Science.gov

Sample records for global carbon management

  1. An introduction to global carbon cycle management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundquist, Eric T.; Ackerman, Katherine V.; Parker, Lauren; Huntzinger, Deborah N.

    2009-01-01

    Past and current human activities have fundamentally altered the global carbon cycle. Potential future efforts to control atmospheric CO2 will also involve significant changes in the global carbon cycle. Carbon cycle scientists and engineers now face not only the difficulties of recording and understanding past and present changes but also the challenge of providing information and tools for new management strategies that are responsive to societal needs. The challenge is nothing less than managing the global carbon cycle.

  2. Global potential of biospheric carbon management for climate mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canadell, Josep G.; Schulze, E. Detlef

    2014-11-01

    Elevated concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs), particularly carbon dioxide (CO2), have affected the global climate. Land-based biological carbon mitigation strategies are considered an important and viable pathway towards climate stabilization. However, to satisfy the growing demands for food, wood products, energy, climate mitigation and biodiversity conservationall of which compete for increasingly limited quantities of biomass and landthe deployment of mitigation strategies must be driven by sustainable and integrated land management. If executed accordingly, through avoided emissions and carbon sequestration, biological carbon and bioenergy mitigation could save up to 38 billion tonnes of carbon and 3-8% of estimated energy consumption, respectively, by 2050.

  3. Global potential of biospheric carbon management for climate mitigation.

    PubMed

    Canadell, Josep G; Schulze, E Detlef

    2014-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs), particularly carbon dioxide (CO2), have affected the global climate. Land-based biological carbon mitigation strategies are considered an important and viable pathway towards climate stabilization. However, to satisfy the growing demands for food, wood products, energy, climate mitigation and biodiversity conservation-all of which compete for increasingly limited quantities of biomass and land-the deployment of mitigation strategies must be driven by sustainable and integrated land management. If executed accordingly, through avoided emissions and carbon sequestration, biological carbon and bioenergy mitigation could save up to 38 billion tonnes of carbon and 3-8% of estimated energy consumption, respectively, by 2050. PMID:25407959

  4. The Century-Long Challenge of Global Carbon Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socolow, R.

    2002-05-01

    The time scale of the global carbon management is a century, not a decade and not a millennium. A century is the ratio of 1000 billion metric tons of carbon [Gt(C)] to 10 Gt(C)/yr. 1000 Gt(C) is the future emissions that will lead to approximately a doubling of the pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration, 280 ppm, assuming the total net ocean plus terrestrial sink remains at half the strength of this source - since 2.1 Gt (C) = 1 ppm, and the concentration today is already 370 ppm. Doubling is the most widely used boundary between acceptable and unacceptable Greenhouse-related environmental disruption, or, in the language of the Framework Convention on Climate Change, the onset of "dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system." And 10 Gt(C)/yr is a conservative estimate of the average annual fossil-fuel carbon source over the century; it is now between 6 and 7 Gt(C). Conventional oil and gas are not sufficiently abundant to generate a serious Greenhouse problem on their own. Well before their cumulative carbon emissions reach 1000 Gt(C), both are expected to become non-competitive as a result of growing costs of access (costs related to resources being very deep underground, or below very deep water, or very remote, or very small.) But several times 1000 Gt(C) of coal resources will probably be competitive with non-fossil fuel alternatives, as will "unconventional" oil and gas resources, such as tar sands. The world will not be saved from a serious Greenhouse problem by fossil fuel depletion. There are four mitigation strategies for avoiding dangerous interference with the climate system. Fossil fuels can cease to dominate the global energy system well before the end of the century, yielding large market share to some combination of renewable energy and nuclear (fission and fusion) energy sources. Fossil fuels can continue to dominate, but most of the carbon in the century's fossil fuels can be prevented from reaching the atmosphere (fossil-carbon sequestration). Carbon can be removed directly from the air by biological or chemical processes. Or the climate system can become so well understood that effective compensating actions can be implemented. If human beings implement none of these strategies, we will have chosen, in effect, to adapt to climate change. Not unlikely will be a mix of all four mitigation strategies plus adaptation. In recent years, as the intrinsic complexity and monumental scale of global carbon management has become better appreciated, new coalitions supportive of policies intended to mitigate climate change have emerged.

  5. CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE: GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS OF SOIL CARBON MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural carbon (C) sequestration may be one of the most cost effective ways to slow processes of global warming. Numerous environmental benefits may result from agricultural activities that sequester soil C and contribute to environmental security. As part of no-regret strategies, practices tha...

  6. Information management for global environmental change, including the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    SciTech Connect

    Stoss, F.W.

    1994-06-01

    The issue of global change is international in scope. A body of international organizations oversees the worldwide coordination of research and policy initiatives. In the US the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) was established in November of 1993 to provide coordination of science, space, and technology policies throughout the federal government. NSTC is organized into nine proposed committees. The Committee on Environmental and Natural Resources (CERN) oversees the US Department of Energy`s Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). As part of the USGCRP, the US Department of Energy`s Global Change Research Program aims to improve the understanding of Earth systems and to strengthen the scientific basis for the evaluation of policy and government action in response to potential global environmental changes. This paper examines the information and data management roles of several international and national programs, including Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) global change information programs. An emphasis will be placed on the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), which also serves as the World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases.

  7. Stabilization Wedges and the Management of Global Carbon for the next 50 years

    ScienceCinema

    Socolow, Robert [Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States

    2009-09-01

    More than 40 years after receiving a Ph.D. in physics, I am still working on problems where conservation laws matter. In particular, for the problems I work on now, the conservation of the carbon atom matters. I will tell the saga of an annual flow of 8 billion tons of carbon associated with the global extraction of fossil fuels from underground. Until recently, it was taken for granted that virtually all of this carbon will move within weeks through engines of various kinds and then into the atmosphere. For compelling environmental reasons, I and many others are challenging this complacent view, asking whether the carbon might wisely be directed elsewhere. To frame this and similar discussions, Steve Pacala and I introduced the 'stabilization wedge' in 2004 as a useful unit for discussing climate stabilization. Updating the definition, a wedge is the reduction of CO2 emissions by one billion tons of carbon per year in 2057, achieved by any strategy generated as a result of deliberate attention to global carbon. Each strategy uses already commercialized technology, generally at much larger scale than today. Implementing seven wedges should enable the world to achieve the interim goal of emitting no more CO2 globally in 2057 than today. This would place humanity, approximately, on a path to stabilizing CO2 at less than double the pre-industrial concentration, and it would put those at the helm in the following 50 years in a position to drive CO2 emissions to a net of zero in the following 50 years. Arguably, the tasks of the two half-centuries are comparably difficult.

  8. ESTIMATING THE GLOBAL POTENTIAL OF FOREST AND AGROFOREST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES TO SEQUESTER CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forests play a prominent role in the global C cycle. ccupying one-third of the earth's land area, forest vegetation nd soils contain about 60% of the total terrestrial C. Forest biomass productivity can be enhanced by management practices,, which suggests that by this means, fore...

  9. Global carbon balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, Ken

    2015-03-01

    Human emissions of CO2 now outpace natural sources by two orders of magnitude. The current concentration of CO2 has not been substantially exceeded in the past 30 million years. Multiple model exercises indicate that consuming all fossil fuels would result in concentrations more than double present levels, even after 10,000 years. The global warming effect of carbon emissions appears within 5-7 years. However, since the effect of present infrastructure over its expected life would only modestly increase CO2 concentrations and global temperature, human choices over its replacement will decisively influence ultimate carbon impacts, both short-term and long-term.

  10. Global carbon budget 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Qur, C.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Andrew, R. M.; Boden, T. A.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Houghton, R. A.; Marland, G.; Moriarty, R.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Arvanitis, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Bopp, L.; Canadell, J. G.; Chini, L. P.; Doney, S. C.; Harper, A.; Harris, I.; House, J. I.; Jain, A. K.; Jones, S. D.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Krtzinger, A.; Koven, C.; Lefvre, N.; Maignan, F.; Omar, A.; Ono, T.; Park, G.-H.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rdenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schwinger, J.; Segschneider, J.; Stocker, B. D.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van Heuven, S.; Viovy, N.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.

    2014-06-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated for the first time in this budget with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2 and land cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). All uncertainties are reported as 1?, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2003-2012), EFF was 8.6 0.4 GtC yr-1, ELUC 0.9 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM 4.3 0.1 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN 2.5 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND 2.8 0.8 GtC yr-1. For year 2012 alone, EFF grew to 9.7 0.5 GtC yr-1, 2.2% above 2011, reflecting a continued growing trend in these emissions, GATM was 5.1 0.2 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.9 0.5 GtC yr-1, and assuming an ELUC of 1.0 0.5 GtC yr-1 (based on the 2001-2010 average), SLAND was 2.7 0.9 GtC yr-1. GATM was high in 2012 compared to the 2003-2012 average, almost entirely reflecting the high EFF. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 392.52 0.10 ppm averaged over 2012. We estimate that EFF will increase by 2.1% (1.1-3.1%) to 9.9 0.5 GtC in 2013, 61% above emissions in 1990, based on projections of world gross domestic product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy. With this projection, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 535 55 GtC for 1870-2013, about 70% from EFF (390 20 GtC) and 30% from ELUC (145 50 GtC). This paper also documents any changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget from previous budgets (Le Qur et al., 2013). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2013_V2.3).

  11. Global Managers' Career Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappellen, Tineke; Janssens, Maddy

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to empirically examine the career competencies of global managers having world-wide coordination responsibility: knowing-why, knowing-how and knowing-whom career competencies. Design/methodology/approach: Based on in-depth interviews with 45 global managers, the paper analyzes career stories from a content analysis

  12. Global Managers' Career Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappellen, Tineke; Janssens, Maddy

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to empirically examine the career competencies of global managers having world-wide coordination responsibility: knowing-why, knowing-how and knowing-whom career competencies. Design/methodology/approach: Based on in-depth interviews with 45 global managers, the paper analyzes career stories from a content analysis…

  13. Global carbon budget 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Boden, T. A.; Bopp, L.; Bozec, Y.; Canadell, J. G.; Chini, L. P.; Chevallier, F.; Cosca, C. E.; Harris, I.; Hoppema, M.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Jain, A. K.; Johannessen, T.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landa, C. S.; Landschützer, P.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Marland, G.; Mathis, J. T.; Metzl, N.; Nojiri, Y.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Peng, S.; Peters, W.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Salisbury, J. E.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Segschneider, J.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Viovy, N.; Wang, Y.-P.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zeng, N.

    2015-05-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2004-2013), EFF was 8.9 ± 0.4 GtC yr-1, ELUC 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND 2.9 ± 0.8 GtC yr-1. For year 2013 alone, EFF grew to 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, 2.3% above 2012, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM was 5.4 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 2.5 ± 0.9 GtC yr-1. GATM was high in 2013, reflecting a steady increase in EFF and smaller and opposite changes between SOCEAN and SLAND compared to the past decade (2004-2013). The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 395.31 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2013. We estimate that EFF will increase by 2.5% (1.3-3.5%) to 10.1 ± 0.6 GtC in 2014 (37.0 ± 2.2 GtCO2 yr-1), 65% above emissions in 1990, based on projections of world gross domestic product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2014, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 545 ± 55 GtC (2000 ± 200 GtCO2) for 1870-2014, about 75% from EFF and 25% from ELUC. This paper documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this living data set (Le Quéré et al., 2013, 2014). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2014).

  14. Global carbon budget 2014

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; et al

    2015-05-08

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissionsmore » from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ;, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2004–2013), EFF was 8.9 ± 0.4 GtC yr⁻¹,ELUC 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1 GtC yr⁻¹, SOCEAN 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, and SLAND 2.9 ± 0.8 GtC yr⁻¹. For year 2013 alone, EFF grew to 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, 2.3% above 2012, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, GATM was 5.4 ± 0.2 GtC yr⁻¹, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, and SLAND was 2.5 ± 0.9 GtC yr⁻¹. GATM was high in 2013, reflecting a steady increase in EFF and smaller and opposite changes between SOCEAN and SLAND compared to the past decade (2004–2013). The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 395.31 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2013. We estimate that EFF will increase by 2.5% (1.3–3.5%) to 10.1 ± 0.6 GtC in 2014 (37.0 ± 2.2 GtCO2 yr⁻¹), 65% above emissions in 1990, based on projections of world gross domestic product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2014, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 545 ± 55 GtC (2000 ± 200 GtCO2) for 1870–2014, about 75% from EFF and 25% from ELUC. This paper documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this living data set (Le Quéré et al., 2013, 2014). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2014).« less

  15. Global carbon budget 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Boden, T. A.; Bopp, L.; Bozec, Y.; Canadell, J. G.; Chini, L. P.; Chevallier, F.; Cosca, C. E.; Harris, I.; Hoppema, M.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Jain, A. K.; Johannessen, T.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landa, C. S.; Landschützer, P.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Marland, G.; Mathis, J. T.; Metzl, N.; Nojiri, Y.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Peng, S.; Peters, W.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Salisbury, J. E.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Segschneider, J.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Viovy, N.; Wang, Y.-P.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zeng, N.

    2015-05-08

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ;, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2004–2013), EFF was 8.9 ± 0.4 GtC yr⁻¹,ELUC 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1 GtC yr⁻¹, SOCEAN 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, and SLAND 2.9 ± 0.8 GtC yr⁻¹. For year 2013 alone, EFF grew to 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, 2.3% above 2012, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, GATM was 5.4 ± 0.2 GtC yr⁻¹, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, and SLAND was 2.5 ± 0.9 GtC yr⁻¹. GATM was high in 2013, reflecting a steady increase in EFF and smaller and opposite changes between SOCEAN and SLAND compared to the past decade (2004–2013). The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 395.31 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2013. We estimate that EFF will increase by 2.5% (1.3–3.5%) to 10.1 ± 0.6 GtC in 2014 (37.0 ± 2.2 GtCO2 yr⁻¹), 65% above emissions in 1990, based on projections of world gross domestic product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2014, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 545 ± 55 GtC (2000 ± 200 GtCO2) for 1870–2014, about 75% from EFF and 25% from ELUC. This paper documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this living data set (Le Quéré et al., 2013, 2014). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2014).

  16. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2005-2014), EFF was 9.0 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM was 4.4 ± 0.1 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 3.0 ± 0.8 GtC yr-1. For the year 2014 alone, EFF grew to 9.8 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, 0.6 % above 2013, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, albeit at a slower rate compared to the average growth of 2.2 % yr-1 that took place during 2005-2014. Also, for 2014, ELUC was 1.1 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM was 3.9 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 4.1 ± 0.9 GtC yr-1. GATM was lower in 2014 compared to the past decade (2005-2014), reflecting a larger SLAND for that year. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 397.15 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2014. For 2015, preliminary data indicate that the growth in EFF will be near or slightly below zero, with a projection of -0.6 [range of -1.6 to +0.5] %, based on national emissions projections for China and the USA, and projections of gross domestic product corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy for the rest of the world. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2015, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 555 ± 55 GtC (2035 ± 205 GtCO2) for 1870-2015, about 75 % from EFF and 25 % from ELUC. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this data set (Le Quéré et al., 2015, 2014, 2013). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2015).

  17. Managing global change information

    SciTech Connect

    Stoss, F.W.

    1995-12-31

    Which human activities add to atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), the greenhouse gas that may promote warming of the earth`s climate? How could CO{sub 2} emission restrictions change the use of fossil fuels? How would increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} likely effect climate? Can one see any evidence that the world is getting warmer? What coastal-zone areas are more sensitive to potential sea-level rise from an accelerated melting of glaciers? What is El Nino and how does it affect the earth`s climate? These are among the thousands of questions to which ORNL data analysts respond every year. Recently, the topic of global environmental change, including climate change, has grown in importance. At ORNL researchers have improved their understanding of the science underlying this major environmental issue. At the same time the Laboratory is playing a pivotal role in directing the data and information management activities for what some researchers consider the most information-intensive science project ever undertaken. Long one of the world`s leading energy R&D facilities, ORNL has more recently emerged as one of the preeminent environmental research centers in the world. Within ORNL`s Environmental Sciences Division, the Environmental Information Analysis Program was established to serve as a focal point for the assimilation of data related to global environmental change. The three major components of the program are the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Archive, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration`s Earth Observing System Data and Information System Distributed Active Archive Center, and the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases is located in CDIAC.

  18. Global carbon budget 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Boden, T. A.; Bopp, L.; Bozec, Y.; Canadell, J. G.; Chevallier, F.; Cosca, C. E.; Harris, I.; Hoppema, M.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Jain, A.; Johannessen, T.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landa, C. S.; Landschützer, P.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Marland, G.; Mathis, J. T.; Metzl, N.; Nojiri, Y.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Peters, W.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Salisbury, J. E.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Segschneider, J.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Viovy, N.; Wang, Y.-P.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zeng, N.

    2014-09-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe datasets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from Land-Use Change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent Dynamic Global Vegetation Models forced by observed climate, CO2 and land cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the variability and mean land and ocean fluxes to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2004-2013), EFF was 8.9 ± 0.4 GtC yr-1, ELUC 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND 2.9 ± 0.8 GtC yr-1. For year 2013 alone, EFF grew to 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, 2.3% above 2012, contining the growth trend in these emissions. ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM was 5.4 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1 and SLAND was 2.5 ± 0.9 GtC yr-1. GATM was high in 2013 reflecting a steady increase in EFF and smaller and opposite changes between SOCEAN and SLAND compared to the past decade (2004-2013). The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 395.31 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2013. We estimate that EFF will increase by 2.5% (1.3-3.5%) to 10.1 ± 0.6 GtC in 2014 (37.0 ± 2.2 GtCO2 yr-1), 65% above emissions in 1990, based on projections of World Gross Domestic Product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2014, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 545 ± 55 GtC (2000 ± 200 GtCO2) for 1870-2014, about 75% from EFF and 25% from ELUC. This paper documents changes in the methods and datasets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this living dataset (Le Quéré et al., 2013, 2014). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2014). Italic font highlights significant methodological changes and results compared to the Le Quéré et al. (2014) manuscript that accompanies the previous version of this living data.

  19. Trends in Global Demonstrations of Carbon Management Technologies to Advance Coal- Based Power Generation With Carbon Capture and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, K. K.; Plasynski, S.; Feeley, T. J.

    2008-05-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentrations increased an estimated 35% since preindustrial levels two centuries ago, reportedly due to the burning of fossil fuels combined with increased deforestation. In the U.S., energy-related activities account for 75% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, with more than 50% from large stationary sources such as power plants and about one-third from transportation. Mitigation technologies for CO2 atmospheric stabilization based on energy and economic scenarios include coal-based power plant- carbon capture and storage (CCS), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is assessing CCS operations and supporting technologies at U.S. locations and opportunities abroad reported here. The Algerian In Salah Joint Industry Project injecting 1 million tons CO2 (MtCO2)/year into a gas field sandstone, and the Canadian Weyburn-Midale CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project injecting over 1.8 MtCO2/year into carbonate oil reservoirs are ongoing industrial-scale storage operations DOE participates in. DOE also supports mid-scale CCS demonstrations at the Australian Otway Project and CO2SINK in Germany. Enhanced oil recovery operations conducted for decades in west Texas and elsewhere have provided the industrial experience to build on, and early pilots such as Frio-I Texas in 2004 have spearheaded technology deployment. While injecting 1,600 tons of CO2 into a saline sandstone at Frio, time-lapse borehole and surface seismic detected P-wave velocity decreases and reflection amplitude changes resulting from the replacement of brine with CO2 in the reservoir. Just two of many cutting-edge technologies tested at Frio, these and others are now deployed by U.S. researchers with international teams to evaluate reservoir injectivity, capacity, and integrity, as well as to assess CO2 spatial distribution, trapping, and unlikely leakage. Time-lapse Vertical Seismic Profiling at Otway and microseismic at In Salah and Otway, monitor injection and reservoir conditions with geophysics. Borehole-based technologies include a novel geochemical two-phase reservoir sampler deployed at Otway, and thermal-based measurements at CO2SINK for coupled hydrologic-geochemical reservoir analyses. Seismic, geomechanical, hydrologic, geochemical, and core studies are used in a multidisciplinary approach to assess CO2 trapping and reservoir integrity at In Salah. With estimated lifetime storage of 17 MtCO2 at In Salah, this and other CCS demonstrations provide opportunities to gain commercial experience for advancing coal-based power generation-CCS for carbon management.

  20. Global climate change and carbon dioxide: Assessing weed biology and management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both increasing carbon dioxide and climate change are likely to alter weed biology in a myriad of ways. In this chapter, I provide an overview of the methodology by which rising carbon dioxide and climate uncertainty are likely to effect weed establishment, growth and fecundity, the implications fo...

  1. Globalization of Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruner, Robert F.; Iannarelli, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    A new study, sponsored by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, presented a comprehensive new perspective on the globalization of management education, (AACSB International, 2011). Its findings are sobering: with regard to emerging global trends in higher education and cross-border business, the report reveals a sizable gap

  2. The Intergovernmental Marine Bioenergy and Carbon Sequestration Protocol: Environmental and Political Risk Reduction of Global Carbon Management (The IMBECS Protocol Draft)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, M.

    2014-12-01

    The IMBECS Protocol concept employs large cultivation and biorefinery installations, within the five Subtropical Convergence Zones (STCZs), to support the production of commodities such as carbon negative biofuels, seafood, organic fertilizer, polymers and freshwater, as a flexible and cost effective means of Global Warming Mitigation (GWM) with the primary objective being the global scale replacement of fossil fuels (FF). This governance approach is categorically distinct from all other large scale GWM governance concepts. Yet, many of the current marine related GWM technologies are adaptable to this proposals. The IMBECS technology would be managed by an intergovernmentally sanctioned non-profit foundation which would have the following functions/mission: Synthesises relevant treaty language Performs R&D activities and purchases relevant patents Under intergovernmental commission, functions as the primary responsible international actorfor environmental standards, production quotas and operational integrity Licence technology to for-profit actors under strict production/environmental standards Enforce production and environmental standards along with production quotas Provide a high level of transparency to all stakeholders Provide legal defence The IMBECS Protocol is conceptually related to the work found in the following documents/links. This list is not exhaustive: Climate Change Geoengineering The Science and Politics of Global Climate Change: A guide to the debate IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy and Climate Change Mitigation DoE Roadmap for Algae Biofuels PodEnergy Ocean Agronomy development leaders and progenitor of this proposal. Artificial Upwelling of Deep Seawater Using the Perpetual Salt Fountain for Cultivation of Ocean Desert NASAs' OMEGA study. Cool Planet; Land based version of a carbon negative biofuel concept. Cellana; Leading developer of algae based bioproducts. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture Mariculture: A global analysis of production trends since 1950 BECCS /Biochar/ Olivine UNFCCC/IMO/CBD The President's Climate Action Plan The conclusion of this analysis calls for funding of an investigational deployment of the relevant technologies for an open evaluation at the intergovernmental level.

  3. GLOBAL ASSESSMENT OF PROMISING FOREST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The assessment produced productivity and cost data for forest and agroforestry management practices in 94 nations. hat is, out of a total of 140 nations in the world with forest resources, about two-thirds are represented in the database at present. he total forest and woodland a...

  4. Global carbon management using air capture and geosequestration at remote locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackner, K. S.; Goldberg, D.

    2014-12-01

    CO2 emissions need not only stop; according the IPCC, emissions need to turn negative. This requires means to remove CO2 from air and store it safely and permanently. We outline a combination of secure geosequestration and direct capture of CO2 from ambient air to create negative emissions at remote locations. Operation at remote sites avoids many difficulties associated with capture at the source, where space for added equipment is limited, good storage sites are in short supply, and proximity to private property engenders resistance. Large Igneous Provinces have been tested as secure CO2 reservoirs. CO2 and water react with reservoir rock to form stable carbonates, permanently sequestering the carbon. Outfitting reservoirs in large igneous provinces far from human habitation with ambient air capture systems creates large CO2 sequestration sites. Their remoteness offers advantages in environmental security and public acceptance and, thus, can smooth the path toward CO2 stabilization. Direct capture of CO2 from ambient air appears energetically and economically viable and could be scaled up quickly. Thermodynamic energy requirements are very small and a number of approaches have shown to be energy efficient in practice. Sorbent technologies include supported organoamines, alkaline brines, and quaternary ammonium based ion-exchange resins. To demonstrate that the stated goals of low cost and low energy consumption can be reached at scale, public research and demonstration projects are essential. We suggest co-locating air capture and geosequestration at sites where renewable energy resources can power both activities. Ready renewable energy would also allow for the co-production of synthetic fuels. Possible locations with large wind and basalt resources include Iceland and Greenland, the north-western United States, the Kerguelen plateau, Siberia and Morocco. Capture and sequestration in these reservoirs could recover all of the emissions of the 20th century and still contribute to a carbon neutral economy throughout the 21st century. Mobilizing industrial infrastructure to these areas poses a challenge. However, the urgency of the climate problem requires immediate action, with economic incentives and commitments to site evaluation and engineering development.

  5. [Global risk management].

    PubMed

    Sghaier, W; Hergon, E; Desroches, A

    2015-08-01

    Risk management is a fundamental component of any successful company, whether it is in economic, societal or environmental aspect. Risk management is an especially important activity for companies that optimal security challenge of products and services is great. This is the case especially for the health sector institutions. Risk management is therefore a decision support tool and a means to ensure the sustainability of an organization. In this context, what methods and approaches implemented to manage the risks? Through this state of the art, we are interested in the concept of risk and risk management processes. Then we focus on the different methods of risk management and the criteria for choosing among these methods. Finally we highlight the need to supplement these methods by a systemic and global approach including through risk assessment by the audits. PMID:26119049

  6. Managing global change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers at the US Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service are exploring the environmental impact of agricultural waste management and rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. This interview presents an overview of work being conducted at the National Soil Dynamics Laboratory ...

  7. Carbon sequestration and its role in the global carbon cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPherson, Brian J.; Sundquist, Eric T.

    2009-01-01

    For carbon sequestration the issues of monitoring, risk assessment, and verification of carbon content and storage efficacy are perhaps the most uncertain. Yet these issues are also the most critical challenges facing the broader context of carbon sequestration as a means for addressing climate change. In response to these challenges, Carbon Sequestration and Its Role in the Global Carbon Cycle presents current perspectives and research that combine five major areas: • The global carbon cycle and verification and assessment of global carbon sources and sinks • Potential capacity and temporal/spatial scales of terrestrial, oceanic, and geologic carbon storage • Assessing risks and benefits associated with terrestrial, oceanic, and geologic carbon storage • Predicting, monitoring, and verifying effectiveness of different forms of carbon storage • Suggested new CO2 sequestration research and management paradigms for the future. The volume is based on a Chapman Conference and will appeal to the rapidly growing group of scientists and engineers examining methods for deliberate carbon sequestration through storage in plants, soils, the oceans, and geological repositories.

  8. Final Report for ''SOURCES AND SINKS OF CARBON FROM LAND-USE CHANGE AND MANAGEMENT: A GLOBAL SYNTHESIS'' Project Period September 15, 2001--September 14, 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Houghton, R.A.

    2003-12-12

    Land management and land-use change can either release carbon (as CO{sub 2}) to the atmosphere, for example when forests are converted to agricultural lands, or withdraw carbon from the atmosphere as forests grow on cleared lands or as management practices sequester carbon in soil. The purpose of this work was to calculate the annual sources and sinks of carbon from changes in land use and management, globally and for nine world regions, over the period 1850 to 2000. The approach had three components. First, rates of land-use change were reconstructed from historical information on the areas of croplands, pastures, forests, and other lands and from data on wood harvests. In most regions, land-use change included the conversion of natural ecosystems to cultivated lands and pastures, including shifting cultivation, harvest of wood (for timber and fuel), and the establishment of tree plantations. In the U.S., woody encroachment and woodland thickening as a result of fire suppression were also included. Second, the amount of carbon per hectare in vegetation and soils and changes in that carbon as a result of land-use change were determined from data obtained in the ecological and forestry literature. These data on land-use change and carbon stocks were then used in a bookkeeping model (third component) to calculate regional and global changes in terrestrial carbon. The results indicate that for the period 1850-2000 the net flux of carbon from changes in land use was 156 PgC. For comparison, emissions of carbon from combustion of fossil fuels were approximately 280 PgC during the same interval. Annual emissions from land-use change exceeded emissions from fossil fuels before about 1920. Somewhat more that half (60%) of the long-term flux was from the tropics. Average annual fluxes during the 1980s and 1990s were 2.0 and 2.2 ({+-}0.8) PgC yr{sup -1} (30-40% of fossil fuel emissions), respectively. In these decades, the global sources of carbon were almost entirely from the tropics. Outside the tropics, the average net flux of carbon attributable to land-use change and management decreased from a source of 0.06 PgC yr{sup -1} during the 1980s to a sink of 0.03 PgC yr{sup -1} during the 1990s. According to these analyses, changes in land use were responsible for sinks in North America and Europe and for small sources in other non-tropical regions.

  9. Managing global accounts.

    PubMed

    Yip, George S; Bink, Audrey J M

    2007-09-01

    Global account management--which treats a multinational customer's operations as one integrated account, with coherent terms for pricing, product specifications, and service--has proliferated over the past decade. Yet according to the authors' research, only about a third of the suppliers that have offered GAM are pleased with the results. The unhappy majority may be suffering from confusion about when, how, and to whom to provide it. Yip, the director of research and innovation at Capgemini, and Bink, the head of marketing communications at Uxbridge College, have found that GAM can improve customer satisfaction by 20% or more and can raise both profits and revenues by at least 15% within just a few years of its introduction. They provide guidelines to help companies achieve similar results. The first steps are determining whether your products or services are appropriate for GAM, whether your customers want such a program, whether those customers are crucial to your strategy, and how GAM might affect your competitive advantage. If moving forward makes sense, the authors' exhibit, "A Scorecard for Selecting Global Accounts," can help you target the right customers. The final step is deciding which of three basic forms to offer: coordination GAM (in which national operations remain relatively strong), control GAM (in which the global operation and the national operations are fairly balanced), and separate GAM (in which a new business unit has total responsibility for global accounts). Given the difficulty and expense of providing multiple varieties, the vast majority of companies should initially customize just one---and they should be careful not to start with a choice that is too ambitious for either themselves or their customers to handle. PMID:17886487

  10. Forests, carbon and global climate.

    PubMed

    Malhi, Yadvinder; Meir, Patrick; Brown, Sandra

    2002-08-15

    This review places into context the role that forest ecosystems play in the global carbon cycle, and their potential interactions with climate change. We first examine the natural, preindustrial carbon cycle. Every year forest gross photosynthesis cycles approximately one-twelfth of the atmospheric stock of carbon dioxide, accounting for 50% of terrestrial photosynthesis. This cycling has remained almost constant since the end of the last ice age, but since the Industrial Revolution it has undergone substantial disruption as a result of the injection of 480 PgC into the atmosphere through fossil-fuel combustion and land-use change, including forest clearance. In the second part of this paper we review this 'carbon disruption', and its impact on the oceans, atmosphere and biosphere. Tropical deforestation is resulting in a release of 1.7 PgC yr(-1) into the atmosphere. However, there is also strong evidence for a 'sink' for carbon in natural vegetation (carbon absorption), which can be explained partly by the regrowth of forests on abandoned lands, and partly by a global change factor, the most likely cause being 'fertilization' resulting from the increase in atmospheric CO(2). In the 1990s this biosphere sink was estimated to be sequestering 3.2 PgC yr(-1) and is likely to have substantial effects on the dynamics, structure and biodiversity of all forests. Finally, we examine the potential for forest protection and afforestation to mitigate climate change. An extensive global carbon sequestration programme has the potential to make a particularly significant contribution to controlling the rise in CO2 emissions in the next few decades. In the course of the whole century, however, even the maximum amount of carbon that could be sequestered will be dwarfed by the magnitude of (projected) fossil-fuel emissions. Forest carbon sequestration should only be viewed as a component of a mitigation strategy, not as a substitute for the changes in energy supply, use and technology that will be required if atmospheric CO(2) concentrations are to be stabilized. PMID:12460485

  11. Global deforestation: contribution to atmospheric carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Woodwell, G.M.; Hobbie, J.E.; Houghton, R.A.; Melillo, J.M.; Moore, B.; Peterson, B.J.; Shaver, G.R.

    1983-12-09

    A study of effects of terrestrial biota on the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere suggests that the global net release of carbon due to forest clearing between 1960 and 1980 was between 135 X 10/sup 15/ and 228 X 10/sup 15/ grams. Between 1.8 X 10/sup 15/ and 4.7 X 10/sup 15/ grams of carbon were released in 1980, of which nearly 80 percent was due to deforestation, principally in the tropics. The annual release of carbon from the biota and soils exceeded the release from fossil fuels until about 1960. Because the biotic release has been and remains much larger than is commonly assumed, the airborne fraction, usually considered to be about 50 percent of the releases from fossil fuels, was probably between 22 and 43 percent of the total carbon released in 1980. The increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is thought by some to be increasing the storage of carbon in the earth's remaining forests sufficiently to offset the release from deforestation. The interpretation of the evidence presented here suggests no such effect; deforestation appears to be the dominant biotic effect on atmospheric carbon dioxide. If deforestation increases in proportion to population, the biotic release of carbon will reach 9 X 10/sup 15/ grams per year before forests are exhausted early in the next century. The possibilities for limiting the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere through reduction in use of fossil fuels and through management of forests may be greater than is commonly assumed.

  12. What is a global manager?

    PubMed

    Bartlett, C A; Ghoshal, S

    1992-01-01

    To compete around the world, a company needs three strategic capabilities: global-scale efficiency, local responsiveness, and the ability to leverage learning worldwide. No single "global" manager can build these capabilities. Rather, groups of specialized managers must integrate assets, resources, and people in diverse operating units. Such managers are made, not born. And how to make them is--and must be--the foremost question for corporate managers. Drawing on their research with leading transnational corporations, Christopher Bartlett and Sumantra Ghoshal identify three types of global managers. They also illustrate the responsibilities each position involves through a close look at the careers of successful executives: Leif Johansson of Electrolux, Howard Gottlieb of NEC, and Wahib Zaki of Procter & Gamble. The first type is the global business or product-division manager who must build worldwide efficiency and competitiveness. These managers recognize cross-border opportunities and risks as well as link activities and capabilities around the world. The second is the country manager whose unit is the building block for worldwide operations. These managers are responsible for understanding and interpreting local markets, building local resources and capabilities, and contributing to--and participating in--the development of global strategy. Finally, there are worldwide functional specialists--the managers whose potential is least appreciated in many traditional multinational companies. To transfer expertise from one unit to another and leverage learning, these managers must scan the company for good ideas and best practice, cross-pollinate among units, and champion innovations with worldwide applications. PMID:10121314

  13. What is a global manager?

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Christopher A; Ghoshal, Sumantra

    2003-08-01

    Riven by ideology, religion, and mistrust, the world seems more fragmented than at any time since, arguably, World War II. But however deep the political divisions, business operations continue to span the globe, and executives still have to figure out how to run them efficiently and well. In "What Is a Global Manager?" (first published in September-October 1992), business professors Christopher Bartlett and Sumantra Ghoshal lay out a model for a management structure that balances the local, regional, and global demands placed on companies operating across the world's many borders. In the volatile world of transnational corporations, there is no such thing as a "universal" global manager, the authors say. Rather, there are three groups of specialists: business managers, country managers, and functional managers. And there are the top executives at corporate headquarters who manage the complex interactions between the three--and can identify and develop the talented executives a successful transnational requires. This kind of organizational structure characterizes a transnational rather than an old-line multinational, international, or global company. Transnationals integrate assets, resources, and diverse people in operating units around the world. Through a flexible management process, in which business, country, and functional managers form a triad of different perspectives that balance one another, transnational companies can build three strategic capabilities: global-scale efficiency and competitiveness; national-level responsiveness and flexibility; and cross-market capacity to leverage learning on a worldwide basis. Through a close look at the successful careers of Leif Johansson of Electrolux, Howard Gottlieb of NEC, and Wahib Zaki of Procter & Gamble, the authors illustrate the skills that each managerial specialist requires. PMID:12884670

  14. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Trabalka, J R

    1985-12-01

    This state-of-the-art volume presents discussions on the global cycle of carbon, the dynamic balance among global atmospheric CO2 sources and sinks. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

  15. Global Trends in Mercury Management

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyunghee

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Environmental Program Governing Council has regulated mercury as a global pollutant since 2001 and has been preparing the mercury convention, which will have a strongly binding force through Global Mercury Assessment, Global Mercury Partnership Activities, and establishment of the Open-Ended Working Group on Mercury. The European Union maintains an inclusive strategy on risks and contamination of mercury, and has executed the Mercury Export Ban Act since December in 2010. The US Environmental Protection Agency established the Mercury Action Plan (1998) and the Mercury Roadmap (2006) and has proposed systematic mercury management methods to reduce the health risks posed by mercury exposure. Japan, which experienced Minamata disease, aims vigorously at perfection in mercury management in several ways. In Korea, the Ministry of Environment established the Comprehensive Plan and Countermeasures for Mercury Management to prepare for the mercury convention and to reduce risks of mercury to protect public health. PMID:23230466

  16. GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The production of greenhouse gases due to anthropogenic activities may have begun to change the global climate. he global carbon cycle plays a significant role in projected climate change. owever, considerable uncertainty exists regarding pools and flux in the global cycle. iven ...

  17. Ecological controls over global soil carbon storage

    SciTech Connect

    Schimel, D.S.

    1995-09-01

    Globally, soil carbon comprises about 2/3 of terrestrial carbon storage. Soil carbon is thus an important reservoir of carbon, but also influences the responses of ecosystems to change by controlling many aspects of nutrient cycling. While broad-scale patterns of soil carbon accumulation can be explained in terms of climatic and biome distributions, many ecological processes also influence the storage and turnover of carbon in soils. I will present a synthesis of information from field studies, model experiments and global data bases on factors controlling the turnover and storage of soil carbon. First, I will review a series of studies showing links between vegetation change (successional and invasions) and soil carbon. Then I will review model analyses of the sensitivity of soil carbon to climatic and ecological changes. Results show that soil carbon storage is broadly sensitive to climate but greatly influenced by the allocation of detritus between resistant (lignaceous and woody) and more labile forms, and that biotic changes that affect allocation, affect soil carbon substantially at regionally and perhaps global scales.

  18. Global estimates of boreal forest carbon stocks and flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, Corey J. A.; Warkentin, Ian G.

    2015-05-01

    The boreal ecosystem is an important global reservoir of stored carbon and a haven for diverse biological communities. The natural disturbance dynamics there have historically been driven by fire and insects, with human-mediated disturbances increasing faster than in other biomes globally. Previous research on the total boreal carbon stock and predictions of its future flux reveal high uncertainty in regional patterns. We reviewed and standardised this extensive body of quantitative literature to provide the most up-to-date and comprehensive estimates of the global carbon balance in the boreal forest. We also compiled century-scale predictions of the carbon budget flux. Our review and standardisation confirmed high uncertainty in the available data, but there is evidence that the region's total carbon stock has been underestimated. We found a total carbon store of 367.3 to 1715.8 Pg (1015 g), the mid-point of which (1095 Pg) is between 1.3 and 3.8 times larger than any previous mean estimates. Most boreal carbon resides in its soils and peatlands, although estimates are highly uncertain. We found evidence that the region might become a net carbon source following a reduction in carbon uptake rate from at least the 1980s. Given that the boreal potentially constitutes the largest terrestrial carbon source in the world, in one of the most rapidly warming parts of the globe (Walsh, 2014), how we manage these stocks will be influential on future climate dynamics.

  19. Geography of Global Forest Carbon Stocks & Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saatchi, S. S.; Yu, Y.; Xu, L.; Yang, Y.; Fore, A.; Ganguly, S.; Nemani, R. R.; Zhang, G.; Lefsky, M. A.; Sun, G.; Woodall, C. W.; Naesset, E.; Seibt, U. H.

    2014-12-01

    Spatially explicit distribution of carbon stocks and dynamics in global forests can greatly reduce the uncertainty in the terrestrial portion of the global carbon cycle by improving estimates of emissions and uptakes from land use activities, and help with green house gas inventory at regional and national scales. Here, we produce the first global distribution of carbon stocks in living woody biomass at ~ 100 m (1-ha) resolution for circa 2005 from a combination of satellite observations and ground inventory data. The total carbon stored in live woody biomass is estimated to be 337 PgC with 258 PgC in aboveground and 79 PgC in roots, and partitioned globally in boreal (20%), tropical evergreen (50%), temperate (12%), and woodland savanna and shrublands (15%). We use a combination of satellite observations of tree height, remote sensing data on deforestation and degradation to quantify the dynamics of these forests at the biome level globally and provide geographical distribution of carbon storage dynamics in terms sinks and sources globally.

  20. The global carbon budget and its operationalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canadell, J.; Le Quere, C.; Friedlingstein, P.; Houghton, R. A.; Marland, G.; Ciais, P.; Raupach, M. R.; Sitch, S.; Kirschke, S.

    2010-12-01

    The presentation will cover two components: 1) the latest global carbon budget and 2) the requirements to operationalize its annual update and trend reanalysis to enhance policy relevance and scientific understanding of the current carbon cycle perturbation. First, we will present the new update of the global carbon-CO2 budget covering 1958-2009, including an analysis of the impact of the global financial crisis, new estimates on the emissions from land use change, and ensemble model results on the strength and dynamics of the ocean and land sinks. Second, we will discuss the requirements to make these annual updates a routing operation and to become more regionally explicit, in addition to the extension of the budget to include CH4-carbon.

  1. Africa and the global carbon cycle

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christopher A; Hanan, Niall P; Neff, Jason C; Scholes, Robert J; Berry, Joseph A; Denning, A Scott; Baker, David F

    2007-01-01

    The African continent has a large and growing role in the global carbon cycle, with potentially important climate change implications. However, the sparse observation network in and around the African continent means that Africa is one of the weakest links in our understanding of the global carbon cycle. Here, we combine data from regional and global inventories as well as forward and inverse model analyses to appraise what is known about Africa's continental-scale carbon dynamics. With low fossil emissions and productivity that largely compensates respiration, land conversion is Africa's primary net carbon release, much of it through burning of forests. Savanna fire emissions, though large, represent a short-term source that is offset by ensuing regrowth. While current data suggest a near zero decadal-scale carbon balance, interannual climate fluctuations (especially drought) induce sizeable variability in net ecosystem productivity and savanna fire emissions such that Africa is a major source of interannual variability in global atmospheric CO2. Considering the continent's sizeable carbon stocks, their seemingly high vulnerability to anticipated climate and land use change, as well as growing populations and industrialization, Africa's carbon emissions and their interannual variability are likely to undergo substantial increases through the 21st century. PMID:17343752

  2. Black carbon contribution to global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Chylek, P.; Johnson, B.; Kou, L.; Wong, J.

    1996-12-31

    Before the onset of industrial revolution the only important source of black carbon in the atmosphere was biomass burning. Today, black carbon production is divided between the biomass and fossil fuel burning. Black carbon is a major agent responsible for absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols. Thus black carbon makes other aerosols less efficient in their role of reflecting solar radiation and cooling the earth-atmosphere system. Black carbon also contributes to the absorption of solar radiation by clouds and snow cover. The authors present the results of black carbon concentrations measurements in the atmosphere, in cloud water, in rain and snow melt water collected during the 1992--1996 time period over the southern Nova Scotia. Their results are put into the global and historical perspective by comparing them with the compilation of past measurements at diverse locations and with their measurements of black carbon concentrations in the Greenland and Antarctic ice cores. Black carbon contribution to the global warming is estimated, and compared to the carbon dioxide warming, using the radiative forcing caused by the black carbon at the top of the atmosphere.

  3. Authigenic carbonate and the history of the global carbon cycle.

    PubMed

    Schrag, Daniel P; Higgins, John A; Macdonald, Francis A; Johnston, David T

    2013-02-01

    We present a framework for interpreting the carbon isotopic composition of sedimentary rocks, which in turn requires a fundamental reinterpretation of the carbon cycle and redox budgets over Earth's history. We propose that authigenic carbonate, produced in sediment pore fluids during early diagenesis, has played a major role in the carbon cycle in the past. This sink constitutes a minor component of the carbon isotope mass balance under the modern, high levels of atmospheric oxygen but was much larger in times of low atmospheric O(2) or widespread marine anoxia. Waxing and waning of a global authigenic carbonate sink helps to explain extreme carbon isotope variations in the Proterozoic, Paleozoic, and Triassic. PMID:23372007

  4. Carbon pools and flux of global forest ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.K.; Solomon, A.M. ); Brown, S. ); Houghton, R.A. ); Trexler, M.C. ); Wisniewski, J. )

    1994-01-14

    Forest systems cover more than 4.1 x 10[sup 9] hectares of the Earth's land area. Globally, forest vegetation and soils contain about 1146 petagrams of carbon, with approximately 37 percent of this carbon in low-latitude forests, 14 percent in mid-latitudes, and 49 percent at high latitudes. Over two-thirds of the carbon in forest ecosystems is contained in soils and associated peat deposits. In 1990, deforestation in the low latitudes emitted 1.6 [+-] 0.4 petagrams of carbon per year, whereas forest area expansion and growth in mid- and high-latitude forest sequestered 0.7 [+-] 0.2 petagrams of carbon per year, for a net flux to the atmosphere of 0.9 [+-] 0.4 petagrams of carbon per year. Slowing deforestation, combined with an increase in forestation and other management measures to improve forest ecosystem productivity, could conserve or sequester significant quantities of carbon. Future forest carbon cycling trends attributable to losses and regrowth associated with global climate and land-use change are uncertain. Model projections and some results suggest that forests could be carbon sinks or sources in the future.

  5. Carbon emission from global hydroelectric reservoirs revisited.

    PubMed

    Li, Siyue; Zhang, Quanfa

    2014-12-01

    Substantial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from hydropower reservoirs have been of great concerns recently, yet the significant carbon emitters of drawdown area and reservoir downstream (including spillways and turbines as well as river reaches below dams) have not been included in global carbon budget. Here, we revisit GHG emission from hydropower reservoirs by considering reservoir surface area, drawdown zone and reservoir downstream. Our estimates demonstrate around 301.3 Tg carbon dioxide (CO2)/year and 18.7 Tg methane (CH4)/year from global hydroelectric reservoirs, which are much higher than recent observations. The sum of drawdown and downstream emission, which is generally overlooked, represents 42 % CO2 and 67 % CH4 of the total emissions from hydropower reservoirs. Accordingly, the global average emissions from hydropower are estimated to be 92 g CO2/kWh and 5.7 g CH4/kWh. Nonetheless, global hydroelectricity could currently reduce approximate 2,351 Tg CO2eq/year with respect to fuel fossil plant alternative. The new findings show a substantial revision of carbon emission from the global hydropower reservoirs. PMID:24943886

  6. Terrestrial carbon histories: Implications for future global carbon cycle dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, A.M.; Webb. T.; Prentice, I.C. Brown Univ., Providence, RI Univ. of Lund )

    1993-06-01

    One of the most recalcitrant scientific questions during the past 20 years of research on increasing atmospheric CO[sub 2] is whether (and how much) the earth is a net source or a net sink for carbon now, and, whether (and how much) it will be so in the future. The answer is critical to cleaning international response strategies as well as to predicting biospheric futures with or without effects of political action. Here, we examine the potential value of information available in paleoecological data for defining the role of the terrestrial biosphere in global carbon cycle variations. The data describe histories of carbon in the atmosphere (primarily from stratigrapheric CO[sub 2] concentrations embedded in polar ice caps), above-ground biomass (primarily vegetation reconstructed from fossil pollen data in lacustrine sediments) and soil carbon pools (primarily from soil carbon inventories and landscape histories). After discussing the implications of inferences on the nature of global carbon cycling which are directly obtainable from the data, we evaluate the paleoecological information for formulating and testing predictive models written to describe future carbon cycle dynamics. Finally, we apply one such model to project future dynamics of the terrestrial carbon cycle, and use the obvious uncertainties in the results to define the paleoecological research agenda required for definitive solution of the carbon sequestration question.

  7. Impact of carbon storage through restoration of drylands on the global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, A.A.; Goldstein, R.A.

    1998-09-01

    The authors evaluate the potential for global carbon storage in drylands as one of several policy options to reduce buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. They use the GLOCO model, a global carbon cycle model with eight terrestrial biomes that are described mechanistically in detail in terms of the biological processes that involve carbon and nitrogen cycling and the effect of temperature on these processes. GLOCO also considers low-latitude and high-latitude oceans, each divided further into a surface layer and several deeper layers, with an explicit description of biogeochemical processes occurring in each layer, and exchanges among ocean reservoirs and the atmosphere. GLOCO is used to study the transient response of actual vegetation, which is more realistic than looking at equilibrium conditions of potential vegetation. Using estimates of land suitable for restoration in woodlands, grasslands, and deserts, as well as estimates of the rate at which restoration can proceed, the authors estimate that carbon storage in these biomes can range up to 0.8 billion tons of carbon per year for a combination of land management strategies. A global strategy for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration will require the implementation of multiple options. The advantage of carbon storage in restored drylands is that it comes as a side benefit to programs that are also justifiable in terms of land management.

  8. The global carbon dioxide budget

    SciTech Connect

    Sundquist, E.T. )

    1993-02-12

    The increase in atmospheric CO[sub 2] levels during the last deglaciation was comparable in magnitude to the recent historical increase. However, global CO[sub 2] budgets for these changes reflect fundamental differences in rates and in sources and sinks. The modern oceans are a rapid net CO[sub 2] sink, whereas the oceans were a gradual source during the deglaciation. Unidentified terrestrial CO[sub 2] sinks are important uncertainties in both the deglacial and recent CO[sub 2] budgets. The deglacial CO[sub 2] budget represents a complexity of long-term dynamic behavior that is not adequately addressed by current models used to forecast future atmospheric CO[sub 2] levels.

  9. Global agriculture and carbon trade-offs

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Justin Andrew; Runge, Carlisle Ford; Senauer, Benjamin; Foley, Jonathan; Polasky, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Feeding a growing and increasingly affluent world will require expanded agricultural production, which may require converting grasslands and forests into cropland. Such conversions can reduce carbon storage, habitat provision, and other ecosystem services, presenting difficult societal trade-offs. In this paper, we use spatially explicit data on agricultural productivity and carbon storage in a global analysis to find where agricultural extensification should occur to meet growing demand while minimizing carbon emissions from land use change. Selective extensification saves ∼6 billion metric tons of carbon compared with a business-as-usual approach, with a value of approximately $1 trillion (2012 US dollars) using recent estimates of the social cost of carbon. This type of spatially explicit geospatial analysis can be expanded to include other ecosystem services and other industries to analyze how to minimize conflicts between economic development and environmental sustainability. PMID:25114254

  10. Global agriculture and carbon trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Justin Andrew; Runge, Carlisle Ford; Senauer, Benjamin; Foley, Jonathan; Polasky, Stephen

    2014-08-26

    Feeding a growing and increasingly affluent world will require expanded agricultural production, which may require converting grasslands and forests into cropland. Such conversions can reduce carbon storage, habitat provision, and other ecosystem services, presenting difficult societal trade-offs. In this paper, we use spatially explicit data on agricultural productivity and carbon storage in a global analysis to find where agricultural extensification should occur to meet growing demand while minimizing carbon emissions from land use change. Selective extensification saves ? 6 billion metric tons of carbon compared with a business-as-usual approach, with a value of approximately $1 trillion (2012 US dollars) using recent estimates of the social cost of carbon. This type of spatially explicit geospatial analysis can be expanded to include other ecosystem services and other industries to analyze how to minimize conflicts between economic development and environmental sustainability. PMID:25114254

  11. Towards an Autonomous Global Ocean Carbon Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, J. K.

    2007-12-01

    The ocean is by far the largest carbon reservoir in rapid communication with the atmosphere. Understanding both ocean carbon chemistry and ocean carbon biology are critical for carbon prediction. Marine carbon biomass accounts for roughly 50% of global carbon photosynthesis and a ~10 Pg C/year particulate carbon flux through 100 m into the deep sea. The latter export is commonly referred to as the biological carbon pump. The entire plant biomass of the ocean turns over on week time scales. We lack predictive skill for the biological pump mainly because observations of the biological pump have to be tied to ships which are unable to remain at sea at any location longer than several weeks. Since 2001, a dozen low cost, long lived, robotic Carbon Explorers have been deployed to operate in the ocean for year-long time scales and return real-time information on the daily variation of Particulate Organic Carbon (POC) concentration of the upper 1000 m of the ocean. On June 22 2007 the next generation of Explorer, the Carbon Flux Explorer (CFE) was recovered after a successful two day test and routine operation as deep as 800 m in waters of the San Clemente Basin off shore of San Diego. The CFE represents integration of the Optical Sedimentation Recorder (engineered at Berkeley Laboratory) and the Sounding Ocean Lagrangian Observer (SOLO) profiling float engineered at Scripps. Every eight hours, the CFE surfaced and transmitted in real time engineering and position information in minutes to shore and ship via Iridium satellite link. This fully autonomous and robotic free vehicle/instrument is designed to follow (at hourly resolution) variations of particulate organic and inorganic carbon sedimentation for seasons. Beyond enhanced predictability of the ocean biological carbon pump brought by such enhanced technology, it is fully feasible in the next decade to implement a low cost real-time ocean carbon observing system (a CARBON-ARGO), capable of real time assessment of ocean carbon flux which when coupled with atmospheric CO2 measurements will constrain the balance between carbon emissions and natural and human mediated carbon sinks on land.

  12. Biogeochemical carbon coupling influences global precipitation in geoengineering experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyfe, J. C.; Cole, J. N. S.; Arora, V. K.; Scinocca, J. F.

