span class="hlt">management</span>. At some sites, the model-observation misfit in ORCHIDEE-GM is found to be more related to ill-constrained parameter values than to model structure. Additionally, ORCHIDEE-GM is able to simulate forage yield, herbage consumption, animal products (e.g. milk), animal respiration and animal CH4 emissions. These new variables combined with organic C fertilizer applied on the field could provide a more complete view of grasslands C fluxes for applications of the model on a grid. The 11 site simulations of this study show that European grasslands generally are C sinks (positive NBP). At grazed grasslands, both C export in the form of milk production and CH4 emissions by animals only consist a minor part of net primary production (NPP), and this means that NBP mainly depends on NPP. On the contrary, the cut sites accumulate less C in soils because a large part of NPP has been exported as forage production. Furthermore, theoretically potential of productivity and livestock density in European grassland can be predicted by ORCHIDEE-GM, based on the strategy modeling of the optimal livestock density and <span class="hlt">management</span> change.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chang, Jinfeng; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Ciais, Philippe; Wang, Tao; Cozic, Anne; Lardy, Romain; Graux, Anne-Isabelle; Klumpp, Katja; Martin, Raphael; Soussana, Jean-François</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025421"> <span id="translatedtitle">Regional <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics in monsoon Asia and its implications for the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Data on three major determinants of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage in terrestrial ecosystems are used with the process-based Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) to simulate the combined effect of climate variability, increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, and cropland establishment and abandonment on the exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and monsoon Asian ecosystems. During 1860-1990, modeled results suggest that monsoon Asia as a whole released 29.0 Pg C, which represents 50% of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> release for this period. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> release varied across three subregions: East Asia (4.3 Pg C), South Asia (6.6 Pg C), and Southeast Asia (18.1 Pg C). For the entire region, the simulations indicate that land-use change alone has led to a loss of 42.6 Pg C. However, increasing CO2 and climate variability have added <span class="hlt">carbon</span> to terrestrial ecosystems to compensate for 23% and 8% of the losses due to land-use change, respectively. During 1980-1989, monsoon Asia as a whole acted as a source of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> to the atmosphere, releasing an average of 0.158 Pg C per year. Two of the subregions acted as net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> source and one acted as a net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink. Southeast Asia and South Asia were sources of 0.288 and 0.02 Pg C per year, respectively, while East Asia was a sink of 0.149 Pg C per year. Substantial interannual and decadal variations occur in the annual net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage estimated by TEM due to comparable variations in summer precipitation and its effect on net primary production (NPP). At longer time scales, land-use change appears to be the important control on <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics in this region. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tian, H.; Melillo, J.M.; Kicklighter, D.W.; Pan, S.; Liu, J.; McGuire, A.D.; Moore, B., III</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ocean.mit.edu/~imarinov/08-Marinov.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">THE ROLE OF THE OCEANS IN THE <span class="hlt">GLOBAL</span> <span class="hlt">CARBON</span> CYCLE: AN OVERVIEW</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">such as oxygen tend to be distributed mostly in the atmosphere (99.4%) and less so in the ocean (0.6%). <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> and bicarbonate ions. The oceanic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> inventory of total dissolved inorganic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> ( ¡£¢¥¤ ) is alsoTHE ROLE OF THE OCEANS IN THE <span class="hlt">GLOBAL</span> <span class="hlt">CARBON</span> CYCLE: AN OVERVIEW IRINA MARINOV & JORGE L. SARMIENTO</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marinov, Irina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21935363"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> credits on savanna land <span class="hlt">management</span> and priorities for biodiversity conservation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> finance offers the potential to change land <span class="hlt">management</span> and conservation planning priorities. We develop a novel approach to planning for improved land <span class="hlt">management</span> to conserve biodiversity while utilizing potential revenue from <span class="hlt">carbon</span> biosequestration. We apply our approach in northern Australia's tropical savanna, a region of <span class="hlt">global</span> significance for biodiversity and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage, both of which are threatened by current fire and grazing regimes. Our approach aims to identify priority locations for protecting species and vegetation communities by retaining existing vegetation and <span class="hlt">managing</span> fire and grazing regimes at a minimum cost. We explore the impact of accounting for potential <span class="hlt">carbon</span> revenue (using a <span class="hlt">carbon</span> price of US$14 per tonne of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide equivalent) on priority areas for conservation and the impact of explicitly protecting <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks in addition to biodiversity. Our results show that improved <span class="hlt">management</span> can potentially raise approximately US$5 per hectare per year in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> revenue and prevent the release of 1-2 billion tonnes of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide equivalent over approximately 90 years. This revenue could be used to reduce the costs of improved land <span class="hlt">management</span> by three quarters or double the number of biodiversity targets achieved and meet <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage targets for the same cost. These results are based on generalised cost and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> data; more comprehensive applications will rely on fine scale, site-specific data and a supportive policy environment. Our research illustrates that the duel objective of conserving biodiversity and reducing the release of greenhouse gases offers important opportunities for cost-effective land <span class="hlt">management</span> investments. PMID:21935363</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Douglass, Lucinda L; Possingham, Hugh P; Carwardine, Josie; Klein, Carissa J; Roxburgh, Stephen H; Russell-Smith, Jeremy; Wilson, Kerrie A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/244091"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Management</span>: <span class="hlt">Global</span> positioning and wireless dispatching</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Over the last several years, my company has been supplying many service companies with wireless dispatching solutions. Recently the impact of the system has been greatly increased with the introduction of a GPS (<span class="hlt">Global</span> Position Systems) interface. This adds visual recognition as to the whereabouts of each vehicle within the customer service area. The only equipment required in the field for GPS is a transmit/receive device and a wireless modem, one mounted out of the way in the vehicle (under the seat) and a {open_quotes}hockey puck{close_quotes} size unit on the roof of the vehicle. The GPS received unit and wireless modem are used to retrieve the longitude, latitude and ground speed coordinates and transmit them back to the host system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wood, M. [ICC International, Cedar Knolls, NJ (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Nanos...610784L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Al2C monolayer: the planar tetracoordinate <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> minimum</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Inspired by our theoretical finding that C2Al62- has a planar D2h minimum with two planar tetracoordinate <span class="hlt">carbons</span> (ptCs), we computationally designed a new two-dimensional (2D) inorganic material, an Al2C monolayer. All <span class="hlt">carbons</span> in this monolayer are ptC's, stabilized inductively by binding to four electropositive Al atoms in the same plane. The Al2C monolayer is semiconducting with an indirect minimum band gap and a slightly larger direct band gap. Good persistence of the Al2C monolayer is indicated by its moderate cohesive energy, the absence of imaginary modes in its phonon spectrum, and the high melting point predicted by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Moreover, a particle-swarm optimization (PSO) <span class="hlt">global</span> minimum search found the Al2C monolayer to be the lowest-energy 2D structure compared to other Al2C alternatives. Dividing the Al2C monolayer results in one-dimensional (1D) Al2C nanoribbons, which are computed to have quite rich characteristics such as direct or indirect band gaps with various values, depending on the direction of the division and the resulting edge configuration.Inspired by our theoretical finding that C2Al62- has a planar D2h minimum with two planar tetracoordinate <span class="hlt">carbons</span> (ptCs), we computationally designed a new two-dimensional (2D) inorganic material, an Al2C monolayer. All <span class="hlt">carbons</span> in this monolayer are ptC's, stabilized inductively by binding to four electropositive Al atoms in the same plane. The Al2C monolayer is semiconducting with an indirect minimum band gap and a slightly larger direct band gap. Good persistence of the Al2C monolayer is indicated by its moderate cohesive energy, the absence of imaginary modes in its phonon spectrum, and the high melting point predicted by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Moreover, a particle-swarm optimization (PSO) <span class="hlt">global</span> minimum search found the Al2C monolayer to be the lowest-energy 2D structure compared to other Al2C alternatives. Dividing the Al2C monolayer results in one-dimensional (1D) Al2C nanoribbons, which are computed to have quite rich characteristics such as direct or indirect band gaps with various values, depending on the direction of the division and the resulting edge configuration. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Complete citation of ref. 50, the band structure of an Al2C monolayer computed using the HSE06 functional, snapshots of MD simulations, and bulk structures of Al2C-II and Al2C-III. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01972e</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Yafei; Liao, Yunlong; Schleyer, Paul Von Ragué; Chen, Zhongfang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B53C0470E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Addressing sources of uncertainty in a <span class="hlt">global</span> terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several sources of uncertainty exist in the parameterization of the land <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle in current Earth System Models (ESMs). For example, recently implemented interactions between the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycles lead to diverse changes in land-atmosphere C fluxes simulated by different models. Further, although soil organic matter decomposition is commonly parameterized as a first-order decay process, the formulation of the microbial response to changes in soil moisture and soil temperature varies tremendously between models. Here, we examine the sensitivity of historical land-atmosphere C fluxes simulated by an ESM to these two major sources of uncertainty. We implement three soil moisture (SMRF) and three soil temperature (STRF) respiration functions in the CABLE-CASA-CNP land biogeochemical component of the coarse resolution CSIRO Mk3L climate model. Simulations are undertaken using three degrees of biogeochemical nutrient limitation: C-only, C and N, and C and N and P. We first bring all 27 possible combinations of a SMRF with a STRF and a biogeochemical mode to a steady-state in their biogeochemical pools. Then, transient historical (1850-2005) simulations are driven by prescribed atmospheric CO2 concentrations used in the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Similarly to some previously published results, representing N and P limitation on primary production reduces the <span class="hlt">global</span> land <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink while some regions become net C sources over the historical period (1850-2005). However, the uncertainty due to the SMRFs and STRFs does not decrease relative to the inter-annual variability in net uptake when N and P limitations are added. Differences in the SMRFs and STRFs and their effect on the soil C balance can also change the sign of some regional sinks. We show that this response is mostly driven by the pool size achieved at the end of the spin-up procedure. Further, there exists a six-fold range in the level at which <span class="hlt">global</span> soil C equilibrates in models with the same biogeochemical interactions. As we did not modify the photosynthesis component between these simulations, we can attribute this range to differences in heterotrophic respiration introduced by the various shapes of the SMRF and STRF. This roughly matches the range of <span class="hlt">global</span> soil C simulated by available CMIP5 models and we therefore see the formulation of these response functions as a potential major source of uncertainty in projections of <span class="hlt">global</span> soil C feedback on climate change. Our results add to recent concerns on the relevance of the current first-order parameterization of soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> decomposition in ESMs, but also highlight issues in terms of how they are initialized. More research is therefore required in that area in order to produce reliable projections of land-atmosphere fluxes and future climate.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Exbrayat, J.; Pitman, A. J.; Zhang, Q.; Abramowitz, G.; Wang, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/986431"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">global</span> ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> climatology: Results from <span class="hlt">Global</span> Data Analysis Project (GLODAP)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the 1990s, ocean sampling expeditions were carried out as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the Joint <span class="hlt">Global</span> Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), and the Ocean Atmosphere <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Exchange Study (OACES). Subsequently, a group of U.S. scientists synthesized the data into easily usable and readily available products. This collaboration is known as the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP). Results were merged into a common format data set, segregated by ocean. For comparison purposes, each ocean data set includes a small number of high-quality historical cruises. The data were subjected to rigorous quality control procedures to eliminate systematic data measurement biases. The calibrated 1990s data were used to estimate anthropogenic CO{sub 2}, potential alkalinity, CFC watermass ages, CFC partial pressure, bomb-produced radiocarbon, and natural radiocarbon. These quantities were merged into the measured data files. The data were used to produce objectively gridded property maps at a 1{sup o} resolution on 33 depth surfaces chosen to match existing climatologies for temperature, salinity, oxygen, and nutrients. The mapped fields are interpreted as an annual mean distribution in spite of the inaccuracy in that assumption. Both the calibrated data and the gridded products are available from the <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dioxide Information Analysis Center. Here we describe the important details of the data treatment and the mapping procedure, and present summary quantities and integrals for the various parameters.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Key, Robert [Princeton University; Kozyr, Alexander [ORNL; Sabine, Chris [NOAA, Seattle, WA; Lee, K. [Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Republic of Korea; Wanninkhof, R. [Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Laboratory, NOAA; Bullister, J.L. [NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory; Feely, R. A. [NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory; Millero, F. J. [University of Miami; Mordy, C. [NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory; Peng, T.-H. [Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Laboratory, NOAA</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3774741"> <span id="translatedtitle">Potential of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Cropland Phytolith <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Sink from Optimization of Cropping System and Fertilization</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The occlusion of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (C) by phytoliths, the recalcitrant silicified structures deposited within plant tissues, is an important persistent C sink mechanism for croplands and other grass-dominated ecosystems. By constructing a silica content-phytolith content transfer function and calculating the magnitude of phytolith C sink in <span class="hlt">global</span> croplands with relevant crop production data, this study investigated the present and potential of phytolith C sinks in <span class="hlt">global</span> croplands and its contribution to the cropland C balance to understand the cropland C cycle and enhance long-term C sequestration in croplands. Our results indicate that the phytolith sink annually sequesters 26.35±10.22 Tg of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide (CO2) and may contribute 40±18% of the <span class="hlt">global</span> net cropland soil C sink for 1961–2100. Rice (25%), wheat (19%) and maize (23%) are the dominant contributing crop species to this phytolith C sink. Continentally, the main contributors are Asia (49%), North America (17%) and Europe (16%). The sink has tripled since 1961, mainly due to fertilizer application and irrigation. Cropland phytolith C sinks may be further enhanced by adopting cropland <span class="hlt">management</span> practices such as optimization of cropping system and fertilization. PMID:24066067</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Song, Zhaoliang; Parr, Jeffrey F.; Guo, Fengshan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3833518"> <span id="translatedtitle">Test Result <span class="hlt">Management</span> in <span class="hlt">Global</span> Health Settings</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">OVERVIEW Across the globe, the ways in which patients' test results are <span class="hlt">managed</span> are as varied as the many different types of healthcare systems that <span class="hlt">manage</span> these data. The outcomes, however, are often not too dissimilar: too many clinically significant test results fall through the cracks. The consequences of not following up test results in a timely manner are serious and often devastating to patients: diagnoses are delayed, treatments are not initiated or altered in time, and diseases progress. In resource-poor settings, test results too commonly get filed away within the paper chart in ways that isolate them and prevent passage to future providers caring for a patient. To make matters worse, the onus to act upon these test results often rests on patients who need to return to the clinic within a specified timeframe in order to obtain their results but who may not have the means or are too ill to do so. Even in more developed healthcare settings that use electronic records, clinical data residing in the electronic medical record (EMR) are often stubbornly “static”—key pieces of clinical information are frequently not recognized, retrieved, or shared easily. In this way, EMRs are not unlike paper record systems, and therefore, EMRs alone will not solve this problem. To illustrate this problem, consider the case of a patient newly diagnosed with HIV in 3 different healthcare delivery settings. PMID:24278831</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Palazuelos, Daniel; Payne, Jonathan D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24278831"> <span id="translatedtitle">Test result <span class="hlt">management</span> in <span class="hlt">global</span> health settings.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Across the globe, the ways in which patients' test results are <span class="hlt">managed</span> are as varied as the many different types of healthcare systems that <span class="hlt">manage</span> these data. The outcomes, however, are often not too dissimilar: too many clinically significant test results fall through the cracks. The consequences of not following up test results in a timely manner are serious and often devastating to patients: diagnoses are delayed, treatments are not initiated or altered in time, and diseases progress. In resource-poor settings, test results too commonly get filed away within the paper chart in ways that isolate them and prevent passage to future providers caring for a patient. To make matters worse, the onus to act upon these test results often rests on patients who need to return to the clinic within a specified timeframe in order to obtain their results but who may not have the means or are too ill to do so. Even in more developed healthcare settings that use electronic records, clinical data residing in the electronic medical record (EMR) are often stubbornly "static"-key pieces of clinical information are frequently not recognized, retrieved, or shared easily. In this way, EMRs are not unlike paper record systems, and therefore, EMRs alone will not solve this problem. To illustrate this problem, consider the case of a patient newly diagnosed with HIV in 3 different healthcare delivery settings. PMID:24278831</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Palazuelos, Daniel; Payne, Jonathan D; Dalal, Anuj K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4683F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimating European soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> mitigation potential in a <span class="hlt">global</span> integrated land use model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several studies have shown the dynamic interaction between soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (SOC) sequestration rates, soil <span class="hlt">management</span> decisions and SOC levels. <span class="hlt">Management</span> practices such as reduced and no-tillage, improved residue <span class="hlt">management</span> and crop rotations as well as the conversion of marginal cropland to native vegetation or conversion of cultivated land to permanent grassland offer the potential to increase SOC content. Even though dynamic interactions are widely acknowledged in literature, they have not been implemented in most existing land use decision models. A major obstacle is the high data and computing requirements for an explicit representation of alternative land use sequences since a model has to be able to track all different <span class="hlt">management</span> decision paths. To our knowledge no study accounted so far for SOC dynamics explicitly in a <span class="hlt">global</span> integrated land use model. To overcome these conceptual difficulties described above we apply an approach capable of accounting for SOC dynamics in GLOBIOM (<span class="hlt">Global</span> Biosphere <span class="hlt">Management</span> Model), a <span class="hlt">global</span> recursive dynamic partial equilibrium bottom-up model integrating the agricultural, bioenergy and forestry sectors. GLOBIOM represents all major land based sectors and therefore is able to account for direct and indirect effects of land use change as well as leakage effects (e.g. through trade) implicitly. Together with the detailed representation of technologies (e.g. tillage and fertilizer <span class="hlt">management</span> systems), these characteristics make the model a highly valuable tool for assessing European SOC emissions and mitigation potential. Demand and international trade are represented in this version of the model at the level of 27 EU member states and 23 aggregated world regions outside Europe. Changes in the demand on the one side, and profitability of the different land based activities on the other side, are the major determinants of land use change in GLOBIOM. In this paper we estimate SOC emissions from cropland for the EU until 2050 explicitly considering SOC dynamics due to land use and land <span class="hlt">management</span> in a <span class="hlt">global</span> integrated land use model. Moreover, we calculate the EU SOC mitigation potential taking into account leakage effects outside Europe as well as related feed backs from other sectors. In sensitivity analysis, we disaggregate the SOC mitigation potential i.e. we quantify the impact of different <span class="hlt">management</span> systems and crop rotations to identify most promising mitigation strategies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Frank, Stefan; Böttcher, Hannes; Schneider, Uwe; Schmid, Erwin; Havlík, Petr</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614922M"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Place of Bend-Fault <span class="hlt">Carbonation</span> in Earth's Longterm <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is well known that mid-ocean ridges are a key site for chemical interactions between oceanic crust and the hydrosphere, and that these interactions modulate the chemistry of the oceans. This field is relatively mature. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that the oceanic lithosphere may also strongly interact with the hydrosphere during plate subduction, as it bends — by bend-faulting (cf. Ranero et al., 2003) — when it enters a trench. I review recent seismic evidence that suggests that bend-faulting is associated with ~10% serpentinization in a layer extending at least 10km below the Moho, and potentially more for old subducting lithosphere. The age-depth-dependence of the width of the double-Wadati-Benioff-zone implies that significant serpentinization occurs at lithospheric temperatures of ~300C where net reaction rates are likely to be highest. If this serpentine forms with a 1% <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> fraction, then bend-fault serpentinization will consume an atmosphere's worth of CO2 every 40,000 years (e.g. of order ~1-2 Tmol/year), and it seems likely that the <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> storage in serpentinized subducting lithosphere exceeds that in overlying oceanic crust and sediments. (Note that at least 1% <span class="hlt">carbonation</span> occurs during mid-ocean-ridge serpentinization processes, but the actual fraction of bend-fault <span class="hlt">carbonation</span> is currently unconstrained by in-situ measurements within partially serpentinized bend-fault mantle.) The rate of mantle ingassing associated with this poorly-understood geological process appears to be similar in magnitude to the rate of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> outgassing from the mantle at mid-ocean ridges. The implications for Earth's long-term <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle are potentially significant. For example, the initiation of new subduction may be associated with the creation of a significant <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> sink — a feedback not included within Geologic models for Phanerozoic <span class="hlt">carbon</span>+climate evolution. It also suggests there may be a direct link between the concentration of CO2 in seawater and the efficiency of <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> recycling — and that perhaps bend-fault <span class="hlt">carbonation</span> played a key role in the regulation of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide in Earth's early atmosphere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morgan, Jason P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B31B0297R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Improved parameterization of <span class="hlt">managed</span> grassland in a <span class="hlt">global</span> process-based vegetation model using Bayesian statistics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">More than a quarter of the Earth’s land surface is covered by grassland, which is also the major part (~ 70 %) of the agricultural area. Most of this area is used for livestock production in different degrees of intensity. The dynamic <span class="hlt">global</span> vegetation model LPJmL (Sitch et al., <span class="hlt">Global</span> Change Biology, 2003; Bondeau et al., <span class="hlt">Global</span> Change Biology, 2007) is one of few process-based model that simulates biomass production on <span class="hlt">managed</span> grasslands at the <span class="hlt">global</span> scale. The implementation of <span class="hlt">managed</span> grasslands and its evaluation has received little attention so far, as reference data on grassland productivity are scarce and the definition of grassland extent and usage are highly uncertain. However, grassland productivity is related to large areas, and strongly influences <span class="hlt">global</span> estimates of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and water budgets and should thus be improved. Plants are implemented in LPJmL in an aggregated form as plant functional types assuming that processes concerning <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and water fluxes are quite similar between species of the same type. Therefore, the parameterization of a functional type is possible with parameters in a physiologically meaningful range of values. The actual choice of the parameter values from the possible and reasonable phase space should satisfy the condition of the best fit of model results and measured data. In order to improve the parameterization of <span class="hlt">managed</span> grass we follow a combined procedure using model output and measured data of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and water fluxes. By comparing <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and water fluxes simultaneously, we expect well-balanced refinements and avoid over-tuning of the model in only one direction. The comparison of annual biomass from grassland to data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) per country provide an overview about the order of magnitude and the identification of deviations. The comparison of daily net primary productivity, soil respiration and water fluxes at specific sites (FluxNet Data) provides information on boundary conditions such as water and light availability or temperature sensibility. Based on the given limitation factors, a number of sensitive parameters are chosen, e.g. for the phenological development, biomass allocation, and different <span class="hlt">management</span> regimes. These are introduced to a sensitivity analysis and Bayesian parameter evaluation using the R package FME (Soetart & Petzoldt, Journal of Statistical Software, 2010). Given the extremely different climatic conditions at the FluxNet grass sites, the premises for the <span class="hlt">global</span> sensitivity analysis are very promising.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rolinski, S.; Müller, C.; Lotze-Campen, H.; Bondeau, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AdSpR..53.1634N"> <span id="translatedtitle">A study of the <span class="hlt">global</span> heliospheric modulation of galactic <span class="hlt">Carbon</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Observations of galactic <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> in the heliosphere provide a useful tool with which a comprehensive description of the <span class="hlt">global</span> modulation of cosmic rays both inside and outside off the solar wind termination shock (TS) can be made. This is, in part, because galactic <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> is not contaminated by anomalous cosmic rays as is the case for oxygen, helium and hydrogen. However, this kind of study requires that there should be reasonable compatibility of model solutions to spacecraft and earthbound observations. In this study, the well-established two-dimensional model that contains a TS, a heliosheath, as well as shock re-acceleration of galactic cosmic rays and particle drifts, is used first to study modulation from solar minimum to moderate maximum activity at Earth. This model can handle any <span class="hlt">global</span> heliospheric geometry of both the TS and heliopause (HP) positions. Second, the model is applied to study the contribution of drifts and the enhancement of polar perpendicular diffusion in the heliosheath to the total modulation in the heliosphere as a function of energy for both polarity cycles of the magnetic field during solar minimum conditions. This modeling is done with a new heliopause spectrum (HPS, usually referred to as the local interstellar spectrum) at kinetic energy E < ?200 MeV/nuc. This HPS is derived from observations made by the Voyager 1 spacecraft of galactic <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> at a radial distance of ?122 AU from the Sun. We find that: (1) The model gives realistic modulation for both magnetic polarity cycles of the Sun, from Earth to beyond the TS, and that the level of modulation at Earth between the recent solar minimum and the previous moderate maximum condition exceed that between the HP and Earth in the recent solar minimum. (2) Neglecting drifts in the heliosheath along the Voyager heliolatitude is a reasonable assumption, but in the equatorial plane of the heliosphere drifts are important for heliosheath modulation in the A < 0 polarity cycle, especially when galactic particles are re-accelerated at the TS. (3) The contribution of the enhancement of the polar perpendicular diffusion in the heliosheath to the total modulation seems insignificant. (4) The new HPS as observed by Voyager 1 at E < ?200 MeV/nuc is found to be significantly higher than previous estimates, for example, at E = 100 MeV/nuc by a factor of ?2. We find that the total modulation between the HP and Earth at 10 MeV/nuc causes the intensity at Earth to be only ?4.5% of the HPS, whereas for 100 MeV/nuc it is ?17.5%. Respectively, this means that the <span class="hlt">global</span> radial gradient for galactic <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> for this period was ?2.5%/AU and ?1.4%/AU, if the heliopause is taken at 122 AU.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ngobeni, M. D.; Potgieter, M. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70048190"> <span id="translatedtitle">Potential increases in natural disturbance rates could offset forest <span class="hlt">management</span> impacts on ecosystem <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Forested ecosystems contain the majority of the world’s terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, and forest <span class="hlt">management</span> has implications for regional and <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycling. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> stored in forests changes with stand age and is affected by natural disturbance and timber harvesting. We examined how harvesting and disturbance interact to influence forest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks over the Superior National Forest, in northern Minnesota. Forest inventory data from the USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis program were used to characterize current forest age structure and quantify the relationship between age and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks for eight forest types. Using these findings, we simulated the impact of alternative <span class="hlt">management</span> scenarios and natural disturbance rates on forest-wide terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks over a 100-year horizon. Under low natural mortality, forest-wide total ecosystem <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks increased when 0% or 40% of planned harvests were implemented; however, the majority of forest-wide <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks decreased with greater harvest levels and elevated disturbance rates. Our results suggest that natural disturbance has the potential to exert stronger influence on forest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks than timber harvesting activities and that maintaining <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks over the long-term may prove difficult if disturbance frequency increases in response to climate change.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bradford, John B.; Jensen, Nicholas R.; Domke, Grant M.; D’Amato, Anthony W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.erj.ersjournals.com/cgi/reprint/31/1/143.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> strategy for asthma <span class="hlt">management</span> and prevention: GINA executive summary</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Asthma is a serious health problem throughout the world. During the past two decades, many scientific advances have improved our understanding of asthma and ability to <span class="hlt">manage</span> and control it effectively. However, recommendations for asthma care need to be adapted to local conditions, resources and services. Since it was formed in 1993, the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Initiative for Asthma, a network of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. D. Bateman; S. S. Hurd; P. J. Barnes; J. Bousquet; J. M. Drazen; M. FitzGeralde; P. Gibson; K. Ohta; P. O'Byrne; S. E. Pedersen; E. Pizzichini; S. D. Sullivanee; S. E. Wenzel; H. J. Zar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40763883"> <span id="translatedtitle">Forest <span class="hlt">management</span> options for sequestering <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in Mexico</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper identifies and examines economic response options to avoid <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions and increase <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration in Mexican forests. A “Policy” scenario covering the years 2000, 2010 and 2030 and a “Technical Potential” scenario (year 2030) are developed to examine the potential <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration and costs of each response option. Benefit-cost analyses for three case studies, including <span class="hlt">management</span> of a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Omar R. Masera; Mauricio R. Bellon; Gerardo Segura</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48935638"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mangrove production and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinks: A revision of <span class="hlt">global</span> budget estimates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mangrove forests are highly productive but <span class="hlt">globally</span> threatened coastal ecosystems, whose role in the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget of the coastal zone has long been debated. Here we provide a comprehensive synthesis of the available data on <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes in mangrove ecosystems. A reassessment of <span class="hlt">global</span> mangrove primary production from the literature results in a conservative estimate of ?218 ± 72 Tg</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steven Bouillon; Alberto V. Borges; Edward Castañeda-Moya; Karen Diele; Thorsten Dittmar; Norman C. Duke; Erik Kristensen; Shing Y. Lee; Cyril Marchand; Jack J. Middelburg; Victor H. Rivera-Monroy; Thomas J. Smith; Robert R. Twilley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/927777"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Managing</span> Commercial Tree Species for Timber Production and <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Sequestration: <span class="hlt">Management</span> Guidelines and Financial Returns</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">carbon</span> credit market is developing in the United States. Information is needed by buyers and sellers of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> credits so that the market functions equitably and efficiently. Analyses have been conducted to determine the optimal forest <span class="hlt">management</span> regime to employ for each of the major commercial tree species so that profitability of timber production only or the combination of timber production and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration is maximized. Because the potential of a forest ecosystem to sequester <span class="hlt">carbon</span> depends on the tree species, site quality and <span class="hlt">management</span> regimes utilized, analyses have determined how to optimize <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration by determining how to optimally <span class="hlt">manage</span> each species, given a range of site qualities, discount rates, prices of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> credits and other economic variables. The effects of a <span class="hlt">carbon</span> credit market on the method and profitability of forest <span class="hlt">management</span>, the cost of sequestering <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, the amount of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> that can be sequestered, and the amount of timber products produced has been determined.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gary D. Kronrad</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-09-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3276426"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Management</span> Impacts on Forest Floor and Soil Organic <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> in Northern Temperate Forests of the US</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background The role of forests in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle has been the subject of a great deal of research recently, but the impact of <span class="hlt">management</span> practices on forest soil dynamics at the stand level has received less attention. This study used six forest <span class="hlt">management</span> experimental sites in five northern states of the US to investigate the effects of silvicultural treatments (light thinning, heavy thinning, and clearcutting) on forest floor and soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pools. Results No overall trend was found between forest floor <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks in stands subjected to partial or complete harvest treatments. A few sites had larger stocks in control plots, although estimates were often highly variable. Forest floor <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pools did show a trend of increasing values from southern to northern sites. Surface soil (0-5 cm) organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> content and concentration were similar between treated and untreated plots. Overall soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (0-20 cm) pool size was not significantly different from control values in sites treated with partial or complete harvests. No geographic trends were evident for any of the soil properties examined. Conclusions Results indicate that it is unlikely that mineral soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks are adversely affected by typical <span class="hlt">management</span> practices as applied in northern hardwood forests in the US; however, the findings suggest that the forest floor <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pool may be susceptible to loss. PMID:22206625</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....1113675D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the impact of agricultural land use and <span class="hlt">management</span> on US <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budgets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cultivation of the terrestrial land surface can create either a source or sink of atmospheric CO2, depending on land <span class="hlt">management</span> practices. The Community Land Model (CLM) provides a useful tool to explore how land use and <span class="hlt">management</span> impact the soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pool at regional to <span class="hlt">global</span> scales. CLM was recently updated to include representation of <span class="hlt">managed</span> lands growing maize, soybean, and spring wheat. In this study, CLM-Crop is used to investigate the impacts of various <span class="hlt">management</span> practices, including fertilizer use and differential rates of crop residue removal, on the soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (SOC) storage of croplands in the continental United States over approximately a 170 year period. Results indicate that total US SOC stocks have already lost over 8 Pg C (10%) due to land cultivation practices (e.g., fertilizer application, cultivar choice, and residue removal), compared to a land surface composed of native vegetation (i.e., grasslands). After long periods of cultivation, individual plots growing maize and soybean lost up to 65% of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stored, compared to a grassland site. Crop residue <span class="hlt">management</span> showed the greatest effect on soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage, with low and medium residue returns resulting in additional losses of 5% and 3.5%, respectively, in US <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage, while plots with high residue returns stored 2% more <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Nitrogenous fertilizer can alter the amount of soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks significantly. Under current levels of crop residue return, not applying fertilizer resulted in a 5% loss of soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Our simulations indicate that disturbance through cultivation will always result in a loss of soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, and <span class="hlt">management</span> practices will have a large influence on the magnitude of SOC loss.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Drewniak, B. A.; Mishra, U.; Song, J.; Prell, J.; Kotamarthi, V. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890011950&hterms=fossil+fuels&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dfossil%2Bfuels"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">global</span> Cretaceous-Tertiary fire: Biomass or fossil <span class="hlt">carbon</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">global</span> soot layer at the K-T boundary indicates a major fire triggered by meteorite impact. However, it is not clear whether the principal fuel was biomass or fossil <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Forests are favored by delta value of C-13, which is close to the average for trees, but the total amount of elemental C is approximately 10 percent of the present living <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, and thus requires very efficient conversion to soot. The PAH was analyzed at Woodside Creek, in the hope of finding a diagnostic molecular marker. A promising candidate is 1-methyl-7-isopropyl phenanthrene (retene,), which is probably derived by low temperature degradation of abietic acid. Unlike other PAH that form by pyrosynthesis at higher temperatures, retene has retained the characteristic side chains of its parent molecule. A total of 11 PAH compounds were identified in the boundary clay. Retene is present in substantial abundance. The identification was confirmed by analysis of a retene standard. Retene is characteristic of the combustion of resinous higher plants. Its formation depends on both temperature and oxygen access, and is apparently highest in oxygen-poor fires. Such fires would also produce soot more efficiently which may explain the high soot abundance. The relatively high level of coronene is not typical of a wood combustion source, however, though it can be produced during high temperature pyrolysis of methane, and presumably other H, C-containing materials. This would require large, hot, low O2 zones, which may occur only in very large fires. The presence of retene indicates that biomass was a significant fuel source for the soot at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. The total amount of elemental C produced requires a greater than 3 percent soot yield, which is higher than typically observed for wildfires. However, retene and presumably coronene imply limited access of O2 and hence high soot yield.