    2013-02-01

    Abstract Climate model studies in which CO2-induced <span class="hlt">global</span> warming is offset by engineered decreases of incoming solar radiation are generally robust in their prediction of reduced amounts of <span class="hlt">global</span> precipitation. While this precipitation response has been explained on the basis of changes in net radiation controlling evaporative processes at the surface, there has been relatively little consideration of the relative role of biogeochemical <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-cycle interactions. To address this issue, we employ an Earth System Model that includes oceanic and terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> components to isolate the impact of biogeochemical <span class="hlt">carbon</span> coupling on the precipitation response in geoengineering experiments for two types of solar radiation <span class="hlt">management</span>. We show that <span class="hlt">carbon</span> coupling is responsible for a large fraction of the <span class="hlt">global</span> precipitation reduction in such geoengineering experiments and that the primary effect comes from reduced transpiration through the leaves of plants and trees in the terrestrial component of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle due to elevated CO2. Our results suggest that biogeochemical interactions are as important as changes in net radiation and that climate models that do not account for such <span class="hlt">carbon</span> coupling may significantly underestimate precipitation reductions in a geoengineered world.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/985038','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/985038"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrated Estimates of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Sequestration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Thomson, Allison M.; Izaurralde, R Cesar; Smith, Steven J.; Clarke, Leon E.</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>Assessing the contribution of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration to international climate change mitigation requires integration across scientific and disciplinary boundaries. As part of a scenario analysis for the US Climate Change Technology Program, measurements and geographic data were used to develop terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration estimates for agricultural soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, reforestation and pasture <span class="hlt">management</span>. These estimates were then applied in the MiniCAM integrated assessment model to evaluate mitigation strategies within policy and technology scenarios aimed at achieving atmospheric CO2 stabilization by 2100. Adoption of terrestrial sequestration practices is based on competition for land and economic markets for <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Terrestrial sequestration reach a peak combined rate of 0.5 to 0.7 Gt <span class="hlt">carbon</span> yr-1 in mid-century with contributions from agricultural soil (0.21 Gt <span class="hlt">carbon</span> yr-1), reforestation (0.31 Gt <span class="hlt">carbon</span> yr-1) and pasture (0.15 Gt <span class="hlt">carbon</span> yr-1). Sequestration rates vary over time period and with different technology and policy scenarios. The combined contribution of terrestrial sequestration over the next century ranges from 31 to 41 GtC. The contribution of terrestrial sequestration to mitigation is highest early in the century, reaching up to 20% of total <span class="hlt">carbon</span> mitigation. This analysis provides insight into the behavior of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> mitigation options in the presence and absence of climate change mitigation policies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EOSTr..92..156S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EOSTr..92..156S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Sequestration and Its Role in the <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schultz, Colin</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>The science of climate change, and the role <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide (CO2) plays in it, was launched into the public consciousness by Charles David Keeling's investigations in the late 1950s. Keeling conducted early atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> measurements high on Hawaii's Mauna Loa volcano and found that even after ruling out natural fluctuations, the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere was increasing year after year. The findings, published in the 1960s, led to the now iconic Keeling curve and raised several questions about the contribution of fossil fuel burning to atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The AGU monograph <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Sequestration and Its Role in the <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle, edited by Brian J. McPherson and Eric T. Sundquist, moves beyond the how much? and where is it coming from? of atmospheric CO2 and provides an interdisciplinary look at what we can do to address imbalances in the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. In this interview, Eos talks with McPherson.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23074868','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23074868"><span id="translatedtitle">10 rules for <span class="hlt">managing</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> innovation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wilson, Keeley; Doz, Yves L</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>More and more companies recognize that their dispersed, <span class="hlt">global</span> operations are a treasure trove of ideas and capabilities for innovation. But it's proving harder than expected to unearth those ideas or exploit those capabilities. Part of the problem is that companies <span class="hlt">manage</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> innovation the same way they <span class="hlt">manage</span> traditional, single-location projects. Single-location projects draw on a large reservoir of tacit knowledge, shared context, and trust that <span class="hlt">global</span> projects lack. The <span class="hlt">management</span> challenge, therefore, is to replicate the positive aspects of colocation while harnessing the opportunities of dispersion. In this article, Insead's Wilson and Doz draw on research into <span class="hlt">global</span> strategy and innovation to present a set of guidelines for setting up and <span class="hlt">managing</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> innovation. They explore in detail the challenges that make <span class="hlt">global</span> projects inherently different and show how these can be overcome by applying superior project <span class="hlt">management</span> skills across teams, fostering a strong collaborative culture, and using a robust array of communications tools. PMID:23074868</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/415577','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/415577"><span id="translatedtitle">Tropical deforestation and the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Melillo, J.M.; Kicklighter, D.W.; Houghton, R.A.; McGuire, A.D.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>The CO{sub 2} concentration of the atmosphere has increased by almost 30% since 1800. This increase is due largely to two factors: the combustion of fossil fuel and deforestation to create croplands and pastures. Deforestation results in a net flux of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> to the atmospheric because forests contain 20--50 times more <span class="hlt">carbon</span> per unit area than agricultural lands. In recent decades, the tropics have been the primary region of deforestation.The annual rate of CO{sub 2} released due to tropical deforestation during the early 1990s has been estimated at between 1.2 and 2.3 gigatons C. The range represents uncertainties about both the rates of deforestation and the amounts of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stored in different types of tropical forests at the time of cutting. An evaluation of the role of tropical regions in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget must include both the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux to the atmosphere due to deforestation and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> accumulation, if any, in intact forests. In the early 1990s, the release of CO{sub 2} from tropical deforestation appears to have been mostly offset by CO{sub 2} uptake occurring elsewhere in the tropics, according to an analysis of recent trends in the atmospheric concentrations of O{sub 2} and N{sub 2}. Interannual variations in climate and/or CO{sub 2} fertilization may have been responsible for the CO{sub 2} uptake in intact forests. These mechanisms are consistent with site-specific measurements of net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes between tropical forests and the atmosphere, and with regional and <span class="hlt">global</span> simulations using process-based biogeochemistry models. 86 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=164444','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=164444"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> atmospheric black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> inferred from AERONET</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sato, Makiko; Hansen, James; Koch, Dorothy; Lacis, Andrew; Ruedy, Reto; Dubovik, Oleg; Holben, Brent; Chin, Mian; Novakov, Tica</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>AERONET, a network of well calibrated sunphotometers, provides data on aerosol optical depth and absorption optical depth at >250 sites around the world. The spectral range of AERONET allows discrimination between constituents that absorb most strongly in the UV region, such as soil dust and organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, and the more ubiquitously absorbing black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (BC). AERONET locations, primarily continental, are not representative of the <span class="hlt">global</span> mean, but they can be used to calibrate <span class="hlt">global</span> aerosol climatologies produced by tracer transport models. We find that the amount of BC in current climatologies must be increased by a factor of 24 to yield best agreement with AERONET, in the approximation in which BC is externally mixed with other aerosols. The inferred climate forcing by BC, regardless of whether it is internally or externally mixed, is ?1 W/m2, most of which is probably anthropogenic. This positive forcing (warming) by BC must substantially counterbalance cooling by anthropogenic reflective aerosols. Thus, especially if reflective aerosols such as sulfates are reduced, it is important to reduce BC to minimize <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. PMID:12746494</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/841053','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/841053"><span id="translatedtitle">Human Impacts and <span class="hlt">Management</span> of <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Benson, S.; Edmonds, J.; Socolow, R.; Surles, T.</p> <p>1999-08-20</p> <p>The energy system dominates human-induced <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flows on our planet. <span class="hlt">Globally</span>, six billion tons of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> are contained in the fossil fuels removed from below the ground every year. More than 90% of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in fossil fuels is used for energy purposes, with <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide as the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> product and the atmosphere as the initial destination for the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide. Significantly affecting the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flows associated with fossil fuels is an immense undertaking. Four principal technological approaches are available to affect these <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flows: (1) Fossil fuels and other energy resources can be utilized more efficiently; (2) Energy sources other than fossil fuels can be used; (3) <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels can be trapped and redirected, preventing it from reaching the atmosphere (fossil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration); and (4) One can work outside the energy system to remove <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide biologically from the atmosphere (biological <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration). An optimum <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> strategy will surely implement all four approaches and a wise R&D program will have vigorous sub-programs in all four areas. These programs can be effective by integrating scenario analyses into the planning process. A number of future scenarios must be evaluated to determine the need for the new technologies in a future energy mix. This planning activity must be an iterative process. At present, R&D in the first two areas--energy efficiency and non-fossil fuel energy resources--is relatively well developed. By contrast, R&D in the third and the fourth areas--the two <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration options--is less well developed. The task before the workshop was to recommend ways to initiate a vigorous <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration research program without compromising the strength of the current programs in the first two areas. We recommend that this task be fulfilled by initiating several new programs in parallel. First, we recommend that a vigorous <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration program be launched. We have confidence that the time is ripe for this new undertaking. Several studies conducted over the past two years have scoped out the research issues that need to be explored and have revealed a wide variety of technological approaches that call out for detailed analysis and field testing. Second, we recommend that R&D efforts in the areas of efficient energy use and clean energy (technologies not using fossil resources or significantly reducing <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions per unit of energy generated) be maintained and strengthened. The lead times necessary for market penetration of successful technologies when they are needed require a robust federally funded R&D program. Third, we recommend that a broad <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> research program be properly integrated into all four of the approaches listed above. Specifically, we recommend four elements of such a program: (1) A program in support of decision-oriented research, emphasizing life-cycle analysis systems and risk analysis, with the concomitant development of tools for technology assessment, cross-technology comparison, and analysis of externalities. (2) A program designed to support a small number of research centers, each focusing on a specific area of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span>, creatively combining several disciplinary approaches and featuring strong industry participation. (3) A program in support of investigator-initiated research; and (4) A program focused on effective means of engaging the public. All of these initiatives must give considerable weight to the consideration of the social implications of the technologies under investigation. We believe that public acceptance will be and should be a critical determinant of the evolution of the technologies, whose promise the proposed program is designed to explore.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12705941','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12705941"><span id="translatedtitle">Soil erosion and the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lal, R</p> <p>2003-07-01</p> <p>Soil erosion is the most widespread form of soil degradation. Land area <span class="hlt">globally</span> affected by erosion is 1094 million ha (Mha) by water erosion, of which 751 Mha is severely affected, and 549 Mha by wind erosion, of which 296 Mha is severely affected. Whereas the effects of erosion on productivity and non-point source pollution are widely recognized, those on the C dynamics and attendant emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) are not. Despite its <span class="hlt">global</span> significance, erosion-induced <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (C) emission into the atmosphere remains misunderstood and an unquantified component of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget. Soil erosion is a four-stage process involving detachment, breakdown, transport/redistribution and deposition of sediments. The soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (SOC) pool is influenced during all four stages. Being a selective process, erosion preferentially removes the light organic fraction of a low density of <1.8 Mg/m(3). A combination of mineralization and C export by erosion causes a severe depletion of the SOC pool on eroded compared with uneroded or slightly eroded soils. In addition, the SOC redistributed over the landscape or deposited in depressional sites may be prone to mineralization because of breakdown of aggregates leading to exposure of hitherto encapsulated C to microbial processes among other reasons. Depending on the delivery ratio or the fraction of the sediment delivered to the river system, gross erosion by water may be 75 billion Mg, of which 15-20 billion Mg are transported by the rivers into the aquatic ecosystems and eventually into the ocean. The amount of total C displaced by erosion on the earth, assuming a delivery ratio of 10% and SOC content of 2-3%, may be 4.0-6.0 Pg/year. With 20% emission due to mineralization of the displaced C, erosion-induced emission may be 0.8-1.2 Pg C/year on the earth. Thus, soil erosion has a strong impact on the <span class="hlt">global</span> C cycle and this component must be considered while assessing the <span class="hlt">global</span> C budget. Adoption of conservation-effective measures may reduce the risks of C emission and sequester C in soil and biota. PMID:12705941</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-14/pdf/2011-17670.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-14/pdf/2011-17670.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 41525 - Hewlett Packard <span class="hlt">Global</span> Parts Supply Chain, <span class="hlt">Global</span> Product Life Cycles <span class="hlt">Management</span> Unit Including...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-14</p> <p>... Parts Supply Chain, <span class="hlt">Global</span> Product Life Cycles <span class="hlt">Management</span> Unit, including teleworkers reporting to... Chain, <span class="hlt">Global</span> Product Life Cycles <span class="hlt">Management</span> Unit, including teleworkers reporting to Houston, Texas... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard <span class="hlt">Global</span> Parts Supply Chain, <span class="hlt">Global</span> Product Life...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=information&pg=6&id=EJ1034275','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=information&pg=6&id=EJ1034275"><span id="translatedtitle">Knowledge <span class="hlt">Management</span> and <span class="hlt">Global</span> Information Dissemination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Umunadi, Ejiwoke Kennedy</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The paper looked at knowledge <span class="hlt">management</span> and <span class="hlt">global</span> information dissemination. Knowledge is a very powerful tool for survival, growth and development. It can be seen as the information, understanding and skills that you gain through education or experience. The paper was addressed under the following sub-headings: Knowledge <span class="hlt">management</span> knowledge…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=information+AND+technology+AND+management&pg=6&id=EJ1034275','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=information+AND+technology+AND+management&pg=6&id=EJ1034275"><span id="translatedtitle">Knowledge <span class="hlt">Management</span> and <span class="hlt">Global</span> Information Dissemination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Umunadi, Ejiwoke Kennedy</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The paper looked at knowledge <span class="hlt">management</span> and <span class="hlt">global</span> information dissemination. Knowledge is a very powerful tool for survival, growth and development. It can be seen as the information, understanding and skills that you gain through education or experience. The paper was addressed under the following sub-headings: Knowledge <span class="hlt">management</span> knowledge</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Management+AND+development+AND+regions&pg=3&id=EJ856823','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Management+AND+development+AND+regions&pg=3&id=EJ856823"><span id="translatedtitle">Research <span class="hlt">Management</span>: A <span class="hlt">Global</span> Profession?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kirkland, John</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Universities are increasingly accountable for their research output, not only to government but also to an increasingly diverse range of funding bodies. However, the growth in research <span class="hlt">management</span> structures has been neither universal nor evenly distributed. It would be easy to cite lack of resources as the reason for the uneven development between</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=kirkland&pg=3&id=EJ856823','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=kirkland&pg=3&id=EJ856823"><span id="translatedtitle">Research <span class="hlt">Management</span>: A <span class="hlt">Global</span> Profession?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kirkland, John</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Universities are increasingly accountable for their research output, not only to government but also to an increasingly diverse range of funding bodies. However, the growth in research <span class="hlt">management</span> structures has been neither universal nor evenly distributed. It would be easy to cite lack of resources as the reason for the uneven development between…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=226241','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=226241"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Management</span> practices affects soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide emission and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Agricultural practices contribute about 25% of total anthropogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide emission, a greenhouse gas responsible for <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. Soil can act both as sink or source of atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> dioxide fixed in plant biomass through photosynthesis can be stored in soil as organi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6586159','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6586159"><span id="translatedtitle">Expanding <span class="hlt">global</span> forest <span class="hlt">management</span>: An easy first' proposal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Winjum, J.K. ); Meganck, R.A. ); Dixon, R.K.</p> <p>1993-04-01</p> <p>World leaders have become increasingly aware of the contributions of sustainable forest resources to political, social, economic, and environmental health. As a result, interest is growing for a world treaty or protocol on forest <span class="hlt">management</span> and protection. This article focuses on <span class="hlt">global</span> forest <span class="hlt">management</span>. The first section discusses the current situtation in <span class="hlt">global</span> forest <span class="hlt">management</span> (10-12% of the total). Benefits of <span class="hlt">global</span> benefit to <span class="hlt">management</span> included sustained and even increased yield, slowing of atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide, and conservation of biodiversity and increase sustainable use options. The Noordwijk Goal is discussed as one example of concrete <span class="hlt">global</span> action. Finally, the easy first approach is presented in detail. It involves starting in areas where the obstacles are minimal to develop early momentum and a can do outlook for implementation. Difficulties of this approach involve dealing with the political, social, and economic aspects of resource constraints that many nations face daily. But the easy first approach attempts to demonstrate that not all financial commitments, political agreements and forest <span class="hlt">management</span> techniques must be in place for work to start.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1134278','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1134278"><span id="translatedtitle">Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span> Data from the <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, and models and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Collections under the broad heading of Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span> are organized as <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Accumulation with Cropland <span class="hlt">Management</span>, <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Accumulation with Grassland <span class="hlt">Management</span>, <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Loss Following Cultivation, <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Accumulation Following Afforestation, and <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Sources and Sinks Associated with U.S. Cropland Production.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6144287','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6144287"><span id="translatedtitle">(The ocean's role in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Joos, L.F.</p> <p>1990-12-20</p> <p>The traveler collaborated with Dr. J. L. Sarmiento of the Program in Atmospheric Sciences, Princeton University, and Dr. U. Siegenthaler of the University of Bern in box-model studies of the potential enhancement of oceanic CO{sub 2} uptake by fertilizing the southern ocean with iron. As a result of this collaboration, a letter describing the results was submitted to the journal Nature. Sensitivity studies were carried out to gain a better understanding of the processes involved for a hypothetical iron fertilization of the ocean. An article that describes this work has been submitted to the journal <span class="hlt">Global</span> Biogeochemical Cycles. The traveler and U. Siegenthaler are preparing a journal article describing a box model of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle that is an extension of the one-dimensional box-diffusion model. The traveler attended Oceanography 590b at the University of Washington in Friday Harbor. While at Friday Harbor, he started to collaborate with Drs. M. Warner, R. Gammon, and J. Bullister, all from the University of Washington, Seattle, to calibrate the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle model with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-11 and CFC-12. The traveler started collaboration with Drs. J. C. Orr and J. L. Sarmiento to calculate apparent eddy diffusivities from the Princeton three-dimensional ocean model. The work is conducted by the University of Bern, Switzerland (the traveler is principal investigator), for a US Department of Energy program <span class="hlt">managed</span> by Oak Ridge National Laboratory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...619327W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...619327W"><span id="translatedtitle">Critical <span class="hlt">carbon</span> input to maintain current soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks in <span class="hlt">global</span> wheat systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Guocheng; Luo, Zhongkui; Han, Pengfei; Chen, Huansheng; Xu, Jingjing</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (SOC) dynamics in croplands is a crucial component of <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (C) cycle. Depending on local environmental conditions and <span class="hlt">management</span> practices, typical C input is generally required to reduce or reverse C loss in agricultural soils. No studies have quantified the critical C input for maintaining SOC at <span class="hlt">global</span> scale with high resolution. Such information will provide a baseline map for assessing soil C dynamics under potential changes in <span class="hlt">management</span> practices and climate, and thus enable development of <span class="hlt">management</span> strategies to reduce C footprint from farm to regional scales. We used the soil C model RothC to simulate the critical C input rates needed to maintain existing soil C level at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution in <span class="hlt">global</span> wheat systems. On average, the critical C input was estimated to be 2.0 Mg C ha‑1 yr‑1, with large spatial variability depending on local soil and climatic conditions. Higher C inputs are required in wheat system of central United States and western Europe, mainly due to the higher current soil C stocks present in these regions. The critical C input could be effectively estimated using a summary model driven by current SOC level, mean annual temperature, precipitation, and soil clay content.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26759192','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26759192"><span id="translatedtitle">Critical <span class="hlt">carbon</span> input to maintain current soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks in <span class="hlt">global</span> wheat systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Guocheng; Luo, Zhongkui; Han, Pengfei; Chen, Huansheng; Xu, Jingjing</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (SOC) dynamics in croplands is a crucial component of <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (C) cycle. Depending on local environmental conditions and <span class="hlt">management</span> practices, typical C input is generally required to reduce or reverse C loss in agricultural soils. No studies have quantified the critical C input for maintaining SOC at <span class="hlt">global</span> scale with high resolution. Such information will provide a baseline map for assessing soil C dynamics under potential changes in <span class="hlt">management</span> practices and climate, and thus enable development of <span class="hlt">management</span> strategies to reduce C footprint from farm to regional scales. We used the soil C model RothC to simulate the critical C input rates needed to maintain existing soil C level at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution in <span class="hlt">global</span> wheat systems. On average, the critical C input was estimated to be 2.0 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1), with large spatial variability depending on local soil and climatic conditions. Higher C inputs are required in wheat system of central United States and western Europe, mainly due to the higher current soil C stocks present in these regions. The critical C input could be effectively estimated using a summary model driven by current SOC level, mean annual temperature, precipitation, and soil clay content. PMID:26759192</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4725856','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4725856"><span id="translatedtitle">Critical <span class="hlt">carbon</span> input to maintain current soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks in <span class="hlt">global</span> wheat systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Guocheng; Luo, Zhongkui; Han, Pengfei; Chen, Huansheng; Xu, Jingjing</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (SOC) dynamics in croplands is a crucial component of <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (C) cycle. Depending on local environmental conditions and <span class="hlt">management</span> practices, typical C input is generally required to reduce or reverse C loss in agricultural soils. No studies have quantified the critical C input for maintaining SOC at <span class="hlt">global</span> scale with high resolution. Such information will provide a baseline map for assessing soil C dynamics under potential changes in <span class="hlt">management</span> practices and climate, and thus enable development of <span class="hlt">management</span> strategies to reduce C footprint from farm to regional scales. We used the soil C model RothC to simulate the critical C input rates needed to maintain existing soil C level at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution in <span class="hlt">global</span> wheat systems. On average, the critical C input was estimated to be 2.0 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, with large spatial variability depending on local soil and climatic conditions. Higher C inputs are required in wheat system of central United States and western Europe, mainly due to the higher current soil C stocks present in these regions. The critical C input could be effectively estimated using a summary model driven by current SOC level, mean annual temperature, precipitation, and soil clay content. PMID:26759192</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1077581','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1077581"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Coastal <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Program Data from the <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>CDIAC provides data <span class="hlt">management</span> support for the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Coastal <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Data Project. The coastal regions data are very important for the understanding of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle on the continental margins. The Coastal Project data include the bottle (discrete) and surface (underway) <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-related measurements from coastal research cruises, the data from time series cruises, and coastal moorings. The data from US East Coast, US West Coast, and European Coastal areas are available. CDIAC provides a map interface with vessel or platform names. Clicking on the name brings up information about the vessel or the scientific platform, the kinds of measurements collected and the timeframe, links to project pages, when available, and the links to the data files themselves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=technology+AND+international+AND+business&pg=2&id=EJ929421','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=technology+AND+international+AND+business&pg=2&id=EJ929421"><span id="translatedtitle">Internationalizing Business Education for <span class="hlt">Globally</span> Competent <span class="hlt">Managers</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kedia, Ben L.; Englis, Paula D.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The world is shrinking as developments in technology and transportation rapidly increase <span class="hlt">global</span> opportunities and challenges for businesses. Furthermore, developing markets are becoming increasingly important, creating new challenges for <span class="hlt">managers</span>. Business education must step in and prepare graduates to work in and with these markets. This article</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212812L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212812L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span>'s corner in the <span class="hlt">global</span> climate challange</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liddicoat, Joseph</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Unlike on other planets in the Solar System, most of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide (CO2) that degassed from Earth during its formation nearly 4.5 billion years ago is in limestone as the mineral calcite (CaCO3). Consequently, the small percentage (about 0.04) of CO2 in Earth's atmosphere can be changed easily by the combustion of fossil fuels. Since the early 1950s when accurate measurements of atmospheric CO2 began, it has been documented that the amount of CO2 in Earth's atmosphere is increasing at an exponential rate (Report of U.S. National Academy of Science, 2007). This course is a science elective that embraces the ideals of SENCER (Science Education for New Civic Engagements and Responsibilities) that connects science and civic engagement by teaching through complex, contested, current, and unresolved societal issues to basic science. Specifically, the instruction invites students to put scientific knowledge and the scientific method to practical use on matters of immediate interest not only to the students but also to the general public. This is done through a careful examination of the ecological and environmental issues surrounding the build-up of CO2 in the atmosphere as presented in CO2 Rising - The World's Greatest Environmental Challenge by Tyler Volk. A reflective reading of Volk's non-technical but engaging book, complemented by weekly 180-minutes of in-class instruction, results in an understanding of topics that are necessary for an informed public that continues the discussion about catastrophic <span class="hlt">global</span> warming that might result from unchecked burning of fossil fuels by humans.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=290364','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=290364"><span id="translatedtitle">Can <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in bioenergy crops mitigate <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Different forms of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle continuously through several pools in natural and <span class="hlt">managed</span> ecosystems and spheres. <span class="hlt">Carbons</span> recent "commodification," as a negative environmental externality, rendered it a "scarce" and "tradable" element. Although the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> supply in nature is not limited, energy is ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/929160','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/929160"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrated <span class="hlt">Global</span> Nuclear Materials <span class="hlt">Management</span> - Preliminary Concepts -</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dreicer, M; Jones, E; Richardson, J</p> <p>2006-07-13</p> <p>Approach to Connect <span class="hlt">Global</span> Objectives and Local Actions: (1) Articulate <span class="hlt">global</span> objectives into a hierarchy of subsystem requirements and local attributes and measures; (2) Establish a baseline system and viable alternatives through the interactions and relationships (e.g., networks) of local system elements and their options; (3) Evaluate performance of system alternatives and develop improved nuclear material <span class="hlt">management</span> strategies and technologies; and (4) The need to address greatest concerns first (prioritized or graded approach) and to make tradeoffs among implementation options and competing objectives entails a risk-based approach. IGNMM could provide a systematic understanding of <span class="hlt">global</span> nuclear materials <span class="hlt">management</span> and evolutionarily improve and integrate the <span class="hlt">management</span> through an active architecture, using for example, situation awareness, system models, methods, technologies, and international cooperation. Different tools would be used within the overall framework to address individual issues on the desired geographic scale that could be easily linked to broader analyses. Life-cycle system analyses would allow for evaluating material path alternatives on an integrated <span class="hlt">global</span> scale. Disconnects, overlaps, technical options, and alternatives for optimizing nuclear materials processes could be evaluated in an integrated manner.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/218168','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/218168"><span id="translatedtitle">Isotropic simple <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> model: The use of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotopes for model development. Ph.D. Thesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kwon, O.Y.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> dioxide is a major greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. Anthropogenic CO2 emissions from fossil fuel use and deforestation have perturbed the natural <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. As a result, the atmospheric CO2 concentration has rapidly increased, causing the potential for <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. A twenty four compartment isotopic simple <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> model (IS-GCM) has been developed for scenario analysis, research needs prioritization, and for recommending strategies to stabilize the atmospheric CO2 level. CO2 fertilization and temperature effects are included in the terrestrial biosphere, and the ocean includes inorganic chemistry which, with ocean water circulation, enables the calculation of time-variable oceanic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake. The eight compartment simple <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> model (SGCM) served as the basis of the ISGCM model development. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> isotopes, C-13 (stable <span class="hlt">carbon</span>) and C-14(radiocarbon), were used for model constraints as well as results from SGCM that led to multiple compartments in ISGCM. The ISGCM was calibrated with the observed CO2 concentrations, delta C-13, and Delta C-14 in the atmosphere, Delta C-14 in the soil and Delta C-14 in the ocean. Also, ISGCM was constrained by literature values of oceanic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake (gas exchange) and CO2 emissions from deforestation. Inputs (forcing functions in the model) were the CO2 emissions from fossil fuel use and deforestation. Scenario analysis, together with emission strategies tests, indicate that urgent action to reduce anthropogenic emissions would need to be taken to stabilize atmospheric CO2. Results showed that quantitatively, forest <span class="hlt">management</span> is just as effective as the reduction of fossil fuel emissions in controlling atmospheric CO2. Sensitivity analysis of temperature feedback suggests that future <span class="hlt">global</span> warming would cause an additional perturbation in the <span class="hlt">global-carbon</span> cycle, resulting in depletion of soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, accumulation of plant biomass, and the increase of atmospheric CO2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC23B1070D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC23B1070D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span> In the Post-Cap-and-Trade <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Economy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>DeGroff, F. A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> is a pressing issue and will remain so for the balance of the 21st century. Without a worldwide comprehensive <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> strategy in place,the economic, social, military, and humanitarian impact of excess <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in our biosphere will preoccupy humanity until an efficient and effective strategy for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pricing can be implemented. In this paper, we discuss a possible strategy and construct model for comprehensive <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> for the balance of this century. The focus of our strategy is an economic model with a <span class="hlt">carbon</span> construct and metric that assigns a value to all states and forms of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> involved with any anthropogenic activity. Any changes in the state or form of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> due to anthropogenic activity will thereby generate discrete, finite, and measurable economic costs, or tolls, for the associated activity. All activities within a jurisdiction (or between jurisdictions with equivalent <span class="hlt">carbon</span> toll treatment) that lack any change in the state or form of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> will be free of any <span class="hlt">carbon</span> toll. All goods and services crossing jurisdictions with dissimilar toll treatment will be assessed (or credited) to reflect the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> toll differential. This model has three clear advantages. First, the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pricing and cost scheme uses existing and generally accepted accounting and economic methodologies to ensure the veracity and verifiability of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> efforts with minimal effort and expense using standard, existing auditing protocols. Implementing this model will not require any new, special, unique, or additional training, tools, or systems for any entity to achieve their minimum <span class="hlt">carbon</span> target goals within their jurisdictional framework. Second, given the wide spectrum of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> affinities across jurisdictions worldwide, our strategy recognizes and provides for flexible <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pricing regimes, but does not undermine or penalize domestic <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-consuming producers subject to imports from exporters in lower <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pricing jurisdictions. Thus, this strategy avoids a key shortcoming of cap-and-trade <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pricing, and eliminates any incentive to shift <span class="hlt">carbon</span> consumption to jurisdictions with lower <span class="hlt">carbon</span> tolls. Third, the model is a comprehensive, efficient, and effective strategy that allows for the implementation of a <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pricing structure without the complete, explicit agreement of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> consumers worldwide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21159407','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21159407"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic disequilibrium of the terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle under <span class="hlt">global</span> change.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Luo, Yiqi; Weng, Ensheng</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>In this review, we propose a new framework, dynamic disequilibrium of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycles, to assess future land <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-sink dynamics. The framework recognizes internal ecosystem processes that drive the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle toward equilibrium, such as donor pool-dominated transfer; and external forces that create disequilibrium, such as disturbances and <span class="hlt">global</span> change. Dynamic disequilibrium within one disturbance-recovery episode causes temporal changes in the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> source and sink at yearly and decadal scales, but has no impacts on longer-term <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration unless disturbance regimes shift. Such shifts can result in long-term regional <span class="hlt">carbon</span> loss or gain and be quantified by stochastic statistics for use in prognostic modeling. If the regime shifts result in ecosystem state changes in regions with large <span class="hlt">carbon</span> reserves at risk, the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle might be destabilized. PMID:21159407</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15001724','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15001724"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigations into Wetland <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Sequestration as Remediation for <span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Thom, Ronald M.; Blanton, Susan L.; Borde, Amy B.; Williams, Greg D.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Huesemann, Michael H.; KW Nehring and SE Brauning</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Wetlands can potentially sequester vast amounts of <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. However, over 50% of wetlands <span class="hlt">globally</span> have been degraded or lost. Restoration of wetland systems may therefore result in increased sequestration of <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Preliminary results of our investigations into atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration by restored coastal wetlands indicate that <span class="hlt">carbon</span> can be sequestered in substantial quantities in the first 2-50 years after restoration of natural hydrology and sediment accretion processes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=245861','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=245861"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Input and Soil <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dioxide Emission Affected by Land Use and <span class="hlt">Management</span> Practices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Land use and <span class="hlt">management</span> practices may influence C inputs and soil CO2 emission, a greenhouse gas responsible for <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> inputs and soil CO2 emission were monitored from crop- and grassland with various irrigation and cropping systems from 2006 to 2008 in western North Dakota, USA. Tr...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GBioC..29.1549Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GBioC..29.1549Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Century-scale patterns and trends of <span class="hlt">global</span> pyrogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions and fire influences on terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Jia; Tian, Hanqin; Tao, Bo; Ren, Wei; Lu, Chaoqun; Pan, Shufen; Wang, Yuhang; Liu, Yongqiang</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Fires have consumed a large amount of terrestrial organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and significantly influenced terrestrial ecosystems and the physical climate system over the past century. Although biomass burning has been widely investigated at a <span class="hlt">global</span> level in recent decades via satellite observations, less work has been conducted to examine the century-scale changes in <span class="hlt">global</span> fire regimes and fire influences on the terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance. In this study, we investigated <span class="hlt">global</span> pyrogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions and fire influences on the terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes from 1901 to 2010 by using a process-based land ecosystem model. Our results show a significant declining trend in <span class="hlt">global</span> pyrogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions between the early 20th century and the mid-1980s but a significant upward trend between the mid-1980s and the 2000s as a result of more frequent fires in ecosystems with high <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage, such as peatlands and tropical forests. Over the past 110 years, average pyrogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions were estimated to be 2.43 Pg C yr-1 (1 Pg = 1015 g), and <span class="hlt">global</span> average combustion rate (defined as <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions per unit area burned) was 537.85 g C m-2 burned area. Due to the impacts of fires, the net primary productivity and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink of <span class="hlt">global</span> terrestrial ecosystems were reduced by 4.14 Pg C yr-1 and 0.57 Pg C yr-1, respectively. Our study suggests that special attention should be paid to fire activities in the peatlands and tropical forests in the future. Practical <span class="hlt">management</span> strategies, such as minimizing forest logging and reducing the rate of cropland expansion in the humid regions, are in need to reduce fire risk and mitigate fire-induced greenhouse gases emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19409653','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19409653"><span id="translatedtitle">Systematic long-term observations of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scholes, R J; Monteiro, P M S; Sabine, C L; Canadell, J G</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>Imagine a meeting convened to avert a <span class="hlt">global</span> financial crisis where none of the finance ministers had access to reliable information on changes in the stock market, national gross domestic product or international trade flows. It is hardly conceivable. Yet the infinitely more existence-threatening planetary social and ecological crisis we refer to as '<span class="hlt">global</span> change' (comprising the linked issues of biogeochemical, climate, biotic and human system change) is in an analogous situation. Our information on the profound and accelerating changes currently depends to an unacceptable degree on serendipity, individual passion, redirected funding and the largely uncoordinated efforts of a few nations. The thesis of this paper is that navigation of the very narrow 'safe passages' that lie ahead requires a comprehensive and systematic approach to Earth observations, supported by a <span class="hlt">globally</span> coordinated long-term funding mechanism. We developed the argument based on observations of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle, because the issues there are compelling and easily demonstrated, but we believe the conclusions also to be true for many other types of observations relating to the state and <span class="hlt">management</span> of the biosphere. PMID:19409653</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930073152&hterms=ecological+fertilizer&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Decological%2Bfertilizer','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930073152&hterms=ecological+fertilizer&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Decological%2Bfertilizer"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">global</span> model of <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-nutrient interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Moore, Berrien, III; Gildea, Patricia; Vorosmarty, Charles; Mellilo, Jerry M.; Peterson, Bruce J.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">global</span> biogeochemical model presented has two primary objectives. First, it characterizes natural elemental cycles and their linkages for the four elements significant to Earth's biota: C, N, S, and P. Second, it describes changes in these cycles due to human activity. <span class="hlt">Global</span> nutrient cycles were studied within the drainage basins of several major world rivers on each continent. The initial study region was the Mississippi drainage basin, concentrating on <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and nitrogen. The model first establishes the nutrient budgets of the undisturbed ecosystems in a study region. It then uses a data set of land use histories for that region to document the changes in these budgets due to land uses. Nutrient movement was followed over time (1800 to 1980) for 30 ecosystems and 10 land use categories. A geographically referenced ecological information system (GREIS) was developed to <span class="hlt">manage</span> the digital <span class="hlt">global</span> data bases of 0.5 x 0.5 grid cells needed to run the model: potential vegetation, drainage basins, precipitation, runoff, contemporary land cover, and FAO soil maps of the world. The results show the contributions of land use categories to river nutrient loads on a continental scale; shifts in nutrient cycling patterns from closed, steady state systems to mobile transient or open, steady state systems; soil organic matter depletion patterns in U.S. agricultural lands; changing nutrient ratios due to land use changes; and the effect of using heavy fertilizer on aquatic systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.U22A..09F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.U22A..09F"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Sinks and <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span> in European Mountains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Furger, M.; Eugster, W.; Rogiers, N.; Bantelmann, E.; Siegwolf, R.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance of <span class="hlt">managed</span> mountain ecosystems in Europe has been of primary interest during the European Union's Framework Research Programmes 4 (ECOMONT) and 5 (CARBOMONT). The current land use pattern found in the Alps and other mountain ranges in Europe is a result of historical developments and does no longer represent a pure economic benefit for society. However, the cultural aspects of landscape preservation are considered of high importance such that mountain farmers are strongly subsidized in order to allow them to continue the <span class="hlt">management</span> of subalpine landscapes. With the increasing economic pressure imposed by the <span class="hlt">globalized</span> market mechanisms the share of alpine pastures and meadows that will be abandoned in the near future is expected to increase steadily. We will report preliminary results from the first year of the CARBOMONT project that started in early 2002. Eddy covariance flux measurements of CO2, water vapor, and energy from the Seebodenalp site (1025 m a.s.l.) in Switzerland will be presented. Stabile Isotope analyses are used to separate different pathways in the complex interplay between sources and sinks of CO2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatGe...8..450S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatGe...8..450S"><span id="translatedtitle">High rates of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> burial in fjord sediments <span class="hlt">globally</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, Richard W.; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Allison, Mead; Savage, Candida; Galy, Valier</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The deposition and long-term burial of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in marine sediments has played a key role in controlling atmospheric O2 and CO2 concentrations over the past 500 million years. Marine <span class="hlt">carbon</span> burial represents the dominant natural mechanism of long-term organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration. Fjords--deep, glacially carved estuaries at high latitudes--have been hypothesized to be hotspots of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> burial, because they receive high rates of organic material fluxes from the watershed. Here we compile organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> concentrations from 573 fjord surface sediment samples and 124 sediment cores from nearly all fjord systems <span class="hlt">globally</span>. We use sediment organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> content and sediment delivery rates to calculate rates of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> burial in fjord systems across the globe. We estimate that about 18 Mt of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> are buried in fjord sediments each year, equivalent to 11% of annual marine <span class="hlt">carbon</span> burial <span class="hlt">globally</span>. Per unit area, fjord organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> burial rates are one hundred times as large as the <span class="hlt">global</span> ocean average, and fjord sediments contain twice as much organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> as biogenous sediments underlying the upwelling regions of the ocean. We conclude that fjords may play an important role in climate regulation on glacial-interglacial timescales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/929158','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/929158"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrated <span class="hlt">Global</span> Nuclear Materials <span class="hlt">Management</span> Preliminary Concepts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jones, E; Dreicer, M</p> <p>2006-06-19</p> <p>The world is at a turning point, moving away from the Cold War nuclear legacy towards a future <span class="hlt">global</span> nuclear enterprise; and this presents a transformational challenge for nuclear materials <span class="hlt">management</span>. Achieving safety and security during this transition is complicated by the diversified spectrum of threat 'players' that has greatly impacted nonproliferation, counterterrorism, and homeland security requirements. Rogue states and non-state actors no longer need self-contained national nuclear expertise, materials, and equipment due to availability from various sources in the nuclear market, thereby reducing the time, effort and cost for acquiring a nuclear weapon (i.e., manifestations of latency). The terrorist threat has changed the nature of military and national security requirements to protect these materials. An Integrated <span class="hlt">Global</span> Nuclear Materials <span class="hlt">Management</span> (IGNMM) approach would address the existing legacy nuclear materials and the evolution towards a nuclear energy future, while strengthening a regime to prevent nuclear weapon proliferation. In this paper, some preliminary concepts and studies of IGNMM will be presented. A systematic analysis of nuclear materials, activities, and controls can lead to a tractable, integrated <span class="hlt">global</span> nuclear materials <span class="hlt">management</span> architecture that can help remediate the past and <span class="hlt">manage</span> the future. A systems approach is best suited to achieve multi-dimensional and interdependent solutions, including comprehensive, end-to-end capabilities; coordinated diverse elements for enhanced functionality with economy; and translation of goals/objectives or standards into locally optimized solutions. A risk-informed basis is excellent for evaluating system alternatives and performances, and it is especially appropriate for the security arena. Risk <span class="hlt">management</span> strategies--such as defense-in-depth, diversity, and control quality--help to weave together various technologies and practices into a strong and robust security fabric. Effective policy, science/technology, and intelligence elements are all crucial and must be harmonized. It is envisioned that integrated solutions will include reducing and securing nuclear/radiological materials at their source; improved monitoring and tracking; and enhancing detection, interdiction, and response. An active architecture, artfully combined of many synergistic elements, would support national actions and international collaboration in nuclear materials <span class="hlt">management</span>, and it would help navigate a transition toward <span class="hlt">global</span> nuclear sustainability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1015160','SCIGOVIMAGE-SCICINEMA'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1015160"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Impacts (<span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle 2.0)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/">ScienceCinema</a></p> <p>Gadgil, Ashok [EETD and UC Berkeley</p> <p>2011-06-08</p> <p>Ashok Gadgil, Faculty Senior Scientist and Acting Director, EETD, also Professor of Environmental Engineering, UC Berkeley, speaks at the <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more <span class="hlt">carbon</span> into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1015160','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1015160"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Impacts (<span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle 2.0)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gadgil, Ashok</p> <p>2010-02-02</p> <p>Ashok Gadgil, Faculty Senior Scientist and Acting Director, EETD, also Professor of Environmental Engineering, UC Berkeley, speaks at the <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more <span class="hlt">carbon</span> into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15092080','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15092080"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle and climate change: responses and feedbacks from below-ground systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dixon, R K; Turner, D P</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>According to most <span class="hlt">global</span> climate models, a continued build-up of CO2 and other greenhouse gases will lead to significant changes in temperature and precipitation patterns over large parts of the Earth. Below-ground processes will strongly influence the response of the biosphere to climate change and are likely to contribute to positive or negative biospheric feedbacks to climate change. Current <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budgets suggest that as much as 2000 Pg of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> exists in soil systems. There is considerable disagreement, however, over pool sizes and flux (e.g. CO2, CH4) for various ecosystems. An equilibrium analysis of changes in <span class="hlt">global</span> below-ground <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage due to a doubled-CO2 climate suggests a range from a possible sink of 41 Pg to a possible source of 101 Pg. Components of the terrestrial biosphere could be <span class="hlt">managed</span> to sequester or conserve <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and mitigate accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. PMID:15092080</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51.3031G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51.3031G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> change and the groundwater <span class="hlt">management</span> challenge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gorelick, Steven M.; Zheng, Chunmiao</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>With rivers in critical regions already exploited to capacity throughout the world and groundwater overdraft as well as large-scale contamination occurring in many areas, we have entered an era in which multiple simultaneous stresses will drive water <span class="hlt">management</span>. Increasingly, groundwater resources are taking a more prominent role in providing freshwater supplies. We discuss the competing fresh groundwater needs for human consumption, food production, energy, and the environment, as well as physical hazards, and conflicts due to transboundary overexploitation. During the past 50 years, groundwater <span class="hlt">management</span> modeling has focused on combining simulation with optimization methods to inspect important problems ranging from contaminant remediation to agricultural irrigation <span class="hlt">management</span>. The compound challenges now faced by water planners require a new generation of aquifer <span class="hlt">management</span> models that address the broad impacts of <span class="hlt">global</span> change on aquifer storage and depletion trajectory <span class="hlt">management</span>, land subsidence, groundwater-dependent ecosystems, seawater intrusion, anthropogenic and geogenic contamination, supply vulnerability, and long-term sustainability. The scope of research efforts is only beginning to address complex interactions using multiagent system models that are not readily formulated as optimization problems and that consider a suite of human behavioral responses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Atmosphere&pg=2&id=EJ1047091','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Atmosphere&pg=2&id=EJ1047091"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dioxide and <span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming: A Failed Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ribeiro, Carla</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Global</span> warming is a current environmental issue that has been linked to an increase in anthropogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide in the atmosphere. To raise awareness of the problem, various simple experiments have been proposed to demonstrate the effect of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide on the planet's temperature. This article describes a similar experiment, which</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=temperature&pg=2&id=EJ1047091','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=temperature&pg=2&id=EJ1047091"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dioxide and <span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming: A Failed Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ribeiro, Carla</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Global</span> warming is a current environmental issue that has been linked to an increase in anthropogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide in the atmosphere. To raise awareness of the problem, various simple experiments have been proposed to demonstrate the effect of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide on the planet's temperature. This article describes a similar experiment, which…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....12.4107M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....12.4107M"><span id="translatedtitle">Seagrass meadows as a <span class="hlt">globally</span> significant <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> reservoir</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mazarrasa, I.; Marbà, N.; Lovelock, C. E.; Serrano, O.; Lavery, P. S.; Fourqurean, J. W.; Kennedy, H.; Mateo, M. A.; Krause-Jensen, D.; Steven, A. D. L.; Duarte, C. M.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>There has been a growing interest in quantifying the capacity of seagrass ecosystems to act as <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinks as a natural way of offsetting anthropogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions to the atmosphere. However, most of the efforts have focused on the organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (POC) stocks and accumulation rates and ignored the inorganic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (PIC) fraction, despite important <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> pools associated with calcifying organisms inhabiting the meadows, such as epiphytes and benthic invertebrates, and despite the relevance that <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> precipitation and dissolution processes have in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. This study offers the first assessment of the <span class="hlt">global</span> PIC stocks in seagrass sediments using a synthesis of published and unpublished data on sediment <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> concentration from 402 vegetated and 34 adjacent un-vegetated sites. PIC stocks in the top 1 m sediments ranged between 3 and 1660 Mg PIC ha-1, with an average of 654 ± 24 Mg PIC ha-1, exceeding about 5 fold those of POC reported in previous studies. Sedimentary <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> stocks varied across seagrass communities, with meadows dominated by Halodule, Thalassia or Cymodocea supporting the highest PIC stocks, and tended to decrease polewards at a rate of -8 ± 2 Mg PIC ha-1 degree-1 of latitude (GLM, p < 0.0003). Using PIC concentration and estimates of sediment accretion in seagrass meadows, mean PIC accumulation rates in seagrass sediments is 126.3 ± 0.7 g PIC m-2 y-1. Based on the <span class="hlt">global</span> extent of seagrass meadows (177 000 to 600 000 km2), these ecosystems <span class="hlt">globally</span> store between 11 and 39 Pg of PIC in the top meter of sediment and accumulate between 22 and 76 Tg PIC y-1, representing a significant contribution to the <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> dynamics of coastal areas. Despite that these high rates of <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> accumulation imply CO2 emissions from precipitation, seagrass meadows are still strong CO2 sinks as demonstrates the comparison of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (POC and POC) stocks between vegetated and adjacent un-vegetated sediments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009spi..conf..137V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009spi..conf..137V"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Software Development Patterns for Project <span class="hlt">Management</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vlimki, Antti; Kriinen, Jukka; Koskimies, Kai</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Global</span> software development with the agile or waterfall development process has been taken into use in many companies. GSD offers benefits but also new challenges without known, documented solutions. The goal of this research is to present current best practices for GSD in the form of process patterns for project <span class="hlt">management</span>, evaluated by using a scenario-based assessment method. The best practices have been collected from a large company operating in process automation. It is expected that the resulting pattern language helps other companies to improve their GSD processes by incorporating the patterns in the processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5273843','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5273843"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> sequestration, biological diversity, and sustainable development: Integrated forest <span class="hlt">management</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cairns, M.A.; Meganck, R.A.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Tropical deforestation provides a significant contribution to anthropogenic increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration that may lead to <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. Forestation and other forest <span class="hlt">management</span> options to sequester CO2 in the tropical latitudes may fail unless they address local economic, social, environmental, and political needs of people in the developing world. Forest <span class="hlt">management</span> is discussed in terms of three objectives: <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration; sustainable development; and biodiversity conservation. An integrated forest <span class="hlt">management</span> strategy of land-use planning is proposed to achieve these objectives, and is centered around: preservation of primary forests; intensified use of non-timber resources; agroforestry, and selective use of plantation forestry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994EnMan..18...13C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994EnMan..18...13C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> sequestration, biological diversity, and sustainable development: Integrated forest <span class="hlt">management</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cairns, Michael A.; Meganck, Richard A.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Tropical deforestation provides a significant contribution to anthropogenic increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration that may lead to <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. Forestation and other forest <span class="hlt">management</span> options to sequester CO2 in the tropical latitudes may fail unless they address local economic, social, environmental, and political needs of people in the developing world. Forest <span class="hlt">management</span> is discussed in terms of three objectives: <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration, sustainable development, and biodiversity conservation. An integrated forest <span class="hlt">management</span> strategy of land-use planning is proposed to achieve these objectives and is centered around: preservation of primary forest, intensified use of nontimber resources, agroforestry, and selective use of plantation forestry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7264604','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7264604"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> change and the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle: A critical thinking exercise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brewer, C.A.; Beiswenger, J.M. )</p> <p>1994-06-01</p> <p>The increasing concentration of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide in the atmosphere and its probable impact on climate is receiving considerable attention in the press. Most biology students are aware of the increase of atmospheric CO[sub 2] and of some of its possible consequences (e.g., <span class="hlt">global</span> warming). This activity enhances their understanding of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming and of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. Students are asked to balance <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sources and sinks using information about <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes from the scientific literature. To relate the increased CO[sub 2] and <span class="hlt">global</span> warming to their personal lives, we ask them to explore the impact of CO[sub 2]-induced rise in <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature on the corn agroecosystem of the United States. Finally, students are asked to think about (1) human impact on this cycle; (2) how we might mitigate problems associated with increased greenhouse gases; and (3) to consider a variety of potential impacts (e.g., aesthetic, health, economic) resulting from their proposed solutions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GMDD....810339L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GMDD....810339L"><span id="translatedtitle">Observed nighttime conductance alters modeled <span class="hlt">global</span> hydrology and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budgets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lombardozzi, D. L.; Zeppel, M. J. B.; Fisher, R. A.; Tawfik, A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The terrestrial biosphere regulates climate through <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, water, and energy exchanges with the atmosphere. Land surface models estimate plant transpiration, which is actively regulated by stomatal pores, and provide projections essential for understanding Earth's <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and water resources. Empirical evidence from 204 species suggests that significant amounts of water are lost through leaves at night, though land surface models typically reduce stomatal conductance to nearly zero at night. Here, we apply observed nighttime stomatal conductance values to a <span class="hlt">global</span> land surface model, to better constrain <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and water budgets. We find that our modifications increase transpiration up to 5 % <span class="hlt">globally</span>, reduce modeled available soil moisture by up to 50 % in semi-arid regions, and increase the importance of the land surface on modulating energy fluxes. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> gain declines up to ~ 4 % <span class="hlt">globally</span> and > 25 % in semi-arid regions. We advocate for realistic constraints of minimum stomatal conductance in future climate simulations, and widespread field observations to improve parameterizations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17608597','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17608597"><span id="translatedtitle">Strengthening bioterrorism prevention: <span class="hlt">global</span> biological materials <span class="hlt">management</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salerno, Reynolds M; Hickok, Lauren T</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>The anthrax attacks of 2001 demonstrated that bioterrorism poses a significant threat to U.S. national security. This threat is increasing as a result of the rapid expansion in scale and technical capabilities of the <span class="hlt">global</span> biotechnology industry, which is broadening the availability of materials, technologies, and expertise needed to produce a biological weapon and is lowering the barriers to biological weapons terrorism and proliferation. At the same time, there has been a rise of sophisticated yet loosely networked transnational terrorist groups that have shown an interest in bioterrorism. The United States must confront this convergence. Although the U.S. government pursues many different biodefense programs to bolster its ability to detect and respond to a bioterrorist attack, these efforts must be augmented with preventive measures to meet today's international challenges. U.S. Homeland Security Presidential Directive 10 of April 2004 defines "Prevention and Protection" as one of the four essential pillars of the U.S. response to the bioterrorist threat. However, while bioscience and policy experts have proposed a variety of preventive initiatives, the creation of such programs has been slow and limited. <span class="hlt">Global</span> biological materials <span class="hlt">management</span>, which would focus on identifying and protecting those biological materials at the greatest risk of being used maliciously, is one potential solution. Such an approach would augment current U.S. biodefense efforts, provide the international community an effective means of mitigating the <span class="hlt">global</span> threat of bioterrorism, and strengthen the international community's battle against emerging infectious disease. PMID:17608597</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMIN43D3728A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMIN43D3728A"><span id="translatedtitle">NASA's <span class="hlt">Global</span> Imagery <span class="hlt">Management</span> System: TIE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alarcon, C.; Roberts, J. T.; Huang, T.; Thompson, C. K.; Cechini, M. F.; Hall, J. R.; Murphy, K. J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)' <span class="hlt">Global</span> Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) is a system that provides full resolution imagery from a broad set of Earth science disciplines to the public. Using well-accepted standard protocols such as the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Tile Service (WMTS), GIBS delivers <span class="hlt">global</span> imagery efficiently and responsively. Behind this service, lies The Imagery Exchange (TIE), a workflow data <span class="hlt">management</span> solution developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. TIE is an Open Archival Information System responsible for orchestrating the workflow for acquisition, preparation, generation, and archiving of imagery to be served by the GIBS' web mapping tile service, OnEarth. The workflow collects imagery provenance throughout a product's lifecycle by leveraging the EOS Clearing House (ECHO) and other long-term metadata repositories in order to promote reproducibility. Through this focus on metadata, TIE provides spatial and temporal searching capabilities such as an OpenSearch interface as well as facilitating the generation of metadata standards such as the OGC GetCapabilities. Designed as a scalable system, TIE's subsystems can scale-up or scale-down depending on the data volume it handles through the usage of popular open source technologies such as Apache Zookeeper and Grails. This presentation will cover the challenges and solutions to developing such a horizontally scalable data <span class="hlt">management</span> system where science products are often varied with disparate provenance pertaining to source platforms and instruments, spatial resolutions, processing algorithms, metadata models and packaging specifications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JOM....64b.285D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JOM....64b.285D"><span id="translatedtitle">Achieving <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Neutrality in the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Aluminum Industry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Das, Subodh</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>In the 21st century, sustainability is widely regarded as the new corporate culture, and leading manufacturing companies (Toyota, GE, and Alcoa) and service companies (Google and Federal Express) are striving towards <span class="hlt">carbon</span> neutrality. The current <span class="hlt">carbon</span> footprint of the <span class="hlt">global</span> aluminum industry is estimated at 500 million metric tonnes <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide equivalent (CO2eq), representing about 1.7% of <span class="hlt">global</span> emissions from all sources. For the <span class="hlt">global</span> aluminum industry, <span class="hlt">carbon</span> neutrality is defined as a state where the total "in-use" CO2eq saved from all products in current use, including incremental process efficiency improvements, recycling, and urban mining activities, equals the CO2eq expended to produce the <span class="hlt">global</span> output of aluminum. This paper outlines an integrated and quantifiable plan for achieving "<span class="hlt">carbon</span> neutrality" in the <span class="hlt">global</span> aluminum industry by advocating five actionable steps: (1) increase use of "green" electrical energy grid by 8%, (2) reduce process energy needs by 16%, (3) deploy 35% of products in "in-use" energy saving applications, (4) divert 6.1 million metric tonnes/year from landfills, and (5) mine 4.5 million metric tonnes/year from aluminum-rich "urban mines." Since it takes 20 times more energy to make aluminum from bauxite ore than to recycle it from scrap, the <span class="hlt">global</span> aluminum industry could set a reasonable, self-imposed energy/<span class="hlt">carbon</span> neutrality goal to incrementally increase the supply of recycled aluminum by at least 1.05 metric tonnes for every tonne of incremental production via primary aluminum smelter capacity. Furthermore, the aluminum industry can and should take a <span class="hlt">global</span> leadership position by actively developing internationally accepted and approved <span class="hlt">carbon</span> footprint credit protocols.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3898G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3898G"><span id="translatedtitle">Towards <span class="hlt">global</span> environmental information and data <span class="hlt">management</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gurney, Robert; Allison, Lee; Cesar, Roberto; Cossu, Roberto; Dietz, Volkmar; Gemeinholzer, Birgit; Koike, Toshio; Mokrane, Mustapha; Peters, Dale; Thaller-Honold, Svetlana; Treloar, Andrew; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Waldmann, Christoph</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The Belmont Forum, a coalition of national science agencies from 13 countries, is supporting an 18-month effort to implement a 'Knowledge Hub' community-building and strategy development program as a first step to coordinate and streamline international efforts on community governance, interoperability and system architectures so that environmental data and information can be exchanged internationally and across subject domains easily and efficiently. This initiative represents a first step to build collaboratively an international capacity and e-infrastructure framework to address societally relevant <span class="hlt">global</span> environmental change challenges. The project will deliver a community-owned strategy and implementation plan, which will prioritize international funding opportunities for Belmont Forum members to build pilots and exemplars in order to accelerate delivery of end-to end <span class="hlt">global</span> change decision support systems. In 2012, the Belmont Forum held a series of public town hall meetings, and a two-day scoping meeting of scientists and program officers, which concluded that transformative approaches and innovative technologies are needed for heterogeneous data/information to be integrated and made interoperable for researchers in disparate fields and for myriad uses across international, institutional, disciplinary, spatial and temporal boundaries. Pooling Belmont Forum members' resources to bring communities together for further integration, cooperation, and leveraging of existing initiatives and resources has the potential to develop the e-infrastructure framework necessary to solve pressing environmental problems, and to support the aims of many international data sharing initiatives. The plan is expected to serve as the foundation of future Belmont Forum calls for proposals for e-Infrastructures and Data <span class="hlt">Management</span>. The Belmont Forum is uniquely able to align resources of major national funders to support <span class="hlt">global</span> environmental change research on specific technical and governance challenges, and the development of focused pilot systems that could be complementary to other initiatives such as GEOSS, ICSU World Data System, and <span class="hlt">Global</span> Framework for Climate Services (GFCS). The development of this Belmont Forum Knowledge Hub represents an extraordinary effort to bring together international leaders in interoperability, governance and other fields pertinent to decision-support systems in <span class="hlt">global</span> environmental change research. It is also addressing related issues such as ensuring a cohort of environmental scientists who can use up-to-date computing techniques for data and information <span class="hlt">management</span>, and investigating which legal issues need common international attention.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=252591','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=252591"><span id="translatedtitle">Ecological value of soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Management</span> of soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> is critical to the climate change debate, as well as to the long-term productivity and ecosystem resilience of the biosphere. Soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> is a key ecosystem property that indicates inherent productivity of land, controls soil biological functioning and diversity, r...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/50819','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/50819"><span id="translatedtitle">Fire, <span class="hlt">global</span> warming, and the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance of boreal forests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kasischke, E.S.; Christensen, N.L. Jr.; Stocks, B.J.</p> <p>1995-05-01</p> <p>Fire strongly influences <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycling and storage in boreal forests. In the near-term, if <span class="hlt">global</span> warming occurs, the frequency and intensity of fires in boreal forests are likely to increase significantly. A sensitivity analysis on the relationship between fire and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage in the living-biomass and ground-layer compartments of boreal forests was performed to determine how the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks would be expected to change as a result of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. A model was developed to study this sensitivity. The model shows if the annual area burned in boreal forests increases by 50%, as predicted by some studies, then the amount of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stored in the ground layer would decrease between 3.5 and 5.6 kg/m{sup 2}, and the amount of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stored in the living biomass would increase by 1.2 kg/m{sup 2}. There would be a net loss of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in boreal forests between 2.3 and 4.4 kg/m{sup 2}, or 27.1-51.9 Pg on a <span class="hlt">global</span> scale. Because the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in the ground layer is lot more quickly than <span class="hlt">carbon</span> is accumulated in living biomass, this could lead to a short-term release of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> over the next 50-100 yr at a rate of 0.33-0.8 Pg/yr, dependent on the distribution of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> between organic and mineral soil in the ground layer (which is presently not well-understood) and the increase in fire frequency caused by <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. 57 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NatGe...5..505F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NatGe...5..505F"><span id="translatedtitle">Seagrass ecosystems as a <span class="hlt">globally</span> significant <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stock</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fourqurean, James W.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Kennedy, Hilary; Marb, Nria; Holmer, Marianne; Mateo, Miguel Angel; Apostolaki, Eugenia T.; Kendrick, Gary A.; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; McGlathery, Karen J.; Serrano, Oscar</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>The protection of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stored in forests is considered as an important method for mitigating climate change. Like terrestrial ecosystems, coastal ecosystems store large amounts of <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, and there are initiatives to protect these `blue <span class="hlt">carbon</span>' stores. Organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks in tidal salt marshes and mangroves have been estimated, but uncertainties in the stores of seagrass meadows--some of the most productive ecosystems on Earth--hinder the application of marine <span class="hlt">carbon</span> conservation schemes. Here, we compile published and unpublished measurements of the organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> content of living seagrass biomass and underlying soils in 946 distinct seagrass meadows across the globe. Using only data from sites for which full inventories exist, we estimate that, <span class="hlt">globally</span>, seagrass ecosystems could store as much as 19.9Pg organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span>; according to a more conservative approach, in which we incorporate more data from surface soils and depth-dependent declines in soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks, we estimate that the seagrass <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pool lies between 4.2 and 8.4Pg <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. We estimate that present rates of seagrass loss could result in the release of up to 299Tg <span class="hlt">carbon</span> per year, assuming that all of the organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in seagrass biomass and the top metre of soils is remineralized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1243283','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1243283"><span id="translatedtitle">Biogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes from <span class="hlt">global</span> agricultural production and consumption</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wolf, Julie; West, Tristram O.; Le Page, Yannick LB; Kyle, G. Page; Zhang, Xuesong; Collatz, George; Imhoff, Marc L.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Quantification of biogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes from agricultural lands is needed to generate comprehensive bottom-up estimates of net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> exchange for <span class="hlt">global</span> and regional <span class="hlt">carbon</span> monitoring. We estimated <span class="hlt">global</span> agricultural <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes associated with annual crop net primary production (NPP), harvested biomass, and consumption of biomass by humans and livestock. These estimates were combined for a single estimate of net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> exchange (NCE) and spatially distributed to 0.05 degree resolution using MODIS satellite land cover data. <span class="hlt">Global</span> crop NPP in 2011 was estimated at 5.25 ± 0.46 Pg C yr-1, of which 2.05 ± 0.05 Pg C yr-1 was harvested and 0.54 Pg C yr-1 was collected from crop residues for livestock fodder. Total livestock feed intake in 2011 was 2.42 ± 0.21 Pg C yr-1, of which 2.31 ± 0.21 Pg C yr-1 was emitted as CO2, 0.07 ± 0.01 Pg C yr-1 was emitted as CH4, and 0.04 Pg C yr-1 was contained within milk and egg production. Livestock grazed an estimated 1.27 Pg C yr-1 in 2011, which constituted 52.4% of total feed intake. <span class="hlt">Global</span> human food intake was 0.57 ± 0.03 Pg C yr-1 in 2011, the majority of which is respired as CO2. Completed <span class="hlt">global</span> cropland <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budgets accounted for the ultimate use of ca. 80% of harvested biomass. The spatial distribution of these fluxes may be used for <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> monitoring, estimation of regional uncertainty, and for use as input to Earth system models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GBioC..29.1617W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GBioC..29.1617W"><span id="translatedtitle">Biogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes from <span class="hlt">global</span> agricultural production and consumption</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wolf, Julie; West, Tristram O.; Le Page, Yannick; Kyle, G. Page; Zhang, Xuesong; Collatz, G. James; Imhoff, Marc L.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Quantification of biogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes from agricultural lands is needed to generate comprehensive bottom-up estimates of net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> exchange for <span class="hlt">global</span> and regional <span class="hlt">carbon</span> monitoring. We estimated <span class="hlt">global</span> agricultural <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes associated with annual crop net primary production (NPP), harvested biomass, and consumption of biomass by humans and livestock. These estimates were combined for a single estimate of net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> exchange and spatially distributed to 0.05° resolution using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite land cover data. <span class="hlt">Global</span> crop NPP in 2011 was estimated at 5.25 ± 0.46 Pg C yr-1, of which 2.05 ± 0.05 Pg C yr-1 was harvested and 0.54 Pg C yr-1 was collected from crop residues for livestock fodder. Total livestock feed intake in 2011 was 2.42 ± 0.21 Pg C yr-1, of which 2.31 ± 0.21 Pg C yr-1 was emitted as CO2, 0.07 ± 0.01 Pg C yr-1 was emitted as CH4, and 0.04 Pg C yr-1 was contained within milk and egg production. Livestock grazed an estimated 1.27 Pg C yr-1 in 2011, which constituted 52.4% of total feed intake. <span class="hlt">Global</span> human food intake was 0.57 ± 0.03 Pg C yr-1 in 2011, the majority of which was respired as CO2. Completed <span class="hlt">global</span> cropland <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budgets accounted for the ultimate use of approximately 80% of harvested biomass. The spatial distribution of these fluxes may be used for <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> monitoring, estimation of regional uncertainty, and for use as input to Earth system models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.B53C0405I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.B53C0405I"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> simulation of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotope exchange of terrestrial ecosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ito, A.; Terao, Y.; Mukai, H.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>There remain large uncertainties in our quantification of <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle, which has close interactions with the climate system and is subject to human-induced <span class="hlt">global</span> environmental change. Information on <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotopes is expected to reduce the uncertainty by providing additional constraints on net atmosphere-ecosystem exchange. This study attempted to simulate the dynamics of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotopes at the <span class="hlt">global</span> scale, using a process-based terrestrial ecosystem model: Vegetation Integrative SImulator for Trace gases (VISIT). The base-model of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle (Sim-CYCLE, Ito 2003) has already considered stable <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotope composition (13C/12C), and here radioactive <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotope (14C) was included. The isotope ratios characterize various aspects of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle, which is difficult to be constrained by sole mass balance. For example, isotopic discrimination by photosynthetic assimilation is closely related with leaf stomatal conductance and composition of C3 and C4 plant in grasslands. Isotopic disequilibrium represents mean residence time of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pools. In this study, <span class="hlt">global</span> simulations (spatial resolution 0.5-deg, time-step 1-month) were conducted during the period 1901 to 2100 on the basis of observed and projected atmospheric CO2, climate, and land-use conditions. As anthropogenic CO2 accumulates in the atmosphere, heavier stable <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotope (13C) was diluted, while radioactive <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotope (14C) is strongly affected by atomic bomb experiments mainly in the 1950s and 1960s. The model simulated the decadal change in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotope compositions. Leaf <span class="hlt">carbon</span> with shorter mean residence time responded rapidly to the atmospheric change, while plant stems and soil humus showed substantial time-lag, leading to large isotopic disequilibrium. In the future, the isotopic disequilibrium was estimated to augment, due to accelerated rate of anthropogenic CO2 accumulation. Spatial distribution of stable isotope composition (12C/13C, or d13C) was primarily dominated by C3/C4 plant composition and then ancillary environmental conditions. Along latitude, plant and litter <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pools in northern ecosystems have slower turnover rates (i.e., higher 14C/12C) than those in tropical ecosystems. However, humus <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in northern ecosystems with very long mean residence times has lower 14C/12C ratio, most of bomb-derived radioactive <span class="hlt">carbon</span> lingered still in plant biomass. Now, we are attempting to examine the model estimations by comparing with atmospheric measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9j4013J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9j4013J"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">global</span> predictive model of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in mangrove soils</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jardine, Sunny L.; Siikamki, Juha V.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Mangroves are among the most threatened and rapidly vanishing natural environments worldwide. They provide a wide range of ecosystem services and have recently become known for their exceptional capacity to store <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Research shows that mangrove conservation may be a low-cost means of reducing CO2 emissions. Accordingly, there is growing interest in developing market mechanisms to credit mangrove conservation projects for associated CO2 emissions reductions. These efforts depend on robust and readily applicable, but currently unavailable, localized estimates of soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Here, we use over 900 soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> measurements, collected in 28 countries by 61 independent studies, to develop a <span class="hlt">global</span> predictive model for mangrove soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Using climatological and locational data as predictors, we explore several predictive modeling alternatives, including machine-learning methods. With our predictive model, we construct a <span class="hlt">global</span> dataset of estimated soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> concentrations and stocks on a high-resolution grid (5 arc min). We estimate that the <span class="hlt">global</span> mangrove soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stock is 5.00 0.94 Pg C (assuming a 1 meter soil depth) and find this stock is highly variable over space. The amount of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> per hectare in the worlds most <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-rich mangroves (approximately 703 38 Mg C ha-1) is roughly a 2.6 0.14 times the amount of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> per hectare in the worlds most <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-poor mangroves (approximately 272 49 Mg C ha-1). Considerable within country variation in mangrove soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> also exists. In Indonesia, the country with the largest mangrove soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stock, we estimate that the most <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-rich mangroves contain 1.5 0.12 times as much <span class="hlt">carbon</span> per hectare as the most <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-poor mangroves. Our results can aid in evaluating benefits from mangrove conservation and designing mangrove conservation policy. Additionally, the results can be used to project changes in mangrove soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks based on changing climatological predictors, e.g. to assess the impacts of climate change on mangrove soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H11F1123S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H11F1123S"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrated Water Resources <span class="hlt">Management</span>: A <span class="hlt">Global</span> Review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Srinivasan, V.; Cohen, M.; Akudago, J.; Keith, D.; Palaniappan, M.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The diversity of water resources endowments and the societal arrangements to use, <span class="hlt">manage</span>, and govern water makes defining a single paradigm or lens through which to define, prioritize and evaluate interventions in the water sector particularly challenging. Integrated Water Resources <span class="hlt">Management</span> (IWRM) emerged as the dominant intervention paradigm for water sector interventions in the early 1990s. Since then, while many successful implementations of IWRM have been demonstrated at the local, basin, national and trans-national scales, IWRM has also been severely criticized by the <span class="hlt">global</span> water community as "having a dubious record that has never been comprehensively analyzed", "curiously ambiguous", and "ineffective at best and counterproductive at worst". Does IWRM hold together as a coherent paradigm or is it a convenient buzzword to describe a diverse collection of water sector interventions? We analyzed 184 case study summaries of IWRM interventions on the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Water Partnership (GWP) website. The case studies were assessed to find the nature, scale, objectives and outcomes of IWRM. The analysis does not suggest any coherence in IWRM as a paradigm - but does indicate distinct regional trends in IWRM. First, IWRM was done at very different scales in different regions. In Africa two-thirds of the IWRM interventions involved creating national or transnational organizations. In contrast, in Asia and South America, almost two-thirds were watershed, basin, or local body initiatives. Second, IWRM interventions involved very different types of activities in different regions. In Africa and Europe, IWRM entailed creation of policy documents, basin plans and institution building. In contrast, in Asia and Latin America the interventions were much more likely to entail new technology, infrastructure or watershed measures. In Australia, economic measures, new laws and enforcement mechanisms were more commonly used than anywhere else.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25971513','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25971513"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> export from the terrestrial biosphere controlled by erosion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Galy, Valier; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Eglinton, Timothy</p> <p>2015-05-14</p> <p>Riverine export of particulate organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (POC) to the ocean affects the atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> inventory over a broad range of timescales. On geological timescales, the balance between sequestration of POC from the terrestrial biosphere and oxidation of rock-derived (petrogenic) organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sets the magnitude of the atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and oxygen reservoirs. Over shorter timescales, variations in the rate of exchange between <span class="hlt">carbon</span> reservoirs, such as soils and marine sediments, also modulate atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide levels. The respective fluxes of biospheric and petrogenic organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> are poorly constrained, however, and mechanisms controlling POC export have remained elusive, limiting our ability to predict POC fluxes quantitatively as a result of climatic or tectonic changes. Here we estimate biospheric and petrogenic POC fluxes for a suite of river systems representative of the natural variability in catchment properties. We show that export yields of both biospheric and petrogenic POC are positively related to the yield of suspended sediment, revealing that POC export is mostly controlled by physical erosion. Using a <span class="hlt">global</span> compilation of gauged suspended sediment flux, we derive separate estimates of <span class="hlt">global</span> biospheric and petrogenic POC fluxes of 157(+74)(-50) and 43(+61)(-25) megatonnes of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> per year, respectively. We find that biospheric POC export is primarily controlled by the capacity of rivers to mobilize and transport POC, and is largely insensitive to the magnitude of terrestrial primary production. <span class="hlt">Globally</span>, physical erosion rates affect the rate of biospheric POC burial in marine sediments more strongly than <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration through silicate weathering. We conclude that burial of biospheric POC in marine sediments becomes the dominant long-term atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide sink under enhanced physical erosion. PMID:25971513</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003GBioC..17.1111C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003GBioC..17.1111C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration in tidal, saline wetland soils</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chmura, Gail L.; Anisfeld, Shimon C.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Lynch, James C.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>Wetlands represent the largest component of the terrestrial biological <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pool and thus play an important role in <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycles. Most <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budgets, however, have focused on dry land ecosystems that extend over large areas and have not accounted for the many small, scattered <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-storing ecosystems such as tidal saline wetlands. We compiled data for 154 sites in mangroves and salt marshes from the western and eastern Atlantic and Pacific coasts, as well as the Indian Ocean, Mediterranean Ocean, and Gulf of Mexico. The set of sites spans a latitudinal range from 22.4°S in the Indian Ocean to 55.5°N in the northeastern Atlantic. The average soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> density of mangrove swamps (0.055 ± 0.004 g cm-3) is significantly higher than the salt marsh average (0.039 ± 0.003 g cm-3). Soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> density in mangrove swamps and Spartina patens marshes declines with increasing average annual temperature, probably due to increased decay rates at higher temperatures. In contrast, <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration rates were not significantly different between mangrove swamps and salt marshes. Variability in sediment accumulation rates within marshes is a major control of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration rates masking any relationship with climatic parameters. <span class="hlt">Globally</span>, these combined wetlands store at least 44.6 Tg C yr-1 and probably more, as detailed areal inventories are not available for salt marshes in China and South America. Much attention has been given to the role of freshwater wetlands, particularly northern peatlands, as <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinks. In contrast to peatlands, salt marshes and mangroves release negligible amounts of greenhouse gases and store more <span class="hlt">carbon</span> per unit area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Natur.521..204G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Natur.521..204G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> export from the terrestrial biosphere controlled by erosion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Galy, Valier; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Eglinton, Timothy</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Riverine export of particulate organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (POC) to the ocean affects the atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> inventory over a broad range of timescales. On geological timescales, the balance between sequestration of POC from the terrestrial biosphere and oxidation of rock-derived (petrogenic) organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sets the magnitude of the atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and oxygen reservoirs. Over shorter timescales, variations in the rate of exchange between <span class="hlt">carbon</span> reservoirs, such as soils and marine sediments, also modulate atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide levels. The respective fluxes of biospheric and petrogenic organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> are poorly constrained, however, and mechanisms controlling POC export have remained elusive, limiting our ability to predict POC fluxes quantitatively as a result of climatic or tectonic changes. Here we estimate biospheric and petrogenic POC fluxes for a suite of river systems representative of the natural variability in catchment properties. We show that export yields of both biospheric and petrogenic POC are positively related to the yield of suspended sediment, revealing that POC export is mostly controlled by physical erosion. Using a <span class="hlt">global</span> compilation of gauged suspended sediment flux, we derive separate estimates of <span class="hlt">global</span> biospheric and petrogenic POC fluxes of and megatonnes of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> per year, respectively. We find that biospheric POC export is primarily controlled by the capacity of rivers to mobilize and transport POC, and is largely insensitive to the magnitude of terrestrial primary production. <span class="hlt">Globally</span>, physical erosion rates affect the rate of biospheric POC burial in marine sediments more strongly than <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration through silicate weathering. We conclude that burial of biospheric POC in marine sediments becomes the dominant long-term atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide sink under enhanced physical erosion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025344','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025344"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration in tidal, saline wetland soils</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Chmura, G.L.; Anisfeld, S.C.; Cahoon, D.R.; Lynch, J.C.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Wetlands represent the largest component of the terrestrial biological <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pool and thus play an important role in <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycles. Most <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budgets, however, have focused on dry land ecosystems that extend over large areas and have not accounted for the many small, scattered <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-storing ecosystems such as tidal saline wetlands. We compiled data for 154 sites in mangroves and salt marshes from the western and eastern Atlantic and Pacific coasts, as well as the Indian Ocean, Mediterranean Ocean, and Gulf of Mexico. The set of sites spans a latitudinal range from 22.4??S in the Indian Ocean to 55.5??N in the northeastern Atlantic. The average soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> density of mangrove swamps (0.055 ?? 0.004 g cm-3) is significantly higher than the salt marsh average (0.039 ?? 0.003 g cm-3). Soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> density in mangrove swamps and Spartina patens marshes declines with increasing average annual temperature, probably due to increased decay rates at higher temperatures. In contrast, <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration rates were not significantly different between mangrove swamps and salt marshes. Variability in sediment accumulation rates within marshes is a major control of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration rates masking any relationship with climatic parameters. <span class="hlt">Globally</span>, these combined wetlands store at least 44.6 Tg C yr-1 and probably more, as detailed areal inventories are not available for salt marshes in China and South America. Much attention has been given to the role of freshwater wetlands, particularly northern peatlands, as <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinks. In contrast to peatlands, salt marshes and mangroves release negligible amounts of greenhouse gases and store more <span class="hlt">carbon</span> per unit area. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030033057','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030033057"><span id="translatedtitle">Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) (<span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>This bimonthly contractor progress report covers the operation, maintenance and data <span class="hlt">management</span> of the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar and the Airborne Topographic Mapper. Monthly activities included: mission planning, sensor operation and calibration, data processing, data analysis, network development and maintenance and instrument maintenance engineering and fabrication.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18760479','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18760479"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> warming and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide through sciences.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Florides, Georgios A; Christodoulides, Paul</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>Increased atmospheric CO(2)-concentration is widely being considered as the main driving factor that causes the phenomenon of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. This paper attempts to shed more light on the role of atmospheric CO(2) in relation to temperature-increase and, more generally, in relation to Earth's life through the geological aeons, based on a review-assessment of existing related studies. It is pointed out that there has been a debate on the accuracy of temperature reconstructions as well as on the exact impact that CO(2) has on <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. Moreover, using three independent sets of data (collected from ice-cores and chemistry) we perform a specific regression analysis which concludes that forecasts about the correlation between CO(2)-concentration and temperature rely heavily on the choice of data used, and one cannot be positive that indeed such a correlation exists (for chemistry data) or even, if existing (for ice-cores data), whether it leads to a "severe" or a "gentle" <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. A very recent development on the greenhouse phenomenon is a validated adiabatic model, based on laws of physics, forecasting a maximum temperature-increase of 0.01-0.03 degrees C for a value doubling the present concentration of atmospheric CO(2). Through a further review of related studies and facts from disciplines like biology and geology, where CO(2)-change is viewed from a different perspective, it is suggested that CO(2)-change is not necessarily always a negative factor for the environment. In fact it is shown that CO(2)-increase has stimulated the growth of plants, while the CO(2)-change history has altered the physiology of plants. Moreover, data from palaeoclimatology show that the CO(2)-content in the atmosphere is at a minimum in this geological aeon. Finally it is stressed that the understanding of the functioning of Earth's complex climate system (especially for water, solar radiation and so forth) is still poor and, hence, scientific knowledge is not at a level to give definite and precise answers for the causes of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. PMID:18760479</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2483236','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2483236"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> cost estimates of reducing <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions through avoided deforestation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kindermann, Georg; Obersteiner, Michael; Sohngen, Brent; Sathaye, Jayant; Andrasko, Kenneth; Rametsteiner, Ewald; Schlamadinger, Bernhard; Wunder, Sven; Beach, Robert</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Tropical deforestation is estimated to cause about one-quarter of anthropogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions, loss of biodiversity, and other environmental services. United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change talks are now considering mechanisms for avoiding deforestation (AD), but the economic potential of AD has yet to be addressed. We use three economic models of <span class="hlt">global</span> land use and <span class="hlt">management</span> to analyze the potential contribution of AD activities to reduced greenhouse gas emissions. AD activities are found to be a competitive, low-cost abatement option. A program providing a 10% reduction in deforestation from 2005 to 2030 could provide 0.30.6 Gt (1 Gt = 1 105 g) CO2yr?1 in emission reductions and would require $0.4 billion to $1.7 billionyr?1 for 30 years. A 50% reduction in deforestation from 2005 to 2030 could provide 1.52.7 Gt CO2yr?1 in emission reductions and would require $17.2 billion to $28.0 billionyr?1. Finally, some caveats to the analysis that could increase costs of AD programs are described. PMID:18650377</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGeo...12.4993M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGeo...12.4993M"><span id="translatedtitle">Seagrass meadows as a <span class="hlt">globally</span> significant <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> reservoir</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mazarrasa, I.; Marbà, N.; Lovelock, C. E.; Serrano, O.; Lavery, P. S.; Fourqurean, J. W.; Kennedy, H.; Mateo, M. A.; Krause-Jensen, D.; Steven, A. D. L.; Duarte, C. M.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>There has been growing interest in quantifying the capacity of seagrass ecosystems to act as <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinks as a natural way of offsetting anthropogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions to the atmosphere. However, most of the efforts have focused on the particulate organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (POC) stocks and accumulation rates and ignored the particulate inorganic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (PIC) fraction, despite important <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> pools associated with calcifying organisms inhabiting the meadows, such as epiphytes and benthic invertebrates, and despite the relevance that <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> precipitation and dissolution processes have in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. This study offers the first assessment of the <span class="hlt">global</span> PIC stocks in seagrass sediments using a synthesis of published and unpublished data on sediment <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> concentration from 403 vegetated and 34 adjacent un-vegetated sites. PIC stocks in the top 1 m of sediment ranged between 3 and 1660 Mg PIC ha-1, with an average of 654 ± 24 Mg PIC ha-1, exceeding those of POC reported in previous studies by about a factor of 5. Sedimentary <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> stocks varied across seagrass communities, with meadows dominated by Halodule, Thalassia or Cymodocea supporting the highest PIC stocks, and tended to decrease polewards at a rate of -8 ± 2 Mg PIC ha-1 per degree of latitude (general linear model, GLM; p < 0.0003). Using PIC concentrations and estimates of sediment accretion in seagrass meadows, the mean PIC accumulation rate in seagrass sediments is found to be 126.3 ± 31.05 g PIC m-2 yr-1. Based on the <span class="hlt">global</span> extent of seagrass meadows (177 000 to 600 000 km2), these ecosystems <span class="hlt">globally</span> store between 11 and 39 Pg of PIC in the top metre of sediment and accumulate between 22 and 75 Tg PIC yr-1, representing a significant contribution to the <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> dynamics of coastal areas. Despite the fact that these high rates of <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> accumulation imply CO2 emissions from precipitation, seagrass meadows are still strong CO2 sinks as demonstrated by the comparison of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (PIC and POC) stocks between vegetated and adjacent un-vegetated sediments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/48021','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/48021"><span id="translatedtitle">Interagency working group on data <span class="hlt">management</span> for <span class="hlt">global</span> change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barton, G.</p> <p>1992-12-31</p> <p>This article describes the Interagency Working Group on Data <span class="hlt">Management</span> for <span class="hlt">Global</span> Change, organized in 1987. Approaches of the Group to data <span class="hlt">management</span> problems are given along with its accomplishments.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B44A..05K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B44A..05K"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling past, present and future <span class="hlt">global</span> fire <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kloster, S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Randerson, J. T.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Fires are controlled by climate and at the same time impact climate in multiple ways, including changes in atmospheric chemistry, aerosol abundance, land surface properties and the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. The contribution of fires to the climate-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle feedback is potentially important, but still very uncertain. A quantitative analysis requires coupled climate-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle models that account for fire-climate interactions. The development of such <span class="hlt">global</span> fire models can build on recent advances made in <span class="hlt">global</span> scale satellite based fire observations allowing for more sophisticated <span class="hlt">global</span> modeling approaches than currently applied in coupled climate-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> models. Here we present results from a <span class="hlt">global</span> fire model implemented in the Community Land Model (CLM-CN). The model simulates burned area as a function of moisture, wind speed and temperature. Fire <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions are a function of burned area and fuel load. Human ignition and fire suppression are explicitly accounted for and depend on population density. In addition to natural wildfires the model accounts for fire <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions stemming from land use conversion by employing land use change inventories. An extensive evaluation of the model showed that it captures important aspects of observed fire behavior such as the spatial distribution and seasonality. We run the model to simulate fire emissions for the time period 1800 to 2100. While past climate forcing was prescribed from re-analysis data, future climate forcing was based on present day climate scaled into the future following climate projections (SRES A1B) from two different climate models. Several sensitivity experiments were performed to disentangle the importance of single driving forces impacting fire emissions, such as land use change and wood harvest, changes in population density and changes in climate. Combining all single driving forces we found slightly decreasing fire <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions between 1900 and ~1970 followed by an increase until 2100. Such an increases in future <span class="hlt">global</span> fire <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions will contribute to a positive climate-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle feedback. Thereby, the magnitude of the simulated increase differed strongly between the different climate model projections and land use change scenarios applied highlighting the different uncertainties related to predictions of future net land <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=129158&keyword=world+AND+forests&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=58603869&CFTOKEN=81186295','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=129158&keyword=world+AND+forests&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=58603869&CFTOKEN=81186295"><span id="translatedtitle">TECHNOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR PLANNING THE <span class="hlt">GLOBAL</span> <span class="hlt">CARBON</span> FUTURE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The atmospheric level of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide (CO2) is the dominant variable in the anthropogenic influence of future <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change. Thus, it is critical to understand the long-term factors affecting its level, especially the longer-range technological considerations. Most rece...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GBioC..29..122M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GBioC..29..122M"><span id="translatedtitle">The age of river-transported <span class="hlt">carbon</span>: A <span class="hlt">global</span> perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marwick, Trent R.; Tamooh, Fredrick; Teodoru, Cristian R.; Borges, Alberto V.; Darchambeau, François; Bouillon, Steven</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The role played by river networks in regional and <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (C) budgets is receiving increasing attention. Despite the potential of radiocarbon measurements (Δ14C) to elucidate sources and cycling of different riverine C pools, there remain large regions for which no data are available and no comprehensive attempts to synthesize the available information and examine <span class="hlt">global</span> patterns in the 14C content of different riverine C pools. Here we present new 14C data on particulate and dissolved organic C (POC and DOC) from six river basins in tropical and subtropical Africa and compiled >1400 literature Δ14C data and ancillary parameters from rivers <span class="hlt">globally</span>. Our analysis reveals a consistent pattern whereby POC is progressively older in systems carrying higher sediment loads, coinciding with a lower organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> content. At the <span class="hlt">global</span> scale, this pattern leads to a proposed <span class="hlt">global</span> median Δ14C signature of -203‰, corresponding to an age of ~1800 years B.P. For DOC exported to the coastal zone, we predict a modern (decadal) age (Δ14C = +22 to +46‰), and paired data sets confirm that riverine DOC is generally more recent in origin than POC—in contrast to the situation in ocean environments. Weathering regimes complicate the interpretation of 14C ages of dissolved inorganic <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, but the available data favor the hypothesis that in most cases, more recent organic C is preferentially mineralized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V12A..08Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V12A..08Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Mantle Volatiles and <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Flux and Budget</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Y.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">global</span> volcanic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux to the surface of Earth is a fundamental parameter in understanding the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle that includes deep <span class="hlt">carbon</span> as well as the degassing history of the mantle. The flux has been estimated before (e.g., Marty and Tolstikhin, 1998). Recent progress has significantly revised some of the parameters used in the estimation, e.g., the oceanic 3He flux has been re-evaluated (Bianchi et al., 2010) to be only about half of the earlier widely-used estimate, and numerous subaerial volcanic degassing data are now available. In this report, a new attempt is made to assess the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux and budget. Rather than dividing the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux by categories of MORB, Plumes and Arcs, we estimate the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux by considering oceanic and subaerial volcanism. The oceanic 3He flux is 527±102 mol/yr (Bianchi et al., 2010). Most of the flux is from spreading ridges with only minor contributions from submarine oceanic hotspots or arc volcanism. Hence, the mean CO2/3He ratio in MORB is applied to estimate oceanic flux of CO2. The subaerial CO2 flux is based on evaluation of different arc segments and is messier to compute. Literature estimates use estimated SO2 flux in the last tens of years combined with estimated CO2/SO2 degassing ratios (Hilton et al., 2002; Fischer, 2008). Assuming that the last tens of years are representative of recent geological times in terms of volcanic degassing, the estimated <span class="hlt">global</span> CO2 flux still depends critically on a couple of arcs that are main contributors of the subaerial volcanic CO2 flux, and those seem to have been rather loosely constrained before. Using recently available data (although there are still holes), we derive a new <span class="hlt">global</span> subaerial volcanic CO2 flux. By combining with oceanic volcanic CO2 flux, we obtain at a new <span class="hlt">global</span> flux. The significance of the new estimate to the <span class="hlt">global</span> volatile budget will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713739C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713739C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> distribution of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> turnover times in terrestrial ecosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carvalhais, Nuno; Forkel, Matthias; Khomik, Myroslava; Bellarby, Jessica; Jung, Martin; Migliavacca, Mirco; Mu, Mingquan; Saatchi, Sassan; Santoro, Maurizio; Thurner, Martin; Weber, Ulrich; Ahrens, Bernhard; Beer, Christian; Cescatti, Alessandro; Randerson, James T.; Reichstein, Markus</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The response of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle in terrestrial ecosystems to climate variability remains one of the largest uncertainties affecting future projections of climate change. This feedback between the terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle and climate is partly determined by the response of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake and by changes in the residence time of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in land ecosystems, which depend on climate, soil, and vegetation type. Thus, it is of foremost importance to quantify the turnover times of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in terrestrial ecosystems and its spatial co-variability with climate. Here, we develop a <span class="hlt">global</span>, spatially explicit and observation-based assessment of whole-ecosystem <span class="hlt">carbon</span> turnover times (τ) to investigate its co-variation with climate at <span class="hlt">global</span> scale. Assuming a balance between uptake (gross primary production, GPP) and emission fluxes, τ can be defined as the ratio between the total stock (C_total) and the output or input fluxes (GPP). The estimation of vegetation (C_veg) stocks relies on new remote sensing-based estimates from Saatchi et al (2011) and Thurner et al (2014), while soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks (C_soil) are estimated based on state of the art <span class="hlt">global</span> (Harmonized World Soil Database) and regional (Northern Circumpolar Soil <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Database) datasets. The uptake flux estimates are based on <span class="hlt">global</span> observation-based fields of GPP (Jung et al., 2011). <span class="hlt">Globally</span>, we find an overall mean <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> turnover time of 23-4+7 years (95% confidence interval). A strong spatial variability <span class="hlt">globally</span> is also observed, from shorter residence times in equatorial regions to longer periods at latitudes north of 75°N (mean τ of 15 and 255 years, respectively). The observed latitudinal pattern reflect the clear dependencies on temperature, showing increases from the equator to the poles, which is consistent with our current understanding of temperature controls on ecosystem dynamics. However, long turnover times are also observed in semi-arid and forest-herbaceous transition regions. Furthermore, based on a local correlation analysis, our results reveal a similarly strong association between τ and precipitation. A further analysis of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> turnover times as simulated by state-of-the-art coupled climate <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-cycle models from the CMIP5 experiments reveals wide variations between models and a tendency to underestimate the <span class="hlt">global</span> τ by 36%. The latitudinal patterns correlate significantly with the observation-based patterns. However, the models show stronger associations between τ and temperature than the observation-based estimates. In general, the stronger relationship between τ and precipitation is not reproduced and the modeled turnover times are significantly faster in many semi-arid regions. Ultimately, these results suggest a strong role of the hydrological cycle in the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle-climate interactions, which is not currently reproduced by Earth system models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=141487','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=141487"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CARBON</span> CYCLE <span class="hlt">MANAGEMENT</span> IN CROPLAND</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Studies of cropping system and land-use <span class="hlt">management</span> impacts on climate change are being conducted in both countries and a general consensus was noted that intensification of agricultural production will be required to achieve the food and fiber needs of a growing world population. Interactions among...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004Sci...304.1623L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004Sci...304.1623L"><span id="translatedtitle">Soil <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Sequestration Impacts on <span class="hlt">Global</span> Climate Change and Food Security</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lal, R.</p> <p>2004-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink capacity of the world's agricultural and degraded soils is 50 to 66% of the historic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> loss of 42 to 78 gigatons of <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. The rate of soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration with adoption of recommended technologies depends on soil texture and structure, rainfall, temperature, farming system, and soil <span class="hlt">management</span>. Strategies to increase the soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pool include soil restoration and woodland regeneration, no-till farming, cover crops, nutrient <span class="hlt">management</span>, manuring and sludge application, improved grazing, water conservation and harvesting, efficient irrigation, agroforestry practices, and growing energy crops on spare lands. An increase of 1 ton of soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pool of degraded cropland soils may increase crop yield by 20 to 40 kilograms per hectare (kg/ha) for wheat, 10 to 20 kg/ha for maize, and 0.5 to 1 kg/ha for cowpeas. As well as enhancing food security, <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration has the potential to offset fossil-fuel emissions by 0.4 to 1.2 gigatons of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> per year, or 5 to 15% of the <span class="hlt">global</span> fossil-fuel emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/182802','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/182802"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> warming due to increasing atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide and methane</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ghosh, A.B.; Reddy, B.M.; Sharma, R.C.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>The possibility of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming due to increasing concentrations of atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide is now well established. Recently, effect of atmospheric methane has also been seen on <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. Solar radiation is absorbed by the atmosphere and earth`s surface providing the energy required by many dynamical and chemical processes. For maintaining equilibrium in the climate, this absorbed solar radiation must be balanced by outgoing terrestrial thermal radiation. The partial trapping of this thermal radiation by absorbing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere tends to increase the temperature than otherwise would have without the atmosphere. The present paper studies the measurement of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide and methane using ground based solar infrared spectroradiometer which continuously monitors the infrared radiation in the infrared region of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide and methane spectrum. Almost two years of data have been collected for the 1992--1993 period. Taking into consideration, the radiative extinction due to Rayleigh molecular scattering, the scattering due to presence of aerosols in the atmosphere and the strong absorption due to <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide and methane at the frequencies of 4,379 nm and 7,675 nm respectively, an inversion technique is developed to retrieve atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide and methane content. There is a positive correlation seen between the concentrations of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide and methane with atmospheric temperatures at 1,000 mb, 700 mb, 500 mb and 100 mb levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16836111','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16836111"><span id="translatedtitle">[Terrestrial plant stable <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotope composition and <span class="hlt">global</span> change].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zheng, Shuxi; Shangguan, Zhouping</p> <p>2006-04-01</p> <p>Stable <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotope analysis is a rapid and reliable technique developed in recent years, and has been widely applied to reconstruct the sequences of atmospheric CO2 concentration changes, clarify the hysteresis effect and junior effect of temperature and precipitation on tree growth, and distinguish the distributions of plants with different photosynthetic pathways. The water use efficiency (WUE) of different plant functional groups and the variations of plant WUE with tempo-spatial and climatic changes can be also indicated by determining plant <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotope composition. In this paper, the effects of environmental factors, e.g., atmospheric CO2 concentration, air temperature, precipitation, and altitude on terrestrial plant <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotope composition were discussed, and the advances and applications of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotope technique in <span class="hlt">global</span> change research were summarized. Furthermore, the existing and disputed problems in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotope analysis were discussed, and the future trends of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotope technique in <span class="hlt">global</span> change research were prospected, aimed to widen people's knowledge and promote the development of this technique. PMID:16836111</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V12A..04F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V12A..04F"><span id="translatedtitle">Volcanic <span class="hlt">Carbon</span>: <span class="hlt">Global</span> Variations in Gas Emissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fischer, T. P.; de Moor, M. J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Magmas degas volatiles during ascent from the mantle and mafic melts with 7 wt% H2O attain volatile saturation at ~15km depth. Magmatic gases are dominated by H2O, CO2 and S species, independent of their tectonic setting. At rift volcanoes, C is sourced from the mantle whereas arc volcanoes sample both mantle and subducted C. Volcanic gases provide detailed information on volatile sources and degassing processes. Comparison of fumarole gases with melt inclusions and volcanic plumes shows that most fumaroles sample degassed magma. Water, CO2 and S vary significantly between tectonic settings. The Kuriles, Japan, and Kamchatka have H2O/CO2 of 40 to 800 while other arcs such as the Cascades, Central America, S. America, Java, and Aeolian have ratios of 1 to 70. Gases from rift volcanoes have H2O/CO2 between 3 and 9. Some of these variations are due to addition of meteoric and subducted water, as evidenced by O and H isotopes. Speciation of H and C in volcanic gases are typically controlled by redox buffer reactions imposed by the Fe3+-Fe2+ (i.e. QFM) rock buffer or the SO2-H2S gas buffer. In more exotic systems such as Pos, hydrothermal S phases such as liquid native S can play a role in high T gas C and H speciation. Arcs dominate the <span class="hlt">global</span> subaerial volcanic CO2 emission budget and arc total fluxes vary significantly i.e. only about 2 t/yr/km from the Aleutians and about 65 t/yr/km from Central America. Reasons for this are poorly constrained and may include variability in subducted material or slab/mantle conditions at depth. A large uncertainty results from use of generalized arc-wide C/S ratios, used in calculating C fluxes, and the paucity of data for remote arcs. Resolving C fluxes from subducted versus mantle or crustal (assimilated) C relies on C isotope ratios, which can vary spatially and temporally as a function of source or degassing processes. Therefore, when considering the deep C cycle and Cexchange between the interior and surface of the Earth, integrated studies with complete gas compositions, plume C/S and flux measurements, C isotopes and melt inclusions are needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatGe...8...11T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatGe...8...11T"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> vulnerability of peatlands to fire and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> loss</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Turetsky, Merritt R.; Benscoter, Brian; Page, Susan; Rein, Guillermo; van der Werf, Guido R.; Watts, Adam</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Globally</span>, the amount of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stored in peats exceeds that stored in vegetation and is similar in size to the current atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pool. Fire is a threat to many peat-rich biomes and has the potential to disturb these <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks. Peat fires are dominated by smouldering combustion, which is ignited more readily than flaming combustion and can persist in wet conditions. In undisturbed peatlands, most of the peat <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stock typically is protected from smouldering, and resistance to fire has led to a build-up of peat <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage in boreal and tropical regions over long timescales. But drying as a result of climate change and human activity lowers the water table in peatlands and increases the frequency and extent of peat fires. The combustion of deep peat affects older soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> that has not been part of the active <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle for centuries to millennia, and thus will dictate the importance of peat fire emissions to the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle and feedbacks to the climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1057355','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1057355"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Management</span> Opportunities for Enhancing Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dioxide Sinks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Post, W. M.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; West, Tristram O.; Liebig, Mark A.; King, Anthony W.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The potential for mitigating increasing atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide concentrations through the use of terrestrial biological <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (C) sequestration is substantial. Here, we estimate the amount of C being sequestered by natural processes at <span class="hlt">global</span>, North American, and national US scales. We present and quantify, where possible, the potential for deliberate human actions – through forestry, agriculture, and use of biomass-based fuels – to augment these natural sinks. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> sequestration may potentially be achieved through some of these activities but at the expense of substantial changes in land-use <span class="hlt">management</span>. Some practices (eg reduced tillage, improved silviculture, woody bioenergy crops) are already being implemented because of their economic benefits and associated ecosystem services. Given their cumulative greenhouse-gas impacts, other strategies (eg the use of biochar and cellulosic bioenergy crops) require further evaluation to determine whether widespread implementation is warranted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL8..287N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL8..287N"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of NOAA <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Tracker <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dioxide Products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nayak, R. K.; Deepthi, E. N.; Dadhwal, V. K.; Rao, K. H.; Dutt, C. B. S.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Inter-comparison between National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Tracker (NOAACT) CO2 with satellite observations were carried out in this study. The satellite observations used here are mid troposphere CO2 based on Atmosphere Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on board NASA's Aqua and lower troposphere CO2 based on Greenhouse-gas Observing Satellite (GOSAT) of Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). There exists good agreement between the seasonal cycles as estimated by NOAACT and Satellite observations. The mid troposphere CO2 exhibits distinct annual cycle in the northern hemisphere with positive detrended value during January-June and negative values during July-December. In the southern hemisphere, the annual cycle is less prominent and opposite phase with respect to the northern hemisphere. The lower tropospheric CO2 in both the hemispheres exhibits mixed signature of annual and semi-annual cycle. The amplitudes of the variability are significantly larger in the northern hemisphere than the southern hemisphere. The inter-annual variability of annual growth rates from the NOAACT is comparable with satellite observations however NOAACT could not resolved the spatial patterns of long-term growth rate as observed in the satellite observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024211','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024211"><span id="translatedtitle">Methane hydrate in the <span class="hlt">global</span> organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kvenvolden, K.A.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">global</span> occurrence of methane hydrate in outer continental margins and in polar regions, and the magnitude of the amount of methane sequestered in methane hydrate suggest that methane hydrate is an important component in the <span class="hlt">global</span> organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. Various versions of this cycle have emphasized the importance of methane hydrate, and in the latest version the role of methane hydrate is considered to be analogous to the workings of an electrical circuit. In this circuit the methane hydrate is a condenser and the consequences of methane hydrate dissociation are depicted as a resistor and inductor, reflecting temperature change and changes in earth surface history. These consequences may have implications for <span class="hlt">global</span> change including <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=266556','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=266556"><span id="translatedtitle">Soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> under pasture <span class="hlt">management</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Pastures are a significant land use in many eastern states of the USA (total of 31 Mha). Soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (SOC) is generally greater under pastures than under row-cropping systems, and often equally as great as under forested land. There is great potential to improve the <span class="hlt">management</span> of pastures,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=217377','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=217377"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensor needs for agricultural and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>There is a wide variety of sensors and platforms available for agricultural and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span>. Two areas of concern are monitoring plant nutrients and crop residue over agricultural watersheds. Excess plant nutrients and agricultural chemicals may runoff into the water supply, degrading water ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GMS...183..279.','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GMS...183..279."><span id="translatedtitle">Section 4: Evaluation of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> requirements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The chapters in this section are perhaps the broadest of the book. They discuss the integrated set of factors that affect <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> in general. Roed-Larsen and Flach start the section with a detailed summary of current accreditation schemes. Verification of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> credits is critical for validation of monetary sequestration incentives. Commercial-scale geologic sequestration will likely not advance unless such financial incentives are implemented. The type of incentive also is critical. For example, in the one country where a <span class="hlt">carbon</span> tax is in place, Norway, commercial geologic sequestration has been underway since 1996. In other countries, where a cap-and-trade system is in place, and of course in countries where no incentives are offered, no commercial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration is taking place.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20647750','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20647750"><span id="translatedtitle">Can reducing black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions counteract <span class="hlt">global</span> warming?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tami C. Bond; Haolin Sun</p> <p>2005-08-15</p> <p>Field measurements and model results have recently shown that aerosols may have important climatic impacts. One line of inquiry has investigated whether reducing climate-warming soot or black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> aerosol emissions can form a viable component of mitigating <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. Black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> is produced by poor combustion, from our example hard coal cooking fires for and industrial pulverized coal boilers. The authors review and acknowledge scientific arguments against considering aerosols and greenhouse gases in a common framework, including the differences in the physical mechanisms of climate change and relevant time scales. It is argued that such a joint consideration is consistent with the language of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Results from published climate-modeling studies are synthesized to obtain a <span class="hlt">global</span> warming potential for black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> relative to that of CO{sub 2} (680 on a 100 year basis). This calculation enables a discussion of cost-effectiveness for mitigating the largest sources of black <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. It is found that many emission reductions are either expensive or difficult to enact when compared with greenhouse gases, particularly in Annex I countries. Finally, a role for black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in climate mitigation strategies is proposed that is consistent with the apparently conflicting arguments raised during the discussion. Addressing these emissions is a promising way to reduce climatic interference primarily for nations that have not yet agreed to address greenhouse gas emissions and provides the potential for a parallel climate agreement. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=parent+AND+company&pg=5&id=ED537375','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=parent+AND+company&pg=5&id=ED537375"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Globalization</span>--Education and <span class="hlt">Management</span> Agendas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cuadra-Montiel, Hector, Ed.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Chapters in this book include: (1) Internationalization and <span class="hlt">Globalization</span> in Higher Education (Douglas E. Mitchell and Selin Yildiz Nielsen); (2) Higher Educational Reform Values and the Dilemmas of Change: Challenging Secular Neo-Liberalism (James Campbell); (3) "Red Light" in Chile: Parents Participating as Consumers of Education Under <span class="hlt">Global</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714163S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714163S"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep Soil <span class="hlt">Carbon</span>: The Insight into <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Estimation and Deforestation Impacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sangmanee, Podjanee; Dell, Bernard; Harper, Richard; Henry, David</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>World <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks have been dramatically changed by deforestation. The current estimation of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> loss is based on allometric techniques assisted with satellite imagery and the assumption that, 20% of the total biomass <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stock is below ground. However, the monitoring of soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> is limited to 0.3 m despite many soils being much deeper than this. For example, direct measurement of soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> demonstrated the occurrence of two to five times more <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stored in deep soils of south Western Australia (SWA) compared to what would normally be reported, although the land had been deforested for 80 years. This raises important questions about the dynamics of this deeper <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and whether it will contribute to <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change. This paper reports the form and variation of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in soil at three adjacent areas at three different depths (0-1, 11-12 and 18-19 m). Techniques were developed to quantitatively and qualitatively determine small concentrations of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in deep soils. There were marked differences in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> compounds with depth. Near the surface these were macromolecular organic compounds derived from lignin, polysaccharides, proteins, terpenes, whereas at depth they were low molecular weight compounds, 13-docosenamide, 13-docosenoate, xanthone, benzophenone. The deeper compounds are likely derived from the roots of the previous forest whereas the surface soils are affected by current land use. The in situ decomposition of deep roots was revealed by the pyridine compound. The variation of compounds and location of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in clay could imply the state of decomposition. The result demonstrated that <span class="hlt">carbon</span> is contained in deep soils and should be considered in <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> accounting, particularly given ongoing deforestation on deep soils.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhyA..389.3546Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhyA..389.3546Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Self-organized <span class="hlt">global</span> control of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Zhenyuan; Fenn, Daniel J.; Hui, Pak Ming; Johnson, Neil F.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>There is much disagreement concerning how best to control <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions. We explore quantitatively how different control schemes affect the collective emission dynamics of a population of emitting entities. We uncover a complex trade-off which arises between average emissions (affecting the <span class="hlt">global</span> climate), peak pollution levels (affecting citizens’ everyday health), industrial efficiency (affecting the nation’s economy), frequency of institutional intervention (affecting governmental costs), common information (affecting trading behavior) and market volatility (affecting financial stability). Our findings predict that a self-organized free-market approach at the level of a sector, state, country or continent can provide better control than a top-down regulated scheme in terms of market volatility and monthly pollution peaks. The control of volatility also has important implications for any future derivative <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions market.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED540022.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED540022.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">2012 <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span> Education Graduate Survey. Survey Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Leach, Laura</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Each year for the past 13 years, the Graduate <span class="hlt">Management</span> Admission Council (GMAC) has conducted a survey of graduate <span class="hlt">management</span> education students in their final year of business school. The <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span> Education Graduate Survey is distributed to students at participating schools. The survey allows students to express their opinions about</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED540690.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED540690.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span> Education Graduate Survey, 2011. Survey Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schoenfeld, Gregg</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Each year for the past 12 years, the Graduate <span class="hlt">Management</span> Admission Council[R] (GMAC[R]) has conducted a survey of graduate <span class="hlt">management</span> education students in their final year of business school. This <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span> Education Graduate Survey is distributed to students at participating business schools. The survey allows students to express their…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4461074','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4461074"><span id="translatedtitle">Tropical wetlands: A missing link in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sjögersten, Sofie; Black, Colin R; Evers, Stephanie; Hoyos-Santillan, Jorge; Wright, Emma L; Turner, Benjamin L</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Tropical wetlands are not included in Earth system models, despite being an important source of methane (CH4) and contributing a large fraction of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide (CO2) emissions from land use, land use change, and forestry in the tropics. This review identifies a remarkable lack of data on the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance and gas fluxes from undisturbed tropical wetlands, which limits the ability of <span class="hlt">global</span> change models to make accurate predictions about future climate. We show that the available data on in situ <span class="hlt">carbon</span> gas fluxes in undisturbed forested tropical wetlands indicate marked spatial and temporal variability in CO2 and CH4 emissions, with exceptionally large fluxes in Southeast Asia and the Neotropics. By upscaling short-term measurements, we calculate that approximately 90 ± 77 Tg CH4 year−1 and 4540 ± 1480 Tg CO2 year−1 are released from tropical wetlands <span class="hlt">globally</span>. CH4 fluxes are greater from mineral than organic soils, whereas CO2 fluxes do not differ between soil types. The high CO2 and CH4 emissions are mirrored by high rates of net primary productivity and litter decay. Net ecosystem productivity was estimated to be greater in peat-forming wetlands than on mineral soils, but the available data are insufficient to construct reliable <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balances or estimate gas fluxes at regional scales. We conclude that there is an urgent need for systematic data on <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics in tropical wetlands to provide a robust understanding of how they differ from well-studied northern wetlands and allow incorporation of tropical wetlands into <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change models. PMID:26074666</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ESDD....2..133T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ESDD....2..133T"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of volcanic forcing on future <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tjiputra, J. F.; Otterå, O. H.</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>Using a fully coupled <span class="hlt">global</span> climate-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle model, we assess the potential role of volcanic eruptions on future projection of climate change and its associated <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle feedback. The volcanic-like forcings are applied together with business-as-usual IPCC-A2 <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions scenario. We show that very large volcanic eruptions similar to Tambora lead to short-term substantial <span class="hlt">global</span> cooling. However, over a long period, smaller but more frequent eruptions, such as Pinatubo, would have a stronger impact on future climate change. In a scenario where the volcanic external forcings are prescribed with a five-year frequency, the induced cooling immediately lower the <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature by more than one degree before return to the warming trend. Therefore, the climate change is approximately delayed by several decades and by the end of the 21st century, the warming is still below two degrees when compared to the present day period. The cooler climate reduces the terrestrial heterotrophic respiration in the northern high latitude and increases net primary production in the tropics, which contributes to more than 45% increase in accumulated <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake over land. The increased solubility of CO2 gas in seawater associated with cooler SST is offset by reduced CO2 partial pressure gradient between ocean and atmosphere, which results in small changes in net ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake. Similarly, there is nearly no change in the seawater buffer capacity simulated between the different volcanic scenarios. Our study shows that even in the relatively extreme scenario where large volcanic eruptions occur every five-years period, the induced cooling only leads to a reduction of 46 ppmv atmospheric CO2 concentration as compared to the reference projection of 878 ppmv, at the end of the 21st century. With respect to sulphur injection geoengineering method, our study suggest that small scale but frequent mitigation is more efficient than the opposite. Moreover, the longer we delay, the more difficult it would be to counteract climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GBioC..28.1371S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GBioC..28.1371S"><span id="translatedtitle">Tropical wetlands: A missing link in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sjögersten, Sofie; Black, Colin R.; Evers, Stephanie; Hoyos-Santillan, Jorge; Wright, Emma L.; Turner, Benjamin L.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Tropical wetlands are not included in Earth system models, despite being an important source of methane (CH4) and contributing a large fraction of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide (CO2) emissions from land use, land use change, and forestry in the tropics. This review identifies a remarkable lack of data on the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance and gas fluxes from undisturbed tropical wetlands, which limits the ability of <span class="hlt">global</span> change models to make accurate predictions about future climate. We show that the available data on in situ <span class="hlt">carbon</span> gas fluxes in undisturbed forested tropical wetlands indicate marked spatial and temporal variability in CO2 and CH4 emissions, with exceptionally large fluxes in Southeast Asia and the Neotropics. By upscaling short-term measurements, we calculate that approximately 90 ± 77 Tg CH4 year-1 and 4540 ± 1480 Tg CO2 year-1 are released from tropical wetlands <span class="hlt">globally</span>. CH4 fluxes are greater from mineral than organic soils, whereas CO2 fluxes do not differ between soil types. The high CO2 and CH4 emissions are mirrored by high rates of net primary productivity and litter decay. Net ecosystem productivity was estimated to be greater in peat-forming wetlands than on mineral soils, but the available data are insufficient to construct reliable <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balances or estimate gas fluxes at regional scales. We conclude that there is an urgent need for systematic data on <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics in tropical wetlands to provide a robust understanding of how they differ from well-studied northern wetlands and allow incorporation of tropical wetlands into <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120013468','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120013468"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydroclimatic Controls over <span class="hlt">Global</span> Variations in Phenology and <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Flux</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koster, Randal; Walker, G.; Thornton, Patti; Collatz, G. J.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The connection between phenological and hydroclimatological variations are quantified through joint analyses of <span class="hlt">global</span> NDVI, LAI, and precipitation datasets. The <span class="hlt">global</span> distributions of both NDVI and LAI in the warm season are strongly controlled by three quantities: mean annual precipitation, the standard deviation of annual precipitation, and Budyko's index of dryness. Upon demonstrating that these same basic (if biased) relationships are produced by a dynamic vegetation model (the dynamic vegetation and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage components of the NCAR Community Land Model version 4 combined with the water and energy balance framework of the Catchment Land Surface Model of the NASA <span class="hlt">Global</span> Modeling and Assimilation Office), we use the model to perform a sensitivity study focusing on how phenology and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux might respond to climatic change. The offline (decoupled from the atmosphere) simulations show us, for example, where on the globe a given small increment in precipitation mean or variability would have the greatest impact on <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake. The analysis framework allows us in addition to quantify the degree to which climatic biases in a free-running GCM are manifested as biases in simulated phenology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AIPC..699...28B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AIPC..699...28B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Composites for Spacecraft Thermal <span class="hlt">Management</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Banisaukas, John J.; Watts, Roland J.</p> <p>2004-02-01</p> <p>Under a contract (No.F33615-00-C-5009) with the U.S. Air Force Materials Lab, Cytec <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Fibers, LLC is conducting a program to identify high risk, high payoff thermal <span class="hlt">management</span> applications for the insertion of high thermal conductivity <span class="hlt">carbon</span> composite materials in future space and military aircraft. The program involves the identification of relevant design requirements, the design of components for thermal <span class="hlt">management</span> applications utilizing the most appropriate high conductivity <span class="hlt">carbon</span> composite material solution, the fabrication of prototype test articles, performance and characterization tests on the prototype articles, and test data correlation of measured results. The final step in the program requires end-user acceptance or qualification testing of the designed components. Within this program, several different satellite and military aircraft thermal <span class="hlt">management</span> applications have been selected and are currently in various stages of development. This paper will provide a summary list of the selected applications, a description of the thermal <span class="hlt">management</span> materials employed, and a technical overview of some example projects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3165975','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3165975"><span id="translatedtitle">Meeting <span class="hlt">global</span> health challenges through operational research and <span class="hlt">management</span> science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Abstract This paper considers how operational research and <span class="hlt">management</span> science can improve the design of health systems and the delivery of health care, particularly in low-resource settings. It identifies some gaps in the way operational research is typically used in <span class="hlt">global</span> health and proposes steps to bridge them. It then outlines some analytical tools of operational research and <span class="hlt">management</span> science and illustrates how their use can inform some typical design and delivery challenges in <span class="hlt">global</span> health. The paper concludes by considering factors that will increase and improve the contribution of operational research and <span class="hlt">management</span> science to <span class="hlt">global</span> health. PMID:21897489</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ESD.....2...53T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ESD.....2...53T"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of volcanic forcing on future <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tjiputra, J. F.; Otterå, O. H.</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>Using a fully coupled <span class="hlt">global</span> climate-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle model, we assess the potential role of volcanic eruptions on future projection of climate change and its associated <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle feedback. The volcanic-like forcings are applied together with a business-as-usual IPCC-A2 <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions scenario. We show that very large volcanic eruptions similar to Tambora lead to short-term substantial <span class="hlt">global</span> cooling. However, over a long period, smaller eruptions similar to Pinatubo in amplitude, but set to occur frequently, would have a stronger impact on future climate change. In a scenario where the volcanic external forcings are prescribed with a five-year frequency, the induced cooling immediately lower the <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature by more than one degree before it returns to the warming trend. Therefore, the climate change is approximately delayed by several decades, and by the end of the 21st century, the warming is still below two degrees when compared to the present day period. Our climate-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> feedback analysis shows that future volcanic eruptions induce positive feedbacks (i.e., more <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink) on both the terrestrial and oceanic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. The feedback signal on the ocean is consistently smaller than the terrestrial counterpart and the feedback strength is proportionally related to the frequency of the volcanic eruption events. The cooler climate reduces the terrestrial heterotrophic respiration in the northern high latitude and increases net primary production in the tropics, which contributes to more than 45 % increase in accumulated <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake over land. The increased solubility of CO2 gas in seawater associated with cooler SST is offset by a reduced CO2 partial pressure gradient between the ocean and the atmosphere, which results in small changes in net ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake. Similarly, there is nearly no change in the seawater buffer capacity simulated between the different volcanic scenarios. Our study shows that even in the relatively extreme scenario where large volcanic eruptions occur every five-years period, the induced cooling leads to a reduction of 46 ppmv atmospheric CO2 concentration as compared to the reference projection of 878 ppmv, at the end of the 21st century.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850005877&hterms=Carbon+cycle&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2528Carbon%2Bcycle%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850005877&hterms=Carbon+cycle&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2528Carbon%2Bcycle%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">Some aspects of understanding changes in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Emanuel, W. R.; Moore, B., III; Shugart, H. H.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The collective character of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> exchanges between the atmosphere and other pools is partially revealed by comparing the record of CO2 concentration beginning in 1958 with estimates of the releases from fossil fuels during this period. In analyzing the secular increase in CO2 concentration induced by fossil fuel use, the atmosphere is generally treated as a single well-mixed reservoir; however, to study finer structure in the CO2 records, the influence of atmospheric circulation must be more carefully considered. The rate of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake by the oceans, the primary sink for fossil fuel CO2, is assessed more reliably than influences on the atmosphere due to interactions with other pools. Models of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle are being substantially refined while data that reflect the response of the cycle to fossil fuel use and other perturbations are being extended.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16173547','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16173547"><span id="translatedtitle">Can reducing black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions counteract <span class="hlt">global</span> warming?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bond, Tami C; Sun, Haolin</p> <p>2005-08-15</p> <p>Field measurements and model results have recently shown that aerosols may have important climatic impacts. One line of inquiry has investigated whether reducing climate-warming soot or black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> aerosol emissions can form a viable component of mitigating <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. We review and acknowledge scientific arguments against considering aerosols and greenhouse gases in a common framework, including the differences in the physical mechanisms of climate change and relevant time scales. We argue that such a joint consideration is consistent with the language of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. We synthesize results from published climate-modeling studies to obtain a <span class="hlt">global</span> warming potential for black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> relative to that of CO2 (680 on a 100 year basis). This calculation enables a discussion of cost-effectiveness for mitigating the largest sources of black <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. We find that many emission reductions are either expensive or difficult to enact when compared with greenhouse gases, particularly in Annex I countries. Finally, we propose a role for black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in climate mitigation strategies that is consistent with the apparently conflicting arguments raised during our discussion. Addressing these emissions is a promising way to reduce climatic interference primarily for nations that have not yet agreed to address greenhouse gas emissions and provides the potential for a parallel climate agreement. PMID:16173547</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70043284','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70043284"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of heterogeneousatmospheric CO2 on simulated <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Zhang, Zhen; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Jinxun; Ju, Weimin; Zhang, Xiuying</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The effects of rising atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide (CO2) on terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (C) sequestration have been a key focus in <span class="hlt">global</span> change studies. As anthropological CO2 emissions substantially increase, the spatial variability of atmospheric CO2 should be considered to reduce the potential bias on C source and sink estimations. In this study, the <span class="hlt">global</span> spatial–temporal patterns of near surface CO2 concentrations for the period 2003-2009 were established using the SCIAMACHY satellite observations and the GLOBALVIEW-CO2 field observations. With this CO2 data and the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS), our estimation of the <span class="hlt">global</span> mean annual NPP and NEP was 0.5% and 7% respectively which differs from the traditional C sequestration assessments. The Amazon, Southeast Asia, and Tropical Africa showed higher C sequestration than the traditional assessment, and the rest of the areas around the world showed slightly lower C sequestration than the traditional assessment. We find that the variability of NEP is less intense under heterogeneous CO2 pattern on a <span class="hlt">global</span> scale. Further studies of the cause of CO2 variation and the interactions between natural and anthropogenic processes of C sequestration are needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6251575','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6251575"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> estimate of net annual <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flow to phenylpropanoid metabolism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Walton, A.B.; Norman, E.G.; Turpin, D.H. )</p> <p>1993-05-01</p> <p>The steady increase in the concentration of CO[sub 2] in the atmosphere is the focus of renewed interest in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. Current research is centered upon modeling the effects of the increasing CO[sub 2] concentrations, and thus <span class="hlt">global</span> warning, on <span class="hlt">global</span> plant homeostasis. It has been estimated that the annual net primary production (NPP) values for terrestrial and oceanic biomes are 59.9 and 35 Pg C-yr[sup [minus]1], respectively (Melillo et al., 1990). Based on these NPP values, we have estimated the annual C flow to phenlpropanoid metabolism. In our calculation, lignin was used as a surrogate for phenylpropanoid compounds, as lignin is the second most abundant plant polymer. This approach means that our estimate defines the lower limit of C flow to phenylpropanoid metabolism. Each biome was considered separately to determine the percent of the NPP which was directed to the biosynthesis of leaves, stems/branches, and roots. From published values of the lignin content of these organs, the total amount of C directed to the biosynthesis of lignin in each biome was determined. This was used to obtain a <span class="hlt">global</span> value. Implications of these estimates will be discussed with reference to plant <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and nitrogen metabolism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4079C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4079C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Management</span> and fertility control ecosystem <span class="hlt">carbon</span> allocation to biomass production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Campioli, Matteo; Vicca, Sara; Janssens, Ivan</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> (C) allocation within the ecosystem is one of the least understood processes in plant- and geo-sciences. The proportion of the C assimilated through photosynthesis (gross primary production, GPP) that is used for biomass production (BP) is a key variable of the C allocation process and it has been termed as biomass production efficiency (BPE). We investigated the potential drivers of BPE using a <span class="hlt">global</span> dataset of BP, GPP, BPE and ancillary ecosystem characteristics (vegetation properties, climatic and environmental variables, anthropogenic impacts) for 131 sites comprising six major ecosystem types: forests, grasslands, croplands, tundra, boreal peatlands and marshes. We obtained two major findings. First, site fertility is the key driver of BPE across forests, with nutrient-rich forests allocating 58% of their photosynthates to BP, whereas this fraction is only 42% for nutrient-poor forests. Second, by disentangling the effect of <span class="hlt">management</span> from the effect of fertility and by integrating all ecosystem types, we observed that BPE is <span class="hlt">globally</span> not driven by the 'natural' site fertility, but by the positive effect brought by <span class="hlt">management</span> on the nutrient availability. This resulted in <span class="hlt">managed</span> ecosystems having substantially larger BPE than natural ecosystems. These findings will crucially improve our elucidation of the human impact on ecosystem functioning and our predictions of the <span class="hlt">global</span> C cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1077270','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1077270"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Budget from the <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Project (GCP) was established in 2001 in recognition of the scientific challenge and critical importance of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle for Earth's sustainability. The growing realization that anthropogenic climate change is a reality has focused the attention of the scientific community, policymakers and the general public on the rising concentration of greenhouse gases, especially <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere, and on the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle in general. Initial attempts, through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol, are underway to slow the rate of increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. These societal actions require a scientific understanding of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle, and are placing increasing demands on the international science community to establish a common, mutually agreed knowledge base to support policy debate and action. The <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Project is responding to this challenge through a shared partnership between the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), the International Human Dimensions Programme on <span class="hlt">Global</span> Environmental Change (IHDP), the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and Diversitas. This partnership constitutes the Earth Systems Science Partnership (ESSP). This CDIAC collection includes datasets, images, videos, presentations, and archived data from previous years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040070760&hterms=Carbon+cycle&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2528Carbon%2Bcycle%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040070760&hterms=Carbon+cycle&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2528Carbon%2Bcycle%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">A LEO Hyperspectral Mission Implementation for <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gervin, Janette C.; Esper, Jaime; McClain, Charles R.; Hall, Forrest G.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Gregg, Watson W.; Mannino, Antonio; Knox, Robert G.; Huemmrich, K. Fred</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>For both terrestrial and ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle science objectives, high resolution (less than l0 nm) imaging spectrometers capable of acquiring multiple regional to <span class="hlt">global</span> scale observations per day should enable the development of new remote sensing measurements for important but as yet unobservable variables, with the overall goal of linking both terrestrial and ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle processes to climate variability. For terrestrial research, accurate estimates of <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, water and energy (CWE) exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere a needed to id- the geographical locations and temporal dynamics of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sources/sinks and to improve regional climate models and climate change assessments. It is an enormous challenge to estimate CWE exchange from the infrequent temporal coverage and sparse spectral information provided by most single polar-orbiting, earth-looking satellite. The available satellite observations lack a sufficient number of well-placed narrow bands from which to derive spectral indices that capture vegetation responses to stress conditions associated with down-regulation of photosynthesis. Physiological status can best be assessed with spectral indices based on continuous, narrow bands in the visible/near infrared spectra, as can seasonal and annual terrestrial productivity. For coastal and ocean constituents, narrow-band observations in the ultraviolet and visible are essential to investigate the variability, dynamics and biogeochemical cycles of the world's coastal and open ocean regions, which will in turn help in measuring ocean productivity and predicting the variability of ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake and its role in climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6787697','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6787697"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemistry of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in soil with relationship to the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Post, W.M. III</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Various ecosystem disturbances alter the balances between production of organic matter and its decomposition and therefore change the amount of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in soil. The most severe perturbation is conversion of natural vegetation to cultivated crops. Conversion of natural vegetation to cultivated crops results in a lowered input of slowly decomposing material which causes a reduction in overall <span class="hlt">carbon</span> levels. Disruption of soil matrix structure by cultivation leads to lowered physical protection of organic matter resulting in an increased net mineralization rate of soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Climate change is another perturbation that affects the amount and composition of plant production, litter inputs, and decomposition regimes but does not affect soil structure directly. Nevertheless, large changes in soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage are probable with anticipated CO2 induced climate change, particularly in northern latitudes where anticipated climate change will be greatest (MacCracken and Luther 1985) and large amounts of soil organic matter are found. It is impossible, given the current state of knowledge of soil organic matter processes and transformations to develop detailed process models of soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics. Largely phenomenological models appear to be developing into predictive tools for understanding the role of soil organic matter in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. In particular, these models will be useful in quantifying soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> changes due to human land-use and to anticipated <span class="hlt">global</span> climate and vegetation changes. 47 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3169129','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3169129"><span id="translatedtitle">Permafrost <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-climate feedbacks accelerate <span class="hlt">global</span> warming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Koven, Charles D.; Ringeval, Bruno; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Ciais, Philippe; Cadule, Patricia; Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Krinner, Gerhard; Tarnocai, Charles</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Permafrost soils contain enormous amounts of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, which could act as a positive feedback to <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change due to enhanced respiration rates with warming. We have used a terrestrial ecosystem model that includes permafrost <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics, inhibition of respiration in frozen soil layers, vertical mixing of soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> from surface to permafrost layers, and CH4 emissions from flooded areas, and which better matches new circumpolar inventories of soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks, to explore the potential for <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-climate feedbacks at high latitudes. Contrary to model results for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC AR4), when permafrost processes are included, terrestrial ecosystems north of 60N could shift from being a sink to a source of CO2 by the end of the 21st century when forced by a Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A2 climate change scenario. Between 1860 and 2100, the model response to combined CO2 fertilization and climate change changes from a sink of 68Pg to a 27+-7Pg sink to 4+-18Pg source, depending on the processes and parameter values used. The integrated change in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> due to climate change shifts from near zero, which is within the range of previous model estimates, to a climate-induced loss of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> by ecosystems in the range of 25+-3 to 85+-16PgC, depending on processes included in the model, with a best estimate of a 62+-7PgC loss. Methane emissions from high-latitude regions are calculated to increase from 34TgCH4/y to 4170TgCH4/y, with increases due to CO2 fertilization, permafrost thaw, and warming-induced increased CH4 flux densities partially offset by a reduction in wetland extent. PMID:21852573</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26010729','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26010729"><span id="translatedtitle">Towards a <span class="hlt">global</span> assessment of pyrogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> from vegetation fires.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Santín, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H; Kane, Evan S; Masiello, Caroline A; Ohlson, Mikael; de la Rosa, Jose Maria; Preston, Caroline M; Dittmar, Thorsten</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The production of pyrogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (PyC; a continuum of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (C) ranging from partially charred biomass and charcoal to soot) is a widely acknowledged C sink, with the latest estimates indicating that ~50% of the PyC produced by vegetation fires potentially sequesters C over centuries. Nevertheless, the quantitative importance of PyC in the <span class="hlt">global</span> C balance remains contentious, and therefore, PyC is rarely considered in <span class="hlt">global</span> C cycle and climate studies. Here we examine the robustness of existing evidence and identify the main research gaps in the production, fluxes and fate of PyC from vegetation fires. Much of the previous work on PyC production has focused on selected components of total PyC generated in vegetation fires, likely leading to underestimates. We suggest that <span class="hlt">global</span> PyC production could be in the range of 116-385 Tg C yr(-1) , that is ~0.2-0.6% of the annual terrestrial net primary production. According to our estimations, atmospheric emissions of soot/black C might be a smaller fraction of total PyC (<2%) than previously reported. Research on the fate of PyC in the environment has mainly focused on its degradation pathways, and its accumulation and resilience either in situ (surface soils) or in ultimate sinks (marine sediments). Off-site transport, transformation and PyC storage in intermediate pools are often overlooked, which could explain the fate of a substantial fraction of the PyC mobilized annually. We propose new research directions addressing gaps in the <span class="hlt">global</span> PyC cycle to fully understand the importance of the products of burning in <span class="hlt">global</span> C cycle dynamics. PMID:26010729</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001GPC....30..167E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001GPC....30..167E"><span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> burial in modern lake basins and its significance for the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Einsele, Gerhard; Yan, Jianping; Hinderer, Matthias</p> <p>2001-10-01</p> <p>Lake basins (2.710 6 km 2, about 0.8% of the ocean surface or 2% of the land surface) bury a surprisingly high amount of atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (7010 6 t/a) which reaches more than one fourth of the annual atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> burial in the modern oceans. This is mainly accomplished by the rapid accumulation of lacustrine sediments and a very high preservation factor (on average 50 times higher than that in the oceans). Lakes with relatively large drainage areas commonly display the highest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> accumulation rates. In most cases, burial of organic matter is more important than that of <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> produced by silicate weathering, in contrast to the oceans where the burial of atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> almost reaches the same amount as that of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Exceptions to this rule are closed lake basins in arid to semiarid climate which precipitate a major part of their atmosphere-derived dissolved inorganic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (DIC) as <span class="hlt">carbonate</span>. These results are demonstrated in some detail for L. Qinghai, China, (low contribution of atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span>) and L. Turkana, East Africa, (high contribution from silicate rocks). Further data are gained by estimates for a number of closed and open lakes. The drainage areas of the lakes withdraw atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> at rates of mostly 1-4 g/m 2/a, calculated from the lacustrine <span class="hlt">carbon</span> burial. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> burial rates in lakes commonly increase with change to wetter and warmer climate (partially larger lake surfaces, higher rates of seasonal <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> precipitation, trend to stratified lake waters with oxygen-deficient bottom water). Anthropogenic influence mostly enhances the production and preservation of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in lake basins (often by a factor of 3-4). After the last glacial maximum, the joint action of the <span class="hlt">globally</span> spreading vegetation, peat growth, and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> burial in lakes would have been able to reduce the atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pool to one third to one half of its present amount within a time period of 1 ka. However, CO 2 exchange between the atmosphere and the ocean has brought about an overall increase in the atmospheric CO 2 during the Holocene. The contribution of lakes and artificial reservoirs in counteracting man-made CO 2 emissions should not be neglected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22hospitality+management%22&id=EJ935775','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22hospitality+management%22&id=EJ935775"><span id="translatedtitle">Developing <span class="hlt">Global</span> Perspectives through International <span class="hlt">Management</span> Degrees</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brookes, Maureen; Becket, Nina</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Internationalisation has risen high on the agenda of many higher education institutions, and the need to develop graduates with <span class="hlt">global</span> perspectives is well recognised. Much attention has been given to institutional strategies for internationalisation, international students, and dealing with culturally diverse learning styles. To date, however,</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Cross+AND+Cultural+AND+Management%3a+AND+International+AND+Journal&pg=2&id=EJ935775','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Cross+AND+Cultural+AND+Management%3a+AND+International+AND+Journal&pg=2&id=EJ935775"><span id="translatedtitle">Developing <span class="hlt">Global</span> Perspectives through International <span class="hlt">Management</span> Degrees</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brookes, Maureen; Becket, Nina</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Internationalisation has risen high on the agenda of many higher education institutions, and the need to develop graduates with <span class="hlt">global</span> perspectives is well recognised. Much attention has been given to institutional strategies for internationalisation, international students, and dealing with culturally diverse learning styles. To date, however,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=supply+AND+chain+AND+management&pg=3&id=ED537375','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=supply+AND+chain+AND+management&pg=3&id=ED537375"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Globalization</span>--Education and <span class="hlt">Management</span> Agendas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cuadra-Montiel, Hector, Ed.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Chapters in this book include: (1) Internationalization and <span class="hlt">Globalization</span> in Higher Education (Douglas E. Mitchell and Selin Yildiz Nielsen); (2) Higher Educational Reform Values and the Dilemmas of Change: Challenging Secular Neo-Liberalism (James Campbell); (3) "Red Light" in Chile: Parents Participating as Consumers of Education Under Global…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=299506','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=299506"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> efforts in <span class="hlt">managing</span> rice blast disease</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Rice blast disease caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a major destructive disease threatening <span class="hlt">global</span> food security. Resistance (R) genes to M. oryzae are effective in preventing infections by strains of M. oryzae carry the corresponding avirulence (AVR) genes. Effectiveness of genetic resist...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6596587','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6596587"><span id="translatedtitle">Propagation of uncertainty in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emission scenarios through the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Keller, A.A.; Goldstein, R.A. )</p> <p>1994-09-01</p> <p>The authors used the GLOCO model, which is a <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycling model that considers seven terrestrial biomes, two oceans and one atmosphere, to evaluate the rise in atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentration, (pCO[sub 2]) and the partitioning of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> to the <span class="hlt">global</span> compartments (ocean, atmosphere and terrestrial) as a function of time for a number of possible anthropogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emission scenarios, based on different energy policies as developed by the Energy Modeling Forum (EMF-12). The authors then evaluated the possible uncertainty in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emission scenarios and the propagation of this uncertainty in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emission scenarios and the propagation of this uncertainty throughout the model to obtain an envelope for the rise in pCO[sub 2]. Large fluctuations in the input signal are smoothed by the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle, resulting in more than a four-fold reduction in uncertainty in the output signal (pCO[sub 2]). In addition, they looked at the effect that other model variables have on the pCO[sub 2] envelope, specifically the ratio of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> to nitrogen in the emissions. The <span class="hlt">carbon</span> to nitrogen ratio (C:N) will vary throughout the next century depending on the mix on energy sources chosen. More nitrogen in the emissions can produce a cofertilization effect in the terrestrial biomes, which would lead to sequestration of additional <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. The uncertainty in C:N will enlarge the pCO[sub 2] uncertainty envelope by up to 20 ppm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1303/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1303/"><span id="translatedtitle">Derived crop <span class="hlt">management</span> data for the Land<span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Gail; Liu, Shu-Guang; Oeding, Jennifer</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The Land<span class="hlt">Carbon</span> project is assessing potential <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pools and greenhouse gas fluxes under various scenarios and land <span class="hlt">management</span> regimes to provide information to support the formulation of policies governing climate change mitigation, adaptation and land <span class="hlt">management</span> strategies. The project is unique in that spatially explicit maps of annual land cover and land-use change are created at the 250-meter pixel resolution. The project uses vast amounts of data as input to the models, including satellite, climate, land cover, soil, and land <span class="hlt">management</span> data. <span class="hlt">Management</span> data have been obtained from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) and USDA Economic Research Service (ERS) that provides information regarding crop type, crop harvesting, manure, fertilizer, tillage, and cover crop (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2011a, b, c). The Land<span class="hlt">Carbon</span> team queried the USDA databases to pull historic crop-related <span class="hlt">management</span> data relative to the needs of the project. The data obtained was in table form with the County or State Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) and the year as the primary and secondary keys. Future projections were generated for the A1B, A2, B1, and B2 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) scenarios using the historic data values along with coefficients generated by the project. The PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) Integrated Model to Assess the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Environment (IMAGE) modeling framework (Integrated Model to Assess the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Environment, 2006) was used to develop coefficients for each IPCC SRES scenario, which were applied to the historic <span class="hlt">management</span> data to produce future land <span class="hlt">management</span> practice projections. The Land<span class="hlt">Carbon</span> project developed algorithms for deriving gridded data, using these tabular <span class="hlt">management</span> data products as input. The derived gridded crop type, crop harvesting, manure, fertilizer, tillage, and cover crop products are used as input to the Land<span class="hlt">Carbon</span> models to represent the historic and the future scenario <span class="hlt">management</span> data. The overall algorithm to generate each of the gridded <span class="hlt">management</span> products is based on the land cover and the derived crop type. For each year in the land cover dataset, the algorithm loops through each 250-meter pixel in the ecoregion. If the current pixel in the land cover dataset is an agriculture pixel, then the crop type is determined. Once the crop type is derived, then the crop harvest, manure, fertilizer, tillage, and cover crop values are derived independently for that crop type. The following is the overall algorithm used for the set of derived grids. The specific algorithm to generate each <span class="hlt">management</span> dataset is discussed in the respective section for that dataset, along with special data handling and a description of the output product.