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gilmour, Iain; Guenther, Frank</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ecd.bnl.gov/pubs/BNL-81728-2008-AB.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">ATMOSPHERIC CO2 --A <span class="hlt">GLOBAL</span> LIMITING RESOURCE: HOW MUCH FOSSIL <span class="hlt">CARBON</span> CAN WE BURN?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">, NY www.bnl.gov ABSTRACT <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> dioxide (CO2) is building up in the atmosphere, largely because on the amount of fossil fuel <span class="hlt">carbon</span> that can be emitted into the atmosphere. The present lack of knowledgeATMOSPHERIC CO2 -- A <span class="hlt">GLOBAL</span> LIMITING RESOURCE: HOW MUCH FOSSIL <span class="hlt">CARBON</span> CAN WE BURN? S. E. Schwartz</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/gb/gb0904/2009GB003519/2009GB003519.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nitrogen attenuation of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle response to <span class="hlt">global</span> environmental factors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nitrogen cycle dynamics have the capacity to attenuate the magnitude of <span class="hlt">global</span> terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinks and sources driven by CO2 fertilization and changes in climate. In this study, two versions of the terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and nitrogen cycle components of the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM) are used to evaluate how variation in nitrogen availability influences terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinks and sources</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Atul Jain; Xiaojuan Yang; Haroon Kheshgi; A. David McGuire; Wilfred Post; David Kicklighter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://sequestration.mit.edu/pdf/ghgt6_paper_136.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">ECONOMIC MODELING OF THE <span class="hlt">GLOBAL</span> ADOPTION OF <span class="hlt">CARBON</span> CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">ECONOMIC MODELING OF THE <span class="hlt">GLOBAL</span> ADOPTION OF <span class="hlt">CARBON</span> CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES J. R. Mc of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> capture and sequestration technologies as applied to electric generating plants. The MIT Emissions, is used to model <span class="hlt">carbon</span> capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies based on a natural gas combined cycle</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jd/jd0414/2003JD003697/2003JD003697.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A technology-based <span class="hlt">global</span> inventory of black and organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions from combustion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a <span class="hlt">global</span> tabulation of black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (BC) and primary organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (OC) particles emitted from combustion. We include emissions from fossil fuels, biofuels, open biomass burning, and burning of urban waste. Previous “bottom-up” inventories of black and organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> have assigned emission factors on the basis of fuel type and economic sector alone. Because emission rates are highly</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tami C. Bond; David G. Streets; Kristen F. Yarber; Sibyl M. Nelson; Jung-Hun Woo; Zbigniew Klimont</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52852207"> <span id="translatedtitle">A technology-based <span class="hlt">global</span> inventory of black and organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions from combustion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a <span class="hlt">global</span> tabulation of black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (BC) and primary organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (OC) particles emitted from combustion. We include emissions from fossil fuels, biofuels, open biomass burning, and burning of urban waste. Previous ``bottom-up'' inventories of black and organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> have assigned emission factors on the basis of fuel type and economic sector alone. Because emission rates are highly</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tami C. Bond; David G. Streets; Kristen F. Yarber; Sibyl M. Nelson; Jung-Hun Woo; Zbigniew Klimont</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40888050"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> sequestration in croplands: the potential in Europe and the <span class="hlt">global</span> context</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinks and sources can be included in attempts to meet emission reduction targets during the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. Forest <span class="hlt">management</span>, cropland <span class="hlt">management</span>, grazing land <span class="hlt">management</span> and re-vegetation are allowable activities under Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol. Soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinks (and sources) can, therefore, be included under these activities. In this paper, the role</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pete Smith</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....1112895J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of coral reef <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> production models at a <span class="hlt">global</span> scale</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Calcification by coral reef communities is estimated to account for half of all <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> produced in shallow water environments and more than 25% of the total <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> buried in marine sediments <span class="hlt">globally</span>. Production of calcium <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> by coral reefs is therefore an important component of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. It is also threatened by future <span class="hlt">global</span> warming and other <span class="hlt">global</span> change pressures. Numerical models of reefal <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> production are essential for understanding how <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> deposition responds to environmental conditions including future atmospheric CO2 concentrations, but these models must first be evaluated in terms of their skill in recreating present day calcification rates. Here we evaluate four published model descriptions of reef <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> production in terms of their predictive power, at both local and <span class="hlt">global</span> scales, by comparing <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> budget outputs with independent estimates. We also compile available <span class="hlt">global</span> data on reef calcification to produce an observation-based dataset for the model evaluation. The four calcification models are based on functions sensitive to combinations of light availability, aragonite saturation (?a) and temperature and were implemented within a specifically-developed <span class="hlt">global</span> framework, the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Reef Accretion Model (GRAM). None of the four models correlated with independent rate estimates of whole reef calcification. The temperature-only based approach was the only model output to significantly correlate with coral-calcification rate observations. The absence of any predictive power for whole reef systems, even when consistent at the scale of individual corals, points to the overriding importance of coral cover estimates in the calculations. Our work highlights the need for an ecosystem modeling approach, accounting for population dynamics in terms of mortality and recruitment and hence coral cover, in estimating <span class="hlt">global</span> reef <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> budgets. In addition, validation of reef <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> budgets is severely hampered by limited and inconsistent methodology in reef-scale observations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jones, N. S.; Ridgwell, A.; Hendy, E. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15011288"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Role of <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle Observations and Knowledge in <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Agriculture and industrial development have led to inadvertent changes in the natural <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. As a consequence, concentrations of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide and other greenhouse gases have increased in the atmosphere, leading to potential changes in climate. The current challenge facing society is to develop options for future <span class="hlt">management</span> of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. A variety of approaches has been suggested: direct reduction of emissions, deliberate manipulation of the natural <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle to enhance sequestration, and capture and isolation of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> from fossil fuel use. Policy development to date has laid out some of the general principles to which <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> should adhere. These can be summarized as: how much <span class="hlt">carbon</span> is stored, by what means, and for how long. To successfully <span class="hlt">manage</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> for climate purposes requires increased understanding of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle dynamics and improvement to the scientific capabilities available for measurement as well as policy needs. Specific needs for scientific information to underpin <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle <span class="hlt">management</span> decisions are not yet broadly known. A stronger dialogue between decision makers and scientists must be developed to foster improved application of scientific knowledge to decisions. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle and measurement capabilities, with an emphasis on the continental-scale, and its relevance to <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration goals.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dilling, Lisa; Doney, Scott; Edmonds, James A.; Gurney, Kevin R.; Harriss, Robert; Schimel, David; Stephens, Britton; Stokes, Gerald M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-08-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24825392"> <span id="translatedtitle">Trend in <span class="hlt">global</span> black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions from 1960 to 2007.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (BC) plays an important role in both climate change and health impact. Still, BC emissions as well as the historical trends are associated with high uncertainties in existing inventories. In the present study, <span class="hlt">global</span> BC emissions from 1960 to 2007 were estimated for 64 sources, by using recompiled fuel consumption and emission factor data sets. Annual BC emissions had increased from 5.3 (3.4-8.5 as an interquartile range) to 9.1 (5.6-14.4) teragrams during this period. Our estimations are 11-16% higher than those in previous inventories. Over the period, we found that the BC emission intensity, defined as the amount of BC emitted per unit of energy production, had decreased for all the regions, especially China and India. Improvements in combustion technology and changes in fuel composition had led to an increase in energy use efficiency, and subsequently a decline of BC emission intensities in power plants, the residential sector, and transportation. On the other hand, the BC emission intensities had increased in the industrial and agricultural sectors, mainly due to an expansion of low-efficiency industry (coke and brick production) in developing countries and to an increasing usage of diesel in agriculture in developed countries. PMID:24825392</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Rong; Tao, Shu; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Balkanski, Yves; Boucher, Olivier; Ciais, Philippe; Shen, Guofeng; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Yuanchen; Lin, Nan; Su, Shu; Li, Bengang; Liu, Junfeng; Liu, Wenxin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25103900"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of ocean acidification on <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage and sequestration in seagrass beds; a <span class="hlt">global</span> and UK context.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ocean acidification will have many negative consequences for marine organisms and ecosystems, leading to a decline in many ecosystem services provided by the marine environment. This study reviews the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on seagrasses, assessing how this may affect their capacity to sequester <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in the future and providing an economic valuation of these changes. If ocean acidification leads to a significant increase in above- and below-ground biomass, the capacity of seagrass to sequester <span class="hlt">carbon</span> will be significantly increased. The associated value of this increase in sequestration capacity is approximately £500 and 600 billion <span class="hlt">globally</span> between 2010 and 2100. A proportionally similar increase in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration value was found for the UK. This study highlights one of the few positive stories for ocean acidification and underlines that sustainable <span class="hlt">management</span> of seagrasses is critical to avoid their continued degradation and loss of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration capacity. PMID:25103900</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Garrard, Samantha L; Beaumont, Nicola J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010BGeo....7..513F"> <span id="translatedtitle">The African contribution to the <span class="hlt">global</span> climate-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle feedback of the 21st century</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Future climate change will have impact on <span class="hlt">global</span> and regional terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balances. The fate of African tropical forests over the 21st century has been investigated through <span class="hlt">global</span> coupled climate <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle model simulations. Under the SRES-A2 socio-economic CO2 emission scenario of the IPCC, and using the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace coupled ocean-terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle and climate model, IPSL-CM4-LOOP, we found that the warming over African ecosystems induces a reduction of net ecosystem productivity, making a 38% contribution to the <span class="hlt">global</span> climate-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle positive feedback. Most of this contribution comes from African grasslands, followed by African savannahs, African tropical forest contributing little to the <span class="hlt">global</span> climate-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> feedback. However, the vulnerability of the African rainforest ecosystem is quite large. In contrast, the Amazon forest, despite its lower vulnerability, has a much larger overall contribution due to its 6 times larger extent.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Friedlingstein, P.; Cadule, P.; Piao, S. L.; Ciais, P.; Sitch, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://repository.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2010-08-8461"> <span id="translatedtitle">Local Response to <span class="hlt">Global</span> Climate Change: The Role of Local Development Plans in Climate Change <span class="hlt">Management</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">actors in the <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change <span class="hlt">management</span> strategy. Cities are centers of production and consumption in our society and as such will be crucial for <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change <span class="hlt">management</span> strategy. Despite these links, demands for consideration of climate...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grover, Himanshu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090007563&hterms=managing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dmanaging"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Managing</span> <span class="hlt">Global</span> Satellite Data: The GHRSST-PP</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This presentation examines the <span class="hlt">management</span> of satellite data, specifically the GODAE (<span class="hlt">Global</span> Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment) High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature Pilot Project (GHRSST-PP). The objective of the GHRSST-PP is to produce high quality, enhanced Level 2 SST products (known as L2P) from a number of satellite infrared and microwave sources. Topics covered include data organization, access and data discovery, as well as historical continuity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Armstrong, Edward M.; Vazquez, Jorge; Bingham, Andrew</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24501069"> <span id="translatedtitle">China's crop productivity and soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage as influenced by multifactor <span class="hlt">global</span> change.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Much concern has been raised about how multifactor <span class="hlt">global</span> change has affected food security and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration capacity in China. By using a process-based ecosystem model, the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM), in conjunction with the newly developed driving information on multiple environmental factors (climate, atmospheric CO2 , tropospheric ozone, nitrogen deposition, and land cover/land use change), we quantified spatial and temporal patterns of net primary production (NPP) and soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage (SOC) across China's croplands during 1980-2005 and investigated the underlying mechanisms. Simulated results showed that both crop NPP and SOC increased from 1980 to 2005, and the highest annual NPP occurred in the Southeast (SE) region (0.32 Pg C yr(-1) , 35.4% of the total NPP) whereas the largest annual SOC (2.29 Pg C yr(-1) , 35.4% of the total SOC) was found in the Northeast (NE) region. Land <span class="hlt">management</span> practices, particularly nitrogen fertilizer application, appear to be the most important factor in stimulating increase in NPP and SOC. However, tropospheric ozone pollution and climate change led to NPP reduction and SOC loss. Our results suggest that China's crop productivity and soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage could be enhanced through minimizing tropospheric ozone pollution and improving nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency. PMID:24501069</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ren, Wei; Tian, Hanqin; Tao, Bo; Huang, Yao; Pan, Shufen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6984826"> <span id="translatedtitle">Formulating energy policies related to fossil fuel use: Critical uncertainties in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle is the dynamic interaction among the earth's <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sources and sinks. Four reservoirs can be identified, including the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and sediments. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is determined by characteristics of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes among major reservoirs of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. The objective of this paper is to document the knowns, and unknowns and uncertainties associated with key questions that if answered will increase the understanding of the portion of past, present, and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} attributable to fossil fuel burning. Documented atmospheric increases in CO{sub 2} levels are thought to result primarily from fossil fuel use and, perhaps, deforestation. However, the observed atmospheric CO{sub 2} increase is less than expected from current understanding of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle because of poorly understood interactions among the major <span class="hlt">carbon</span> reservoirs. 87 refs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Post, W.M.; Dale, V.H.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; O'Neill, R.V.; Peng, T.-H.; Farrell, M.P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ese.u-psud.fr/ecophysio/carbone/pdfs/saugier/2006saugier_cicloglobal.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">El ciclo <span class="hlt">global</span> del carbono y sus consecuencias en la fotosíntesis en el Altiplano boliviano <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> cycle and its consequences on photosynthesis in the Bolivian Altiplano</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle is described considering the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere, and the perturbations due to human activity: nitrogen deposition, increased atmospheric CO2 and induced climatic warming. These <span class="hlt">global</span> changes increase plant production and then <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage in tree biomass and soil organic matter. The Bolivian Altiplano with long fallow agrosystems is affected by</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. Saugier; J. Y. Pontailler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1414390S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Black <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, a 'hidden' player in the <span class="hlt">global</span> C cycle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the 2011 alone more than 600 scientific papers about black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (BC) were published, half of them dealing with soils (ISI Web of Knowledge, accessed 15/01/2012). If the search is extended to the other terms by which BC is commonly named (i.e. biochar, charcoal, pyrogenic C or soot), the number of 2011 publications increases to >2400, 20% of them also related to soils. These figures confirm BC as a well-known feature in the scientific literature and, thus, in our research community. In fact, there is a wide variety of research topics where BC is currently studied: from its potential as long-term C reservoir in soils (man-made biochar), to its effects on the Earth's radiation balance (soot-BC), including its value as indicator in paleoenvironmental studies (charcoal) or, even surprisingly, its use in suicide attempts. BC is thus relevant to many aspects of our environment, making it a very far-reaching, but also very complex topic. When focusing 'only' on the role of BC in the <span class="hlt">global</span> C cycle, numerous questions arise. For example: (i) how much BC is produced by different sources (i.e. vegetation fires, fossil fuel and biofuel combustion); (ii) what are the main BC forms and their respective proportions generated (i.e. proportion of atmospheric BC [BC-soot] and the solid residues [char-BC]); (iii) where does this BC go (i.e. main mobilization pathways and sinks); (iv) how long does BC stay in the different systems (i.e. residence times in soils, sediments, water and atmosphere); (v) which are the BC stocks and its main transformations within and between the different systems (i.e. BC preservation, alteration and mineralization); (vi) what is the interaction of BC with other elements and how does this influence BC half-life (i.e. physical protection, interaction with pollutants, priming effects in other organic materials)? These questions, and some suggestions about how to tackle these, will be discussed in this contribution. It will focus in particular on the role of black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> within soil system sciences, but will also consider it from an integrated atmosphere-marine-terrestrial perspective.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Santín, C.; Doerr, S. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/987893"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle 2.0: Ashok Gadgil: <span class="hlt">global</span> impact</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ashok Gadgil speaks at the <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more <span class="hlt">carbon</span> into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ashok Gadgi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-02-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.seas.columbia.edu/earth/wtert/sofos/Key_Global_Waste_Generation.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> MSW Generation in 2007 estimated at two billion tons <span class="hlt">Global</span> Waste <span class="hlt">Management</span> Market Assessment 2007, Key Note Publications Ltd ,</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">-gas emissions, water pollution, air pollution and noise/visual impact (of recycling/waste disposal facilities<span class="hlt">Global</span> MSW Generation in 2007 estimated at two billion tons <span class="hlt">Global</span> Waste <span class="hlt">Management</span> Market analyses the <span class="hlt">global</span> waste market, with particular reference to municipal solid waste (MSW). Key Note</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Columbia University</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=31580"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CARBON</span> SEQUESTRATION, BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY, AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: INTEGRATED FOREST <span class="hlt">MANAGEMENT</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tropical deforestation provides a significant contribution to anthropogenic increases atmospheric CO2 concentration that may lead to <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. orestation and other forest <span class="hlt">management</span> options to sequester CO2 in the tropical latitudes may fail unless they address local econom...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10205049"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> warming and marine <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle feedbacks on future atmospheric CO2</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A low-order physical-biogeochemical climate model was used to project atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide and <span class="hlt">global</span> warming for scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The North Atlantic thermohaline circulation weakens in all <span class="hlt">global</span> warming simulations and collapses at high levels of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide. Projected changes in the marine <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle have a modest impact on atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide. Compared with the control, atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide increased by 4 percent at year 2100 and 20 percent at year 2500. The reduction in ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake can be mainly explained by sea surface warming. The projected changes of the marine biological cycle compensate the reduction in downward mixing of anthropogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, except when the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation collapses. PMID:10205049</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Joos; Plattner; Stocker; Marchal; Schmittner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-04-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40247492"> <span id="translatedtitle">Developing policies for soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> in tropical regions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is argued in this paper that two fundamental economic processes prevent resource-poor farmers in tropical countries from <span class="hlt">managing</span> soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in a sustainable manner. The first process is related to the fact that soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and tropical forests are part of the natural capital of these countries and of the world community. As a consequence, the interests of resource-poor</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A.-M. N. Izac</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24924596"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Managing</span> haemophilia for life: 4th Haemophilia <span class="hlt">Global</span> Summit.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 4th Haemophilia <span class="hlt">Global</span> Summit was held in Potsdam, Germany, in September 2013 and brought together an international faculty of haemophilia experts and delegates from multidisciplinary backgrounds. The programme was designed by an independent Scientific Steering Committee of haemophilia experts and explored <span class="hlt">global</span> perspectives in haemophilia care, discussing practical approaches to the optimal <span class="hlt">management</span> of haemophilia now and in the future. The topics outlined in this supplement were selected by the Scientific Steering Committee for their relevance and potential to influence haemophilia care <span class="hlt">globally</span>. In this supplement from the meeting, Jan Astermark reviews current understanding of risk factors for the development of inhibitory antibodies and discusses whether this risk can be modulated and minimized. Factors key to the improvement of joint health in people with haemophilia are explored, with Carlo Martinoli and Víctor Jiménez-Yuste discussing the utility of ultrasound for the early detection of haemophilic arthropathy. Other aspects of care necessary for the prevention and <span class="hlt">management</span> of joint disease in people with haemophilia are outlined by Thomas Hilberg and Sébastian Lobet, who highlight the therapeutic benefits of physiotherapy and sports therapy. Riitta Lassila and Carlo-Federico Perno describe current knowledge surrounding the risk of transmission of infectious agents via clotting factor concentrates. Finally, different types of extended half-life technology are evaluated by Mike Laffan, with a focus on the practicalities and challenges associated with these products. PMID:24924596</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Astermark, J; Dolan, G; Hilberg, T; Jiménez-Yuste, V; Laffan, M; Lassila, R; Lobet, S; Martinoli, C; Perno, C-F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57694578"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> talent <span class="hlt">management</span> in science-based firms: an exploratory investigation of the pharmaceutical industry during the <span class="hlt">global</span> downturn</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper investigates <span class="hlt">global</span> talent <span class="hlt">management</span> (GTM) in science-based firms during the <span class="hlt">global</span> downturn. Literature on the resource-based view, the best-fit perspective and resource dependency theory is used to frame a qualitative study of nine <span class="hlt">global</span> pharmaceutical firms that explores how multiple actors view GTM during the <span class="hlt">global</span> downturn. The study investigates how actors perceive the strategic priorities of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thomas N. Garavan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5473519"> <span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide and the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle: The key uncertainties</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The biogeochemical cycling of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> between its sources and sinks determines the rate of increase in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations. The observed increase in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ content is less than the estimated release from fossil fuel consumption and deforestation. This discrepancy can be explained by interactions between the atmosphere and other <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> reservoirs such as the oceans, and the terrestrial biosphere including soils. Undoubtedly, the oceans have been the most important sinks for CO/sub 2/ produced by man. But, the physical, chemical, and biological processes of oceans are complex and, therefore, credible estimates of CO/sub 2/ uptake can probably only come from mathematical models. Unfortunately, one- and two-dimensional ocean models do not allow for enough CO/sub 2/ uptake to accurately account for known releases. Thus, they produce higher concentrations of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ than was historically the case. More complex three-dimensional models, while currently being developed, may make better use of existing tracer data than do one- and two-dimensional models and will also incorporate climate feedback effects to provide a more realistic view of ocean dynamics and CO/sub 2/ fluxes. The instability of current models to estimate accurately oceanic uptake of CO/sub 2/ creates one of the key uncertainties in predictions of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ increases and climate responses over the next 100 to 200 years. 60 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peng, T.H.; Post, W.M.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Dale, V.H.; Farrell, M.P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC44A..05D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span> In the Post-Cap-and-Trade <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Economy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This abstract outlines an economic model that integrates <span class="hlt">carbon</span> externalities seamlessly into the national and international economies. The model incorporates a broad <span class="hlt">carbon</span> metric used to value all <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in the biosphere, as well as all transnational commerce. The model minimizes the cost associated with <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span>, and allows for the variation in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> avidity between jurisdictions. When implemented over time, the model reduces the deadweight loss while minimizing social cost, thus maximizing the marginal social benefit commonly associated with Pigouvian taxes. Once implemented, the model provides a comprehensive economic construct for governments, industry and consumers to efficiently weigh the cost of <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, and effectively participate in helping to reduce their direct and indirect use of <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, while allowing individual jurisdictions to decide their own <span class="hlt">carbon</span> value, without the need for explicit, express agreement of all countries. The model uses no credits, requires no caps, and matches climate changing behavior to costs. The steps to implement the model for a particular jurisdiction are: 1) Define the <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Metric to value changes in <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Quality. 2) Apply the <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Metric to assess the <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Toll a) for all changes in <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Quality and b) for imports and exports. This economic model has 3 clear advantages. 1) The <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pricing and cost scheme use existing and generally accepted accounting methodologies to ensure the veracity and verifiability of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> efforts with minimal effort and expense using standard auditing protocols. Implementing this economic model will not require any special training, tools, or systems for any entity to achieve their minimum <span class="hlt">carbon</span> target goals within their jurisdictional framework. 2) Given the spectrum of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> affinities worldwide, the model recognizes and provides for flexible <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pricing regimes, but does not penalize domestic <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-consuming producers subject to imports from exporters in lower <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-pricing jurisdictions. Thus, the economic model avoids a key shortcoming of cap-and-trade <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pricing, and eliminates any incentive to inefficiently shift <span class="hlt">carbon</span> consumption to jurisdictions with lower <span class="hlt">carbon</span> tolls. 3) The economic model is a comprehensive, efficient and effective strategy that allows for the implementation of a <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-pricing structure without the complete, explicit agreement of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> consumers worldwide.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">DeGroff, F. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024338"> <span id="translatedtitle">The importance of rapid, disturbance-induced losses in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> and sequestration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Management</span> of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes is being proposed as a means of increasing the amount of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestered in the terrestrial biosphere. This approach is generally viewed only as an interim strategy for the coming decades while other longer-term strategies are developed and implemented - the most important being the direct reduction of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions. We are concerned that the potential for rapid, disturbance-induced losses may be much greater than is currently appreciated, especially by the decision-making community. Here we wish to: (1) highlight the complex and threshold-like nature of disturbances - such as fire and drought, as well as the erosion associated with each - that could lead to <span class="hlt">carbon</span> losses; (2) note the <span class="hlt">global</span> extent of ecosystems that are at risk of such disturbance-induced <span class="hlt">carbon</span> losses; and (3) call for increased consideration of and research on the mechanisms by which large, rapid disturbance-induced losses of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> could occur. Our lack of ability as a scientific community to predict such ecosystem dynamics is precluding the effective consideration of these processes into strategies and policies related to <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> and sequestration. Consequently, scientists need to do more to improve quantification of these potential losses and to integrate them into sound, sustainable policy options.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Breshears, D.D.; Allen, C.D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70000512"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mangrove production and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinks: A revision of <span class="hlt">global</span> budget estimates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mangrove forests are highly productive but <span class="hlt">globally</span> threatened coastal ecosystems, whose role in the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget of the coastal zone has long been debated. Here we provide a comprehensive synthesis of the available data on <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes in mangrove ecosystems. A reassessment of <span class="hlt">global</span> mangrove primary production from the literature results in a conservative estimate of ???-218 ?? 72 Tg C a-1. When using the best available estimates of various <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinks (organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> export, sediment burial, and mineralization), it appears that >50% of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fixed by mangrove vegetation is unaccounted for. This unaccounted <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink is conservatively estimated at ??? 112 ?? 85 Tg C a-1, equivalent in magnitude to ??? 30-40% of the <span class="hlt">global</span> riverine organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> input to the coastal zone. Our analysis suggests that mineralization is severely underestimated, and that the majority of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> export from mangroves to adjacent waters occurs as dissolved inorganic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (DIC). CO2 efflux from sediments and creek waters and tidal export of DIC appear to be the major sinks. These processes are quantitatively comparable in magnitude to the unaccounted <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink in current budgets, but are not yet adequately constrained with the limited published data available so far. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bouillon, S.; Borges, A.V.; Castaneda-Moya, E.; Diele, K.; Dittmar, T.; Duke, N.C.; Kristensen, E.; Lee, S.-Y.; Marchand, C.; Middelburg, J.J.; Rivera-Monroy, V. H.; Smith, T. J., III; Twilley, R.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040088881&hterms=sulfur+Isotope&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dsulfur%2BIsotope"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> geochemical cycles of <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, sulfur and oxygen</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Time resolved data on the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotopic composition of <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> minerals and the sulfur isotopic composition or sulfate minerals show a strong negative correlation during the Cretaceous. <span class="hlt">Carbonate</span> minerals are isotopically heavy during this period while sulfate minerals are isotopically light. The implication is that <span class="hlt">carbon</span> is being transferred from the oxidized, <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> reservoir to the reservoir of isotopically light reduced organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in sedimentary rocks while sulfur is being transferred from the reservoir of isotopically light sedimentary sulfide to the oxidized, sulfate reservoir. These apparently oppositely directed changes in the oxidation state of average sedimentary <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and sulfur are surprising because of a well-established and easy to understand correlation between the concentrations of reduced organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and sulfide minerals in sedimentary rocks. Rocks rich in reduced <span class="hlt">carbon</span> are also rich in reduced sulfur. The isotopic and concentration data can be reconciled by a model which invokes a significant flux of hydrothermal sulfide to the deep sea, at least during the Cretaceous.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Walker, J. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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style="font-weight: bold;">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://folk.uio.no/gunnarmy/paper/myhre_erl_2009.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A fast method for updating <span class="hlt">global</span> fossil fuel <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide emissions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We provide a fast and efficient method for calculating <span class="hlt">global</span> annual mean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels by combining data from an established data set with BP annual statistics. Using this method it is possible to retrieve an updated estimate of <span class="hlt">global</span> CO2 emissions six months after the actual emissions occurred. Using this data set we</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55561667"> <span id="translatedtitle">A fast method for updating <span class="hlt">global</span> fossil fuel <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide emissions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We provide a fast and efficient method for calculating <span class="hlt">global</span> annual mean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels by combining data from an established data set with BP annual statistics. Using this method it is possible to retrieve an updated estimate of <span class="hlt">global</span> CO2 emissions six months after the actual emissions occurred. Using this data set we</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Myhre; K. Alterskjær; D. Lowe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4122572"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle: A Test of Our Knowledge of Earth as a System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Motivated by the rapid increase in atmospheric CO2 due to human activities since the Industrial Revolution, several international scientific research programs have analyzed the role of individual components of the Earth system in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. Our knowledge of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle within the oceans, terrestrial ecosystems, and the atmosphere is sufficiently extensive to permit us to conclude that</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. Falkowski; R. J. Scholes; E. Boyle; J. Canadell; D. Canfield; J. Elser; N. Gruber; K. Hibbard; P. Högberg; S. Linder; F. T. Mackenzie; B. Moore III; T. Pedersen; Y. Rosenthal; S. Seitzinger; V. Smetacek; W. Steffen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40764087"> <span id="translatedtitle">The role of European forests in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle—A review</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The first part of this paper presents an overview of national forest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance studies that have been carried out in Europe. Based on these national assessments, an estimate is made of the present role of European forests in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. Differences in the methodologies applied are discussed. At present, 15 European countries have assessed a national forest</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. J. Nabuurs; R. Päivinen; R. Sikkema; G. M. J. Mohren</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://es.ucsc.edu/~jzachos/pubs/Kurtz_etal_2003.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Early Cenozoic decoupling of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and sulfur cycles A. C. Kurtz,1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Early Cenozoic decoupling of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and sulfur cycles A. C. Kurtz,1 L. R. Kump,2 M. A pyrite sulfur (Spy) and organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (Corg) burial rates from recently improved Cenozoic stable isotope. However, we find that the major early Cenozoic peak in Corg burial coincides with a minimum in Spy burial</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zachos, James</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53152982"> <span id="translatedtitle">Urban Forests, <span class="hlt">Global</span> Change and <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dynamics: Windows Into the Future</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Urban conditions represent future <span class="hlt">global</span> change scenarios: elevated <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide, increased ozone and nitrogen deposition, temperature increases with the heat island effect, and dynamic changes in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> with additional anthropogenic sources and land use change. This presentation examines the results from a flux tower in an urban forest in Baltimore, succession studies along an urban to rural gradient, and the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Hom; D. Nowak; L. Ziska; K. Clark; N. Saliendra; Y. Pan; R. Birdsey; R. Pouyat; N. Skowronski; M. Patterson; I. Yesilonis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50909485"> <span id="translatedtitle">Decision Support System for minimizing <span class="hlt">carbon</span> footprint (impact on <span class="hlt">global</span> warming)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">There are some indicators that characterise the phenomenon of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming - <span class="hlt">carbon</span> footprint, planet Earth, and certain environmental factors (e.g. temperature, humidity, CO2 concentration in the atmosphere). This paper focuses on modeling, simulation and visualization of the amplitude of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> footprint and changes in temperature over a chosen restricted area. After the study of the phenomenon using the simulation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vasile Prejmerean; Ovidiu Ghiran; Militon Frentiu; Vasile Cioban</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://plantecology.dbs.umt.edu/Full%20text%20papers%20and%20abstracts/2001%20papers/careyglobalchangebiol2001.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Are old forests underestimated as <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinks?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Old forests are important <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pools, but are thought to be insignificant as current atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinks. This perception is based on the assumption that changes in productivity with age in complex, multiaged, multispecies natural forests can be mod- elled simply as scaled-up versions of individual trees or even-aged stands. This assumption was tested by measuring the net primary productivity</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">EILEEN V. C AREY; A NNA S ALA; R OBERT K EANE; R AGAN M. C ALLAWAY</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40877775"> <span id="translatedtitle">Twelve metropolitan <span class="hlt">carbon</span> footprints: A preliminary comparative <span class="hlt">global</span> assessment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A dearth of available data on <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions and comparative analysis between metropolitan areas make it difficult to confirm or refute best practices and policies. To help provide benchmarks and expand our understanding of urban centers and climate change, this article offers a preliminary comparison of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> footprints of 12 metropolitan areas. It does this by examining emissions related</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Benjamin K. Sovacool; Marilyn A. Brown</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=34682"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CARBON</span> POOL AND FLUX OF <span class="hlt">GLOBAL</span> FOREST ECOSYSTEMS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Forest systems cover more than 4.1 x 10 9 hectares of the Earth's land area. lobally, forest vegetation and soils contain about 1146 petagrams of <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, with approximately 37 percent of this <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in low-latitude forests, 14 percent in mid-latitudes, and 49 percent in high lati...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A32D..03S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Can Earth System Models Explain the observed 20th Century <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Sink?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Various authors have estimated the net <span class="hlt">global</span> land <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux as a residual from the <span class="hlt">global</span> budget of atmospheric, oceanic and fossil fuel <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes. Recently, Tans (2009) used this method to estimate the <span class="hlt">globally</span> averaged net land <span class="hlt">carbon</span> inventory changes method from 1850 to near present day. Using ocean model estimates of the oceanic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes, he showed the land being a net source of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> until around 1940, but after that becoming a net sink, with an uncertainty dominated by the net oceanic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux trajectory (~15%; Sabine et al 2004). Recently Ballantyne et al (2012) produced updated estimates of the net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes changes from 1960 until present day. They show that the net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux uptake, land plus ocean, increases from around 2 PgC/yr in 1960 to about 5 PgC/yr in 2010. We compare these observationally based estimates with results from the GFDL Earth System Models (ESMs). We show that both GFDL ESMs store too much <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in the atmosphere, about a 10 to 20 ppm error by 2005. The models have slightly higher mean values than the Tans (2009) oceanic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage changes but fall within the Sabine et al. (2004) uncertainty estimate. While the general shape of the net land <span class="hlt">carbon</span> changes in Tans (2009) is well simulated by the ESMs, the ESM sign change in land flux occurs about 15-25years later. By 2010, the models simulate the oceanic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake as ~2.7 PgC/yr, and the land uptake as ~1 PgC/yr for a total of ~4PgC/yr. The land uptake value varies with ensemble member giving evidence for the role of variability in understanding the past <span class="hlt">carbon</span> changes. This analysis gives us confidence in the models estimates of the climate-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> feedbacks. The model results will then be analyzed to determine the various causes of those changes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stouffer, R. J.; Shevliakova, E.; Malyshev, S.; Krasting, J. P.; Pacala, S.; Dunne, J. P.; John, J. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3717137"> <span id="translatedtitle">High-fidelity national <span class="hlt">carbon</span> mapping for resource <span class="hlt">management</span> and REDD+</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background High fidelity <span class="hlt">carbon</span> mapping has the potential to greatly advance national resource <span class="hlt">management</span> and to encourage international action toward climate change mitigation. However, <span class="hlt">carbon</span> inventories based on field plots alone cannot capture the heterogeneity of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks, and thus remote sensing-assisted approaches are critically important to <span class="hlt">carbon</span> mapping at regional to <span class="hlt">global</span> scales. We advanced a high-resolution, national-scale <span class="hlt">carbon</span> mapping approach applied to the Republic of Panama – one of the first UN REDD?+?partner countries. Results Integrating measurements of vegetation structure collected by airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) with field inventory plots, we report LiDAR-estimated aboveground <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stock errors of ~10% on any 1-ha land parcel across a wide range of ecological conditions. Critically, this shows that LiDAR provides a highly reliable replacement for inventory plots in areas lacking field data, both in humid tropical forests and among drier tropical vegetation types. We then scale up a systematically aligned LiDAR sampling of Panama using satellite data on topography, rainfall, and vegetation cover to model <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks at 1-ha resolution with estimated average pixel-level uncertainty of 20.5 Mg C ha-1 nationwide. Conclusions The national <span class="hlt">carbon</span> map revealed strong abiotic and human controls over Panamanian <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks, and the new level of detail with estimated uncertainties for every individual hectare in the country sets Panama at the forefront in high-resolution ecosystem <span class="hlt">management</span>. With this repeatable approach, <span class="hlt">carbon</span> resource decision-making can be made on a geospatially explicit basis, enhancing human welfare and environmental protection. PMID:23866822</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....2421H"> <span id="translatedtitle">An equilibrium zonal energy balance climate model that incorporates a <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have combined a <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle with a zonally averaged energy balance climate model, and examined how this interacts with the ice-albedo feedback to change the possible steady state solutions. The introduction of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle reduces the range of insolation values over which stable partial ice-cover solutions exists. The results also suggest that the effect of increasing the total <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in the system (as would happen in fossil fuel burning scenarios) is to decrease, or eliminate, the safety margin that separates us from an ice-free world.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huntingford, C.; Hargreaves, J. C.; Lenton, T. M.; Annan, J. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989EnMan..13..339M"> <span id="translatedtitle">An integrated and pragmatic approach: <span class="hlt">Global</span> plant safety <span class="hlt">management</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Bhopal disaster in India in 1984 has compelled manufacturing companies to review their operations in order to minimize their risk exposure. Much study has been done on the subject of risk assessment and in refining safety reviews of plant operations. However, little work has been done to address the broader needs of decision makers in the multinational environment. The corporate headquarters of multinational organizations are concerned with identifying vulnerable areas to assure that appropriate risk-minimization measures are in force or will be taken. But the task of screening <span class="hlt">global</span> business units for safety prowess is complicated and time consuming. This article takes a step towards simplifying this process by presenting the decisional model developed by the authors. Beginning with an overview of key issues affecting <span class="hlt">global</span> safety <span class="hlt">management</span>, the focus shifts to the multinational vulnerability model developed by the authors, which reflects an integration of approaches. The article concludes with a discussion of areas for further research. While the <span class="hlt">global</span> chemical industry and major incidents therein are used for illustration, the procedures and solutions suggested here are applicable to all manufacturing operations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McNutt, Jack; Gross, Andrew</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AcAau..66..245E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cross-cultural <span class="hlt">management</span> supporting <span class="hlt">global</span> space exploration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new era of space exploration has begun that may soon expand into a <span class="hlt">global</span> endeavor mainly driven by socio-economic motives. Currently the main space powers, namely the United States, Russia, Europe, Japan, Canada as well as new rising space powers China and India, are pursuing national exploration programs to explore robotically and later with humans the Earth-Moon-Mars space. New axes of partnerships and cooperation mechanisms have emerged in the last decades. However, in order to achieve highly ambitious goals such as establishing human bases on the Moon, journeys to Mars and the construction of new infrastructures in space, international space cooperation has to be optimized to reduce costs and reap the benefits of worldwide expertise. Future ambitious space exploration endeavors are a long-term undertaking that could influence countries to look beyond their own interests and see the advantages that a larger program can bring. This paper provides new concepts for <span class="hlt">managing</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> space exploration in the framework of cross-cultural <span class="hlt">management</span>, an element often neglected in the planning of future partnerships.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ehrenfreund, P.; Peter, N.; Schrogl, K. U.; Logsdon, J. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.abdn.ac.uk/prospectus-admin/pgrad/documents/WBP-booklet-2013-14.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">MSc/PgDip <span class="hlt">Global</span> Health and <span class="hlt">Management</span> Student Information booklet</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">an introduction to <span class="hlt">global</span> health using digital technologies and social media � Students who opt to take the SecondMSc/PgDip <span class="hlt">Global</span> Health and <span class="hlt">Management</span> Student Information booklet Work based placements Providing opportunities for MSc <span class="hlt">Global</span> Health & <span class="hlt">Management</span> students to engage with organisations to undertake meaningful</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Levi, Ran</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+business+AND+foreign&pg=2&id=ED536398"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exploring <span class="hlt">Global</span> Competence with <span class="hlt">Managers</span> in India, Japan, and the Netherlands: A Qualitative Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This qualitative study explores the meaning of <span class="hlt">global</span> competence for <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">managers</span> in three different countries. Thirty interviews were conducted with <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">managers</span> in India, Japan and the Netherlands through Skype, an internet based software. Findings are reported by country in five major categories: country background, personal…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ras, Gerard J. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10181409"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ocean Margins Program: Closure on the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. Program description</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Department of Energy`s Ocean Margins Program (OMP) is designed to quantitatively assess the importance of coastal ocean systems in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, human energy-related activities have dramatically altered the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle, and consequently, this cycle is not presently in a steady-state. To reduce major uncertainties in predicting future <span class="hlt">global</span> environmental quality, it is imperative to understand the sources and sinks of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, the role of anthropogenic activities in disrupting the natural <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle, and the effects of, and feedbacks between, these activities and the natural <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. Due to continuously increased loading of nutrients to the margins, which, <span class="hlt">globally</span>, is related to the rate of human population growth and high population densities in coastal states, biological <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fixation has been stimulated. Depending on the fate of the fixed <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, this stimulation has the potential to mitigate the anthropogenically derived Co{sub 2}. Determining the factors that control the magnitude of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> exchanges between the ocean margins and the atmosphere, and the subsequent fate of this <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, is crucial to predicting the strength and capacity of the oceans to absorb excess anthropogenic atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The goals of the OMP are to: quantify the ecological and biogeochemical processes and mechanisms that define the cycling, flux, and storage of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and other biogenic elements at the land/ocean interface; identify how ocean-margin sources and sinks of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> change in response to human activities; and determine whether continental shelves are quantitatively significant in removing atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide and isolating it via burial in sediments or export to the interior of the open ocean.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Riches, M.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080000860&hterms=Biofuel&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DBiofuel"> <span id="translatedtitle">Potential <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Negative Commercial Aviation through Land <span class="hlt">Management</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Brazilian terra preta soil and char-enhanced soil agricultural systems have demonstrated both enhanced plant biomass and crop yield and functions as a <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink. Similar <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinking has been demonstrated for both glycophyte and halophyte plants and plant roots. Within the assumption of 3.7 t-C/ha/yr soils and plant root <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinking, it is possible to provide <span class="hlt">carbon</span> neutral U.S. commercial aviation using about 8.5% of U.S. arable lands. The total airline CO2 release would be offset by <span class="hlt">carbon</span> credits for properly <span class="hlt">managed</span> soils and plant rooting, becoming <span class="hlt">carbon</span> neutral for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestered synjet processing. If these lands were also used to produce biomass fuel crops such as soybeans at an increased yield of 60 bu/acre (225gal/ha), they would provide over 3.15 10(exp 9) gallons biodiesel fuel. If all this fuel were refined into biojet it would provide a 16% biojet-84% synjet blend. This allows the U.S. aviation industry to become <span class="hlt">carbon</span> negative (<span class="hlt">carbon</span> negative commercial aviation through <span class="hlt">carbon</span> credits). Arid land recovery could yield even greater benefits.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hendricks, Robert C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60354559"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycles: A coupled atmosphere-ocean-sediment model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A simple one-dimensional advective-diffusive ocean model with a polar outcrop is developed and calibrated to fit modern ocean temperature, phosphorus, oxygen, total <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, and total alkalinity data. The ocean model includes an atmospheric box which predicts atmospheric P[sub CO2] and oxygen concentrations. In addition, a sediment model is designed to reproduce modern sediment profiles of solid organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and calcite,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tromp</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://tracer.env.uea.ac.uk/esmg/papers/Lenton2000.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Land and ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle feedback eVects on <span class="hlt">global</span> warming in a simple Earth system model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A simple Earth system model is developed by coupling a box model of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle to an energy-balance approximation of <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature. The model includes a range of feedback mechanisms between atmospheric CO 2 , surface temperature and land and ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycling. It is used to assess their eVect on the <span class="hlt">global</span> change being driven by anthropo-</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">TIMOTHY M. LENTON</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.climate.unibe.ch/~joos/papers/haugan04grl.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Metrics to assess the mitigation of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming by <span class="hlt">carbon</span> capture and storage in the ocean and in geological reservoirs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Metrics to assess the mitigation of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming by <span class="hlt">carbon</span> capture and storage in the ocean to assess mitigation of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming by <span class="hlt">carbon</span> capture and storage are discussed. The climatic impact penalty for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> capture. For an annual leakage rate of 0.01, surface air temperature becomes higher</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fortunat, Joos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GBioC..28..962X"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> patterns of ecosystem <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux in forests: A biometric data-based synthesis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">ecosystems function as a significant <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink for atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide. However, our understanding of <span class="hlt">global</span> patterns of forest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes remains controversial. Here we examined <span class="hlt">global</span> patterns and environmental controls of forest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance using biometric measurements derived from 243 sites and synthesized from 81 publications around the world. Our results showed that both production and respiration increased with mean annual temperature and exhibited unimodal patterns along a gradient of precipitation. However, net ecosystem production (NEP) initially increased and subsequently declined along gradients of both temperature and precipitation. Our results also indicated that ecosystem production increased during stand development but eventually leveled off, whereas respiration was significantly higher in mature and old forests than in young forests. The residual variation of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux along climatic and age gradients might be explained by other factors such as atmospheric CO2 elevation and disturbances (e.g., forest fire, storm damage, and selective harvest). Heterotrophic respiration (Rh) was positively associated with net primary production (NPP), but the Rh-NPP relationship differed between natural and planted forests: Rh increased exponentially with NPP in natural forests but tended toward saturation with increased NPP in planted forests. Comparison of biometric measurements with eddy covariance observations revealed that ecosystem <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance derived from the latter generated higher overall NEP estimates. These results suggest that the eddy covariance observations may overestimate the strength of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinks, and thus, biometric measurements need to be incorporated into <span class="hlt">global</span> assessments of the forest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xu, Bing; Yang, Yuanhe; Li, Pin; Shen, Haihua; Fang, Jingyun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1641%2FB580807"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vulnerability of Permafrost <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> to Climate Change: Implications for the <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thawing permafrost and the resulting microbial decomposition of previously frozen organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (C) is one of the most significant potential feedbacks from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere in a changing climate. In this article we present an overview of the <span class="hlt">global</span> permafrost C pool and of the processes that might transfer this C into the atmosphere, as well as the associated ecosystem changes that occur with thawing. We show that accounting for C stored deep in the permafrost more than doubles previous high-latitude inventory estimates, with this new estimate equivalent to twice the atmospheric C pool. The thawing of permafrost with warming occurs both gradually and catastrophically, exposing organic C to microbial decomposition. Other aspects of ecosystem dynamics can be altered by climate change along with thawing permafrost, such as growing season length, plant growth rates and species composition, and ecosystem energy exchange. However, these processes do not appear to be able to compensate for C release from thawing permafrost, making it likely that the net effect of widespread permafrost thawing will be a positive feedback to a warming climate.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Edward A. G. Schuur (University of Florida;)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42391584"> <span id="translatedtitle">Crop <span class="hlt">Management</span> for Soil <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Sequestration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) from agriculture is related to increasing and protecting soil organic matter (SOM) concentration. Agricultural soils can be a significant sink for atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (C) through increase of the SOM concentration. The natural ecosystems such as forests or prairies, where C gains are in equilibrium with losses, lose a large fraction of the antecedent C</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marek K. Jarecki; Rattan Lal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Natur.514..213C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> covariation of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> turnover times with climate in terrestrial ecosystems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The response of the terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle to climate change is among the largest uncertainties affecting future climate change projections. The feedback between the terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle and climate is partly determined by changes in the turnover time of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in land ecosystems, which in turn is an ecosystem property that emerges from the interplay between climate, soil and vegetation type. Here we present a <span class="hlt">global</span>, spatially explicit and observation-based assessment of whole-ecosystem <span class="hlt">carbon</span> turnover times that combines new estimates of vegetation and soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks and fluxes. We find that the overall mean <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> turnover time is years (95 per cent confidence interval). On average, <span class="hlt">carbon</span> resides in the vegetation and soil near the Equator for a shorter time than at latitudes north of 75° north (mean turnover times of 15 and 255 years, respectively). We identify a clear dependence of the turnover time on temperature, as expected from our present understanding of temperature controls on ecosystem dynamics. Surprisingly, our analysis also reveals a similarly strong association between turnover time and precipitation. Moreover, we find that the ecosystem <span class="hlt">carbon</span> turnover times simulated by state-of-the-art coupled climate/<span class="hlt">carbon</span>-cycle models vary widely and that numerical simulations, on average, tend to underestimate the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> turnover time by 36 per cent. The models show stronger spatial relationships with temperature than do observation-based estimates, but generally do not reproduce the strong relationships with precipitation and predict faster <span class="hlt">carbon</span> turnover in many semi-arid regions. Our findings suggest that future climate/<span class="hlt">carbon</span>-cycle feedbacks may depend more strongly on changes in the hydrological cycle than is expected at present and is considered in Earth system models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carvalhais, Nuno; Forkel, Matthias; Khomik, Myroslava; Bellarby, Jessica; Jung, Martin; Migliavacca, Mirco; ?u, Mingquan; Saatchi, Sassan; Santoro, Maurizio; Thurner, Martin; Weber, Ulrich; Ahrens, Bernhard; Beer, Christian; Cescatti, Alessandro; Randerson, James T.; Reichstein, Markus</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25252980"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> covariation of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> turnover times with climate in terrestrial ecosystems.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The response of the terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle to climate change is among the largest uncertainties affecting future climate change projections. The feedback between the terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle and climate is partly determined by changes in the turnover time of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in land ecosystems, which in turn is an ecosystem property that emerges from the interplay between climate, soil and vegetation type. Here we present a <span class="hlt">global</span>, spatially explicit and observation-based assessment of whole-ecosystem <span class="hlt">carbon</span> turnover times that combines new estimates of vegetation and soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks and fluxes. We find that the overall mean <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> turnover time is 23(+7)(-4) years (95 per cent confidence interval). On average, <span class="hlt">carbon</span> resides in the vegetation and soil near the Equator for a shorter time than at latitudes north of 75° north (mean turnover times of 15 and 255 years, respectively). We identify a clear dependence of the turnover time on temperature, as expected from our present understanding of temperature controls on ecosystem dynamics. Surprisingly, our analysis also reveals a similarly strong association between turnover time and precipitation. Moreover, we find that the ecosystem <span class="hlt">carbon</span> turnover times simulated by state-of-the-art coupled climate/<span class="hlt">carbon</span>-cycle models vary widely and that numerical simulations, on average, tend to underestimate the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> turnover time by 36 per cent. The models show stronger spatial relationships with temperature than do observation-based estimates, but generally do not reproduce the strong relationships with precipitation and predict faster <span class="hlt">carbon</span> turnover in many semi-arid regions. Our findings suggest that future climate/<span class="hlt">carbon</span>-cycle feedbacks may depend more strongly on changes in the hydrological cycle than is expected at present and is considered in Earth system models. PMID:25252980</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carvalhais, Nuno; Forkel, Matthias; Khomik, Myroslava; Bellarby, Jessica; Jung, Martin; Migliavacca, Mirco; Mu, Mingquan; Saatchi, Sassan; Santoro, Maurizio; Thurner, Martin; Weber, Ulrich; Ahrens, Bernhard; Beer, Christian; Cescatti, Alessandro; Randerson, James T; Reichstein, Markus</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6576565"> <span id="translatedtitle">The impact of intensive forest <span class="hlt">management</span> on <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stores in forest ecosystems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The expansion of intensive <span class="hlt">management</span> of forest resources for timber production with the human population growth may have a profound effect on the role forests play in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. First, the transition from old-growth to intensively <span class="hlt">managed</span> second-growth forest with short rotations entails major long-term ecosystems changes including the reduction of total woody biomass. Although the biomass of living trees can be restored within a relatively short period of time, dead wood biomass takes considerably longer to reach pre-harvest levels; therefore commonly used rotations are too short for the latter part of ecosystem to recover fully. As dead trees account for 14--18% of the total woody biomass stores in a natural forest, a considerable amount of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> can be released if this material is not replaced. Second, economically efficient, intensive forest <span class="hlt">management</span> systems that include commercial thinning and wood salvage can further reduce the total biomass loading of second-growth forests. Long-term study of live and dead wood in thinning trials in the Pacific Northwest and in northwestern Russia suggest that intensive practices can reduce total woody biomass averaged over rotation to 10--25% that found in a natural old-growth forest. Therefore intensive forest <span class="hlt">management</span> practices may maximize the supply of raw materials, but they may also generate a major <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux into the atmosphere. This flux may be significant despite the fact the land-use type remains the same. Effect of intensive forest <span class="hlt">management</span> practices should be included in future <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budgets and in developing forest <span class="hlt">management</span> strategies aimed at increasing <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage in forest ecosystems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krankina, O.N.; Harmon, M.E. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Forest Science)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://web.mst.edu/~gosavia/gscm.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Supply Chain <span class="hlt">Management</span>: A Reinforcement Learning Approach Pierpaolo Pontrandolfo (pontrandolfo@poliba.it )1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Supply Chain <span class="hlt">Management</span>: A Reinforcement Learning Approach Pierpaolo Pontrandolfo devoted a great deal of attention to supply chain <span class="hlt">management</span> (SCM). The main focus of SCM is the need in an international context as part of what we refer to as <span class="hlt">Global</span> Supply Chain <span class="hlt">Management</span> (GSCM). In this paper we</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gosavi, Abhijit</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gsb.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/documents/GSCMF%20Overview%2006112012.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Advancing the theory and practice of excellence in <span class="hlt">global</span> supply chain <span class="hlt">management</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Advancing the theory and practice of excellence in <span class="hlt">global</span> supply chain <span class="hlt">management</span> <span class="hlt">Global</span> Supply Chain <span class="hlt">Management</span> Forum ("the Forum") is an international research center that works of Technology in the Netherlands and the Center for Marketing and Supply Chain <span class="hlt">Management</span> at Hong Kong</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Straight, Aaron</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mcgill.ca/files/desautels/MMMbrochure2011.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Manufacturing <span class="hlt">Management</span> <span class="hlt">glOBAl</span> OPerAtiOns & suPPly ChAin <span class="hlt">MAnAgeMent</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Masters in Manufacturing <span class="hlt">Management</span> <span class="hlt">glOBAl</span> OPerAtiOns & suPPly ChAin <span class="hlt">MAnAgeMent</span> #12;Mc who wish to pursue a career in the effective <span class="hlt">management</span> of <span class="hlt">global</span> operations and supply chainTic view of supply chAin, logisTics And mAnufAcTuring <span class="hlt">mAnAgemenT</span>. INNOvATIvE PROGRAM MMM ClASS PROFilE MMM</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barthelat, Francois</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ESD.....5..345A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Explaining the seasonal cycle of the <span class="hlt">globally</span> averaged CO2 with a <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-cycle model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The seasonal changes in the <span class="hlt">globally</span> averaged atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-dioxide concentrations reflect an important aspect of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle: the gas exchange between the atmosphere and terrestrial biosphere. The data on the <span class="hlt">globally</span> averaged atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-dioxide concentrations, which are reported by Earth System Research Laboratory of the US National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA/ESRL), could be used to demonstrate the adequacy of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-cycle models. However, it was recently found that the observed amplitude of seasonal variations in the atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-dioxide concentrations is higher than simulated. In this paper, the factors that affect the amplitude of seasonal variations are explored using a <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-cycle model of reduced complexity. The model runs show that the low amplitude of the simulated seasonal variations may result from underestimated effect of substrate limitation on the seasonal pattern of heterotrophic respiration and from an underestimated magnitude of the annual gross primary production (GPP) in the terrestrial ecosystems located to the north of 25° N.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alexandrov, G. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994GBioC...8..157W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Air-sea <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide exchange in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre: Impplications for the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The role of the ocean as a sink for anthropogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide is a subject of intensive investigation and debate. Interest in this process is driven by the need to predict the rate of future increase of atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide and subsequent <span class="hlt">global</span> climatic change. Although estimates of the magnitude of the oceanic sink for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide appear to be converging on a value of ˜2 (Gt) C yr-1 for the 1980s, a detailed understanding of the temporal and spatial variability in the rate of exchange of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide between the ocean and the atmosphere is not available. For example, recent modeling work and direct measurements of air-sea <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide flux produce very different estimates of the air-sea flux in the northern hemisphere. As a consequence, it has been suggested that a large unidentified oceanic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide sink may exist in the North Pacific. As a part of our time series observations in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, we have measured dissolved inorganic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and titration alkalinity over a four-year period. These measurements constitute the most extensive set of observations of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> system parameters in the surface waters of the central Pacific Ocean. Our results show that the ocean in the vicinity of the time series site is a sink for atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide. On the basis of these observations, we present a mechanism by which the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre can be a potential sink for ˜0.2 Gt C yr-1 of atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide. Although our observations indicate that the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre is a sink for atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide, the magnitude of this oceanic sink is relatively small. Our data and interpretations are therefore consistent with the argument for a relatively large sink during the 1980s in northern hemisphere terrestrial biomass. Another possibility is that the net release of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide to the atmosphere owing to land use activities in tropical regions has been overestimated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Winn, Christopher D.; MacKenzie, Fred T.; Carrillo, Christopher J.; Sabine, Christopher L.; Karl, David M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40876645"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the <span class="hlt">global</span> warming problem due to <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The subject of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming due to the increased use of fossil fuels is analyzed using a modification of the predator prey equations. The results of the calculation indicate that both the fossil fuels and civilization will both become extinct as time increases.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Karl E. Lonngren; Er-Wei Bai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCC...4..471F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nutrient availability as the key regulator of <span class="hlt">global</span> forest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Forests strongly affect climate through the exchange of large amounts of atmospheric CO2 (ref. ). The main drivers of spatial variability in net ecosystem production (NEP) on a <span class="hlt">global</span> scale are, however, poorly known. As increasing nutrient availability increases the production of biomass per unit of photosynthesis and reduces heterotrophic respiration in forests, we expected nutrients to determine <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration in forests. Our synthesis study of 92 forests in different climate zones revealed that nutrient availability indeed plays a crucial role in determining NEP and ecosystem <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-use efficiency (CUEe; that is, the ratio of NEP to gross primary production (GPP)). Forests with high GPP exhibited high NEP only in nutrient-rich forests (CUEe = 33 +/- 4% mean +/- s.e.m.). In nutrient-poor forests, a much larger proportion of GPP was released through ecosystem respiration, resulting in lower CUEe (6 +/- 4%). Our finding that nutrient availability exerts a stronger control on NEP than on <span class="hlt">carbon</span> input (GPP) conflicts with assumptions of nearly all <span class="hlt">global</span> coupled <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle-climate models, which assume that <span class="hlt">carbon</span> inputs through photosynthesis drive biomass production and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration. An improved <span class="hlt">global</span> understanding of nutrient availability would therefore greatly improve <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle modelling and should become a critical focus for future research.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fernández-Martínez, M.; Vicca, S.; Janssens, I. A.; Sardans, J.; Luyssaert, S.; Campioli, M.; Chapin, F. S., III; Ciais, P.; Malhi, Y.; Obersteiner, M.; Papale, D.; Piao, S. L.; Reichstein, M.; Rodà, F.; Peñuelas, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatGe...7..748K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Persistence of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> release events through the peak of early Eocene <span class="hlt">global</span> warmth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (53-50 million years ago) was preceded by approximately six million years of progressive <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. This warming was punctuated by a series of rapid hyperthermal warming events triggered by the release of greenhouse gases. Over these six million years, the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotope record suggests that the events became more frequent but smaller in magnitude. This pattern has been suggested to reflect a thermodynamic threshold for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> release that was more easily crossed as <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature rose, combined with a decrease in the size of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> reservoirs during extremely warm conditions. Here we present a continuous, 4.25-million-year-long record of the stable isotope composition of <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> sediments from the equatorial Atlantic, spanning the peak of early Eocene <span class="hlt">global</span> warmth. A composite of this and pre-existing records shows that the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotope excursions that identify the hyperthermals exhibit continuity in magnitude and frequency throughout the approximately 10-million-year period covering the onset, peak and termination of the Early Eocene Climate Optimum. We suggest that the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle processes behind these events, excluding the largest event, the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (about 56 million years ago), were not exceptional. Instead, we argue that the hyperthermals may reflect orbital forcing of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle analogous to the mechanisms proposed to operate in the cooler Oligocene and Miocene.