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT........75K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT........75K"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate and <span class="hlt">Management</span> Controls on Forest Growth and Forest <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Balance in the Western United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kelsey, Katharine Cashman</p> <p></p> <p>Climate change is resulting in a number of rapid changes in forests worldwide. Forests comprise a critical component of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle, and therefore climate-induced changes in forest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance have the potential to create a feedback within the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle and affect future trajectories of climate change. In order to further understanding of climate-driven changes in forest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance, I (1) develop a method to improve spatial estimates forest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks, (2) investigate the effect of climate change and forest <span class="hlt">management</span> actions on forest recovery and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance following disturbance, and (3) explore the relationship between climate and forest growth, and identify climate-driven trends in forest growth through time, within San Juan National Forest in southwest Colorado, USA. I find that forest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> estimates based on texture analysis from LandsatTM imagery improve regional forest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> maps, and this method is particularly useful for estimating <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks in forested regions affected by disturbance. Forest recovery from disturbance is also a critical component of future forest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks, and my results indicate that both climate and forest <span class="hlt">management</span> actions have important implications for forest recovery and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics following disturbance. Specifically, forest treatments that use woody biomass removed from the forest for electricity production can reduce <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions to the atmosphere, but climate driven changes in fire severity and forest recovery can have the opposite effect on forest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks. In addition to the effects of disturbance and recovery on forest condition, I also find that climate change is decreasing rates of forest growth in some species, likely in response to warming summer temperatures. These growth declines could result in changes of vegetation composition, or in extreme cases, a shift in vegetation type that would alter forest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage. This work provides insight into both current and future changes in forest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance as a consequence of climate change and forest <span class="hlt">management</span> in the western US.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS53A1678H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS53A1678H"><span id="translatedtitle">Aged <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> in the Mississippi and Six Other Major <span class="hlt">Global</span> Rivers: Implications for <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Budgets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hossler, K.; Bauer, J. E.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The magnitude of riverine C fluxes, including sedimentation, degassing and export to the oceans, is currently estimated at ~ 3 Pg yr-1 <span class="hlt">globally</span>, and is comparable to other net fluxes in the <span class="hlt">global</span> C cycle. However, the characteristics of the C exported by major world rivers have largely been defined by studies of a single system--the Amazon. Here we present new findings on the C age structure of particulate organic C, dissolved organic C, and dissolved inorganic C in the Mississippi River system and compare these findings to those for the Amazon River, and to five other major world rivers for which C isotope data (?14C and ?13C) have recently become available: the Yukon, Mackenzie, Yellow (or Huanghe), Changjiang (or Yangtze), and Congo (or Zaire). Based on the collective data, general similarities in ?14C and ?13C signatures across these large rivers suggest that broadly similar C sources and processes operate within diverse coupled watershed-river systems. Of particular note is that in all seven rivers, some fraction of fossil (> 50,000 yr) or highly-aged (e.g., ~ 5,000 yr) C was likely present in each of the major C pools. For the majority of these rivers, estimated fossil C contributions to each C pool ranged from 0 % up to 20 % (95 % CI). Range estimates for a composite old C fraction (i.e., fossil C plus highly-aged C) were slightly higher than those of fossil C exclusively. These data suggest that of the ~ 3 Pg yr-1 of C estimated to be exported from land to inland waters <span class="hlt">globally</span>, only ~ 2 Pg yr-1 of the C derives from modern net primary production (i.e., only two-thirds of the estimated land to inland water C export is not highly-aged or fossil C). <span class="hlt">Global</span> C budgets and models must begin to incorporate this growing body of evidence on the non-modern ages of river C reservoirs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5009027','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5009027"><span id="translatedtitle">Calibration and testing or models of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Emanuel, W.R.; Killough, G.G.; Shugart, H.H. Jr.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>A ten-compartment model of the <span class="hlt">global</span> biogeochemical cycle of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> is presented. The two less-abundant isotopes of <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, /sup 13/C and /sup 14/C, as well as total <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, are considered. The cycling of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in the ocean is represented by two well-mixed compartments and in the world's terrestrial ecosystems by seven compartments, five which are dynamic and two with instantaneous transfer. An internally consistent procedure for calibrating this model against an assumed initial steady state is discussed. In particular, the constraint that the average /sup 13/C//sup 12/C ratio in the total flux from the terrestrial component of the model to the atmosphere be equal to that of the steady-state atmosphere is investigated. With this additional constraint, the model provides a more accurate representation of the influence of the terrestrial system on the /sup 13/C//sup 12/C ratio of the atmosphere and provides an improved basis for interpreting records, such as tree rings, reflecting historical changes in this ratio.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20184162','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20184162"><span id="translatedtitle">[Mathematical model of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle in the biosphere].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tarko, A M</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Changes in the atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide concentration, temperatures of the atmosphere, and parameters of land biota as a result of anthropogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide emissions, forest clearance, and soil erosion are calculated in a spatial mathematical model of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle in the biosphere. Restrictions on the CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are deduced from the requirements of Kyoto Protocol to The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and other scenarios. An ability is revealed for the atmospheric CO2 concentration to grow fast, which arises from a number of emerging and developing countries with large population and high CO2 emission rates and which surpasses greatly the effect of growth retardation due to Kyoto Protocol. Those countries' role will become mostly apparent to the year of 2060 and later. Russia has shown to be in an exclusive position relative to other countries: ecosystems of its territory absorb more of the atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide than does any other country, and the inductrial emissions from its territory are practically equal to the absorption by ecosystems. PMID:20184162</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040191312','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040191312"><span id="translatedtitle">An Assessment of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Organic <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Flux Along Continental Margins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thunell, Robert</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This project was designed to use real-time and historical SeaWiFS and AVHRR data, and real-time MODIS data in order to estimate the <span class="hlt">global</span> vertical <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux along continental margins. This required construction of an empirical model relating surface ocean color and physical variables like temperature and wind to vertical settling flux at sites co-located with sediment trap observations (Santa Barbara Basin, Cariaco Basin, Gulf of California, Hawaii, and Bermuda, etc), and application of the model to imagery in order to obtain spatially-weighted estimates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5271302','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5271302"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide emission to the atmosphere by volcanoes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Williams, S.N.; Schaefer, S.J. ); Calvache V., M.L. Observatorio Vulcanologico de Colombia, Pasto ); Lopez, D. )</p> <p>1992-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Global</span> emission of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide by subaerial volcanoes is calculated, using CO{sub 2}/SO{sub 2} from volcanic gas analyses and SO{sub 2} flux, to be 34 {plus minus} 24 {times} 10{sup 12} g CO{sub 2}/yr from passive degassing and 31 {plus minus} 22 {times} 10{sup 12} g CO{sub 2}/yr from eruptions. Volcanic CO{sub 2} presently represents only 0.22% of anthropogenic emissions but may have contributed to significant greenhouse' effects at times in Earth history. Models of climate response to CO{sub 2} increases may be tested against geological data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15010069','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15010069"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Sequestration Options in the United States: Capabilities of a <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span> Geographic Information System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dahowski, Robert T.; Dooley, James J.; Brown, Daryl R.; Mizoguchi, Akiyoshi; Shiozaki, Mai</p> <p>2001-04-03</p> <p>While one can discuss various sequestration options at a national or <span class="hlt">global</span> level, the actual <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> approach is highly site specific. In response to the need for a better understanding of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> options, Battelle in collaboration with Mitsubishi Corporation, has developed a state-of-the-art Geographic Information System (GIS) focused on <span class="hlt">carbon</span> capture and sequestration opportunities in the United States. The GIS system contains information (e.g., fuel type, location, vintage, ownership, rated capacity) on all fossil-fired generation capacity in the Untied States with a rated capacity of at least 100 MW. There are also data on other CO2 sources (i.e., natural domes, gas processing plants, etc.) and associated pipelines currently serving enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects. Data on current and prospective CO2 EOR projects include location, operator, reservoir and oil characteristics, production, and CO2 source. The system also contains information on priority deep saline aquifers and coal bed methane basins with potential for sequestering CO2. The GIS application not only enables data storage, flexible map making, and visualization capabilities, but also facilitates the spatial analyses required to solve complex linking of CO2 sources with appropriate and cost-effective sinks. A variety of screening criteria (spatial, geophysical, and economic) can be employed to identify sources and sinks most likely amenable to deployment of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> capture and sequestration systems. The system is easily updateable, allowing it to stay on the leading edge of capture and sequestration technology as well as the ever-changing business landscape. Our paper and presentation will describe the development of this GIS and demonstrate its uses for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10k5006C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10k5006C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> change accelerates <span class="hlt">carbon</span> assimilation by a wetland ecosystem engineer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Caplan, Joshua S.; Hager, Rachel N.; Megonigal, J. Patrick; Mozdzer, Thomas J.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The primary productivity of coastal wetlands is changing dramatically in response to rising atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide (CO2) concentrations, nitrogen (N) enrichment, and invasions by novel species, potentially altering their ecosystem services and resilience to sea level rise. In order to determine how these interacting <span class="hlt">global</span> change factors will affect coastal wetland productivity, we quantified growing-season <span class="hlt">carbon</span> assimilation (≈gross primary productivity, or GPP) and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> retained in living plant biomass (≈net primary productivity, or NPP) of North American mid-Atlantic saltmarshes invaded by Phragmites australis (common reed) under four treatment conditions: two levels of CO2 (ambient and +300 ppm) crossed with two levels of N (0 and 25 g N added m‑2 yr‑1). For GPP, we combined descriptions of canopy structure and leaf-level photosynthesis in a simulation model, using empirical data from an open-top chamber field study. Under ambient CO2 and low N loading (i.e., the Control), we determined GPP to be 1.66 ± 0.05 kg C m‑2 yr‑1 at a typical Phragmites stand density. Individually, elevated CO2 and N enrichment increased GPP by 44 and 60%, respectively. Changes under N enrichment came largely from stimulation to <span class="hlt">carbon</span> assimilation early and late in the growing season, while changes from CO2 came from stimulation during the early and mid-growing season. In combination, elevated CO2 and N enrichment increased GPP by 95% over the Control, yielding 3.24 ± 0.08 kg C m‑2 yr‑1. We used biomass data to calculate NPP, and determined that it represented 44%–60% of GPP, with <span class="hlt">global</span> change conditions decreasing <span class="hlt">carbon</span> retention compared to the Control. Our results indicate that Phragmites invasions in eutrophied saltmarshes are driven, in part, by extended phenology yielding 3.1× greater NPP than native marsh. Further, we can expect elevated CO2 to amplify Phragmites productivity throughout the growing season, with potential implications including accelerated spread and greater <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage belowground.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785575','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785575"><span id="translatedtitle">[Regional and <span class="hlt">global</span> estimates of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration capacity in forest ecosystems: A review].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Wei-wei; Wang, Xiao-ke; Lu, Fei; Ouyang, Zhi-yun</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>As a dominant part of terrestrial ecosystems, forest ecosystem plays an important role in absorbing atmospheric CO2 and <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change mitigation. From the aspects of zonal climate and geographical distribution, the present <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration capacity of forest ecosystem were comprehensively examined based on the review of the latest literatures. The influences of land use change on forest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration were analyzed, and factors that leading to the uncertainty of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration assessment in forest ecosystem were also discussed. It was estimated that the current forest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stock was in the range of 652 to 927 Pg C and the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration capacity was approximately 4.02 Pg C · a(-1). In terms of zonal climate, the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stock and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration capacity of tropical forest were the maximum, about 471 Pg C and 1.02-1.3 Pg C · a(-1) respectively; then the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stock of boreal forest was about 272 Pg C, while its <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration capacity was the minimum, approximately 0.5 Pg C · a(-1); for temperate forest, the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stock was minimal, around 113 to 159 Pg C and its <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration capacity was 0.8 Pg C · a(-1). From the aspect of geographical distribution, the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stock of forest ecosystem in South America was the largest (187.7-290 Pg C), then followed by European (162.6 Pg C), North America (106.7 Pg C), Africa (98.2 Pg C) and Asia (74.5 Pg C), and Oceania (21.7 Pg C). In addition, <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration capacity of regional forest ecosystem was summed up as listed below: Tropical South America forest was the maximum (1276 Tg C · a(-1)), then were Tropical Africa (753 Tg C · a(-1)), North America (248 Tg C · a(-1)) and European (239 Tg C · a(-1)), and East Asia (98.8-136.5 Tg C · a(-1)) was minimum. To further reduce the uncertainty in the estimations of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stock and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration capacity of forest ecosystem, comprehensive application of long-term observation, inventories, remote sensing and modeling method should be required. PMID:26785575</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/760546','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/760546"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Distribution of Total Inorganic <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> and Total Alkalinity below the Deepest Winter Mixed Layer Depths</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Goyet, C.; Healy, R.; Ryan, J.; Kozyr, A.</p> <p>2000-05-01</p> <p>Modeling the <span class="hlt">global</span> ocean-atmosphere <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide system is becoming increasingly important to greenhouse gas policy. These models require initialization with realistic three-dimensional (3-D) oceanic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fields. This report presents an approach to establishing these initial conditions from an extensive <span class="hlt">global</span> database of ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide (CO{sub 2}) system measurements and well-developed interpolation methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7245220','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7245220"><span id="translatedtitle">Information technologies for <span class="hlt">global</span> resources <span class="hlt">management</span> and environmental assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Campbell, A.P.; Wang, Hua.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Recent advances in computer and communications technologies offer unprecedented opportunities to develop sophisticated information resources <span class="hlt">management</span> systems for <span class="hlt">global</span> resources <span class="hlt">management</span> and environment assessment in an efficient, effective, and systematic manner. In this paper, the emerging <span class="hlt">global</span> energy and environmental issues are identified. Since satellite-based remote sensing systems are becoming increasingly available and produce massive data collections, the utilization of imaging processing techniques and their applications for regional and <span class="hlt">global</span> resources <span class="hlt">management</span> and environmental studies are described. Interoperability and interconnectivity among heterogeneous computer systems are major issues in designing a totally integrated, multimedia-based, information resources <span class="hlt">management</span> system that operates in a networking environment. Discussions of the future technology trends are focused on a number of emerging information <span class="hlt">management</span> technologies and communications standards which will aid in achieving seamless system integration and offer user-friendly operations. It can be foreseen that advances in computer and communications technologies, increasingly sophisticated image processing techniques and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and the development of <span class="hlt">globally</span> comprehensive data bases will bring <span class="hlt">global</span> visualization'' onto multimedia desktop computers before the end of this decade.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10180422','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10180422"><span id="translatedtitle">Information technologies for <span class="hlt">global</span> resources <span class="hlt">management</span> and environmental assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Campbell, A.P.; Wang, Hua</p> <p>1992-09-01</p> <p>Recent advances in computer and communications technologies offer unprecedented opportunities to develop sophisticated information resources <span class="hlt">management</span> systems for <span class="hlt">global</span> resources <span class="hlt">management</span> and environment assessment in an efficient, effective, and systematic manner. In this paper, the emerging <span class="hlt">global</span> energy and environmental issues are identified. Since satellite-based remote sensing systems are becoming increasingly available and produce massive data collections, the utilization of imaging processing techniques and their applications for regional and <span class="hlt">global</span> resources <span class="hlt">management</span> and environmental studies are described. Interoperability and interconnectivity among heterogeneous computer systems are major issues in designing a totally integrated, multimedia-based, information resources <span class="hlt">management</span> system that operates in a networking environment. Discussions of the future technology trends are focused on a number of emerging information <span class="hlt">management</span> technologies and communications standards which will aid in achieving seamless system integration and offer user-friendly operations. It can be foreseen that advances in computer and communications technologies, increasingly sophisticated image processing techniques and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and the development of <span class="hlt">globally</span> comprehensive data bases will bring ``<span class="hlt">global</span> visualization`` onto multimedia desktop computers before the end of this decade.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7748G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7748G"><span id="translatedtitle">Mitigating wildfire <span class="hlt">carbon</span> loss in <span class="hlt">managed</span> northern peatlands through restoration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Granath, Gustaf; Lukenbach, Max; Moore, Paul; Waddington, James</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Wildfire frequency and severity are expected to increase in forested temperate and boreal ecosystems. Recent research indicates that northern peatlands are no exceptions to these risks and may be particularly vulnerable. These ecosystems represent a major component of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle and serve as contemporary and long-term net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink. However, severe, deep burning, fires on these organic soils may not only compromise long-term <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage by releasing large amounts of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> but also impose a real threat to human health and economies through smoke pollution and large costs in fire suppression, respectively. As research in tropical peatlands has revealed, these risks are likely enhanced when northern peatlands are drained and/or mined. Here we examine whether peatland restoration (re-wetting) practices can mitigate the risk of deep burns (>20 cm) and provide <span class="hlt">management</span> recommendations. We synthesize the effects of drainage on peat moisture content and show how drainage and mining can weaken ecohydrological feedbacks in peatlands, making drained peatlands vulnerable to deep burns and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> loss. We use bulk density and moisture data from burned, unburned and restored peatlands to evaluate the risk of deep burns under various conditions (differences in peat properties, extent of water table drop) using a new peat smouldering model. Climate change scenarios are shown to explore future risks of deep peat burning in extensively drained areas such as northern Europe. Combining modeling and experimental data we conclude that restoration can successfully lower the risk of deep burns if, for example, a new peat moss layer is established which will ensure a higher moisture content. Considering the large areas of drained and mined peatlands in the northern hemisphere, we will argue that restoration efforts are important to mitigate deep burns and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> loss in peatlands.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032956','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032956"><span id="translatedtitle">Plumbing the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle: Integrating inland waters into the terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cole, J.J.; Prairie, Y.T.; Caraco, N.F.; McDowell, W.H.; Tranvik, L.J.; Striegl, R.G.; Duarte, C.M.; Kortelainen, P.; Downing, J.A.; Middelburg, J.J.; Melack, J.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Because freshwater covers such a small fraction of the Earth's surface area, inland freshwater ecosystems (particularly lakes, rivers, and reservoirs) have rarely been considered as potentially important quantitative components of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle at either <span class="hlt">global</span> or regional scales. By taking published estimates of gas exchange, sediment accumulation, and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> transport for a variety of aquatic systems, we have constructed a budget for the role of inland water ecosystems in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. Our analysis conservatively estimates that inland waters annually receive, from a combination of background and anthropogenically altered sources, on the order of 1.9 Pg C y-1 from the terrestrial landscape, of which about 0.2 is buried in aquatic sediments, at least 0.8 (possibly much more) is returned to the atmosphere as gas exchange while the remaining 0.9 Pg y-1 is delivered to the oceans, roughly equally as inorganic and organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Thus, roughly twice as much C enters inland aquatic systems from land as is exported from land to the sea. Over prolonged time net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes in aquatic systems tend to be greater per unit area than in much of the surrounding land. Although their area is small, these freshwater aquatic systems can affect regional C balances. Further, the inclusion of inland, freshwater ecosystems provides useful insight about the storage, oxidation and transport of terrestrial C, and may warrant a revision of how the modern net C sink on land is described. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.6216C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.6216C"><span id="translatedtitle">Incorporating grassland <span class="hlt">management</span> in a <span class="hlt">global</span> vegetation model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, Jinfeng; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Ciais, Philippe; Wang, Tao; Cozic, Anne; Lardy, Romain; Graux, Anne-Isabelle; Klumpp, Katja; Martin, Raphael; Soussana, Jean-François</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Grassland is a widespread vegetation type, covering nearly one-fifth of the world's land surface (24 million km2), and playing a significant role in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (C) cycle. Most of grasslands in Europe are cultivated to feed animals, either directly by grazing or indirectly by grass harvest (cutting). A better understanding of the C fluxes from grassland ecosystems in response to climate and <span class="hlt">management</span> requires not only field experiments but also the aid of simulation models. ORCHIDEE process-based ecosystem model designed for large-scale applications treats grasslands as being unmanaged, where C / water fluxes are only subject to atmospheric CO2 and climate changes. Our study describes how <span class="hlt">management</span> of grasslands is included in the ORCHIDEE, and how <span class="hlt">management</span> affects modeled grassland-atmosphere CO2 fluxes. The new model, ORCHIDEE-GM (Grassland <span class="hlt">Management</span>) is capable with a <span class="hlt">management</span> module inspired from a grassland model (PaSim, version 5.0), of accounting for two grassland <span class="hlt">management</span> practices (cutting and grazing). The evaluation of the results of ORCHIDEE-GM compared with those of ORCHIDEE at 11 European sites equipped with eddy covariance and biometric measurements, show that ORCHIDEE-GM can capture realistically the cut-induced seasonal variation in biometric variables (LAI: Leaf Area Index; AGB: Aboveground Biomass) and in CO2 fluxes (GPP: Gross Primary Productivity; TER: Total Ecosystem Respiration; and NEE: Net Ecosystem Exchange). But improvements at grazing sites are only marginal in ORCHIDEE-GM, which relates to the difficulty in accounting for continuous grazing disturbance and its induced complex animal-vegetation interactions. Both NEE and GPP on monthly to annual timescales can be better simulated in ORCHIDEE-GM than in ORCHIDEE without <span class="hlt">management</span>. At some sites, the model-observation misfit in ORCHIDEE-GM is found to be more related to ill-constrained parameter values than to model structure. Additionally, ORCHIDEE-GM is able to simulate forage yield, herbage consumption, animal products (e.g. milk), animal respiration and animal CH4 emissions. These new variables combined with organic C fertilizer applied on the field could provide a more complete view of grasslands C fluxes for applications of the model on a grid. The 11 site simulations of this study show that European grasslands generally are C sinks (positive NBP). At grazed grasslands, both C export in the form of milk production and CH4 emissions by animals only consist a minor part of net primary production (NPP), and this means that NBP mainly depends on NPP. On the contrary, the cut sites accumulate less C in soils because a large part of NPP has been exported as forage production. Furthermore, theoretically potential of productivity and livestock density in European grassland can be predicted by ORCHIDEE-GM, based on the strategy modeling of the optimal livestock density and <span class="hlt">management</span> change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGeo...12..855K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGeo...12..855K"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of land <span class="hlt">management</span> on large trees and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kauppi, P. E.; Birdsey, R. A.; Pan, Y.; Ihalainen, A.; Njd, P.; Lehtonen, A.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Large trees are important and unique organisms in forests, providing ecosystem services including <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide removal from the atmosphere and long-term storage. Some reports have raised concerns about the <span class="hlt">global</span> decline of large trees. Based on observations from two regions in Finland and three regions in the United States we report that trends of large trees during recent decades have been surprisingly variable among regions. In southern Finland, the growing stock volume of trees larger than 30 cm at breast height increased nearly five-fold during the second half of the 20th century, yet more recently ceased to expand. In the United States, large hardwood trees have become increasingly common in the Northeast since the 1950s, while large softwood trees declined until the mid 1990s as a consequence of harvests in the Pacific region, and then rebounded when harvesting there was reduced. We conclude that in the regions studied, the history of land use and forest <span class="hlt">management</span> governs changes of the diameter-class distributions of tree populations. Large trees have significant benefits; for example, they can constitute a large proportion of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stock and affect greatly the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> density of forests. Large trees usually have deeper roots and long lifetimes. They affect forest structure and function and provide habitats for other species. An accumulating stock of large trees in existing forests may have negligible direct biophysical effects on climate through transpiration or forest albedo. Understanding changes in the demography of tree populations makes a contribution to estimating the past impact and future potential of forests in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget and to assessing other ecosystem services of forests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....11.2735K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....11.2735K"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of land <span class="hlt">management</span> on large trees and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kauppi, P. E.; Birdsey, R. A.; Pan, Y.; Ihalainen, A.; Njd, P.; Lehtonen, A.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Large trees are important and unique organisms in forests, providing ecosystem services including <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide removal from the atmosphere and long-term storage. There is concern about reports of <span class="hlt">global</span> decline of big trees. Based on observations from Finland and the United States we report that trends of big trees during recent decades have been surprisingly variable among regions. In southern Finland, the growing stock volume of trees larger than 30 cm at breast height increased nearly five-fold during the second half of the 20th century, yet more recently ceased to expand. In the United States, large hardwood trees have become increasingly common since the 1950s, while large softwood trees declined until the mid 1990's as a consequence of harvests in the Pacific region, and then rebounded when harvesting there was reduced. We conclude that in the regions studied, the history of land use and forest <span class="hlt">management</span> governs changes of tree populations especially with reference to large trees. Large trees affect greatly the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> density of forests and usually have deeper roots and relatively lower mortality than small trees. An accumulating stock of large trees in forests may have negligible direct biophysical effects on climate because from changes in transpiration or forest albedo. Large trees have particular ecological importance and often constitute an unusually large proportion of biomass <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks in a forest. Understanding the changes in big tree distributions in different regions of the world and the demography of tree populations makes a contribution to estimating the past impact and future potential of the role of forests in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22959898','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22959898"><span id="translatedtitle">Soil salinity decreases <span class="hlt">global</span> soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Setia, Raj; Gottschalk, Pia; Smith, Pete; Marschner, Petra; Baldock, Jeff; Setia, Deepika; Smith, Jo</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Saline soils cover 3.1% (397 million hectare) of the total land area of the world. The stock of soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (SOC) reflects the balance between <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (C) inputs from plants, and losses through decomposition, leaching and erosion. Soil salinity decreases plant productivity and hence C inputs to the soil, but also microbial activity and therefore SOC decomposition rates. Using a modified Rothamsted <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> model (RothC) with a newly introduced salinity decomposition rate modifier and a plant input modifier we estimate that, historically, world soils that are currently saline have lost an average of 3.47 tSOC ha(-1) since they became saline. With the extent of saline soils predicted to increase in the future, our modelling suggests that world soils may lose 6.8 Pg SOC due to salinity by the year 2100. Our findings suggest that current models overestimate future <span class="hlt">global</span> SOC stocks and underestimate net CO2 emissions from the soil-plant system by not taking salinity effects into account. From the perspective of enhancing soil C stocks, however, given the lower SOC decomposition rate in saline soils, salt tolerant plants could be used to sequester C in salt-affected areas. PMID:22959898</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6145594','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6145594"><span id="translatedtitle">Forest <span class="hlt">management</span> and agroforestry to sequester and conserve atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schriwder, P.E.; Dixon, R.K.; Winjum, J.K.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>As part of the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Change Research Program of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), an assessment was initiated in 1990 to evaluate forest establishment and <span class="hlt">management</span> options to sequester <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and reduce the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Three specific objectives are to: identify site-suitable technologies and practices that could be utilized to <span class="hlt">manage</span> forests and agroforestry systems to sequester and conserve <span class="hlt">carbon</span>; assess available data on site-level costs of promising forest and agroforestry <span class="hlt">management</span> practices; evaluate estimates of technically suitable land in forested nations and biomes of the world to help meet the Noordwijk forestation targets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26507484','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26507484"><span id="translatedtitle">ORION - A <span class="hlt">Global</span> Approach to Waste <span class="hlt">Management</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Heinzelmann, Elsbeth</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In the ORION project supported by the European Commission, 20 partners work together to <span class="hlt">manage</span> organic waste from agro-food industries. The goal is to develop a small, automatic and user-friendly digestion machine to facilitate the domestic on-site treatment of a wide range of organic waste from around 100 and up to 5000 tonnes per year at low cost and with limited maintenance. Simon Crelier at the HES-SO Valais/Wallis is part of the network. PMID:26507484</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025421','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025421"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics in monsoon Asia and its implications for the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Tian, H.; Melillo, J.M.; Kicklighter, D.W.; Pan, S.; Liu, J.; McGuire, A.D.; Moore, B., III</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Data on three major determinants of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage in terrestrial ecosystems are used with the process-based Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) to simulate the combined effect of climate variability, increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, and cropland establishment and abandonment on the exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and monsoon Asian ecosystems. During 1860-1990, modeled results suggest that monsoon Asia as a whole released 29.0 Pg C, which represents 50% of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> release for this period. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> release varied across three subregions: East Asia (4.3 Pg C), South Asia (6.6 Pg C), and Southeast Asia (18.1 Pg C). For the entire region, the simulations indicate that land-use change alone has led to a loss of 42.6 Pg C. However, increasing CO2 and climate variability have added <span class="hlt">carbon</span> to terrestrial ecosystems to compensate for 23% and 8% of the losses due to land-use change, respectively. During 1980-1989, monsoon Asia as a whole acted as a source of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> to the atmosphere, releasing an average of 0.158 Pg C per year. Two of the subregions acted as net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> source and one acted as a net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink. Southeast Asia and South Asia were sources of 0.288 and 0.02 Pg C per year, respectively, while East Asia was a sink of 0.149 Pg C per year. Substantial interannual and decadal variations occur in the annual net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage estimated by TEM due to comparable variations in summer precipitation and its effect on net primary production (NPP). At longer time scales, land-use change appears to be the important control on <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics in this region. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/252939','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/252939"><span id="translatedtitle">Forest <span class="hlt">management</span> techniques for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide storage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fujimori, Takao</p> <p>1993-12-31</p> <p>In the <span class="hlt">global</span> ecosystem concerning <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide content in the atmosphere, the forest ecosystem plays an important role. In effect, the ratio of forest biomass to total terrestrial biomass is about 90%, and the ratio of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stored in the forest biomass to that in the atmosphere is two thirds. When soils and detritus of forests are added, there is more C stored in forests than in the atmosphere, about 1.3 times or more. Thus, forests can be regarded as the great holder of C on earth. If the area of forest land on the earth is constantly maintained and forests are in the climax stage, the uptake of C and the release of C by and from the forests will balance. In this case, forests are neither sinks nor sources of CO{sub 2} although they store a large amount of C. However, when forests are deforested, they become a source of C; through human activities, forests have become a source of C. According to a report by the IPCC, 1.6{+-}1.2 PgC is annually added to the atmosphere by deforestation. According to the FAO (1992), the area of land deforested annually in the tropics from 1981 to 1990 was 16.9 x 10{sup 6} ha. This value is nearly half the area of Japanese land. The most important thing for the CO{sub 2} environment concerning forests is therefore how to reduce deforestation and to successfully implement a forestation or reforestation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3580H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3580H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> monoxide fluxes over a <span class="hlt">managed</span> mountain meadow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hrtnagl, Lukas; Hammerle, Albin; Wohlfahrt, Georg</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> monoxide (CO) is a toxic trace gas with an atmospheric lifetime of 1-3 months and an average atmospheric concentration of 100 ppb. CO mole fractions exhibit a pronounced seasonal cycle with lows in summer and highs in winter. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> monoxide has an indirect <span class="hlt">global</span> warming potential by increasing the lifetime of methane (CH4), as the main sink of CO is the reaction with the hydroxyl (OH) radical, which in turn is also the main sink for CH4. Regarding the warming potential, it is estimated that 100 kg CO are equivalent to an emission of 5 kg CH4. In addition, <span class="hlt">carbon</span> monoxide interferes with the building and destruction of ozone. Emission into and uptake from the atmosphere of CO are thus relevant for <span class="hlt">global</span> climate and regional air quality. Sources and sinks of CO on a <span class="hlt">global</span> scale are still highly uncertain, mainly due to general scarcity of empirical data and the lack of ecosystem-scale CO exchange measurements, i.e. CO flux data that encompass all sources and sinks within an ecosystem. Here we present eddy covariance CO fluxes over a <span class="hlt">managed</span> temperate mountain grassland near Neustift, Austria, whereby volume mixing ratios of CO were quantified by a dual-laser mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL). First analyses of fluxes captured in April 2013 showed that the QCL is well able to capture CO fluxes at the study site during springtime. During the same time period, both significant net uptake and deposition of CO were observed, with high emission and deposition fluxes on the order of +/- 5 nmol m-2 s-1, respectively. In addition, CO fluxes exhibited a clear diurnal cycle during certain time periods, indicating a continuous release or uptake of the compound with peak flux rates around noon. In this presentation, we will analyze 12 months of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> monoxide fluxes between January and December 2013 with regard to possible abiotic and biotic drivers of CO exchange. As an additional step towards a full understanding of the greenhouse gas exchange of the meadow, we will relate observed CO fluxes to concurrently measured CO2, CH4 and N2O exchange rates in terms of CO2-equivalents and - where applicable - <span class="hlt">carbon</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGC13A0716N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGC13A0716N"><span id="translatedtitle">Research Needs for <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span> in Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Negra, C.; Lovejoy, T.; Ojima, D. S.; Ashton, R.; Havemann, T.; Eaton, J.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Improved <span class="hlt">management</span> of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in agriculture, forestry, and other land use sectors is a necessary part of climate change mitigation. It is likely that governments will agree in Copenhagen in December 2009 to incentives for improved <span class="hlt">management</span> of some forms of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, including maintaining existing terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (e.g., avoiding deforestation) and creating new terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (e.g., afforestation, soil <span class="hlt">management</span>). To translate incentives into changes in land <span class="hlt">management</span> and terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks, a robust technical and scientific information base is required. All terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pools (and other greenhouse gases from the terrestrial system) that interact with the atmosphere at timescales less than centuries, and all land uses, have documented mitigation potential, however, most activity has focused on above-ground forest biomass. Despite research advances in understanding emissions reduction and sequestration associated with different land <span class="hlt">management</span> techniques, there has not yet been broad-scale implementation of land-based mitigation activity in croplands, peatlands, grasslands and other land uses. To maximize long-term <span class="hlt">global</span> terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> volumes, further development of relevant data, methodologies and technologies are needed to complement policy and financial incentives. The Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Group, in partnership with UN-REDD agencies, the World Bank and CGIAR institutions, is reviewing literature, convening leading experts and surveying key research institutions to develop a Roadmap for Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Carbon</span>: Research Needs for Implementation of <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span> in Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses. This work will summarize the existing knowledge base for emissions reductions and sequestration through land <span class="hlt">management</span> as well as the current availability of tools and methods for measurement and monitoring of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Preliminary findings indicate a number of areas for future work. Enhanced information systems and process-level understanding of historical, current and potential emissions and sequestration in grasslands, drylands, wetlands and peatlands are needed. Research and information synthesis have not been equally distributed across regions of the world. Monitoring and reporting guidance and capacity vary across and among geographic scales and sectors. There are concerns about continuity and interpretation capability for commonly used remote sensing data products. Most research synthesis and data compilation occurs at the international level although some institutions work across scales both supporting location-specific research and development and synthesizing information up to regional and international scales. This presentation will describe findings from the Roadmap for Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> for: (1) critical science and technology gaps, <span class="hlt">globally</span> and in specific regions, for improved <span class="hlt">management</span> and quantification of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span>; (2) technical investments and research priorities for acceleration of avoided emissions and sequestration of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span>; (3) opportunities for multi-lateral, multi-scale coordination and integration across research institutions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.B51A0703L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.B51A0703L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Biogenic Emission of <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dioxide from Landfills</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lima, R.; Nolasco, D.; Meneses, W.; Salazar, J.; Hernndez, P.; Prez, N.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>Human-induced increases in the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gas components have been underway over the past century and are expected to drive climate change in the coming decades. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> dioxide was responsible for an estimated 55 % of the antropogenically driven radiactive forcing of the atmosphere in the 1980s and is predicted to have even greater importance over the next century (Houghton et al., 1990). A highly resolved understanding of the sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2, and how they are affected by climate and land use, is essential in the analysis of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle and how it may be impacted by human activities. Landfills are biochemical reactors that produce CH4 and CO2 emissions due to anaerobic digestion of solid urban wastes. Estimated <span class="hlt">global</span> CH4 emission from landfills is about 44 millions tons per year and account for a 7.4 % of all CH4 sources (Whiticar, 1989). Observed CO2/CH4 molar ratios from landfill gases lie within the range of 0.7-1.0; therefore, an estimated <span class="hlt">global</span> biogenic emission of CO2 from landfills could reach levels of 11.2-16 millions tons per year. Since biogas extraction systems are installed for extracting, purifying and burning the landfill gases, most of the biogenic gas emission to the atmosphere from landfills occurs through the surface environment in a diffuse and disperse form, also known as non-controlled biogenic emission. Several studies of non-controlled biogenic gas emission from landfills showed that CO2/CH4 weight ratios of surface landfill gases, which are directly injected into the atmosphere, are about 200-300 times higher than those observed in the landfill wells, which are usually collected and burned by gas extraction systems. This difference between surface and well landfill gases is mainly due to bacterial oxidation of the CH4 to CO2 inducing higher CO2/CH4 ratios for surface landfill gases than those well landfill gases. Taking into consideration this observation, the <span class="hlt">global</span> biogenic CO2 emission from landfills could be estimated about 8.8-13.2\\times103 million tons per year, equivalent to a 0.04-0.06 % of the fossil fuel emission of CO2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790023670','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790023670"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> monoxide measurement in the <span class="hlt">global</span> atmospheric sampling program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dudzinski, T. J.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">carbon</span> monoxide measurement system used in the NASA <span class="hlt">Global</span> Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is described. The system used a modified version of a commercially available infrared absorption analyzer. The modifications increased the sensitivity of the analyzer to 1 ppmv full scale, with a limit of detectability of 0.02 ppmv. Packaging was modified for automatic, unattended operation in an aircraft environment. The GASP system is described along with analyzer operation, calibration procedures, and measurement errors. Uncertainty of the CO measurement over a 2-year period ranged from + or - 3 to + or - 13 percent of reading, plus an error due to random fluctuation of the output signal + or - 3 to + or - 15 ppbv.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23776542','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23776542"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Managing</span> for interactions between local and <span class="hlt">global</span> stressors of ecosystems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brown, Christopher J; Saunders, Megan I; Possingham, Hugh P; Richardson, Anthony J</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Global</span> stressors, including climate change, are a major threat to ecosystems, but they cannot be halted by local actions. Ecosystem <span class="hlt">management</span> is thus attempting to compensate for the impacts of <span class="hlt">global</span> stressors by reducing local stressors, such as overfishing. This approach assumes that stressors interact additively or synergistically, whereby the combined effect of two stressors is at least the sum of their isolated effects. It is not clear, however, how <span class="hlt">management</span> should proceed for antagonistic interactions among stressors, where multiple stressors do not have an additive or greater impact. Research to date has focussed on identifying synergisms among stressors, but antagonisms may be just as common. We examined the effectiveness of <span class="hlt">management</span> when faced with different types of interactions in two systems--seagrass and fish communities--where the <span class="hlt">global</span> stressor was climate change but the local stressors were different. When there were synergisms, mitigating local stressors delivered greater gains, whereas when there were antagonisms, <span class="hlt">management</span> of local stressors was ineffective or even degraded ecosystems. These results suggest that reducing a local stressor can compensate for climate change impacts if there is a synergistic interaction. Conversely, if there is an antagonistic interaction, <span class="hlt">management</span> of local stressors will have the greatest benefits in areas of refuge from climate change. A balanced research agenda, investigating both antagonistic and synergistic interaction types, is needed to inform <span class="hlt">management</span> priorities. PMID:23776542</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3173368','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3173368"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Credits on Savanna Land <span class="hlt">Management</span> and Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Douglass, Lucinda L.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Carwardine, Josie; Klein, Carissa J.; Roxburgh, Stephen H.; Russell-Smith, Jeremy; Wilson, Kerrie A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> finance offers the potential to change land <span class="hlt">management</span> and conservation planning priorities. We develop a novel approach to planning for improved land <span class="hlt">management</span> to conserve biodiversity while utilizing potential revenue from <span class="hlt">carbon</span> biosequestration. We apply our approach in northern Australia's tropical savanna, a region of <span class="hlt">global</span> significance for biodiversity and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage, both of which are threatened by current fire and grazing regimes. Our approach aims to identify priority locations for protecting species and vegetation communities by retaining existing vegetation and <span class="hlt">managing</span> fire and grazing regimes at a minimum cost. We explore the impact of accounting for potential <span class="hlt">carbon</span> revenue (using a <span class="hlt">carbon</span> price of US$14 per tonne of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide equivalent) on priority areas for conservation and the impact of explicitly protecting <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks in addition to biodiversity. Our results show that improved <span class="hlt">management</span> can potentially raise approximately US$5 per hectare per year in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> revenue and prevent the release of 1–2 billion tonnes of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide equivalent over approximately 90 years. This revenue could be used to reduce the costs of improved land <span class="hlt">management</span> by three quarters or double the number of biodiversity targets achieved and meet <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage targets for the same cost. These results are based on generalised cost and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> data; more comprehensive applications will rely on fine scale, site-specific data and a supportive policy environment. Our research illustrates that the duel objective of conserving biodiversity and reducing the release of greenhouse gases offers important opportunities for cost-effective land <span class="hlt">management</span> investments. PMID:21935363</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4747711','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4747711"><span id="translatedtitle">The decadal state of the terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle: <span class="hlt">Global</span> retrievals of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> allocation, pools, and residence times</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bloom, A. Anthony; Exbrayat, Jean-François; van der Velde, Ivar R.; Feng, Liang; Williams, Mathew</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle is currently the least constrained component of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget. Large uncertainties stem from a poor understanding of plant <span class="hlt">carbon</span> allocation, stocks, residence times, and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> use efficiency. Imposing observational constraints on the terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle and its processes is, therefore, necessary to better understand its current state and predict its future state. We combine a diagnostic ecosystem <span class="hlt">carbon</span> model with satellite observations of leaf area and biomass (where and when available) and soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> data to retrieve the first <span class="hlt">global</span> estimates, to our knowledge, of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle state and process variables at a 1° × 1° resolution; retrieved variables are independent from the plant functional type and steady-state paradigms. Our results reveal <span class="hlt">global</span> emergent relationships in the spatial distribution of key <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle states and processes. Live biomass and dead organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> residence times exhibit contrasting spatial features (r = 0.3). Allocation to structural <span class="hlt">carbon</span> is highest in the wet tropics (85–88%) in contrast to higher latitudes (73–82%), where allocation shifts toward photosynthetic <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> use efficiency is lowest (0.42–0.44) in the wet tropics. We find an emergent <span class="hlt">global</span> correlation between retrievals of leaf mass per leaf area and leaf lifespan (r = 0.64–0.80) that matches independent trait studies. We show that conventional land cover types cannot adequately describe the spatial variability of key <span class="hlt">carbon</span> states and processes (multiple correlation median = 0.41). This mismatch has strong implications for the prediction of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics, which are currently based on <span class="hlt">globally</span> applied parameters linked to land cover or plant functional types. PMID:26787856</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26787856','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26787856"><span id="translatedtitle">The decadal state of the terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle: <span class="hlt">Global</span> retrievals of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> allocation, pools, and residence times.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bloom, A Anthony; Exbrayat, Jean-François; van der Velde, Ivar R; Feng, Liang; Williams, Mathew</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle is currently the least constrained component of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget. Large uncertainties stem from a poor understanding of plant <span class="hlt">carbon</span> allocation, stocks, residence times, and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> use efficiency. Imposing observational constraints on the terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle and its processes is, therefore, necessary to better understand its current state and predict its future state. We combine a diagnostic ecosystem <span class="hlt">carbon</span> model with satellite observations of leaf area and biomass (where and when available) and soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> data to retrieve the first <span class="hlt">global</span> estimates, to our knowledge, of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle state and process variables at a 1° × 1° resolution; retrieved variables are independent from the plant functional type and steady-state paradigms. Our results reveal <span class="hlt">global</span> emergent relationships in the spatial distribution of key <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle states and processes. Live biomass and dead organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> residence times exhibit contrasting spatial features (r = 0.3). Allocation to structural <span class="hlt">carbon</span> is highest in the wet tropics (85-88%) in contrast to higher latitudes (73-82%), where allocation shifts toward photosynthetic <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> use efficiency is lowest (0.42-0.44) in the wet tropics. We find an emergent <span class="hlt">global</span> correlation between retrievals of leaf mass per leaf area and leaf lifespan (r = 0.64-0.80) that matches independent trait studies. We show that conventional land cover types cannot adequately describe the spatial variability of key <span class="hlt">carbon</span> states and processes (multiple correlation median = 0.41). This mismatch has strong implications for the prediction of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics, which are currently based on <span class="hlt">globally</span> applied parameters linked to land cover or plant functional types. PMID:26787856</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMIN33B1541D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMIN33B1541D"><span id="translatedtitle">Agile Data <span class="hlt">Management</span> with the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Change Information System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Duggan, B.; Aulenbach, S.; Tilmes, C.; Goldstein, J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We describe experiences applying agile software development techniques to the realm of data <span class="hlt">management</span> during the development of the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Change Information System (GCIS), a web service and API for authoritative <span class="hlt">global</span> change information under development by the US <span class="hlt">Global</span> Change Research Program. Some of the challenges during system design and implementation have been : (1) balancing the need for a rigorous mechanism for ensuring information quality with the realities of large data sets whose contents are often in flux, (2) utilizing existing data to inform decisions about the scope and nature of new data, and (3) continuously incorporating new knowledge and concepts into a relational data model. The workflow for <span class="hlt">managing</span> the content of the system has much in common with the development of the system itself. We examine various aspects of agile software development and discuss whether or how we have been able to use them for data curation as well as software development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMED53B3479M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMED53B3479M"><span id="translatedtitle">Offset: A <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle and Climate Change Mobile Game from NASA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mansfield, K. J.; Kasprak, A. H.; Novati, A.; Leon, N.; Bowman, K. W.; Gunson, M. R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycleand humans' role in altering itis key to understanding both how the climate system works and how people can help to affect positive change in the future. Delivering this message to younger audiences will be a crucial step in inspiring the next generation of climate scientists. Here, we demonstrate a new mobile game (iOS) aiming to make the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle more accessible to students and their educators. This gamecalled OFFSEThighlights the role humans have as players in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycleboth as sources of CO2 and as agents that harm CO2 sinks. OFFSET is a pong-like game and a resource <span class="hlt">management</span> game all in one. The player simultaneously spends resources to replace old technology with greener technology while he or she actively prevents CO2 molecules from escaping to the atmosphere with a paddle. The game is fast, simple but challenging, and educational. Games like OFFSET can be a powerful tool to teach climate science to younger audiences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2993385','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2993385"><span id="translatedtitle">Trading <span class="hlt">carbon</span> for food: <span class="hlt">Global</span> comparison of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks vs. crop yields on agricultural land</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>West, Paul C.; Gibbs, Holly K.; Monfreda, Chad; Wagner, John; Barford, Carol C.; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Foley, Jonathan A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Expanding croplands to meet the needs of a growing population, changing diets, and biofuel production comes at the cost of reduced <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks in natural vegetation and soils. Here, we present a spatially explicit <span class="hlt">global</span> analysis of tradeoffs between <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks and current crop yields. The difference among regions is striking. For example, for each unit of land cleared, the tropics lose nearly two times as much <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (?120 tonsha?1 vs. ?63 tonsha?1) and produce less than one-half the annual crop yield compared with temperate regions (1.71 tonsha?1y?1 vs. 3.84 tonsha?1y?1). Therefore, newly cleared land in the tropics releases nearly 3 tons of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> for every 1 ton of annual crop yield compared with a similar area cleared in the temperate zone. By factoring crop yield into the analysis, we specify the tradeoff between <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks and crops for all areas where crops are currently grown and thereby, substantially enhance the spatial resolution relative to previous regional estimates. Particularly in the tropics, emphasis should be placed on increasing yields on existing croplands rather than clearing new lands. Our high-resolution approach can be used to determine the net effect of local land use decisions. PMID:21041633</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3774741','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3774741"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Cropland Phytolith <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Sink from Optimization of Cropping System and Fertilization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Song, Zhaoliang; Parr, Jeffrey F.; Guo, Fengshan</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The occlusion of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (C) by phytoliths, the recalcitrant silicified structures deposited within plant tissues, is an important persistent C sink mechanism for croplands and other grass-dominated ecosystems. By constructing a silica content-phytolith content transfer function and calculating the magnitude of phytolith C sink in <span class="hlt">global</span> croplands with relevant crop production data, this study investigated the present and potential of phytolith C sinks in <span class="hlt">global</span> croplands and its contribution to the cropland C balance to understand the cropland C cycle and enhance long-term C sequestration in croplands. Our results indicate that the phytolith sink annually sequesters 26.3510.22 Tg of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide (CO2) and may contribute 4018% of the <span class="hlt">global</span> net cropland soil C sink for 19612100. Rice (25%), wheat (19%) and maize (23%) are the dominant contributing crop species to this phytolith C sink. Continentally, the main contributors are Asia (49%), North America (17%) and Europe (16%). The sink has tripled since 1961, mainly due to fertilizer application and irrigation. Cropland phytolith C sinks may be further enhanced by adopting cropland <span class="hlt">management</span> practices such as optimization of cropping system and fertilization. PMID:24066067</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMPP51B0588D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMPP51B0588D"><span id="translatedtitle">Miocene <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Isotope Shifts and Marine Biological Productivity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Diester-Haass, L.; Billups, K.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>The Miocene contains two major <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotope shifts: a negative shift during the late Miocene (~8-6 Ma) and a positive shift during the mid-Miocene (16-14 Ma). We aim at deciphering possible changes in marine biological export productivity during these shifts by calculating paleoproductivity in gC/cm*ky from benthic foraminiferal numbers and accumulation rates at a number of sites spanning the world oceans. Our previous work has illustrated that the onset of the late Miocene negative d 13C shift, which has been attributed to enhanced erosion of terrestrial biomass and expansion of C4 plants, is also accompanied by an increase in marine export productivity from lower than present day values up to 2-3 times modern values at six sites (982, 1088, 721, 846, 1146, 1172; Diester-Haass et al, in press; Diester-Haass et al., in preparation). The Mid-Miocene 'Monterey Event', on the other hand, has been attributed to sequestration of organic material in circum-Pacific basins (Vincent and Berger, 1985) or wide spread deposition of brown coal and drowning of <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> platforms (Fllmi et al., 2005) . For this particular time interval, our initial results from Site 608 (Atlantic Ocean) reveal relatively constant paleoproductivity values similar to modern ones ( about 10 gC/cm*ky) until 16.5 Ma, after which time paleoproductivity begins to increase until the end of our record at 11 Ma. Superimposed on the trend of generally increasing productivity, there are a number of productivity minima spaced roughly 0.5 million years apart. The long term trend in the paleoproductivity finds some similarities in the <span class="hlt">global</span> composite benthic foraminiferal d 13C record as both proxies show an overall increase until ~14 Ma. Thereafter, however, paleoproductivity continues to increase while d 13C values decrease marking the end of the Monterey excursion. Stable isotope analyses from these same intervals will show to what extend the smaller scale fluctuations in paleoproductivity can be related to changes in the d13C of the oceanic reservoir or regional water masses. Diester-Haass, L., Billups, K., Emeis, K-C., 2005, Paleoceanography, in press. Vincent, E. and Berger, W., 1985, In: The <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle and atmospheric CO2: Natural variations Archaen to present, edited by Sunquist, E.T. and Broecker, W.S., Am.Geophys. Union Monogr. 32,455-468 Fllmi, K.B. et al., 2005, Geol.Soc.Am.Bull., 117/5, 589-619.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B31B0297R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B31B0297R"><span id="translatedtitle">Improved parameterization of <span class="hlt">managed</span> grassland in a <span class="hlt">global</span> process-based vegetation model using Bayesian statistics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rolinski, S.; Müller, C.; Lotze-Campen, H.; Bondeau, A.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>More than a quarter of the Earth’s land surface is covered by grassland, which is also the major part (~ 70 %) of the agricultural area. Most of this area is used for livestock production in different degrees of intensity. The dynamic <span class="hlt">global</span> vegetation model LPJmL (Sitch et al., <span class="hlt">Global</span> Change Biology, 2003; Bondeau et al., <span class="hlt">Global</span> Change Biology, 2007) is one of few process-based model that simulates biomass production on <span class="hlt">managed</span> grasslands at the <span class="hlt">global</span> scale. The implementation of <span class="hlt">managed</span> grasslands and its evaluation has received little attention so far, as reference data on grassland productivity are scarce and the definition of grassland extent and usage are highly uncertain. However, grassland productivity is related to large areas, and strongly influences <span class="hlt">global</span> estimates of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and water budgets and should thus be improved. Plants are implemented in LPJmL in an aggregated form as plant functional types assuming that processes concerning <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and water fluxes are quite similar between species of the same type. Therefore, the parameterization of a functional type is possible with parameters in a physiologically meaningful range of values. The actual choice of the parameter values from the possible and reasonable phase space should satisfy the condition of the best fit of model results and measured data. In order to improve the parameterization of <span class="hlt">managed</span> grass we follow a combined procedure using model output and measured data of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and water fluxes. By comparing <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and water fluxes simultaneously, we expect well-balanced refinements and avoid over-tuning of the model in only one direction. The comparison of annual biomass from grassland to data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) per country provide an overview about the order of magnitude and the identification of deviations. The comparison of daily net primary productivity, soil respiration and water fluxes at specific sites (FluxNet Data) provides information on boundary conditions such as water and light availability or temperature sensibility. Based on the given limitation factors, a number of sensitive parameters are chosen, e.g. for the phenological development, biomass allocation, and different <span class="hlt">management</span> regimes. These are introduced to a sensitivity analysis and Bayesian parameter evaluation using the R package FME (Soetart & Petzoldt, Journal of Statistical Software, 2010). Given the extremely different climatic conditions at the FluxNet grass sites, the premises for the <span class="hlt">global</span> sensitivity analysis are very promising.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AdSpR..53.1634N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AdSpR..53.1634N"><span id="translatedtitle">A study of the <span class="hlt">global</span> heliospheric modulation of galactic <span class="hlt">Carbon</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ngobeni, M. D.; Potgieter, M. S.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Observations of galactic <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> in the heliosphere provide a useful tool with which a comprehensive description of the <span class="hlt">global</span> modulation of cosmic rays both inside and outside off the solar wind termination shock (TS) can be made. This is, in part, because galactic <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> is not contaminated by anomalous cosmic rays as is the case for oxygen, helium and hydrogen. However, this kind of study requires that there should be reasonable compatibility of model solutions to spacecraft and earthbound observations. In this study, the well-established two-dimensional model that contains a TS, a heliosheath, as well as shock re-acceleration of galactic cosmic rays and particle drifts, is used first to study modulation from solar minimum to moderate maximum activity at Earth. This model can handle any <span class="hlt">global</span> heliospheric geometry of both the TS and heliopause (HP) positions. Second, the model is applied to study the contribution of drifts and the enhancement of polar perpendicular diffusion in the heliosheath to the total modulation in the heliosphere as a function of energy for both polarity cycles of the magnetic field during solar minimum conditions. This modeling is done with a new heliopause spectrum (HPS, usually referred to as the local interstellar spectrum) at kinetic energy E < ?200 MeV/nuc. This HPS is derived from observations made by the Voyager 1 spacecraft of galactic <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> at a radial distance of ?122 AU from the Sun. We find that: (1) The model gives realistic modulation for both magnetic polarity cycles of the Sun, from Earth to beyond the TS, and that the level of modulation at Earth between the recent solar minimum and the previous moderate maximum condition exceed that between the HP and Earth in the recent solar minimum. (2) Neglecting drifts in the heliosheath along the Voyager heliolatitude is a reasonable assumption, but in the equatorial plane of the heliosphere drifts are important for heliosheath modulation in the A < 0 polarity cycle, especially when galactic particles are re-accelerated at the TS. (3) The contribution of the enhancement of the polar perpendicular diffusion in the heliosheath to the total modulation seems insignificant. (4) The new HPS as observed by Voyager 1 at E < ?200 MeV/nuc is found to be significantly higher than previous estimates, for example, at E = 100 MeV/nuc by a factor of ?2. We find that the total modulation between the HP and Earth at 10 MeV/nuc causes the intensity at Earth to be only ?4.5% of the HPS, whereas for 100 MeV/nuc it is ?17.5%. Respectively, this means that the <span class="hlt">global</span> radial gradient for galactic <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> for this period was ?2.5%/AU and ?1.4%/AU, if the heliopause is taken at 122 AU.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=236505','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=236505"><span id="translatedtitle">GRIN-<span class="hlt">Global</span>: An International Project to Develop a <span class="hlt">Global</span> Plant Genebank and Information <span class="hlt">Management</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The mission of the GRIN-<span class="hlt">Global</span> Project is to create a new, scalable version of the Germplasm Resource Information System (GRIN) to provide the world's crop genebanks with a powerful, flexible, easy-to-use plant genetic resource (PGR) information <span class="hlt">management</span> system. The system will help safeguard PGR ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=237040','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=237040"><span id="translatedtitle">GRIN-<span class="hlt">Global</span>: An International Project to Develop a <span class="hlt">Global</span> Plant Genebank and Information <span class="hlt">Management</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The mission of the GRIN-<span class="hlt">Global</span> Project is to create a new, scalable version of the Germplasm Resource Information System (GRIN) to provide the world’s crop genebanks with a powerful, flexible, easy-to-use plant genetic resource (PGR) information <span class="hlt">management</span> system. The system will help safeguard PGR ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=240066','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=240066"><span id="translatedtitle">GRIN-<span class="hlt">Global</span>: An International Project to Develop a <span class="hlt">Global</span> Plant Genebank and Information <span class="hlt">Management</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The mission of the GRIN-<span class="hlt">Global</span> Project is to create a new, scalable version of the Germplasm Resource Information System (GRIN) to provide the world’s crop genebanks with a powerful, flexible, easy-to-use plant genetic resource (PGR) information <span class="hlt">management</span> system. The system will help safeguard PGR...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=248539','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=248539"><span id="translatedtitle">GRIN-<span class="hlt">Global</span>: An International Project to Develop a <span class="hlt">Global</span> Plant Genebank Information <span class="hlt">Management</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The mission of the GRIN-<span class="hlt">Global</span> Project is to create a new, scalable version of the Germplasm Resource Information System (GRIN) to provide the world’s crop genebanks with a powerful, flexible, easy-to-use plant genetic resource (PGR) information <span class="hlt">management</span> system. The system will help safeguard PGR ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=242073','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=242073"><span id="translatedtitle">GRIN-<span class="hlt">Global</span>: An International Project to Develop a <span class="hlt">Global</span> Plant Genebank and Information <span class="hlt">Management</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The mission of the GRIN-<span class="hlt">Global</span> Project is to create a new, scalable version of the Germplasm Resource Information System (GRIN) to provide the worlds crop genebanks with a powerful, flexible, easy-to-use plant genetic resource (PGR) information <span class="hlt">management</span> system. The system will help safeguard PGR ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4683F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4683F"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating European soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> mitigation potential in a <span class="hlt">global</span> integrated land use model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Frank, Stefan; Böttcher, Hannes; Schneider, Uwe; Schmid, Erwin; Havlík, Petr</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Several studies have shown the dynamic interaction between soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (SOC) sequestration rates, soil <span class="hlt">management</span> decisions and SOC levels. <span class="hlt">Management</span> practices such as reduced and no-tillage, improved residue <span class="hlt">management</span> and crop rotations as well as the conversion of marginal cropland to native vegetation or conversion of cultivated land to permanent grassland offer the potential to increase SOC content. Even though dynamic interactions are widely acknowledged in literature, they have not been implemented in most existing land use decision models. A major obstacle is the high data and computing requirements for an explicit representation of alternative land use sequences since a model has to be able to track all different <span class="hlt">management</span> decision paths. To our knowledge no study accounted so far for SOC dynamics explicitly in a <span class="hlt">global</span> integrated land use model. To overcome these conceptual difficulties described above we apply an approach capable of accounting for SOC dynamics in GLOBIOM (<span class="hlt">Global</span> Biosphere <span class="hlt">Management</span> Model), a <span class="hlt">global</span> recursive dynamic partial equilibrium bottom-up model integrating the agricultural, bioenergy and forestry sectors. GLOBIOM represents all major land based sectors and therefore is able to account for direct and indirect effects of land use change as well as leakage effects (e.g. through trade) implicitly. Together with the detailed representation of technologies (e.g. tillage and fertilizer <span class="hlt">management</span> systems), these characteristics make the model a highly valuable tool for assessing European SOC emissions and mitigation potential. Demand and international trade are represented in this version of the model at the level of 27 EU member states and 23 aggregated world regions outside Europe. Changes in the demand on the one side, and profitability of the different land based activities on the other side, are the major determinants of land use change in GLOBIOM. In this paper we estimate SOC emissions from cropland for the EU until 2050 explicitly considering SOC dynamics due to land use and land <span class="hlt">management</span> in a <span class="hlt">global</span> integrated land use model. Moreover, we calculate the EU SOC mitigation potential taking into account leakage effects outside Europe as well as related feed backs from other sectors. In sensitivity analysis, we disaggregate the SOC mitigation potential i.e. we quantify the impact of different <span class="hlt">management</span> systems and crop rotations to identify most promising mitigation strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A33D0202C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A33D0202C"><span id="translatedtitle">An observation-based estimate of <span class="hlt">global</span> black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and brown <span class="hlt">carbon</span> AODs and radiative forcings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chung, C. E.; Ramanathan, V.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>We combined AERONET AODs with MODIS AODs, and obtained <span class="hlt">global</span> AODs. Using the wavelength dependence of AERONET SSA, we extracted black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (BlC), brown <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (BrC) and dust components of AODs. The assumptions we made are that a) BlC SSA and BlC SSA wavelength-dependence are influenced by BlC particles mixed with non-absorbing aerosols and b) brown <span class="hlt">carbon</span> spheres identified by Alexander et al. (2008) represent all the BrC particles. Our <span class="hlt">global</span> BlC AOD is 0.007 and accounts for 4.7% of total AOD. Our BrC AOD is 0.0027 (about 2% of total AOD) and the dust AOD is 0.036 (about 24% of total AOD). In comparison, AEROCOM models give dust AOD in the range from 7% to 44% while AEOCOM BlC AOD ranges from 0.4% to 5.9%. Our BlC AOD is greater than average AEROCOM BlC AOD. Using our observation-based AODs, we calculated radiative forcing for BrC and BlC using the Monte-Carlo Aerosol Cloud Radiaiton (MACR) model. The results will be presented at AGU.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUSM.B53A..01C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUSM.B53A..01C"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Sink in Tidal Salt Marshes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chmura, G. L.</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>For decades researchers have concentrated on proving that C is exported from salt marshes to coastal waters, with limited success. Yet, the C retained in the marsh soils may be equally important. Presumptions that minor amounts of C are stored in salt marsh soils are based upon measurements of low percentages of C in many marshes. Simply measuring the organic matter content of marsh soils provides little indication of the amount or rate of C stored, as this parameter is based upon the percent by mass of the soil. The critical parameter to calculate is C density, derived from percent organic matter and bulk density. (The latter is often neglected in marsh soil studies.) Calculation of C density reveals that minerogenic soils with high bulk densities may have C densities or C storage rates equivalent to more organic soils with low bulk densities. A <span class="hlt">global</span> average soil C density of 0.055 ± 0.004 g cm-3 has been calculated from 107 measurements reported for salt marshes around the world (Gulf of Mexico, NE and NW Atlantic, Mediterranean and NE Pacific). Assuming an average marsh soil depth of 0.5 m and using inventories of marsh area available for Europe, Scandinavia, Africa, Canada and the U.S., the C stored <span class="hlt">globally</span> in salt marshes is greater than 430 ± 30 Tg C. The <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage could be twice this as there are no marsh inventories available for Asia or South America. Rates of C storage can be calculated from 96 C density measurements where soil accretion rates also were measured. <span class="hlt">Globally</span>, marshes sequester an average of 210 g CO2 m-2 yr-1, an order of magnitude greater than rates reported for peatlands. Salt marsh C storage can have regional importance. At a magnitude of 5 Tg C yr-1, tidal wetlands comprise 1--2 percent of the C sink (300--580 Tg C yr-1) estimated for the coterminous U.S. In the Bay of Fundy restoration of salt marshes reclaimed for agricultural land could enable sequestration of an additional 240 to 360 Gg C yr-1, equivalent to 4 to 6 percent of Canada's targeted reduction of 1990-level emissions of CO2 under the Kyoto Protocol. The C sink in salt marsh soils has advantages over those in freshwater wetlands or terrestrial soils. Presence of abundant sulfate limits release of the potent greenhouse gas, methane, which can be released in substantial quantities from freshwater wetland soils. In salt marshes, turnover of C occurs on time scales of hundreds to thousands of years, whereas the C content of terrestrial soils reaches equilibrium in decades to 100 yr. In many marshes C sequestration will continue or perhaps increase with higher rates of sea level rise accompanying <span class="hlt">global</span> warming, as soil accretion rates will be greater. However, human impacts on many salt marshes (altering hydrological regimes or displacing sediment supplies), such as those of the Mississippi Delta, limits their sustainability in the face of higher rates of sea level rise and the future of these C sinks is threatened. Future research on C storage in salt marshes must be directed at local controls, for there is as much variability in a single region (e.g., Long Island Sound or the Bay of Fundy) as there is <span class="hlt">globally</span>. Intensive sampling at multiple elevations in a single marsh reveals C densities to be significantly greater at higher elevations, but rates of C accumulation decline with elevation. Controlling for this variability in elevation reveals that C density decreases with average annual temperature, thus greater understanding of local processes are critical to detect <span class="hlt">global</span> patterns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/927777','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/927777"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Managing</span> Commercial Tree Species for Timber Production and <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Sequestration: <span class="hlt">Management</span> Guidelines and Financial Returns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gary D. Kronrad</p> <p>2006-09-19</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">carbon</span> credit market is developing in the United States. Information is needed by buyers and sellers of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> credits so that the market functions equitably and efficiently. Analyses have been conducted to determine the optimal forest <span class="hlt">management</span> regime to employ for each of the major commercial tree species so that profitability of timber production only or the combination of timber production and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration is maximized. Because the potential of a forest ecosystem to sequester <span class="hlt">carbon</span> depends on the tree species, site quality and <span class="hlt">management</span> regimes utilized, analyses have determined how to optimize <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration by determining how to optimally <span class="hlt">manage</span> each species, given a range of site qualities, discount rates, prices of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> credits and other economic variables. The effects of a <span class="hlt">carbon</span> credit market on the method and profitability of forest <span class="hlt">management</span>, the cost of sequestering <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, the amount of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> that can be sequestered, and the amount of timber products produced has been determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70048190','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70048190"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential increases in natural disturbance rates could offset forest <span class="hlt">management</span> impacts on ecosystem <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bradford, John B.; Jensen, Nicholas R.; Domke, Grant M.; DAmato, Anthony W.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Forested ecosystems contain the majority of the worlds terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, and forest <span class="hlt">management</span> has implications for regional and <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycling. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> stored in forests changes with stand age and is affected by natural disturbance and timber harvesting. We examined how harvesting and disturbance interact to influence forest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks over the Superior National Forest, in northern Minnesota. Forest inventory data from the USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis program were used to characterize current forest age structure and quantify the relationship between age and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks for eight forest types. Using these findings, we simulated the impact of alternative <span class="hlt">management</span> scenarios and natural disturbance rates on forest-wide terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks over a 100-year horizon. Under low natural mortality, forest-wide total ecosystem <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks increased when 0% or 40% of planned harvests were implemented; however, the majority of forest-wide <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks decreased with greater harvest levels and elevated disturbance rates. Our results suggest that natural disturbance has the potential to exert stronger influence on forest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks than timber harvesting activities and that maintaining <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks over the long-term may prove difficult if disturbance frequency increases in response to climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=globalization+AND+business&pg=5&id=EJ637959','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=globalization+AND+business&pg=5&id=EJ637959"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Management</span> Education in a <span class="hlt">Globalizing</span> World: Lessons from the French Experience.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kumar, Rajesh; Usunier, Jean-Claude</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Assesses the challenges posed by the talk of <span class="hlt">globalization</span> for French <span class="hlt">management</span> education. Analyzes the strategies adopted by French business schools for coping with the <span class="hlt">globalization</span> imperative. (DDR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGD.....910961W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGD.....910961W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake: magnitude, variability and trends</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wanninkhof, R.; Park, G.-H.; Takahashi, T.; Sweeney, C.; Feely, R.; Nojiri, Y.; Gruber, N.; Doney, S. C.; McKinley, G. A.; Lenton, A.; Le Quéré, C.; Heinze, C.; Schwinger, J.; Graven, H.; Khatiwala, S.</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Estimates of the anthropogenic <span class="hlt">global</span>-integrated sea-air <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide (CO2) flux from 1990 to 2009, based on different models and measurements, range from -1.4 to -2.6 Pg C yr-1. The median values of anthropogenic CO2 for each method show better agreement and are: -1.9 for Pg C yr-1 for numerical ocean general circulation hind cast models (OGCMs) with parameterized biogeochemistry; -2.1 Pg C yr-1 for atmospheric inverse models; -1.9 Pg C yr-1 for <span class="hlt">global</span> atmospheric constraints based on O2 / N2 ratios for 1990-2000; and -2.4 Pg C yr-1 for oceanic inverse models. An updated estimate of this anthropogenic CO2 flux based on a climatology of sea-air partial pressure of CO2 differences (ΔpCO2) (Takahashi et al., 2009) and a bulk formulation of gas transfer with wind speed for year 2000 is -2.0 Pg C yr-1. Using this ΔpCO2 climatology and empirical relationships of pCO2 with sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies (Park et al., 2010a), the interannual variability of the contemporary CO2 flux is estimated to be 0.20 Pg C yr-1 (1σ) from 1990 through 2009. This is similar to the variability estimated by the OGCMs of 0.16 Pg C yr-1 but smaller than the interannual variability from atmospheric inverse estimates of 0.40 Pg C yr-1. The variability is largely driven by large-scale climate re-organizations. The decadal trends for different methods range from -0.13 (Pg C yr-1) decade-1 to -0.50 (Pg C yr-1) decade-1. The OGCMs and the data based sea-air CO2 flux estimates show smaller uptakes and appreciably smaller decadal trends than estimates based on changes in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> inventory suggesting that methods capable of resolving shorter timescales are showing a slowing of the rate of ocean CO2 uptake. It is not clear if this large difference in trend is a methodological issue or a real natural feedback.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890011950','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890011950"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">global</span> Cretaceous-Tertiary fire: Biomass or fossil <span class="hlt">carbon</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gilmour, Iain; Guenther, Frank</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">global</span> soot layer at the K-T boundary indicates a major fire triggered by meteorite impact. However, it is not clear whether the principal fuel was biomass or fossil <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Forests are favored by delta value of C-13, which is close to the average for trees, but the total amount of elemental C is approximately 10 percent of the present living <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, and thus requires very efficient conversion to soot. The PAH was analyzed at Woodside Creek, in the hope of finding a diagnostic molecular marker. A promising candidate is 1-methyl-7-isopropyl phenanthrene (retene,), which is probably derived by low temperature degradation of abietic acid. Unlike other PAH that form by pyrosynthesis at higher temperatures, retene has retained the characteristic side chains of its parent molecule. A total of 11 PAH compounds were identified in the boundary clay. Retene is present in substantial abundance. The identification was confirmed by analysis of a retene standard. Retene is characteristic of the combustion of resinous higher plants. Its formation depends on both temperature and oxygen access, and is apparently highest in oxygen-poor fires. Such fires would also produce soot more efficiently which may explain the high soot abundance. The relatively high level of coronene is not typical of a wood combustion source, however, though it can be produced during high temperature pyrolysis of methane, and presumably other H, C-containing materials. This would require large, hot, low O2 zones, which may occur only in very large fires. The presence of retene indicates that biomass was a significant fuel source for the soot at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. The total amount of elemental C produced requires a greater than 3 percent soot yield, which is higher than typically observed for wildfires. However, retene and presumably coronene imply limited access of O2 and hence high soot yield.