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kirtland Turner, Sandra; Sexton, Philip F.; Charles, Christopher D.; Norris, Richard D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17348170"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Managing</span> differences: the central challenge of <span class="hlt">global</span> strategy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The main goal of any international strategy should be to <span class="hlt">manage</span> the large differences that arise at the borders of markets. Yet executives often fail to exploit market and production discrepancies, focusing instead on the tensions between standardization and localization. In this article, Pankaj Ghemawat presents a new framework that encompasses all three effective responses to the challenges of <span class="hlt">globalization</span>. He calls it the AAA Triangle. The A's stand for the three distinct types of international strategy. Through adaptation, companies seek to boost revenues and market share by maximizing their local relevance. Through aggregation, they attempt to deliver economies of scale by creating regional, or sometimes <span class="hlt">global</span>, operations. And through arbitrage, they exploit disparities between national or regional markets, often by locating different parts of the supply chain in different places--for instance, call centers in India, factories in China, and retail shops in Western Europe. Ghemawat draws on several examples that illustrate how organizations use and balance these strategies and describes the trade-offs they make as they do so. Because most enterprises should draw from all three A's to some extent, the framework can be used to develop a summary scorecard indicating how well the company is <span class="hlt">globalizing</span>. However, given the tensions among the strategies, it's not enough simply to tick off the corresponding boxes. Strategic choice requires some degree of prioritization--and the framework can help with that as well. While it is possible to make progress on all three strategies, companies usually must focus on one or two when trying to build competitive advantage. PMID:17348170</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ghemawat, Pankaj</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989AcAau..20..149H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Remote sensing strategies for <span class="hlt">global</span> resource exploration and environmental <span class="hlt">management</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Since 1972, satellite remote sensing, when integrated with other exploration techniques, has demonstrated operational exploration and engineering cost savings and reduced exploration risks through improved geological mapping. Land and ocean remote sensing satellite systems under development for the 1990's by the United States, France, Japan, Canada, ESA, Russia, China, and others, will significantly increase our ability to explore for, develop, and <span class="hlt">manage</span> energy and mineral resources worldwide. A major difference between these systems is the "Open Skies" and "Non-Discriminatory Access to Data" policies as have been practiced by the U.S. and France and the restrictive nationalistic data policies as have been practiced by Russia and India. <span class="hlt">Global</span> exploration will use satellite remote sensing to better map regional structural and basin-like features that control the distribution of energy and mineral resources. Improved sensors will better map lithologic and stratigraphic units and identify alteration effects in rocks, soils, and vegetation cover indicative of undiscovered subsurface resources. These same sensors will also map and monitor resource development. The use of satellite remote sensing data will grow substantially through increasing integration with other geophysical, geochemical, and geologic data using improved geographic information systems (GIS). International exploration will focus on underdeveloped countries rather than on mature exploration areas such as the United States, Europe, and Japan. Energy and mineral companies and government agencies in these countries and others will utilize available remote sensing data to acquire economic intelligence on <span class="hlt">global</span> resources. If the "Non-Discriminatory Access to Data" principle is observed by satellite producing countries, exploration will remain competitive "on the ground". In this manner, remote sensing technology will continue to be developed to better explore for and <span class="hlt">manage</span> the world's needed resources. If, however, satellite producing countries follow the Russian and Indian lead and restrict civil satellite data as tools of their national security and economic policies, remote sensing technology may become internationally competitive in space, redundant, prohibitively expensive, and generally unavailable to the world community.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Henderson, Frederick B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/5711361"> <span id="translatedtitle">How strongly can forest <span class="hlt">management</span> influence soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We reviewed the experimental evidence for long-term <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (C) sequestration in soils as consequence of specific forest <span class="hlt">management</span> strategies. Utilization of terrestrial C sinks alleviates the burden of countries which are committed to reducing their greenhouse gas emissions. Land-use changes such as those which result from afforestation and <span class="hlt">management</span> of fast-growing tree species, have an immediate effect on the regional</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robert Jandl; Marcus Lindner; Lars Vesterdal; B. M. S. D. L. Bauwens; Rainer Baritz; Frank Hagedorn; Dale W. Johnson; Kari Minkkinen; Kenneth A. Byrne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.B51C..10K"> <span id="translatedtitle">On Farm <span class="hlt">Management</span> and its Effect on <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Sequestration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The interest in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration in soils is increasing and how different farm <span class="hlt">management</span> practices affect <span class="hlt">carbon</span> is of interest to farmers and land <span class="hlt">managers</span>. Much of the work in the past has been done on experimental plots and not in fields with the <span class="hlt">management</span> found on producing or working farms. This work reports on studies on farms under normal <span class="hlt">management</span> and not on research plots. Sites were studied in the grasslands of the central U.S. that were converted to CRP to look at the effect of various <span class="hlt">management</span> practices on soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. The effects of no-till were evaluated under a variety of <span class="hlt">management</span> regimes in several different climatic zones. Native, no-till and conventional tilled sites on the same soil series were sampled in Ohio (long term no-till), Nebraska (irrigated fields) and Kansas (hog manure application both dryland and irrigated). Soils were sampled in 2-meter deep pits and laboratory measurements were made of the chemical and physical properties of the soil. Aggregate stability was one of the measured properties that was indicative of a improved soil structure and it clearly demonstrates that the aggregate stability improved rapidly under both CRP and also when no-till was used.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kimble, J. M.; Samson-Liebig, S.; Follett, R. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGeo...10.6989P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimating <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake by lichens and bryophytes with a process-based model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Lichens and bryophytes are abundant <span class="hlt">globally</span> and they may even form the dominant autotrophs in (sub)polar ecosystems, in deserts and at high altitudes. Moreover, they can be found in large amounts as epiphytes in old-growth forests. Here, we present the first process-based model which estimates the net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake by these organisms at the <span class="hlt">global</span> scale, thus assessing their significance for biogeochemical cycles. The model uses gridded climate data and key properties of the habitat (e.g. disturbance intervals) to predict processes which control net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake, namely photosynthesis, respiration, water uptake and evaporation. It relies on equations used in many dynamical vegetation models, which are combined with concepts specific to lichens and bryophytes, such as poikilohydry or the effect of water content on CO2 diffusivity. To incorporate the great functional variation of lichens and bryophytes at the <span class="hlt">global</span> scale, the model parameters are characterised by broad ranges of possible values instead of a single, <span class="hlt">globally</span> uniform value. The predicted terrestrial net uptake of 0.34 to 3.3 Gt yr-1 of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and <span class="hlt">global</span> patterns of productivity are in accordance with empirically-derived estimates. Considering that the assimilated <span class="hlt">carbon</span> can be invested in processes such as weathering or nitrogen fixation, lichens and bryophytes may play a significant role in biogeochemical cycles.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Porada, P.; Weber, B.; Elbert, W.; Pöschl, U.; Kleidon, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/11655358"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming and <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dynamics in Permafrost Soils: Methane Production and Oxidation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Arctic plays a key role in the Earth’s climate system, because <span class="hlt">global</span> warming is predicted to be most pronounced at high\\u000a latitudes, and one third of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pool is stored in ecosystems of the northern latitudes. The degradation of permafrost\\u000a and the associated intensified release of methane, a climate-relevant trace gas, represent potential environmental hazards.\\u000a The microorganisms</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dirk Wagner; Susanne Liebner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/gb/gb0604/2006GB002742/2006GB002742.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparative impact of climatic and nonclimatic factors on <span class="hlt">global</span> terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and water cycles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The coupled <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and water cycles are influenced by multiple factors of human activity such as fossil-fuel emissions and land use change. We used the LPJmL Dynamic <span class="hlt">Global</span> Vegetation Model (DGVM) to quantify the potential influences of human demography, diet, and land allocation, and compare these to the effects of fossil-fuel emissions and corresponding climate change. For this purpose,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christoph Müller; Alberte Bondeau; Hermann Lotze-Campen; Wolfgang Cramer; Wolfgang Lucht</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fs.fed.us/ne/newtown_square/publications/technical_reports/pdfs/2004/316papers/NicodemusGTR316.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">QUANTIFYING ABOVEGROUND <span class="hlt">CARBON</span> STORAGE IN <span class="hlt">MANAGED</span> FOREST ECOSYSTEMS IN OHIO</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The amount of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestered was determined on <span class="hlt">managed</span> even aged stands on sites in southeastern Ohio. Bottomland hardwood sites that consisted of sycamore (Plantanus occidentalis) and box elder (Acer negundo) were examined. The other forest types studied were monocultures of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), Austrian pine (Pinus nigra), and pitlolly pine (Pinus rigida × taeda), and five sites of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael A. Nicodemus; Roger A. Williams</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20832276"> <span id="translatedtitle">Waste <span class="hlt">management</span> activities and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions in Africa.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper summarizes research into waste <span class="hlt">management</span> activities and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions from territories in sub-Saharan Africa with the main objective of quantifying emission reductions (ERs) that can be gained through viable improvements to waste <span class="hlt">management</span> in Africa. It demonstrates that data on waste and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions is poor and generally inadequate for prediction models. The paper shows that the amount of waste produced and its composition are linked to national Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Waste production per person is around half that in developed countries with a mean around 230 kg/hd/yr. Sub-Saharan territories produce waste with a biogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> content of around 56% (+/-25%), which is approximately 40% greater than developed countries. This waste is disposed in uncontrolled dumps that produce large amounts of methane gas. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste will rise with increasing urbanization and can only be controlled through funding mechanisms from developed countries. PMID:20832276</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Couth, R; Trois, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ESSDD...6..163L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> database of surface ocean particulate organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> export fluxes diagnosed from the 234Th technique</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The oceanic biological <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pump is an important factor in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. Organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> is exported from the surface ocean mainly in the form of settling particles derived from plankton production in the upper layers of the ocean. The large variability in current estimates of the <span class="hlt">global</span> strength of the biological <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pump emphasises that our knowledge of a major planetary <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux remains poorly constrained. We present a database of 723 estimates of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> export from the surface ocean derived from the 234Th technique. The dataset is archived on the data repository PANGEA® (<a href="www.pangea.de"target="_blank">www.pangea.de</a>) under <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.809717"target="_blank">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.809717</a>. Data were collected from tables in papers published between 1985 and early 2013 only. We also present sampling dates, publication dates and sampling areas. Most of the open ocean provinces are represented by several measurements. However, the Western Pacific, the Atlantic Arctic, South Pacific and the South Indian Ocean are not well represented. There is a variety of integration depths ranging from surface to 220 m. <span class="hlt">Globally</span> the fluxes ranged from 0 to 1500 mg of C m-2 d-1.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Le Moigne, F. A. C.; Henson, S. A.; Sanders, R. J.; Madsen, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ESSD....5..295L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> database of surface ocean particulate organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> export fluxes diagnosed from the 234Th technique</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The oceanic biological <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pump is an important factor in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. Organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> is exported from the surface ocean mainly in the form of settling particles derived from plankton production in the upper layers of the ocean. The large variability in current estimates of the <span class="hlt">global</span> strength of the biological <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pump emphasises that our knowledge of a major planetary <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux remains poorly constrained. We present a database of 723 estimates of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> export from the surface ocean derived from the 234Th technique. The dataset is archived on the data repository PANGEA® (<a href="http://www.pangea.de"target="_blank">www.pangea.de</a>) under <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.809717"target="_blank">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.809717</a>. Data were collected from tables in papers published between 1985 and early 2013. We also present sampling dates, publication dates and sampling areas. Most of the open ocean provinces are represented by multiple measurements. However, the western Pacific, the Atlantic Arctic, South Pacific and the southern Indian Ocean are not well represented. There is a variety of integration depths ranging from surface to 300 m. <span class="hlt">Globally</span> the fluxes ranged from 0 to 1500 mg C m-2 d-1.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Le Moigne, F. A. C.; Henson, S. A.; Sanders, R. J.; Madsen, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3437861"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> economic potential for reducing <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide emissions from mangrove loss</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mangroves are among the most threatened and rapidly disappearing natural environments worldwide. In addition to supporting a wide range of other ecological and economic functions, mangroves store considerable <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Here, we consider the <span class="hlt">global</span> economic potential for protecting mangroves based exclusively on their <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. We develop unique high-resolution <span class="hlt">global</span> estimates (5? grid, about 9 × 9 km) of the projected <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions from mangrove loss and the cost of avoiding the emissions. Using these spatial estimates, we derive <span class="hlt">global</span> and regional supply curves (marginal cost curves) for avoided emissions. Under a broad range of assumptions, we find that the majority of potential emissions from mangroves could be avoided at less than $10 per ton of CO2. Given the recent range of market price for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> offsets and the cost of reducing emissions from other sources, this finding suggests that protecting mangroves for their <span class="hlt">carbon</span> is an economically viable proposition. Political-economy considerations related to the ability of doing business in developing countries, however, can severely limit the supply of offsets and increases their price per ton. We also find that although a <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-focused conservation strategy does not automatically target areas most valuable for biodiversity, implementing a biodiversity-focused strategy would only slightly increase the costs. PMID:22847435</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Siikamäki, Juha; Sanchirico, James N.; Jardine, Sunny L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57692808"> <span id="translatedtitle">The career reality of <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">managers</span>: an examination of career triggers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study investigates whether the conceptualization of contemporary careers corresponds with the career realities of <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">managers</span>, a new type of international work in organizations. Based on in-depth interviews with 45 <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">managers</span>, or <span class="hlt">managers</span> having worldwide coordination responsibility, we examine whether their different career moves are triggered by factors that reflect a short-term perspective, a non-hierarchical course, self-<span class="hlt">management</span>, and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tineke Cappellen; Maddy Janssens</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ERL.....5b4005F"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> stewardship: land <span class="hlt">management</span> decisions and the potential for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration in Colorado, USA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Land use and its role in reducing greenhouse gases is a key element of policy negotiations to address climate change. Calculations of the potential for enhanced terrestrial sequestration have largely focused on the technical characteristics of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks, such as vegetation type and <span class="hlt">management</span> regime, and to some degree, on economic incentives. However, the actual potential for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration critically depends on who owns the land and additional land <span class="hlt">management</span> decision drivers. US land ownership patterns are complex, and consequently land use decision making is driven by a variety of economic, social and policy incentives. These patterns and incentives make up the '<span class="hlt">carbon</span> stewardship landscape'—that is, the decision making context for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration. We examine the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stewardship landscape in the US state of Colorado across several public and private ownership categories. Achieving the full potential for land use <span class="hlt">management</span> to help mitigate <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions requires not only technical feasibility and financial incentives, but also effective implementing mechanisms within a suite of often conflicting and hard to quantify factors such as multiple-use mandates, historical precedents, and non-monetary decision drivers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Failey, Elisabeth L.; Dilling, Lisa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A33A0186S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inverse modeling of <span class="hlt">global</span> atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide by <span class="hlt">Global</span> Eulerian-Lagrangian Coupled Atmospheric Model (GELCA)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Global</span> monthly CO2 flux distributions for 2001-2011 were estimated using an atmospheric inverse modeling system, which is based on combination of two transport models, called GELCA (<span class="hlt">Global</span> Eulerian-Lagrangian Coupled Atmospheric model). This coupled model approach has several advantages over inversions to a single model alone: the use of Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) to simulate the transport in the vicinity of the observation points enables us to avoid numerical diffusion of Eulerian models, and is suitable to represent observations at high spatial and temporal resolutions. The <span class="hlt">global</span> background concentration field generated by an Eulerian model is used as time-variant boundary conditions for an LPDM that performs backward simulations from each receptor point (observation event). In the GELCA inversion system, National Institute for Environmental Studies-Transport Model (NIES-TM) version 8.1i was used as an Eulerian <span class="hlt">global</span> transport model coupled with FLEXPART version 8.0 as an LPDM. The meteorological fields for driving both models were taken from JMA Climate Data Assimilation System (JCDAS) with a spatial resolution of 1.25° x 1.25°, 40 vertical levels and a temporal resolution of 6 hours. Our prior CO2 fluxes consist of daily terrestrial biospheric fluxes, monthly oceanic fluxes, monthly biomass burning emissions, and monthly fossil fuel CO2 emissions. We employed a Kalman Smoother optimization technique with fixed lag of 3 months, estimating monthly CO2 fluxes for 42 land and 22 ocean regions. We have been using two different <span class="hlt">global</span> networks of CO2 observations. The Observation Package (ObsPack) data products contain more measurement information in space and time than the NOAA <span class="hlt">global</span> cooperative air sampling network which basically consists of approximately weekly sampling at background sites. The <span class="hlt">global</span> total flux and its large-scale distribution optimized with two different <span class="hlt">global</span> observation networks agreed overall with other previous studies. At regional scales, estimated seasonal CO2 fluxes were altered by assimilating the ObsPack measurements, especially where the NOAA network is sparse. To see how the inversion improved in reproducing CO2 concentration field, we compared the forward simulation results using the a posteriori fluxes with observed CO2 concentrations at selected monitoring sites. We investigated how observation-model misfit varies with observation sites and assessed the impact of observation network selection. The observation-model misfit was reduced in the Obspack-based inversion, indicating the potential for wider coverage observation to better constrain regional fluxes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shirai, T.; Ishizawa, M.; Zhuravlev, R.; Ganshin, A.; Belikov, D.; Saito, M.; Oda, T.; Valsala, V.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Tans, P. P.; Maksyutov, S. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B51E0396J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Microbial <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Pump ---A New Mechanism for Long-Term <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Storage in the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Ocean (Invited)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) reservoir, containing <span class="hlt">carbon</span> equivalent to the total <span class="hlt">carbon</span> inventory of atmospheric CO2, is an important issue in understanding the role of the ocean in climate change. The known biological mechanism for oceanic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration is the biological pump, which depends on vertical transportation of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> either through particulate organic matter (POM) sedimentation or DOM export by mixing and downwelling. Both the POM and the DOM are subject to microbial mineralization and most of the organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> will be returned to dissolved inorganic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> within a few decades. Only a small fraction of the POM escapes mineralization and reaches the sediment where organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> can be buried and stored for thousands and even millions of years. The efficiency of the biological pump is currently the basic measure of the ocean’s ability to store biologically fixed <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. However, the production and fate of the large pool of recalcitrant DOM with an averaged turnover time of 4000-6000 thousands of years in the water column has not been adequately considered to date. Marine microbes essentially monopolize the utilization of DOM. Although their diverse adaptive strategies for using newly fixed <span class="hlt">carbon</span> are well known, major gaps exist in our knowledge on how they interact with the large pool of DOM that appears to be recalcitrant. This is an important problem, as DOM molecules that are not degraded for extended periods of time constitute <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage in the ocean. A newly proposed concept - the “microbial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pump (MCP)” (NATURE REVIEWS Microbiology 2010.8:593-599) (also see diagram below) provides a formalized focus on the significance of microbial processes in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage in the recalcitrant DOM reservoir, and a framework for testing hypotheses on the sources and sinks of DOM and the underlying biogeochemical mechanisms. The MCP, through concessive processing of DOM, transforms some organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> from the reactive DOM pools to a recalcitrant <span class="hlt">carbon</span> reservoir, pumping organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> from low concentrations of labile DOM to high concentrations of recalcitrant DOM, building up a huge reservoir for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage over time. Meanwhile the MCP transfers more <span class="hlt">carbon</span> relative to nitrogen and phosphorus from the reactive organic matter pool into recalcitrant organic matter pool. Compared with the solubility pump, an abiotic mechanism for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage in the ocean which has ocean acidification impacts on marine organisms and biogeochemical cycles, the MCP-driven recalcitrant DOM <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage does not appreciably alter the buffering capacity of seawater and has no known negative impact on marine organisms. Furthermore, in the ocean warming scenario, the partitioning of biogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flow will change, with the flow to POM diminishing and that to DOM increasing, and thus the role of the MCP in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage will most likely enhanced. A working group joined by 26 scientists from 12 countries has been formed under the Scientific Committee for Oceanic Research (SCOR-WG134) to address this multi-faceted biogeochemical issue related to <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycling in the ocean and <span class="hlt">global</span> climate changes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jiao, N.; Azam, F.; McP Working Group; Scor Wg134</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://egon.cheme.cmu.edu/Papers/RiskMgmtDow.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Risk <span class="hlt">Management</span> for a <span class="hlt">Global</span> Supply Chain Planning under Uncertainty: Models and Algorithms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Risk <span class="hlt">Management</span> for a <span class="hlt">Global</span> Supply Chain Planning under Uncertainty: Models and Algorithms Fengqi. Keywords: Supply Chain <span class="hlt">Management</span>, Risk <span class="hlt">Management</span>, Stochastic Programming, Multicut L-shaped Method, process industries are facing increasing pressure to <span class="hlt">manage</span> their supply chains so as to reduce costs</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grossmann, Ignacio E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.U54B..08D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Management</span> of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> across sectors and scales: Insights from land use decision making</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> is increasingly becoming a topic of interest among policy circles and business entrepreneurs alike. In the United States, while no binding regulatory framework exists, <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> is nonetheless being pursued both by voluntary actions at a variety of levels, from the individual to the national level, and through mandatory policies at state and local levels. Controlling the amount of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide in the atmosphere for climate purposes will ultimately require a form of governance that will ensure that the actions taken and being rewarded financially are indeed effective with respect to the <span class="hlt">global</span> atmosphere on long time scales. Moreover, this new system of governance will need to interface with existing governance structures and decision criteria that have been established to arbitrate among various societal values and priorities. These existing institutions and expressed values will need to be examined against those proposed for effective <span class="hlt">carbon</span> governance, such as the permanence of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage, the additionality of credited activities, and the prevention of leakage, or displacement of prohibited activities to another region outside the governance boundary. The latter issue suggests that interactions among scales of decision making and governance will be extremely important in determining the ultimate success of any future system of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> governance. The goal of our study is to understand the current context of land use decision making in different sectors and examine the potential for future <span class="hlt">carbon</span> policy to be effective given this context. This study examined land use decision making in the U.S. state of Colorado from a variety of ownership perspectives, including US Federal land <span class="hlt">managers</span>, individual private owners, and policy makers involved in land use at a number of different scales. This paper will report on the results of interviews with land <span class="hlt">managers</span> and provide insight into the policy context for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> through land use. The study also examined the role of information in making decisions, and we will report some interesting contrasts between Federal and private land owner practices. Implications for science policy and the provision of useful information for decision making will be discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dilling, L.; Failey, E. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H41K1394R"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Scale Methane Emissions from On-Site Wastewater <span class="hlt">Management</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pit latrines and other on-site sanitation methods are important forms of wastewater <span class="hlt">management</span> at the <span class="hlt">global</span> scale, providing hygienic and low-cost sanitation for more than 1.7 billion people in developing and middle-income regions. Latrines have also been identified as major sources of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) from the anaerobic decomposition of organic waste in pits. Understanding the greenhouse gas footprint of different wastewater systems is essential for sustainable water resource development and <span class="hlt">management</span>. Despite this importance, CH4 emissions from decentralized wastewater treatment have received little attention in the scientific literature, and the rough calculations underlying government inventories and integrated assessment models do not accurately capture variations in emissions within and between countries. In this study, we improve upon earlier efforts and develop the first spatially explicit approach to quantifying latrine CH4 emissions, combining a high-resolution geospatial analysis of population, urbanization, and water table (as an indicator of anaerobic decomposition pathways) with CH4 emissions factors from the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Country-level health and sanitation surveys were used to determine latrine utilization in 2000 and predict usage in 2015. 18 representative countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America were selected for this analysis to illustrate regional variations in CH4 emissions and to include the greatest emitting nations. Our analysis confirms that pit latrines are a <span class="hlt">globally</span> significant anthropogenic CH4 source, emitting 4.7 Tg CH4 yr-1 in the countries considered here. This total is projected to decrease ~25% by 2015, however, driven largely by rapid urbanization in China and decreased reliance on latrines in favor of flush toilets. India has the greatest potential for large growth in emissions in the post-2015 period, since public health campaigns to end open defecation, which is currently practiced by more than 600 million people in India, will rely heavily on latrines. Our results emphasize that decisions regarding water and sanitation can significantly influence anthropogenic CH4 emissions, and that discussions around sustainable water resources policy should give full consideration to the greenhouse gas impacts of decentralized sanitation systems like latrines. We conclude with a brief discussion of household biogas and composting toilets as CH4 mitigation options which also allow for harvesting of renewable energy and/or nutrients from wastewater.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reid, M. C.; Guan, K.; Mauzerall, D. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://asbbs.org/files/2008/PDF/E/Enyinda.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Supply Chain Risks <span class="hlt">Management</span>: A New Battleground for Gaining Competitive Advantage</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Disruptions to <span class="hlt">global</span> supply chain due to risks have taken a center stage in private and public discourse. As firms' C-level executives become more interested and involved in outsourcing, co-manufacturing, and other forms of relationships, a guide is imperative to help these executives in their quest for <span class="hlt">global</span> supply chain risk <span class="hlt">management</span>. <span class="hlt">Global</span> supply chain is not only the linchpin</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Charles Briggs</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12248957"> <span id="translatedtitle">Integrating <span class="hlt">Global</span> Environmental Concerns into Urban <span class="hlt">Management</span>: The Scale and Readiness Arguments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary Due to the growing numbers of cities and urban residents, cities have increasingly contributed to <span class="hlt">global</span> environmental issues. Many studies have pointed out that the city adminis- trative level is a crucial level at which to address <span class="hlt">global</span> issues. Nevertheless, integrating <span class="hlt">global</span> concerns into local <span class="hlt">manage</span>- ment remains a difficult task for the majority of cities. Building on existing</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xuemei BAI</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57937453"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Linkages to Community-Based Ecosystem <span class="hlt">Management</span> in the United States</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Community-based ecosystem <span class="hlt">management</span> (CBEM) in the United States is closely tied to <span class="hlt">global</span> processes. Increasing and shifting international market demands for ecosystem products and services together with <span class="hlt">global</span> trends in climate change and biodiversity loss have tangible impacts in communities in every region of the country. Meanwhile, community-based natural resource <span class="hlt">management</span> efforts in other parts of the world, particularly in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nels Johnson; Jill Belsky; Victor Benavides; Martin Goebel; Ann Hawkins; Sissel Waage</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4144747"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">global</span> model for the early diagenesis of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and organic phosphorus in marine sediments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sediments are the main repository in the oceanic cycles of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (C) and phosphorus (P). In order to relate the deposition of organic C and organic P from the water column, and ultimate burial in sediments, we present a model for the early diagenesis of organic matter in marine sediments. This general diagenetic model was developed for inclusion in <span class="hlt">global</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. K. Tromp; P. Van Cappellen; R. M. Key</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/15042262"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oceanic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide uptake in a model of century-scale <span class="hlt">global</span> warming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a model of ocean-atmosphere interaction that excluded biological processes, the oceanic uptake of atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide (COâ) was substantially reduced in scenarios involving <span class="hlt">global</span> warming relative to control scenarios. The primary reason for the reduced uptake was the weakening or collapse of the ocean thermohaline circulation. Such a large reduction in this ocean uptake would have a major impact</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. L. Sarmiento; C. Le Quere</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.climate.unibe.ch/~stocker/papers/stocker03barc.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Changes in the <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle and Ocean Circulation on the Millennial Time Scale</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> dioxide is, after water vapor, the most important greenhouse gas. Naturally, its atmospheric concentration has varied between 190 and 290ppmv over the last half million years. The man-made CO2 increase of the last 250 years has already reached this amplitude with the potential of inducing signiflcant <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. Climate models suggest that the ocean circulation reacts in a sensitive</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thomas F. Stocker</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4133206"> <span id="translatedtitle">Strongyloidiasis--An Insight into Its <span class="hlt">Global</span> Prevalence and <span class="hlt">Management</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Strongyloides stercoralis, an intestinal parasitic nematode, infects more than 100 million people worldwide. Strongyloides are unique in their ability to exist as a free-living and autoinfective cycle. Strongyloidiasis can occur without any symptoms or as a potentially fatal hyperinfection or disseminated infection. The most common risk factors for these complications are immunosuppression caused by corticosteroids and infection with human T-lymphotropic virus or human immunodeficiency virus. Even though the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis is improved by advanced instrumentation techniques in isolated and complicated cases of hyperinfection or dissemination, efficient guidelines for screening the population in epidemiological surveys are lacking. Methodology and Results In this review, we have discussed various conventional methods for the diagnosis and <span class="hlt">management</span> of this disease, with an emphasis on recently developed molecular and serological methods that could be implemented to establish guidelines for precise diagnosis of infection in patients and screening in epidemiological surveys. A comprehensive analysis of various cases reported worldwide from different endemic and nonendemic foci of the disease for the last 40 years was evaluated in an effort to delineate the <span class="hlt">global</span> prevalence of this disease. We also updated the current knowledge of the various clinical spectrum of this parasitic disease, with an emphasis on newer molecular diagnostic methods, treatment, and <span class="hlt">management</span> of cases in immunosuppressed patients. Conclusion Strongyloidiasis is considered a neglected tropical disease and is probably an underdiagnosed parasitic disease due to its low parasitic load and uncertain clinical symptoms. Increased infectivity rates in many developed countries and nonendemic regions nearing those in the most prevalent endemic regions of this parasite and the increasing transmission potential to immigrants, travelers, and immunosuppressed populations are indications for initiating an integrated approach towards prompt diagnosis and control of this parasitic disease. PMID:25121962</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Puthiyakunnon, Santhosh; Boddu, Swapna; Li, Yiji; Zhou, Xiaohong; Wang, Chunmei; Li, Juan; Chen, Xiaoguang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002APS..MAR.G7002S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span> in the Electric Power Industry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Approximately 53States in 2000 came from the combustion of coal in Rankine cycle plant; 16principally in Brayton cycle or combined cycle units. Electricity generation is responsible for 36amthropogenic CO2. This compares with 32transportation sector, but since the electric utility generators are large fixed sources it is likely that any legislation designed to reduce CO2 production will adress the utility generators first. Over the last 100 years there has been a continuous decrease in the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fraction of the fuels used for energy production world wide, and it is expected that this will continue, principally as a result of the increasing fraction of natural gas. It appears probable that the retirement of the existing nuclear fleet will be delayed by relicensing, and it seems more possible that new nuclear plant will be built than seemed likely even a couple of years ago. The impact of renewables should be increasing, but currently only about 2way currently, and without some considerable incentives, the rate of increase in this component over the next twenty years will probably be small. Currently, hydroelectric plants account for 7indication that this will increase appreciably. At the moment, a significant change would appear to require the capture of CO2 from the exhaust of the combustion plants, and particularly the large existing fleet of coal-fired Rankine units. Following the capture, the CO2 must then be sequestered in secure long-term locations. In addition, increases in the efficiency of power generation, and increases in the efficiency of end use leading to reductions in the energy intensity of the Gross Domestic Product, will be necessary. This paper will review the current state of art in these various approaches to the problem.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stringer, John</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.4143K"> <span id="translatedtitle">How does soil <span class="hlt">management</span> affect <span class="hlt">carbon</span> losses from soils?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Agricultural soils are a major source as well as a sink of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (OC). Amount and distribution of OC within the soil and within the landscape are driven by land <span class="hlt">management</span> but also by erosion and deposition processes. At the other hand the type of soil <span class="hlt">management</span> influences mineralization and atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide losses by soil respiration. In a long-term field experiment the impacts of soil tillage systems on soil erosion processes were investigated. Following treatments were compared: 1) conventional tillage (CT), 2) conservation tillage with cover crop during the winter period (CS), and 3) no-till with cover crop during winter period (NT). The studies were carried out at three sites in the Eastern part of Austria with annual precipitation amounts from 650 to 900 mm. The soil texture ranged from silt loam to loam. Since 2007 soil CO2 emissions are measured with a portable soil respiration system in intervals of about one week, but also in relation to <span class="hlt">management</span> events. Concurrent soil temperature and soil water content are measured and soil samples are taken for chemical and microbiological analyses. An overall 14-yr. average soil loss between 1.0 t.ha-1.yr-1 for NT and 6.1 t.ha-1.yr-1 for CT resulted in on-site OC losses from 18 to 79 kg ha-1.yr-1. The measurements of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide emissions from the different treatments indicate a high spatial variation even within one plot. Referred to CT plots calculated <span class="hlt">carbon</span> losses amounted to 65-94% for NT plots while for the different RT plots they ranged between 84 and 128%. Nevertheless site specific considerations have to be taken into account. Preliminary results show that the adaptation of reduced or no-till <span class="hlt">management</span> strategies has enormous potential in reducing organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> losses from agricultural used soils.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Klik, A.; Trümper, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008BGD.....5.4847F"> <span id="translatedtitle">The African contribution to the <span class="hlt">global</span> climate-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle feedback of the 21st century</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Future climate change will have impact on <span class="hlt">global</span> and regional terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balances. The fate of African tropical forests over the 21st century has been investigated through <span class="hlt">global</span> coupled climate <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle model simulations. Under the SRES-A2 socio-economic CO2 emission scenario of the IPCC, and using the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace coupled ocean-terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle and climate model, IPSL-CM4-LOOP, we found that the warming over African ecosystems induces a reduction of net ecosystem productivity, making a 20% contribution to the <span class="hlt">global</span> climate-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle positive feedback. However, the African rainforest ecosystem alone makes only a negligible contribution to the overall feedback, much smaller than the one arising from the Amazon forest. This is first because of the two times smaller area of forest in Africa, but also because of the relatively lower local land <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle sensitivity to climate change. This beneficial role of African forests in mitigating future climate change should be taken into account when designing forest conservation policy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Friedlingstein, P.; Cadule, P.; Piao, S. L.; Ciais, P.; Sitch, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACP.....9.7449A"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> tetrachloride distributions obtained from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The first study of the <span class="hlt">global</span> atmospheric distribution of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> tetrachloride (CCl4), as a function of altitude and latitude, was performed using solar occultation measurements obtained by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) mission using Fourier transform spectroscopy. A total of 8703 profile measurements were taken in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere between February 2004 and August 2007. The zonal distribution of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> tetrachloride displays a slight hemispheric asymmetry and decreasing concentration with increasing altitude at all latitudes. Maximum <span class="hlt">carbon</span> tetrachloride concentrations are situated below 10 km in altitude with VMR (Volume Mixing Ratio) values of 100-130 ppt (parts per trillion). The highest concentrations are located about the Equator and at mid-latitudes, particularly for latitudes in heavily industrialised regions (20-45° N), with values declining towards the poles. <span class="hlt">Global</span> distributions obtained from ACE were compared with predictions from three chemistry transport models showing good agreement in terms of the vertical gradient despite an overall offset. The ACE dataset gives unique <span class="hlt">global</span> and temporal coverage of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> tetrachloride and its transport through the atmosphere. An estimated lifetime for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> tetrachloride of 34±5 years was determined through correlation with CFC-11.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Allen, N. D. C.; Bernath, P. F.; Boone, C. D.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Fu, D.; Manney, G. L.; Oram, D. E.; Toon, G. C.; Weisenstein, D. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACPD....913299A"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> tetrachloride distributions obtained from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The first study of the <span class="hlt">global</span> atmospheric distribution of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> tetrachloride (CCl4), as a function of altitude and latitude, was performed using solar occultation measurements obtained by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) mission using Fourier transform spectroscopy. A total of 8703 profile measurements were used in the study taken between February 2004 and August 2007. The zonal distribution of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> tetrachloride displays a slight hemispheric asymmetry and decreasing concentration with increasing altitude at all latitudes. Maximum <span class="hlt">carbon</span> tetrachloride concentrations are situated below 10 km in altitude with VMR (Volume Mixing Ratio) values of 100-130 ppt (parts per trillion). The highest concentrations are located about the equator and at mid-latitudes, particularly for latitudes in heavily industrialised regions (20-45° N), with values declining towards the poles. <span class="hlt">Global</span> distributions obtained from ACE were compared with predictions from three chemistry transport models. The ACE dataset gives unique <span class="hlt">global</span> and temporal coverage of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> tetrachloride and its transport through the atmosphere. An estimated lifetime for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> tetrachloride of 34±5 years was determined through correlation with CFC-11.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Allen, N. D. C.; Bernath, P. F.; Boone, C. D.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Fu, D.; Manney, G. L.; Toon, G. C.; Weisenstein, D. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1113611"> <span id="translatedtitle">New Technical Risk <span class="hlt">Management</span> Development for <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Capture Process</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The basic CCSI objective of accelerating technology development and commercial deployment of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> capture technologies through the extensive use of numerical simulation introduces a degree of unfamiliarity and novelty that potentially increases both of the traditional risk elements. In order to secure investor confidence and successfully accelerate the marketability of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> capture technologies, it is critical that risk <span class="hlt">management</span> decision tools be developed in parallel with numerical simulation capabilities and uncertainty quantification efforts. The focus of this paper is on the development of a technical risk model that incorporates the specific technology maturity development (level).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Engel, David W.; Letellier, Bruce; Edwards, Brian; Leclaire, Rene; Jones, Edward</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42417523"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Managing</span> <span class="hlt">Global</span> Atmospheric Change: A U.S. Policy Perspective</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">There are several air pollution issues that concern the international community at the regional and <span class="hlt">global</span> level, including acid deposition, heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, stratospheric ozone depletion, and climate change. Governments at the regional and <span class="hlt">global</span> levels have entered into various agreements in an effort to deal with these problems. This paper deals with two major <span class="hlt">global</span> atmospheric change</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dennis Leaf</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....1114269Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> assimilation system based on a dual optimization method</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ecological models are effective tools to simulate the distribution of <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sources and sinks. However, these models often suffer from substantial biases due to inaccurate simulations of complex ecological processes. We introduce a set of scaling factors (parameters) to an ecological model on the basis of plant functional type (PFT) and latitudes. A <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> assimilation system (GCAS-DOM) is developed by employing a Dual Optimization Method (DOM) to invert the time-dependent ecological model parameter state and the net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux state simultaneously. We use GCAS-DOM to estimate the <span class="hlt">global</span> distribution of the CO2 flux on 1° ×1° grid cells for the period from 2000 to 2007. Results show that land and ocean absorb -3.69 ± 0.49 Pg C year-1 and -1.91 ± 0.16 Pg C year-1, respectively. North America, Europe and China contribut -0.96 ± 0.15 Pg C year-1, -0.42 ± 0.08 Pg C year-1 and -0.21 ± 0.28 Pg C year-1, respectively. The uncertainties in the flux after optimization by GCAS-DOM have been remarkably reduced by more than 60%. Through parameter optimization, GCAS-DOM can provide improved estimates of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux for each PFT. Coniferous forest (-0.97 ± 0.27 Pg C year-1) is the largest contributor to the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink. Fluxes of once-dominant deciduous forest generated by BEPS is reduced to -0.79 ± 0.22 Pg C year-1, being the third largest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zheng, H.; Li, Y.; Chen, J. M.; Wang, T.; Huang, Q.; Huang, W. X.; Li, S. M.; Yuan, W. P.; Zheng, X.; Zhang, S. P.; Chen, Z. Q.; Jiang, F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.A12D..03S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Observations of Mid-Tropospheric <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dioxide Using the AIRS Sounder on EOS-AQUA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) has been operating continuously for more than 3 years, providing a large record of hyperspectral radiances throughout the mid-infrared. We have generated a subset of all AIRS radiances for clear, ocean fields-of-view for the purposes of validation of both the sensor and the radiative transfer algorithm used for temperature and humidity retrievals. Radiance bias comparisons between observed radiances, and those computed from both (1) radiosondes launched coincident with AIRS, and (2) ECMWF analysis/forecast fields exhibit variations with both latitude and time due to variable <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide. We present here zonally-averaged (ocean only) retrievals of mid-tropospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide derived from the biases between AIRS observations and radiances computed from ECMWF. The time and latitude dependence of monthly averages of the retrieved zonal <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide amounts exhibit behavior close to the NOAA/CMDL <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide climatologies. Long-term satellite observations of <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide with operational hyperspectral sounders should be feasible and provide an important contribution to our understanding of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide emissions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Strow, L. L.; Hannon, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/470997"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> dioxide and <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change: The birth and arrested development of an idea</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">G.S. Callendar (1897--1964) is regarded the originator of the modern theory of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide and <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change. However, this paper shows that the theory was developed and became well accepted during the nineteenth century. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> dioxide was discovered by Black in 1752. From 1820 to 1890 a steadily growing number of measurements of its atmospheric concentration were made using steadily improving techniques; the average results fell from around 500 ppm in 1820 to about 300 ppm in 1890. By the end of the following decade the greenhouse theory of <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change seemed widely accepted. However in 1900 and 1901 Aangstroem appeared to demolish the theory when he reported that changes in the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide level can have little effect because of the overlap of the water and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide spectral bands. At a stroke, all interest in the measurement of atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide levels seemed to disappear, although during the 1920s and 1930s a few workers resumed the work but for reasons unconnected to climate change. Over the next thirty years the writers of authoritative textbooks dismissed the theory of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide and climate change as an example of misguided speculation. Then in 1938 Callendar`s first paper appeared, reviving the theory which had lain forgotten for nearly forty years.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mudge, F.B. [Univ. of East Anglia (United Kingdom)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-12-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21412336"> <span id="translatedtitle">Eocene <span class="hlt">global</span> warming events driven by ventilation of oceanic dissolved organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">'Hyperthermals' are intervals of rapid, pronounced <span class="hlt">global</span> warming known from six episodes within the Palaeocene and Eocene epochs (?65-34 million years (Myr) ago). The most extreme hyperthermal was the ?170 thousand year (kyr) interval of 5-7 °C <span class="hlt">global</span> warming during the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 56?Myr ago). The PETM is widely attributed to massive release of greenhouse gases from buried sedimentary <span class="hlt">carbon</span> reservoirs, and other, comparatively modest, hyperthermals have also been linked to the release of sedimentary <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Here we show, using new 2.4-Myr-long Eocene deep ocean records, that the comparatively modest hyperthermals are much more numerous than previously documented, paced by the eccentricity of Earth's orbit and have shorter durations (?40?kyr) and more rapid recovery phases than the PETM. These findings point to the operation of fundamentally different forcing and feedback mechanisms than for the PETM, involving redistribution of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> among Earth's readily exchangeable surface reservoirs rather than <span class="hlt">carbon</span> exhumation from, and subsequent burial back into, the sedimentary reservoir. Specifically, we interpret our records to indicate repeated, large-scale releases of dissolved organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (at least 1,600 gigatonnes) from the ocean by ventilation (strengthened oxidation) of the ocean interior. The rapid recovery of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle following each Eocene hyperthermal strongly suggests that <span class="hlt">carbon</span> was re-sequestered by the ocean, rather than the much slower process of silicate rock weathering proposed for the PETM. Our findings suggest that these pronounced climate warming events were driven not by repeated releases of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> from buried sedimentary sources, but, rather, by patterns of surficial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> redistribution familiar from younger intervals of Earth history. PMID:21412336</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sexton, Philip F; Norris, Richard D; Wilson, Paul A; Pälike, Heiko; Westerhold, Thomas; Röhl, Ursula; Bolton, Clara T; Gibbs, Samantha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B13C0541W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying the Impact of Agricultural Land <span class="hlt">Management</span> Practices on Soil <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dynamics at Different Temporal and Spatial Scales</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Vast amounts of rich, organic topsoil are lost from agricultural landscapes each year through the combination of both tillage- and rainfall-induced erosion. The implications of these losses lead to soil and water quality degradation, as well as decreased biomass production and grain yields within a watershed. Further, the effects of land <span class="hlt">management</span> practices on soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> can be felt at a much larger scale in terms of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle, where the interactions of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> between the atmosphere, vegetation, and soil are highly dynamic. During tillage- and rainfall-induced erosion, organic material encapsulated within soil aggregates are dislodged and redistributed along the hillslope. Additionally, this redistribution increases decomposition rates and the release of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide fluxes to the atmosphere by changing soil texture, bulk density, and water holding capacities, which are key parameters that affect microbial activity. In this ongoing study, the combination of extensive field data, geo-spatial tools, and a coupled erosion (Water Erosion Prediction Project) - biogeochemical (CENTURY) model were used to assess the soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration potential for representative crop rotations in a highly productive agricultural watershed, at various spatial and temporal scales. Total Belowground <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Allocation was selected as a metric to assess <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration because it implements a mass balance approach of the various <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes stemming from soil detachment (erosion/deposition), heterotrophic respiration from microbial decomposition, and plant production. The results from this study show that the use of conservation practices can sequester 35 g C/m2 within the soils of the studied watershed over a 2-year crop rotation. Extrapolating to the watershed scale shows that the system is a net sink of <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Providing accurate assessment of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes associated with agricultural land <span class="hlt">management</span> practices can provide much insight to <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change and mitigation, determining greenhouse gas emission standards, and the development of incentives for good land stewards.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wilson, C. G.; Papanicolaou, T.; Wacha, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=workforce+AND+culture&pg=4&id=EJ936212"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> and the Inward Flow of Immigrants: Issues Associated with the Inpatriation of <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Managers</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Assembling a diverse <span class="hlt">global</span> workforce is becoming a critical dimension in gaining successful <span class="hlt">global</span> performance. In the past, staffing has focused on control of the multinational organization as the primary goal when staffing overseas positions. As organizations <span class="hlt">globalize</span> their operations, the goal of staffing is shifting from control to…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harvey, Michael; Kiessling, Tim; Moeller, Miriam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/gl/gl0418/2004GL020295/2004GL020295.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Metrics to assess the mitigation of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming by <span class="hlt">carbon</span> capture and storage in the ocean and in geological reservoirs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Different metrics to assess mitigation of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming by <span class="hlt">carbon</span> capture and storage are discussed. The climatic impact of capturing 30% of the anthropogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emission and its storage in the ocean or in geological reservoir are evaluated for different stabilization scenarios using a reduced-form <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle-climate model. The accumulated <span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming Avoided (GWA) remains, after a ramp-up during the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peter M. Haugan; Fortunat Joos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://allison.bio.uci.edu/publications/nclimate1951-sda.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">PUBLISHED ONLINE: XX MONTH XXXX | DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1951 <span class="hlt">Global</span> soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> projections are improved by</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">modest soil C losses with <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. Microbes also change the soil response to increased C inputsARTICLES PUBLISHED ONLINE: XX MONTH XXXX | DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1951 <span class="hlt">Global</span> soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> projections of soil C cycling on the <span class="hlt">global</span> scale. Compared with traditional models, the microbial model simulates</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">German, Donovan P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.lbl.gov/Publications/Director/docs/CC2_all_hands_Jan_2011_apa.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A positive vision for restoring balance to the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle, while allowing for <span class="hlt">global</span> growth in population and wellbeing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">John Tyndall 1859 This history and more is described in "The Discovery of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming," by SpencerA positive vision for restoring balance to the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle, while allowing for <span class="hlt">global</span> growth refined his calculation to include feedbacks to get 2.10 C #12;Image created by Robert A. Rohde <span class="hlt">Global</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eisen, Michael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/phod/docs/Wang_Dong_2010.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Is the basinwide warming in the North Atlantic Ocean related to atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide and <span class="hlt">global</span> warming?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">to atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide and <span class="hlt">global</span> warming? Chunzai Wang1 and Shenfu Dong1,2 Received 31 January 2010 is controversial. Some studies argued that the warming is due to <span class="hlt">global</span> warming in association with the secular sea surface temperature. Here we show that both <span class="hlt">global</span> warming and AMO variability make a contribution</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Chunzai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.math.ucr.edu/home/baez/balsillie/balsillie_todo.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">WHAT TO DO ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE? Slowing the rate of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> burning won't stop <span class="hlt">global</span> warming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">WHAT TO DO ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE? #12;Slowing the rate of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> burning won't stop <span class="hlt">global</span> warming: most CO2 stays in the air over a century, though individual molecules come and go. <span class="hlt">Global</span> warming. But we need to research it -- starting now. If <span class="hlt">global</span> warming gets bad, public opinion may suddently flip</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Baez, John</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5182740"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acute <span class="hlt">carbon</span> monoxide poisoning: Emergency <span class="hlt">management</span> and hyperbaric oxygen therapy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An ice storm in February 1989 resulted in numerous incidences of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> monoxide poisoning in central Mississippi secondary to exposure to open fires in unventilated living spaces. Sixteen cases were treated during this period at the University of Mississippi Medical Center and 6 received Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy. These 6 cases and the mechanisms of CO poisoning are discussed and recommendations for emergency <span class="hlt">management</span> are reviewed.10 references.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Severance, H.W.; Kolb, J.C.; Carlton, F.B.; Jorden, R.C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.lmd.jussieu.fr/~jldufres/publi/2002/Berthelot.Friedlingstein.ea-gbc-2002.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> response of the terrestrial biosphere to CO2 and climate change using a coupled climate-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">feedback in the climate-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle system. INDEX TERMS: 0315 Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Impact phenomena; KEYWORDS: climate change impact, terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle Citation: Berthelot, M., P of the terrestrial biosphere to CO2 and climate change using a coupled climate-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle model, <span class="hlt">Global</span> Biogeochem</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dufresne, Jean-Louis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52818651"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Description of the <span class="hlt">Global</span>, Monthly, Fossil-Fuel <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dioxide Time Series Based on National Estimates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Increased analysis has led to the realization that a detailed, mechanistic understanding of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle needs more detailed description in multiple dimensions (e.g., finer spatial scales, finer temporal scales, more accurate and precise mass fluxes, isotopic descriptions, ...). <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> dioxide emissions from fossil fuels are central to the increased interest in the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle and are critical toward</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. J. Andres; T. A. Boden; J. S. Gregg; L. Losey; G. Marland</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1512974K"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> sink activity and GHG budget of <span class="hlt">managed</span> European grasslands</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In agriculture, a large proportion (89%) of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission saving potential may be achieved by means of soil C sequestration. Recent demonstrations of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink activities of European ecosystemes, however, often questioned the existence of C storing grasslands, as though a net sink of C was observed, uncertainty surrounding this estimate was larger than the sink itself (Janssens et al., 2003, Schulze et al., 2009. Then again, some of these estimates were based on a small number of measurements, and on models. Not surprising, there is still, a paucity of studies demonstrating the existence of grassland systems, where C sequestration would exceed (in CO2 equivalents) methane emissions from the enteric fermentation of ruminants and nitrous oxide emissions from <span class="hlt">managed</span> soils. Grasslands are heavily relied upon for food and forage production. A key component of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink activity in grasslands is thus the impact of changes in <span class="hlt">management</span> practices or effects of past and recent <span class="hlt">management</span>, such as intensification as well as climate (and -variation). We analysed data (i.e. flux, ecological, <span class="hlt">management</span> and soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span>) from a network of European grassland flux observation sites (36). These sites covered different types and intensities of <span class="hlt">management</span>, and offered the opportunity to understand grassland <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycling and trade-offs between C sinks and CH4 and N2O emissions. For some sites, the assessment of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink activities were compared using two methods; repeated soil inventory and determination of the ecosystem C budget by continuous measurement of CO2 exchange in combination with quantification of other C imports and exports (net C storage, NCS). In general grassland, were a potential sink of C with 60±12 g C /m2.yr (median; min -456; max 645). Grazed sites had a higher NCS compared to cut sites (median 99 vs 67 g C /m2.yr), while permanent grassland sites tended to have a lower NCS compared to temporary sown grasslands (median 64 vs 125 g C /m2.yr). Including CH4 and N2O emission in the budget , revealed that for most sites, GHG emissions were compensated by NCS. The role of <span class="hlt">management</span> impact,soil organic C and fluxes driven by interannual climate variation will be dicussed in the presentation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Klumpp, Katja; Herfurth, Damien; Soussana, Jean-Francois; Fluxnet Grassland Pi's, European</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212896V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Trade-offs between solar radiation <span class="hlt">management</span>, <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide removal, emissions mitigation and adaptation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The possible use of solar radiation control strategies to counteract <span class="hlt">global</span> warming is explored through a number scenarios of different anthropogenic CO2 emission reduction pathways and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide removal interventions. Using a simple Earth system model, we illustrate the trade-offs between CO2 emission reduction, the use of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide removal geoengineering interventions (‘negative emissions') and solar radiation <span class="hlt">management</span> (SRM). These relationships are illustrated over a multi-centennial timescale, allowing sufficient time for the <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-cycle to respond to the anthropogenic perturbation. The anthropogenic CO2 emission scenarios (focussing on those from fossil fuel combustion) range from more to less stringent mitigation of emissions and includes the scenario assumed in our previous work on the maximum cooling potential of different geoengineering options. Results are presented in terms of transient atmospheric CO2 concentration and <span class="hlt">global</span> mean temperature from year 1900 to year 2500. Implementation of solar radiation control strategies requires an understanding of the timing and effect of terminating such an intervention, a so called ‘exit strategy'. The results illustrate a number of considerations regarding exit strategies, including the inherent commitment to either <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide removal interventions, or the length of time the solar radiation control mechanism must be maintained for. The impacts of the various trade-offs are also discussed in the context of adaptation and adaptive resilience. The results have a bearing on policy and long term planning by illustrating some of the important assumptions regarding implementation of solar radiation <span class="hlt">management</span>. These include baseline assumptions about emission mitigation efforts, timescale of intervention maintenance and impacts on adaptation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vaughan, Naomi; Lenton, Timothy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GMDD....7.6519Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Assimilation System using a modified EnKF assimilation method</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Assimilation System based on Ensemble Kalman filter (GCAS-EK) is developed for assimilating atmospheric CO2 abundance data into an ecosystem model to simultaneously estimate the surface <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes and atmospheric CO2 distribution. This assimilation approach is based on the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), but with several new developments, including using analysis states to iteratively estimate ensemble forecast errors, and a maximum likelihood estimation of the inflation factors of the forecast and observation errors. The proposed assimilation approach is tested in observing system simulation experiments and then used to estimate the terrestrial ecosystem <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes and atmospheric CO2 distributions from 2002 to 2008. The results showed that this assimilation approach can effectively reduce the biases and uncertainties of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes simulated by the ecosystem model.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, S.; Zheng, X.; Chen, Z.; Dan, B.; Chen, J. M.; Yi, X.; Wang, L.; Wu, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B51B0493M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> dynamics of intensively <span class="hlt">managed</span> forest along a full rotation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Temperate and tropical forests are increasingly exploited for wood and biomass extraction and only one third of forest area was considered as primary in the recent FRA in 2010. <span class="hlt">Management</span> practices affect the soil-forest-atmosphere continuum through various effects on soil and surface properties. They result ultimately in either positive or negative changes in the biomass and soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pools but, if any, few datasets or modeling tools are available for quantifying their impacts on the net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance of forest stands. To analyse these effects, the net half-hourly fluxes of CO2, water vapour and heat exchanges were monitored for 23 years in two closed stands of maritime pines in southwestern France. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> content of the aboveground biomass was measured annually and soil pools 10-early in the younger stand and 5-yearly in the mature stand. For analysing the data collected and disentangling the climate and <span class="hlt">management</span> effects, we used the three components process-based model GRAECO+ (Loustau et al. this session) linking a 3D radiative transfer and photosynthesis model, MAESTRA, a soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> model adapted from ROTH-C and a plant growth model. Eddy flux data were processed, gapfilled and partitioned using the methodological recommendations (Aubinet et al. 2000, Adv. Eco. Res:30, 114-173, Falge et al. 2001, Agr. For. Meteo. : 107, 43-69, Reichstein et al. 2005, Glob. Change Biol., 11:1424-1439). Analysis of the sequence showed that, whether by an increased sensitivity to soil drought compared to the pines or by a rapid re-colonization of the inter-row after understorey removal and plowing, the weeded vegetation contributed to create specific intra-annual dynamics of the fluxes and therefore, controls the dynamics of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance of the stand. After three growing seasons, the stand was already a <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink, but the impact of thinning and weeded vegetation removal at the age of 5-year brought the balance to almost neutral. We interpret this change as the combined effects of the reduction of the LAI, the enhancement of the heterotrophic respiration related to the decomposition of dead materials and the improvement of the mineralization of the large stock of soil organic matter by tillage. At the mature stage, the stand remains consistently a <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink and CO2 fluxes were insensitive to thinning. Conversely, the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance was sensitive to climate effects as evidenced by repeated drastic reductions in NEP caused by soil drought. Our data underlines the importance of disturbances linked to forest <span class="hlt">management</span> for the forest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance during the early stage of tree growth. Since <span class="hlt">management</span> intensification tends to shorten the forest life cycle and enhance the share of the young stages, our results confirm that the consequence of <span class="hlt">management</span> operations on the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle in forest may revert intensified forest stands from a net sink to a source and should be accounted for carefully.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moreaux, V.; Bosc, A.; Bonnefond, J.; Burlett, R.; Lamaud, E.; Sartore, M.; Trichet, P.; Chipeaux, C.; Lambrot, C.; Kowalski, A. S.; Loustau, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3066232"> <span id="translatedtitle">Restoring Coastal Plants to Improve <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Storage: Reaping What We Sow</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Long-term <span class="hlt">carbon</span> capture and storage (CCS) is currently considered a viable strategy for mitigating rising levels of atmospheric CO2 and associated impacts of <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change. Until recently, the significant below-ground CCS capacity of coastal vegetation such as seagrasses, salt marshes, and mangroves has largely gone unrecognized in models of <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> transfer. However, this reservoir of natural, free, and sustainable <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage potential is increasingly jeopardized by alarming trends in coastal habitat loss, totalling 30–50% of <span class="hlt">global</span> abundance over the last century alone. Human intervention to restore lost habitats is a potentially powerful solution to improve natural rates of <span class="hlt">global</span> CCS, but data suggest this approach is unlikely to substantially improve long-term CCS unless current restoration efforts are increased to an industrial scale. Failure to do so raises the question of whether resources currently used for expensive and time-consuming restoration projects would be more wisely invested in arresting further habitat loss and encouraging natural recovery. PMID:21479244</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Irving, Andrew D.; Connell, Sean D.; Russell, Bayden D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.U21A..03S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Forecasts of Urban Expansion to 2030 and Direct Impacts on Biodiversity and <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Pools</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Urban land cover change threatens biodiversity and affects ecosystem productivity through loss of habitat, biomass, and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage. Yet, despite projections that world urban populations will increase to 4.3 billion by 2030, little is known about future locations, magnitudes, and rates of urban expansion. Here we develop the first <span class="hlt">global</span> probabilistic forecasts of urban land cover change and explore the impacts on biodiversity hotspots and tropical <span class="hlt">carbon</span> biomass. If current trends in population density continue, then by 2030, urban land cover will expand between 800,000 and 3.3 million km2, representing a doubling to five-fold increase from the <span class="hlt">global</span> urban land cover in 2000. This would result in considerable loss of habitats in key biodiversity hotspots, including the Guinean forests of West Africa, Tropical Andes, Western Ghats and Sri Lanka. Within the pan-tropics, loss in forest biomass from urban expansion is estimated to be 1.38 PgC (0.05 PgC yr-1), equal to approximately 5% of emissions from tropical land use change. Although urbanization is often considered a local issue, the aggregate <span class="hlt">global</span> impacts of projected urban expansion will require significant policy changes to affect future growth trajectories to minimize <span class="hlt">global</span> biodiversity and forest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> losses.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Seto, K. C.; Guneralp, B.; Hutyra, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GBioC..20.4015M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparative impact of climatic and nonclimatic factors on <span class="hlt">global</span> terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and water cycles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The coupled <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and water cycles are influenced by multiple factors of human activity such as fossil-fuel emissions and land use change. We used the LPJmL Dynamic <span class="hlt">Global</span> Vegetation Model (DGVM) to quantify the potential influences of human demography, diet, and land allocation, and compare these to the effects of fossil-fuel emissions and corresponding climate change. For this purpose, we generate 12 land use patterns in which these factors are analyzed in a comparative static setting, providing information on their relative importance and the range of potential impacts on the terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and water balance. We show that these aspects of human interference are equally important to climate change and historic fossil-fuel emissions for <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks but less important for net primary production (NPP). Demand for agricultural area and thus the magnitude of impacts on the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and water cycles are mainly determined by constraints on localizing agricultural production and modulated by total demand for agricultural products.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Müller, Christoph; Bondeau, Alberte; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Cramer, Wolfgang; Lucht, Wolfgang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ERL.....5c4011G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Accounting for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle feedbacks in a comparison of the <span class="hlt">global</span> warming effects of greenhouse gases</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Greenhouse gases other than CO2 make a significant contribution to human-induced climate change, and multi-gas mitigation strategies are cheaper to implement than those which limit CO2 emissions alone. Most practical multi-gas mitigation strategies require metrics to relate the climate warming effects of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. <span class="hlt">Global</span> warming potential (GWP), defined as the ratio of time-integrated radiative forcing of a particular gas to that of CO2 following a unit mass emission, is the metric used in the Kyoto Protocol, and we define mean <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature change potential (MGTP) as an equivalent metric of the temperature response. Here we show that <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-climate feedbacks inflate the GWPs and MGTPs of methane and nitrous oxide by ~ 20% in coupled <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-climate model simulations of the response to a pulse of 50 × 1990 emissions, due to a warming-induced release of CO2 from the land biosphere and ocean. The magnitude of this effect is expected to be dependent on the model, but it is not captured at all by the analytical models usually used to calculate metrics such as GWP. We argue that the omission of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle dynamics has led to a low bias of uncertain but potentially substantial magnitude in metrics of the <span class="hlt">global</span> warming effect of other greenhouse gases, and we suggest that the <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-climate feedback should be considered when greenhouse gas metrics are calculated and applied.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gillett, Nathan P.; Damon Matthews, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B43E..05R"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-water cycles patterns inferred from FLUXNET observations - useful for model evaluation? (Invited)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The current FLUXNET database (www.fluxdata.org) of CO2, water and energy exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere contains almost 1000 site-years with data from more than 250 sites, encompassing all major biomes of the world and being processed in a standardized way (1-3). In this presentation we show that the information in the data is sufficient to derive generalized empirical relationships between vegetation/respective remote sensing information, climate and the biosphere-atmosphere exchanges across <span class="hlt">global</span> biomes. These empirical patterns are used to generate <span class="hlt">global</span> grids of the respective fluxes and derived properties (e.g. radiation and water-use efficiencies or climate sensitivities in general, bowen-ratio, AET/PET ratio). For example we re-estimate <span class="hlt">global</span> “text-book” numbers such as <span class="hlt">global</span> Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) as ca. 123PgC (4), or <span class="hlt">global</span> evapotranspiration (ET) as ca. 65km3/yr (5) - for the first time with a more solid and direct empirical basis. Evaluation against independent data at regional to <span class="hlt">global</span> scale (e.g. atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide inversions, runoff data) lends support to the validity of our almost purely empirical up-scaling approaches. Moreover climate factors such as radiation, temperature and water balance are identified as driving factors for variations and trends of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and water fluxes, with distinctly different sensitivities between different regions. Hence, these <span class="hlt">global</span> fields of biosphere-atmosphere exchange and the inferred relations between climate, vegetation type and fluxes should be used for evaluation or benchmarking of climate models or their land-surface components, while overcoming scale-issues with classical point-to-grid-cell comparisons. 1. M. Reichstein et al., <span class="hlt">Global</span> Change Biology 11, 1424 (2005). 2. D. Baldocchi, Australian Journal of Botany 56,1 (2008). 3. D. Papale et al., Biogeosciences 3, 571 (2006). 4. Beer et al. Science 329 (2010). 5. Jung et al. Nature in press (doi:10.1038/nature09396).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reichstein, M.; Jung, M.; Beer, C.