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3276426','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3276426"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Management</span> Impacts on Forest Floor and Soil Organic <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> in Northern Temperate Forests of the US</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background The role of forests in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle has been the subject of a great deal of research recently, but the impact of <span class="hlt">management</span> practices on forest soil dynamics at the stand level has received less attention. This study used six forest <span class="hlt">management</span> experimental sites in five northern states of the US to investigate the effects of silvicultural treatments (light thinning, heavy thinning, and clearcutting) on forest floor and soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pools. Results No overall trend was found between forest floor <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks in stands subjected to partial or complete harvest treatments. A few sites had larger stocks in control plots, although estimates were often highly variable. Forest floor <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pools did show a trend of increasing values from southern to northern sites. Surface soil (0-5 cm) organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> content and concentration were similar between treated and untreated plots. Overall soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (0-20 cm) pool size was not significantly different from control values in sites treated with partial or complete harvests. No geographic trends were evident for any of the soil properties examined. Conclusions Results indicate that it is unlikely that mineral soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks are adversely affected by typical <span class="hlt">management</span> practices as applied in northern hardwood forests in the US; however, the findings suggest that the forest floor <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pool may be susceptible to loss. PMID:22206625</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1197737-modeling-impact-agricultural-land-use-management-us-carbon-budgets','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1197737-modeling-impact-agricultural-land-use-management-us-carbon-budgets"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the impact of agricultural land use and <span class="hlt">management</span> on US <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budgets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Drewniak, B. A.; Mishra, U.; Song, J.; Prell, J.; Kotamarthi, V. R.</p> <p>2015-04-09</p> <p>Cultivation of the terrestrial land surface can create either a source or sink of atmospheric CO2, depending on land <span class="hlt">management</span> practices. The Community Land Model (CLM) provides a useful tool for exploring how land use and <span class="hlt">management</span> impact the soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pool at regional to <span class="hlt">global</span> scales. CLM was recently updated to include representation of <span class="hlt">managed</span> lands growing maize, soybean, and spring wheat. In this study, CLM-Crop is used to investigate the impacts of various <span class="hlt">management</span> practices, including fertilizer use and differential rates of crop residue removal, on the soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (SOC) storage of croplands in the continental Unitedmore » States over approximately a 170-year period. Results indicate that total US SOC stocks have already lost over 8 Pg C (10%) due to land cultivation practices (e.g., fertilizer application, cultivar choice, and residue removal), compared to a land surface composed of native vegetation (i.e., grasslands). After long periods of cultivation, individual subgrids (the equivalent of a field plot) growing maize and soybean lost up to 65% of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stored compared to a grassland site. Crop residue <span class="hlt">management</span> showed the greatest effect on soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage, with low and medium residue returns resulting in additional losses of 5 and 3.5%, respectively, in US <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage, while plots with high residue returns stored 2% more <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Nitrogenous fertilizer can alter the amount of soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks significantly. Under current levels of crop residue return, not applying fertilizer resulted in a 5% loss of soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Our simulations indicate that disturbance through cultivation will always result in a loss of soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, and <span class="hlt">management</span> practices will have a large influence on the magnitude of SOC loss.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGeo...12.2119D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGeo...12.2119D"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the impact of agricultural land use and <span class="hlt">management</span> on US <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budgets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Drewniak, B. A.; Mishra, U.; Song, J.; Prell, J.; Kotamarthi, V. R.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Cultivation of the terrestrial land surface can create either a source or sink of atmospheric CO2, depending on land <span class="hlt">management</span> practices. The Community Land Model (CLM) provides a useful tool for exploring how land use and <span class="hlt">management</span> impact the soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pool at regional to <span class="hlt">global</span> scales. CLM was recently updated to include representation of <span class="hlt">managed</span> lands growing maize, soybean, and spring wheat. In this study, CLM-Crop is used to investigate the impacts of various <span class="hlt">management</span> practices, including fertilizer use and differential rates of crop residue removal, on the soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (SOC) storage of croplands in the continental United States over approximately a 170-year period. Results indicate that total US SOC stocks have already lost over 8 Pg C (10%) due to land cultivation practices (e.g., fertilizer application, cultivar choice, and residue removal), compared to a land surface composed of native vegetation (i.e., grasslands). After long periods of cultivation, individual subgrids (the equivalent of a field plot) growing maize and soybean lost up to 65% of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stored compared to a grassland site. Crop residue <span class="hlt">management</span> showed the greatest effect on soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage, with low and medium residue returns resulting in additional losses of 5 and 3.5%, respectively, in US <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage, while plots with high residue returns stored 2% more <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Nitrogenous fertilizer can alter the amount of soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks significantly. Under current levels of crop residue return, not applying fertilizer resulted in a 5% loss of soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Our simulations indicate that disturbance through cultivation will always result in a loss of soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, and <span class="hlt">management</span> practices will have a large influence on the magnitude of SOC loss.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1198208-modeling-impact-agricultural-land-use-management-us-carbon-budgets','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1198208-modeling-impact-agricultural-land-use-management-us-carbon-budgets"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the impact of agricultural land use and <span class="hlt">management</span> on US <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budgets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Drewniak, B. A.; Mishra, U.; Song, J.; Prell, J.; Kotamarthi, V. R.</p> <p>2014-09-22</p> <p>Cultivation of the terrestrial land surface can create either a source or sink of atmospheric CO2, depending on land <span class="hlt">management</span> practices. The Community Land Model (CLM) provides a useful tool to explore how land use and <span class="hlt">management</span> impact the soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pool at regional to <span class="hlt">global</span> scales. CLM was recently updated to include representation of <span class="hlt">managed</span> lands growing maize, soybean, and spring wheat. In this study, CLM-Crop is used to investigate the impacts of various <span class="hlt">management</span> practices, including fertilizer use and differential rates of crop residue removal, on the soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (SOC) storage of croplands in the continental Unitedmore » States over approximately a 170 year period. Results indicate that total US SOC stocks have already lost over 8 Pg C (10%) due to land cultivation practices (e.g., fertilizer application, cultivar choice, and residue removal), compared to a land surface composed of native vegetation (i.e., grasslands). After long periods of cultivation, individual plots growing maize and soybean lost up to 65% of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stored, compared to a grassland site. Crop residue <span class="hlt">management</span> showed the greatest effect on soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage, with low and medium residue returns resulting in additional losses of 5% and 3.5%, respectively, in US <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage, while plots with high residue returns stored 2% more <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Nitrogenous fertilizer can alter the amount of soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks significantly. Under current levels of crop residue return, not applying fertilizer resulted in a 5% loss of soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Our simulations indicate that disturbance through cultivation will always result in a loss of soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, and <span class="hlt">management</span> practices will have a large influence on the magnitude of SOC loss.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/919239','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/919239"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-century Changes to <span class="hlt">Global</span> Climate and <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle: Results from a Coupled Climate and <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bala, G; Caldeira, K; Mirin, A; Wickett, M; Delire, C</p> <p>2005-06-13</p> <p>In this paper, we use a coupled climate and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle model to investigate the <span class="hlt">global</span> climate and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle changes out to year 2300 that would occur if CO2 emissions from all the currently estimated fossil fuel resources were released to the atmosphere. By year 2300, the <span class="hlt">global</span> climate warms by about 8 K and atmospheric CO2 reaches 1423 ppmv. In our simulation, the prescribed cumulative emission since pre-industrial period is about 5400 Gt-C by the end of 23rd century. At year 2300, nearly 45 % of cumulative emissions remain in the atmosphere. In our simulations both soils and living biomass are net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinks throughout the simulation. Despite having relatively low climate sensitivity and strong <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake by the land biosphere, our model projections suggest severe long-term consequences for <span class="hlt">global</span> climate if all the fossil-fuel <span class="hlt">carbon</span> is ultimately released to the atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035327','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035327"><span id="translatedtitle">Plant invasions in mountains: <span class="hlt">Global</span> lessons for better <span class="hlt">management</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>McDougall, K.L.; Khuroo, A.A.; Loope, L.L.; Parks, C.G.; Pauchard, A.; Reshi, Z.A.; Rushworth, I.; Kueffer, C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Mountains are one of few ecosystems little affected by plant invasions. However, the threat of invasion is likely to increase because of climate change, greater anthropogenic land use, and continuing novel introductions. Preventive <span class="hlt">management</span>, therefore, will be crucial but can be difficult to promote when more pressing problems are unresolved and predictions are uncertain. In this essay, we use <span class="hlt">management</span> case studies from 7 mountain regions to identify common lessons for effective preventive action. The degree of plant invasion in mountains was variable in the 7 regions as was the response to invasion, which ranged from lack of awareness by land <span class="hlt">managers</span> of the potential impact in Chile and Kashmir to well-organized programs of prevention and containment in the United States (Hawaii and the Pacific Northwest), including prevention at low altitude. In Australia, awareness of the threat grew only after disruptive invasions. In South Africa, the economic benefits of removing alien plants are well recognized and funded in the form of employment programs. In the European Alps, there is little need for active <span class="hlt">management</span> because no invasive species pose an immediate threat. From these case studies, we identify lessons for <span class="hlt">management</span> of plant invasions in mountain ecosystems: (i) prevention is especially important in mountains because of their rugged terrain, where invasions can quickly become unmanageable; (ii) networks at local to <span class="hlt">global</span> levels can assist with awareness raising and better prioritization of <span class="hlt">management</span> actions; (iii) the economic importance of <span class="hlt">management</span> should be identified and articulated; (iv) public acceptance of <span class="hlt">management</span> programs will make them more effective; and (v) climate change needs to be considered. We suggest that comparisons of local case studies, such as those we have presented, have a pivotal place in the proactive solution of <span class="hlt">global</span> change issues. ?? International Mountain Society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24825392','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24825392"><span id="translatedtitle">Trend in <span class="hlt">global</span> black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions from 1960 to 2007.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Rong; Tao, Shu; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Balkanski, Yves; Boucher, Olivier; Ciais, Philippe; Shen, Guofeng; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Yuanchen; Lin, Nan; Su, Shu; Li, Bengang; Liu, Junfeng; Liu, Wenxin</p> <p>2014-06-17</p> <p>Black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (BC) plays an important role in both climate change and health impact. Still, BC emissions as well as the historical trends are associated with high uncertainties in existing inventories. In the present study, <span class="hlt">global</span> BC emissions from 1960 to 2007 were estimated for 64 sources, by using recompiled fuel consumption and emission factor data sets. Annual BC emissions had increased from 5.3 (3.4-8.5 as an interquartile range) to 9.1 (5.6-14.4) teragrams during this period. Our estimations are 11-16% higher than those in previous inventories. Over the period, we found that the BC emission intensity, defined as the amount of BC emitted per unit of energy production, had decreased for all the regions, especially China and India. Improvements in combustion technology and changes in fuel composition had led to an increase in energy use efficiency, and subsequently a decline of BC emission intensities in power plants, the residential sector, and transportation. On the other hand, the BC emission intensities had increased in the industrial and agricultural sectors, mainly due to an expansion of low-efficiency industry (coke and brick production) in developing countries and to an increasing usage of diesel in agriculture in developed countries. PMID:24825392</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ESASP.688E...4B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ESASP.688E...4B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Mapping of Methane and <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dioxide: From SCIAMACHY to <span class="hlt">Carbon</span>Sat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Buchwitz, M.; Bovensmann, H.; Burrows, J. P.; Schneising, O.; Reuter, M.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHG) and an appropriate understanding of their natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks is a pre- requisite for reliable climate prediction. Regional surface fluxes can be obtained via inverse modeling using satellite observations of the atmospheric column- averaged dry air mole fractions CO2 and CH4, i.e., XCH4 and XCO2. Using SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT it has already been demonstrated that regional methane emissions can be well constrained. The SCIAMACHY measurements are currently being continued with the Japanese GOSAT satellite (2009-2014) and NASAs OCO-2 is expected to deliver accurate XCO2 in the time period 2013-2015. To ensure that also after SCIAMACHY, GOSAT and OCO-2 <span class="hlt">global</span> satellite observations of these two important GHG will be available - and in order to deliver important additional information - we have proposed the satellite mission "<span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Monitoring Satellite" (<span class="hlt">Carbon</span>Sat) in response to ESAs 8th Earth Explorer Opportunity Mission call (EE8). <span class="hlt">Carbon</span>Sat has a spatial resolution of 2 x 2 km2 (nadir and sun-glint mode), good spatial coverage (500 km swath width) and high single shot precision (typically < 2 ppm for XCO2 and < 13 ppb for XCH4). <span class="hlt">Carbon</span>Sat will deliver about 6 million cloud free observations per day. These capabilities allow to address new important application areas such as the monitoring of hot spot emission sources, e.g., CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants and detection and quantification of strong localized methane emitting geological and anthropogenic sources (seeps, mud volcanoes, pipelines, oil and gas fields, ...).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15011288','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15011288"><span id="translatedtitle">The Role of <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle Observations and Knowledge in <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dilling, Lisa; Doney, Scott; Edmonds, James A.; Gurney, Kevin R.; Harriss, Robert; Schimel, David; Stephens, Britton; Stokes, Gerald M.</p> <p>2003-08-14</p> <p>Agriculture and industrial development have led to inadvertent changes in the natural <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. As a consequence, concentrations of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide and other greenhouse gases have increased in the atmosphere, leading to potential changes in climate. The current challenge facing society is to develop options for future <span class="hlt">management</span> of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. A variety of approaches has been suggested: direct reduction of emissions, deliberate manipulation of the natural <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle to enhance sequestration, and capture and isolation of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> from fossil fuel use. Policy development to date has laid out some of the general principles to which <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> should adhere. These can be summarized as: how much <span class="hlt">carbon</span> is stored, by what means, and for how long. To successfully <span class="hlt">manage</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> for climate purposes requires increased understanding of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle dynamics and improvement to the scientific capabilities available for measurement as well as policy needs. Specific needs for scientific information to underpin <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle <span class="hlt">management</span> decisions are not yet broadly known. A stronger dialogue between decision makers and scientists must be developed to foster improved application of scientific knowledge to decisions. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle and measurement capabilities, with an emphasis on the continental-scale, and its relevance to <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration goals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B41M..07M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B41M..07M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Managing</span> for Phosphorus and Other Resources in <span class="hlt">Globalized</span> Agriculture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>MacDonald, G. K.; Mueller, N. D.; Bennett, E.; Brauman, K. A.; Gerber, J. S.; Metson, G. S.; West, P. C.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Agricultural trade has an important effect on the distribution of resource use among regions. Trade is particularly important for understanding human impacts on the phosphorus (P) cycle, as mineral P reserves are geopolitically concentrated. Yet, P use is only one component of the broader agro-environmental dimensions of <span class="hlt">globalized</span> agriculture. Understanding complex interactions among multiple components of land use and resource <span class="hlt">management</span> in trade networks is needed. We fuse comprehensive <span class="hlt">global</span> agricultural datasets illustrating key facets of land use and <span class="hlt">management</span> with bilateral trade statistics to explore phosphorus-use efficiency in relation to other agro-environmental indicators. Our findings illustrate tradeoffs among phosphorus-use efficiency, nitrogen-use efficiency, crop-water productivity, and overall crop yields embodied within trade networks. Disparities in the land-use intensity of different exporting countries reflect the types of commodities produced, the degree of export-orientation, and the biophysical context of production. Phosphorus inefficiencies could compound other problems, such as water scarcity, but our findings also reveal places with relatively high efficiency across multiple indicatorsoffering insight on how overall resource <span class="hlt">management</span> can be balanced for export production. Using the prevailing agricultural systems of key exporting regions as a backdrop, we highlight opportunities to leverage agricultural efficiencies embodied in <span class="hlt">global</span> trade networks to conserve multiple resources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGeo...12.1339J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGeo...12.1339J"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of coral reef <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> production models at a <span class="hlt">global</span> scale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jones, N. S.; Ridgwell, A.; Hendy, E. J.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Calcification by coral reef communities is estimated to account for half of all <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> produced in shallow water environments and more than 25% of the total <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> buried in marine sediments <span class="hlt">globally</span>. Production of calcium <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> by coral reefs is therefore an important component of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle; it is also threatened by future <span class="hlt">global</span> warming and other <span class="hlt">global</span> change pressures. Numerical models of reefal <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> production are needed for understanding how <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> deposition responds to environmental conditions including atmospheric CO2 concentrations in the past and into the future. However, before any projections can be made, the basic test is to establish model skill in recreating present-day calcification rates. Here we evaluate four published model descriptions of reef <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> production in terms of their predictive power, at both local and <span class="hlt">global</span> scales. We also compile available <span class="hlt">global</span> data on reef calcification to produce an independent observation-based data set for the model evaluation of <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> budget outputs. The four calcification models are based on functions sensitive to combinations of light availability, aragonite saturation (?a) and temperature and were implemented within a specifically developed <span class="hlt">global</span> framework, the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Reef Accretion Model (GRAM). No model was able to reproduce independent rate estimates of whole-reef calcification, and the output from the temperature-only based approach was the only model to significantly correlate with coral-calcification rate observations. The absence of any predictive power for whole reef systems, even when consistent at the scale of individual corals, points to the overriding importance of coral cover estimates in the calculations. Our work highlights the need for an ecosystem modelling approach, accounting for population dynamics in terms of mortality and recruitment and hence calcifier abundance, in estimating <span class="hlt">global</span> reef <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> budgets. In addition, validation of reef <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> budgets is severely hampered by limited and inconsistent methodology in reef-scale observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2234182','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2234182"><span id="translatedtitle">Risk of natural disturbances makes future contribution of Canada's forests to the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle highly uncertain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kurz, Werner A.; Stinson, Graham; Rampley, Gregory J.; Dymond, Caren C.; Neilson, Eric T.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>A large <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink in northern land surfaces inferred from <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle inversion models led to concerns during Kyoto Protocol negotiations that countries might be able to avoid efforts to reduce fossil fuel emissions by claiming large sinks in their <span class="hlt">managed</span> forests. The greenhouse gas balance of Canada's <span class="hlt">managed</span> forest is strongly affected by naturally occurring fire with high interannual variability in the area burned and by cyclical insect outbreaks. Taking these stochastic future disturbances into account, we used the <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Budget Model of the Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3) to project that the <span class="hlt">managed</span> forests of Canada could be a source of between 30 and 245 Mt CO2e yr?1 during the first Kyoto Protocol commitment period (20082012). The recent transition from sink to source is the result of large insect outbreaks. The wide range in the predicted greenhouse gas balance (215 Mt CO2e yr?1) is equivalent to nearly 30% of Canada's emissions in 2005. The increasing impact of natural disturbances, the two major insect outbreaks, and the Kyoto Protocol accounting rules all contributed to Canada's decision not to elect forest <span class="hlt">management</span>. In Canada, future efforts to influence the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance through forest <span class="hlt">management</span> could be overwhelmed by natural disturbances. Similar circumstances may arise elsewhere if <span class="hlt">global</span> change increases natural disturbance rates. Future climate mitigation agreements that do not account for and protect against the impacts of natural disturbances, for example, by accounting for forest <span class="hlt">management</span> benefits relative to baselines, will fail to encourage changes in forest <span class="hlt">management</span> aimed at mitigating climate change. PMID:18230736</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMGC51A..05D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMGC51A..05D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span> In the Post-Cap-and-Trade <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Economy: An Economic Model for Limiting Climate Change by <span class="hlt">Managing</span> Anthropogenic <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Flux</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>DeGroff, F. A.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>In this paper, we discuss an economic model for comprehensive <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> that focuses on changes in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux in the biosphere due to anthropogenic activity. The two unique features of the model include: 1. A shift in emphasis from primarily <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions, toward changes in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux, mainly <span class="hlt">carbon</span> extraction, and 2. A <span class="hlt">carbon</span> price vector (CPV) to express the value of changes in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux, measured in changes in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration, or <span class="hlt">carbon</span> residence time. The key focus with the economic model is the degree to which <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux changes due to anthropogenic activity. The economic model has three steps: 1. The CPV metric is used to value all forms of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> associated with any anthropogenic activity. In this paper, the CPV used is a logarithmic chronological scale to gauge expected <span class="hlt">carbon</span> residence (or sequestration) time. In future economic models, the CPV may be expanded to include other factors to value <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. 2. Whenever <span class="hlt">carbon</span> changes form (and CPV) due to anthropogenic activity, a <span class="hlt">carbon</span> toll is assessed as determined by the change in the CPV. The standard monetary unit for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> tolls are <span class="hlt">carbon</span> toll units, or CTUs. The CTUs multiplied by the quantity of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> converted (QCC) provides the total <span class="hlt">carbon</span> toll, or CT. For example, CT = (CTU /mole <span class="hlt">carbon</span>) x (QCC moles <span class="hlt">carbon</span>). 3. Whenever embodied <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (EC) attributable to a good or service moves via trade to a jurisdiction with a different CPV metric, a <span class="hlt">carbon</span> toll (CT) is assessed representing the CPV difference between the two jurisdictions. This economic model has three clear advantages. First, the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pricing and cost scheme use existing and generally accepted accounting methodologies to ensure the veracity and verifiability of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> efforts with minimal effort and expense using standard, existing auditing protocols. Implementing this economic model will not require any new, special, unique, or additional training, tools, or systems for any entity to achieve their minimum <span class="hlt">carbon</span> target goals within their jurisdictional framework. Second, given the wide spectrum of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> affinities across jurisdictions worldwide, the economic model recognizes and provides for flexible <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pricing regimes, but does not undermine or penalize domestic <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-consuming producers subject to imports from exporters in lower <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pricing jurisdictions. Thus, the economic model avoids a key shortcoming of cap-and-trade <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pricing, and eliminates any incentive to shift <span class="hlt">carbon</span> consumption to jurisdictions with lower <span class="hlt">carbon</span> tolls. Third, the economic model is a comprehensive, efficient, and effective strategy that allows for the implementation of a <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pricing structure without the complete, explicit agreement of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> consumers worldwide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1414390S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1414390S"><span id="translatedtitle">Black <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, a 'hidden' player in the <span class="hlt">global</span> C cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Santn, C.; Doerr, S. H.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>During the 2011 alone more than 600 scientific papers about black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (BC) were published, half of them dealing with soils (ISI Web of Knowledge, accessed 15/01/2012). If the search is extended to the other terms by which BC is commonly named (i.e. biochar, charcoal, pyrogenic C or soot), the number of 2011 publications increases to >2400, 20% of them also related to soils. These figures confirm BC as a well-known feature in the scientific literature and, thus, in our research community. In fact, there is a wide variety of research topics where BC is currently studied: from its potential as long-term C reservoir in soils (man-made biochar), to its effects on the Earth's radiation balance (soot-BC), including its value as indicator in paleoenvironmental studies (charcoal) or, even surprisingly, its use in suicide attempts. BC is thus relevant to many aspects of our environment, making it a very far-reaching, but also very complex topic. When focusing 'only' on the role of BC in the <span class="hlt">global</span> C cycle, numerous questions arise. For example: (i) how much BC is produced by different sources (i.e. vegetation fires, fossil fuel and biofuel combustion); (ii) what are the main BC forms and their respective proportions generated (i.e. proportion of atmospheric BC [BC-soot] and the solid residues [char-BC]); (iii) where does this BC go (i.e. main mobilization pathways and sinks); (iv) how long does BC stay in the different systems (i.e. residence times in soils, sediments, water and atmosphere); (v) which are the BC stocks and its main transformations within and between the different systems (i.e. BC preservation, alteration and mineralization); (vi) what is the interaction of BC with other elements and how does this influence BC half-life (i.e. physical protection, interaction with pollutants, priming effects in other organic materials)? These questions, and some suggestions about how to tackle these, will be discussed in this contribution. It will focus in particular on the role of black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> within soil system sciences, but will also consider it from an integrated atmosphere-marine-terrestrial perspective.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23504715','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23504715"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of grazing on grassland soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span>: a <span class="hlt">global</span> review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McSherry, Megan E; Ritchie, Mark E</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Soils of grasslands represent a large potential reservoir for storing CO2 , but this potential likely depends on how grasslands are <span class="hlt">managed</span> for large mammal grazing. Previous studies found both strong positive and negative grazing effects on soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (SOC) but explanations for this variation are poorly developed. Expanding on previous reviews, we performed a multifactorial meta-analysis of grazer effects on SOC density on 47 independent experimental contrasts from 17 studies. We explicitly tested hypotheses that grazer effects would shift from negative to positive with decreasing precipitation, increasing fineness of soil texture, transition from dominant grass species with C3 to C4 photosynthesis, and decreasing grazing intensity, after controlling for study duration and sampling depth. The six variables of soil texture, precipitation, grass type, grazing intensity, study duration, and sampling depth explained 85% of a large variation (150gm(-2) yr(-1) ) in grazing effects, and the best model included significant interactions between precipitation and soil texture (P=0.002), grass type, and grazing intensity (P=0.012), and study duration and soil sampling depth (P=0.020). Specifically, an increase in mean annual precipitation of 600mm resulted in a 24% decrease in grazer effect size on finer textured soils, while on sandy soils the same increase in precipitation produced a 22% increase in grazer effect on SOC. Increasing grazing intensity increased SOC by 6-7% on C4 -dominated and C4 -C3 mixed grasslands, but decreased SOC by an average 18% in C3 -dominated grasslands. We discovered these patterns despite a lack of studies in natural, wildlife-dominated ecosystems, and tropical grasslands. Our results, which suggest a future focus on why C3 vs. C4 -dominated grasslands differ so strongly in their response of SOC to grazing, show that grazer effects on SOC are highly context-specific and imply that grazers in different regions might be <span class="hlt">managed</span> differently to help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:23504715</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.B31G0381C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.B31G0381C"><span id="translatedtitle">Soil <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Storage in Christmas Tree Farms: Maximizing Ecosystem <span class="hlt">Management</span> and Sustainability for <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Sequestration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chapman, S. K.; Shaw, R.; Langley, A.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Management</span> of agroecosystems for the purpose of manipulating soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks could be a viable approach for countering rising atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide concentrations, while maximizing sustainability of the agroforestry industry. We investigated the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage potential of Christmas tree farms in the southern Appalachian mountains as a potential model for the impacts of land <span class="hlt">management</span> on soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. We quantified soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks across a gradient of cultivation duration and herbicide <span class="hlt">management</span>. We compared soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in farms to that in adjacent pastures and native forests that represent a control group to account for variability in other soil-forming factors. We partitioned tree farm soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> into fractions delineated by stability, an important determinant of long-term sequestration potential. Soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks in the intermediate pool are significantly greater in the tree farms under cultivation for longer periods of time than in the younger tree farms. This pool can be quite large, yet has the ability to repond to biological environmental changes on the centennial time scale. Pasture soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> was significantly greater than both forest and tree farm soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, which were not different from each other. These data can help inform land <span class="hlt">management</span> and soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19837711','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19837711"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> warming factors modelled for 40 generic municipal waste <span class="hlt">management</span> scenarios.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Christensen, Thomas H; Simion, Federico; Tonini, Davide; Mller, Jacob</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Global</span> warming factors (kg CO(2)-eq.-tonne(-1) of waste) have been modelled for 40 different municipal waste <span class="hlt">management</span> scenarios involving a variety of recycling systems (paper, glass, plastic and organics) and residual waste <span class="hlt">management</span> by landfilling, incineration or mechanical-biological waste treatment. For average European waste composition most waste <span class="hlt">management</span> scenarios provided negative <span class="hlt">global</span> warming factors and hence overall savings in greenhouse gas emissions: Scenarios with landfilling saved 0-400, scenarios with incineration saved 200-700, and scenarios with mechanical-biological treatment saved 200- 750 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(- 1) municipal waste depending on recycling scheme and energy recovery. Key parameters were the amount of paper recycled (it was assumed that wood made excessive by paper recycling substituted for fossil fuel), the crediting of the waste <span class="hlt">management</span> system for the amount of energy recovered (hard-coal-based energy was substituted), and binding of biogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in landfills. Most other processes were of less importance. Rational waste <span class="hlt">management</span> can provide significant savings in society's emission of greenhouse gas depending on waste composition and efficient utilization of the energy recovered. PMID:19837711</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70168383','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70168383"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing and <span class="hlt">managing</span> freshwater ecosystems vulnerable to <span class="hlt">global</span> change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Birge, Hannah E.; Drakare, Stina; McKie, Brendan G.; Johnson, Richard K.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Freshwater ecosystems are important for <span class="hlt">global</span> biodiversity and provide essential ecosystem services. There is consensus in the scientific literature that freshwater ecosystems are vulnerable to the impacts of environmental change, which may trigger irreversible regime shifts upon which biodiversity and ecosystem services may be lost. There are profound uncertainties regarding the <span class="hlt">management</span> and assessment of the vulnerability of freshwater ecosystems to environmental change. Quantitative approaches are needed to reduce this uncertainty. We describe available statistical and modeling approaches along with case studies that demonstrate how resilience theory can be applied to aid decision-making in natural resources <span class="hlt">management</span>. We highlight especially how long-term monitoring efforts combined with ecological theory can provide a novel nexus between ecological impact assessment and <span class="hlt">management</span>, and the quantification of systemic vulnerability and thus the resilience of ecosystems to environmental change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Natur.522..295J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Natur.522..295J"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> warming: Growing feedback from ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> to climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Joos, Fortunat</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The finding that feedbacks between the ocean's <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle and climate may become larger than terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-climate feedbacks has implications for the socio-economic effects of today's fossil-fuel emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B44C..07W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B44C..07W"><span id="translatedtitle">Biogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes from <span class="hlt">global</span> agricultural production and consumption: Gridded, annual estimates of net ecosystem <span class="hlt">carbon</span> exchange</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wolf, J.; West, T. O.; le Page, Y.; Thomson, A. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Quantification of biogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes from agricultural lands is needed to generate <span class="hlt">globally</span> consistent bottom-up estimates for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> monitoring and model input. We quantify agricultural <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes associated with annual (starting in 1961) crop net primary productivity (NPP), harvested biomass, and human and livestock consumption and emissions, with estimates of uncertainty, by applying region- and species-specific <span class="hlt">carbon</span> parameters to annual crop, livestock, food and trade inventory data, and generate downscaled, gridded (0.05 degree resolution) representations of these fluxes. In 2011, <span class="hlt">global</span> crop NPP was 5.25 ± 0.46 Pg <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (excluding root exudates), of which 2.05 ± 0.051 Pg <span class="hlt">carbon</span> was harvested as primary crops; an additional 0.54 Pg of crop residue <span class="hlt">carbon</span> was collected for livestock fodder. In 2011, total livestock feed intake was 2.42 ± 0.21 Pg <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, of which 2.31 ± 0.21 Pg <span class="hlt">carbon</span> was emitted as <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide and 0.072 ± 0.005 Pg <span class="hlt">carbon</span> was emitted as methane. We estimate that livestock grazed 1.18 Pg <span class="hlt">carbon</span> from non-crop lands in 2011, representing 48.5 % of <span class="hlt">global</span> total feed intake. In 2009, the latest available data year, we estimate <span class="hlt">global</span> human food intake (excluding seafood and orchard fruits and nuts) at 0.52 ± 0.03 Pg <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, with an additional 0.24 ± 0.01 Pg <span class="hlt">carbon</span> of food supply chain losses. Trends in production and consumption of agricultural <span class="hlt">carbon</span> between 1961 and recent years, such as increasing dominance of oilcrops and decreasing percent contribution of pasturage to total livestock feed intake, are discussed, and accounting of all agricultural <span class="hlt">carbon</span> was done for the years 2005 and 2009. Gridded at 0.05 degree resolution, these quantities represent local uptake and release of agricultural biogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (e.g. biomass production and removal, residue and manure inputs to soils) and may be used with other gridded data to help estimate current and future changes in soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24501069','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24501069"><span id="translatedtitle">China's crop productivity and soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage as influenced by multifactor <span class="hlt">global</span> change.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ren, Wei; Tian, Hanqin; Tao, Bo; Huang, Yao; Pan, Shufen</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Much concern has been raised about how multifactor <span class="hlt">global</span> change has affected food security and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration capacity in China. By using a process-based ecosystem model, the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM), in conjunction with the newly developed driving information on multiple environmental factors (climate, atmospheric CO2 , tropospheric ozone, nitrogen deposition, and land cover/land use change), we quantified spatial and temporal patterns of net primary production (NPP) and soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage (SOC) across China's croplands during 1980-2005 and investigated the underlying mechanisms. Simulated results showed that both crop NPP and SOC increased from 1980 to 2005, and the highest annual NPP occurred in the Southeast (SE) region (0.32 Pg C yr(-1) , 35.4% of the total NPP) whereas the largest annual SOC (2.29 Pg C yr(-1) , 35.4% of the total SOC) was found in the Northeast (NE) region. Land <span class="hlt">management</span> practices, particularly nitrogen fertilizer application, appear to be the most important factor in stimulating increase in NPP and SOC. However, tropospheric ozone pollution and climate change led to NPP reduction and SOC loss. Our results suggest that China's crop productivity and soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage could be enhanced through minimizing tropospheric ozone pollution and improving nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency. PMID:24501069</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/accomplishments/documents/fullText/ACC0249.pdf','DOE-RDACC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/accomplishments/documents/fullText/ACC0249.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Formulating Energy Policies Related to Fossil Fuel Use: Critical Uncertainties in the <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/accomplishments/fieldedsearch.html">DOE R&D Accomplishments Database</a></p> <p>Post, W. M.; Dale, V. H.; DeAngelis, D. L.; Mann, L. K.; Mulholland, P. J.; O`Neill, R. V.; Peng, T. -H.; Farrell, M. P.</p> <p>1990-02-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle is the dynamic interaction among the earth's <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sources and sinks. Four reservoirs can be identified, including the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and sediments. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is determined by characteristics of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes among major reservoirs of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. The objective of this paper is to document the knowns, and unknowns and uncertainties associated with key questions that if answered will increase the understanding of the portion of past, present, and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} attributable to fossil fuel burning. Documented atmospheric increases in CO{sub 2} levels are thought to result primarily from fossil fuel use and, perhaps, deforestation. However, the observed atmospheric CO{sub 2} increase is less than expected from current understanding of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle because of poorly understood interactions among the major <span class="hlt">carbon</span> reservoirs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6984826','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6984826"><span id="translatedtitle">Formulating energy policies related to fossil fuel use: Critical uncertainties in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Post, W.M.; Dale, V.H.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; O'Neill, R.V.; Peng, T.-H.; Farrell, M.P.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle is the dynamic interaction among the earth's <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sources and sinks. Four reservoirs can be identified, including the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and sediments. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is determined by characteristics of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes among major reservoirs of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. The objective of this paper is to document the knowns, and unknowns and uncertainties associated with key questions that if answered will increase the understanding of the portion of past, present, and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} attributable to fossil fuel burning. Documented atmospheric increases in CO{sub 2} levels are thought to result primarily from fossil fuel use and, perhaps, deforestation. However, the observed atmospheric CO{sub 2} increase is less than expected from current understanding of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle because of poorly understood interactions among the major <span class="hlt">carbon</span> reservoirs. 87 refs.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/987893','SCIGOVIMAGE-SCICINEMA'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/987893"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle 2.0: Ashok Gadgil: <span class="hlt">global</span> impact</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/">ScienceCinema</a></p> <p>Ashok Gadgi</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Ashok Gadgil speaks at the <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more <span class="hlt">carbon</span> into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/987893','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/987893"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle 2.0: Ashok Gadgil: <span class="hlt">global</span> impact</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ashok Gadgi</p> <p>2010-02-09</p> <p>Ashok Gadgil speaks at the <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more <span class="hlt">carbon</span> into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17081594','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17081594"><span id="translatedtitle">Increase in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions from forest fires after intensive reforestation and forest <span class="hlt">management</span> programs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Choi, Sung-Deuk; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Park, Byung-Kwon</p> <p>2006-12-15</p> <p>This paper shows an example of substantial increase in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions from forest fires after reforestation on a national scale. It is the first estimation of historical <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions from forest fires in Korea during the last 40 years. Investigation was focused on the recent increase in large forest fires and its closely related factors. A simple modeling approach to estimate <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emission was applied. The direct <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emission from forest fires in 2000, ranging from 115 to 300 Gg C, corresponds to 1-3% of the annual <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake by forests. The influence of forest fires on the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle in Korea is not so significant, but Korean forests have a large potential for generating severe local fires due to increasing forest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> density and a high forest area ratio (forest area/total land area) of 65%. The <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emission per area burned (Mg C ha(-1)) clearly reflects the trend toward increases in the number of severe fires. Statistical analyses and the trends of annual temperature and precipitation show that the recent large increase in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions may be the negative consequences of intensive forest regrowth that is the product of successful reforestation and forest <span class="hlt">management</span> programs rather than the effect of climate change. These results imply a need for further studies in other countries, where large-scale plantation has been conducted, to evaluate the role of plantation and forest fires on the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. PMID:17081594</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=49765&keyword=soil+AND+carbon+AND+sequestration&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=61251294&CFTOKEN=40364428','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=49765&keyword=soil+AND+carbon+AND+sequestration&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=61251294&CFTOKEN=40364428"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CARBON</span> SEQUESTRATION IN SOILS AND <span class="hlt">GLOBAL</span> CLIMATIC CHANGE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The storage of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in soils is a very complex phenomenon. lthough it is not fully characterized or understood, steps can be taken to use soils as a reservoir of <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. he role of soils in the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle must be more fully understood to develop strategies to mitigate increas...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GBioC..25.2006D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GBioC..25.2006D"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulating the effects of climate and agricultural <span class="hlt">management</span> practices on <span class="hlt">global</span> crop yield</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Deryng, D.; Sacks, W. J.; Barford, C. C.; Ramankutty, N.</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>Climate change is expected to significantly impact <span class="hlt">global</span> food production, and it is important to understand the potential geographic distribution of yield losses and the means to alleviate them. This study presents a new <span class="hlt">global</span> crop model, PEGASUS 1.0 (Predicting Ecosystem Goods And Services Using Scenarios) that integrates, in addition to climate, the effect of planting dates and cultivar choices, irrigation, and fertilizer application on crop yield for maize, soybean, and spring wheat. PEGASUS combines <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics for crops with a surface energy and soil water balance model. It also benefits from the recent development of a suite of <span class="hlt">global</span> data sets and analyses that serve as model inputs or as calibration data. These include data on crop planting and harvesting dates, crop-specific irrigated areas, a <span class="hlt">global</span> analysis of yield gaps, and harvested area and yield of major crops. Model results for present-day climate and farm <span class="hlt">management</span> compare reasonably well with <span class="hlt">global</span> data. Simulated planting and harvesting dates are within the range of crop calendar observations in more than 75% of the total crop-harvested areas. Correlation of simulated and observed crop yields indicates a weighted coefficient of determination, with the weighting based on crop-harvested area, of 0.81 for maize, 0.66 for soybean, and 0.45 for spring wheat. We found that changes in temperature and precipitation as predicted by <span class="hlt">global</span> climate models for the 2050s lead to a <span class="hlt">global</span> yield reduction if planting and harvesting dates remain unchanged. However, adapting planting dates and cultivar choices increases yield in temperate regions and avoids 7-18% of <span class="hlt">global</span> losses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B41C0300K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B41C0300K"><span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous reproduction of <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> exchange and storage of terrestrial forest ecosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kondo, M.; Ichii, K.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Understanding the mechanism of the terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle is essential for assessing the impact of climate change. Quantification of both <span class="hlt">carbon</span> exchange and storage is the key to the understanding, but it often associates with difficulties due to complex entanglement of environmental and physiological factors. Terrestrial ecosystem models have been the major tools to assess the terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget for decades. Because of its strong association with climate change, <span class="hlt">carbon</span> exchange has been more rigorously investigated by the terrestrial biosphere modeling community. Seeming success of model based assessment of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budge often accompanies with the ill effect, substantial misrepresentation of storage. In practice, a number of model based analyses have paid attention solely on terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes and often neglected <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage such as forest biomass. Thus, resulting model parameters are inevitably oriented to <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes. This approach is insufficient to fully reduce uncertainties about future terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycles and climate change because it does not take into account the role of biomass, which is equivalently important as <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes in the system of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. To overcome this issue, a robust methodology for improving the <span class="hlt">global</span> assessment of both <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget and storage is needed. One potentially effective approach to identify a suitable balance of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> allocation proportions for each individual ecosystem. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> allocations can influence the plant growth by controlling the amount of investment acquired from photosynthesis, as well as <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes by controlling the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> content of leaves and litter, both are active media for photosynthesis and decomposition. Considering those aspects, there may exist the suitable balance of allocation proportions enabling the simultaneous reproduction of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget and storage. The present study explored the existence of such suitable balances of allocation proportions, and examines the performance of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes and biomass simulations with them. An experiment was performed with a widely used model, Biome-BGC, and effects of disturbance and forest age were considered in the model run. As for disturbance, human influence index map derived by CIESIN was used. A <span class="hlt">global</span> forest age map was prepared with model inversion method using CIESIN human influence index, GFED fire burnt area, and IIASA <span class="hlt">global</span> forest biomass maps. To validate model GPP and RE, we prepared the <span class="hlt">global</span> GPP map estimated with support vector machine and the <span class="hlt">global</span> RE map derived by downscaling the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget product (L4A) of Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) in conjunction with IIASA biomass and soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> products. Through a process of testing the simultaneous reproducibility of the Biome-BGC model, it will be determined whether the current terrestrial ecosystem model is sophisticated enough for clarifying the mechanism of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=31580&keyword=global+AND+warming+AND+effects+AND+forest&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=55727012&CFTOKEN=56875357','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=31580&keyword=global+AND+warming+AND+effects+AND+forest&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=55727012&CFTOKEN=56875357"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CARBON</span> SEQUESTRATION, BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY, AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: INTEGRATED FOREST <span class="hlt">MANAGEMENT</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Tropical deforestation provides a significant contribution to anthropogenic increases atmospheric CO2 concentration that may lead to <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. orestation and other forest <span class="hlt">management</span> options to sequester CO2 in the tropical latitudes may fail unless they address local econom...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....1220283D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....1220283D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> sequestration in <span class="hlt">managed</span> temperate coniferous forests under climate change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dymond, C. C.; Beukema, S.; Nitschke, C. R.; Coates, K. D.; Scheller, R. M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Management</span> of temperate forests has the potential to increase <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinks and mitigate climate change. However, those opportunities may be confounded by negative climate change impacts. We therefore need a better understanding of climate change alterations to temperate forest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics before developing mitigation strategies. The purpose of this project was to investigate the interactions of species composition, fire, <span class="hlt">management</span> and climate change on the Copper-Pine creek valley, a temperate coniferous forest with a wide range of growing conditions. To do so, we used the LANDIS-II modelling framework including the new Forest <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Succession extension to simulate forest ecosystems under four different productivity scenarios, with and without climate change effects, until 2050. Significantly, the new extension allowed us to calculate the Net Sector Productivity, a <span class="hlt">carbon</span> accounting metric that integrates above and below-ground <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics, disturbances, and the eventual fate of forest products. The model output was validated against literature values. The results implied that the species optimum growing conditions relative to current and future conditions strongly influenced future <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics. Warmer growing conditions led to increased <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinks and storage in the colder and wetter ecoregions but not necessarily in the others. Climate change impacts varied among species and site conditions and this indicates that both of these components need to be taken into account in when considering climate change mitigation activities and adaptive <span class="hlt">management</span>. The introduction of a new <span class="hlt">carbon</span> indicator - Net Sector Productivity, promises to be useful in assessing <span class="hlt">management</span> effectiveness and mitigation activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=229269','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=229269"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Management</span> effects on soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in Texas soils</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration is difficult in Texas, in part, because of the high annual temperatures and low rainfall amounts in portions of the state. However, research has shown that <span class="hlt">carbon</span> can be sequestered with a variety of <span class="hlt">management</span> systems. These systems include: i. Continuous cropping in are...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10205049','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10205049"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> warming and marine <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle feedbacks on future atmospheric CO2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Joos; Plattner; Stocker; Marchal; Schmittner</p> <p>1999-04-16</p> <p>A low-order physical-biogeochemical climate model was used to project atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide and <span class="hlt">global</span> warming for scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The North Atlantic thermohaline circulation weakens in all <span class="hlt">global</span> warming simulations and collapses at high levels of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide. Projected changes in the marine <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle have a modest impact on atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide. Compared with the control, atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide increased by 4 percent at year 2100 and 20 percent at year 2500. The reduction in ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake can be mainly explained by sea surface warming. The projected changes of the marine biological cycle compensate the reduction in downward mixing of anthropogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, except when the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation collapses. PMID:10205049</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/openfile/of01-374/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/openfile/of01-374/"><span id="translatedtitle">A guide to potential soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration; land-use <span class="hlt">management</span> for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Markewich, H.W.; Buell, G.R.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration has a potential role in reducing the recent increase in atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide (CO2) that is, in part, contributing to <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. Because the most stable long-term surface reservoir for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> is the soil, changes in agriculture and forestry can potentially reduce atmospheric CO2 through increased soil-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage. If local governments and regional planning agencies are to effect changes in land-use <span class="hlt">management</span> that could mitigate the impacts of increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, it is essential to know how <span class="hlt">carbon</span> is cycled and distributed on the landscape. Only then can a cost/benefit analysis be applied to <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration as a potential land-use <span class="hlt">management</span> tool for mitigation of GHG emissions. For the past several years, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been researching the role of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. Data from these investigations now allow the USGS to begin to (1) 'map' <span class="hlt">carbon</span> at national, regional, and local scales; (2) calculate present <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage at land surface; and (3) identify those areas having the greatest potential to sequester <span class="hlt">carbon</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3156087','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3156087"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Gradients of Coral Exposure to Environmental Stresses and Implications for Local <span class="hlt">Management</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Maina, Joseph; McClanahan, Tim R.; Venus, Valentijn; Ateweberhan, Mebrahtu; Madin, Joshua</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background The decline of coral reefs <span class="hlt">globally</span> underscores the need for a spatial assessment of their exposure to multiple environmental stressors to estimate vulnerability and evaluate potential counter-measures. Methodology/Principal Findings This study combined <span class="hlt">global</span> spatial gradients of coral exposure to radiation stress factors (temperature, UV light and doldrums), stress-reinforcing factors (sedimentation and eutrophication), and stress-reducing factors (temperature variability and tidal amplitude) to produce a <span class="hlt">global</span> map of coral exposure and identify areas where exposure depends on factors that can be locally <span class="hlt">managed</span>. A systems analytical approach was used to define interactions between radiation stress variables, stress reinforcing variables and stress reducing variables. Fuzzy logic and spatial ordinations were employed to quantify coral exposure to these stressors. <span class="hlt">Globally</span>, corals are exposed to radiation and reinforcing stress, albeit with high spatial variability within regions. Based on ordination of exposure grades, regions group into two clusters. The first cluster was composed of severely exposed regions with high radiation and low reducing stress scores (South East Asia, Micronesia, Eastern Pacific and the central Indian Ocean) or alternatively high reinforcing stress scores (the Middle East and the Western Australia). The second cluster was composed of moderately to highly exposed regions with moderate to high scores in both radiation and reducing factors (Caribbean, Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Central Pacific, Polynesia and the western Indian Ocean) where the GBR was strongly associated with reinforcing stress. Conclusions/Significance Despite radiation stress being the most dominant stressor, the exposure of coral reefs could be reduced by locally <span class="hlt">managing</span> chronic human impacts that act to reinforce radiation stress. Future research and <span class="hlt">management</span> efforts should focus on incorporating the factors that mitigate the effect of coral stressors until long-term <span class="hlt">carbon</span> reductions are achieved through <span class="hlt">global</span> negotiations. PMID:21860667</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4283042','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4283042"><span id="translatedtitle">The role of soil microbes in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle: tracking the below-ground microbial processing of plant-derived <span class="hlt">carbon</span> for manipulating <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics in agricultural systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gougoulias, Christos; Clark, Joanna M; Shaw, Liz J</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>It is well known that atmospheric concentrations of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide (CO2) (and other greenhouse gases) have increased markedly as a result of human activity since the industrial revolution. It is perhaps less appreciated that natural and <span class="hlt">managed</span> soils are an important source and sink for atmospheric CO2 and that, primarily as a result of the activities of soil microorganisms, there is a soil-derived respiratory flux of CO2 to the atmosphere that overshadows by tenfold the annual CO2 flux from fossil fuel emissions. Therefore small changes in the soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle could have large impacts on atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Here we discuss the role of soil microbes in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle and review the main methods that have been used to identify the microorganisms responsible for the processing of plant photosynthetic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> inputs to soil. We discuss whether application of these techniques can provide the information required to underpin the <span class="hlt">management</span> of agro-ecosystems for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration and increased agricultural sustainability. We conclude that, although crucial in enabling the identification of plant-derived <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-utilising microbes, current technologies lack the high-throughput ability to quantitatively apportion <span class="hlt">carbon</span> use by phylogentic groups and its use efficiency and destination within the microbial metabolome. It is this information that is required to inform rational manipulation of the plant–soil system to favour organisms or physiologies most important for promoting soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage in agricultural soil. PMID:24425529</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24425529','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24425529"><span id="translatedtitle">The role of soil microbes in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle: tracking the below-ground microbial processing of plant-derived <span class="hlt">carbon</span> for manipulating <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics in agricultural systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gougoulias, Christos; Clark, Joanna M; Shaw, Liz J</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>It is well known that atmospheric concentrations of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide (CO2) (and other greenhouse gases) have increased markedly as a result of human activity since the industrial revolution. It is perhaps less appreciated that natural and <span class="hlt">managed</span> soils are an important source and sink for atmospheric CO2 and that, primarily as a result of the activities of soil microorganisms, there is a soil-derived respiratory flux of CO2 to the atmosphere that overshadows by tenfold the annual CO2 flux from fossil fuel emissions. Therefore small changes in the soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle could have large impacts on atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Here we discuss the role of soil microbes in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle and review the main methods that have been used to identify the microorganisms responsible for the processing of plant photosynthetic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> inputs to soil. We discuss whether application of these techniques can provide the information required to underpin the <span class="hlt">management</span> of agro-ecosystems for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration and increased agricultural sustainability. We conclude that, although crucial in enabling the identification of plant-derived <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-utilising microbes, current technologies lack the high-throughput ability to quantitatively apportion <span class="hlt">carbon</span> use by phylogentic groups and its use efficiency and destination within the microbial metabolome. It is this information that is required to inform rational manipulation of the plant-soil system to favour organisms or physiologies most important for promoting soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage in agricultural soil. PMID:24425529</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24847888','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24847888"><span id="translatedtitle">Contribution of semi-arid ecosystems to interannual variability of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Poulter, Benjamin; Frank, David; Ciais, Philippe; Myneni, Ranga B; Andela, Niels; Bi, Jian; Broquet, Gregoire; Canadell, Josep G; Chevallier, Frederic; Liu, Yi Y; Running, Steven W; Sitch, Stephen; van der Werf, Guido R</p> <p>2014-05-29</p> <p>The land and ocean act as a sink for fossil-fuel emissions, thereby slowing the rise of atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide concentrations. Although the uptake of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> by oceanic and terrestrial processes has kept pace with accelerating <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide emissions until now, atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide concentrations exhibit a large variability on interannual timescales, considered to be driven primarily by terrestrial ecosystem processes dominated by tropical rainforests. We use a terrestrial biogeochemical model, atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide inversion and <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget accounting methods to investigate the evolution of the terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink over the past 30 years, with a focus on the underlying mechanisms responsible for the exceptionally large land <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink reported in 2011 (ref. 2). Here we show that our three terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink estimates are in good agreement and support the finding of a 2011 record land <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink. Surprisingly, we find that the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink anomaly was driven by growth of semi-arid vegetation in the Southern Hemisphere, with almost 60 per cent of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake attributed to Australian ecosystems, where prevalent La Niña conditions caused up to six consecutive seasons of increased precipitation. In addition, since 1981, a six per cent expansion of vegetation cover over Australia was associated with a fourfold increase in the sensitivity of continental net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake to precipitation. Our findings suggest that the higher turnover rates of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pools in semi-arid biomes are an increasingly important driver of <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle inter-annual variability and that tropical rainforests may become less relevant drivers in the future. More research is needed to identify to what extent the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks accumulated during wet years are vulnerable to rapid decomposition or loss through fire in subsequent years. PMID:24847888</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/accomplishments/documents/fullText/ACC0250.pdf','DOE-RDACC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/accomplishments/documents/fullText/ACC0250.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dioxide and the <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle: The Key Uncertainties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/accomplishments/fieldedsearch.html">DOE R&D Accomplishments Database</a></p> <p>Peng, T. H.; Post, W. M.; DeAngelis, D. L.; Dale, V. H.; Farrell, M. P.</p> <p>1987-12-01</p> <p>The biogeochemical cycling of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> between its sources and sinks determines the rate of increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. The observed increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} content is less than the estimated release from fossil fuel consumption and deforestation. This discrepancy can be explained by interactions between the atmosphere and other <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> reservoirs such as the oceans, and the terrestrial biosphere including soils. Undoubtedly, the oceans have been the most important sinks for CO{sub 2} produced by man. But, the physical, chemical, and biological processes of oceans are complex and, therefore, credible estimates of CO{sub 2} uptake can probably only come from mathematical models. Unfortunately, one- and two-dimensional ocean models do not allow for enough CO{sub 2} uptake to accurately account for known releases. Thus, they produce higher concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} than was historically the case. More complex three-dimensional models, while currently being developed, may make better use of existing tracer data than do one- and two-dimensional models and will also incorporate climate feedback effects to provide a more realistic view of ocean dynamics and CO{sub 2} fluxes. The instability of current models to estimate accurately oceanic uptake of CO{sub 2} creates one of the key uncertainties in predictions of atmospheric CO{sub 2} increases and climate responses over the next 100 to 200 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5473519','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5473519"><span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide and the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle: The key uncertainties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Peng, T.H.; Post, W.M.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Dale, V.H.; Farrell, M.P.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The biogeochemical cycling of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> between its sources and sinks determines the rate of increase in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations. The observed increase in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ content is less than the estimated release from fossil fuel consumption and deforestation. This discrepancy can be explained by interactions between the atmosphere and other <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> reservoirs such as the oceans, and the terrestrial biosphere including soils. Undoubtedly, the oceans have been the most important sinks for CO/sub 2/ produced by man. But, the physical, chemical, and biological processes of oceans are complex and, therefore, credible estimates of CO/sub 2/ uptake can probably only come from mathematical models. Unfortunately, one- and two-dimensional ocean models do not allow for enough CO/sub 2/ uptake to accurately account for known releases. Thus, they produce higher concentrations of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ than was historically the case. More complex three-dimensional models, while currently being developed, may make better use of existing tracer data than do one- and two-dimensional models and will also incorporate climate feedback effects to provide a more realistic view of ocean dynamics and CO/sub 2/ fluxes. The instability of current models to estimate accurately oceanic uptake of CO/sub 2/ creates one of the key uncertainties in predictions of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ increases and climate responses over the next 100 to 200 years. 60 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25585139','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25585139"><span id="translatedtitle">The effects of household <span class="hlt">management</span> practices on the <span class="hlt">global</span> warming potential of urban lawns.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gu, Chuanhui; Crane, John; Hornberger, George; Carrico, Amanda</p> <p>2015-03-15</p> <p>Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions are an important component of the greenhouse gas (GHG) budget for urban turfgrasses. A biogeochemical model DNDC successfully captured the magnitudes and patterns of N2O emissions observed at an urban turfgrass system at the Richland Creek Watershed in Nashville, TN. The model was then used to study the long-term (i.e. 75 years) impacts of lawn <span class="hlt">management</span> practice (LMP) on soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration rate (dSOC), soil N2O emissions, and net <span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming Potentials (net GWPs). The model simulated N2O emissions and net GWP from the three <span class="hlt">management</span> intensity levels over 75 years ranged from 0.75 to 3.57 kg N ha(-1)yr(-1) and 697 to 2443 kg CO2-eq ha(-1)yr(-1), respectively, which suggested that turfgrasses act as a net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emitter. Reduction of fertilization is most effective to mitigate the <span class="hlt">global</span> warming potentials of turfgrasses. Compared to the baseline scenario, halving fertilization rate and clipping recycle as an alternative to synthetic fertilizer can reduce net GWPs by 17% and 12%, respectively. In addition, reducing irrigation and mowing are also effective in lowering net GWPs. The minimum-maintenance LMP without irrigation and fertilization can reduce annual N2O emissions and net GWPs by approximately 53% and 70%, respectively, with the price of gradual depletion of soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, when compared to the intensive-maintenance LMP. A lawn age-dependent best <span class="hlt">management</span> practice is recommended: a high dose fertilizer input at the initial stage of lawn establishment to enhance SOC sequestration, followed by decreasing fertilization rate when the lawn ages to minimize N2O emissions. A minimum-maintained LMP with clipping recycling, and minimum irrigation and mowing, is recommended to mitigate <span class="hlt">global</span> warming effects from urban turfgrass systems. Among all practices, clipping recycle may be a relatively malleable behavior and, therefore, a good target for interventions seeking to reduce the environmental impacts of lawn <span class="hlt">management</span> through public education. Our results suggest that a long-term or a chronosequence study of turfgrasses with varying ages is warranted to capture the complete dynamics of contribution of turfgrasses to <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. PMID:25585139</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC44A..05D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC44A..05D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span> In the Post-Cap-and-Trade <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Economy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>DeGroff, F. A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>This abstract outlines an economic model that integrates <span class="hlt">carbon</span> externalities seamlessly into the national and international economies. The model incorporates a broad <span class="hlt">carbon</span> metric used to value all <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in the biosphere, as well as all transnational commerce. The model minimizes the cost associated with <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span>, and allows for the variation in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> avidity between jurisdictions. When implemented over time, the model reduces the deadweight loss while minimizing social cost, thus maximizing the marginal social benefit commonly associated with Pigouvian taxes. Once implemented, the model provides a comprehensive economic construct for governments, industry and consumers to efficiently weigh the cost of <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, and effectively participate in helping to reduce their direct and indirect use of <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, while allowing individual jurisdictions to decide their own <span class="hlt">carbon</span> value, without the need for explicit, express agreement of all countries. The model uses no credits, requires no caps, and matches climate changing behavior to costs. The steps to implement the model for a particular jurisdiction are: 1) Define the <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Metric to value changes in <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Quality. 2) Apply the <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Metric to assess the <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Toll a) for all changes in <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Quality and b) for imports and exports. This economic model has 3 clear advantages. 1) The <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pricing and cost scheme use existing and generally accepted accounting methodologies to ensure the veracity and verifiability of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> efforts with minimal effort and expense using standard auditing protocols. Implementing this economic model will not require any special training, tools, or systems for any entity to achieve their minimum <span class="hlt">carbon</span> target goals within their jurisdictional framework. 2) Given the spectrum of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> affinities worldwide, the model recognizes and provides for flexible <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pricing regimes, but does not penalize domestic <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-consuming producers subject to imports from exporters in lower <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-pricing jurisdictions. Thus, the economic model avoids a key shortcoming of cap-and-trade <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pricing, and eliminates any incentive to inefficiently shift <span class="hlt">carbon</span> consumption to jurisdictions with lower <span class="hlt">carbon</span> tolls. 3) The economic model is a comprehensive, efficient and effective strategy that allows for the implementation of a <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-pricing structure without the complete, explicit agreement of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> consumers worldwide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26301476','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26301476"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> change pressures on soils from land use and <span class="hlt">management</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Smith, Pete; House, Joanna I; Bustamante, Mercedes; Sobocká, Jaroslava; Harper, Richard; Pan, Genxing; West, Paul C; Clark, Joanna M; Adhya, Tapan; Rumpel, Cornelia; Paustian, Keith; Kuikman, Peter; Cotrufo, M Francesca; Elliott, Jane A; McDowell, Richard; Griffiths, Robert I; Asakawa, Susumu; Bondeau, Alberte; Jain, Atul K; Meersmans, Jeroen; Pugh, Thomas A M</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Soils are subject to varying degrees of direct or indirect human disturbance, constituting a major <span class="hlt">global</span> change driver. Factoring out natural from direct and indirect human influence is not always straightforward, but some human activities have clear impacts. These include land-use change, land <span class="hlt">management</span> and land degradation (erosion, compaction, sealing and salinization). The intensity of land use also exerts a great impact on soils, and soils are also subject to indirect impacts arising from human activity, such as acid deposition (sulphur and nitrogen) and heavy metal pollution. In this critical review, we report the state-of-the-art understanding of these <span class="hlt">global</span> change pressures on soils, identify knowledge gaps and research challenges and highlight actions and policies to minimize adverse environmental impacts arising from these <span class="hlt">global</span> change drivers. Soils are central to considerations of what constitutes sustainable intensification. Therefore, ensuring that vulnerable and high environmental value soils are considered when protecting important habitats and ecosystems, will help to reduce the pressure on land from <span class="hlt">global</span> change drivers. To ensure that soils are protected as part of wider environmental efforts, a <span class="hlt">global</span> soil resilience programme should be considered, to monitor, recover or sustain soil fertility and function, and to enhance the ecosystem services provided by soils. Soils cannot, and should not, be considered in isolation of the ecosystems that they underpin and vice versa. The role of soils in supporting ecosystems and natural capital needs greater recognition. The lasting legacy of the International Year of Soils in 2015 should be to put soils at the centre of policy supporting environmental protection and sustainable development. PMID:26301476</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040088881&hterms=Carbon+cycle&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2528Carbon%2Bcycle%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040088881&hterms=Carbon+cycle&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2528Carbon%2Bcycle%2529"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> geochemical cycles of <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, sulfur and oxygen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Walker, J. C.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Time resolved data on the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotopic composition of <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> minerals and the sulfur isotopic composition or sulfate minerals show a strong negative correlation during the Cretaceous. <span class="hlt">Carbonate</span> minerals are isotopically heavy during this period while sulfate minerals are isotopically light. The implication is that <span class="hlt">carbon</span> is being transferred from the oxidized, <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> reservoir to the reservoir of isotopically light reduced organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in sedimentary rocks while sulfur is being transferred from the reservoir of isotopically light sedimentary sulfide to the oxidized, sulfate reservoir. These apparently oppositely directed changes in the oxidation state of average sedimentary <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and sulfur are surprising because of a well-established and easy to understand correlation between the concentrations of reduced organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and sulfide minerals in sedimentary rocks. Rocks rich in reduced <span class="hlt">carbon</span> are also rich in reduced sulfur. The isotopic and concentration data can be reconciled by a model which invokes a significant flux of hydrothermal sulfide to the deep sea, at least during the Cretaceous.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996GBioC..10..543S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996GBioC..10..543S"><span id="translatedtitle">Biomass of termites and their emissions of methane and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide: A <span class="hlt">global</span> database</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sanderson, M. G.</p> <p>1996-12-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">global</span> database describing the geographical distribution of the biomass of termites and their emissions of methane and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide has been constructed. Termite biomasses were assigned to various ecosystems using published measurements and a recent high-resolution (10' 10') database of vegetation categories. The assigned biomasses were then combined with literature measurements of fluxes of methane and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide from termites and extrapolated to give <span class="hlt">global</span> emission estimates for each gas. The <span class="hlt">global</span> emissions of methane and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide are 19.7 1.5 and 3500 700 Mt yr-1, respectively (1 Mt = 1012 g). These emissions contribute approximately 4% and 2%, respectively, to the total <span class="hlt">global</span> fluxes of these gases. This database gives an accurate distribution of the biomasses and gaseous emissions by termites and may be incorporated into <span class="hlt">global</span> models of the atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3963747','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3963747"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Managing</span> atrial fibrillation in the <span class="hlt">global</span> community: The European perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kaba, Riyaz A; Camm, A John; Williams, Timothy M; Sharma, Rajan</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Atrial fibrillation is a common, <span class="hlt">global</span> problem, with great personal, economic and social burdens. As populations age it increases in prevalence and becomes another condition that requires careful chronic <span class="hlt">management</span> to ensure its effects are minimised. Assessment of the risk of stroke using well established risk prediction models is being aided by modern computerised databases and the choice of drugs to prevent strokes is ever expanding to try and improve the major cause of morbidity in AF. In addition, newer drugs for controlling rhythm are available and guidelines are constantly changing to reflect this. As well as medications, modern techniques of electrophysiology are becoming more widely embraced worldwide to provide more targeted treatment for the underlying pathophysiology. In this review we consider these factors to concisely describe how AF can be successfully <span class="hlt">managed</span>. PMID:24689018</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26259944','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26259944"><span id="translatedtitle">A Framework for <span class="hlt">Global</span> Collaborative Data <span class="hlt">Management</span> for Malaria Research.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gutierrez, Juan B; Harb, Omar S; Zheng, Jie; Tisch, Daniel J; Charlebois, Edwin D; Stoeckert, Christian J; Sullivan, Steven A</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Data generated during the course of research activities carried out by the International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) is heterogeneous, large, and multi-scaled. The complexity of federated and <span class="hlt">global</span> data operations and the diverse uses planned for the data pose tremendous challenges and opportunities for collaborative research. In this article, we present the foundational principles for data <span class="hlt">management</span> across the ICEMR Program, the logistics associated with multiple aspects of the data life cycle, and describe a pilot centralized web information system created in PlasmoDB to query a subset of this data. The paradigm proposed as a solution for the data operations in the ICEMR Program is widely applicable to large, multifaceted research projects, and could be reproduced in other contexts that require sophisticated data <span class="hlt">management</span>. PMID:26259944</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5916','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5916"><span id="translatedtitle">A Uniform Framework of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Nuclear Materials <span class="hlt">Management</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dupree, S.A.; Mangan, D.L.; Sanders, T.L; Sellers, T.A.</p> <p>1999-04-20</p> <p><span class="hlt">Global</span> Nuclear Materials <span class="hlt">Management</span> (GNMM) anticipates and supports a growing international recognition of the importance of uniform, effective <span class="hlt">management</span> of civilian, excess defense, and nuclear weapons materials. We expect thereto be a continuing increase in both the number of international agreements and conventions on safety, security, and transparency of nuclear materials, and the number of U.S.-Russian agreements for the safety, protection, and transparency of weapons and excess defense materials. This inventory of agreements and conventions may soon expand into broad, mandatory, international programs that will include provisions for inspection, verification, and transparency, To meet such demand the community must build on the resources we have, including State agencies, the IAEA and regional organizations. By these measures we will meet the future expectations for monitoring and inspection of materials, maintenance of safety and security, and implementation of transparency measures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4574270','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4574270"><span id="translatedtitle">A Framework for <span class="hlt">Global</span> Collaborative Data <span class="hlt">Management</span> for Malaria Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gutierrez, Juan B.; Harb, Omar S.; Zheng, Jie; Tisch, Daniel J.; Charlebois, Edwin D.; Stoeckert, Christian J.; Sullivan, Steven A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Data generated during the course of research activities carried out by the International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) is heterogeneous, large, and multi-scaled. The complexity of federated and <span class="hlt">global</span> data operations and the diverse uses planned for the data pose tremendous challenges and opportunities for collaborative research. In this article, we present the foundational principles for data <span class="hlt">management</span> across the ICEMR Program, the logistics associated with multiple aspects of the data life cycle, and describe a pilot centralized web information system created in PlasmoDB to query a subset of this data. The paradigm proposed as a solution for the data operations in the ICEMR Program is widely applicable to large, multifaceted research projects, and could be reproduced in other contexts that require sophisticated data <span class="hlt">management</span>. PMID:26259944</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS11F..08S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS11F..08S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> isotope stratigraphy of an ancient (Ordovician) Bahamian-type <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> platform: Implications for preservation of <span class="hlt">global</span> seawater trends</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saltzman, M.; Leslie, S. A.; Edwards, C. T.; Diamond, C. W.; Trigg, C. R.; Sedlacek, A. R.