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Tomelleri, E.; Papale, D.; Fluxnet Lathuille Synthesis Team (Cf. Www. Fluxdata. Org)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70039735"> <span id="translatedtitle">Organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> burial rates in mangrove sediments: strengthening the <span class="hlt">global</span> budget</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mangrove wetlands exist in the transition zone between terrestrial and marine environments and as such were historically overlooked in discussions of terrestrial and marine <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycling. In recent decades, mangroves have increasingly been credited with producing and burying large quantities of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (OC). The amount of available data regarding OC burial in mangrove soils has more than doubled since the last primary literature review (2003). This includes data from some of the largest, most developed mangrove forests in the world, providing an opportunity to strengthen the <span class="hlt">global</span> estimate. First-time representation is now included for mangroves in Brazil, Colombia, Malaysia, Indonesia, China, Japan, Vietnam, and Thailand, along with additional data from Mexico and the United States. Our objective is to recalculate the centennial-scale burial rate of OC at both the local and <span class="hlt">global</span> scales. Quantification of this rate enables better understanding of the current <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink capacity of mangroves as well as helps to quantify and/or validate the other aspects of the mangrove <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget such as import, export, and remineralization. Statistical analysis of the data supports use of the geometric mean as the most reliable central tendency measurement. Our estimate is that mangrove systems bury 163 (+40; -31) g OC m-2 yr-1 (95% C.I.). <span class="hlt">Globally</span>, the 95% confidence interval for the annual burial rate is 26.1 (+6.3; -5.1) Tg OC. This equates to a burial fraction that is 42% larger than that of the most recent mangrove <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget (2008), and represents 10–15% of estimated annual mangrove production. This <span class="hlt">global</span> rate supports previous conclusions that, on a centennial time scale, 8–15% of all OC burial in marine settings occurs in mangrove systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Breithaupt, J.; Smoak, Joseph M.; Smith, Thomas J.; Sanders, Christian J.; Hoare, Armando</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/x5813276h4w23734.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Distributed agile: project <span class="hlt">management</span> in a <span class="hlt">global</span> environment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Agile methods have been gaining acceptance in the mainstream software development community. At the same time, <span class="hlt">globally</span> distributed\\u000a software development is another trend delivering high-quality software to <span class="hlt">global</span> users at lower costs. Little is published\\u000a about the adoption and adaption of Agile methods in a distributed team and software <span class="hlt">globalization</span>\\/localization project environment.\\u000a The overall performance and satisfaction with the international</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Seiyoung Lee; Hwan-Seung Yong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50248155"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geographic information systems and <span class="hlt">global</span> positioning systems for watershed <span class="hlt">management</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Taipei Water Resource <span class="hlt">Management</span> Commission (TWMC) is in charge of watershed <span class="hlt">management</span> in order to provide sustained water for about four millions population in Taipei. Watershed <span class="hlt">management</span> is not confined to its traditional scope. Almost everything relevant with water quality and water quantity has to be taken care of. House construction permission, garbage collection and <span class="hlt">management</span>, water and soil conservation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yan-Guang Chang; Chiou-Hsiung Chen; Hsiu-Lan Huang; Hua-Hung Miao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B11E0402R"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span>-Structural Analysis of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Land Models (C-SALM)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract Better understanding of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle is taking an increased scientific attention in the present era of climate change. Representation of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle is increasingly becoming complex in land models which results in large uncertainties in modeled outputs. Therefore, it is urgent to promote methods for quantitative and critical assessment of the models. Here we apply a systematic computational framework for <span class="hlt">Carbon</span>-Structural Analysis of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Land Model (C-SALM). The models used in this study are NCAR's Community Land Models (versions CLM3.5, CLM4.0 and CLM4.5) present in Community Earth System Model (CESM), Australian Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) and Common Land Model (CoLM) of China. The framework applied in this study facilitates the effective model comparison by decomposing a complex land model into traceable components based on fundamental properties of biogeochemical processes implemented in these models. The framework defines ecosystem <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage capacity (Xss) as a product of net primary productivity (NPP) and ecosystem residence time (?E). The ?E is determined by (i) baseline <span class="hlt">carbon</span> residence times (??E), (ii) environmental scalars (?), and (iii) environmental forcings (Xia et al., 2013). The ??E can be further traced by partitioning coefficients (called vector B) and transfer coefficients (called A & C matrices) of NPP. To compare land models, the steady state annual average outputs were computed using 1990 forcing data at 1x1o resolution. The <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage capacity of each model was found to be determined differently which are due to differences present in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> residence time and environmental scalars. The dependency of ? was assessed based on temperature (?T) and water (?W) scalars. This study explains the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> model pool structure for each model and identifies the A, B and C elements at each <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pool. The C-SALM study also evaluates models at major plant functional types (PFTs) level and traces major differences in terms of ?E, ??E and ? in each model. Climate forcings which control decomposition rates were found to be different at PFT level for each model. The approximation errors raised due to temporal variations of A, B, C and ? were evaluated at PFT level for each model. Information from C-SALM is helpful in enhancing the understanding of land model performance and reducing uncertainty in model output. Furthermore, this study has a range of implications for future model development and inter-comparison. Reference: Xia J, Luo Y, Wang YP, Hararuk O (2013) Traceable components of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage capacity in biogeochemical models. <span class="hlt">Global</span> Change Biology, 19, 2104-2116.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rafique, R.; Xia, J.; Hararuk, O.; Luo, Y.; Dai, Y.; Macaulay, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/979264"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nitrogen attenuation of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle response to <span class="hlt">global</span> environmental factors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nitrogen cycle dynamics have the capacity to attenuate the magnitude of <span class="hlt">global</span> terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinks and sources driven by CO2 fertilization and changes in climate. In this study, two versions of the terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and nitrogen cycle components of the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM) are used to evaluate how variation in nitrogen availability influences terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinks and sources in response to changes over the 20th century in <span class="hlt">global</span> environmental factors including atmospheric CO2 concentration, nitrogen inputs, temperature, precipitation and land use. The two versions of ISAM vary in their treatment of nitrogen availability: ISAM-NC has a terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle model coupled to a fully dynamic nitrogen cycle while ISAM-C has an identical <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle model but nitrogen availability is always in sufficient supply. Overall, the two versions of the model estimate approximately the same amount of <span class="hlt">global</span> mean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake over the 20th century. However, comparisons of results of ISAM-NC relative to ISAM-C reveal that nitrogen dynamics: (1) reduced the 1990s <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink associated with increasing atmospheric CO2 by 0.53 PgC yr1 (1 Pg = 1015g), (2) reduced the 1990s <span class="hlt">carbon</span> source associated with changes in temperature and precipitation of 0.34 PgC yr1 in the 1990s, (3) an enhanced sink associated with nitrogen inputs by 0.26 PgC yr1, and (4) enhanced the 1990s <span class="hlt">carbon</span> source associated with changes in land use by 0.08 PgC yr1 in the 1990s. These effects of nitrogen limitation influenced the spatial distribution of the estimated exchange of CO2 with greater sink activity in high latitudes associated with climate effects and a smaller sink of CO2 in the southeastern United States caused by N limitation associated with both CO2 fertilization and forest regrowth. These results indicate that the dynamics of nitrogen availability are important to consider in assessing the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sources and sinks.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jain, Atul [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Yang, Xiaojuan [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Kheshgi, Haroon [Exxon Mobil Research and Engineering; Mcguire, David [University of Alaska; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://supernet.isenberg.umass.edu/articles/globsupecrisk.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Supply Chain Networks and Risk <span class="hlt">Management</span>: A Multi-Agent Framework Anna Nagurney</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Supply Chain Networks and Risk <span class="hlt">Management</span>: A Multi-Agent Framework Anna Nagurney Radcliffe Published in Multiagent-Based Supply Chain <span class="hlt">Management</span>, (2006), pp 103-134, B. Chaib-draa and J. P. Muller of electronic commerce (e-commerce) has unveiled new oppor- tunities for the <span class="hlt">management</span> of supply chain networks</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nagurney, Anna</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/94/84/49/PDF/Brunel.S.ISDM_1_.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">http://isdm.univ-tln.fr <span class="hlt">GLOBAL</span> APPROACH FOR KNOWLEDGE <span class="hlt">MANAGEMENT</span> IN DESIGN</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">http://isdm.univ-tln.fr <span class="hlt">GLOBAL</span> APPROACH FOR KNOWLEDGE <span class="hlt">MANAGEMENT</span> IN DESIGN Stephane Brunel's not really a new field. It appears that the merge between design and knowledge <span class="hlt">management</span> propose some very the data changes into knowledge by some different information. Keyword: Design, knowledge <span class="hlt">management</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://warnercnr.colostate.edu/docs/hdnr/mor2/Fernandez_%20CBNRM_Global_sum.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Community-based Natural Resource <span class="hlt">Management</span>: State of the Science--<span class="hlt">Global</span> Perspectives1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">) fulfill its promise of enhancing resource <span class="hlt">management</span> and conservation while improving human livesCommunity-based Natural Resource <span class="hlt">Management</span>: State of the Science--<span class="hlt">Global</span> Perspectives1 Maria E organize to self-regulate use of shared resources? Can community-based natural resource <span class="hlt">management</span> (CBNRM</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMED13C0799B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Introducing the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle to middle school students with a 14C research project</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Climate Change (GCC) is currently not part of the California Science Standards for 7th grade. Required course elements, however, such as the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle, photosynthesis, and cellular respiration could be linked to <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change. Here we present a lesson plan developed in collaboration with scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, to involve 7th grade students in monitoring of fossil fuel emissions in the Richmond/San Pablo area of California. -The lesson plan is a Greenhouse Gas/<span class="hlt">Global</span> Climate Change Unit, with an embedded research project in which students will collect plant samples from various locals for analysis of 14C, to determine if there is a correlation between location and how much CO2 is coming from fossil fuel combustion. Main learning objectives are for students to: 1) understand how fossil fuel emissions impact the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle, 2) understand how scientists estimate fossil CO2 emissions, and 3) engage in hypothesis development and testing. This project also engages students in active science learning and helps to develop responsibility, two key factors for adolescentsWe expect to see a correlation between proximity to freeways and levels of fossil fuel emissions. This unit will introduce important GCC concepts to students at a younger age, and increase their knowledge about fossil fuel emissions in their local environment, as well as the regional and <span class="hlt">global</span> impacts of fossil emissions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brodman Larson, L.; Phillips, C. L.; LaFranchi, B. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT........11Q"> <span id="translatedtitle">Variability of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle and its interaction with climate under <span class="hlt">global</span> warming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Land-atmosphere <span class="hlt">carbon</span> exchange makes a significant contribution to the variability of atmospheric CO2 concentration on time scales of seasons to centuries. In this thesis, a terrestrial vegetation and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> model, VEgetation-<span class="hlt">Global</span>-Atmosphere-Soil (VEGAS), is used to study the interactions between the terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle and climate over a wide-range of temporal and spatial scales. The VEGAS model was first evaluated by comparison with FLUXNET observations. One primary focus of the thesis was to investigate the interannual variability of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle related to climate variations, in particular to El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Our analysis indicates that VEGAS can properly capture the response of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle to ENSO: suppression of vegetative activity coupled with enhancement of soil decomposition, due to predominant warmer and drier climate patterns over tropical land associated with El Nino. The combined affect of these forcings causes substantial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux into the atmosphere. A unique aspect of this work is to quantify the direct and indirect effects of soil wetness vegetation activities and consequently on land-atmosphere <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes. Besides this canonic dominance of the tropical response to ENSO, our modeling study simulated a large <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux from the northern mid-latitudes, triggered by the 1998-2002 drought and warming in the region. Our modeling indicates that this drought could be responsible for the abnormally high increase in atmospheric CO2 growth rate (2 ppm/yr) during 2002-2003. We then investigated the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle-climate feedback in the 21 st century. A modest feedback was identified, and the result was incorporated into the Coupled <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle Climate Model Inter-comparison Project (C4MIP). Using the fully coupled <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle-climate simulations from C4MIP, we examined the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake in the Northern High Latitudes poleward of 60°N (NHL) in the 21st century. C4MIP model results project that the NHL will be a <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink by 2100, as CO2 fertilization and warming stimulate vegetation growth, canceling the effect of enhancement of soil decomposition by warming. However, such competing mechanisms may lead to a switch of NHL from a net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink to source after 2100. All these effects are enhanced as a result of positive <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle-climate feedbacks.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Qian, Haifeng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMGC13A0682N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Synergistic use of MODIS and Landsat data for mapping <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes at 30m</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biological sequestration of CO2 into vegetation biomass is likely to play a key role under future Clean Development Mechanisms (CDMs) negotiated under the UNFCCC. However, accurate assessment of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> credits to any land unit requires the ability to monitor large spatial and temporal differences in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration potential defined by its land cover, primary production and disturbance history. Such a <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> monitoring scheme requires high resolution satellite data like Landsat (30m) as current operational products from MODIS (1000m) are too coarse for decision making. We prototyped a methodology to estimate <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes at 30m <span class="hlt">globally</span> by combining the temporally rich MODIS products with spatially extensive Landsat data for two epochs, 1990 and 2005. Our methodology uses atmospherically corrected Landsat surface reflectances to downscale MODIS-derived land cover dependent peak vegetation index/annual gross primary production (GPP) relations in different climates (boreal, temperate, tropical, etc.). The products incorporate GPP, simplified vegetation <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycling (NPP/GPP and NEP/GPP ratios), net primary production (NPP) and net ecosystem production (NEP) and changes in these fluxes between the two epochs due to disturbance, land use changes and other ecosystem processes. Results are presented for a selection of scenes over the southeast United States.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nemani, R.; Dungana, J.; Melton, F.; Milesi, C.; Michaelis, A.; Wang, W.; Hashimoto, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.B41D..06H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Urban Forests, <span class="hlt">Global</span> Change and <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dynamics: Windows Into the Future</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Urban conditions represent future <span class="hlt">global</span> change scenarios: elevated <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide, increased ozone and nitrogen deposition, temperature increases with the heat island effect, and dynamic changes in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> with additional anthropogenic sources and land use change. This presentation examines the results from a flux tower in an urban forest in Baltimore, succession studies along an urban to rural gradient, and the use of ecological modeling for predicting and scaling the effects of these interactive stressors. The Cub Hill tower in Baltimore, MD, is situated in a mixed deciduous forest, and monitors <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide concentrations and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux in the urban/suburban environment. CO2 concentration cycles were associated with anthropogenic cycles with higher concentrations during the workday and workweek. Mean concentrations were approximately 15 ppm above <span class="hlt">global</span> average at the 40m tower. The CO2 concentration in the Baltimore city center averaged 100 ppm higher, at approximately 500 ppm. The Cub Hill area was found to be a net source of CO2 due to anthropogenic emissions sources. However, the high percent cover of deciduous vegetation resulted in significant CO2 sequestered by the urban forests during the growing season. In urban to rural gradient studies, the higher CO2 and temperature conditions in urban areas resulted in rapid species shifts, succession to woody invasives, and greater biomass. Ecosystem process modelling showed that the elevated CO2 effect would not be realized without additional N to stimulate NPP. The benefits and ecological services provided by urban forests, primarily <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration and energy conservation, are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hom, J.; Nowak, D.; Ziska, L.; Clark, K.; Saliendra, N.; Pan, Y.; Birdsey, R.; Pouyat, R.; Skowronski, N.; Patterson, M.; Yesilonis, I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFMED31C1179S"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Simple Numerical Model of the <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle for the Classroom</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using the STELLA programming software, a numerical model of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle has been developed for educational purposes. The basic model is a somewhat simplified version of box models developed by researchers in the 1980s to explore the cycling of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> on time scales of years to centuries. The model contains four reservoirs (or "stocks") of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> -- atmosphere, ocean, and land plants - interconnected by a variety of processes (or "flows"). The presentation will demonstrate the model and cover three topics regarding its use in the classroom. 1) Construction of the model by lower division students, focusing on animating a static diagram of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle and emphasizing the importance of the concepts of balance and conservation of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> to continually check the work in progress. 2) Introduction of students to real-world model tuning to eliminate both starting transients and small imbalances introduced by representing continuous functions in finite difference form. 3) Exploration of model behavior using a variety of perturbations. The perturbations considered include large fires leading to the destruction of the land plants (an internal redistribution of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> already present in the model) and the burning of fossil fuels (the distribution of "new" <span class="hlt">carbon</span> added to the model from the outside). The closing discussion will emphasize the importance of developing students' abilities to interpret graphical output in terms of the scenario being played out in the model.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Snow, J. T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49657287"> <span id="translatedtitle">Combining power plant water needs and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide storage using saline formations: Implications for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide and water <span class="hlt">management</span> policies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Research involving <span class="hlt">management</span> of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide has increased markedly over the last decade as it relates to concerns over climate change. Capturing and storing <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide (CO2) in geological formations is one of many proposed methods to <span class="hlt">manage</span>, and likely reduce, CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels in the electricity sector. Saline formations represent a vast storage resource, and the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peter H. Kobos; Malynda A. Cappelle; Jim L. Krumhansl; Thomas A. Dewers; Andrea McNemar; David J. Borns</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8910268"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oceanic <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dioxide Uptake in a Model of Century-Scale <span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a model of ocean-atmosphere interaction that excluded biological processes, the oceanic uptake of atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide (CO2) was substantially reduced in scenarios involving <span class="hlt">global</span> warming relative to control scenarios. The primary reason for the reduced uptake was the weakening or collapse of the ocean thermohaline circulation. Such a large reduction in this ocean uptake would have a major impact on the future growth rate of atmospheric CO2. Model simulations that include a simple representation of biological processes show a potentially large offsetting effect resulting from the downward flux of biogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. However, the magnitude of the offset is difficult to quantify with present knowledge. PMID:8910268</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sarmiento; Le Quéré C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-11-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.bayceer.uni-bayreuth.de/gce/de/intern/fm/docs/72967/Summer_School_2009.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">ADAPTATION TO <span class="hlt">GLOBAL</span> CHANGE CHALLENGES FOR RESEARCH AND ECOSYSTEM <span class="hlt">MANAGEMENT</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">to evaluate practical approaches to cope with the ecological consequences of climate change. In addition of Applied Sciences of Eberswalde entrate on the ecological and societal consequences of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Change to <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change will be worked out for natural and semi-natural ecosystems. However, there is a gap</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schmidt, Matthias</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37362153"> <span id="translatedtitle">Creation of Norms for the Purpose of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Talent <span class="hlt">Management</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Personality scores were used to construct three databases of <span class="hlt">global</span> norms. The composition of the three databases varied according to percentage of cases by <span class="hlt">global</span> region, occupational group, applicant status, and gender of the job candidate. Comparison of personality scores across the three norms databases revealed that the magnitude of the effect of composition was small, indicating that composition, as</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cynthia A. Hedricks; Chet Robie; John V. Harnisher</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/426959"> <span id="translatedtitle">Environmental review of options for <span class="hlt">managing</span> radioactively contaminated <span class="hlt">carbon</span> steel</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to develop a strategy for the <span class="hlt">management</span> of radioactively contaminated <span class="hlt">carbon</span> steel (RCCS). Currently, most of this material either is placed in special containers and disposed of by shallow land burial in facilities designed for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or is stored indefinitely pending sufficient funding to support alternative disposition. The growing amount of RCCS with which DOE will have to deal in the foreseeable future, coupled with the continued need to protect the human and natural environment, has led the Department to evaluate other approaches for <span class="hlt">managing</span> this material. This environmental review (ER) describes the options that could be used for RCCS <span class="hlt">management</span> and examines the potential environmental consequences of implementing each. Because much of the analysis underlying this document is available from previous studies, wherever possible the ER relies on incorporating the conclusions of those studies as summaries or by reference.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">NONE</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20069448"> <span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring changes in soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pools, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur under different agricultural <span class="hlt">management</span> practices in the tropics.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Soil organic matter not only affects sustainability of agricultural ecosystems, but also extremely important in maintaining overall quality of environment as soil contains a significant part of <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stock. Hence, we attempted to assess the influence of different tillage and nutrient <span class="hlt">management</span> practices on various stabilized and active soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pools, and their contribution to the extractable nitrogen phosphorus and sulfur. Our study confined to the assessment of impact of agricultural <span class="hlt">management</span> practices on the soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pools and extractable nutrients under three important cropping systems, viz. soybean-wheat, maize-wheat, and rice-wheat. Results indicated that there was marginal improvement in Walkley and Black content in soil under integrated and organic nutrient <span class="hlt">management</span> treatments in soybean-wheat, maize-wheat, and rice-wheat after completion of four cropping cycles. Improvement in stabilized pools of soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (SOC) was not proportional to the applied amount of organic manures. While, labile pools of SOC were increased with the increase in amount of added manures. Apparently, green manure (Sesbania) was more effective in enhancing the lability of SOC as compared to farmyard manure and crop residues. The KMnO(4)-oxidizable SOC proved to be more sensitive and consistent as an index of labile pool of SOC compared to microbial biomass <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Under different cropping sequences, labile fractions of soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> exerted consistent positive effect on the extractable nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur in soil. PMID:20069448</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Verma, Bibhash C; Datta, Siba Prasad; Rattan, Raj K; Singh, Anil K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cccma.bc.ec.gc.ca/papers/kdenman/PDF/Zahariev08.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preindustrial, historical, and fertilization simulations using a <span class="hlt">global</span> ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> model with new parameterizations of iron limitation, calcification, and N 2 fixation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Canadian Model of Ocean <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> (CMOC) has been developed as part of a <span class="hlt">global</span> coupled climate <span class="hlt">carbon</span> model. In a stand-alone integration to preindustrial equilibrium, the model ecosystem and <span class="hlt">global</span> ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle are in general agreement with estimates based on observations. CMOC reproduces <span class="hlt">global</span> mean estimates and spatial distributions of various indicators of the strength of the biological</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Konstantin Zahariev; James R. Christian; Kenneth L. Denman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B33I..06N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Big Data for Big Questions: <span class="hlt">Global</span> Soil Change and the National Soil <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Network</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many major questions related to <span class="hlt">global</span> soil change are too large to be answered through primary research alone. Although independent, intensive primary research at discrete study sites advances our mechanistic understanding of how specific soils change, scientists can assess larger patterns of soil change by synthesizing existing primary research, and linking individual studies via research networks. Here, we illustrate how primary research can be synthesized into large databases to answer questions beyond the reach of individual studies, using examples from a meta-analysis of forest <span class="hlt">management</span> effects on soil C storage. Questions of interest to the synthesis included: does forest harvesting have a consistent effect on soil C storage? And, how does fire affect forest soil C storage? To answer these questions, we derived >600 soil C response ratios from >100 temperate forest harvest and fire papers. Despite ample underlying variation, meta-analysis detected a significant harvesting effect on soil C storage (-13 ±4%), and also identified factors driving variation in this overall effect. Specifically, harvesting had different effects on forest floor vs. mineral soil C storage, with forest floors showing significant C losses (-30 ±6%), and mineral soils showing no overall change. Within harvested forest floors, variation in C storage shifts was best explained by forest composition (conifer presence mitigated C losses), while soil type explained the most variation in mineral soil C responses to harvest. In our synthesis of fire effects on temperate forest soil C storage, meta-analysis revealed an overall C storage reduction of 35 ±8%. As with forest harvesting, fire had no overall effect on mineral soils, but forest floor C storage declined by 59 ±7%. Forest floors from conifer stands lost more C than those from hardwood and mixed forests, and fire type also mattered—wildfires caused significantly greater forest floor C losses than prescribed burns. Across all studies, the mean recovery time for forest floor C was 128 yr. In a broader context, these results demonstrate that combining database work with quantitative synthesis (such as meta-analysis) allows scientists to detect large-scale patterns that are obscured by variation within individual studies. And, in addition to improving analytical capacity for addressing large questions, large databases are useful for identifying data gaps in <span class="hlt">global</span> soil change research. In light of these benefits, now is an opportune time to advance the study of <span class="hlt">global</span> soil change by networking and sharing data with the National Soil <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Network. The NSCN seeks participants in an effort to compile databases, answer big-picture, predictive questions about soil C vulnerability, and identify and fill data gaps and research needs. The NSCN seeks to be a facilitator that links existing resources rather than reinvents them, and offers opportunities for a variety of activities, including sharing sites, data, archives, and lab infrastructure. The NSCN is fundamentally collaborative, and operates under the assumption that our shared scientific interest in <span class="hlt">global</span> soil change will be best advanced if we work together rather than in isolation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nave, L. E.; Swanston, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4801142"> <span id="translatedtitle">A moving-boundary problem for concrete <span class="hlt">carbonation</span>: <span class="hlt">Global</span> existence and uniqueness of weak solutions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper deals with a one-dimensional coupled system of semi-linear parabolic equations with a kinetic condition on the moving boundary. The latter furnishes the driving force for the moving boundary. The main result is a <span class="hlt">global</span> existence and uniqueness theorem of positive weak solutions. The system under consideration is modelled on the so-called <span class="hlt">carbonation</span> of concrete – a prototypical chemical-corrosion</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Adrian Muntean; Michael Böhm</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9784T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Derivation of a northern-hemispheric biomass map for use in <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Quantifying the state and the change of the World's forests is crucial because of their ecological, social and economic value. Concerning their ecological importance, forests provide important feedbacks on the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, energy and water cycles. In addition to their influence on albedo and evapotranspiration, they have the potential to sequester atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide and thus to mitigate <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. The current state and inter-annual variability of forest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks remain relatively unexplored, but remote sensing can serve to overcome this shortcoming. While for the tropics wall-to-wall estimates of above-ground biomass have been recently published, up to now there was a lack of similar products covering boreal and temperate forests. Recently, estimates of forest growing stock volume (GSV) were derived from ENVISAT ASAR C-band data for latitudes above 30° N. Utilizing a wood density and a biomass compartment database, a forest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> density map covering North-America, Europe and Asia with 0.01° resolution could be derived out of this dataset. Allometric functions between stem, branches, root and foliage biomass were fitted and applied for different leaf types (broadleaf, needleleaf deciduous, needleleaf evergreen forest). Additionally, this method enabled uncertainty estimation of the resulting <span class="hlt">carbon</span> density map. Intercomparisons with inventory-based biomass products in Russia, Europe and the USA proved the high accuracy of this approach at a regional scale (r2 = 0.70 - 0.90). Based on the final biomass map, the forest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks and densities (excluding understorey vegetation) for three biomes were estimated across three continents. While 40.7 ± 15.7 Gt of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> were found to be stored in boreal forests, temperate broadleaf/mixed forests and temperate conifer forests contain 24.5 ± 9.4 Gt(C) and 14.5 ± 4.8 Gt(C), respectively. In terms of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> density, most of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> per area is stored in temperate conifer (62.1 ± 20.7 Mg(C)/ha(Forest)) and broadleaf/mixed forests (58.0 ± 22.1 Mg(C)/ha(Forest)), whereas boreal forests have a <span class="hlt">carbon</span> density of only 40.0 ± 15.4 Mg(C)/ha(Forest). While European forest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks are relatively small, the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> density is higher compared to the other continents. The derived biomass map substantially improves the knowledge on the current <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks of the northern-hemispheric boreal and temperate forests, serving as a new benchmark for spatially explicit and consistent biomass mapping with moderate spatial resolution. This product can be of great value for <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle models as well as national <span class="hlt">carbon</span> monitoring systems. Further investigations concentrate on improving biomass parameterizations and representations in such kind of models. The presented map will help to improve the simulation of biomass spatial patterns and variability and enables identifying the dominant influential factors like climatic conditions and disturbances.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thurner, Martin; Beer, Christian; Santoro, Maurizio; Carvalhais, Nuno; Wutzler, Thomas; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Shvidenko, Anatoly; Kompter, Elisabeth; Levick, Shaun; Schmullius, Christiane</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57690314"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">global</span> integration of diversity <span class="hlt">management</span>: a longitudinal case study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Whilst the extant diversity <span class="hlt">management</span> literature has provided a comprehensive array of theoretical frameworks and empirical studies on how organizations can and have approached the <span class="hlt">management</span> of a diverse workforce, the same cannot be said about the literature on diversity in an international setting. Indeed, from a diversity <span class="hlt">management</span> perspective we know surprisingly little about how multinational firms are responding</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aulikki Sippola; Adam Smale</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47971863"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ethics Programs in <span class="hlt">Global</span> Businesses: Culture's Role in <span class="hlt">Managing</span> Ethics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Even if there were widespread cross-cultural agreement on the normative issues of business ethics, corporate ethics <span class="hlt">management</span> initiatives (e.g., codes of conduct, ethics telephone lines, ethics offices) which are appropriate in one cultural setting still could fail to mesh with the <span class="hlt">management</span> practices and cultural characteristics of a different setting. By uncritically adopting widely promoted American practices for <span class="hlt">managing</span> corporate</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gary R. Weaver</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090008500&hterms=graphene&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dgraphene"> <span id="translatedtitle">Joining and Integration of Advanced <span class="hlt">Carbon-Carbon</span> Composites to Metallic Systems for Thermal <span class="hlt">Management</span> Applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent research and development activities in joining and integration of <span class="hlt">carbon-carbon</span> (C/C) composites to metals such as Ti and Cu-clad-Mo for thermal <span class="hlt">management</span> applications are presented with focus on advanced brazing techniques. A wide variety of <span class="hlt">carbon-carbon</span> composites with CVI and resin-derived matrices were joined to Ti and Cu-clad Mo using a number of active braze alloys. The brazed joints revealed good interfacial bonding, preferential precipitation of active elements (e.g., Ti) at the composite/braze interface. Extensive braze penetration of the inter-fiber channels in the CVI C/C composites was observed. The chemical and thermomechanical compatibility between C/C and metals at elevated temperatures is assessed. The role of residual stresses and thermal conduction in brazed C/C joints is discussed. Theoretical predictions of the effective thermal resistance suggest that composite-to-metal brazed joints may be promising for lightweight thermal <span class="hlt">management</span> applications.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Singh, M.; Asthana, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.dndc.sr.unh.edu/papers/2004_Li_ForestManagement.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Impacts of <span class="hlt">Management</span> on <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Sequestration and Trace Gas Emissions in Forested</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Modeling Impacts of <span class="hlt">Management</span> on <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Sequestration and Trace Gas Emissions in Forested Wetland-DNDC, was modified to enhance its capacity to predict the impacts of <span class="hlt">management</span> practices on <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration nonnegligible roles in mitigation in comparison with <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration. Forests are recognized for having</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cs.rutgers.edu/~ricardob/papers/tr639.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Managing</span> the Cost, Energy Consumption, and <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Footprint of Internet Services</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Managing</span> the Cost, Energy Consumption, and <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Footprint of Internet Services Kien Le , Ozlem consumptions translate into large <span class="hlt">carbon</span> footprints, since most of the electricity produced in the US (and to <span class="hlt">manage</span> their usage of "brown energy" (produced via <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-intensive means) relative to renewable</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bianchini, Ricardo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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<a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gps.caltech.edu/~wfischer/pubs/Grotzingeretal2011.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">NATURE GEOSCIENCE | VOL 4 | MAY 2011 | www.nature.com/naturegeoscience 285 he <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle is the biogeochemical engine at the</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">NATURE GEOSCIENCE | VOL 4 | MAY 2011 | www.nature.com/naturegeoscience 285 T he <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle during times past, however, presents unique challenges. On geological timescales, the CO2 a measure of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle at the geological instant of sedimentation. The history of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fischer, Woodward</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ERL.....7b4002B"> <span id="translatedtitle">High sensitivity of future <span class="hlt">global</span> warming to land <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle processes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Unknowns in future <span class="hlt">global</span> warming are usually assumed to arise from uncertainties either in the amount of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or in the sensitivity of the climate to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations. Characterizing the additional uncertainty in relating CO2 emissions to atmospheric concentrations has relied on either a small number of complex models with diversity in process representations, or simple models. To date, these models indicate that the relevant <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle uncertainties are smaller than the uncertainties in physical climate feedbacks and emissions. Here, for a single emissions scenario, we use a full coupled climate-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle model and a systematic method to explore uncertainties in the land <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle feedback. We find a plausible range of climate-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle feedbacks significantly larger than previously estimated. Indeed the range of CO2 concentrations arising from our single emissions scenario is greater than that previously estimated across the full range of IPCC SRES emissions scenarios with <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle uncertainties ignored. The sensitivity of photosynthetic metabolism to temperature emerges as the most important uncertainty. This highlights an aspect of current land <span class="hlt">carbon</span> modelling where there are open questions about the potential role of plant acclimation to increasing temperatures. There is an urgent need for better understanding of plant photosynthetic responses to high temperature, as these responses are shown here to be key contributors to the magnitude of future change.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Booth, Ben B. B.; Jones, Chris D.; Collins, Mat; Totterdell, Ian J.; Cox, Peter M.; Sitch, Stephen; Huntingford, Chris; Betts, Richard A.; Harris, Glen R.; Lloyd, Jon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.199.9564&rank=25"> <span id="translatedtitle">ECONOMIC MODELING OF THE <span class="hlt">GLOBAL</span> ADOPTION OF <span class="hlt">CARBON</span> CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As policy makers consider strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, they need to understand the available options and the conditions under which these options become economically attractive. This paper explores the economics of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> capture and sequestration technologies as applied to electric generating plants. The MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a computable general equilibrium model of the world economy, is used to model <span class="hlt">carbon</span> capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies based on a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plant and an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant. These technologies have been fully specified within the EPPA model for all regions of the world by production functions. We simulate the adoption of these technologies under scenarios with and without <span class="hlt">carbon</span> taxes. The results illustrate how changing input prices and general equilibrium effects influence the <span class="hlt">global</span> adoption of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration technologies and other technologies for electricity production. Rising <span class="hlt">carbon</span> prices lead first to the adoption of NGCC plants without <span class="hlt">carbon</span> capture and sequestration followed by IGCC plants with capture and sequestration as natural gas prices rise.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. R. Mcfarl; H. J. Herzog; J. Reilly</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3206505"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Basic Strategy to <span class="hlt">Manage</span> <span class="hlt">Global</span> Health with Reference to Livestock Production in Asia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Newly emerging infectious diseases (nEIDs) have increased rapidly presenting alarming challenges to <span class="hlt">global</span> health. We argue that for effective <span class="hlt">management</span> of <span class="hlt">global</span> health a basic strategy should include at least three essential tactical forms: actions of a directly focused nature, institutional coordination, and disciplinary integration in approaches to health <span class="hlt">management</span>. Each level of action is illustrated with examples from the livestock sector in Asia. No clear example of all three tactical forms in place can be found from developing countries where food security is a significant threat although Vietnam is developing a comprehensive strategy. Finally, an ecosystem health approach to <span class="hlt">global</span> health <span class="hlt">management</span> is advocated; such an approach moves away from the traditional single disciplinary approach. Stronger guidance is needed to direct ecohealth research and application in the <span class="hlt">management</span> of <span class="hlt">global</span> health. PMID:22135772</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hall, David C.; Le, Quynh Ba</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/33315"> <span id="translatedtitle">An examination of Boeing's supply chain <span class="hlt">management</span> practices within the context of the <span class="hlt">global</span> aerospace industry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This thesis examines the supply chain <span class="hlt">management</span> practices of the Boeing Commercial Airplane Company within the context of the <span class="hlt">global</span> aerospace industry. The methodology used for this study includes a study of emerging ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Çizmeci, DaÄŸ lar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC43D1056L"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle Simulated by a Climate System Model BCC_CSM and the Possible Uncertainties</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A land surface process model with dynamic vegetation and soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> decomposition modules, Beijing Climate Center Atmosphere-Vegetation-Interaction Model (BCC_AVIM) was employed to simulate the <span class="hlt">global</span> terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle in both offline and online ways. Forced by the NCEP reanalysis data, BCC_AVIM reproduce the <span class="hlt">global</span> net primary productivity (NPP) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) reasonably well, its simulations about the temporal and spatial patterns of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sources and sinks approximately agree with other model estimates or observations. The Beijing Climate Center Climate System Model version 1.1 (BCC_CSM1.1) can reproduce historical trends of observed atmospheric CO2 and <span class="hlt">global</span> surface air temperature from 1850 to 2005 under forcing by historical emissions of CO2 from fossil fuels and land-use change. <span class="hlt">Global</span> land acted as an important <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink in the 20th century. The main centers of net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink are located in east America, east China, west Europe, and Oceans in higher latitudes. The net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sources are located in the equatorial Pacific and the equatorial Atlantic Ocean. The response of the land <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle to the <span class="hlt">global</span> warming is much larger than that of the ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. The potential ability of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake by land and ocean are obviously enhanced along with the increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration. The total CO2 uptake by <span class="hlt">global</span> land and ocean is 3.6 and 4.0 Gt C yr-1 in the 1980s and 1990s, which accounts for 54% and 53% of the anthropogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions for those two decades respectively. The simulated interannual variability of <span class="hlt">global</span> atmospheric CO2 concentration is closely correlated with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle, in agreement with observations. The interannual variation of land-to-atmosphere net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux is positively correlated with air temperature while negatively correlated with soil moisture for most continental areas. It suggests a positive temperature-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> feedback but a negative soil moisture-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> feedback at interannual time scale in BCC_CSM1.1. Discrepancies between parameterization schemes, different parameter values, and insufficient understanding about the <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-climate feedback mechanisms contribute to the uncertainties in <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle modeling.; Correlation coefficient between annual net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux (positive upward) and (a) Ts and (b) top 1m soil moisture</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, W.; Zhang, Y.; Ji, J.; Wu, T.; Xin, X.; Li, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50519917"> <span id="translatedtitle">Perspectives on <span class="hlt">Global</span> Supply Chain Supply-Side Risk <span class="hlt">Management</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent geo-political events, such as terrorism and political instability, and geological and climatologic disasters, have underscored the potential risks to <span class="hlt">global</span> supply chains and their catastrophic financial impact on <span class="hlt">global</span> companies. Disruptions can occur anywhere along the supply chain-at the inbound or supplier side, during the internal processes inside the company's facilities, or at the outbound or customer-facing side. This</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Foroughi; M. Albin; M. Kocakulah</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/833649"> <span id="translatedtitle">STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR <span class="hlt">MANAGING</span> HIGH-<span class="hlt">CARBON</span> ASH</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the <span class="hlt">management</span> of industry problems related to <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this fourth project period we completed the characterization of ozone-treated <span class="hlt">carbon</span> surfaces and wrote a comprehensive report on the mechanism through which ozone suppresses the adsorption of concrete surfactants.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-09-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25296295"> <span id="translatedtitle">Low <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Technology Performance vs Infrastructure Vulnerability: Analysis through the Local and <span class="hlt">Global</span> Properties Space.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Renewable energy technologies, necessary for low-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> infrastructure networks, are being adopted to help reduce fossil fuel dependence and meet <span class="hlt">carbon</span> mitigation targets. The evolution of these technologies has progressed based on the enhancement of technology-specific performance criteria, without explicitly considering the wider system (<span class="hlt">global</span>) impacts. This paper presents a methodology for simultaneously assessing local (technology) and <span class="hlt">global</span> (infrastructure) performance, allowing key technological interventions to be evaluated with respect to their effect on the vulnerability of wider infrastructure systems. We use exposure of low <span class="hlt">carbon</span> infrastructure to critical material supply disruption (criticality) to demonstrate the methodology. A series of local performance changes are analyzed; and by extension of this approach, a method for assessing the combined criticality of multiple materials for one specific technology is proposed. Via a case study of wind turbines at both the material (magnets) and technology (turbine generators) levels, we demonstrate that analysis of a given intervention at different levels can lead to differing conclusions regarding the effect on vulnerability. Infrastructure design decisions should take a systemic approach; without these multilevel considerations, strategic goals aimed to help meet low-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> targets, that is, through long-term infrastructure transitions, could be significantly jeopardized. PMID:25296295</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dawson, David A; Purnell, Phil; Roelich, Katy; Busch, Jonathan; Steinberger, Julia K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~schuler/mainpages/GTM.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> talent <span class="hlt">management</span>: Literature review, integrative framework, and suggestions for further research</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The environment for most organizations today is <span class="hlt">global</span>, complex, dynamic, highly competitive, and extremely volatile, and is likely to remain so for years to come. In addition to these external conditions, most organizations are also facing several <span class="hlt">global</span> challenges including those related to: talent flow; the <span class="hlt">managing</span> of two generations of employees, viz., older or mature workers and younger workers;</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ibraiz Tarique; Randall S. Schuler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35978444"> <span id="translatedtitle">The role of the corporate HR function in <span class="hlt">global</span> talent <span class="hlt">management</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We currently know little of the role of the corporate human resource (HR) function in multinational corporations regarding <span class="hlt">global</span> talent <span class="hlt">management</span> (GTM). GTM is explored here from two perspectives: increasing <span class="hlt">global</span> competition for talent, and new forms of international mobility. The first considers the mechanisms of GTM, and the second, individual willingness to be mobile, especially in emerging markets, and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Elaine Farndale; Hugh Scullion; Paul Sparrow</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47006064"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Managing</span> human resource capabilities for sustainable competitive advantage : An empirical analysis from Indian <span class="hlt">global</span> organisations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose – The purpose of this article is to examine the role of human resource capability (HRC) in organisational performance and sustainable competitive advantage (SCA) in Indian <span class="hlt">global</span> organisations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – To carry out the present study, an empirical research on a random sample of 300 line or human resource <span class="hlt">managers</span> from nine Indian and foreign <span class="hlt">global</span> organisations, from New</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aradhana Khandekar; Anuradha Sharma</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51109652"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic open innovation model of Research And Development <span class="hlt">management</span> for enterprise <span class="hlt">globalization</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Under the <span class="hlt">globalization</span> trend, the rapidly changing environment and the disintegration of industry structure bring great challenge to Research and Development (R&D) <span class="hlt">management</span> for enterprises. The way to get customers' feedback and information in order to integrate the product R&D with innovation design, flexible manufacturing, responsive services, and <span class="hlt">global</span> logistics are critical for enhancing performance and competitiveness. This paper conducts</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li-Jen Wu; Chien-Tzu Tsai; Pao-Long Chang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://timharris.co.uk/papers/2006-worlds.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Resource <span class="hlt">management</span> for <span class="hlt">global</span> public computing: many policies are better than (n)one</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Resource <span class="hlt">management</span> for <span class="hlt">global</span> public computing: many policies are better than (n)one Evangelos- centralised way. Our work makes the following contri- butions: · Federation of policies. Our system embraces Research Cambridge Abstract The federation of authority in <span class="hlt">global</span> public computing systems poses major</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harris, Timothy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC43C1045B"> <span id="translatedtitle">An audit of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget: identifying and reducing sources of uncertainty</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Uncertainties in our <span class="hlt">carbon</span> accounting practices may limit our ability to objectively verify emission reductions on regional scales. Furthermore uncertainties in the <span class="hlt">global</span> C budget must be reduced to benchmark Earth System Models that incorporate <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-climate interactions. Here we present an audit of the <span class="hlt">global</span> C budget where we try to identify sources of uncertainty for major terms in the <span class="hlt">global</span> C budget. The atmospheric growth rate of CO2 has increased significantly over the last 50 years, while the uncertainty in calculating the <span class="hlt">global</span> atmospheric growth rate has been reduced from 0.4 ppm/yr to 0.2 ppm/yr (95% confidence). Although we have greatly reduced <span class="hlt">global</span> CO2 growth rate uncertainties, there remain regions, such as the Southern Hemisphere, Tropics and Arctic, where changes in regional sources/sinks will remain difficult to detect without additional observations. Increases in fossil fuel (FF) emissions are the primary factor driving the increase in <span class="hlt">global</span> CO2 growth rate; however, our confidence in FF emission estimates has actually gone down. Based on a comparison of multiple estimates, FF emissions have increased from 2.45 ± 0.12 PgC/yr in 1959 to 9.40 ± 0.66 PgC/yr in 2010. Major sources of increasing FF emission uncertainty are increased emissions from emerging economies, such as China and India, as well as subtle differences in accounting practices. Lastly, we evaluate emission estimates from Land Use Change (LUC). Although relative errors in emission estimates from LUC are quite high (2 sigma ~ 50%), LUC emissions have remained fairly constant in recent decades. We evaluate the three commonly used approaches to estimating LUC emissions- Bookkeeping, Satellite Imagery, and Model Simulations- to identify their main sources of error and their ability to detect net emissions from LUC.; Uncertainties in Fossil Fuel Emissions over the last 50 years.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ballantyne, A. P.; Tans, P. P.; Marland, G.; Stocker, B. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ClDy...36..783A"> <span id="translatedtitle">A regional and <span class="hlt">global</span> analysis of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide physiological forcing and its impact on climate</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An increase in atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide concentration has both a radiative (greenhouse) effect and a physiological effect on climate. The physiological effect forces climate as plant stomata do not open as wide under enhanced CO2 levels and this alters the surface energy balance by reducing the evapotranspiration flux to the atmosphere, a process referred to as `<span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide physiological forcing'. Here the climate impact of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide physiological forcing is isolated using an ensemble of twelve 5-year experiments with the Met Office Hadley Centre HadCM3LC fully coupled atmosphere-ocean model where atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide levels are instantaneously quadrupled and thereafter held constant. Fast responses (within a few months) to <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide physiological forcing are analyzed at a <span class="hlt">global</span> and regional scale. Results show a strong influence of the physiological forcing on the land surface energy budget, hydrological cycle and near surface climate. For example, <span class="hlt">global</span> precipitation rate reduces by ~3% with significant decreases over most land-regions, mainly from reductions to convective rainfall. This fast hydrological response is still evident after 5 years of model integration. Decreased evapotranspiration over land also leads to land surface warming and a drying of near surface air, both of which lead to significant reductions in near surface relative humidity (~6%) and cloud fraction (~3%). Patterns of fast responses consistently show that results are largest in the Amazon and central African forest, and to a lesser extent in the boreal and temperate forest. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> dioxide physiological forcing could be a source of uncertainty in many model predicted quantities, such as climate sensitivity, transient climate response and the hydrological sensitivity. These results highlight the importance of including biological components of the Earth system in climate change studies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrews, Timothy; Doutriaux-Boucher, Marie; Boucher, Olivier; Forster, Piers M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.B33E1095I"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming on boreal larch forest in East Siberia: simulations with a coupled <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle and fire regime model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Boreal forest is one of the focal areas in the study of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. In this study, a coupled <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle and fire regime model was developed and applied to a larch forest in East Siberia, near Yakutsk. Fire regime is simulated with a cellular automaton (20 km x 20 km), in which fire ignition, propagation, and extinction are parameterized in a stochastic manner, including the effects of fuel accumulation and weather condition. For each grid, <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle is simulated with a 10-box scheme, in which net biome production by photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition, and biomass burning are calculated explicitly. Model parameters were calibrated with field data of biomass, litter stock, and fire statistics; the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle scheme was examined with flux measurement data. As a result, the model successfully captured average <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks, productivity, fire frequency, and biomass burning. To assess the effects of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming, a series of simulations were performed using climatic projections based on the IPCC-SRES emission scenarios from 1990 to 2100. The range of uncertainty among the different climate models and emission scenarios was assessed by using multi-model projection data by CCCma, CCSR/NIES, GFDL, and HCCPR corresponding to the SRES A2 and B2 scenarios. The model simulations showed that <span class="hlt">global</span> warming in the 21st century would considerably enhance the fire regime (e.g., cumulative burnt area increased by 80 to 120 percent), leading to larger <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emission by biomass burning. The effect was so strong that growth enhancement by elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and elongated growing period was cancelled out at landscape scale. In many cases, the larch forest was estimated to act as net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sources of 2 to 5 kg C m_|2 by the end of the 21st century, underscoring the importance of forest fire monitoring and <span class="hlt">management</span> in this region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ito, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/656543"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> impacts of using forest harvest residues for district heating in Vermont</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Forests in Vermont are selectively logged periodically to generate wood products and useful energy. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> remains stored in the wood products during their lifetime and in fossil fuel displaced by using these products in place of energy-intensive products. Additional <span class="hlt">carbon</span> is sequestered by new forest growth, and the forest inventory is sustained using this procedure. A significant portion of the harvest residue can be used as biofuel in central plants to generate electricity and thermal energy, which also displaces the use of fossil fuels. The impact of this action on the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance was analyzed using a model derived from the Graz/Oak Ridge <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Accounting Model (GORCAM). The analysis showed that when forests are harvested only to manufacture wood products, more than 100 years are required to match the sequestered <span class="hlt">carbon</span> present if the forest is left undisturbed. If part of the harvest residue is collected and used as biofuel in place of oil or natural gas, it is possible to reduce this time to about 90 years, but it is usually longer. Given that harvesting the forest for products will continue, <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emission benefits relative to this practice can start within 10 to 70 years if part of the harvest residue is used as biofuel. This time is usually higher for electric generation plants, but it can be reduced substantially by converting to cogeneration operation. Cogeneration makes possible a ratio of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emission reduction for district heating to <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emission increase for electricity generation in the range of 3 to 5. Additional sequestering benefits can be realized by using discarded wood products as biofuels.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McLain, H.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/18068"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of methane and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide surface fluxes using a 3-D <span class="hlt">global</span> atmospheric chemical transport model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Methane (CH?) and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide (CO?) are the two most radiatively important greenhouse gases attributable to human activity. Large uncertainties in their source and sink magnitudes currently exist. We estimate <span class="hlt">global</span> ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Yu-Han, 1973-</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/3612"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of emissions, chemistry, and climate on atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> monoxide : 100-year predictions from a <span class="hlt">global</span> chemistry-climate model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The possible trends for atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> monoxide in the next 100 yr have been illustrated using a coupled atmospheric chemistry and climate model driven by emissions predicted by a <span class="hlt">global</span> economic development model. ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Chien.; Prinn, Ronald G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/289587"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation and intercomparison of three-dimensional <span class="hlt">global</span> marine <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The addition of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide to the atmosphere from fossil fuel burning and deforestation has profound implications for the future of the earth`s climate and hence for humankind itself. Society is looking toward the community of environmental scientists to predict the consequences of increased atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide so that sound input can be provided to economists, environmental engineers, and, ultimately, policy makers. Environmental scientists have responded to this challenge through the creation of several ambitious, highly-coordinated programs, each focused on a different aspect of the climate system. Recognizing that numerical models, be they relatively simple statistical-empirical models or highly complex process-oriented models, are the only means for predicting the future of the climate system, all of these programs include the development of accurate, predictive models as a central goal. The Joint <span class="hlt">Global</span> Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) is one such program, and was built on the well-founded premise that biological, chemical and physical oceanographic processes have a profound influence on the C0{sub 2} content of the atmosphere. The, cap-stone, phase of JGOFS, the Synthesis and Modeling Project (SMP), is charged with the development of models that can be used in the prediction of future air-sea partitioning of C0{sub 2}. JGOFS, particularly the SMP phase, has a number of interim goals as well, including the determination of fluxes and inventories of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in the modern ocean that air germane to the air-sea partitioning of C0{sub 2}. Models have a role to play here too, because many of these fluxes and inventories, such as the distributions of anthropogenic dissolved inorganic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (DIC), new primary production and aphotic zone remineralization, while not amenable to direct observation on the large scale, can be determined using a variety of modeling approaches (Siegenthaler and Oeschger, 1987; Maier-Reimer and Hasselman, 1987, Bacastow and Maier-Reimer, 1990; Sarmiento et al., 1992, Najjar et al., 1992). These twin needs for the development of marine <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle models are expressed in two of the main elements of JGOFS SMP: (1) extrapolation and prediction, and (2) <span class="hlt">global</span> and regional balances of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and related biologically-active substances. We propose to address these program elements through a coordinated, multi-investigator project to evaluate and intercompare several 3-D <span class="hlt">global</span> marine <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Caldeira, K., LLNL</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/877389"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pasture <span class="hlt">Management</span> Strategies for Sequestering Soil <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> - Final Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pasturelands account for 51 of the 212 Mha of privately held grazing land in the USA. Tall fescue is the most important cool-season perennial forage for many beef cattle producers in the humid region of the USA. A fungal endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, infects the majority of tall fescue stands with a mutualistic association. Ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte have negative impacts on cattle performance. However, there are indications that endophyte infection of tall fescue is a necessary component of productive and persistent pasture ecology. The objectives of this research were to characterize and quantify changes in soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and associated soil properties under tall fescue pastures with and without endophyte infection of grass. Pastures with high endophyte infection had greater concentration of soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, but lower concentration of biologically active soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> than pastures with low endophyte infection. A controlled experiment suggested that endophyte-infected leaf tissue may directly inhibit the activity of soil microorganisms. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> forms of soil organic matter were negatively affected and nitrogen forms were positively affected by endophyte addition to soil. The chemical compounds in endophyte-infected tall fescue (ergot alkaloids) that are responsible for animal health disorders were found in soil, suggesting that these chemicals might be persistent in the environment. Future research is needed to determine whether ergot alkaloids or some other chemicals are responsible for increases in soil organic matter. Scientists will be able to use this information to better understand the ecological impacts of animals grazing tall fescue, and possibly to identify and cultivate other similar associations for improving soil organic matter storage. Another experiment suggested that both dry matter production and soil microbial activity could be affected by the endophyte. Sampling of the cumulative effects of 20 years of tall fescue <span class="hlt">management</span> indicated that soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and nitrogen storage were greater with than without endophyte only under high soil fertility. This extra <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and nitrogen in soil due to the presence of the endophyte was further found to be located in intermediately sized soil aggregates, which are important for reducing water runoff and improving water quality. These results suggest that well-fertilized tall fescue pastures with a high percentage of plants infected with the endophyte have the potential to help offset the rising <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide in the atmosphere. This research has also shown positive ecological implications of tall fescue-endophyte association.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Franzluebbers, Alan J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-03-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1022917.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Management</span> Trainee Program of Turkish Airlines: <span class="hlt">Global</span> Distance Education</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It has always been a contested task to try to present a scientific base for the concept of "<span class="hlt">management</span>." The concept of <span class="hlt">management</span>, which has always been of great importance to the institutions and organizations, has gone through periodical changes both in terms of its structure and scope, and improved in a parallel fashion as the time…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Karasar, Sahin; Öztürk, Ömer Faruk</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37828970"> <span id="translatedtitle">Talent <span class="hlt">management</span> – competency development: key to <span class="hlt">global</span> leadership</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to draw lessons on how building a talent <span class="hlt">management</span> strategy based on competency profiling becomes a critical impact area within the field of strategic HRM. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The case study discusses an Indian pharmaceutical organisation, the environment and the issues arising in context to talent <span class="hlt">management</span>. The case discusses a well designed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rakesh Sharma; Jyotsna Bhatnagar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2993410"> <span id="translatedtitle">Potential for reduced methane and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide emissions from livestock and pasture <span class="hlt">management</span> in the tropics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We estimate the potential reductions in methane and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide emissions from several livestock and pasture <span class="hlt">management</span> options in the mixed and rangeland-based production systems in the tropics. The impacts of adoption of improved pastures, intensifying ruminant diets, changes in land-use practices, and changing breeds of large ruminants on the production of methane and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide are calculated for two levels of adoption: complete adoption, to estimate the upper limit to reductions in these greenhouse gases (GHGs), and optimistic but plausible adoption rates taken from the literature, where these exist. Results are expressed both in GHG per ton of livestock product and in Gt CO2-eq. We estimate that the maximum mitigation potential of these options in the land-based livestock systems in the tropics amounts to approximately 7% of the <span class="hlt">global</span> agricultural mitigation potential to 2030. Using historical adoption rates from the literature, the plausible mitigation potential of these options could contribute approximately 4% of <span class="hlt">global</span> agricultural GHG mitigation. This could be worth on the order of $1.3 billion per year at a price of $20 per t CO2-eq. The household-level and sociocultural impacts of some of these options warrant further study, however, because livestock have multiple roles in tropical systems that often go far beyond their productive utility. PMID:20823225</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thornton, Philip K.; Herrero, Mario</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20823225"> <span id="translatedtitle">Potential for reduced methane and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide emissions from livestock and pasture <span class="hlt">management</span> in the tropics.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We estimate the potential reductions in methane and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide emissions from several livestock and pasture <span class="hlt">management</span> options in the mixed and rangeland-based production systems in the tropics. The impacts of adoption of improved pastures, intensifying ruminant diets, changes in land-use practices, and changing breeds of large ruminants on the production of methane and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide are calculated for two levels of adoption: complete adoption, to estimate the upper limit to reductions in these greenhouse gases (GHGs), and optimistic but plausible adoption rates taken from the literature, where these exist. Results are expressed both in GHG per ton of livestock product and in Gt CO(2)-eq. We estimate that the maximum mitigation potential of these options in the land-based livestock systems in the tropics amounts to approximately 7% of the <span class="hlt">global</span> agricultural mitigation potential to 2030. Using historical adoption rates from the literature, the plausible mitigation potential of these options could contribute approximately 4% of <span class="hlt">global</span> agricultural GHG mitigation. This could be worth on the order of $1.3 billion per year at a price of $20 per t CO(2)-eq. The household-level and sociocultural impacts of some of these options warrant further study, however, because livestock have multiple roles in tropical systems that often go far beyond their productive utility. PMID:20823225</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thornton, Philip K; Herrero, Mario</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10103094"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">global</span> overview of risk <span class="hlt">management</span> of the DOE complex</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">No endeavor is risk-fire and as we realize the inherent risks in society, our only viable solution is to <span class="hlt">manage</span> the risk. Application of an integrated risk <span class="hlt">management</span> program of a large technological system like the DOE complex is a difficult, task; but it is the only rational means to optimize the risk-benefit equation. An effective risk <span class="hlt">management</span> culture-within the DOE complex will in the long run, ensure a consistent response to mitigate identified risks. An effective risk <span class="hlt">management</span> program provides responsible administrative planning and logical application of the best technical analyses. It requires the involvement of all personnel. Our objective in this paper is to point out broad perspectives that raise concerns about future DOE ask <span class="hlt">management</span> issues and to suggest some possible remedies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alesso, H.P.; Majumdar, K.C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-10-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/790137"> <span id="translatedtitle">STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR <span class="hlt">MANAGING</span> HIGH-<span class="hlt">CARBON</span> ASH</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the <span class="hlt">management</span> of industry problems related to <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. This first project period, experiments were carried out to better understand the fundamental nature of the ozonation effect on ash. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> surfaces were characterized by surfactant adsorption, and by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy before and after oxidation, both by air at 440 C and by ozone at room temperature. The results strongly suggest that the beneficial effect of ozonation is in large part due to chemical modification of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> surfaces.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-12-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/833643"> <span id="translatedtitle">STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR <span class="hlt">MANAGING</span> HIGH-<span class="hlt">CARBON</span> ASH</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the <span class="hlt">management</span> of industry problems related to <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. This first project period, experiments were carried out to better understand the fundamental nature of the ozonation effect on ash. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> surfaces were characterized by surfactant adsorption, and by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy before and after oxidation, both by air at 440 C and by ozone at room temperature. The results strongly suggest that the beneficial effect of ozonation is in large part due to chemical modification of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> surfaces.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-06-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35978475"> <span id="translatedtitle">Developing tomorrow's leaders—Evidence of <span class="hlt">global</span> talent <span class="hlt">management</span> in multinational enterprises</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Organizations are becoming relentless in <span class="hlt">managing</span> and developing their key talent. This is a view, however, largely based on anecdote rather than reliable empirical evidence. Utilizing data from 260 multinational enterprises (MNEs), this paper helps redress this deficit. Specifically, this paper explores the extent to which MNEs engage in <span class="hlt">global</span> talent <span class="hlt">management</span> (GTM) and deciphers some of the factors which</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anthony McDonnell; Ryan Lamare; Patrick Gunnigle; Jonathan Lavelle</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57346910"> <span id="translatedtitle">Think <span class="hlt">global</span>, act local: Corporate Social Responsibility <span class="hlt">Management</span> in Multinational Companies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper investigates corporate social responsibility (CSR) policy <span class="hlt">management</span> in multinational companies (MNCs). The focus is on examining the relationship between subsidiaries and headquarters in the <span class="hlt">management</span> of CSR, in terms of the commonplace notion of ‘think <span class="hlt">global</span>, act local’. Primary and secondary data was collected in one MNC and a case study produced. The findings show that the initiative</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Morand; L. Rayman-Bacchus</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/c65222j8g4188727.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The importance of human resources <span class="hlt">management</span> in health care: a <span class="hlt">global</span> context</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND: This paper addresses the health care system from a <span class="hlt">global</span> perspective and the importance of human resources <span class="hlt">management</span> (HRM) in improving overall patient health outcomes and delivery of health care services. METHODS: We explored the published literature and collected data through secondary sources. RESULTS: Various key success factors emerge that clearly affect health care practices and human resources <span class="hlt">management</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stefane M. Kabene; Carole Orchard; John M. Howard; Mark A. Soriano; Raymond Leduc</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37341389"> <span id="translatedtitle">Achieving and <span class="hlt">Managing</span> <span class="hlt">Global</span> Brand Equity: A Critical Analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">According to some experts, brand equity is a company's most important asset. In this article, the authors first study the durability of brand equity in the long run. Then they examine the maintenance of that brand equity. The study analyzes the relative position of the top 50 most important <span class="hlt">global</span> brands. Rank correlations indicate that, in the short run, the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Coskun Samli; Merici Fevrier</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Project+AND+Team+AND+Management&pg=2&id=EJ962337"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Managing</span> <span class="hlt">Global</span> Virtual Teams across Classrooms, Students and Faculty</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Virtual teams are becoming commonplace in business today so our business school students should have experience in effectively working in virtual teams. Based on a month-long virtual team project conducted by the authors between classes in South Africa and the United States, this paper discusses the opportunities and challenges of using <span class="hlt">global</span>…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shea, Timothy P.; Sherer, Pamela D.; Quilling, Rosemary D.; Blewett, Craig N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50948817"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Managing</span> Cognitive and Cultural Diversity in <span class="hlt">Global</span> IT Teams</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The challenges faced in <span class="hlt">global</span> collaboration are often described in terms of logistical issues (e.g., language, time, distance) and issues related to observed workplace differences, which are frequently attributed to the influence of national culture. In this paper, we suggest that another less visible but equally important factor is at work - namely, cognitive diversity, or differences in the preferred</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kathryn Jablokow; Mark Myers</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cs.lth.se/home/Lars_Bendix/Publications/BP12/GlobAgile-camera-ready.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Configuration <span class="hlt">Management</span> Mother's little helper for <span class="hlt">Global</span> Agile Projects?