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> isotope stratigraphy has a unique role in the interpretation of Earth history as one of the few geochemical proxies that have been widely applied throughout the geologic time scale, from the Precambrian to the Recent, as both a <span class="hlt">global</span> correlation tool and proxy for the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. However, in addition to consideration of the role of diagenesis, numerous studies have raised awareness of the fact that C-isotope trends derived from ancient <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> platforms may not be representative of dissolved inorganic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> from a well-mixed <span class="hlt">global</span> ocean reservoir. Furthermore, the larger <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotopic fractionation in the formation of aragonite versus calcite from seawater must be taken into account. All three of these variables (diagenesis, water mass residence time, % aragonite) may change in response to sea level, producing trends in C-isotopes on ancient <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> platforms that are unrelated to the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle fluxes may also have a cause-effect relationship with sea level changes, further complicating interpretations of stratigraphic trends in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotopes from ancient platform environments. Studies of C-isotopes in modern <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> platform settings such as the Great Bahama Bank (GBB) provide important analogues in addressing whether or not ancient platforms are likely to preserve a record of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycling in the <span class="hlt">global</span> ocean. Swart et al. (2009) found that waters of the GBB had generally the same or elevated values (ranging from +0.5 to +2.5) compared to the <span class="hlt">global</span> oceans, interpreted as reflecting differential photosynthetic fractionation and precipitation of calcium <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> (which lowers pH and converts bicarbonate into 12-C enriched <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide, leaving residual bicarbonate heavier). <span class="hlt">Carbonate</span> sediments of the GBB have elevated C-isotopes, not only because of the high C-isotope composition of the overlying waters, but also due to the greater fractionation associated with precipitation of aragonite versus calcite. Few studies of ancient <span class="hlt">carbonates</span> have attempted to explicitly compare C-isotope trends in both restricted platform settings and open marine settings (e.g., Immenhauser et al. 2002). We studied a restricted Bahamian-type <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> platform of Middle-Late Ordovician (Darriwilian-early Sandbian) age included in the St. Paul Group of Maryland, notable for sedimentologic evidence of severe restriction and a general lack of open marine macrofauna. We are able to correlate the C-isotope curve from the St. Paul Group to other sections <span class="hlt">globally</span> by using a combination of conodont microfossils and measurement of Sr isotopes on conodont apatite. Coeval C-isotope trends from open marine settings in the western United States and Estonia are comparable to the restricted platform in Maryland. In our Ordovician example, local factors appear to have modified the magnitude of the <span class="hlt">global</span> trends, but not the timing and direction. A remaining question is whether magnitude differences are a function of sedimentation rate and completeness. We continue to test hypotheses of <span class="hlt">global</span> correlations of C-isotope trends in the Middle-Late Ordovician by utilizing the rapidly changing Sr isotope curve at that time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024338','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024338"><span id="translatedtitle">The importance of rapid, disturbance-induced losses in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> and sequestration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Breshears, D.D.; Allen, C.D.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Management</span> of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes is being proposed as a means of increasing the amount of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestered in the terrestrial biosphere. This approach is generally viewed only as an interim strategy for the coming decades while other longer-term strategies are developed and implemented - the most important being the direct reduction of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions. We are concerned that the potential for rapid, disturbance-induced losses may be much greater than is currently appreciated, especially by the decision-making community. Here we wish to: (1) highlight the complex and threshold-like nature of disturbances - such as fire and drought, as well as the erosion associated with each - that could lead to <span class="hlt">carbon</span> losses; (2) note the <span class="hlt">global</span> extent of ecosystems that are at risk of such disturbance-induced <span class="hlt">carbon</span> losses; and (3) call for increased consideration of and research on the mechanisms by which large, rapid disturbance-induced losses of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> could occur. Our lack of ability as a scientific community to predict such ecosystem dynamics is precluding the effective consideration of these processes into strategies and policies related to <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> and sequestration. Consequently, scientists need to do more to improve quantification of these potential losses and to integrate them into sound, sustainable policy options.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70000512','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70000512"><span id="translatedtitle">Mangrove production and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinks: A revision of <span class="hlt">global</span> budget estimates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bouillon, S.; Borges, A.V.; Castaneda-Moya, E.; Diele, K.; Dittmar, T.; Duke, N.C.; Kristensen, E.; Lee, S.-Y.; Marchand, C.; Middelburg, J.J.; Rivera-Monroy, V. H.; Smith, T. J., III; Twilley, R.R.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Mangrove forests are highly productive but <span class="hlt">globally</span> threatened coastal ecosystems, whose role in the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget of the coastal zone has long been debated. Here we provide a comprehensive synthesis of the available data on <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes in mangrove ecosystems. A reassessment of <span class="hlt">global</span> mangrove primary production from the literature results in a conservative estimate of ???-218 ?? 72 Tg C a-1. When using the best available estimates of various <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinks (organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> export, sediment burial, and mineralization), it appears that >50% of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fixed by mangrove vegetation is unaccounted for. This unaccounted <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink is conservatively estimated at ??? 112 ?? 85 Tg C a-1, equivalent in magnitude to ??? 30-40% of the <span class="hlt">global</span> riverine organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> input to the coastal zone. Our analysis suggests that mineralization is severely underestimated, and that the majority of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> export from mangroves to adjacent waters occurs as dissolved inorganic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (DIC). CO2 efflux from sediments and creek waters and tidal export of DIC appear to be the major sinks. These processes are quantitatively comparable in magnitude to the unaccounted <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink in current budgets, but are not yet adequately constrained with the limited published data available so far. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=212423','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=212423"><span id="translatedtitle">Economic and Societal Benefits of Soil <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span> (Chapter 1).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Many papers and books on soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> have addressed specific ecosystems such as agricultural lands, rangelands, forestlands, etc. This paper introduces a book within which each chapter begins by addressing a particular concern and potential options to <span class="hlt">manage</span> it, along with their real and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=34682&keyword=VER&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=58384760&CFTOKEN=37665112','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=34682&keyword=VER&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=58384760&CFTOKEN=37665112"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CARBON</span> POOL AND FLUX OF <span class="hlt">GLOBAL</span> FOREST ECOSYSTEMS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Forest systems cover more than 4.1 x 10 9 hectares of the Earth's land area. lobally, forest vegetation and soils contain about 1146 petagrams of <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, with approximately 37 percent of this <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in low-latitude forests, 14 percent in mid-latitudes, and 49 percent in high lati...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdAtS..33..247W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdAtS..33..247W"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic responses of atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide concentration to <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature changes between 1850 and 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Weile; Nemani, Ramakrishna</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Changes in Earth's temperature have significant impacts on the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle that vary at different time scales, yet to quantify such impacts with a simple scheme is traditionally deemed difficult. Here, we show that, by incorporating a temperature sensitivity parameter (1.64 ppm yr-1 °C-1) into a simple linear <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-cycle model, we can accurately characterize the dynamic responses of atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide (CO2) concentration to anthropogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions and <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature changes between 1850 and 2010 ( r 2 > 0.96 and the root-mean-square error < 1 ppm for the period from 1960 onward). Analytical analysis also indicates that the multiplication of the parameter with the response time of the atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> reservoir (~12 year) approximates the long-term temperature sensitivity of <span class="hlt">global</span> atmospheric CO2 concentration (~15 ppm °C-1), generally consistent with previous estimates based on reconstructed CO2 and climate records over the Little Ice Age. Our results suggest that recent increases in <span class="hlt">global</span> surface temperatures, which accelerate the release of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> from the surface reservoirs into the atmosphere, have partially offset surface <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptakes enhanced by the elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and slowed the net rate of atmospheric CO2 sequestration by <span class="hlt">global</span> land and oceans by ~30% since the 1960s. The linear modeling framework outlined in this paper thus provides a useful tool to diagnose the observed atmospheric CO2 dynamics and monitor their future changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=291165','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=291165"><span id="translatedtitle">The significance of <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-enriched dust for <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> accounting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stores amount to 54% of the terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pool and twice the atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pool, but soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (SOC) can be transient. There is an ongoing debate about whether soils are a net source or sink of <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, and understanding the role of aeolian processes in SOC erosion, tr...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989EnMan..13..339M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989EnMan..13..339M"><span id="translatedtitle">An integrated and pragmatic approach: <span class="hlt">Global</span> plant safety <span class="hlt">management</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McNutt, Jack; Gross, Andrew</p> <p>1989-05-01</p> <p>The Bhopal disaster in India in 1984 has compelled manufacturing companies to review their operations in order to minimize their risk exposure. Much study has been done on the subject of risk assessment and in refining safety reviews of plant operations. However, little work has been done to address the broader needs of decision makers in the multinational environment. The corporate headquarters of multinational organizations are concerned with identifying vulnerable areas to assure that appropriate risk-minimization measures are in force or will be taken. But the task of screening <span class="hlt">global</span> business units for safety prowess is complicated and time consuming. This article takes a step towards simplifying this process by presenting the decisional model developed by the authors. Beginning with an overview of key issues affecting <span class="hlt">global</span> safety <span class="hlt">management</span>, the focus shifts to the multinational vulnerability model developed by the authors, which reflects an integration of approaches. The article concludes with a discussion of areas for further research. While the <span class="hlt">global</span> chemical industry and major incidents therein are used for illustration, the procedures and solutions suggested here are applicable to all manufacturing operations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EurSS..47.1152S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EurSS..47.1152S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> storage under different grazing <span class="hlt">management</span> in the typical steppe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sarula; Chen, Haijun; Hou, Xiangyang; Ubugunov, Leonid; Vishnyakova, Oksana; Wu, Xinhong; Ren, Weibo; Ding, Yong</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Understanding the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage is necessary to understand how grassland ecosystems would respond to natural and anthropogenic disturbances under different <span class="hlt">management</span> strategies. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> storage was investigated in aboveground biomass, litter, roots and soil organic matter (SOM) in eight sites that were floristically and topographically similar, but had been subjected to different years of grazing exclusion and different grazing intensities. The primary objective of this study was to ascertain the effect of different grazing <span class="hlt">management</span> regimes on <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage in the typical steppe ecosystem of China. The results revealed that the total <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stored in aboveground biomass, litter, roots and SOM (the top 100cm soil layer) varied from 9.29 to 18.51 kg m2. Over 94% of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stored in the SOM, with minor storage in other pools. Soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage decreased substantially with grazing intensity and the six years of grazing exclusion had a higher storage than 32 and 15 years grazing exclusion. The <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage trend observed in these treatments suggests that moderate grazing as well as mowing can improve the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration and the longer fencing year is not better for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> accumulation of typical steppe in China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029856','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029856"><span id="translatedtitle">The impact of agricultural soil erosion on the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Van Oost, Kristof; Quine, T.A.; Govers, G.; De Gryze, S.; Six, J.; Harden, J.W.; Ritchie, J.C.; McCarty, G.W.; Heckrath, G.; Kosmas, C.; Giraldez, J.V.; Marques Da Silva, J.R.; Merckx, R.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Agricultural soil erosion is thought to perturb the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle, but estimates of its effect range from a source of 1 petagram per year -1 to a sink of the same magnitude. By using caesium-137 and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> inventory measurements from a large-scale survey, we found consistent evidence for an erosion-induced sink of atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> equivalent to approximately 26% of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> transported by erosion. Based on this relationship, we estimated a <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink of 0.12 (range 0.06 to 0.27) petagrams of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> per year-1 resulting from erosion in the world's agricultural landscapes. Our analysis directly challenges the view that agricultural erosion represents an important source or sink for atmospheric CO2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=215714','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=215714"><span id="translatedtitle">The Impact of Agricultural Soil Erosion on the <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Agricultural soil erosion is thought to perturb the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle, but estimates of its effect range from a source of 1 Pg/year to a sink of the same magnitude. By using Caesium-137 and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> inventory measurements from a large-scale survey, we found consistent evidence for an erosion-induced...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=226247','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=226247"><span id="translatedtitle">Sustainability: The capacity of smokeless biomass pyrolysis for energy production, <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> capture and sequestration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Application of modern smokeless biomass pyrolysis for biochar and biofuel production is potentially a revolutionary approach for <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> capture and sequestration at gigatons of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (GtC) scales. A conversion of about 7% of the annual terrestrial gross photosynthetic product (120 GtC y-1) i...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMIN51A1535H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMIN51A1535H"><span id="translatedtitle">Rapid <span class="hlt">Global</span> Imagery <span class="hlt">Management</span> and Generation In Action</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, T.; Alarcon, C.; Thompson, C. K.; Roberts, J. T.; Hall, J. R.; Cechini, M. F.; Schmaltz, J. E.; McGann, J. M.; Boller, R. A.; Murphy, K. J.; Bingham, A. W.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>NASA's <span class="hlt">Global</span> Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) project has positioned itself to be the <span class="hlt">global</span> imagery solution for the Earth Observation System (EOS), delivering <span class="hlt">global</span>, full-resolution satellite imagery in a highly responsive manner. This is an ambitious goal for supporting a growing a collection of distributed archives consist of heterogeneous near real-time (NRT) and science products with varied and often disparate provenance pertaining to source platforms and instruments, spatial resolutions, processing algorithms, metadata models and packaging specifications. GIBS consists of two major subsystems, OnEarth and The Imagery Exchange (TIE). OnEarth is the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC)-compliant Web Map Tile Service (WMTS), which efficiently serves multi-resolution imagery to clients (e.g., http://podaac-tools.jpl.nasa.gov/soto/ and http://earthdata.nasa.gov/labs/worldview/). TIE is the GIBS imagery workflow <span class="hlt">management</span> solution that is a specialization of the horizontally scaled Data <span class="hlt">Management</span> and Archive System (DMAS) developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Like DMAS, TIE is an Open Archival Information System (OAIS) responsible for orchestrating the workflow for acquisition, preparation, generation, and archiving of imagery to be served by OnEarth. The workflow collects imagery provenance throughout a product's lifecycle by leveraging the EOS Clearing House (ECHO) and other long-term metadata repositories in order to promote reproducibility and retain lineage with source observational artifacts. This talk focuses on the current TIE development activities and some of the patterns and architectures that have proven successful in building a horizontal-scaling workflow data systems. As a data solution developed using open source technologies. This talk also discusses current activities in getting DMAS and TIE to the open source community.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMPP33A1527B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMPP33A1527B"><span id="translatedtitle">Transient <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotope changes in complex systems: Finding the <span class="hlt">global</span> signal, embracing the local signal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bowen, G. J.; Schneider-Mor, A.; Filley, T. R.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Global</span>, transient <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotope excursions (CIEs) in the geological record are increasingly invoked as evidence of short-lived changes in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes to/from the ocean-atmosphere-biosphere (exogenic) system. Reconstructing the dynamics of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle perturbation and response during such events requires that the <span class="hlt">global</span> extent, magnitude, and temporal pattern of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotope change are well understood. Unfortunately, no simple, <span class="hlt">globally</span> integrated measure of exogenic ?13C change exists in the geological record: during major <span class="hlt">global</span> perturbations even the best-case candidates such as deep-ocean <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> ?13C values likely respond to a complex of factors including ocean <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> chemistry and circulation. Here we consider the utility of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotope records from two complex depositional systems common in the geological record, fossil soils and continental margin sediments, which are of interest in terms of their relationship to organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycling and records of past ecological change. Within both systems changes in ecology, climate, <span class="hlt">carbon</span> source, residence time, and molecular composition have clear potential to modulate the preserved record of <span class="hlt">global</span> exogenic ?13C change, compromising 1st-order interpretations of bulk or compound-specific isotopic records. Process-explicit eco- geochemical models, ideally combined with multi-substrate data, provide one approach to the isolation of <span class="hlt">global</span> ?13C change and identification of local or regional processes reflected in such records. Examples from both systems drawn from ongoing work on the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum illustrate the potential pitfalls, as well as opportunities, afforded by coupled data/model assessment of transient ?13C changes in complex systems.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22905190','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22905190"><span id="translatedtitle">An ecosystem evaluation framework for <span class="hlt">global</span> seamount conservation and <span class="hlt">management</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Taranto, Gerald H; Kvile, Kristina ; Pitcher, Tony J; Morato, Telmo</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In the last twenty years, several <span class="hlt">global</span> targets for protection of marine biodiversity have been adopted but have failed. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) aims at preserving 10% of all the marine biomes by 2020. For achieving this goal, ecologically or biologically significant areas (EBSA) have to be identified in all biogeographic regions. However, the methodologies for identifying the best suitable areas are still to be agreed. Here, we propose a framework for applying the CBD criteria to locate potential ecologically or biologically significant seamount areas based on the best information currently available. The framework combines the likelihood of a seamount constituting an EBSA and its level of human impact and can be used at <span class="hlt">global</span>, regional and local scales. This methodology allows the classification of individual seamounts into four major portfolio conservation categories which can help optimize <span class="hlt">management</span> efforts toward the protection of the most suitable areas. The framework was tested against 1000 dummy seamounts and satisfactorily assigned seamounts to proper EBSA and threats categories. Additionally, the framework was applied to eight case study seamounts that were included in three out of four portfolio categories: areas highly likely to be identified as EBSA with high degree of threat; areas highly likely to be EBSA with low degree of threat; and areas with a low likelihood of being EBSA with high degree of threat. This framework will allow <span class="hlt">managers</span> to identify seamount EBSAs and to prioritize their policies in terms of protecting undisturbed areas, disturbed areas for recovery of habitats and species, or both based on their <span class="hlt">management</span> objectives. It also identifies seamount EBSAs and threats considering different ecological groups in both pelagic and benthic communities. Therefore, this framework may represent an important tool to mitigate seamount biodiversity loss and to achieve the 2020 CBD goals. PMID:22905190</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3414466','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3414466"><span id="translatedtitle">An Ecosystem Evaluation Framework for <span class="hlt">Global</span> Seamount Conservation and <span class="hlt">Management</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Taranto, Gerald H.; Kvile, Kristina Ø.; Pitcher, Tony J.; Morato, Telmo</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In the last twenty years, several <span class="hlt">global</span> targets for protection of marine biodiversity have been adopted but have failed. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) aims at preserving 10% of all the marine biomes by 2020. For achieving this goal, ecologically or biologically significant areas (EBSA) have to be identified in all biogeographic regions. However, the methodologies for identifying the best suitable areas are still to be agreed. Here, we propose a framework for applying the CBD criteria to locate potential ecologically or biologically significant seamount areas based on the best information currently available. The framework combines the likelihood of a seamount constituting an EBSA and its level of human impact and can be used at <span class="hlt">global</span>, regional and local scales. This methodology allows the classification of individual seamounts into four major portfolio conservation categories which can help optimize <span class="hlt">management</span> efforts toward the protection of the most suitable areas. The framework was tested against 1000 dummy seamounts and satisfactorily assigned seamounts to proper EBSA and threats categories. Additionally, the framework was applied to eight case study seamounts that were included in three out of four portfolio categories: areas highly likely to be identified as EBSA with high degree of threat; areas highly likely to be EBSA with low degree of threat; and areas with a low likelihood of being EBSA with high degree of threat. This framework will allow <span class="hlt">managers</span> to identify seamount EBSAs and to prioritize their policies in terms of protecting undisturbed areas, disturbed areas for recovery of habitats and species, or both based on their <span class="hlt">management</span> objectives. It also identifies seamount EBSAs and threats considering different ecological groups in both pelagic and benthic communities. Therefore, this framework may represent an important tool to mitigate seamount biodiversity loss and to achieve the 2020 CBD goals. PMID:22905190</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPA13B3905C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPA13B3905C"><span id="translatedtitle">Alteration of <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Fluxes in Cities during Urbanization: Methodology and a <span class="hlt">Global</span> Investigation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, S.; Chen, B.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Cities are increasingly important drivers in altering <span class="hlt">global</span> biogeochemical cycles. Yet, we still have a limited understanding of the magnitudes and patterns of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> profile in urban areas. The modelling of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> profile enables the determination of the interactions between urban systems and natural ecosystems. In this study, we develop a systems approach to accounting for both economic and natural sources and sinks of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions. We quantify the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions associated with each economic sectors and household consumers and assess how these emissions changes with different climatic and socio-economic conditions between urban systems. In addition, the relationship between ecosystem services and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions is analyzed. The case study of a set of major <span class="hlt">global</span> cities indicates that the value of ecosystem services has a negative correlation with <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions. We argue that the modelling of urban <span class="hlt">carbon</span> profile is vital not only for guiding cities towards more effective actions towards reducing <span class="hlt">carbon</span> footprint, but also for looking into the changing ecosystem function and services in urban systems during urbanization. Keywords: <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions, ecosystem services; urbanization; <span class="hlt">global</span> cities</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3717137','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3717137"><span id="translatedtitle">High-fidelity national <span class="hlt">carbon</span> mapping for resource <span class="hlt">management</span> and REDD+</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background High fidelity <span class="hlt">carbon</span> mapping has the potential to greatly advance national resource <span class="hlt">management</span> and to encourage international action toward climate change mitigation. However, <span class="hlt">carbon</span> inventories based on field plots alone cannot capture the heterogeneity of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks, and thus remote sensing-assisted approaches are critically important to <span class="hlt">carbon</span> mapping at regional to <span class="hlt">global</span> scales. We advanced a high-resolution, national-scale <span class="hlt">carbon</span> mapping approach applied to the Republic of Panama – one of the first UN REDD + partner countries. Results Integrating measurements of vegetation structure collected by airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) with field inventory plots, we report LiDAR-estimated aboveground <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stock errors of ~10% on any 1-ha land parcel across a wide range of ecological conditions. Critically, this shows that LiDAR provides a highly reliable replacement for inventory plots in areas lacking field data, both in humid tropical forests and among drier tropical vegetation types. We then scale up a systematically aligned LiDAR sampling of Panama using satellite data on topography, rainfall, and vegetation cover to model <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks at 1-ha resolution with estimated average pixel-level uncertainty of 20.5 Mg C ha-1 nationwide. Conclusions The national <span class="hlt">carbon</span> map revealed strong abiotic and human controls over Panamanian <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks, and the new level of detail with estimated uncertainties for every individual hectare in the country sets Panama at the forefront in high-resolution ecosystem <span class="hlt">management</span>. With this repeatable approach, <span class="hlt">carbon</span> resource decision-making can be made on a geospatially explicit basis, enhancing human welfare and environmental protection. PMID:23866822</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Global+AND+business&pg=2&id=ED536398','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Global+AND+business&pg=2&id=ED536398"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploring <span class="hlt">Global</span> Competence with <span class="hlt">Managers</span> in India, Japan, and the Netherlands: A Qualitative Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ras, Gerard J. M.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This qualitative study explores the meaning of <span class="hlt">global</span> competence for <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">managers</span> in three different countries. Thirty interviews were conducted with <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">managers</span> in India, Japan and the Netherlands through Skype, an internet based software. Findings are reported by country in five major categories: country background, personal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+business&pg=2&id=ED536398','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+business&pg=2&id=ED536398"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploring <span class="hlt">Global</span> Competence with <span class="hlt">Managers</span> in India, Japan, and the Netherlands: A Qualitative Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ras, Gerard J. M.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This qualitative study explores the meaning of <span class="hlt">global</span> competence for <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">managers</span> in three different countries. Thirty interviews were conducted with <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">managers</span> in India, Japan and the Netherlands through Skype, an internet based software. Findings are reported by country in five major categories: country background, personal…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080000860','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080000860"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Negative Commercial Aviation through Land <span class="hlt">Management</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hendricks, Robert C.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Brazilian terra preta soil and char-enhanced soil agricultural systems have demonstrated both enhanced plant biomass and crop yield and functions as a <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink. Similar <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinking has been demonstrated for both glycophyte and halophyte plants and plant roots. Within the assumption of 3.7 t-C/ha/yr soils and plant root <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinking, it is possible to provide <span class="hlt">carbon</span> neutral U.S. commercial aviation using about 8.5% of U.S. arable lands. The total airline CO2 release would be offset by <span class="hlt">carbon</span> credits for properly <span class="hlt">managed</span> soils and plant rooting, becoming <span class="hlt">carbon</span> neutral for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestered synjet processing. If these lands were also used to produce biomass fuel crops such as soybeans at an increased yield of 60 bu/acre (225gal/ha), they would provide over 3.15 10(exp 9) gallons biodiesel fuel. If all this fuel were refined into biojet it would provide a 16% biojet-84% synjet blend. This allows the U.S. aviation industry to become <span class="hlt">carbon</span> negative (<span class="hlt">carbon</span> negative commercial aviation through <span class="hlt">carbon</span> credits). Arid land recovery could yield even greater benefits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1516V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1516V"><span id="translatedtitle">Forest <span class="hlt">management</span> strategies for reducing <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions, the French case</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Valade, Aude; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Bellassen, Valentin; Vallet, Patrick; Martin, Manuel</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>International agreements now recognize the role of forest in the mitigation of climate change through the levers of in-situ sequestration, storage in products and energy and product substitution. These three strategies of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> are often antagonistic and it is still not clear which strategy would have the most significant impact on atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> concentrations. With a focus on France, this study compares several scenarios of forest <span class="hlt">management</span> in terms of their effect on the overall <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget from trees to wood-products. We elaborated four scenarios of forest <span class="hlt">management</span> that target different wood production objectives. One scenario is 'Business as usual' and reproduces the current forest <span class="hlt">management</span> and wood production levels. Two scenarios target an increase in bioenergy wood production, with either long-term or short-term goals. One scenario aims at increasing the production of timber for construction. For this, an empirical regression model was developed building on the rich French inventory database. The model can project the current forest resource at a time horizon of 20 years for characteristic variables diameter, standing volume, above-ground biomass, stand age. A simplified life-cycle analysis provides a full <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget for each scenario from forest <span class="hlt">management</span> to wood use and allows the identification of the scenario that most reduces <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ERL.....3.4007D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ERL.....3.4007D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> warming presents new challenges for maize pest <span class="hlt">management</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Krupke, Christian H.; White, Michael A.; Alexander, Corinne E.</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>It has been conjectured that <span class="hlt">global</span> warming will increase the prevalence of insect pests in many agro-ecosystems. In this paper, we quantitatively assess four of the key pests of maize, one of the most important systems in North American grain production. Using empirically generated estimates of pest overwintering thresholds and degree-day requirements, along with climate change projections from a high-resolution climate model, we project potential future ranges for each of these pests in the United States. Our analysis suggests the possibility of increased winter survival and greater degree-day accumulations for each of the pests surveyed. We find that relaxed cold limitation could expand the range of all four pest taxa, including a substantial range expansion in the case of corn earworm (H. zea), a migratory, cold-intolerant pest. Because the corn earworm is a cosmopolitan pest that has shown resistance to insecticides, our results suggest that this expansion could also threaten other crops, including those in high-value areas of the western United States. Because <span class="hlt">managing</span> significant additional pressure from this suite of established pests would require additional pest <span class="hlt">management</span> inputs, the projected decreases in cold limitation and increases in heat accumulation have the potential to significantly alter the pest <span class="hlt">management</span> landscape for North American maize production. Further, these range expansions could have substantial economic impacts through increased seed and insecticide costs, decreased yields, and the downstream effects of changes in crop yield variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ESASP.686E...3S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ESASP.686E...3S"><span id="translatedtitle">JAXA's Activities for Forest <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Tracking-<span class="hlt">Global</span> Forest Mapping Dataset and K&C</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shimada, Masanobu; Isoguchi, Osamu; Preesan, Rakwatin; Logepe, Nicolas; Ochiai, Osamu; Rosenqvist, Ake</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Recently, the forest observation using the spaceborne sensor becomes a top issue in the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> monitoring. Covering more than 20% of the <span class="hlt">global</span> terrestrial areas, forests are rapidly decreasing, corresponding to 20% <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide release from the land. Deforestation and forest degradation mainly occurred in the developing country. L-band SAR is sensitive for monitoring the forest biomass, forest-non-forest classifications because of its sensitivity. JAXA has been observing the <span class="hlt">global</span> land surface since 2006 by ALOS/PALSAR and from 1992 to 1998 by JERS-1/SAR. Making all the data archives and converted to 10m high-resolution <span class="hlt">global</span> mosaic data sets for these years can be fully utilized for detection of the forest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> changes. JAXA recently decided to create these high-resolution <span class="hlt">global</span> mosaic datasets and generate the forest/non-forest classification. In this paper, we will introduce the current status of generation of the mosaic and high-level data sets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10g5002F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10g5002F"><span id="translatedtitle">Extending the relationship between <span class="hlt">global</span> warming and cumulative <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions to multi-millennial timescales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Frlicher, Thomas L.; Paynter, David J.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The transient climate response to cumulative <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions (TCRE) is a highly policy-relevant quantity in climate science. The TCRE suggests that peak warming is linearly proportional to cumulative <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions and nearly independent of the emissions scenario. Here, we use simulations of the Earth System Model (ESM) from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) to show that <span class="hlt">global</span> mean surface temperature may increase by 0.5 C after <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions are stopped at 2 C <span class="hlt">global</span> warming, implying an increase in the coefficient relating <span class="hlt">global</span> warming to cumulative <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions on multi-centennial timescales. The simulations also suggest a 20% lower quota on cumulative <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions allowed to achieve a policy-driven limit on <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. ESM estimates from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5-ESMs) qualitatively agree on this result, whereas Earth System Models of Intermediate Complexity (EMICs) simulations, used in the IPCC 5th assessment report to assess the robustness of TCRE on multi-centennial timescales, suggest a post-emissions decrease in temperature. The reason for this discrepancy lies in the smaller simulated realized warming fraction in CMIP5-ESMs, including GFDL ESM2M, than in EMICs when <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions increase. The temperature response to cumulative <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions can be characterized by three different phases and the linear TCRE framework is only valid during the first phase when <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions increase. For longer timescales, when emissions tape off, two new metrics are introduced that better characterize the time-dependent temperature response to cumulative <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions: the equilibrium climate response to cumulative <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions and the multi-millennial climate response to cumulative <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10181409','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10181409"><span id="translatedtitle">Ocean Margins Program: Closure on the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. Program description</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Riches, M.R.</p> <p>1994-08-01</p> <p>The Department of Energy`s Ocean Margins Program (OMP) is designed to quantitatively assess the importance of coastal ocean systems in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, human energy-related activities have dramatically altered the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle, and consequently, this cycle is not presently in a steady-state. To reduce major uncertainties in predicting future <span class="hlt">global</span> environmental quality, it is imperative to understand the sources and sinks of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, the role of anthropogenic activities in disrupting the natural <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle, and the effects of, and feedbacks between, these activities and the natural <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. Due to continuously increased loading of nutrients to the margins, which, <span class="hlt">globally</span>, is related to the rate of human population growth and high population densities in coastal states, biological <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fixation has been stimulated. Depending on the fate of the fixed <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, this stimulation has the potential to mitigate the anthropogenically derived Co{sub 2}. Determining the factors that control the magnitude of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> exchanges between the ocean margins and the atmosphere, and the subsequent fate of this <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, is crucial to predicting the strength and capacity of the oceans to absorb excess anthropogenic atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The goals of the OMP are to: quantify the ecological and biogeochemical processes and mechanisms that define the cycling, flux, and storage of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and other biogenic elements at the land/ocean interface; identify how ocean-margin sources and sinks of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> change in response to human activities; and determine whether continental shelves are quantitatively significant in removing atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide and isolating it via burial in sediments or export to the interior of the open ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=203392','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=203392"><span id="translatedtitle">Rising <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dioxide Levels and Forest <span class="hlt">Management</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Recent observations and scientific research indicate that climate change, with its greater extremes in meteorological trends and overall temperature increases, is likely to affect land resources. Natural resource <span class="hlt">managers</span> need to continually update their knowledge concerning potential impacts of cl...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12460486','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12460486"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in the use and <span class="hlt">management</span> of forests for abating <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions: issues and challenges under the Kyoto Protocol.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brown, Sandra; Swingland, Ian R; Hanbury-Tenison, Robin; Prance, Ghillean T; Myers, Norman</p> <p>2002-08-15</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle is significantly influenced by changes in the use and <span class="hlt">management</span> of forests and agriculture. Humans have the potential through changes in land use and <span class="hlt">management</span> to alter the magnitude of forest-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks and the direction of forest-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes. However, controversy over the use of biological means to absorb or reduce emissions of CO(2) (often referred to as <span class="hlt">carbon</span> 'sinks') has arisen in the context of the Kyoto Protocol. The controversy is based primarily on two arguments: sinks may allow developed nations to delay or avoid actions to reduce fossil fuel emissions, and the technical and operational difficulties are too threatening to the successful implementation of land use and forestry projects for providing <span class="hlt">carbon</span> offsets. Here we discuss the importance of including <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinks in efforts to address <span class="hlt">global</span> warming and the consequent additional social, environmental and economic benefits to host countries. Activities in tropical forest lands provide the lowest cost methods both of reducing emissions and reducing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. We conclude that the various objections raised as to the inclusion of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinks to ameliorate climate change can be addressed by existing techniques and technology. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> sinks provide a practical available method of achieving meaningful reductions in atmospheric concentrations of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide while at the same time contribute to national sustainable development goals. PMID:12460486</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712514W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712514W"><span id="translatedtitle">A mechanistic view of why <span class="hlt">global</span> warming is proportional to cumulative <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Williams, Ric; Goodwin, Philip; Ridgwell, Andy</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Climate model experiments reveal that transient <span class="hlt">global</span> warming from radiative forcing is nearly proportional to cumulative <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions on multi-decadal to millennial timescales. However, it is not quantitatively understood how this near linear dependence between warming and cumulative <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions arises in transient climate simulations, nor why the proportionality of warming is largely independent of emission scenario. Here, we present the first theoretical equation for how <span class="hlt">global</span> warming depends on cumulative <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions over time for an atmosphere-ocean system. For the present, our theory identifies a sensitivity of surface warming to emissions of 1.50.7 K for every 1000 Pg of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emitted, reducing by only 10 to 20% by the end of the century and beyond. The sensitivity remaining nearly constant over time is due to partially-opposing thermal and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> responses in a coupled atmosphere-ocean, where ocean drawdown of heat and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> alter the surface warming and radiative forcing in opposing ways. Incorporating estimates of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake into our analysis reduces the sensitivity of surface warming to 1.10.5 K for every 1000 Pg of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emitted, but does not significantly alter the percentage reduction in warming sensitivity over the 21st century. Our theory provides an analytical framework to understand the controlling mechanisms and interpret why there are different model projections of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25252980','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25252980"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> covariation of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> turnover times with climate in terrestrial ecosystems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carvalhais, Nuno; Forkel, Matthias; Khomik, Myroslava; Bellarby, Jessica; Jung, Martin; Migliavacca, Mirco; Mu, Mingquan; Saatchi, Sassan; Santoro, Maurizio; Thurner, Martin; Weber, Ulrich; Ahrens, Bernhard; Beer, Christian; Cescatti, Alessandro; Randerson, James T; Reichstein, Markus</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>The response of the terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle to climate change is among the largest uncertainties affecting future climate change projections. The feedback between the terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle and climate is partly determined by changes in the turnover time of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in land ecosystems, which in turn is an ecosystem property that emerges from the interplay between climate, soil and vegetation type. Here we present a <span class="hlt">global</span>, spatially explicit and observation-based assessment of whole-ecosystem <span class="hlt">carbon</span> turnover times that combines new estimates of vegetation and soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks and fluxes. We find that the overall mean <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> turnover time is 23(+7)(-4) years (95 per cent confidence interval). On average, <span class="hlt">carbon</span> resides in the vegetation and soil near the Equator for a shorter time than at latitudes north of 75 north (mean turnover times of 15 and 255 years, respectively). We identify a clear dependence of the turnover time on temperature, as expected from our present understanding of temperature controls on ecosystem dynamics. Surprisingly, our analysis also reveals a similarly strong association between turnover time and precipitation. Moreover, we find that the ecosystem <span class="hlt">carbon</span> turnover times simulated by state-of-the-art coupled climate/<span class="hlt">carbon</span>-cycle models vary widely and that numerical simulations, on average, tend to underestimate the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> turnover time by 36 per cent. The models show stronger spatial relationships with temperature than do observation-based estimates, but generally do not reproduce the strong relationships with precipitation and predict faster <span class="hlt">carbon</span> turnover in many semi-arid regions. Our findings suggest that future climate/<span class="hlt">carbon</span>-cycle feedbacks may depend more strongly on changes in the hydrological cycle than is expected at present and is considered in Earth system models. PMID:25252980</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17348170','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17348170"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Managing</span> differences: the central challenge of <span class="hlt">global</span> strategy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ghemawat, Pankaj</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>The main goal of any international strategy should be to <span class="hlt">manage</span> the large differences that arise at the borders of markets. Yet executives often fail to exploit market and production discrepancies, focusing instead on the tensions between standardization and localization. In this article, Pankaj Ghemawat presents a new framework that encompasses all three effective responses to the challenges of <span class="hlt">globalization</span>. He calls it the AAA Triangle. The A's stand for the three distinct types of international strategy. Through adaptation, companies seek to boost revenues and market share by maximizing their local relevance. Through aggregation, they attempt to deliver economies of scale by creating regional, or sometimes <span class="hlt">global</span>, operations. And through arbitrage, they exploit disparities between national or regional markets, often by locating different parts of the supply chain in different places--for instance, call centers in India, factories in China, and retail shops in Western Europe. Ghemawat draws on several examples that illustrate how organizations use and balance these strategies and describes the trade-offs they make as they do so. Because most enterprises should draw from all three A's to some extent, the framework can be used to develop a summary scorecard indicating how well the company is <span class="hlt">globalizing</span>. However, given the tensions among the strategies, it's not enough simply to tick off the corresponding boxes. Strategic choice requires some degree of prioritization--and the framework can help with that as well. While it is possible to make progress on all three strategies, companies usually must focus on one or two when trying to build competitive advantage. PMID:17348170</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC22C..08A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC22C..08A"><span id="translatedtitle">E-Infrastructure and Data <span class="hlt">Management</span> for <span class="hlt">Global</span> Change Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Allison, M. L.; Gurney, R. J.; Cesar, R.; Cossu, R.; Gemeinholzer, B.; Koike, T.; Mokrane, M.; Peters, D.; Nativi, S.; Samors, R.; Treloar, A.; Vilotte, J. P.; Visbeck, M.; Waldmann, H. C.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Belmont Forum, a coalition of science funding agencies from 15 countries, is supporting an 18-month effort to assess the state of international of e-infrastructures and data <span class="hlt">management</span> so that <span class="hlt">global</span> change data and information can be more easily and efficiently exchanged internationally and across domains. Ultimately, this project aims to address the Belmont "Challenge" to deliver knowledge needed for action to avoid and adapt to detrimental environmental change, including extreme hazardous events. This effort emerged from conclusions by the Belmont Forum that transformative approaches and innovative technologies are needed for heterogeneous data/information to be integrated and made interoperable for researchers in disparate fields, and for myriad uses across international, institutional, disciplinary, spatial and temporal boundaries. The project will deliver a Community Strategy and Implementation Plan to prioritize international funding opportunities and long-term policy recommendations on how the Belmont Forum can implement a more coordinated, holistic, and sustainable approach to funding and supporting <span class="hlt">global</span> change research. The Plan is expected to serve as the foundation of future Belmont Forum funding calls for proposals in support of research science goals as well as to establish long term e-infrastructure. More than 120 scientists, technologists, legal experts, social scientists, and other experts are participating in six Work Packages to develop the Plan by spring, 2015, under the broad rubrics of Architecture/Interoperability and Governance: Data Integration for Multidisciplinary Research; Improved Interface between Computation & Data Infrastructures; Harmonization of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Data Infrastructure; Data Sharing; Open Data; and Capacity Building. Recommendations could lead to a more coordinated approach to policies, procedures and funding mechanisms to support e-infrastructures in a more sustainable way.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989AcAau..20..149H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989AcAau..20..149H"><span id="translatedtitle">Remote sensing strategies for <span class="hlt">global</span> resource exploration and environmental <span class="hlt">management</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Henderson, Frederick B.</p> <p></p> <p>Since 1972, satellite remote sensing, when integrated with other exploration techniques, has demonstrated operational exploration and engineering cost savings and reduced exploration risks through improved geological mapping. Land and ocean remote sensing satellite systems under development for the 1990's by the United States, France, Japan, Canada, ESA, Russia, China, and others, will significantly increase our ability to explore for, develop, and <span class="hlt">manage</span> energy and mineral resources worldwide. A major difference between these systems is the "Open Skies" and "Non-Discriminatory Access to Data" policies as have been practiced by the U.S. and France and the restrictive nationalistic data policies as have been practiced by Russia and India. <span class="hlt">Global</span> exploration will use satellite remote sensing to better map regional structural and basin-like features that control the distribution of energy and mineral resources. Improved sensors will better map lithologic and stratigraphic units and identify alteration effects in rocks, soils, and vegetation cover indicative of undiscovered subsurface resources. These same sensors will also map and monitor resource development. The use of satellite remote sensing data will grow substantially through increasing integration with other geophysical, geochemical, and geologic data using improved geographic information systems (GIS). International exploration will focus on underdeveloped countries rather than on mature exploration areas such as the United States, Europe, and Japan. Energy and mineral companies and government agencies in these countries and others will utilize available remote sensing data to acquire economic intelligence on <span class="hlt">global</span> resources. If the "Non-Discriminatory Access to Data" principle is observed by satellite producing countries, exploration will remain competitive "on the ground". In this manner, remote sensing technology will continue to be developed to better explore for and <span class="hlt">manage</span> the world's needed resources. If, however, satellite producing countries follow the Russian and Indian lead and restrict civil satellite data as tools of their national security and economic policies, remote sensing technology may become internationally competitive in space, redundant, prohibitively expensive, and generally unavailable to the world community.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/875938','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/875938"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-century Changes to <span class="hlt">Global</span> Climate and <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle: Results from a Coupled Climate and <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bala, G; Caldeira, K; Mirin, A; Wickett, M; Delire, C</p> <p>2005-02-17</p> <p>In this paper, we use a coupled climate and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle model to investigate the <span class="hlt">global</span> climate and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle changes out to year 2300 that would occur if CO{sub 2} emissions from all the currently estimated fossil fuel resources were released to the atmosphere. By year 2300, the <span class="hlt">global</span> climate warms by about 8 K and atmospheric CO{sub 2} reaches 1423 ppmv. The warming is higher than anticipated because the sensitivity to radiative forcing increases as the simulation progresses. In our simulation, the rate of emissions peak at over 30 PgC yr{sup -1} early in the 22nd century. Even at year 2300, nearly 50% of cumulative emissions remain in the atmosphere. In our simulations both soils and living biomass are net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinks throughout the simulation. Despite having relatively low climate sensitivity and strong <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake by the land biosphere, our model projections suggest severe long-term consequences for <span class="hlt">global</span> climate if all the fossil-fuel <span class="hlt">carbon</span> is ultimately released to the atmosphere.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6576565','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6576565"><span id="translatedtitle">The impact of intensive forest <span class="hlt">management</span> on <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stores in forest ecosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Krankina, O.N.; Harmon, M.E. . Dept. of Forest Science)</p> <p>1994-06-01</p> <p>The expansion of intensive <span class="hlt">management</span> of forest resources for timber production with the human population growth may have a profound effect on the role forests play in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. First, the transition from old-growth to intensively <span class="hlt">managed</span> second-growth forest with short rotations entails major long-term ecosystems changes including the reduction of total woody biomass. Although the biomass of living trees can be restored within a relatively short period of time, dead wood biomass takes considerably longer to reach pre-harvest levels; therefore commonly used rotations are too short for the latter part of ecosystem to recover fully. As dead trees account for 14--18% of the total woody biomass stores in a natural forest, a considerable amount of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> can be released if this material is not replaced. Second, economically efficient, intensive forest <span class="hlt">management</span> systems that include commercial thinning and wood salvage can further reduce the total biomass loading of second-growth forests. Long-term study of live and dead wood in thinning trials in the Pacific Northwest and in northwestern Russia suggest that intensive practices can reduce total woody biomass averaged over rotation to 10--25% that found in a natural old-growth forest. Therefore intensive forest <span class="hlt">management</span> practices may maximize the supply of raw materials, but they may also generate a major <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux into the atmosphere. This flux may be significant despite the fact the land-use type remains the same. Effect of intensive forest <span class="hlt">management</span> practices should be included in future <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budgets and in developing forest <span class="hlt">management</span> strategies aimed at increasing <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage in forest ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6040741','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6040741"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> dioxide and <span class="hlt">global</span> change: Earth in transition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Idso, S.B.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The volume covers the pros and cons of all issues related to the risk in atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide. The first half of the book presents a critical review of the status of current climatic enrichment of the Earth with <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide. A number of recent developments in the empirical approach to climate change are discussed. This half concludes with a review of current research efforts directed to detecting the first signs of the predicted climate catastrophe. The second half of the book is biologically oriented. It includes a comprehensive review of known effects of atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide enrichment on plant physiological processes and the potential modification of a number of environmental constraints. The effects of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide on animals and a comprehensive analysis of where the world may be headed as a result of this process is included. The text is thoroughly documented to encourage the reader to form his own opinions. Included are over 2,000 literature citations, a 3,500 entry subject index, and a list of more than 2,700 authors. It is a valuable source for learning about a perplexing situation facing mankind.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GBioC..28..181S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GBioC..28..181S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> assessment of ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> export by combining satellite observations and food-web models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Siegel, D. A.; Buesseler, K. O.; Doney, S. C.; Sailley, S. F.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Boyd, P. W.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>The export of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> from the surface ocean by sinking particles is an important, yet highly uncertain, component of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. Here we introduce a mechanistic assessment of the <span class="hlt">global</span> ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> export using satellite observations, including determinations of net primary production and the slope of the particle size spectrum, to drive a food-web model that estimates the production of sinking zooplankton feces and algal aggregates comprising the sinking particle flux at the base of the euphotic zone. The synthesis of observations and models reveals fundamentally different and ecologically consistent regional-scale patterns in export and export efficiency not found in previous <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> export assessments. The model reproduces regional-scale particle export field observations and predicts a climatological mean <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> export from the euphotic zone of ~6 Pg C yr-1. <span class="hlt">Global</span> export estimates show small variation (typically < 10%) to factor of 2 changes in model parameter values. The model is also robust to the choices of the satellite data products used and enables interannual changes to be quantified. The present synthesis of observations and models provides a path for quantifying the ocean's biological pump.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC41F0668C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC41F0668C"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmental health risk assessment and <span class="hlt">management</span> for <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carter, P.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>This environmental health risk assessment and <span class="hlt">management</span> approach for atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) pollution is based almost entirely on IPCC AR5 (2014) content, but the IPCC does not make recommendations. Large climate model uncertainties may be large environmental health risks. In accordance with environmental health risk <span class="hlt">management</span>, we use the standard (IPCC-endorsed) formula of risk as the product of magnitude times probability, with an extremely high standard of precaution. Atmospheric GHG pollution, causing <span class="hlt">global</span> warming, climate change and ocean acidification, is increasing as fast as ever. Time is of the essence to inform and make recommendations to governments and the public. While the 2ºC target is the only formally agreed-upon policy limit, for the most vulnerable nations, a 1.5ºC limit is being considered by the UNFCCC Secretariat. The Climate Action Network International (2014), representing civil society, recommends that the 1.5ºC limit be kept open and that emissions decline from 2015. James Hansen et al (2013) have argued that 1ºC is the danger limit. Taking into account committed <span class="hlt">global</span> warming, its millennial duration, multiple large sources of amplifying climate feedbacks and multiple adverse impacts of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming and climate change on crops, and population health impacts, all the IPCC AR5 scenarios carry extreme environmental health risks to large human populations and to the future of humanity as a whole. Our risk consideration finds that 2ºC carries high risks of many catastrophic impacts, that 1.5ºC carries high risks of many disastrous impacts, and that 1ºC is the danger limit. IPCC AR4 (2007) showed that emissions must be reversed by 2015 for a 2ºC warming limit. For the IPCC AR5 only the best-case scenario RCP2.6, is projected to stay under 2ºC by 2100 but the upper range is just above 2ºC. It calls for emissions to decline by 2020. We recommend that for catastrophic environmental health risk aversion, emissions decline from 2015 (CAN International 2014), and if policy makers are limited to the IPCC AR5 we recommend RCP2.6, with emissions declining by 2020.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H33I0953S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H33I0953S"><span id="translatedtitle">From roots to globe: How the terrestrial nitrogen cycle alters the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shi, M.; Fisher, J. B.; Brzostek, E. R.; Phillips, R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Plants typically expend a significant portion of their available <span class="hlt">carbon</span> for nitrogen (N) acquisition, especially through root exudation in N-limited soils; this is the amount of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> that would otherwise go to growth in the presence of ample N. Most <span class="hlt">global</span> terrestrial biogeochemistry models (TBMs) do not consider the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cost for N acquisition. In order to evaluate the <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-nitrogen trade process and improve the <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-nitrogen dynamics in TBMs, this study integrates a cutting-edge <span class="hlt">global</span> plant nitrogen modelFixation and Uptake of Nitrogen (FUN) version 2.0 (FUN2.0) into the Community Land Model 4.0. The coupled model (i.e., CLM4CN-FUN2.0) is tested at local and <span class="hlt">global</span> scales. Generally, plant N acquisition is dynamically simulated, and the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cost for N acquisition is estimated by the coupled model. Sensitivity tests indicate that the low soil N uptakes of the coupled model are associated with the low soil mineral N amount represented by CLM4CN. According to the observational evidence, the retranslocated N pool in CLM4CN needs to be combined with other non-structural N pools. These deficiencies in the model open new possibilities for improving TBMs, which is widely used in <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/886942','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/886942"><span id="translatedtitle">The response of belowground <span class="hlt">carbon</span> allocation in forests to <span class="hlt">global</span> change.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Giardina, Christian P.; Coleman, Mark D.; Binkley, Dan; Hancock, Jessica E.; King, John S.; Lilleskov, Eric A.; Loya, Wendy M.; Pregitzer, Kurt S.; Ryan, Michael G.; Trettin, Carl C.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>From Binkley, D. and O. Menyailo (eds). Tree species effects on soils: implications for <span class="hlt">global</span> change. NATO Science Series, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. Belowground <span class="hlt">carbon</span> allocation (BCA) in forests regulates soil organic matter formation and influences biotic and abiotic properties of soil such as bulk density, cation exchange capacity, and water holding capacity. On a <span class="hlt">global</span> scale, the total quantity of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> allocated below ground by terrestrial plants is enormous, exceeding by an order of magnitude the quantity of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emitted to the atmosphere through combustion of fossil fuels. Despite the importance of BCA to the functioning of plant and soil communities, as well as the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget, controls on BCA are relatively poorly understood. Consequently, our ability to predict how BCA will respond to changes in atmospheric greenhouse gases, climage, nutrient deposition, and plant community composition remains rudimentary. In this synthesis, we examine BCA from three perspectives: coarse-root standing stock, belowground net primary production (BNPP), and total belowground <span class="hlt">carbon</span> allocation (TBCA). For each, we examine methodologies and terminology. We then examine available data for any predictable variation in BCA due to changes in species composition, mean annual temperature, or elevated CO2 in existing Free Air CO2 Exposure (FACE) experiments. Finally, we discuss what we feel are important future directions for belowground <span class="hlt">carbon</span> allocation research, with a focus on <span class="hlt">global</span> change issues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=141886','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=141886"><span id="translatedtitle">SOIL <span class="hlt">CARBON</span> SEQUESTRATION UNDER DIFFERENT <span class="hlt">MANAGEMENT</span> PRACTICES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Five <span class="hlt">management</span> systems: continuous corn (CC), cropland to woodland (CW), cropland to pastures (CP), no-till (NT), and conservation reserve program (CRP), were selected to evaluate their long-term impacts (5, 10 and 15 yr) on soil C sequestration. Nine soil cores from each system were randomly colle...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..301B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..301B"><span id="translatedtitle">Designer policy for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and biodiversity co-benefits under <span class="hlt">global</span> change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bryan, Brett A.; Runting, Rebecca K.; Capon, Tim; Perring, Michael P.; Cunningham, Shaun C.; Kragt, Marit E.; Nolan, Martin; Law, Elizabeth A.; Renwick, Anna R.; Eber, Sue; Christian, Rochelle; Wilson, Kerrie A.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> payments can help mitigate both climate change and biodiversity decline through the reforestation of agricultural land. However, to achieve biodiversity co-benefits, <span class="hlt">carbon</span> payments often require support from other policy mechanisms such as regulation, targeting, and complementary incentives. We evaluated 14 policy mechanisms for supplying <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and biodiversity co-benefits through reforestation of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> plantings (CP) and environmental plantings (EP) in Australia’s 85.3 Mha agricultural land under <span class="hlt">global</span> change. The reference policy--uniform payments (bidders are paid the same price) with land-use competition (both CP and EP eligible for payments), targeting <span class="hlt">carbon</span>--achieved significant <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration but negligible biodiversity co-benefits. Land-use regulation (only EP eligible) and two additional incentives complementing the reference policy (biodiversity premium, <span class="hlt">carbon</span> levy) increased biodiversity co-benefits, but mostly inefficiently. Discriminatory payments (bidders are paid their bid price) with land-use competition were efficient, and with multifunctional targeting of both <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and biodiversity co-benefits increased the biodiversity co-benefits almost 100-fold. Our findings were robust to uncertainty in <span class="hlt">global</span> outlook, and to key agricultural productivity and land-use adoption assumptions. The results suggest clear policy directions, but careful mechanism design will be key to realising these efficiencies in practice. Choices remain for society about the amount of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and biodiversity co-benefits desired, and the price it is prepared to pay for them.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGeo...12.6429V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGeo...12.6429V"><span id="translatedtitle">Reviews and syntheses: Calculating the <span class="hlt">global</span> contribution of coralline algae to total <span class="hlt">carbon</span> burial</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van der Heijden, L. H.; Kamenos, N. A.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The ongoing increase in anthropogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide (CO2) emissions is changing the <span class="hlt">global</span> marine environment and is causing warming and acidification of the oceans. Reduction of CO2 to a sustainable level is required to avoid further marine change. Many studies investigate the potential of marine <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinks (e.g. seagrass) to mitigate anthropogenic emissions, however, information on storage by coralline algae and the beds they create is scant. Calcifying photosynthetic organisms, including coralline algae, can act as a CO2 sink via photosynthesis and CaCO3 dissolution and act as a CO2 source during respiration and CaCO3 production on short-term timescales. Long-term <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage potential might come from the accumulation of coralline algae deposits over geological timescales. Here, the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage potential of coralline algae is assessed using meta-analysis of their <span class="hlt">global</span> organic and inorganic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> production and the processes involved in this metabolism. Net organic and inorganic production were estimated at 330 g C m-2 yr-1 and 900 g CaCO3 m-2 yr-1 respectively giving <span class="hlt">global</span> organic/inorganic C production of 0.7/1.8 × 109 t C yr-1. Calcium <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> production by free-living/crustose coralline algae (CCA) corresponded to a sediment accretion of 70/450 mm kyr-1. Using this potential <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage for coralline algae, the <span class="hlt">global</span> production of free-living algae/CCA was 0.4/1.2 × 109 t C yr-1 suggesting a total potential <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink of 1.6 × 109 tonnes per year. Coralline algae therefore have production rates similar to mangroves, salt marshes and seagrasses representing an as yet unquantified but significant <span class="hlt">carbon</span> store, however, further empirical investigations are needed to determine the dynamics and stability of that store.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Global+AND+business&pg=2&id=EJ1022312','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Global+AND+business&pg=2&id=EJ1022312"><span id="translatedtitle">Facilitating Cross-Cultural <span class="hlt">Management</span> Education through <span class="hlt">Global</span> Faculty Exchanges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Clinebell, Sharon K.; Kvedaraviciene, Ieva</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>According to the AACSB International (Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business) (AACSB International, 2011), the next big transformational wave to hit business schools is <span class="hlt">globalization</span>. <span class="hlt">Globalizing</span> the faculty is one strategy for enhancing the <span class="hlt">globalization</span> of business schools and using <span class="hlt">global</span> faculty exchanges is one method to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+business&pg=2&id=EJ1022312','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+business&pg=2&id=EJ1022312"><span id="translatedtitle">Facilitating Cross-Cultural <span class="hlt">Management</span> Education through <span class="hlt">Global</span> Faculty Exchanges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Clinebell, Sharon K.; Kvedaraviciene, Ieva</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>According to the AACSB International (Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business) (AACSB International, 2011), the next big transformational wave to hit business schools is <span class="hlt">globalization</span>. <span class="hlt">Globalizing</span> the faculty is one strategy for enhancing the <span class="hlt">globalization</span> of business schools and using <span class="hlt">global</span> faculty exchanges is one method to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PrOce.134..432L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PrOce.134..432L"><span id="translatedtitle">The microbial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pump concept: Potential biogeochemical significance in the <span class="hlt">globally</span> changing ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Legendre, Louis; Rivkin, Richard B.; Weinbauer, Markus G.; Guidi, Lionel; Uitz, Julia</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Three vertical ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pumps have been known for almost three decades to sequester atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in the deep-water and sediment reservoirs, i.e. the solubility pump, the <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> pump, and the soft-tissue (also known as organic, or biological) <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pump (BCP). These three pumps maintain the vertical gradient in total dissolved inorganic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> between the surface and deep waters. The more recently proposed microbial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pump (MCP) would maintain a gradient between short- and long-lived dissolved organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (DOC; average lifetimes of <100 and >100 years, respectively). Long-lived DOC is an additional proposed reservoir of sequestered <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in the ocean. This review: examines critically aspects of the vertical ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pumps and the MCP, in particular their physical dimensions and their potential roles in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration; normalises the dimensions of the MCP to allow direct comparisons with the three vertical ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pumps; compares the MCP and vertical ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pumps; organises in a coherent framework the information available in the literature on refractory DOC; explores the potential effects of the <span class="hlt">globally</span> changing ocean on the MCP; and identifies the assumptions that generally underlie the MCP studies, as bases for future research. The study: proposes definitions of terms, expressions and concepts related to the four ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pumps (i.e. three vertical pumps and MCP); defines the magnitude for the MCP as the rate of production of DOC with an average lifetime of >100 years and provides its first estimate for the World Ocean, i.e. 0.2 Pg C year-1; and introduces an operational "first-time-sequestration" criterion that prevents organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes from being assigned to both the BCP and the MCP. In our review of the potential effects of predicted climate-related changes in the ocean environment on the MCP, we found that three of the seven predicted changes could potentially enhance <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration by the MCP, and three could diminish it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=237348','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=237348"><span id="translatedtitle">Conservation agricultural <span class="hlt">management</span> to sequester soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Storing <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (C) in soil as organic matter is not only a viable strategy to sequester CO2 from the atmosphere, but is vital for improving the quality, fertility, and functioning of soil. This presentation describes relevant <span class="hlt">management</span> approaches to avoid land degradation and foster soil organic C ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=228029','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=228029"><span id="translatedtitle">Review of Soil <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span>: Economics, Environmental and Societal Benefits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The book provides a “big picture” look at the processes and benefits of soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (c) <span class="hlt">management</span>. The book is targeted to policy makers and gives policy recommendations in addition to providing technical information. The first section of the book contains a summary of current programs that foste...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/471072','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/471072"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> warming and natural <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pools in the meridional sector of Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Venevsky, S.V.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>One of the primary goals in many recent investigations is to determine the availability of the definite parts of the biosphere to store <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in organic matter. One of the popular hypotheses assumes that the missing <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink can be associated with the circumpolar boreal zone and this zone can smooth the negative consequences of anthropogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions. Two major processes are essential for the natural <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pools values: (1) redistribution of vegetation zones due to favorable or unfavorable climate change, and (2) changes in vegetation productivity induced by <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. To evaluate the qualitative features of the boreal zone behavior in conditions of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming, some model experiments were performed with the Osnabrueck Biosphere Model and its modifications. The main idea of the experiments was to evaluate the possible changes in natural vegetation patterns in time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090116&hterms=Cenozoic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DCenozoic','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090116&hterms=Cenozoic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DCenozoic"><span id="translatedtitle">Continental-pelagic <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> partitioning and the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbonate</span>-silicate cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Caldeira, K.; Rampino, M. R. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">carbonate</span>-silicate geochemical cycle model is developed and used to explore dynamic and climatic consequences of constraints on shallow-water <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> burial and possible <span class="hlt">carbon</span> loss to the mantle associated with sea-floor subduction. The model partitions <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> deposition between shallow-water and deep-water environments and includes <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes between the mantle and lithosphere. When total lithospheric <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> mass is constant, there are two stable steady states, one in which the <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> burial flux is mostly continental and another in which it is mostly pelagic. The continental steady state is characterized by a low metamorphic CO2 flux to the atmosphere and predominantly shallow-water <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> burial. The pelagic steady state is characterized by a high metamorphic CO2 flux and predominantly deep-water <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> burial. For reasonable parameter values, when total lithospheric <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> mass is allowed to vary, the model oscillates between predominantly continental and predominantly pelagic modes. Model results suggest that <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> deposition patterns established during the Cenozoic may be pushing the Earth system from the continental to the pelagic mode on a time scale of 10(8) yr, with a possible consequent order-of-magnitude increase in the metamorphic CO2 flux to the atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21541764','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21541764"><span id="translatedtitle">Waste <span class="hlt">management</span> activities and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions in Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Couth, R.; Trois, C.</p> <p>2011-01-15</p> <p>This paper summarizes research into waste <span class="hlt">management</span> activities and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions from territories in sub-Saharan Africa with the main objective of quantifying emission reductions (ERs) that can be gained through viable improvements to waste <span class="hlt">management</span> in Africa. It demonstrates that data on waste and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions is poor and generally inadequate for prediction models. The paper shows that the amount of waste produced and its composition are linked to national Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Waste production per person is around half that in developed countries with a mean around 230 kg/hd/yr. Sub-Saharan territories produce waste with a biogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> content of around 56% (+/-25%), which is approximately 40% greater than developed countries. This waste is disposed in uncontrolled dumps that produce large amounts of methane gas. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste will rise with increasing urbanization and can only be controlled through funding mechanisms from developed countries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhPro..25.1676X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhPro..25.1676X"><span id="translatedtitle">The Influence of Low-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> Economy on <span class="hlt">Global</span> Trade Pattern</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xiao-jing, Guo</p> <p></p> <p>Since <span class="hlt">global</span> warming has seriously endangered the living environment of human being and their health and safety, the development of low-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> economy has become an irreversible <span class="hlt">global</span> trend. Under the background of economic <span class="hlt">globalization</span>, low-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> economy will surely exert a significant impact on <span class="hlt">global</span> trade pattern. Countries are paying more and more attention to the green trade. The emission permits trade of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> between the developed countries and the developing countries has become more mature than ever. The <span class="hlt">carbon</span> tariff caused by the distribution of the "big cake" will make the low-cost advantage in developing countries cease to exist, which will, in turn, affect the foreign trade, economic development, employment and people's living in developing countries. Therefore, under the background of this trend, we should perfect the relevant laws and regulations on trade and environment as soon as possible, optimize trade structure, promote greatly the development of service trade, transform thoroughly the mode of development in foreign trade, take advantage of the international <span class="hlt">carbon</span> trading market by increasing the added value of export products resulted from technological innovation to achieve mutual benefit and win-win results and promote common development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGD....10.3735P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGD....10.3735P"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake by lichens and bryophytes with a process-based model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Porada, P.; Weber, B.; Elbert, W.; Pschl, U.; Kleidon, A.</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Lichens and bryophytes are abundant <span class="hlt">globally</span> and they may even form the dominant autotrophs in (sub)polar ecosystems, in deserts and at high altitudes. Moreover, they can be found in large amounts as epiphytes in old-growth forests. Here, we present the first process-based model which estimates the net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake by these organisms at the <span class="hlt">global</span> scale, thus assessing their significance for biogeochemical cycles. The model uses gridded climate data and key properties of the habitat (e.g. disturbance intervals) to predict processes which control net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake, namely photosynthesis, respiration, water uptake and evaporation. It relies on equations used in many dynamical vegetation models, which are combined with concepts specific to lichens and bryophytes, such as poikilohydry or the effect of water content on CO2 diffusivity. To incorporate the great functional variation of lichens and bryophytes at the <span class="hlt">global</span> scale, the model parameters are characterised by broad ranges of possible values instead of a single, <span class="hlt">globally</span> uniform value. The predicted terrestrial net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake of 0.34 to 3.3 (Gt C) yr-1 and <span class="hlt">global</span> patterns of productivity are in accordance with empirically-derived estimates. Considering that the assimilated <span class="hlt">carbon</span> can be invested in processes such as weathering or nitrogen fixation, lichens and bryophytes may play a significant role in biogeochemical cycles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGeo...10.6989P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGeo...10.6989P"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake by lichens and bryophytes with a process-based model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Porada, P.; Weber, B.; Elbert, W.; Pschl, U.; Kleidon, A.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Lichens and bryophytes are abundant <span class="hlt">globally</span> and they may even form the dominant autotrophs in (sub)polar ecosystems, in deserts and at high altitudes. Moreover, they can be found in large amounts as epiphytes in old-growth forests. Here, we present the first process-based model which estimates the net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake by these organisms at the <span class="hlt">global</span> scale, thus assessing their significance for biogeochemical cycles. The model uses gridded climate data and key properties of the habitat (e.g. disturbance intervals) to predict processes which control net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake, namely photosynthesis, respiration, water uptake and evaporation. It relies on equations used in many dynamical vegetation models, which are combined with concepts specific to lichens and bryophytes, such as poikilohydry or the effect of water content on CO2 diffusivity. To incorporate the great functional variation of lichens and bryophytes at the <span class="hlt">global</span> scale, the model parameters are characterised by broad ranges of possible values instead of a single, <span class="hlt">globally</span> uniform value. The predicted terrestrial net uptake of 0.34 to 3.3 Gt yr-1 of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and <span class="hlt">global</span> patterns of productivity are in accordance with empirically-derived estimates. Considering that the assimilated <span class="hlt">carbon</span> can be invested in processes such as weathering or nitrogen fixation, lichens and bryophytes may play a significant role in biogeochemical cycles.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H41K1394R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H41K1394R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Scale Methane Emissions from On-Site Wastewater <span class="hlt">Management</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reid, M. C.; Guan, K.; Mauzerall, D. L.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Pit latrines and other on-site sanitation methods are important forms of wastewater <span class="hlt">management</span> at the <span class="hlt">global</span> scale, providing hygienic and low-cost sanitation for more than 1.7 billion people in developing and middle-income regions. Latrines have also been identified as major sources of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) from the anaerobic decomposition of organic waste in pits. Understanding the greenhouse gas footprint of different wastewater systems is essential for sustainable water resource development and <span class="hlt">management</span>. Despite this importance, CH4 emissions from decentralized wastewater treatment have received little attention in the scientific literature, and the rough calculations underlying government inventories and integrated assessment models do not accurately capture variations in emissions within and between countries. In this study, we improve upon earlier efforts and develop the first spatially explicit approach to quantifying latrine CH4 emissions, combining a high-resolution geospatial analysis of population, urbanization, and water table (as an indicator of anaerobic decomposition pathways) with CH4 emissions factors from the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Country-level health and sanitation surveys were used to determine latrine utilization in 2000 and predict usage in 2015. 18 representative countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America were selected for this analysis to illustrate regional variations in CH4 emissions and to include the greatest emitting nations. Our analysis confirms that pit latrines are a <span class="hlt">globally</span> significant anthropogenic CH4 source, emitting 4.7 Tg CH4 yr-1 in the countries considered here. This total is projected to decrease ~25% by 2015, however, driven largely by rapid urbanization in China and decreased reliance on latrines in favor of flush toilets. India has the greatest potential for large growth in emissions in the post-2015 period, since public health campaigns to end open defecation, which is currently practiced by more than 600 million people in India, will rely heavily on latrines. Our results emphasize that decisions regarding water and sanitation can significantly influence anthropogenic CH4 emissions, and that discussions around sustainable water resources policy should give full consideration to the greenhouse gas impacts of decentralized sanitation systems like latrines. We conclude with a brief discussion of household biogas and composting toilets as CH4 mitigation options which also allow for harvesting of renewable energy and/or nutrients from wastewater.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890006087','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890006087"><span id="translatedtitle">A study of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> monoxide distribution determinations for a <span class="hlt">global</span> transport model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Peters, Leonard K.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The primary objective of this grant was to further the development of a <span class="hlt">global</span> transport/chemistry model that simulates the physico-chemical behavior of methane and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> monoxide in the troposphere. The computer simulation model is designed to analyze the processes that occur as methane and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> monoxide are transported from their respective sources to their ultimate fate, e.g., final conversion to CO2, transport to the stratosphere, deposition at ground level, etc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B33B0477V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B33B0477V"><span id="translatedtitle">Analyzing <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake patterns using plant trait data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van de Weg, M. J.; Musavi, T. S.; Van Bodegom, P.; Kattge, J.; Mahecha, M. D.; Reichstein, M.; Bahn, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Environment and climate are two important factors in determining <span class="hlt">global</span> terrestrial CO2 flux patterns, as well as vegetation type and structure. At the moment, in many <span class="hlt">global</span> CO2 flux analyses the vegetation is represented by plant functional types (PFTs). However, the variance in plant traits within PFTs is as large as between them, suggesting that PFTs do not necessary represent patterns of plant traits as found world wide. And while the correlations between plant traits (e.g. foliar nutrients, leaf mass per area) and CO2 uptake are well established at plant level, this is not the case at ecosystem level. The recently established plant trait database TRY (www.TRY-db.org), together with FLUXNET data give us now new opportunities to analyze ecosystem CO2fluxes at <span class="hlt">global</span> scale using species plant traits rather than PFTs. Analyzing worldwide CO2 flux data with plant traits comes with some challenges regarding the different spatio-and temporal nature of both data types. Therefore, rather than directly using CO2 fluxes (for which each FLUXNET sites has a different seasonality and different diurnal pattern), we can derive so called ecosystem functional properties (EFPs), which are emergent properties of the ecosystem in response to environmental drivers and are influenced by the structural and physiological properties of the ecosystem. The plant traits in turn are scaled up in a way they become an average representative value for the sites in the analysis, and become suitable to compare to EFPs. Here we present the results of a first study that analyzed <span class="hlt">global</span> patterns of the EFP GPP1000 max (the maximum gross primary productivity at light saturation) with plant traits measured in situ and derived from the TRY database. In addition to presenting the results we discuss the importance of differences in data origins and data quality (e.g. in situ traits vs. database derived traits, leaf area index (LAI) data from auxiliary FLUXNET data vs remotely sensed LAI, etc.) for this type of analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1538..157P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1538..157P"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of CNT based <span class="hlt">carbon-carbon</span> composites for thermal <span class="hlt">management</span> system (TMS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paul, Jhon; Krishnakumar, G.; Rajarajan, A.; Rakesh, S.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Carbon-Fibre-Carbon</span> matrix composites having high thermal conductivity per unit density is a competitive material for thermal <span class="hlt">management</span> for aerospace applications. Due to anisotropic nature of <span class="hlt">Carbon-Carbon</span>(C-C) composites, the thermal conductivity in the thickness direction which is dominated by the matrix <span class="hlt">carbon</span> is comparatively low. In the present study, work is carried to increase the thermal conductivity in the thickness direction of 2D-CC composites. Multi-Walled <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Nanotubes (MWNT) were functionalised and dispersed in Phenolic Resin. C-C composites were densified with MWNT dispersed Phenolic Resin through impregnation, curing & carbonisation cycle. CNT-CC composites were densified through Chemical Vapor Infiltration process and further graphitised. The effects of MWNT in amorphous <span class="hlt">carbon</span> for thermal conductivity were investigated. The result shows that Multi Walled <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Nanotubes (MWNT) can induce the ordered arrangement of micro-crystallites in amorphous <span class="hlt">carbon</span> leading to increase in thermal conductivity of the bulk composites. There exists an optimum MWNT concentration in resin to enhance the thermal conductivity of C-C composites in the perpendicular direction. However, excess MWNT in resin is disadvantageous to enhance the thermal conductivity due to problems like agglomeration, resulting in reduced thermal conductivity. This can be attributed to the interfacial contact resistance due to improper heat transmission channels arising due to agglomeration. Investigation has been carried out to study the effect of agglomeration for the thermal conductivity of the bulk composites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3437861','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3437861"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> economic potential for reducing <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide emissions from mangrove loss</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Siikamki, Juha; Sanchirico, James N.; Jardine, Sunny L.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Mangroves are among the most threatened and rapidly disappearing natural environments worldwide. In addition to supporting a wide range of other ecological and economic functions, mangroves store considerable <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Here, we consider the <span class="hlt">global</span> economic potential for protecting mangroves based exclusively on their <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. We develop unique high-resolution <span class="hlt">global</span> estimates (5? grid, about 9 9 km) of the projected <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions from mangrove loss and the cost of avoiding the emissions. Using these spatial estimates, we derive <span class="hlt">global</span> and regional supply curves (marginal cost curves) for avoided emissions. Under a broad range of assumptions, we find that the majority of potential emissions from mangroves could be avoided at less than $10 per ton of CO2. Given the recent range of market price for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> offsets and the cost of reducing emissions from other sources, this finding suggests that protecting mangroves for their <span class="hlt">carbon</span> is an economically viable proposition. Political-economy considerations related to the ability of doing business in developing countries, however, can severely limit the supply of offsets and increases their price per ton. We also find that although a <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-focused conservation strategy does not automatically target areas most valuable for biodiversity, implementing a biodiversity-focused strategy would only slightly increase the costs. PMID:22847435</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4133206','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4133206"><span id="translatedtitle">StrongyloidiasisAn Insight into Its <span class="hlt">Global</span> Prevalence and <span class="hlt">Management</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Puthiyakunnon, Santhosh; Boddu, Swapna; Li, Yiji; Zhou, Xiaohong; Wang, Chunmei; Li, Juan; Chen, Xiaoguang</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Strongyloides stercoralis, an intestinal parasitic nematode, infects more than 100 million people worldwide. Strongyloides are unique in their ability to exist as a free-living and autoinfective cycle. Strongyloidiasis can occur without any symptoms or as a potentially fatal hyperinfection or disseminated infection. The most common risk factors for these complications are immunosuppression caused by corticosteroids and infection with human T-lymphotropic virus or human immunodeficiency virus. Even though the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis is improved by advanced instrumentation techniques in isolated and complicated cases of hyperinfection or dissemination, efficient guidelines for screening the population in epidemiological surveys are lacking. Methodology and Results In this review, we have discussed various conventional methods for the diagnosis and <span class="hlt">management</span> of this disease, with an emphasis on recently developed molecular and serological methods that could be implemented to establish guidelines for precise diagnosis of infection in patients and screening in epidemiological surveys. A comprehensive analysis of various cases reported worldwide from different endemic and nonendemic foci of the disease for the last 40 years was evaluated in an effort to delineate the <span class="hlt">global</span> prevalence of this disease. We also updated the current knowledge of the various clinical spectrum of this parasitic disease, with an emphasis on newer molecular diagnostic methods, treatment, and <span class="hlt">management</span> of cases in immunosuppressed patients. Conclusion Strongyloidiasis is considered a neglected tropical disease and is probably an underdiagnosed parasitic disease due to its low parasitic load and uncertain clinical symptoms. Increased infectivity rates in many developed countries and nonendemic regions nearing those in the most prevalent endemic regions of this parasite and the increasing transmission potential to immigrants, travelers, and immunosuppressed populations are indications for initiating an integrated approach towards prompt diagnosis and control of this parasitic disease. PMID:25121962</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6994468','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6994468"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of the marine biosphere in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Longhurst, A.R. )</p> <p>1991-12-01</p> <p>The geographical disequilibrium of our planet is due mainly to <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration by marine organisms over geological time. Changes in atmospheric CO{sub 2} during interglacial-glacial transitions require biological sequestration of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in the oceans. Nutrient-limited export flux from new production in surface waters is the key process in this sequestrian. The most common model for export flux ignores potentially important nutrient sources and export mechanisms. Export flux occurs as a result of biological processes whose complexity appears not to be accommodated by the principal classes of simulation models, this being especially true for food webs dominated by single-celled protists whose trophic function is more dispersed than among the multicelled metazoa. The fashionable question concerning a hypothetical missing sink' for CO{sub 2} emissions is unanswerable because of imprecision in our knowledge of critical flux rates. This question also diverts attention from more relevant studies of how the biological pump may be perturbed by climatic consequences of CO{sub 2} emissions. Under available scenarios for climate change, such responses may seem more likely to reinforce, rather than mitigate, the rate of increase of atmospheric CO{sub 2}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19746745','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19746745"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> footprint of nations: a <span class="hlt">global</span>, trade-linked analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hertwich, Edgar G; Peters, Glen P</p> <p>2009-08-15</p> <p>Processes causing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions benefit humans by providing consumer goods and services. This benefit, and hence the responsibility for emissions, varies by purpose or consumption category and is unevenly distributed across and within countries. We quantify greenhouse gas emissions associated with the final consumption of goods and services for 73 nations and 14 aggregate world regions. We analyze the contribution of 8 categories: construction, shelter, food, clothing, mobility, manufactured products, services, and trade. National average per capita footprints vary from 1 tCO2e/y in African countries to approximately 30/y in Luxembourg and the United States. The expenditure elasticity is 0.57. The cross-national expenditure elasticity for just CO2, 0.81, corresponds remarkably well to the cross-sectional elasticities found within nations, suggesting a <span class="hlt">global</span> relationship between expenditure and emissions that holds across several orders of magnitude difference. On the <span class="hlt">global</span> level, 72% of greenhouse gas emissions are related to household consumption, 10% to government consumption, and 18% to investments. Food accounts for 20% of GHG emissions, operation and maintenance of residences is 19%, and mobility is 17%. Food and services are more important in developing countries, while mobility and manufactured goods rise fast with income and dominate in rich countries. The importance of public services and manufactured goods has not yet been sufficiently appreciated in policy. Policy priorities hence depend on development status and country-level characteristics. PMID:19746745</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10l4008P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10l4008P"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulated <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions from land-use change are substantially enhanced by accounting for agricultural <span class="hlt">management</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pugh, T. A. M.; Arneth, A.; Olin, S.; Ahlström, A.; Bayer, A. D.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Lindeskog, M.; Schurgers, G.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>It is over three decades since a large terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink (S T) was first reported. The magnitude of the net sink is now relatively well known, and its importance for dampening atmospheric CO2 accumulation, and hence climate change, widely recognised. But the contributions of underlying processes are not well defined, particularly the role of emissions from land-use change (E LUC) versus the biospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake (S L; S T = S L ‑ E LUC). One key aspect of the interplay of E LUC and S L is the role of agricultural processes in land-use change emissions, which has not yet been clearly quantified at the <span class="hlt">global</span> scale. Here we assess the effect of representing agricultural land <span class="hlt">management</span> in a dynamic <span class="hlt">global</span> vegetation model. Accounting for harvest, grazing and tillage resulted in cumulative E LUC since 1850 ca. 70% larger than in simulations ignoring these processes, but also changed the timescale over which these emissions occurred and led to underestimations of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestered by possible future reforestation actions. The vast majority of Earth system models in the recent IPCC Fifth Assessment Report omit these processes, suggesting either an overestimation in their present-day S T, or an underestimation of S L, of up to 1.0 Pg C a‑1. <span class="hlt">Management</span> processes influencing crop productivity per se are important for food supply, but were found to have little influence on E LUC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26416553','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26416553"><span id="translatedtitle">The impact of Indonesian peatland degradation on downstream marine ecosystems and the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abrams, Jesse F; Hohn, Sönke; Rixen, Tim; Baum, Antje; Merico, Agostino</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Tropical peatlands are among the most space-efficient stores of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> on Earth containing approximately 89 Gt C. Of this, 57 Gt (65%) are stored in Indonesian peatlands. Large-scale exploitation of land, including deforestation and drainage for the establishment of oil palm plantations, is changing the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance of Indonesian peatlands, turning them from a natural sink to a source via outgassing of CO2 to the atmosphere and leakage of dissolved organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (DOC) into the coastal ocean. The impacts of this perturbation to the coastal environment and at the <span class="hlt">global</span> scale are largely unknown. Here, we evaluate the downstream effects of released Indonesian peat <span class="hlt">carbon</span> on coastal ecosystems and on the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. We use a biogeochemical box model in combination with novel and literature observations to investigate the impact of different <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emission scenarios on the combined ocean-atmosphere system. The release of all <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stored in the Indonesian peat pool, considered as a worst-case scenario, will increase atmospheric pCO2 by 8 ppm to 15 ppm within the next 200 years. The expected impact on the Java Sea ecosystems is most significant on the short term (over a few hundred years) and is characterized by an increase of 3.3% in phytoplankton, 32% in seagrass biomass, and 5% decrease in coral biomass. On the long term, however, the coastal ecosystems will recover to reach near pre-excursion conditions. Our results suggest that the ultimate fate of the peat <span class="hlt">carbon</span> is in the deep ocean with 69% of it landing in the deep DIC pool after 1000 years, but the effects on the <span class="hlt">global</span> ocean <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> chemistry will be marginal. PMID:26416553</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGD....1011077B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGD....1011077B"><span id="translatedtitle">Nitrogen deposition: how important is it for <span class="hlt">global</span> terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bala, G.; Devaraju, N.; Chaturvedi, R. K.; Caldeira, K.; Nemani, R.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget studies indicate that the terrestrial ecosystems have remained a~large sink for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> despite widespread deforestation activities. CO2-fertilization, N deposition and re-growth of mid-latitude forests are believed to be key drivers for land <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake. In this study, we assess the importance of N deposition by performing idealized near-equilibrium simulations using the Community Land Model 4.0 (CLM4). In our equilibrium simulations, only 12-17% of the deposited Nitrogen is assimilated into the ecosystem and the corresponding <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake can be inferred from a C : N ratio of 20:1. We calculate the sensitivity of the terrestrial biosphere for CO2-fertilization, climate warming and N deposition as changes in total ecosystem <span class="hlt">carbon</span> for unit changes in <span class="hlt">global</span> mean atmospheric CO2 concentration, <span class="hlt">global</span> mean temperature and Tera grams of Nitrogen deposition per year, respectively. Based on these sensitivities, it is estimated that about 242 PgC could have been taken up by land due to the CO2 fertilization effect and an additional 175 PgC taken up as a result of the increased N deposition since the pre-industrial period. Because of climate warming, terrestrial ecosystem could have lost about 152 PgC during the same period. Therefore, since preindustrial times terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> losses due to warming may have been approximately compensated by effects of increased N deposition, whereas the effect of CO2-fertilization is approximately indicative of the current increase in terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stock. Our simulations also suggest that the sensitivity of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage to increased N deposition decreases beyond current levels, indicating climate warming effects on <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage may overwhelm N deposition effects in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGeo...10.7147B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGeo...10.7147B"><span id="translatedtitle">Nitrogen deposition: how important is it for <span class="hlt">global</span> terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bala, G.; Devaraju, N.; Chaturvedi, R. K.; Caldeira, K.; Nemani, R.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget studies indicate that the terrestrial ecosystems have remained a large sink for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> despite widespread deforestation activities. CO2 fertilization, N deposition and re-growth of mid-latitude forests are believed to be key drivers for land <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake. In this study, we assess the importance of N deposition by performing idealized near-equilibrium simulations using the Community Land Model 4.0 (CLM4). In our equilibrium simulations, only 12-17% of the deposited nitrogen is assimilated into the ecosystem and the corresponding <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake can be inferred from a C : N ratio of 20 : 1. We calculate the sensitivity of the terrestrial biosphere for CO2 fertilization, climate warming and N deposition as changes in total ecosystem <span class="hlt">carbon</span> for unit changes in <span class="hlt">global</span> mean atmospheric CO2 concentration, <span class="hlt">global</span> mean temperature and Tera grams of nitrogen deposition per year, respectively. Based on these sensitivities, it is estimated that about 242 PgC could have been taken up by land due to the CO2 fertilization effect and an additional 175 PgC taken up as a result of the increased N deposition since the pre-industrial period. Because of climate warming, the terrestrial ecosystem could have lost about 152 PgC during the same period. Therefore, since pre-industrial times terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> losses due to warming may have been more or less compensated by effects of increased N deposition, whereas the effect of CO2 fertilization is approximately indicative of the current increase in terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stock. Our simulations also suggest that the sensitivity of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage to increased N deposition decreases beyond current levels, indicating that climate warming effects on <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage may overwhelm N deposition effects in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002APS..MAR.G7002S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002APS..MAR.G7002S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span> in the Electric Power Industry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stringer, John</p> <p>2002-03-01</p> <p>Approximately 53States in 2000 came from the combustion of coal in Rankine cycle plant; 16principally in Brayton cycle or combined cycle units. Electricity generation is responsible for 36amthropogenic CO2. This compares with 32transportation sector, but since the electric utility generators are large fixed sources it is likely that any legislation designed to reduce CO2 production will adress the utility generators first. Over the last 100 years there has been a continuous decrease in the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fraction of the fuels used for energy production world wide, and it is expected that this will continue, principally as a result of the increasing fraction of natural gas. It appears probable that the retirement of the existing nuclear fleet will be delayed by relicensing, and it seems more possible that new nuclear plant will be built than seemed likely even a couple of years ago. The impact of renewables should be increasing, but currently only about 2way currently, and without some considerable incentives, the rate of increase in this component over the next twenty years will probably be small. Currently, hydroelectric plants account for 7indication that this will increase appreciably. At the moment, a significant change would appear to require the capture of CO2 from the exhaust of the combustion plants, and particularly the large existing fleet of coal-fired Rankine units. Following the capture, the CO2 must then be sequestered in secure long-term locations. In addition, increases in the efficiency of power generation, and increases in the efficiency of end use leading to reductions in the energy intensity of the Gross Domestic Product, will be necessary. This paper will review the current state of art in these various approaches to the problem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B51E0396J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B51E0396J"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbial <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Pump ---A New Mechanism for Long-Term <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Storage in the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Ocean (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jiao, N.; Azam, F.; McP Working Group; Scor Wg134</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) reservoir, containing <span class="hlt">carbon</span> equivalent to the total <span class="hlt">carbon</span> inventory of atmospheric CO2, is an important issue in understanding the role of the ocean in climate change. The known biological mechanism for oceanic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration is the biological pump, which depends on vertical transportation of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> either through particulate organic matter (POM) sedimentation or DOM export by mixing and downwelling. Both the POM and the DOM are subject to microbial mineralization and most of the organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> will be returned to dissolved inorganic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> within a few decades. Only a small fraction of the POM escapes mineralization and reaches the sediment where organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> can be buried and stored for thousands and even millions of years. The efficiency of the biological pump is currently the basic measure of the oceans ability to store biologically fixed <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. However, the production and fate of the large pool of recalcitrant DOM with an averaged turnover time of 4000-6000 thousands of years in the water column has not been adequately considered to date. Marine microbes essentially monopolize the utilization of DOM. Although their diverse adaptive strategies for using newly fixed <span class="hlt">carbon</span> are well known, major gaps exist in our knowledge on how they interact with the large pool of DOM that appears to be recalcitrant. This is an important problem, as DOM molecules that are not degraded for extended periods of time constitute <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage in the ocean. A newly proposed concept - the microbial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pump (MCP) (NATURE REVIEWS Microbiology 2010.8:593-599) (also see diagram below) provides a formalized focus on the significance of microbial processes in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage in the recalcitrant DOM reservoir, and a framework for testing hypotheses on the sources and sinks of DOM and the underlying biogeochemical mechanisms. The MCP, through concessive processing of DOM, transforms some organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> from the reactive DOM pools to a recalcitrant <span class="hlt">carbon</span> reservoir, pumping organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> from low concentrations of labile DOM to high concentrations of recalcitrant DOM, building up a huge reservoir for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage over time. Meanwhile the MCP transfers more <span class="hlt">carbon</span> relative to nitrogen and phosphorus from the reactive organic matter pool into recalcitrant organic matter pool. Compared with the solubility pump, an abiotic mechanism for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage in the ocean which has ocean acidification impacts on marine organisms and biogeochemical cycles, the MCP-driven recalcitrant DOM <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage does not appreciably alter the buffering capacity of seawater and has no known negative impact on marine organisms. Furthermore, in the ocean warming scenario, the partitioning of biogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flow will change, with the flow to POM diminishing and that to DOM increasing, and thus the role of the MCP in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage will most likely enhanced. A working group joined by 26 scientists from 12 countries has been formed under the Scientific Committee for Oceanic Research (SCOR-WG134) to address this multi-faceted biogeochemical issue related to <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycling in the ocean and <span class="hlt">global</span> climate changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5267545','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5267545"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the role of terrestrial ecosystems in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Emanuel, W.R.; Post, W.M.; Shugart, H.H. Jr.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>A model for the <span class="hlt">global</span> biogeochemical cycle of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> which includes a five-compartment submodel for circulation in terrestrial ecosystems of the world is presented. Although this terrestrial submodel divides <span class="hlt">carbon</span> into compartments with more functional detail than previous models, the variability in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics among ecosystem types and in different climatic zones is not adequately treated. A new model construct which specifically treats this variability by modeling the distribution of ecosystem types as a function of climate on a 0.5/sup 0/ latitude by 0.5/sup 0/ longitude scale of resolution is proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EOSTr..88..287M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EOSTr..88..287M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Changes in Ocean <span class="hlt">Carbon</span>: Variability and Vulnerability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Metzl, Nicolas; Tilbrook, Bronte; Bakker, Dorothee; Le Qur, Corinne; Doney, Scott; Feely, Richard; Hood, Maria; Dargaville, Roger</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>Surface Ocean CO2 Variability and Vulnerability Workshop, Paris, France, 11-14 April 2007 The oceans have taken up approximately half of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions. This uptake reduces climate change but also lowers ocean pH, with the potential to disrupt ecosystems. Climate change affects ocean biology and physics and could lead to reduced efficiency of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinks, a process that atmospheric data and ocean models indicate is already occurring in the Southern Ocean. Attempts to set a baseline stabilization target for the atmospheric CO2 concentration will ultimately depend on our understanding and prediction of oceanic CO2 sinks. While we are now close to monitoring oceanic CO2 uptake on decadal and regional scales, meaningful predictions of its future behavior are difficult. There is a critical and urgent need to better understand the ocean processes regulating CO2 uptake and to identify research and observational priorities for the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B31A0310T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B31A0310T"><span id="translatedtitle">A Radiocarbon Database for Improving Understanding of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Soil <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dynamics: Part I</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Torn, M. S.; Trumbore, S.; Smith, L. J.; Nave, L. E.; Sierra, C. A.; Harden, J. W.; Agarwal, D.; van Ingen, C.; Radiocarbon Database Workshop 2011</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Soils play a large role in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle, but soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks and dynamics remain highly uncertain. Radiocarbon (14C) observations from soils and soil respiration provide one of the only ways to infer terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> turnover times or to test ecosystem <span class="hlt">carbon</span> models. Although a wealth of such observations exists, they are scattered in small data sets held by individual researchers, and have not been compiled in a form easy to use for multi-site analysis, <span class="hlt">global</span> assessments, or model testing. Here we introduce a new, <span class="hlt">global</span> radiocarbon database that will synthesize datasets from multiple contributors to facilitate research on three broad questions: (1) What are current patterns of soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics, and what factors influence these patterns? (2) What is the sequestration capacity of different soils? (3) What are likely impacts of <span class="hlt">global</span> change on the soil resource? (4) How well do models represent important <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle processes, and how can they be improved? In addition to assembling data in a common format for analyses, this database will offer query capabilities and the ability to combine data with gridded <span class="hlt">global</span> products, such as temporally resolved temperature and precipitation, NPP and GPP, and a climate-based decomposition index. Some of the near-term synthesis goals include analyzing depth profiles of 14C for across gradients in ecosystem state factors (climate, organisms, relief, parent material, time, and human influence) and soil orders; mapping surface-soil 14C values on soil temperature and moisture; and comparing soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> turnover times to NPP and soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks. We are currently incorporating data from 18 contributors and six continents, with 14C measurements from soils representing nine soil orders, plant and microbial tissues, and respiration fluxes. Our intention is to grow the database and make it available to a wide community of scientists. For example, observations for different disturbance, experimental treatment, or land-use regimes are sought. This presentation will introduce modelers, other data users, and potential new data contributors to this valuable resource for evaluating terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics and responses to <span class="hlt">global</span> change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51.5284W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51.5284W"><span id="translatedtitle">Vegetation persistence and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage: Implications for environmental water <span class="hlt">management</span> for Phragmites australis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Whitaker, Kai; Rogers, Kerrylee; Saintilan, Neil; Mazumder, Debashish; Wen, Li; Morrison, R. J.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Environmental water allocations are used to improve the ecological health of wetlands. There is now increasing demand for allocations to improve ecosystem productivity and respiration, and enhance <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration. Despite <span class="hlt">global</span> recognition of wetlands as <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinks, information regarding <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics is lacking. This is the first study estimating <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration for semiarid Phragmites australis reedbeds. The study combined aboveground biomass assessments with stable isotope analyses of soils and modeling of biomass using Normalized Digital Vegetation Index (NDVI) to investigate the capacity of environmental water allocations to improve <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage. The study considered relationships between soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (SOC), <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sources, and reedbed persistence in the Macquarie Marshes, a regulated semiarid floodplain of the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. SOC storage levels to 1 m soil depth were higher in persistent reedbeds (167 Mg ha-1) than ephemeral reedbeds (116-138 Mg ha-1). In situ P. australis was the predominant source of surface SOC at persistent reedbeds; mixed sources of surface SOC were proposed for ephemeral reedbeds. 13C enrichment with increasing soil depth occurred in persistent and ephemeral reedbeds and may not relate to flow characteristics. Despite high SOC at persistent reedbeds, differences in the rate of accretion contributed to significantly higher rates of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration at ephemeral reedbeds (approximately 554 and 465 g m-2 yr-1) compared to persistent reedbeds (5.17 g m-2 yr-1). However, under current water regimes, rapid accretion at ephemeral reedbeds cannot be maintained. Effective <span class="hlt">management</span> of persistent P. australis reedbeds may enhance <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration in the Macquarie Marshes and floodplain wetlands more generally.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AIPC..746...10B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AIPC..746...10B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Fiber Composites for Spacecraft Thermal <span class="hlt">Management</span> Opportunities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Banisaukas, John J.; Shioleno, Mark A.; Levan, Chris D.; Rawal, Suraj P.; Silverman, Edward M.; Watts, Roland J.</p> <p>2005-02-01</p> <p>Under a prime contract (No.F33615-00-C-5009) with the U.S. Air Force Materials Lab, Cytec <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Fibers, LLC has completed a program to identify high risk, high payoff thermal <span class="hlt">management</span> applications for the insertion of high thermal conductivity <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fiber composite materials in future spacecraft. The program involved the identification of relevant design requirements, the design of components for thermal <span class="hlt">management</span> applications utilizing the most appropriate high-conductivity <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fiber composite material solution, the fabrication of prototype test articles, performance and characterization tests on the prototype articles, and test data correlation of measured results. The final step in the program required end-user acceptance or qualification testing of the designed components. This paper provides a technical overview of two of the most recent applications: 1) an aluminum-clad <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fiber composite as a thermal doubler for efficient, light weight satellite radiator panels, and 2) a laminate-wrapped <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fiber composite doubler for effective removal or spreading of heat associated with the high energy of a traveling wave tube amplifier (TWTA) unit as currently employed on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=journal+AND+ofGLOBAL+AND+management&pg=4&id=EJ639387','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=journal+AND+ofGLOBAL+AND+management&pg=4&id=EJ639387"><span id="translatedtitle">Orienting Curricula and Teaching To Produce International <span class="hlt">Managers</span> for <span class="hlt">Global</span> Competition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kedia, Ben L.; Harveston, Paula D.; Bhagat, Rabi S.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Examines the specific patterns of mindset, knowledge base, and skills that international <span class="hlt">managers</span> need to possess in order to be more effective in the <span class="hlt">global</span> marketplace. Advances a model that depicts the significance of <span class="hlt">management</span> education for the development of <span class="hlt">global</span> mindset, knowledge base, and skills. Closes with a discussion of the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=journal+AND+ofGLOBAL+AND+management&pg=7&id=EJ627790','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=journal+AND+ofGLOBAL+AND+management&pg=7&id=EJ627790"><span id="translatedtitle">The Alignment of <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span> Strategies, International Communication Approaches, and Individual Rhetorical Choices.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Leininger, Carol</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Suggests that thinking about international communication within a framework that aligns an organization's <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> strategies with international communication practices enhances not only consulting practice but teaching as well. Describes the framework, and argues it introduces ways of thinking about <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> strategies and their</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27..182P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27..182P"><span id="translatedtitle">Revision of The <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Budget Due To Changing Air-sea Oxygen Fluxes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Plattner, G.-K.; Joos, F.; Stocker, T. F.</p> <p></p> <p>A quantitative understanding of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle is important to optimize <span class="hlt">global</span> warming mitigation strategies. The classic method, applying an ocean model to esti- mate the partitioning of anthropogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> between the <span class="hlt">global</span> terrestrial and ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinks has been complemented by various data-based methods. Here, we inves- tigate how <span class="hlt">global</span> warming and volcanic eruptions affect sea-to-air oxygen (O2) fluxes and, in turn, the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budgets for the last two decades deduced from the observed trends in atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide (CO2) and O2; the latter estimated from mea- surements of the ratio of oxygen to nitrogen (O2/N2) in air. By forcing a physical- biogeochemical climate model of intermediate complexity with reconstructed natu- ral and anthropogenic radiative forcing, we find a significant oceanic O2 outgassing mainly due to changes in ocean circulation and biological cycling (78%) and, to a lesser extent, due to surface warming (22%). Simulated sea-to-air O2 fluxes and ocean heat uptake rates are tightly correlated on multi-annual to multi-decadal time scales. A change in oceanic heat uptake of 1022 J corresponds to an increase in atmospheric O2/N2 of 1.56 per meg when correlating simulated heat fluxes and associated O2/N2 changes over the period 1900 to 2000. We combine this relation with data of ocean heat uptake and atmospheric O2/N2 and CO2. Thereby we attempt to account for inter- nal climate variability not readily reproduced by models for individual decades. The inferred terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink for the 1990s is reduced by a factor of two compared with the most recent estimate by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). This brings also into agreement calculated oceanic CO2 uptake rates with estimates from <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle models, which indicate a higher oceanic CO2 up- take during the 1990s than the 1980s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26477601','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26477601"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> redox cycle of biospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span>: Interaction of photosynthesis and earth crust processes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ivlev, Alexander A</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>A model of the natural <span class="hlt">global</span> redox cycle of biospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> is introduced. According to this model, <span class="hlt">carbon</span> transfer between biosphere and geospheres is accompanied by a conversion of the oxidative forms, presented by CO2, bicarbonate and <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> ions, into the reduced forms, produced in photosynthesis. The mechanism of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> transfer is associated with two phases of movement of lithospheric plates. In the short-term orogenic phase, CO2 from the subduction (plates' collisions) zones fills the "atmosphere-hydrosphere" system, resulting in climate warming. In the long-term quiet (geosynclynal) phase, weathering and photosynthesis become dominant depleting the oxidative forms of <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. The above asymmetric periodicity exerts an impact on climate, biodiversity, distribution of organic matter in sedimentary deposits, etc. Along with photosynthesis expansion, the redox <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle undergoes its development until it reaches the ecological compensation point, at which CO2 is depleted to the level critical to support the growth and reproduction of plants. This occurred in the Permo-Carboniferous time and in the Neogene. Shorter-term perturbations of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle in the form of glacial-interglacial oscillations appear near the ecological compensation point. PMID:26477601</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712160Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712160Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Towards an purely data driven view on the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle and its spatiotemporal variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zscheischler, Jakob; Mahecha, Miguel; Reichstein, Markus; Avitabile, Valerio; Carvalhais, Nuno; Ciais, Philippe; Gans, Fabian; Gruber, Nicolas; Hartmann, Jens; Herold, Martin; Jung, Martin; Landschtzer, Peter; Laruelle, Goulven; Lauerwald, Ronny; Papale, Dario; Peylin, Philippe; Regnier, Pierre; Rdenbeck, Christian; Cuesta, Rosa Maria Roman; Valentini, Ricardo</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Constraining <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (C) fluxes between the Earth's surface and the atmosphere at regional scale via observations is essential for understanding the Earth's <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget and predicting future atmospheric C concentrations. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> budgets have often been derived based on merging observations, statistical models and process-based models, for example in the <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Project (GCP). However, it would be helpful to derive <span class="hlt">global</span> C budgets and fluxes at <span class="hlt">global</span> scale as independent as possible from model assumptions to obtain an independent reference. Long-term in-situ measurements of land and ocean C stocks and fluxes have enabled the derivation of a new generation of data driven upscaled data products. Here, we combine a wide range of in-situ derived estimates of terrestrial and aquatic C fluxes for one decade. The data were produced and/or collected during the FP7 project GEOCARBON and include surface-atmosphere C fluxes from the terrestrial biosphere, fossil fuels, fires, land use change, rivers, lakes, estuaries and open ocean. By including spatially explicit uncertainties in each dataset we are able to identify regions that are well constrained by observations and areas where more measurements are required. Although the budget cannot be closed at the <span class="hlt">global</span> scale, we provide, for the first time, <span class="hlt">global</span> time-varying maps of the most important C fluxes, which are all directly derived from observations. The resulting spatiotemporal patterns of C fluxes and their uncertainties inform us about the needs for intensifying <span class="hlt">global</span> C observation activities. Likewise, we provide priors for inversion exercises or to identify regions of high (and low) uncertainty of integrated C fluxes. We discuss the reasons for regions of high observational uncertainties, and for biases in the budget. Our data synthesis might also be used as empirical reference for other local and <span class="hlt">global</span> C budgeting exercises.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCo...710796C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCo...710796C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> pulses of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> burial in deep-sea sediments during glacial maxima</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cartapanis, Olivier; Bianchi, Daniele; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Galbraith, Eric D.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The burial of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in marine sediments removes <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide from the ocean-atmosphere pool, provides energy to the deep biosphere, and on geological timescales drives the oxygenation of the atmosphere. Here we quantify natural variations in the burial of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in deep-sea sediments over the last glacial cycle. Using a new data compilation of hundreds of sediment cores, we show that the accumulation rate of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in the deep sea was consistently higher (50%) during glacial maxima than during interglacials. The spatial pattern and temporal progression of the changes suggest that enhanced nutrient supply to parts of the surface ocean contributed to the glacial burial pulses, with likely additional contributions from more efficient transfer of organic matter to the deep sea and better preservation of organic matter due to reduced oxygen exposure. These results demonstrate a pronounced climate sensitivity for this <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle sink.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GMD.....8..805Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GMD.....8..805Z"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> assimilation system using a modified ensemble Kalman filter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, S.; Zheng, X.; Chen, J. M.; Chen, Z.; Dan, B.; Yi, X.; Wang, L.; Wu, G.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Assimilation System based on the ensemble Kalman filter (GCAS-EK) is developed for assimilating atmospheric CO2 data into an ecosystem model to simultaneously estimate the surface <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes and atmospheric CO2 distribution. This assimilation approach is similar to <span class="hlt">Carbon</span>Tracker, but with several new developments, including inclusion of atmospheric CO2 concentration in state vectors, using the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) with 1-week assimilation windows, using analysis states to iteratively estimate ensemble forecast errors, and a maximum likelihood estimation of the inflation factors of the forecast and observation errors. The proposed assimilation approach is used to estimate the terrestrial ecosystem <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes and atmospheric CO2 distributions from 2002 to 2008. The results show that this assimilation approach can effectively reduce the biases and uncertainties of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes simulated by the ecosystem model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ERL.....8d4048A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ERL.....8d4048A"><span id="translatedtitle">The topology of non-linear <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics: from tipping points to planetary boundaries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anderies, J. M.; Carpenter, S. R.; Steffen, Will; Rockstrm, Johan</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We present a minimal model of land use and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle dynamics and use it to explore the relationship between non-linear dynamics and planetary boundaries. Only the most basic interactions between land cover and terrestrial, atmospheric, and marine <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks are considered in the model. Our goal is not to predict <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics as it occurs in the actual Earth System. Rather, we construct a conceptually reasonable heuristic model of a feedback system between different <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks that captures the qualitative features of the actual Earth System and use it to explore the topology of the boundaries of what can be called a safe operating space for humans. The model analysis illustrates the existence of dynamic, non-linear tipping points in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle dynamics and the potential complexity of planetary boundaries. Finally, we use the model to illustrate some challenges associated with navigating planetary boundaries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4773493','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4773493"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> pulses of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> burial in deep-sea sediments during glacial maxima</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cartapanis, Olivier; Bianchi, Daniele; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Galbraith, Eric D.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The burial of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in marine sediments removes <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide from the ocean–atmosphere pool, provides energy to the deep biosphere, and on geological timescales drives the oxygenation of the atmosphere. Here we quantify natural variations in the burial of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in deep-sea sediments over the last glacial cycle. Using a new data compilation of hundreds of sediment cores, we show that the accumulation rate of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in the deep sea was consistently higher (50%) during glacial maxima than during interglacials. The spatial pattern and temporal progression of the changes suggest that enhanced nutrient supply to parts of the surface ocean contributed to the glacial burial pulses, with likely additional contributions from more efficient transfer of organic matter to the deep sea and better preservation of organic matter due to reduced oxygen exposure. These results demonstrate a pronounced climate sensitivity for this <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle sink. PMID:26923945</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B12B..07T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B12B..07T"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in <span class="hlt">global</span> climate models: benchmarking, future projections, and model drivers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Todd-Brown, K. E.; Randerson, J. T.; Post, W. M.; Allison, S. D.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle plays a critical role in how the climate responds to anthropogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide. To evaluate how well Earth system models (ESMs) from the Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) represent the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle, we examined predictions of current soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks from the historical simulation. We compared the soil and litter <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pools from 17 ESMs with data on soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks from the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD). We also examined soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> predictions for 2100 from 16 ESMs from the rcp85 (highest radiative forcing) simulation to investigate the effects of climate change on soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks. In both analyses, we used a reduced complexity model to separate the effects of variation in model drivers from the effects of model parameters on soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> predictions. Drivers included NPP, soil temperature, and soil moisture, and the reduced complexity model represented one pool of soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> as a function of these drivers. The ESMs predicted <span class="hlt">global</span> soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> totals of 500 to 2980 Pg-C, compared to 1260 Pg-C in the HWSD. This 5-fold variation in predicted soil stocks was a consequence of a 3.4-fold variation in NPP inputs and 3.8-fold variability in mean <span class="hlt">global</span> turnover times. None of the ESMs correlated well with the <span class="hlt">global</span> distribution of soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in the HWSD (Pearson's correlation <0.40, RMSE 9-22 kg m-2). On a biome level there was a broad range of agreement between the ESMs and the HWSD. Some models predicted HWSD biome totals well (R2=0.91) while others did not (R2=0.23). All of the ESM terrestrial decomposition models are structurally similar with outputs that were well described by a reduced complexity model that included NPP and soil temperature (R2 of 0.73-0.93). However, MPI-ESM-LR outputs showed only a moderate fit to this model (R2=0.51), and CanESM2 outputs were better described by a reduced model that included soil moisture (R2=0.74), We also found a broad range in soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> responses to climate change predicted by the ESMs, with changes of -480 to 230 Pg-C from 2005-2100. All models that reported NPP and heterotrophic respiration showed increases in both of these processes over the simulated period. In two of the models, soils switched from a <span class="hlt">global</span> sink for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> to a net source. Of the remaining models, half predicted that soils were a sink for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> throughout the time period and the other half predicted that soils were a <span class="hlt">carbon</span> source.. Heterotrophic respiration in most of the models from 2005-2100 was well explained by a reduced complexity model dependent on soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, soil temperature, and soil moisture (R2 values >0.74). However, MPI-ESM (R2=0.45) showed only moderate fit to this model. Our analysis shows that soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> predictions from ESMs are highly variable, with much of this variability due to model parameterization and variations in driving variables. Furthermore, our reduced complexity models show that most variation in ESM outputs can be explained by a simple one-pool model with a small number of drivers and parameters. Therefore, agreement between soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> predictions across models could improve substantially by reconciling differences in driving variables and the parameters that link soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> with environmental drivers. However it is unclear if this model agreement would reflect what is truly happening in the Earth system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26923945','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26923945"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> pulses of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> burial in deep-sea sediments during glacial maxima.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cartapanis, Olivier; Bianchi, Daniele; Jaccard, Samuel L; Galbraith, Eric D</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The burial of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in marine sediments removes <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide from the ocean-atmosphere pool, provides energy to the deep biosphere, and on geological timescales drives the oxygenation of the atmosphere. Here we quantify natural variations in the burial of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in deep-sea sediments over the last glacial cycle. Using a new data compilation of hundreds of sediment cores, we show that the accumulation rate of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in the deep sea was consistently higher (50%) during glacial maxima than during interglacials. The spatial pattern and temporal progression of the changes suggest that enhanced nutrient supply to parts of the surface ocean contributed to the glacial burial pulses, with likely additional contributions from more efficient transfer of organic matter to the deep sea and better preservation of organic matter due to reduced oxygen exposure. These results demonstrate a pronounced climate sensitivity for this <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle sink. PMID:26923945</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.U54B..08D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.U54B..08D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Management</span> of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> across sectors and scales: Insights from land use decision making</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dilling, L.; Failey, E. L.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> is increasingly becoming a topic of interest among policy circles and business entrepreneurs alike. In the United States, while no binding regulatory framework exists, <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> is nonetheless being pursued both by voluntary actions at a variety of levels, from the individual to the national level, and through mandatory policies at state and local levels. Controlling the amount of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide in the atmosphere for climate purposes will ultimately require a form of governance that will ensure that the actions taken and being rewarded financially are indeed effective with respect to the <span class="hlt">global</span> atmosphere on long time scales. Moreover, this new system of governance will need to interface with existing governance structures and decision criteria that have been established to arbitrate among various societal values and priorities. These existing institutions and expressed values will need to be examined against those proposed for effective <span class="hlt">carbon</span> governance, such as the permanence of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage, the additionality of credited activities, and the prevention of leakage, or displacement of prohibited activities to another region outside the governance boundary. The latter issue suggests that interactions among scales of decision making and governance will be extremely important in determining the ultimate success of any future system of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> governance. The goal of our study is to understand the current context of land use decision making in different sectors and examine the potential for future <span class="hlt">carbon</span> policy to be effective given this context. This study examined land use decision making in the U.S. state of Colorado from a variety of ownership perspectives, including US Federal land <span class="hlt">managers</span>, individual private owners, and policy makers involved in land use at a number of different scales. This paper will report on the results of interviews with land <span class="hlt">managers</span> and provide insight into the policy context for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> through land use. The study also examined the role of information in making decisions, and we will report some interesting contrasts between Federal and private land owner practices. Implications for science policy and the provision of useful information for decision making will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1113611','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1113611"><span id="translatedtitle">New Technical Risk <span class="hlt">Management</span> Development for <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Capture Process</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Engel, David W.; Letellier, Bruce; Edwards, Brian; Leclaire, Rene; Jones, Edward</p> <p>2012-04-30</p> <p>The basic CCSI objective of accelerating technology development and commercial deployment of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> capture technologies through the extensive use of numerical simulation introduces a degree of unfamiliarity and novelty that potentially increases both of the traditional risk elements. In order to secure investor confidence and successfully accelerate the marketability of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> capture technologies, it is critical that risk <span class="hlt">management</span> decision tools be developed in parallel with numerical simulation capabilities and uncertainty quantification efforts. The focus of this paper is on the development of a technical risk model that incorporates the specific technology maturity development (level).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=252946','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=252946"><span id="translatedtitle">Satellite Remote Sensing Missions for Monitoring Water, <span class="hlt">Carbon</span>, and <span class="hlt">global</span> Climate Change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In recent years, the subjects of water, <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, and <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change have attracted worldwide attention by scientists and the media. Climate change, whether associated with human- induced or natural variations, has and will continue to be important to policy makers and the public. It is clear t...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150000330','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150000330"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of Simulated <span class="hlt">Global</span> Ocean <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Flux Estimates to Forcing by Reanalysis Products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gregg, Watson W.; Casey, Nancy W.; Rousseaux, Cecile S.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Reanalysis products from MERRA, NCEP2, NCEP1, and ECMWF were used to force an established ocean biogeochemical model to estimate air-sea <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes (FCO2) and partial pressure of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide (pCO2) in the <span class="hlt">global</span> oceans. <span class="hlt">Global</span> air-sea <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes and pCO2 were relatively insensitive to the choice of forcing reanalysis. All <span class="hlt">global</span> FCO2 estimates from the model forced by the four different reanalyses were within 20% of in situ estimates (MERRA and NCEP1 were within 7%), and all models exhibited statistically significant positive correlations with in situ estimates across the 12 major oceanographic basins. <span class="hlt">Global</span> pCO2 estimates were within 1% of in situ estimates with ECMWF being the outlier at 0.6%. Basin correlations were similar to FCO2. There were, however, substantial departures among basin estimates from the different reanalysis forcings. The high latitudes and tropics had the largest ranges in estimated fluxes among the reanalyses. Regional pCO2 differences among the reanalysis forcings were muted relative to the FCO2 results. No individual reanalysis was uniformly better or worse in the major oceanographic basins. The results provide information on the characterization of uncertainty in ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> models due to choice of reanalysis forcing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B11D0408T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B11D0408T"><span id="translatedtitle">How sensitive is the <span class="hlt">global</span> peatland <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pool to climate change?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Talbot, J.; Frolking, S. E.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Peatlands are important components of boreal and subarctic landscapes, and can be regionally important components of tropical landscapes. As boreal and subarctic peatlands store about one-third of the terrestrial soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pool, peatlands play an important role as a long-term sink for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> . In the last two decades, many studies have looked at the vulnerability of this <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pool to the effects of <span class="hlt">global</span> change (particularly warming and drying), and the potential feedbacks to the atmosphere a change in the peatland <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pool might bring. The persistent imbalance between the production of decomposition of organic matter in waterlogged conditions results in the accumulation of peat. We synthesized studies looking at the effect of <span class="hlt">global</span> change (especially warming and drying) on the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance of peatlands. This synthesis shows that the magnitude of the warming or drying required to significantly affect the <span class="hlt">global</span> peatland <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pool is higher than the change that is expected over the 21st century, although this conclusion might be different when taking into account the effects of an increase in natural fire frequency or widespread permafrost thaw. We also show that direct anthropogenic impacts on peatlands, especially tropical peatlands, could result in the release of more peatland <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in the 21st century than warming and/or drying. The simulation of peat accumulation responses to different drying scenarios using the Holocene Peatland Model also indicates that a very sharp and sustained decline in water table depth is required to significantly affect the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pool of a mature peatland, and that this response differs depending on how the vegetation is allowed to change in the course of the simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT........58A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT........58A"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> monoxide cycle: Modeling and data analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arellano, Avelino F., Jr.</p> <p></p> <p>The overarching goal of this dissertation is to develop robust, spatially and temporally resolved CO sources, using <span class="hlt">global</span> chemical transport modeling, CO measurements from Climate Monitoring and Diagnostic Laboratory (CMDL) and Measurement of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT), under the framework of Bayesian synthesis inversion. To rigorously quantify the CO sources, I conducted five sets of inverse analyses, with each set investigating specific methodological and scientific issues. The first two inverse analyses separately explored two different CO observations to estimate CO sources by region and sector. Under a range of scenarios relating to inverse methodology and data quality issues, top-down estimates using CMDL CO surface and MOPITT CO remote-sensed measurements show consistent results particularly on a significantly large fossil fuel/biofuel (FFBF) emission in East Asia than present bottom-up estimates. The robustness of this estimate is strongly supported by forward and inverse modeling studies in the region particularly from TRansport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) campaign. The use of high-resolution measurement for the first time in CO inversion also draws attention to a methodology issue that the range of estimates from the scenarios is larger than posterior uncertainties, suggesting that estimate uncertainties may be underestimated. My analyses highlight the utility of top-down approach to provide additional constraints on present <span class="hlt">global</span> estimates by also pointing to other discrepancies including apparent underestimation of FFBF from Africa/Latin America and biomass burning (BIOM) sources in Africa, southeast Asia and north-Latin America, indicating inconsistencies on our current understanding of fuel use and land-use patterns in these regions. Inverse analysis using MOPITT is extended to determine the extent of MOPITT information and estimate monthly regional CO sources. A major finding, which is consistent with other atmospheric observations but differ with satellite area-burned observations, is a significant overestimation in southern Africa for June/July relative to satellite-and-model-constrained BIOM emissions of CO. Sensitivity inverse analyses on observation error covariance and structure, and sequential inversion using NOAA CMDL to fully exploit available information, confirm the robustness of the estimates and further recognize the limitations of the approach, implying the need to further improve the methodology and to reconcile discrepancies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=diversity+AND+organization&pg=4&id=EJ936212','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=diversity+AND+organization&pg=4&id=EJ936212"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> and the Inward Flow of Immigrants: Issues Associated with the Inpatriation of <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Managers</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Harvey, Michael; Kiessling, Tim; Moeller, Miriam</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Assembling a diverse <span class="hlt">global</span> workforce is becoming a critical dimension in gaining successful <span class="hlt">global</span> performance. In the past, staffing has focused on control of the multinational organization as the primary goal when staffing overseas positions. As organizations <span class="hlt">globalize</span> their operations, the goal of staffing is shifting from control to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ERL.....4c4012M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ERL.....4c4012M"><span id="translatedtitle">A fast method for updating <span class="hlt">global</span> fossil fuel <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide emissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Myhre, G.; Alterskjr, K.; Lowe, D.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>We provide a fast and efficient method for calculating <span class="hlt">global</span> annual mean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels by combining data from an established data set with BP annual statistics. Using this method it is possible to retrieve an updated estimate of <span class="hlt">global</span> CO2 emissions six months after the actual emissions occurred. Using this data set we find that atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide emissions have increased by over 40% from 1990 to 2008 with an annual average increase of 3.7% over the five-year period 2003-2007. In 2008 the growth rate in the fossil fuel <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide emissions was smaller than in the preceding five years, but it was still over 2%. <span class="hlt">Global</span> mean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide emissions in 2008 were 8.8 GtC yr-1. For the latter part of the last century emissions of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide have been greater from oil than from coal. However during the last few years this situation has changed. The recent strong increase in fossil fuel CO2 emissions is mainly driven by an increase in emissions from coal, whereas emissions from oil and gas to a large degree follow the trend from the 1990s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1044528','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1044528"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrating Natural Gas Hydrates in the <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>David Archer; Bruce Buffett</p> <p>2011-12-31</p> <p>We produced a two-dimensional geological time- and basin-scale model of the sedimentary margin in passive and active settings, for the simulation of the deep sedimentary methane cycle including hydrate formation. Simulation of geochemical data required development of parameterizations for bubble transport in the sediment column, and for the impact of the heterogeneity in the sediment pore fluid flow field, which represent new directions in modeling methane hydrates. The model is somewhat less sensitive to changes in ocean temperature than our previous 1-D model, due to the different methane transport mechanisms in the two codes (pore fluid flow vs. bubble migration). The model is very sensitive to reasonable changes in organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> deposition through geologic time, and to details of how the bubbles migrate, in particular how efficiently they are trapped as they rise through undersaturated or oxidizing chemical conditions and the hydrate stability zone. The active margin configuration reproduces the elevated hydrate saturations observed in accretionary wedges such as the Cascadia Margin, but predicts a decrease in the methane inventory per meter of coastline relative to a comparable passive margin case, and a decrease in the hydrate inventory with an increase in the plate subduction rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26743490','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26743490"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span>: nitrogen stoichiometry following afforestation: a <span class="hlt">global</span> synthesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Xia; Li, Dejun; Cheng, Xiaoli; Ruan, Honghua; Luo, Yiqi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Though <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (C): nitrogen (N) stoichiometry has been widely studied in terrestrial ecosystems, little is known about its variation following afforestation. By synthesizing the results of 53 studies, we examined temporal and spatial variation in C: N ratios and in N-C scaling relationships of both the organic and the mineral soil horizons. Results showed that C: N ratios remained constant in the mineral horizon but significantly decreased in the organic horizon over the age sequence following afforestation. Among different climate zones, C: N ratios of the organic and the mineral horizons increased and decreased, respectively, with increasing mean annual temperature (MAT) (decreasing latitude). Pasture exhibited higher C: N ratios than cropland in the organic horizon while C: N of the mineral horizon did not change much among different land use types. For both the organic and the mineral horizons, hardwoods exhibited lower C: N ratios than pine and softwoods. Additionally, N and C in general scaled isometrically in both the organic and the mineral horizons over the age sequence and among different climate zones, land use types, and plantation species following afforestation. Our results suggest that C and N may remain coupled following afforestation. PMID:26743490</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4705480','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4705480"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span>: nitrogen stoichiometry following afforestation: a <span class="hlt">global</span> synthesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xu, Xia; Li, Dejun; Cheng, Xiaoli; Ruan, Honghua; Luo, Yiqi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Though <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (C): nitrogen (N) stoichiometry has been widely studied in terrestrial ecosystems, little is known about its variation following afforestation. By synthesizing the results of 53 studies, we examined temporal and spatial variation in C: N ratios and in N-C scaling relationships of both the organic and the mineral soil horizons. Results showed that C: N ratios remained constant in the mineral horizon but significantly decreased in the organic horizon over the age sequence following afforestation. Among different climate zones, C: N ratios of the organic and the mineral horizons increased and decreased, respectively, with increasing mean annual temperature (MAT) (decreasing latitude). Pasture exhibited higher C: N ratios than cropland in the organic horizon while C: N of the mineral horizon did not change much among different land use types. For both the organic and the mineral horizons, hardwoods exhibited lower C: N ratios than pine and softwoods. Additionally, N and C in general scaled isometrically in both the organic and the mineral horizons over the age sequence and among different climate zones, land use types, and plantation species following afforestation. Our results suggest that C and N may remain coupled following afforestation. PMID:26743490</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1715619H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1715619H"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation and Improvement of <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle Models against Soil <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> and Microbial Data Sets Using a Bayesian MCMC method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hararuk, Oleksandra; Luo, Yiqi</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Long-term land <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-cycle feedback to climate change is largely determined by dynamics of soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (SOC). However, most evaluation studies conducted so far indicate that <span class="hlt">global</span> land models predict SOC poorly. We have developed new techniques to evaluate and improve <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle models against <span class="hlt">global</span> datavases of soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stock and microbial biomass <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. We have evaluated and improved one conventional model and two microbial models. We evaluated predictions of SOC by the Community Land Model with Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach biogeochemistry module (CLM-CASA'), investigated underlying causes of mismatches between model predictions and observations, and calibrated model parameters to improve the prediction of SOC. We compared modeled SOC to observed soil C pools provided by IGBP-DIS <span class="hlt">globally</span> gridded data product and found that CLM-CASA' on average underestimated SOC pools by 65% (r²=0.28). We applied data assimilation to CLM-CASA' to estimate SOC residence times and C partitioning coefficients among the pools, as well as temperature sensitivity of C decomposition. The model with calibrated parameters explained 41% of the <span class="hlt">global</span> variability in the observed SOC, which was substantial improvement from the initial 27%. The projections differed between models with original and calibrated parameters: over 96 years the calibrated model released 48 Pg C from soil pools and 6.5 Pg C from litter pools less than the original model. Thus, assimilating observed soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> data into the model improved fitness between modeled and observed SOC, and reduced the amount of C released under changing climate. We have constrained parameters of two soil microbial models; evaluated the improvements in performance of those calibrated models in predicting contemporary <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks; and compared the SOC responses to climate change and their uncertainties between microbial and conventional models. Microbial models with calibrated parameters explained 51% of variability in the observed total SOC, whereas a calibrated conventional model explained 41%. The microbial models, when forced with climate and soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> input predictions from the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), produced stronger soil C responses to 95 years of climate change than any of the 11 CMIP5 models. The calibrated microbial models predicted between 8% (2-pool model) and 11% (4-pool model) soil C losses compared to CMIP5 model projections which ranged from a 7% loss to a 22.6% gain. Lastly, we observed unrealistic oscillatory SOC dynamics in the 2-pool microbial model. The 4-pool model also produced oscillations, but they were less prominent and could be avoided, depending on the parameter values. To further reduce the uncertainty in the soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> prediction, we need to explore alternative model structures, improve representation of ecosystems, and develop additional <span class="hlt">global</span> datasets for constraining model parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=299881','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=299881"><span id="translatedtitle">Soil <span class="hlt">management</span> and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> calculation methods influence changes in soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> estimation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Throughout the years, many studies have evaluated changes in soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (SOC) mass on a fixed-depth (FD) basis without considering changes in soil mass caused by changing in bulk density. In two study sites, we investigated the effect of different <span class="hlt">management</span> practices on SOC changes calcul...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4421931','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4421931"><span id="translatedtitle">Concentrations and ratios of particulate organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, nitrogen, and phosphorus in the <span class="hlt">global</span> ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Martiny, Adam C; Vrugt, Jasper A; Lomas, Michael W</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Knowledge of concentrations and elemental ratios of suspended particles are important for understanding many biogeochemical processes in the ocean. These include patterns of phytoplankton nutrient limitation as well as linkages between the cycles of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and nitrogen or phosphorus. To further enable studies of ocean biogeochemistry, we here present a <span class="hlt">global</span> dataset consisting of 100,605 total measurements of particulate organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, nitrogen, or phosphorus analyzed as part of 70 cruises or time-series. The data are <span class="hlt">globally</span> distributed and represent all major ocean regions as well as different depths in the water column. The <span class="hlt">global</span> median C:P, N:P, and C:N ratios are 163, 22, and 6.6, respectively, but the data also includes extensive variation between samples from different regions. Thus, this compilation will hopefully assist in a wide range of future studies of ocean elemental ratios. PMID:25977799</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=249121','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=249121"><span id="translatedtitle">Land Use and <span class="hlt">Management</span> Practices Impact on Plant Biomass <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> and Soil <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dioxide Emission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Land use and <span class="hlt">management</span> practices may influence plant C input and soil CO2 emission, a greenhouse gas responsible for <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. We evaluated the effect of a combination of irrigation, tillage, cropping system, and N fertilization on plant biomass (leaves + stems) C, soil temperature and water ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=252266','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=252266"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Management</span> practices effects on soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide emission and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Management</span> practices can influence soil CO2 emission and C content in cropland, which can effect <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. We examined the effects of combinations of irrigation, tillage, cropping systems, and N fertilization on soil CO2 flux, temperature, water, and C content at the 0 to 20 cm depth from May ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25671793','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25671793"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate Change, <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dioxide, and Pest Biology: Monitor, Mitigate, <span class="hlt">Manage</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ziska, Lewis H; McConnell, Laura L</p> <p>2016-01-13</p> <p>Rising concentrations of atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide ([CO2]) and subsequent changes in climate, including temperature and precipitation extremes, are very likely to alter pest pressures in both <span class="hlt">managed</span> and unmanaged plant communities. Such changes in pest pressures can be positive (migration from a region) or negative (new introductions), but are likely to be accompanied by significant economic and environmental consequences. Recent studies indicate the range of invasive weeds such as kudzu and insects such as mountain pine beetle have already expanded to more northern regions as temperatures have risen. To reduce these consequences, a better understanding of the link between CO2/climate and pest biology is needed in the context of existing and new strategies for pest <span class="hlt">management</span>. This paper provides an overview of the probable biological links and the vulnerabilities of existing pest <span class="hlt">management</span> (especially chemical control) and provides a preliminary synthesis of research needs that could potentially improve the ability to monitor, mitigate, and <span class="hlt">manage</span> pest impacts. PMID:25671793</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.B31A..05H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.B31A..05H"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating the Uncertainty of Land-use History Reconstructions in the <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Balance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hurtt, G.; Frolking, S.; Fearon, M.; Moore, B.; Shevliakova, E.; Malyshev, S.; Pacala, S.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>Human land-use activities have had a marked affect on the land surface. <span class="hlt">Globally</span>, cropland and pasture occupy more than 30 percent of the land surface, and much of the remaining forest area is in some stage of recovery from prior agriculture or logging. Landscapes are generally a heterogeneous mixture of patches with different land uses and land-use histories. Because of these changes and the potentially long-time scales of ecosystem responses to them, historical information on land-use activities is needed for ecosystem studies of the past, present, and future. Because of limited records <span class="hlt">globally</span>, much of the information needed must be estimated in reconstructions. In this study, we evaluated the importance of several key aspects of uncertainty in land-use history reconstructions on estimates of the <span class="hlt">global</span> terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance. We first constructed an ensemble of <span class="hlt">global</span> land-use history reconstructions that are consistent with major historical databases, but differ in important parameters unconstrained by these databases. We then propagated the ensemble of reconstructions through a set of ecosystem models, based on MIAMI-LU and ED family of models, to determine annual exchange of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. These models have been used previously in assessing the effects of land-use history on the U.S. <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance and are underdevelopment for <span class="hlt">global</span> Earth System applications. Analyses identify the relative importance of key uncertainties in land-use history reconstructions for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux estimates and suggest priorities for future research to reduce these uncertainties. In addition, a "preferred" land-use history product is presented for use in <span class="hlt">global</span> earth system studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21412336','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21412336"><span id="translatedtitle">Eocene <span class="hlt">global</span> warming events driven by ventilation of oceanic dissolved organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sexton, Philip F; Norris, Richard D; Wilson, Paul A; Plike, Heiko; Westerhold, Thomas; Rhl, Ursula; Bolton, Clara T; Gibbs, Samantha</p> <p>2011-03-17</p> <p>'Hyperthermals' are intervals of rapid, pronounced <span class="hlt">global</span> warming known from six episodes within the Palaeocene and Eocene epochs (?65-34 million years (Myr) ago). The most extreme hyperthermal was the ?170 thousand year (kyr) interval of 5-7 C <span class="hlt">global</span> warming during the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 56?Myr ago). The PETM is widely attributed to massive release of greenhouse gases from buried sedimentary <span class="hlt">carbon</span> reservoirs, and other, comparatively modest, hyperthermals have also been linked to the release of sedimentary <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Here we show, using new 2.4-Myr-long Eocene deep ocean records, that the comparatively modest hyperthermals are much more numerous than previously documented, paced by the eccentricity of Earth's orbit and have shorter durations (?40?kyr) and more rapid recovery phases than the PETM. These findings point to the operation of fundamentally different forcing and feedback mechanisms than for the PETM, involving redistribution of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> among Earth's readily exchangeable surface reservoirs rather than <span class="hlt">carbon</span> exhumation from, and subsequent burial back into, the sedimentary reservoir. Specifically, we interpret our records to indicate repeated, large-scale releases of dissolved organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (at least 1,600 gigatonnes) from the ocean by ventilation (strengthened oxidation) of the ocean interior. The rapid recovery of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle following each Eocene hyperthermal strongly suggests that <span class="hlt">carbon</span> was re-sequestered by the ocean, rather than the much slower process of silicate rock weathering proposed for the PETM. Our findings suggest that these pronounced climate warming events were driven not by repeated releases of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> from buried sedimentary sources, but, rather, by patterns of surficial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> redistribution familiar from younger intervals of Earth history. PMID:21412336</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B13D0540S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B13D0540S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle impact from improved plant nitrogen cycle in CLM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shi, M.; Fisher, J. B.; Brzostek, E. R.; Cai, X.; Phillips, R.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Plants typically expend a significant portion of their NPP for acquisition of nitrogen, especially in nitrogen-limited soils; this is NPP that would otherwise go to growth in the presence of ample nitrogen. The Community Land Model with <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and nitrogen dynamics (e.g., CLM-CN or CLM4.5) currently has no <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cost for nitrogen acquisition. We coupled a cutting-edge <span class="hlt">global</span> plant nitrogen model--Fixation & Uptake of Nitrogen (FUN; Fisher et al., 2010)--to CLM4.5, replacing CLM's overly simplistic free-nitrogen uptake mechanism with FUN's <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cost structure. <span class="hlt">Globally</span>, this resulted in improved representation of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle dynamics manifested primarily through improved vegetation and soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks and soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions. Moreover, as a means of comparison, we also coupled FUN to the Noah land surface model (see abstract by Cai et al.) and to the JULES land surface model. Results on this aspect are TBD at the time of abstract submission as the coupling is still underway.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5643P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5643P"><span id="translatedtitle">Combined simulation of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and water isotopes in a <span class="hlt">global</span> ocean model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paul, Andr; Krandick, Annegret; Gebbie, Jake; Marchal, Olivier; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Losch, Martin; Kurahashi-Nakamura, Takasumi; Tharammal, Thejna</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> and water isotopes are included as passive tracers in the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm). The implementation of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotopes is based on the existing MITgcm <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle component and involves the fractionation processes during photosynthesis and air-sea gas exchange. Special care is given to the use of a real freshwater flux boundary condition in conjunction with the nonlinear free surface of the ocean model. The isotopic content of precipitation and water vapor is obtained from an atmospheric GCM (the NCAR CAM3) and mapped onto the MITgcm grid system, but the kinetic fractionation during evaporation is treated explicitly in the ocean model. In a number of simulations, we test the sensitivity of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotope distributions to the formulation of fractionation during photosynthesis and compare the results to modern observations of ?13C and ?14C from GEOSECS, WOCE and CLIVAR. Similarly, we compare the resulting distribution of oxygen isotopes to modern ?18O data from the NASA GISS <span class="hlt">Global</span> Seawater Oxygen-18 Database. The overall agreement is good, but there are discrepancies in the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotope composition of the surface water and the oxygen isotope composition of the intermediate and deep waters. The combined simulation of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and water isotopes in a <span class="hlt">global</span> ocean model will provide a framework for studying present and past states of ocean circulation such as postulated from deep-sea sediment records.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1423..311S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1423..311S"><span id="translatedtitle">Beyond archaeology: 14C-AMS and the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Santos, Guaciara M.</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>The Keck <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (KCCAMS) facility specializes in using radiocarbon (14C) as a tracer for the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle (GCC). KCCAMS distinguishes between natural and anthropogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> found in natural waters, soils, sediments, the atmosphere, and biota. Presented here is an overview of our compact accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) system. A brief description of technical modifications that allow us to obtain high beam current output from the ion-source (~225 ?A of 12C-) and achieve high precision (0.2-0.3%), with minimum downtime for maintenance is also given. General requirements of 14C-AMS sample preparation are summarized including recent advancements allowing the measurement of samples < 0.100 mg of <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. In this review paper, the importance of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle and how the 14C-AMS (as tracer) has assisted into understanding <span class="hlt">carbon</span> exchange and cycling between the Earth's reservoirsterrestrial, atmospheric, and marineare succinctly illustrated and discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/470997','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/470997"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> dioxide and <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change: The birth and arrested development of an idea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mudge, F.B.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>G.S. Callendar (1897--1964) is regarded the originator of the modern theory of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide and <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change. However, this paper shows that the theory was developed and became well accepted during the nineteenth century. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> dioxide was discovered by Black in 1752. From 1820 to 1890 a steadily growing number of measurements of its atmospheric concentration were made using steadily improving techniques; the average results fell from around 500 ppm in 1820 to about 300 ppm in 1890. By the end of the following decade the greenhouse theory of <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change seemed widely accepted. However in 1900 and 1901 Aangstroem appeared to demolish the theory when he reported that changes in the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide level can have little effect because of the overlap of the water and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide spectral bands. At a stroke, all interest in the measurement of atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide levels seemed to disappear, although during the 1920s and 1930s a few workers resumed the work but for reasons unconnected to climate change. Over the next thirty years the writers of authoritative textbooks dismissed the theory of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide and climate change as an example of misguided speculation. Then in 1938 Callendar`s first paper appeared, reviving the theory which had lain forgotten for nearly forty years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900063073&hterms=copper+lakes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcopper%2Blakes','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900063073&hterms=copper+lakes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcopper%2Blakes"><span id="translatedtitle">Vapor grown <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fiber for space thermal <span class="hlt">management</span> systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lake, Max L.; Hickok, J. Kyle; Brito, Karren K.; Begg, Lester L.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Research that uses a novel, highly graphitic, vapor grown <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fiber (VGCF) to fabricate composites for thermal <span class="hlt">management</span> applications is described. These VGCF/<span class="hlt">Carbon</span> composites have shown a specific thermal conductivity with values of twenty-to-ten times that of copper in the 500-900 K temperature range needed for waste heat <span class="hlt">management</span>. It is concluded that development of this high specific thermal conductivity composite for thermal radiator panels will provide the foundation for a reevaluation of space power designs heretofore limited by the mass of waste heat dissipation systems. Further, it is suggested that through optimization of fiber handling and composite processing, thermal conductivities exceeding 1000 W/m-K (at 300 K) are achievable in composites reinforced with VGCF.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B43I..06C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B43I..06C"><span id="translatedtitle">Black <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> in Marine Dissolved Organic <span class="hlt">Carbon</span>: Abundance and Radiocarbon Measurements in the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coppola, A. I.; Walker, B. D.; Druffel, E. R. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Compound specific radiocarbon analysis is a powerful tool for understanding the cycling of individual components, such as black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (BC) produced from biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion, within bulk pools, like the marine dissolved organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pool. Here, we use a solid phase extraction method and a wide range of solvent polarities to concentrate dissolved organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> from seawater. Then we isolate BC in sufficient quantities for radiocarbon analysis. We report the radiocarbon age of BC, concentrations and its relative structure, from coastal and open ocean surface samples. We will discuss our progress towards measuring these quantities in dissolved organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> collected from the Pacific and Atlantic oceans to understand the fate, transformation and cycling of BC in the world ocean. These measurements are paired with bulk DOC ?14C profiles, providing insight into the role of BC as a missing sink in the ultra-refractory DOC pool.