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">development; <span class="hlt">global</span> distribution; tools and techniques; challenges I. INTRODUCTION Agile development methods of using agile on distributed projects has surfaced though it may seem a contradiction since agile methods and pitfalls to avoid and the combination of agile and distributed does not make this situation any better</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bendix, Lars</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37856205"> <span id="translatedtitle">Consumer nationalism and corporate reputation <span class="hlt">management</span> in the <span class="hlt">global</span> era</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose – Drawing on an interdisciplinary scholarship, this study seeks to explore and explain the nature and characteristics of the emerging phenomenon of “consumer nationalism” and its critical impact on corporate reputation in the <span class="hlt">global</span> marketplace. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper sets out to define the concept of consumer nationalism and then formulate an analytical framework of consumer nationalism dynamics that</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jay Wang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=business+AND+planning&pg=6&id=EJ620056"> <span id="translatedtitle">International <span class="hlt">Management</span>: Creating a More Realistic <span class="hlt">Global</span> Planning Environment.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Discusses the need for realistic <span class="hlt">global</span> planning environments in international business education, introducing a strategic planning model that has teams interacting with teams to strategically analyze a selected multinational company. This dynamic process must result in a single integrated written analysis that specifies an optimal strategy for…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Waldron, Darryl G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH53A1807F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimating Biomass Burning Emissions for <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle Science and Resource Monitoring & <span class="hlt">Management</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biomass burning emissions, including emissions from wildland fire, agricultural and rangeland burning, and peatland fires, impact the atmosphere dramatically. Current tools to quantify emission sources are developing quickly in a response to the need by the modeling community to assess fire's role in the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle and the land <span class="hlt">management</span> community to understand fire effects and impacts on air quality. In a project funded by NASA, our team has developed methods to spatially quantify wildland fire emissions for the contiguous United States (CONUS) and Alaska (AK) at regional scales. We have also developed a prototype web-based information system, the Wildland Fire Emissions Information System (WFEIS) to make emissions modeling tools and estimates for the CONUS and AK available to the user community. With new funding through two NASA programs, our team from MTRI, USFS, and UMd will be further developing WFEIS to provide biomass burning emissions estimates for the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle science community and for land and air quality <span class="hlt">managers</span>, to improve the way emissions estimates are calculated for a variety of disciplines. In this poster, we review WFEIS as it currently operates and the plans to extend the current system for use by the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle science community (through the NASA <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Monitoring System Program) and resource <span class="hlt">management</span> community (through the NASA Applications Program). Features to be enhanced include an improved accounting of biomass present in canopy fuels that are available for burning in a forest fire, addition of annually changing vegetation biomass/fuels used in computing fire emissions, and quantification of the errors present in the estimation methods in order to provide uncertainty of emissions estimates across CONUS and AK. Additionally, WFEIS emissions estimates will be compared with results obtained with the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Fire Emissions Database (GFED), which operates at a <span class="hlt">global</span> scale at a coarse spatial resolution, to help improve GFED estimates and possibly integrate some GFED concepts into WFEIS. Possibilities for WFEIS are broad, and as more funding is secured the WFEIS team foresees development of similar regional biomass burning estimation systems developing in other regions beyond the US.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">French, N. H.; McKenzie, D.; Erickson, T. A.; McCarty, J. L.; Ottmar, R. D.; Kasischke, E. S.; Prichard, S. J.; Hoy, E.; Endsley, K.; Hamermesh, N. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.business.rutgers.edu/sites/default/files/user_files/factsheet/mba-global-business.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Global</span> Business concentration prepares students to <span class="hlt">manage</span> effectively in a complex and dynamic <span class="hlt">global</span> business environment. Building on a foundational course</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">of the analytic tools and skills to help firms succeed in the <span class="hlt">global</span> economy. The MBA program at Rutgers BusinessThe <span class="hlt">Global</span> Business concentration prepares students to <span class="hlt">manage</span> effectively in a complex and dynamic <span class="hlt">global</span> business environment. Building on a foundational course in international business, students can</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lin, Xiaodong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED307204.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Managing</span> the Future: Public Policy, Scientific Uncertainty, and <span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Due to the injection of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide and various other gasses into the atmosphere, the world of the 21st century may well have a climate that is beyond the parameters of human existence. Physical science produces information regarding the physical effects of increasing concentrations of "greenhouse" gasses. Once this information is developed, it…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jamieson, Dale</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1001496"> <span id="translatedtitle">Molecular investigations into a <span class="hlt">globally</span> important <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pool: permafrost-protected <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in Alaskan soils</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fate of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (C) contained within permafrost in boreal forest environments is an important consideration for the current and future <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle as soils warm in northern latitudes. Currently, little is known about the microbiology or chemistry of permafrost soils that may affect its decomposition once soils thaw. We tested the hypothesis that low microbial abundances and activities in permafrost soils limit decomposition rates compared with active layer soils. We examined active layer and permafrost soils near Fairbanks, AK, the Yukon River, and the Arctic Circle. Soils were incubated in the lab under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Gas fluxes at -5 and 5ºC were measured to calculate temperature response quotients (Q??). The Q?? was lower in permafrost soils (average 2.7) compared with active layer soils (average 7.5). Soil nutrients, leachable dissolved organic C (DOC) quality and quantity, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the soils revealed that the organic matter within permafrost soils is as labile, or even more so, than surface soils. Microbial abundances (fungi, bacteria, and subgroups: methanogens and Basidiomycetes) and exoenzyme activities involved in decomposition were lower in permafrost soils compared with active layer soils, which, together with the chemical data, supports the reduced Q?? values. CH? fluxes were correlated with methanogen abundance and the highest CH? production came from active layer soils. These results suggest that permafrost soils have high inherent decomposability, but low microbial abundances and activities reduce the temperature sensitivity of C fluxes. Despite these inherent limitations, however, respiration per unit soil C was higher in permafrost soils compared with active layer soils, suggesting that decomposition and heterotrophic respiration may contribute to a positive feedback to warming of this eco region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Waldrop, Mark P.; Wickland, Kimberly P.; White III, R.; Berhe, Asmeret A.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036544"> <span id="translatedtitle">Molecular investigations into a <span class="hlt">globally</span> important <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pool: Permafrost-protected <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in Alaskan soils</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fate of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (C) contained within permafrost in boreal forest environments is an important consideration for the current and future <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle as soils warm in northern latitudes. Currently, little is known about the microbiology or chemistry of permafrost soils that may affect its decomposition once soils thaw. We tested the hypothesis that low microbial abundances and activities in permafrost soils limit decomposition rates compared with active layer soils. We examined active layer and permafrost soils near Fairbanks, AK, the Yukon River, and the Arctic Circle. Soils were incubated in the lab under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Gas fluxes at -5 and 5 ??C were measured to calculate temperature response quotients (Q10). The Q10 was lower in permafrost soils (average 2.7) compared with active layer soils (average 7.5). Soil nutrients, leachable dissolved organic C (DOC) quality and quantity, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the soils revealed that the organic matter within permafrost soils is as labile, or even more so, than surface soils. Microbial abundances (fungi, bacteria, and subgroups: methanogens and Basidiomycetes) and exoenzyme activities involved in decomposition were lower in permafrost soils compared with active layer soils, which, together with the chemical data, supports the reduced Q10 values. CH4 fluxes were correlated with methanogen abundance and the highest CH4 production came from active layer soils. These results suggest that permafrost soils have high inherent decomposability, but low microbial abundances and activities reduce the temperature sensitivity of C fluxes. Despite these inherent limitations, however, respiration per unit soil C was higher in permafrost soils compared with active layer soils, suggesting that decomposition and heterotrophic respiration may contribute to a positive feedback to warming of this eco region. Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Waldrop, M.P.; Wickland, K.P.; White, R.; Berhe, A.A.; Harden, J.W.; Romanovsky, V.E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGeo...11.2741S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tropical montane forests are a larger than expected <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> store</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tropical montane forests (TMFs) are recognized for the provision of hydrological services and the protection of biodiversity, but their role in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage is not well understood. We synthesized published observations (n = 94) of above-ground biomass (AGB) from forest inventory plots in TMFs (defined here as forests between 23.5° N and 23.5° S with elevations ? 1000 m a.s.l.). We found that mean (median) AGB in TMFs is 271 (254) t per hectare of land surface. We demonstrate that AGB declines moderately with both elevation and slope angle but that TMFs store substantial amounts of biomass, both at high elevations (up to 3500 m) and on steep slopes (slope angles of up to 40°). We combined remotely sensed data sets of forest cover with high resolution data of elevation to show that 75% of the <span class="hlt">global</span> planimetric (horizontal) area of TMF are on steep slopes (slope angles greater than 27°). We used our remote sensed data sets to demonstrate that this prevalence of steep slopes results in the <span class="hlt">global</span> land surface area of TMF (1.22 million km2) being 40% greater than the planimetric area that is the usual basis for reporting <span class="hlt">global</span> land surface areas and remotely sensed data. Our study suggests that TMFs are likely to be a greater store of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> than previously thought, highlighting the need for conservation of the remaining montane forests.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Spracklen, D. V.; Righelato, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGD....1018893S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tropical montane forests are a larger than expected <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> store</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tropical montane forests (TMFs) are recognised for the provision of hydrological services and the protection of biodiversity, but their role in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage is not well understood. We synthesized published observations (n=89) of above-ground biomass (AGB) from forest inventory plots in TMFs (defined here as forests between 23.5° N and 23.5° S with elevations ? 1000 m a.s.l.). We found that mean (median) AGB in TMF is 257 (239) t per hectare of Earth's surface. We demonstrate that AGB declines moderately with both elevation and slope angle but that TMF store substantial amounts of biomass, both at high elevations (up to 3500 m) and on steep slopes (slope angles of up to 40°). We combined remote sensed datasets of forest cover with high resolution data of elevation to show that seventy five percent of the planimetric <span class="hlt">global</span> area of TMF are on steep slopes (slope angles greater than 27°). We used our remote sensed datasets to demonstrate that this prevalence of steep slopes results in the <span class="hlt">global</span> land-surface area of TMF (1.22 million km2) being 40% greater than the planimetric (horizontal) area that is the usual basis for reporting <span class="hlt">global</span> land surface areas and remotely sensed data. Our study suggests that TMF are likely to be a greater store of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> than previously thought, highlighting the need for conservation of remaining montane forests.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Spracklen, D. V.; Righelato, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A32C..01R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Black <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> : Impacts on Local, Regional and <span class="hlt">Global</span> Environment and Climate (Invited)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Black <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> is one of the unique pollutants that has a large direct negative impact on human health, indoor and outdoor air quality, temperature, cloudiness, precipitation, mountain glaciers, sea ice, and snow packs. We are just beginning to unravel its impact on all these scales and phenomena. The lack of access to fossil fuels forces more than 3 billion from rural populations to burn biomass fuels such as dung, firewood, and crops. The resulting pollution indoors and outdoors kills over 2 million people annually in developing nations. It also contributes to the so-called atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs), which eventually become transcontinental plumes, with large impacts on clouds and rainfall patterns and which also contribute to glacier melting. In the industrial world, fossil fuel combustion is a major source of black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and ABCs, which contribute to <span class="hlt">global</span> warming and retreat of arctic sea ice. There is now a compelling, if not convincing, case to regulate or eliminate black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions. Such measures can reduce <span class="hlt">global</span> warming, improve health, improve air quality, and slow down glacier retreat.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ramanathan, V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/gb/gb0701/2005GB002556/2005GB002556.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A joint atmosphere-ocean inversion for surface fluxes of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide: 1. Methods and <span class="hlt">global</span>-scale fluxes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have constructed an inverse estimate of surface fluxes of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide using both atmospheric and oceanic observational constraints. This <span class="hlt">global</span> estimate is spatially resolved into 11 land regions and 11 ocean regions, and is calculated as a temporal mean for the period 1992–1996. The method interprets in situ observations of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide concentration in the ocean and atmosphere with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrew R. Jacobson; Sara E. Mikaloff Fletcher; Nicolas Gruber; Jorge L. Sarmiento; Manuel Gloor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070018033&hterms=Molybdenum&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DMolybdenum"> <span id="translatedtitle">Brazing of <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Composites to Cu-clad Molybdenum for Thermal <span class="hlt">Management</span> Applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Advanced <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> composites were joined to copper-clad molybdenum (Cu/Mo) using four active metal brazes containing Ti (Cu ABA, Cusin-1 ABA, Ticuni, and Ticusil) for potential use in thermal <span class="hlt">management</span> applications. The brazed joints were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Knoop microhardness measurements across the joint region. Metallurgically sound C-C/Cu/Mo joints, devoid of interfacial cracks formed in all cases. The joint interfaces were preferentially enriched in Ti, with Cu ABA joints exhibiting the largest interfacial Ti concentrations. The microhardness measurements revealed hardness gradients across the joint region, with a peak hardness of 300-350 KHN in Cusin-1 ABA and Ticusil joints and 200-250 KHN in Cu ABA and Ticuni joints, respectively.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Singh, M.; Asthana, R.; Shpargel, T> P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=34390"> <span id="translatedtitle">EXPANDING <span class="hlt">GLOBAL</span> FOREST <span class="hlt">MANAGEMENT</span>: AN EASY FIRST PROPOSAL</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Interest is growing in the international community for a world treaty or protocol on forest <span class="hlt">management</span> and protection. orld leaders have become increasingly aware of the relationship between sustainable forest resources and healthy social, economic, and environmental conditions i...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/833648"> <span id="translatedtitle">STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR <span class="hlt">MANAGING</span> HIGH-<span class="hlt">CARBON</span> ASH</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the <span class="hlt">management</span> of industry problems related to <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this third project period, an extensive battery of surface analysis tools was used to characterize the surfaces of untreated, air-oxidized, and ozone-treated <span class="hlt">carbons</span>. Most of the work focused on <span class="hlt">carbon</span> black chosen as a model <span class="hlt">carbon</span> material suitable for understanding the fundamental surface mechanisms without interference from inorganic matter. In addition to the XPS work described in previous reports, the overall analytical test battery includes: FTIR spectrometry, thermal desorption in nitrogen and in hydrogen/helium, mixtures, surface acidity, hygroscopic behavior, contact angle measurement with standard liquids to determine surface energy and its polar and dispersive components. Most of this characterization work was completed this quarter, with the remainder planned for next quarter. The present report gives only a brief overview of the new data. By the end of next quarter, a complete picture of the ozone surface mechanism should be at hand and a comprehensive discussion of this phase of the work will be presented in that report--the fourth period covering March 1, 2002 to August 31, 3002.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; JOhn Veranth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-08-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23602675"> <span id="translatedtitle">[The <span class="hlt">management</span> of risks by the <span class="hlt">global</span> risk analysis].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">After a reminder on the fundamental concepts of the <span class="hlt">management</span> of risk, the author describes the overall analysis of risk (AGR), name given by the author to the up-to-date APR method which after several changes of the initial process aims to cover a perimeter of analysis and broader <span class="hlt">management</span> both at the level of structural that business risks of any kind throughout the system development life cycle, of the study of its feasibility to dismantling. PMID:23602675</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Desroches, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/116284"> <span id="translatedtitle">Regional growth <span class="hlt">management</span> policies: Toward reducing <span class="hlt">global</span> warming at state and local levels</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">State and local governments in the United States are accepting mandates to coordinate legislated land use and growth <span class="hlt">management</span> planning with vigorous environmental protection and resource conservation. These mandates, implemented or planned in states with populations totaling over 100 million, will directly impact growth patterns and ultimately affect the level of atmospheric gases and particulates generated within their borders. This paper addresses the issues of growth <span class="hlt">management</span> and land use planning at the local, state and regional levels and identifies areas impacting <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. A review of existing systems will be presented, and recommendations will be made to improve monitoring of growth <span class="hlt">management</span> mechanisms and organizational structures with the goal of <span class="hlt">global</span> atmospheric improvement. The issues discussed include urban sprawl, transportation, and growth patterns as <span class="hlt">managed</span> by policies also designed to protect environments and provide for sustainable growth. Areas for improved coordination between jurisdictions to ease <span class="hlt">global</span> warming will also be examined.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Purdie, J. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Washington Center for Real Estate Research</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47789202"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Misalignment of <span class="hlt">Management</span> Education and <span class="hlt">Globalization</span>: Conceptual, Contextual and Praxeological Issues</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">\\u000a As <span class="hlt">globalization</span> intensifies attacks on <span class="hlt">management</span> education have become increasingly more critical. Business school programs\\u000a have been vilified for being dysfunctional with the charges becoming so damning against the current ‘condition’ of <span class="hlt">management</span>\\u000a education that a uni-causal link has been made between the dystopia of <span class="hlt">management</span> education and a dystopian corporate world.\\u000a The chapter unravels and discusses the intense and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roulla S. Hagen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/wr/wr0812/2008WR006964/2008WR006964.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Developing and applying uncertain <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change projections for regional water <span class="hlt">management</span> planning</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Climate change may impact water resources <span class="hlt">management</span> conditions in difficult-to-predict ways. A key challenge for water <span class="hlt">managers</span> is how to incorporate highly uncertain information about potential climate change from <span class="hlt">global</span> models into local- and regional-scale water <span class="hlt">management</span> models and tools to support local planning. This paper presents a new method for developing large ensembles of local daily weather that reflect</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David G. Groves; David Yates; Claudia Tebaldi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.stanford.edu/~omramom/Diffenbaugh_ERL_08.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> warming presents new challenges for maize pest <span class="hlt">management</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">It has been conjectured that <span class="hlt">global</span> warming will increase the prevalence of insect pests in many agro-ecosystems. In this paper, we quantitatively assess four of the key pests of maize, one of the most important systems in North American grain production. Using empirically generated estimates of pest overwintering thresholds and degree-day requirements, along with climate change projections from a high-resolution</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Noah S Diffenbaugh; Christian H Krupke; Michael A White; Corinne E Alexander</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014HESSD..11.3481P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Robust <span class="hlt">global</span> sensitivity analysis of a river <span class="hlt">management</span> model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The simulation of routing and distribution of water through a regulated river system with a river <span class="hlt">management</span> model will quickly results in complex and non-linear model behaviour. A robust sensitivity analysis increases the transparency of the model and provide both the modeller and the system <span class="hlt">manager</span> with better understanding and insight on how the model simulates reality and <span class="hlt">management</span> operations. In this study, a robust, density-based sensitivity analysis, developed by Plischke et al. (2013), is applied to an eWater Source river <span class="hlt">management</span> model. The sensitivity analysis is extended to not only account for main but also for interaction effects and is able to identify major linear effects as well as subtle minor and non-linear effects. The case study is an idealised river <span class="hlt">management</span> model representing typical conditions of the Southern Murray-Darling Basin in Australia for which the sensitivity of a variety of model outcomes to variations in the driving forces, inflow to the system, rainfall and potential evapotranspiration, is examined. The model outcomes are most sensitive to the inflow to the system, but the sensitivity analysis identified minor effects of potential evapotranspiration as well as non-linear interaction effects between inflow and potential evapotranspiration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peeters, L. J. M.; Podger, G. M.; Smith, T.; Pickett, T.; Bark, R.; Cuddy, S. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/458873"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oceanic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide uptake in a model of century-scale <span class="hlt">global</span> warming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a model of ocean-atmosphere interaction that excluded biological processes, the oceanic uptake of atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide (CO{sub 2}) was substantially reduced in scenarios involving <span class="hlt">global</span> warming relative to control scenarios. The primary reason for the reduced uptake was the weakening or collapse of the ocean thermohaline circulation. Such a large reduction in this ocean uptake would have a major impact o the future growth rate of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Model simulations that include a simple representation of biological processes show a potentially large offsetting effect resulting from the downward flux of biogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. However, the magnitude of the offset is difficult to quantify with present knowledge. 19 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sarmiento, J.L.; Le Quere, C. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-11-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10339531"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nitrogen <span class="hlt">management</span> and the future of food: lessons from the <span class="hlt">management</span> of energy and <span class="hlt">carbon</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The food system dominates anthropogenic disruption of the nitrogen cycle by generating excess fixed nitrogen. Excess fixed nitrogen, in various guises, augments the greenhouse effect, diminishes stratospheric ozone, promotes smog, contaminates drinking water, acidifies rain, eutrophies bays and estuaries, and stresses ecosystems. Yet, to date, regulatory efforts to limit these disruptions largely ignore the food system. There are many parallels between food and energy. Food is to nitrogen as energy is to <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Nitrogen fertilizer is analogous to fossil fuel. Organic agriculture and agricultural biotechnology play roles analogous to renewable energy and nuclear power in political discourse. Nutrition research resembles energy end-use analysis. Meat is the electricity of food. As the agriculture and food system evolves to contain its impacts on the nitrogen cycle, several lessons can be extracted from energy and <span class="hlt">carbon</span>: (i) set the goal of ecosystem stabilization; (ii) search the entire production and consumption system (grain, livestock, food distribution, and diet) for opportunities to improve efficiency; (iii) implement cap-and-trade systems for fixed nitrogen; (iv) expand research at the intersection of agriculture and ecology, and (v) focus on the food choices of the prosperous. There are important nitrogen-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> links. The <span class="hlt">global</span> increase in fixed nitrogen may be fertilizing the Earth, transferring significant amounts of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> from the atmosphere to the biosphere, and mitigating <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. A modern biofuels industry someday may produce biofuels from crop residues or dedicated energy crops, reducing the rate of fossil fuel use, while losses of nitrogen and other nutrients are minimized. PMID:10339531</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Socolow, R H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-05-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993AtmEn..27.1277P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Towards the development of a <span class="hlt">global</span> inventory for black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have developed two <span class="hlt">global</span> inventories for black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (BC) emissions using two distinct methods. The first method uses measured ambient concentration ratios of BC and SO 2 at locations throughout the world. We demonstrate that BC to SO 2 ratios are well correlated at most sites and that distinct ratios of BC to SO 2 apply to source areas from economically distinct regions. However, within any one economic region, the ratio of BC to SO 2 appears to be relatively constant. These facts are used to construct a <span class="hlt">global</span> inventory of BC emissions by using previously published inventories for the emissions of sulfur. The derived inventory totals nearly 24 Tg C yr -1. The second method uses estimated emission factors and published fuel production and use statistics for wood and bagasse burning, diesel fuel, and domestic and commercial coal use. The combined <span class="hlt">global</span> emissions using the second method total 12.6 Tg C yr -1. A comparison of the two inventories shows that the estimated emissions from the ratio method are within a factor of two of those derived from emission factors in regions where the data appear to be reliable. The BC inventory from the ratio method is used in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory <span class="hlt">global</span> chemistry/climate model to simulate the world wide distribution of BC. The predicted concentrations are compared with available measurements from throughout the world. This comparison also supports the magnitude of the inventory which we derived from the ratio method to within about a factor of two.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Penner, J. E.; Eddleman, H.; Novakov, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20947294"> <span id="translatedtitle">Numerical evaluation of mechanisms driving Early Jurassic changes in <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Early Jurassic (early Toarcian, ca. 183 Ma) <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle perturbation is characterized by aabout -5 parts per thousand {delta} {sup 13}C excursion in the exogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> reservoirs, a 1000 ppm rise in atmospheric CO{sub 2}, and a 6-7 degrees warming. Two proposed explanations for this presumed <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle perturbation are the liberation of massive amounts of isotopically light CH4 from (1) Gondwanan coals by heating during the intrusive eruption of the Karoo-Ferrar large igneous province (LIP) or (2) the thermal dissociation of gas hydrates. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> cycle modeling indicates that the release of CH4 from Gondwanan coals synchronous with the eruption of the Karoo-Ferrar LIP fails to reproduce the magnitude or timing of the CO{sub 2} and {delta} {sup 13}C excursions. However, sensitivity analyses constrained by a marine cyclostratigraphically dated {delta}{sup 13}C record indicate that both features of geologic record can be explained with the huge input of about 15,340-24,750 Gt C over about 220 k.y., a result possibly pointing to the involvement of hydrothermal vent complexes in the Karoo Basin. The simulated release of > 6000 Gt C from gas hydrates also reproduces aspects of the early Toarcian rock record, but the large mass involved raises fundamental questions about its formation, storage, and release.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beerling, D.J.; Brentnall, S.J. [University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-03-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1515M"> <span id="translatedtitle">The age of river-transported <span class="hlt">carbon</span>: new data from African catchments and a <span class="hlt">global</span> perspective.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The role played by river networks in regional and <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (C) budgets is receiving increasing attention. Despite the potential of radiocarbon measurements (?14C) to elucidate sources and cycling of different riverine C pools, there remain large regions from which little or no data are available. Also, there have been no comprehensive attempts to synthesize the available information and examine <span class="hlt">global</span> patterns in the 14C content of these organic and inorganic riverine C pools. Here, we present new 14C data on dissolved (n = 25) and particulate (n = 67) organic C from six river basins in tropical and subtropical Africa, and also compile >1000 literature 14C data and ancillary parameters from rivers <span class="hlt">globally</span>. Across the African basins, the new riverine data span a ?14C range of -126oto 155o(average ?14C of 67 ± 51 o) and -869 oto 93o(average 14C of -60 ± 158o) for DOC and POC, respectively. These C radioisotope signatures represent radiocarbon ages of approximately 1000 BP to modern (post-1950) for DOC and approximately 16000 BP to modern for POC. Our data show that, excluding freshwaters strongly perturbed by anthropogenic practices, the DOC fraction exported by African rivers is always dominated by modern <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. <span class="hlt">Globally</span>, a consistent pattern emerges of older C in systems carrying high loads of organically poor sediments. In contrast to oceanic environments, riverine DOC is typically (>90%) more recent in origin than POC. While our analysis does not allow to directly assess the (controversial) importance of ancient C supporting bacterial respiration in river systems, the distribution of ?14C data for dissolved inorganic C (DIC) favors the hypothesis that, in most cases, more recent organic C is preferentially mineralized.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marwick, Trent R.; Tamooh, Fredrick; Teodoru, Cristian; Borges, Alberto V.; Darchambeau, François; Bouillon, Steven</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B22D..07T"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics as estimated by multi-terrestrial ecosystem models and field observations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The soil is the largest organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (C) pool of terrestrial ecosystems, and its C uptake/release accounts for approximately two thirds of land-atmosphere C exchange. Due to large pool size and long residence time, even small changes in soil organic C (SOC) would have substantial effects in the terrestrial C budget, thereby affecting atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate changes. In the past decades, a wide variety of studies have been conducted to quantify <span class="hlt">global</span> SOC stocks and soil C exchange with the atmosphere through field observation, soil inventories, and empirical/process-based modeling. However, these multi-approach estimates remain largely uncertain. To identify major driving forces controlling soil C storage and fluxes is still a big challenge facing all scientists. Through a synthesis program, Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP), this study has compiled the estimates of SOC storage and soil respiration from a number of <span class="hlt">global</span> land ecosystem models and ground observations. Estimates of SOC pool sizes and fluxes are revisited. We identify the hotspots of SOC storage at <span class="hlt">global</span> scale and distinguish the contributions of natural and human disturbances on net C storage change in the soil during 1900-2010. In particular, we bring together the magnitude and spatiotemporal patterns of <span class="hlt">global</span> SOC stocks estimated by different models with contrasting framework, assumptions and algorithms. Then we identify the major uncertainty sources in modeling and field study's efforts in depicting the key processes of sequestering and dissimilating <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in soils. This study gives us a potential to explore soil C dynamics and figure out the current knowledge gaps in understanding and quantifying C exchange and storage in the soil.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tian, H.; Post, W. M.; Lu, C.; Ren, W.; Tao, B.; Kamaljit, K.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Schwalm, C. R.; Michalak, A. M.; Wei, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5906B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> wheat production potentials and <span class="hlt">management</span> flexibility under the representative concentration pathways</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Global</span> wheat production is strongly linked with food security as wheat is one of the main sources of human nutrition. Increasing or stabilizing wheat yields in response to climate change is therefore imperative. To do so will require agricultural <span class="hlt">management</span> interventions that have different levels of flexibility at regional level. Climate change is expected to worsen wheat growing conditions in many places and thus negatively impact on future <span class="hlt">management</span> opportunities for sustainable intensification. We quantified, in a spatially explicit manner, <span class="hlt">global</span> wheat yield developments under the envelope of Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP 2.6, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.5) under current and alternative fertilization and irrigation <span class="hlt">management</span> to estimate future flexibility to cope with climate change impacts. A large-scale implementation of the EPIC model was integrated with the most recent information on <span class="hlt">global</span> wheat cultivation currently available, and it was used to simulate regional and <span class="hlt">global</span> wheat yields and production under historical climate and the RCP-driven and bias-corrected HadGEM2-ES climate projections. Fertilization and irrigation <span class="hlt">management</span> scenarios were designed to project actual and exploitable (under current irrigation infrastructure) yields as well as the climate- and water-limited yield potentials. With current nutrient and water <span class="hlt">management</span>, and across all RCPs, the <span class="hlt">global</span> wheat production at the end of the century decreased from 50 to 100 Mt - with RCP2.6 having the lowest and RCP8.5 the highest impact. Despite the decrease in <span class="hlt">global</span> wheat production potential on current cropland, the exploitable and climatic production gap of respectively 350 and 580 Mt indicates a considerable flexibility to counteract negative climate change impacts across all RCPs. Agricultural <span class="hlt">management</span> could increase <span class="hlt">global</span> wheat production by approximately 30% through intensified fertilization and 50% through improved fertilization and extended irrigation if nutrients or water were not limiting.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Balkovic, Juraj; van der Velde, Marijn; Skalsky, Rastislav; Xiong, Wei; Folberth, Christian; Khabarov, Nikolay; Smirnov, Alexey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.B51H..01M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Magnitude and <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Consequences of Forest <span class="hlt">Management</span> in North America</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance of forests depends on the type, frequency and severity of recent disturbances (<span class="hlt">carbon</span> source) and the rate of recovery from past disturbance (<span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink). Harvest and land cover conversion represent significant forest disturbance agents over much of North America. For example, pine forests in the southeastern US are typically harvested at ~20 year intervals, and may occupy about half the regional landscape, resulting in regional landscape turnover rates of 2-3% per year. Inventory data are the primary source for quantifying information on harvest and conversion in the U.S., Mexico, and Canada. Recent inventory data from these countries indicate timber production of 424 million cu m, 163 million cu m, and 7 million cu m, respectively, with significant year-to-year variability associated with wood products demand and timber price. Areas affected by harvest activity vary as well, with 3.97 Mha (million hectares) and 1.04 Mha affected by harvest in the US and Canada, respectively. Forest cover conversion (deforestation) is thought to be relatively minor in the US and Canada, but recent estimates suggest that forest and woodland cover in Mexico declined by 300-500 Kha/yr during the 1990’s. Recently, satellite remote sensing data products on forest change have been generated that complement the traditional inventory approach. These products are particularly useful for “wall-to-wall” estimates of forest conversion and tracking small disturbances. The type and severity of disturbance cannot be easily determined using satellite observations, however, and therefore some care must be taken to reconcile these products with ground-based data. In this talk we review available resources for characterizing “<span class="hlt">carbon</span> relevant” information on the magnitude (area, type of activity) of forest <span class="hlt">management</span> in North America, and attempt a first-order comparison between remote sensing and inventory estimates. We also discuss strategies that might be employed to produce consistent, continent-wide maps and statistical summaries of forest harvest and conversion in order to support ongoing <span class="hlt">carbon</span> modeling efforts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Masek, J.; Kurz, W.; de Jong, B. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=corporate+AND+finance&pg=5&id=EJ698052"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cultures of Funding, <span class="hlt">Management</span> and Learning in the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Mainstream</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper examines changes over the last 20 years which have shaped international human development assistance for the alleviation of poverty and inclusion and what it achieves. With reference to labour market restructuring and the contemporary rhetoric, design and <span class="hlt">management</span> of human development interventions, it describes a study into how these…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Preston, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/592254"> <span id="translatedtitle">CooMan - a <span class="hlt">Global</span> Collaborative Project <span class="hlt">Management</span> System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Project Coordination and <span class="hlt">Management</span> have long been recognized as an area with growing problems and unsatisfactory solutions. Conciliating flexibility with target achievements is historically the main problem to face. The difficulties have been growing at more than linear ratio with the size and complexity of the Projects being developed in the present days. The HEP (High Energy Phisics) communities suffer,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jano Moreira De Souza; Sergio P. J. Medeiros</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=management+AND+level&pg=6&id=EJ649788"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> and Women in Southeast Asian Higher Education <span class="hlt">Management</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This case study of Southeast Asian women in higher education <span class="hlt">management</span> investigates culture-specific dimensions of "glass ceiling" impediments to career advancement in higher education. Respondents note that despite considerable training and expertise, Asian values and ideologies demand enactment of a construct of Asian femininity that militates…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Luke, Carmen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Personality+AND+test&pg=3&id=EJ819113"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using Personality Data to Make Decisions about <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Managers</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A major challenge that decisions makers face in multi-national organizations is how to compare <span class="hlt">managers</span> from different parts of the globe. This challenge is both psychometric and practical. We draw on the cross-cultural psychology literature to propose a three-step framework to compare personality data from different countries. The first step…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ramesh, Anuradha; Hazucha, Joy F.; Bank, Jurgen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a targ