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ESRv..126..116W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ESRv..126..116W"><span id="translatedtitle">A critical evaluation of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotope stratigraphy and biostratigraphic implications for Late Cretaceous <span class="hlt">global</span> correlation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wendler, Ines</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Climate variability is driven by a complex interplay of <span class="hlt">global</span>-scale processes and our understanding of them depends on sufficient temporal resolution of the geologic records and their precise inter-regional correlation, which in most cases cannot be obtained with biostratigraphic methods alone. Chemostratigraphic correlation based on bulk sediment <span class="hlt">carbon</span> isotopes is increasingly used to facilitate high-resolution correlation over large distances, but complications arise from a multitude of possible influences from local differences in biological, diagenetic and physico-chemical factors on individual δ13C records that can mask the <span class="hlt">global</span> signal. To better assess the <span class="hlt">global</span> versus local contribution in a δ13C record it is necessary to compare numerous isotopic records on a <span class="hlt">global</span> scale. As a contribution to this objective, this paper reviews bulk sediment δ13Ccarb records from the Late Cretaceous in order to identify differences and similarities in secular δ13C trends that help establish a <span class="hlt">global</span> reference δ13C record for this period. The study presents a <span class="hlt">global</span>-scale comparison of twenty δ13C records from sections representing various palaeo-latitudes in both hemispheres and different oceanic settings from the Boreal, Tethys, Western Interior, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean, and with various diagenetic overprinting. The isotopic patterns are correlated based on independent dating with biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic data and reveal good agreement of the major isotope events despite offsets in absolute δ13C values and variation in amplitude between the sites. These differences reflect the varying local influences e.g. from depositional settings, bottom water age and diagenetic history, whereas the concordant patterns in δ13C shifts might represent δ13C fluctuations in the <span class="hlt">global</span> seawater dissolved inorganic <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. The latter is modulated by variations in organic matter burial relative to re-mineralization, in the <span class="hlt">global</span>-scale formation of authigenic <span class="hlt">carbonate</span>, and in partitioning of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> between organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> sinks. These variations are mainly controlled by changes in climate and eustasy. Additionally, some <span class="hlt">globally</span> synchronous shifts in the bulk δ13Ccarb records could result from parallel variation in the contribution of authigenic <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> to the sediment. Formation of these cements through biologically mediated early diagenetic processes is related to availability of oxygen and organic material and, thus, can be <span class="hlt">globally</span> synchronized by fluctuations in eustasy, atmospheric and oceanic oxygen levels or in large-scale oceanic circulation. Because the influence of early diagenetic cements on the bulk δ13Ccarb signal can, but need not be synchronized, chemostratigraphy should not be used as a stand-alone method for trans-continental correlation, and especially minor isotopic shifts have to be interpreted with utmost care. Nevertheless, the observed consistency of the δ13C correlations confirms <span class="hlt">global</span> scale applicability of bulk sediment δ13C chemostratigraphy for the Late Cretaceous, including sediments that underwent lithification and burial diagenesis such as the sediments from the Himalayan and Alpine sections. Limitations arise from increased uncertainties (1) in sediments with very low <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> content, (2) from larger δ13C variability in sediments from very shallow marine environments, (3) from unrecognized hiatuses or strong changes in sedimentation rates, and (4) in sections with short stratigraphic coverage or with few biostratigraphic marker horizons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1512974K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1512974K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> sink activity and GHG budget of <span class="hlt">managed</span> European grasslands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klumpp, Katja; Herfurth, Damien; Soussana, Jean-Francois; Fluxnet Grassland Pi's, European</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>In agriculture, a large proportion (89%) of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission saving potential may be achieved by means of soil C sequestration. Recent demonstrations of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink activities of European ecosystemes, however, often questioned the existence of C storing grasslands, as though a net sink of C was observed, uncertainty surrounding this estimate was larger than the sink itself (Janssens et al., 2003, Schulze et al., 2009. Then again, some of these estimates were based on a small number of measurements, and on models. Not surprising, there is still, a paucity of studies demonstrating the existence of grassland systems, where C sequestration would exceed (in CO2 equivalents) methane emissions from the enteric fermentation of ruminants and nitrous oxide emissions from <span class="hlt">managed</span> soils. Grasslands are heavily relied upon for food and forage production. A key component of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink activity in grasslands is thus the impact of changes in <span class="hlt">management</span> practices or effects of past and recent <span class="hlt">management</span>, such as intensification as well as climate (and -variation). We analysed data (i.e. flux, ecological, <span class="hlt">management</span> and soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span>) from a network of European grassland flux observation sites (36). These sites covered different types and intensities of <span class="hlt">management</span>, and offered the opportunity to understand grassland <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycling and trade-offs between C sinks and CH4 and N2O emissions. For some sites, the assessment of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink activities were compared using two methods; repeated soil inventory and determination of the ecosystem C budget by continuous measurement of CO2 exchange in combination with quantification of other C imports and exports (net C storage, NCS). In general grassland, were a potential sink of C with 60±12 g C /m2.yr (median; min -456; max 645). Grazed sites had a higher NCS compared to cut sites (median 99 vs 67 g C /m2.yr), while permanent grassland sites tended to have a lower NCS compared to temporary sown grasslands (median 64 vs 125 g C /m2.yr). Including CH4 and N2O emission in the budget , revealed that for most sites, GHG emissions were compensated by NCS. The role of <span class="hlt">management</span> impact,soil organic C and fluxes driven by interannual climate variation will be dicussed in the presentation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B51B0493M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B51B0493M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> dynamics of intensively <span class="hlt">managed</span> forest along a full rotation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moreaux, V.; Bosc, A.; Bonnefond, J.; Burlett, R.; Lamaud, E.; Sartore, M.; Trichet, P.; Chipeaux, C.; Lambrot, C.; Kowalski, A. S.; Loustau, D.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Temperate and tropical forests are increasingly exploited for wood and biomass extraction and only one third of forest area was considered as primary in the recent FRA in 2010. <span class="hlt">Management</span> practices affect the soil-forest-atmosphere continuum through various effects on soil and surface properties. They result ultimately in either positive or negative changes in the biomass and soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pools but, if any, few datasets or modeling tools are available for quantifying their impacts on the net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance of forest stands. To analyse these effects, the net half-hourly fluxes of CO2, water vapour and heat exchanges were monitored for 23 years in two closed stands of maritime pines in southwestern France. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> content of the aboveground biomass was measured annually and soil pools 10-early in the younger stand and 5-yearly in the mature stand. For analysing the data collected and disentangling the climate and <span class="hlt">management</span> effects, we used the three components process-based model GRAECO+ (Loustau et al. this session) linking a 3D radiative transfer and photosynthesis model, MAESTRA, a soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> model adapted from ROTH-C and a plant growth model. Eddy flux data were processed, gapfilled and partitioned using the methodological recommendations (Aubinet et al. 2000, Adv. Eco. Res:30, 114-173, Falge et al. 2001, Agr. For. Meteo. : 107, 43-69, Reichstein et al. 2005, Glob. Change Biol., 11:1424-1439). Analysis of the sequence showed that, whether by an increased sensitivity to soil drought compared to the pines or by a rapid re-colonization of the inter-row after understorey removal and plowing, the weeded vegetation contributed to create specific intra-annual dynamics of the fluxes and therefore, controls the dynamics of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance of the stand. After three growing seasons, the stand was already a <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink, but the impact of thinning and weeded vegetation removal at the age of 5-year brought the balance to almost neutral. We interpret this change as the combined effects of the reduction of the LAI, the enhancement of the heterotrophic respiration related to the decomposition of dead materials and the improvement of the mineralization of the large stock of soil organic matter by tillage. At the mature stage, the stand remains consistently a <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink and CO2 fluxes were insensitive to thinning. Conversely, the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance was sensitive to climate effects as evidenced by repeated drastic reductions in NEP caused by soil drought. Our data underlines the importance of disturbances linked to forest <span class="hlt">management</span> for the forest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance during the early stage of tree growth. Since <span class="hlt">management</span> intensification tends to shorten the forest life cycle and enhance the share of the young stages, our results confirm that the consequence of <span class="hlt">management</span> operations on the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle in forest may revert intensified forest stands from a net sink to a source and should be accounted for carefully.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B13C0541W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B13C0541W"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying the Impact of Agricultural Land <span class="hlt">Management</span> Practices on Soil <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dynamics at Different Temporal and Spatial Scales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wilson, C. G.; Papanicolaou, T.; Wacha, K.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Vast amounts of rich, organic topsoil are lost from agricultural landscapes each year through the combination of both tillage- and rainfall-induced erosion. The implications of these losses lead to soil and water quality degradation, as well as decreased biomass production and grain yields within a watershed. Further, the effects of land <span class="hlt">management</span> practices on soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> can be felt at a much larger scale in terms of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle, where the interactions of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> between the atmosphere, vegetation, and soil are highly dynamic. During tillage- and rainfall-induced erosion, organic material encapsulated within soil aggregates are dislodged and redistributed along the hillslope. Additionally, this redistribution increases decomposition rates and the release of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide fluxes to the atmosphere by changing soil texture, bulk density, and water holding capacities, which are key parameters that affect microbial activity. In this ongoing study, the combination of extensive field data, geo-spatial tools, and a coupled erosion (Water Erosion Prediction Project) - biogeochemical (CENTURY) model were used to assess the soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration potential for representative crop rotations in a highly productive agricultural watershed, at various spatial and temporal scales. Total Belowground <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Allocation was selected as a metric to assess <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration because it implements a mass balance approach of the various <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes stemming from soil detachment (erosion/deposition), heterotrophic respiration from microbial decomposition, and plant production. The results from this study show that the use of conservation practices can sequester 35 g C/m2 within the soils of the studied watershed over a 2-year crop rotation. Extrapolating to the watershed scale shows that the system is a net sink of <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Providing accurate assessment of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes associated with agricultural land <span class="hlt">management</span> practices can provide much insight to <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change and mitigation, determining greenhouse gas emission standards, and the development of incentives for good land stewards.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=223275','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=223275"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Management</span> implications of <span class="hlt">global</span> change for Great Plains rangelands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Just as water and temperature drive the ecology of Great Plains rangelands, we predict that the impacts of <span class="hlt">global</span> change on this region will be experienced largely through changes in these two important environmental variables. A third <span class="hlt">global</span> change factor which will impact rangelands is increasing ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=gender+AND+comparison+AND+work&pg=5&id=EJ819108','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=gender+AND+comparison+AND+work&pg=5&id=EJ819108"><span id="translatedtitle">Creation of Norms for the Purpose of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Talent <span class="hlt">Management</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hedricks, Cynthia A.; Robie, Chet; Harnisher, John V.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Personality scores were used to construct three databases of <span class="hlt">global</span> norms. The composition of the three databases varied according to percentage of cases by <span class="hlt">global</span> region, occupational group, applicant status, and gender of the job candidate. Comparison of personality scores across the three norms databases revealed that the magnitude of the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=journal+AND+ofGLOBAL+AND+management&pg=2&id=EJ819108','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=journal+AND+ofGLOBAL+AND+management&pg=2&id=EJ819108"><span id="translatedtitle">Creation of Norms for the Purpose of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Talent <span class="hlt">Management</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hedricks, Cynthia A.; Robie, Chet; Harnisher, John V.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Personality scores were used to construct three databases of <span class="hlt">global</span> norms. The composition of the three databases varied according to percentage of cases by <span class="hlt">global</span> region, occupational group, applicant status, and gender of the job candidate. Comparison of personality scores across the three norms databases revealed that the magnitude of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ESD.....5..197N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ESD.....5..197N"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying uncertainties in soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> responses to changes in <span class="hlt">global</span> mean temperature and precipitation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nishina, K.; Ito, A.; Beerling, D. J.; Cadule, P.; Ciais, P.; Clark, D. B.; Falloon, P.; Friend, A. D.; Kahana, R.; Kato, E.; Keribin, R.; Lucht, W.; Lomas, M.; Rademacher, T. T.; Pavlick, R.; Schaphoff, S.; Vuichard, N.; Warszawaski, L.; Yokohata, T.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Soil organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (SOC) is the largest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pool in terrestrial ecosystems and may play a key role in biospheric feedbacks with elevated atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide (CO2) in a warmer future world. We examined the simulation results of seven terrestrial biome models when forced with climate projections from four representative-concentration-pathways (RCPs)-based atmospheric concentration scenarios. The goal was to specify calculated uncertainty in <span class="hlt">global</span> SOC stock projections from <span class="hlt">global</span> and regional perspectives and give insight to the improvement of SOC-relevant processes in biome models. SOC stocks among the biome models varied from 1090 to 2650 Pg C even in historical periods (ca. 2000). In a higher forcing scenario (i.e., RCP8.5), inconsistent estimates of impact on the total SOC (2099-2000) were obtained from different biome model simulations, ranging from a net sink of 347 Pg C to a net source of 122 Pg C. In all models, the increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration in the RCP8.5 scenario considerably contributed to <span class="hlt">carbon</span> accumulation in SOC. However, magnitudes varied from 93 to 264 Pg C by the end of the 21st century across biome models. Using the time-series data of total <span class="hlt">global</span> SOC simulated by each biome model, we analyzed the sensitivity of the <span class="hlt">global</span> SOC stock to <span class="hlt">global</span> mean temperature and <span class="hlt">global</span> precipitation anomalies (?T and ?P respectively) in each biome model using a state-space model. This analysis suggests that ?T explained <span class="hlt">global</span> SOC stock changes in most models with a resolution of 1-2 C, and the magnitude of <span class="hlt">global</span> SOC decomposition from a 2 C rise ranged from almost 0 to 3.53 Pg C yr-1 among the biome models. However, ?P had a negligible impact on change in the <span class="hlt">global</span> SOC changes. Spatial heterogeneity was evident and inconsistent among the biome models, especially in boreal to arctic regions. Our study reveals considerable climate uncertainty in SOC decomposition responses to climate and CO2 change among biome models. Further research is required to improve our ability to estimate biospheric feedbacks through both SOC-relevant and vegetation-relevant processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26477952','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26477952"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Landscape of Total Organic <span class="hlt">Carbon</span>, Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Lake Water.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Ming; Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Jiachao; Xu, Piao; Chen, Anwei; Lu, Lunhui</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Human activities continue to increase the amount of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in lakes, which may cause serious environmental and human health problems. <span class="hlt">Global</span> landscape of total organic C (TOC), N and P in lake water is still poorly known. Using a <span class="hlt">global</span> data set that covers ~8300 lakes from 68 countries/regions spanning six continents, we estimate that <span class="hlt">global</span> mean concentrations and storage in lake water are 5.578?mg L(-1) and 984.0?Tg for TOC, 0.526?mg L(-1) and 92.8?Tg for TN, and 0.014?mg L(-1) and 2.5?Tg for TP. These lake elements are significantly interrelated and in uneven distribution, being associated with morphological characteristics and climate conditions. We proposed that <span class="hlt">global</span> C, N and P cycles should be considered as a whole in biogeochemical studies and policy-making related to environmental protection. PMID:26477952</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...515043C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...515043C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Landscape of Total Organic <span class="hlt">Carbon</span>, Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Lake Water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Ming; Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Jiachao; Xu, Piao; Chen, Anwei; Lu, Lunhui</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Human activities continue to increase the amount of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in lakes, which may cause serious environmental and human health problems. <span class="hlt">Global</span> landscape of total organic C (TOC), N and P in lake water is still poorly known. Using a <span class="hlt">global</span> data set that covers ~8300 lakes from 68 countries/regions spanning six continents, we estimate that <span class="hlt">global</span> mean concentrations and storage in lake water are 5.578?mg L-1 and 984.0?Tg for TOC, 0.526?mg L-1 and 92.8?Tg for TN, and 0.014?mg L-1 and 2.5?Tg for TP. These lake elements are significantly interrelated and in uneven distribution, being associated with morphological characteristics and climate conditions. We proposed that <span class="hlt">global</span> C, N and P cycles should be considered as a whole in biogeochemical studies and policy-making related to environmental protection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/951047','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/951047"><span id="translatedtitle">Storing <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> in Agricultural Soils to Help Head-Off <span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming and to Combat Desertification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rosenberg, Norman J.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.</p> <p>2001-12-31</p> <p>We know for sure that addition of organic matter to soil increases water-holding capacity, imparts fertility with the addition of nutrients, increases soil aggregation and improves tilth. Depeing on it's type, organic matter contains between 40 and 60% <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. Using agricultural <span class="hlt">management</span> practices to increase the amount of organic matter and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in soils can be an effective strategy to offset <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide emissions to the atmosphere as well as to improve the quality of the soil and slow or prevent desertification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....11.5399V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....11.5399V"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of physical data assimilation on the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Ocean <span class="hlt">Carbonate</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Visinelli, L.; Masina, S.; Vichi, M.; Storto, A.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Prognostic simulations of ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> distribution are largely dependent on an adequate representation of physical dynamics. In this work we show that the assimilation of temperature and salinity in a coupled ocean-biogeochemical model significantly improves the reconstruction of the <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> system variables over the last two decades. For this purpose, we use the NEMO ocean <span class="hlt">global</span> circulation model, coupled to the Biogeochemical Flux Model (BFM) in the <span class="hlt">global</span> PELAGOS configuration. The assimilation of temperature and salinity is included into the coupled ocean-biogeochemical model by using a variational assimilation method. The use of ocean physics data assimilation improves the simulation of alkalinity and dissolved organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> against the control run as assessed by comparing with independent time series and gridded datasets. At the <span class="hlt">global</span> scale, the effects of the assimilation of physical variables in the simulation of pCO2 improves the seasonal cycle in all basins, getting closer to the SOCAT estimates. Biases in the partial pressure of CO2 with respect to data that are evident in the control run are reduced once the physical data assimilation is used. The root mean squared errors in the pCO2 are reduced by up to 30% depending on the ocean basin considered. In addition, we quantify the relative contribution of biological <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake on surface pCO2 by performing another simulation in which biology is neglected in the assimilated run.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ERL.....5c4011G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ERL.....5c4011G"><span id="translatedtitle">Accounting for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle feedbacks in a comparison of the <span class="hlt">global</span> warming effects of greenhouse gases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gillett, Nathan P.; Damon Matthews, H.</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>Greenhouse gases other than CO2 make a significant contribution to human-induced climate change, and multi-gas mitigation strategies are cheaper to implement than those which limit CO2 emissions alone. Most practical multi-gas mitigation strategies require metrics to relate the climate warming effects of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. <span class="hlt">Global</span> warming potential (GWP), defined as the ratio of time-integrated radiative forcing of a particular gas to that of CO2 following a unit mass emission, is the metric used in the Kyoto Protocol, and we define mean <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature change potential (MGTP) as an equivalent metric of the temperature response. Here we show that <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-climate feedbacks inflate the GWPs and MGTPs of methane and nitrous oxide by ~ 20% in coupled <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-climate model simulations of the response to a pulse of 50 × 1990 emissions, due to a warming-induced release of CO2 from the land biosphere and ocean. The magnitude of this effect is expected to be dependent on the model, but it is not captured at all by the analytical models usually used to calculate metrics such as GWP. We argue that the omission of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle dynamics has led to a low bias of uncertain but potentially substantial magnitude in metrics of the <span class="hlt">global</span> warming effect of other greenhouse gases, and we suggest that the <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-climate feedback should be considered when greenhouse gas metrics are calculated and applied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GBioC..20.4015M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GBioC..20.4015M"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparative impact of climatic and nonclimatic factors on <span class="hlt">global</span> terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and water cycles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mller, Christoph; Bondeau, Alberte; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Cramer, Wolfgang; Lucht, Wolfgang</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The coupled <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and water cycles are influenced by multiple factors of human activity such as fossil-fuel emissions and land use change. We used the LPJmL Dynamic <span class="hlt">Global</span> Vegetation Model (DGVM) to quantify the potential influences of human demography, diet, and land allocation, and compare these to the effects of fossil-fuel emissions and corresponding climate change. For this purpose, we generate 12 land use patterns in which these factors are analyzed in a comparative static setting, providing information on their relative importance and the range of potential impacts on the terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and water balance. We show that these aspects of human interference are equally important to climate change and historic fossil-fuel emissions for <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks but less important for net primary production (NPP). Demand for agricultural area and thus the magnitude of impacts on the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and water cycles are mainly determined by constraints on localizing agricultural production and modulated by total demand for agricultural products.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21479244','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21479244"><span id="translatedtitle">Restoring coastal plants to improve <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage: reaping what we sow.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Irving, Andrew D; Connell, Sean D; Russell, Bayden D</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Long-term <span class="hlt">carbon</span> capture and storage (CCS) is currently considered a viable strategy for mitigating rising levels of atmospheric CO(2) and associated impacts of <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change. Until recently, the significant below-ground CCS capacity of coastal vegetation such as seagrasses, salt marshes, and mangroves has largely gone unrecognized in models of <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> transfer. However, this reservoir of natural, free, and sustainable <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage potential is increasingly jeopardized by alarming trends in coastal habitat loss, totalling 30-50% of <span class="hlt">global</span> abundance over the last century alone. Human intervention to restore lost habitats is a potentially powerful solution to improve natural rates of <span class="hlt">global</span> CCS, but data suggest this approach is unlikely to substantially improve long-term CCS unless current restoration efforts are increased to an industrial scale. Failure to do so raises the question of whether resources currently used for expensive and time-consuming restoration projects would be more wisely invested in arresting further habitat loss and encouraging natural recovery. PMID:21479244</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.U21A..03S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.U21A..03S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Forecasts of Urban Expansion to 2030 and Direct Impacts on Biodiversity and <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Pools</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seto, K. C.; Guneralp, B.; Hutyra, L.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Urban land cover change threatens biodiversity and affects ecosystem productivity through loss of habitat, biomass, and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage. Yet, despite projections that world urban populations will increase to 4.3 billion by 2030, little is known about future locations, magnitudes, and rates of urban expansion. Here we develop the first <span class="hlt">global</span> probabilistic forecasts of urban land cover change and explore the impacts on biodiversity hotspots and tropical <span class="hlt">carbon</span> biomass. If current trends in population density continue, then by 2030, urban land cover will expand between 800,000 and 3.3 million km2, representing a doubling to five-fold increase from the <span class="hlt">global</span> urban land cover in 2000. This would result in considerable loss of habitats in key biodiversity hotspots, including the Guinean forests of West Africa, Tropical Andes, Western Ghats and Sri Lanka. Within the pan-tropics, loss in forest biomass from urban expansion is estimated to be 1.38 PgC (0.05 PgC yr-1), equal to approximately 5% of emissions from tropical land use change. Although urbanization is often considered a local issue, the aggregate <span class="hlt">global</span> impacts of projected urban expansion will require significant policy changes to affect future growth trajectories to minimize <span class="hlt">global</span> biodiversity and forest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> losses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3066232','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3066232"><span id="translatedtitle">Restoring Coastal Plants to Improve <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Storage: Reaping What We Sow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Irving, Andrew D.; Connell, Sean D.; Russell, Bayden D.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Long-term <span class="hlt">carbon</span> capture and storage (CCS) is currently considered a viable strategy for mitigating rising levels of atmospheric CO2 and associated impacts of <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change. Until recently, the significant below-ground CCS capacity of coastal vegetation such as seagrasses, salt marshes, and mangroves has largely gone unrecognized in models of <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> transfer. However, this reservoir of natural, free, and sustainable <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage potential is increasingly jeopardized by alarming trends in coastal habitat loss, totalling 3050% of <span class="hlt">global</span> abundance over the last century alone. Human intervention to restore lost habitats is a potentially powerful solution to improve natural rates of <span class="hlt">global</span> CCS, but data suggest this approach is unlikely to substantially improve long-term CCS unless current restoration efforts are increased to an industrial scale. Failure to do so raises the question of whether resources currently used for expensive and time-consuming restoration projects would be more wisely invested in arresting further habitat loss and encouraging natural recovery. PMID:21479244</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3479537','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3479537"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 and direct impacts on biodiversity and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pools</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Seto, Karen C.; Güneralp, Burak; Hutyra, Lucy R.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Urban land-cover change threatens biodiversity and affects ecosystem productivity through loss of habitat, biomass, and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage. However, despite projections that world urban populations will increase to nearly 5 billion by 2030, little is known about future locations, magnitudes, and rates of urban expansion. Here we develop spatially explicit probabilistic forecasts of <span class="hlt">global</span> urban land-cover change and explore the direct impacts on biodiversity hotspots and tropical <span class="hlt">carbon</span> biomass. If current trends in population density continue and all areas with high probabilities of urban expansion undergo change, then by 2030, urban land cover will increase by 1.2 million km2, nearly tripling the <span class="hlt">global</span> urban land area circa 2000. This increase would result in considerable loss of habitats in key biodiversity hotspots, with the highest rates of forecasted urban growth to take place in regions that were relatively undisturbed by urban development in 2000: the Eastern Afromontane, the Guinean Forests of West Africa, and the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka hotspots. Within the pan-tropics, loss in vegetation biomass from areas with high probability of urban expansion is estimated to be 1.38 PgC (0.05 PgC yr−1), equal to ∼5% of emissions from tropical deforestation and land-use change. Although urbanization is often considered a local issue, the aggregate <span class="hlt">global</span> impacts of projected urban expansion will require significant policy changes to affect future growth trajectories to minimize <span class="hlt">global</span> biodiversity and vegetation <span class="hlt">carbon</span> losses. PMID:22988086</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC51B0970M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC51B0970M"><span id="translatedtitle">Attributing Rise in <span class="hlt">Global</span> Average Temperature to Emissions Traceable to Major Industrial <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Producer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mera, R. J.; Allen, M. R.; Dalton, M.; Ekwurzel, B.; Frumhoff, P. C.; Heede, R.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The role of human activity on <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change has been explored in attribution studies based on the total amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Until now, however, a direct link between emissions traced directly to the major <span class="hlt">carbon</span> producers has not been addressed. The <span class="hlt">carbon</span> majors dataset developed by Heede (in review) account for more than 60 percent of the cumulative worldwide emissions of industrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide and methane through 2010. We use a conventional energy balance model coupled to a diffusive ocean, based on Allen et al. 2009, to evaluate the <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature response to forcing from cumulative emissions traced to these producers. The base case for comparison is the Relative Concentration Pathways 4.5 [RCP4.5 (Moss et al. 2012)] simulation. Sensitivity tests varying climate sensitivity, ocean thermal diffusivity, ocean/atmosphere <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake diffusivity, deep ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> advection, and the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle temperature-dependent feedback are used to assess whether the fractional attribution for these sources surpasses the uncertainty limits calculated from these parameters The results suggest this dataset can be utilized for an expanded field of climate change impacts. Allen, M. R., D. J. Frame, C. Huntingford, C. D. Jones, J. A. Lowe, M. Meinshausen and N. Meinshausen (2009), Warming caused by cumulative <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions towards the trillionth tonne, Nature, 458, 1163-1166, doi:10.1038/nature08019. Heede, R. (2013), Tracing anthropogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide and methane emissions to fossil fuel and cement producers, 1854-2010, in review. Moss, R. H., et al. (2010), The next generation of scenarios for climate change research and assessment, Nature, 463, 747-756.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2012GB004375','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2012GB004375"><span id="translatedtitle">Organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> burial rates in mangrove sediments: strengthening the <span class="hlt">global</span> budget</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Breithaupt, J.; Smoak, Joseph M.; Smith, Thomas J., III; Sanders, Christian J.; Hoare, Armando</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Mangrove wetlands exist in the transition zone between terrestrial and marine environments and as such were historically overlooked in discussions of terrestrial and marine <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycling. In recent decades, mangroves have increasingly been credited with producing and burying large quantities of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (OC). The amount of available data regarding OC burial in mangrove soils has more than doubled since the last primary literature review (2003). This includes data from some of the largest, most developed mangrove forests in the world, providing an opportunity to strengthen the <span class="hlt">global</span> estimate. First-time representation is now included for mangroves in Brazil, Colombia, Malaysia, Indonesia, China, Japan, Vietnam, and Thailand, along with additional data from Mexico and the United States. Our objective is to recalculate the centennial-scale burial rate of OC at both the local and <span class="hlt">global</span> scales. Quantification of this rate enables better understanding of the current <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink capacity of mangroves as well as helps to quantify and/or validate the other aspects of the mangrove <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget such as import, export, and remineralization. Statistical analysis of the data supports use of the geometric mean as the most reliable central tendency measurement. Our estimate is that mangrove systems bury 163 (+40; -31) g OC m-2 yr-1 (95% C.I.). <span class="hlt">Globally</span>, the 95% confidence interval for the annual burial rate is 26.1 (+6.3; -5.1) Tg OC. This equates to a burial fraction that is 42% larger than that of the most recent mangrove <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget (2008), and represents 10–15% of estimated annual mangrove production. This <span class="hlt">global</span> rate supports previous conclusions that, on a centennial time scale, 8–15% of all OC burial in marine settings occurs in mangrove systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRG..119.2171Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRG..119.2171Z"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> assimilation system using a local ensemble Kalman filter with multiple ecosystem models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Shupeng; Yi, Xue; Zheng, Xiaogu; Chen, Zhuoqi; Dan, Bo; Zhang, Xuanze</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>In this paper, a <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> assimilation system (GCAS) is developed for optimizing the <span class="hlt">global</span> land surface <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux at 1 resolution using multiple ecosystem models. In GCAS, three ecosystem models, Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator, Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach, and Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange, produce the prior fluxes, and an atmospheric transport model, Model for OZone And Related chemical Tracers, is used to calculate atmospheric CO2 concentrations resulting from these prior fluxes. A local ensemble Kalman filter is developed to assimilate atmospheric CO2 data observed at 92 stations to optimize the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux for six land regions, and the Bayesian model averaging method is implemented in GCAS to calculate the weighted average of the optimized fluxes based on individual ecosystem models. The weights for the models are found according to the closeness of their forecasted CO2 concentration to observation. Results of this study show that the model weights vary in time and space, allowing for an optimum utilization of different strengths of different ecosystem models. It is also demonstrated that spatial localization is an effective technique to avoid spurious optimization results for regions that are not well constrained by the atmospheric data. Based on the multimodel optimized flux from GCAS, we found that the average <span class="hlt">global</span> terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink over the 2002-2008 period is 2.97 1.1 PgC yr-1, and the sinks are 0.88 0.52, 0.27 0.33, 0.67 0.39, 0.90 0.68, 0.21 0.31, and 0.04 0.08 PgC yr-1 for the North America, South America, Africa, Eurasia, Tropical Asia, and Australia, respectively. This multimodel GCAS can be used to improve <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle estimation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GBioC..26.3011B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GBioC..26.3011B"><span id="translatedtitle">Organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> burial rates in mangrove sediments: Strengthening the <span class="hlt">global</span> budget</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Breithaupt, Joshua L.; Smoak, Joseph M.; Smith, Thomas J., III; Sanders, Christian J.; Hoare, Armando</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Mangrove wetlands exist in the transition zone between terrestrial and marine environments and as such were historically overlooked in discussions of terrestrial and marine <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycling. In recent decades, mangroves have increasingly been credited with producing and burying large quantities of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (OC). The amount of available data regarding OC burial in mangrove soils has more than doubled since the last primary literature review (2003). This includes data from some of the largest, most developed mangrove forests in the world, providing an opportunity to strengthen the <span class="hlt">global</span> estimate. First-time representation is now included for mangroves in Brazil, Colombia, Malaysia, Indonesia, China, Japan, Vietnam, and Thailand, along with additional data from Mexico and the United States. Our objective is to recalculate the centennial-scale burial rate of OC at both the local and <span class="hlt">global</span> scales. Quantification of this rate enables better understanding of the current <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink capacity of mangroves as well as helps to quantify and/or validate the other aspects of the mangrove <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget such as import, export, and remineralization. Statistical analysis of the data supports use of the geometric mean as the most reliable central tendency measurement. Our estimate is that mangrove systems bury 163 (+40; -31) g OC m-2 yr-1 (95% C.I.). <span class="hlt">Globally</span>, the 95% confidence interval for the annual burial rate is 26.1 (+6.3; -5.1) Tg OC. This equates to a burial fraction that is 42% larger than that of the most recent mangrove <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget (2008), and represents 10-15% of estimated annual mangrove production. This <span class="hlt">global</span> rate supports previous conclusions that, on a centennial time scale, 8-15% of all OC burial in marine settings occurs in mangrove systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1527805J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1527805J"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">global</span> simulation of brown <span class="hlt">carbon</span>: implications for photochemistry and direct radiative effect</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jo, D. S.; Park, R. J.; Lee, S.; Kim, S.-W.; Zhang, X.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Recent observations suggest that a certain fraction of organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (OC) aerosol effectively absorbs solar radiation, which is also known as brown <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (BrC) aerosol. Despite much observational evidence of its presence, very few <span class="hlt">global</span> modeling studies have been conducted because of poor understanding of <span class="hlt">global</span> BrC emissions. Here we present an explicit <span class="hlt">global</span> simulation of BrC in a <span class="hlt">global</span> 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem), including <span class="hlt">global</span> BrC emission estimates from primary (5.7 and 4.3 Tg C yr-1 from biomass burning and biofuel) and secondary (5.7 Tg C yr-1 from aromatic oxidation) sources. We evaluate the model by comparing the results with observed absorption by OC in surface air in the United States, and with single scattering albedo observations at AERONET sites all over the globe. The model successfully reproduces the observed seasonal variations, but underestimates the magnitudes, especially in regions with high secondary source contributions. Our <span class="hlt">global</span> simulations show that BrC accounts for 24 % of the <span class="hlt">global</span> mean OC concentration, which is typically assumed to be scattering. We find that the <span class="hlt">global</span> direct radiative effect of BrC is nearly zero at the top of the atmosphere, and consequently decreases the direct radiative cooling effect of OC by 17 %. In addition, the BrC absorption leads to a general reduction of NO2 photolysis rates, whose maximum decreases occur in Asia up to -9 % (-19 %) on an annual (spring) mean basis. The resulting decreases of annual (spring) mean surface ozone concentrations are up to -6 % (-14 %) in Asia, indicating a non-negligible effect of BrC on photochemistry in this region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21C0542D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21C0542D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> <span class="hlt">Management</span> In the Post-Cap-and-Trade <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Economy-Part II</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>DeGroff, F. A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>This is the second installment in our search for a comprehensive economic model to mitigate climate change due to anthropogenic activity. Last year we presented how the unique features of our economic model measure changes in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux due to anthropogenic activity, referred to as <span class="hlt">carbon</span> quality or CQ, and how the model is used to value such changes in the climate system. This year, our paper focuses on how <span class="hlt">carbon</span> quality can be implemented to capture the effect of economic activity and international trade on the climate system, thus allowing us to calculate a Return on Climate System (RoCS) for all economic assets and activity. The result is that the RoCS for each public and private economic activity and entity can be calculated by summing up the RoCS for each individual economic asset and activity in which an entity is engaged. Such a macro-level scale is used to rank public and private entities including corporations, governments, and even entire nations, as well as human adaptation and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage activities, providing status and trending insights to evaluate policies on both a micro- and macro-economic level. With international trade, RoCS measures the embodied effects on climate change that will be needed to assess border fees to insure <span class="hlt">carbon</span> parity on all imports and exports. At the core of our vision is a comprehensive, 'open-source' construct of which our <span class="hlt">carbon</span> quality metric is the first element. One goal is to recognize each country's endemic resources and infrastructure that affect their ability to <span class="hlt">manage</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, while preventing spatial and temporal shifting of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions that reduce or reverse efforts to mitigate climate change. The standards for calculating the RoCS can be promulgated as part of the Generally Accepted Accounted Principles (GAAP) and the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) to ensure standard and consistent reporting. The value of such insights on the climate system at all levels will be crucial to <span class="hlt">managing</span> anthropogenic activity in order to minimize the effect on the climate system. Without the insights provided by a comprehensive, standardized and verifiable RoCS, <span class="hlt">managing</span> anthropogenic activity will be elusive and difficult to achieve, at best. Such a model may also be useful to <span class="hlt">manage</span> the effect of anthropogenic activity on the nitrogen and phosphorous cycles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/979264','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/979264"><span id="translatedtitle">Nitrogen attenuation of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle response to <span class="hlt">global</span> environmental factors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jain, Atul; Yang, Xiaojuan; Kheshgi, Haroon; Mcguire, David; Post, Wilfred M</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Nitrogen cycle dynamics have the capacity to attenuate the magnitude of <span class="hlt">global</span> terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinks and sources driven by CO2 fertilization and changes in climate. In this study, two versions of the terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and nitrogen cycle components of the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM) are used to evaluate how variation in nitrogen availability influences terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinks and sources in response to changes over the 20th century in <span class="hlt">global</span> environmental factors including atmospheric CO2 concentration, nitrogen inputs, temperature, precipitation and land use. The two versions of ISAM vary in their treatment of nitrogen availability: ISAM-NC has a terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle model coupled to a fully dynamic nitrogen cycle while ISAM-C has an identical <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle model but nitrogen availability is always in sufficient supply. Overall, the two versions of the model estimate approximately the same amount of <span class="hlt">global</span> mean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake over the 20th century. However, comparisons of results of ISAM-NC relative to ISAM-C reveal that nitrogen dynamics: (1) reduced the 1990s <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink associated with increasing atmospheric CO2 by 0.53 PgC yr1 (1 Pg = 1015g), (2) reduced the 1990s <span class="hlt">carbon</span> source associated with changes in temperature and precipitation of 0.34 PgC yr1 in the 1990s, (3) an enhanced sink associated with nitrogen inputs by 0.26 PgC yr1, and (4) enhanced the 1990s <span class="hlt">carbon</span> source associated with changes in land use by 0.08 PgC yr1 in the 1990s. These effects of nitrogen limitation influenced the spatial distribution of the estimated exchange of CO2 with greater sink activity in high latitudes associated with climate effects and a smaller sink of CO2 in the southeastern United States caused by N limitation associated with both CO2 fertilization and forest regrowth. These results indicate that the dynamics of nitrogen availability are important to consider in assessing the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sources and sinks.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70168804','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70168804"><span id="translatedtitle">Nitrogen attenuation of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle response to <span class="hlt">global</span> environmental factors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Jain, A.A.; Yang, Xiaojuan; Kheshgi, H.; McGuire, Anthony; Post, W.; Kicklighter, David W.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Nitrogen cycle dynamics have the capacity to attenuate the magnitude of <span class="hlt">global</span> terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinks and sources driven by CO2 fertilization and changes in climate. In this study, two versions of the terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and nitrogen cycle components of the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM) are used to evaluate how variation in nitrogen availability influences terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sinks and sources in response to changes over the 20th century in <span class="hlt">global</span> environmental factors including atmospheric CO2 concentration, nitrogen inputs, temperature, precipitation and land use. The two versions of ISAM vary in their treatment of nitrogen availability: ISAM-NC has a terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle model coupled to a fully dynamic nitrogen cycle while ISAM-C has an identical <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle model but nitrogen availability is always in sufficient supply. Overall, the two versions of the model estimate approximately the same amount of <span class="hlt">global</span> mean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake over the 20th century. However, comparisons of results of ISAM-NC relative to ISAM-C reveal that nitrogen dynamics: (1) reduced the 1990s <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink associated with increasing atmospheric CO2 by 0.53 PgC yr−1 (1 Pg = 1015g), (2) reduced the 1990s <span class="hlt">carbon</span> source associated with changes in temperature and precipitation of 0.34 PgC yr−1 in the 1990s, (3) an enhanced sink associated with nitrogen inputs by 0.26 PgC yr−1, and (4) enhanced the 1990s <span class="hlt">carbon</span> source associated with changes in land use by 0.08 PgC yr−1 in the 1990s. These effects of nitrogen limitation influenced the spatial distribution of the estimated exchange of CO2 with greater sink activity in high latitudes associated with climate effects and a smaller sink of CO2 in the southeastern United States caused by N limitation associated with both CO2 fertilization and forest regrowth. These results indicate that the dynamics of nitrogen availability are important to consider in assessing the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sources and sinks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP31D..08S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP31D..08S"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Northern Peatland dynamics and <span class="hlt">global</span> land <span class="hlt">carbon</span> inventories since the Last Glacial Maximum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Spahni, R.; Steinacher, M.; Joos, F.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Climate affects the biogeochemical cycles on land and in the ocean, and, in turn, the concentrations of the greenhouse gases <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). Polar ice core records show that the concentration of both gases increased significantly over the last 21,000 years. However, the timing and amplitude of concentration variations are different for the two gases. While CO2 is affected by both, changes in the land biosphere and the ocean, CH4 is believed to be mainly driven by microbial production in wet ecosystems on land. Here we analyze the evolution of the land biosphere and the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> inventories in soils and vegetation from transient simulations since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). We apply the Bern <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle (BernCC) model including the Land surface Processes and eXchanges (LPX) dynamical <span class="hlt">global</span> vegetation model. The simulations are forced by climate fields obtained from a GCM and by prescribed changes in orbital forcing and land ice extent. Of special interest is organic soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in northern high latitudes, which represents about 50% of total <span class="hlt">global</span> soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> today. There the retreating ice sheets allowed for the establishment of present day peatland and permafrost areas ~11,000 years ago, as captured by the physical, geothermal and biogeochemical processes in BernCC-LPX. Peatland extent is prescribed according to the observation-based, current distribution. The potential disappearance of peatlands due to glacial-interglacial climate change and flooding of shelf areas is not included here and subject to future model development. Peat accumulation rates are determined from simulated plant production (moss, flood-tolerant graminoids) and soil respiration on ice free land. Results of the transient simulations are compared to ice core records, reconstructions of peat basal dates and accumulation rates, as well as distributions of present day <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in peatlands and permafrost areas. We simulate an increase in total soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in northern high latitudes of ~550 PgC (1 PgC = 1015 gram of <span class="hlt">carbon</span>), whereof peatland build-up contributes more than half. This finding has implications for our understanding of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle since the LGM, as well as for the assessment of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget of high-latitude soils affected by future climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10g4002T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10g4002T"><span id="translatedtitle">Aboveground <span class="hlt">carbon</span> loss in natural and <span class="hlt">managed</span> tropical forests from 2000 to 2012</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tyukavina, A.; Baccini, A.; Hansen, M. C.; Potapov, P. V.; Stehman, S. V.; Houghton, R. A.; Krylov, A. M.; Turubanova, S.; Goetz, S. J.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Tropical forests provide <span class="hlt">global</span> climate regulation ecosystem services and their clearing is a significant source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and resultant radiative forcing of climate change. However, consensus on pan-tropical forest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics is lacking. We present a new estimate that employs recommended good practices to quantify gross tropical forest aboveground <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (AGC) loss from 2000 to 2012 through the integration of Landsat-derived tree canopy cover, height, intactness and forest cover loss and GLAS-lidar derived forest biomass. An unbiased estimate of forest loss area is produced using a stratified random sample with strata derived from a wall-to-wall 30 m forest cover loss map. Our sample-based results separate the gross loss of forest AGC into losses from natural forests (0.59 PgC yr-1) and losses from <span class="hlt">managed</span> forests (0.43 PgC yr-1) including plantations, agroforestry systems and subsistence agriculture. Latin America accounts for 43% of gross AGC loss and 54% of natural forest AGC loss, with Brazil experiencing the highest AGC loss for both categories at national scales. We estimate gross tropical forest AGC loss and natural forest loss to account for 11% and 6% of <span class="hlt">global</span> year 2012 CO2 emissions, respectively. Given recent trends, natural forests will likely constitute an increasingly smaller proportion of tropical forest GHG emissions and of <span class="hlt">global</span> emissions as fossil fuel consumption increases, with implications for the valuation of co-benefits in tropical forest conservation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24040052','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24040052"><span id="translatedtitle">Variability in the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage of seagrass habitats and its implications for <span class="hlt">global</span> estimates of blue <span class="hlt">carbon</span> ecosystem service.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lavery, Paul S; Mateo, Miguel-ngel; Serrano, Oscar; Rozaimi, Mohammad</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The recent focus on <span class="hlt">carbon</span> trading has intensified interest in 'Blue <span class="hlt">Carbon'-carbon</span> sequestered by coastal vegetated ecosystems, particularly seagrasses. Most information on seagrass <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage is derived from studies of a single species, Posidonia oceanica, from the Mediterranean Sea. We surveyed 17 Australian seagrass habitats to assess the variability in their sedimentary organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (C org) stocks. The habitats encompassed 10 species, in mono-specific or mixed meadows, depositional to exposed habitats and temperate to tropical habitats. There was an 18-fold difference in the Corg stock (1.09-20.14 mg C org cm(-3) for a temperate Posidonia sinuosa and a temperate, estuarine P. australis meadow, respectively). Integrated over the top 25 cm of sediment, this equated to an areal stock of 262-4833 g C org m(-2). For some species, there was an effect of water depth on the C org stocks, with greater stocks in deeper sites; no differences were found among sub-tidal and inter-tidal habitats. The estimated <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage in Australian seagrass ecosystems, taking into account inter-habitat variability, was 155 Mt. At a 2014-15 fixed <span class="hlt">carbon</span> price of A$25.40 t(-1) and an estimated market price of $35 t(-1) in 2020, the C org stock in the top 25 cm of seagrass habitats has a potential value of $AUD 3.9-5.4 bill. The estimates of annual C org accumulation by Australian seagrasses ranged from 0.093 to 6.15 Mt, with a most probable estimate of 0.93 Mt y(-1) (10.1 t. km(-2) y(-1)). These estimates, while large, were one-third of those that would be calculated if inter-habitat variability in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks were not taken into account. We conclude that there is an urgent need for more information on the variability in seagrass <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stock and accumulation rates, and the factors driving this variability, in order to improve <span class="hlt">global</span> estimates of seagrass Blue <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> storage. PMID:24040052</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B53F0746A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B53F0746A"><span id="translatedtitle">The Topology of Non-Linear <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dynamics: From Tipping Points to Planetary Boundaries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anderies, J. M.; Carpenter, S.; Steffen, W.; Rockstrom, J.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>This paper develops a minimal model of land use and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle dynamics and explores the relationship between nonlinear dynamics and planetary boundaries. Only the most basic interactions between land cover, terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks and atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks are considered. The goal is not to predict <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics as it occurs in the actual earth system, but rather, to construct a conceptually reasonable representation of a feedback system between different <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stores like that of the actual earth system and use it to explore the topology of the boundaries of what can be called a ``safe operating space'' for humans. We explore the topology of our Earth System model using stability analysis and numerical bifurcation techniques. The analysis of the model illustrates the potential complexity of planetary boundaries and highlights some challenges associated with navigating them. More specifically, recent work has focused on planetary boundaries in atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, phosphorous, etc. This paper analyzes how such boundaries interact in an earth system model. We present a simple heuristic model that helps organize questions and explore interactions regarding <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics and land-use change. The main points that emerge from the analysis are: 1) planetary boundaries can be topologically complex and difficult to measure in practice, 2) Non-linear feedbacks can cause planetary boundaries to move rapidly, 3) Climate change policy should move beyond the simple notion of tipping points and move toward the conceptually richer notion of basin boundaries of attractors consistent with a safe operating space for humans.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3506A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3506A"><span id="translatedtitle">A model ensemble for explaining the seasonal cycle of <span class="hlt">globally</span> averaged atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide concentration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alexandrov, Georgii; Eliseev, Alexey</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The seasonal cycle of the <span class="hlt">globally</span> averaged atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide concentrations results from the seasonal changes in the gas exchange between the atmosphere and other <span class="hlt">carbon</span> pools. Terrestrial pools are the most important. Boreal and temperate ecosystems provide a sink for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide only during the warm period of the year, and, therefore, the summertime reduction in the atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide concentration is usually explained by the seasonal changes in the magnitude of terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink. Although this explanation seems almost obvious, it is surprisingly difficult to support it by calculations of the seasonal changes in the strength of the sink provided by boreal and temperate ecosystems. The traditional conceptual framework for modelling net ecosystem exchange (NEE) leads to the estimates of the NEE seasonal cycle amplitude which are too low for explaining the amplitude of the seasonal cycle of the atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide concentration. To propose a more suitable conceptual framework we develop a model ensemble that consists of nine structurally different models and covers various approaches to modelling gross primary production and heterotrophic respiration, including the effects of light saturation, limited light use efficiency, limited water use efficiency, substrate limitation and microbiological priming. The use of model ensembles is a well recognized methodology for evaluating structural uncertainty of model-based predictions. In this study we use this methodology for exploratory modelling analysis - that is, to identify the mechanisms that cause the observed amplitude of the seasonal cycle of the atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide concentration and its slow but steady growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012DSRII..61..106M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012DSRII..61..106M"><span id="translatedtitle">Removing the North Pacific halocline: Effects on <span class="hlt">global</span> climate, ocean circulation and the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Menviel, L.; Timmermann, A.; Elison Timm, O.; Mouchet, A.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Chikamoto, M. O.; Harada, N.; Ohgaito, R.; Okazaki, Y.</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>A well-pronounced halocline is a key feature of today's subarctic North Pacific. There is indirect paleo-evidences from the last glacial termination as well as from the early and middle Pliocene that this halocline has not always been there. To study the effects of North Pacific salinity on <span class="hlt">global</span> climate, ocean circulation and the marine <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle, we perform idealized experiments using an Earth system model of intermediate complexity (LOVECLIM). Imposing a negative freshwater flux in the northern North Pacific, the halocline vanishes and a deep Pacific meridional overturning circulation (PMOC) establishes. The associated increase of meridional heat transport in the Pacific leads to a bipolar seesaw response in temperature, with warming in the North Pacific and over North America and cooling in the Southern Ocean. As a result of the formation of North Pacific deep water (NPDW), the surface branch of the <span class="hlt">global</span> conveyor belt circulation weakens. Transport through the Indonesian Seas decreases by 50% as the warm and saline waters of the equatorial Pacific are diverted into the North Pacific. In our idealized experiments, the enhanced <span class="hlt">global</span> deep water formation is balanced by an increase in diapycnal mixing. As a result nutrient concentrations in the euphotic zone increase by about 25% <span class="hlt">globally</span>, leading to a 20% increase in <span class="hlt">global</span> export production. The effect of greater export production on atmospheric pCO2 is, however, compensated by the enhanced transport of dissolved inorganic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (DIC) to the surface. As a result, the atmospheric CO2 concentration increases by only 5 ppmv. Our results further suggest that the absence of the subarctic halocline for instance during Heinrich event 1 and the Pliocene may have exerted a strong influence on <span class="hlt">global</span> climate and the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SedG..175...19H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SedG..175...19H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> change and modern coral reefs: New opportunities to understand shallow-water <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> depositional processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hallock, Pamela</p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p>Human activities are impacting coral reefs physically, biologically, and chemically. Nutrification, sedimentation, chemical pollution, and overfishing are significant local threats that are occurring worldwide. Ozone depletion and <span class="hlt">global</span> warming are triggering mass coral-bleaching events; corals under temperature stress lose the ability to synthesize protective sunscreens and become more sensitive to sunlight. Photo-oxidative stress also reduces fitness, rendering reef-building organisms more susceptible to emerging diseases. Increasing concentration of atmospheric CO 2 has already reduced CaCO 3 saturation in surface waters by more than 10%. Doubling of atmospheric CO 2 concentration over pre-industrial concentration in the 21st century may reduce <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> production in tropical shallow marine environments by as much as 80%. As shallow-water reefs decline worldwide, opportunities abound for researchers to expand understanding of <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> depositional systems. Coordinated studies of <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> geochemistry with photozoan physiology and calcification, particularly in cool subtropical-transition zones between photozoan-reef and heterotrophic <span class="hlt">carbonate</span>-ramp communities, will contribute to understanding of <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> sedimentation under environmental change, both in the future and in the geologic record. Cyanobacteria are becoming increasingly prominent on declining reefs, as these microbes can tolerate strong solar radiation, higher temperatures, and abundant nutrients. The responses of reef-dwelling cyanobacteria to environmental parameters associated with <span class="hlt">global</span> change are prime topics for further research, with both ecological and geological implications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUSM.A51B..03B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUSM.A51B..03B"><span id="translatedtitle">Disparity and partnership: black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> aerosols in the <span class="hlt">global</span> climate picture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bond, T. C.; Sun, H.</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>Field measurements and model results have recently highlighted the large climatic impacts of aerosols. One line of inquiry has suggested that reducing emissinos of climate-warming "soot" or "black <span class="hlt">carbon</span>" particles can form a viable component of mitigating <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change. We explore this possibility in the context of current understanding of emission sources and modeling results. We discuss the scientific arguments against considering aerosols and greenhouse gases in a common framework, including uncertainties and the vast differences in climatic impacts. We draw on the language of the United Nations Framework on Climate Change to inquire whether aerosols should be considered at all. Next, we synthesize results from published climate-modeling studies, showing that much of the apparent variability in radiative forcing estimates results from choices of input parameters. We estimate a direct <span class="hlt">global</span> warming potential for black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> relative to <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide, based on the model comparison and on a thorough review of optical properties. This calculation enables a discussion of cost-effectiveness for mitigating the largest sources of black <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, and we show that many reductions are either expensive or difficult to enact, even compared with greenhouse gases. Finally, we propose a role for black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in climate mitigation strategies that may be consistent with the apparently conflicting arguments raised during this discussion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NatGe...5..459E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NatGe...5..459E"><span id="translatedtitle">Contribution of cryptogamic covers to the <span class="hlt">global</span> cycles of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and nitrogen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Elbert, Wolfgang; Weber, Bettina; Burrows, Susannah; Steinkamp, Jrg; Bdel, Burkhard; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Pschl, Ulrich</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Many terrestrial surfaces, including soils, rocks and plants, are covered by photoautotrophic communities, capable of synthesizing their own food from inorganic substances using sunlight as an energy source. These communities, known as cryptogamic covers, comprise variable proportions of cyanobacteria, algae, fungi, lichens and bryophytes, and are able to fix <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide and nitrogen from the atmosphere. However, their influence on <span class="hlt">global</span> and regional biogeochemical cycling of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and nitrogen has not yet been assessed. Here, we analyse previously published data on the spatial coverage of cryptogamic communities, and the associated fluxes of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and nitrogen, in different types of ecosystem across the globe. We estimate that <span class="hlt">globally</span>, cryptogamic covers take up around 3.9 Pg <span class="hlt">carbon</span> per year, corresponding to around 7% of net primary production by terrestrial vegetation. We derive a nitrogen uptake by cryptogamic covers of around 49 Tg per year, suggesting that cryptogamic covers account for nearly half of the biological nitrogen fixation on land. We suggest that nitrogen fixation by cryptogamic covers may be crucial for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration by plants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMED13C0799B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMED13C0799B"><span id="translatedtitle">Introducing the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle to middle school students with a 14C research project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brodman Larson, L.; Phillips, C. L.; LaFranchi, B. W.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Global</span> Climate Change (GCC) is currently not part of the California Science Standards for 7th grade. Required course elements, however, such as the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle, photosynthesis, and cellular respiration could be linked to <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change. Here we present a lesson plan developed in collaboration with scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, to involve 7th grade students in monitoring of fossil fuel emissions in the Richmond/San Pablo area of California. -The lesson plan is a Greenhouse Gas/<span class="hlt">Global</span> Climate Change Unit, with an embedded research project in which students will collect plant samples from various locals for analysis of 14C, to determine if there is a correlation between location and how much CO2 is coming from fossil fuel combustion. Main learning objectives are for students to: 1) understand how fossil fuel emissions impact the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle, 2) understand how scientists estimate fossil CO2 emissions, and 3) engage in hypothesis development and testing. This project also engages students in active science learning and helps to develop responsibility, two key factors for adolescentsWe expect to see a correlation between proximity to freeways and levels of fossil fuel emissions. This unit will introduce important GCC concepts to students at a younger age, and increase their knowledge about fossil fuel emissions in their local environment, as well as the regional and <span class="hlt">global</span> impacts of fossil emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/426959','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/426959"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmental review of options for <span class="hlt">managing</span> radioactively contaminated <span class="hlt">carbon</span> steel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to develop a strategy for the <span class="hlt">management</span> of radioactively contaminated <span class="hlt">carbon</span> steel (RCCS). Currently, most of this material either is placed in special containers and disposed of by shallow land burial in facilities designed for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or is stored indefinitely pending sufficient funding to support alternative disposition. The growing amount of RCCS with which DOE will have to deal in the foreseeable future, coupled with the continued need to protect the human and natural environment, has led the Department to evaluate other approaches for <span class="hlt">managing</span> this material. This environmental review (ER) describes the options that could be used for RCCS <span class="hlt">management</span> and examines the potential environmental consequences of implementing each. Because much of the analysis underlying this document is available from previous studies, wherever possible the ER relies on incorporating the conclusions of those studies as summaries or by reference.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4668068','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4668068"><span id="translatedtitle">Deriving Multiple Benefits from <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Market-Based Savanna Fire <span class="hlt">Management</span>: An Australian Example</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Russell-Smith, Jeremy; Yates, Cameron P.; Edwards, Andrew C.; Whitehead, Peter J.; Murphy, Brett P.; Lawes, Michael J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> markets afford potentially useful opportunities for supporting socially and environmentally sustainable land <span class="hlt">management</span> programs but, to date, have been little applied in <span class="hlt">globally</span> significant fire-prone savanna settings. While fire is intrinsic to regulating the composition, structure and dynamics of savanna systems, in north Australian savannas frequent and extensive late dry season wildfires incur significant environmental, production and social impacts. Here we assess the potential of market-based savanna burning greenhouse gas emissions abatement and allied <span class="hlt">carbon</span> biosequestration projects to deliver compatible environmental and broader socio-economic benefits in a highly biodiverse north Australian setting. Drawing on extensive regional ecological knowledge of fire regime effects on fire-vulnerable taxa and communities, we compare three fire regime metrics (seasonal fire frequency, proportion of long-unburnt vegetation, fire patch-size distribution) over a 15-year period for three national parks with an indigenously (Aboriginal) owned and <span class="hlt">managed</span> market-based emissions abatement enterprise. Our assessment indicates improved fire <span class="hlt">management</span> outcomes under the emissions abatement program, and mostly little change or declining outcomes on the parks. We attribute improved outcomes and putative biodiversity benefits under the abatement program to enhanced strategic <span class="hlt">management</span> made possible by the market-based mitigation arrangement. For these same sites we estimate quanta of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> credits that could be delivered under realistic enhanced fire <span class="hlt">management</span> practice, using currently available and developing accredited Australian savanna burning accounting methods. We conclude that, in appropriate situations, market-based savanna burning activities can provide transformative climate change mitigation, ecosystem health, and community benefits in northern Australia, and, despite significant challenges, potentially in other fire-prone savanna settings. PMID:26630453</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26630453','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26630453"><span id="translatedtitle">Deriving Multiple Benefits from <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Market-Based Savanna Fire <span class="hlt">Management</span>: An Australian Example.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Russell-Smith, Jeremy; Yates, Cameron P; Edwards, Andrew C; Whitehead, Peter J; Murphy, Brett P; Lawes, Michael J</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> markets afford potentially useful opportunities for supporting socially and environmentally sustainable land <span class="hlt">management</span> programs but, to date, have been little applied in <span class="hlt">globally</span> significant fire-prone savanna settings. While fire is intrinsic to regulating the composition, structure and dynamics of savanna systems, in north Australian savannas frequent and extensive late dry season wildfires incur significant environmental, production and social impacts. Here we assess the potential of market-based savanna burning greenhouse gas emissions abatement and allied <span class="hlt">carbon</span> biosequestration projects to deliver compatible environmental and broader socio-economic benefits in a highly biodiverse north Australian setting. Drawing on extensive regional ecological knowledge of fire regime effects on fire-vulnerable taxa and communities, we compare three fire regime metrics (seasonal fire frequency, proportion of long-unburnt vegetation, fire patch-size distribution) over a 15-year period for three national parks with an indigenously (Aboriginal) owned and <span class="hlt">managed</span> market-based emissions abatement enterprise. Our assessment indicates improved fire <span class="hlt">management</span> outcomes under the emissions abatement program, and mostly little change or declining outcomes on the parks. We attribute improved outcomes and putative biodiversity benefits under the abatement program to enhanced strategic <span class="hlt">management</span> made possible by the market-based mitigation arrangement. For these same sites we estimate quanta of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> credits that could be delivered under realistic enhanced fire <span class="hlt">management</span> practice, using currently available and developing accredited Australian savanna burning accounting methods. We conclude that, in appropriate situations, market-based savanna burning activities can provide transformative climate change mitigation, ecosystem health, and community benefits in northern Australia, and, despite significant challenges, potentially in other fire-prone savanna settings. PMID:26630453</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8910268','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8910268"><span id="translatedtitle">Oceanic <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dioxide Uptake in a Model of Century-Scale <span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sarmiento; Le Quéré C</p> <p>1996-11-22</p> <p>In a model of ocean-atmosphere interaction that excluded biological processes, the oceanic uptake of atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide (CO2) was substantially reduced in scenarios involving <span class="hlt">global</span> warming relative to control scenarios. The primary reason for the reduced uptake was the weakening or collapse of the ocean thermohaline circulation. Such a large reduction in this ocean uptake would have a major impact on the future growth rate of atmospheric CO2. Model simulations that include a simple representation of biological processes show a potentially large offsetting effect resulting from the downward flux of biogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. However, the magnitude of the offset is difficult to quantify with present knowledge. PMID:8910268</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20961365','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20961365"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> warming and the future of coal <span class="hlt">carbon</span> capture and storage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ken Berlin; Robert M. Sussman</p> <p>2007-05-15</p> <p>The paper considers how best to change the economic calculus of power plant developers so they internalize CCS costs when selecting new generation technologies. Five policy tools are analyzed: establishing a greenhouse gas cap-and-trade program; imposing <span class="hlt">carbon</span> taxes; defining CCS systems as a so-called Best Available Control Technology for new power plants under the USA Clean Air Act's New Source Review program; developing a 'low <span class="hlt">carbon</span> portfolio' standard that requires utilities to provide an increasing proportion of power from low-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> generation sources over time; and requiring all new coal power plants to meet an 'emission performance' standard that limits CO{sub 2} emissions to levels achievable with CCS systems. Each of these tools has advantages and drawbacks but an emission performance standard for new power plants is likely to be most effective in spurring broad-scale adoption of CCS systems. Chapter headings are: <span class="hlt">global</span> warming and the future of coal; new coal-fired power plants threaten all other efforts to combat <span class="hlt">global</span> warming; a potential path to zero emissions through <span class="hlt">carbon</span> capture and storage; CO{sub 2} capture at coal plants: the promise of IGCC and other technologies; barriers to commercialization of IGCC technology; crossing the chasm: a new policy framework to push ccs implementation forward; encouraging CCS systems with <span class="hlt">carbon</span> caps and trading programs; using the existing Clean Air Act to require CCS systems for new coal plants; retail low <span class="hlt">carbon</span> portfolio standard; <span class="hlt">carbon</span> tax; emission performance standards for new coal power plants; and conclusions. 16 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B13C0195G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B13C0195G"><span id="translatedtitle">Correspondence Between Long Term <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Sequestration and Measurable Variables in a <span class="hlt">Global</span> Land Surface Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gerber, S.; Muller, S. J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The response of net atmosphere-land <span class="hlt">carbon</span> exchange under future warming and increasing CO2 is key to the projection of future climate change. However, current land-surface model differ widely in their prediction of the land <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink by 2100. These models are increasingly complex and entail a large array of mechanisms. Consequently, the number of "knobs"(i.e. model parameters) available to tune model results has increased drastically. In principal, objectively tuning all parameters of a model to the measurements at hand should yield a best configuration. But in practice, it is important to know structure of data that helps best to improve a model's long-term <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink trajectory; or alternatively whether there are variables where a model data mismatch would not necessarily compromise the model outcome. We performed a sensitivity analysis of LM3VN, a land surface model with a prognostic nitrogen cycle, by varying 60 parameters, and checked for correspondence between the sensitivity of the model's long-term (1850-2100) <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink and contemporary (1980-2006) calibration variables. We found, that few parameters had a strong impact on the long term <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration, showing that the model entails a number of negative feedbacks. Importantly, the parameters to which the model was most sensitive were found to vary between individual gridcells, supporting the idea of point-specific and regional model assessment. The model's prediction of the current total <span class="hlt">carbon</span> inventory correlated well with the prediction of the long term <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink, indicating that evaluation of models against current <span class="hlt">carbon</span> inventories could improve their prediction of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration over the this century, although the aggregation of such data is challenging. A promising correspondence is that of the interannual variability of net <span class="hlt">carbon</span> exchange, we found this the correlation to be significant in a majority of gridcells (73%) but weak if <span class="hlt">globally</span> aggregated. Overall, such targeted sensitivity analysis may help to select data sets and inform observation networks in order to constrain the response of the terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle to <span class="hlt">global</span> change factors, particularly if broadened across models and scenarios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-10-04/pdf/2012-24458.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-10-04/pdf/2012-24458.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 60732 - PACE Select Advisors Trust and UBS <span class="hlt">Global</span> Asset <span class="hlt">Management</span> (Americas) Inc.; Notice of Application</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-04</p> <p>... COMMISSION PACE Select Advisors Trust and UBS <span class="hlt">Global</span> Asset <span class="hlt">Management</span> (Americas) Inc.; Notice of Application... <span class="hlt">Global</span> Asset <span class="hlt">Management</span> (Americas) Inc. (the ``Adviser'') (collectively, ``Applicants''). Filing Dates... <span class="hlt">Global</span> Asset <span class="hlt">Management</span> (Americas) Inc., 1285 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10019-6028....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3764034','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3764034"><span id="translatedtitle">Variability in the <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Storage of Seagrass Habitats and Its Implications for <span class="hlt">Global</span> Estimates of Blue <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Ecosystem Service</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lavery, Paul S.; Mateo, Miguel-Ángel; Serrano, Oscar; Rozaimi, Mohammad</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The recent focus on <span class="hlt">carbon</span> trading has intensified interest in ‘Blue Carbon’–<span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestered by coastal vegetated ecosystems, particularly seagrasses. Most information on seagrass <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage is derived from studies of a single species, Posidonia oceanica, from the Mediterranean Sea. We surveyed 17 Australian seagrass habitats to assess the variability in their sedimentary organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (Corg) stocks. The habitats encompassed 10 species, in mono-specific or mixed meadows, depositional to exposed habitats and temperate to tropical habitats. There was an 18-fold difference in the Corg stock (1.09–20.14 mg Corg cm−3 for a temperate Posidonia sinuosa and a temperate, estuarine P. australis meadow, respectively). Integrated over the top 25 cm of sediment, this equated to an areal stock of 262–4833 g Corg m−2. For some species, there was an effect of water depth on the Corg stocks, with greater stocks in deeper sites; no differences were found among sub-tidal and inter-tidal habitats. The estimated <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage in Australian seagrass ecosystems, taking into account inter-habitat variability, was 155 Mt. At a 2014–15 fixed <span class="hlt">carbon</span> price of A$25.40 t−1 and an estimated market price of $35 t−1 in 2020, the Corg stock in the top 25 cm of seagrass habitats has a potential value of $AUD 3.9–5.4 bill. The estimates of annual Corg accumulation by Australian seagrasses ranged from 0.093 to 6.15 Mt, with a most probable estimate of 0.93 Mt y−1 (10.1 t. km−2 y−1). These estimates, while large, were one-third of those that would be calculated if inter-habitat variability in <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks were not taken into account. We conclude that there is an urgent need for more information on the variability in seagrass <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stock and accumulation rates, and the factors driving this variability, in order to improve <span class="hlt">global</span> estimates of seagrass Blue <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> storage. PMID:24040052</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6277S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6277S"><span id="translatedtitle">Can we reliably estimate <span class="hlt">managed</span> forest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics using remotely sensed data?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smallman, Thomas Luke; Exbrayat, Jean-Francois; Bloom, A. Anthony; Williams, Mathew</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Forests are an important part of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle, serving as both a large store of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and currently as a net sink of CO2. Forest biomass varies significantly in time and space, linked to climate, soils, natural disturbance and human impacts. This variation means that the <span class="hlt">global</span> distribution of forest biomass and their dynamics are poorly quantified. Terrestrial ecosystem models (TEMs) are rarely evaluated for their predictions of forest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks and dynamics, due to a lack of knowledge on site specific factors such as disturbance dates and / or <span class="hlt">managed</span> interventions. In this regard, <span class="hlt">managed</span> forests present a valuable opportunity for model calibration and improvement. Spatially explicit datasets of planting dates, species and yield classification, in combination with remote sensing data and an appropriate data assimilation (DA) framework can reduce prediction uncertainty and error. We use a Baysian approach to calibrate the data assimilation linked ecosystem <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (DALEC) model using a Metropolis Hastings-Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MH-MCMC) framework. Forest <span class="hlt">management</span> information is incorporated into the data assimilation framework as part of ecological and dynamic constraints (EDCs). The key advantage here is that DALEC simulates a full <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance, not just the living biomass, and that both parameter and prediction uncertainties are estimated as part of the DA analysis. DALEC has been calibrated at two <span class="hlt">managed</span> forests, in the USA (Pinus taeda; Duke Forest) and UK (Picea sitchensis; Griffin Forest). At each site DALEC is calibrated twice (exp1 & exp2). Both calibrations (exp1 & exp2) assimilated MODIS LAI and HWSD estimates of soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stored in soil organic matter, in addition to common <span class="hlt">management</span> information and prior knowledge included in parameter priors and the EDCs. Calibration exp1 also utilises multiple site level estimates of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage in multiple pools. By comparing simulations we determine the impact of site-level observations on uncertainty and error on predictions, and which observations are key to constraining ecosystem processes. Preliminary simulations indicate that DALEC calibration exp1 accurately simulated the assimilated observations for forest and soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stock estimates including, critically for forestry, standing wood stocks (R2 = 0.92, bias = -4.46 MgC ha-1, RMSE = 5.80 MgC ha-1). The results from exp1 indicate the model is able to find parameters that are both consistent with EDC and observations. In the absence of site-level stock observations (exp2) DALEC accurately estimates foliage and fine root pools, while the median estimate of above ground litter and wood stocks (R2 = 0.92, bias = -48.30 MgC ha-1, RMSE = 50.30 MgC ha-1) are over- and underestimated respectively, site-level observations are within model uncertainty. These results indicate that we can estimate <span class="hlt">managed</span> forests dynamics using remotely sensed data, particularly as remotely sensed above ground biomass maps become available to provide constraint to correct biases in woody accumulation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993AIPC..283...96E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993AIPC..283...96E"><span id="translatedtitle">U.S. policies on Data <span class="hlt">Management</span> for <span class="hlt">Global</span> Change Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Enomoto, Lawrence M. G.</p> <p>1993-08-01</p> <p>Since 1989, the ad hoc Interagency Working Group on Data <span class="hlt">Management</span> for <span class="hlt">Global</span> Change has led an effort, on behalf of the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences, to develop and coordinate a set of policy statements on data <span class="hlt">management</span> for <span class="hlt">global</span> change research. Seven policy statements were later approved by all U.S. agencies in the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology through the Office of <span class="hlt">Management</span> and Budget's legislative referral process. The President's Science Advisor approved them in July 1991 and considers them as ``U.S. policy statements [which] can be distributed according.'' Their overall purpose is to help <span class="hlt">global</span> change researchers gain full and open access to quality data worldwide. They were prepared in consonance with the goals of the U.S. <span class="hlt">Global</span> Change Research Probram and represent the U.S. Government's position on the access to <span class="hlt">global</span> change research data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.A21A0056B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.A21A0056B"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Global</span> Emission Inventory of Black <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> and Primary Organic <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> from Fossil-Fuel and Biofuel Combustion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bond, T. C.; Streets, D. G.; Nelson, S. M.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>Regional and <span class="hlt">global</span> climate models rely on emission inventories of black <span class="hlt">carbon</span> and organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> to determine the climatic effects of primary particulate matter (PM) from combustion. The emission of primary carbonaceous particles is highly dependent on fuel type and combustion practice. Therefore, simple categories such as "domestic" or "industrial" combustion are not sufficient to quantify emissions, and the black-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> and organic-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> fractions of PM vary with combustion type. We present a <span class="hlt">global</span> inventory of primary carbonaceous particles that improves on previous "bottom-up" tabulations (e.g. \\textit{Cooke et al.,} 1999) by considering approximately 100 technologies, each representing one combination of fuel, combustion type, and emission controls. For fossil-fuel combustion, we include several categories not found in previous inventories, including "superemitting" and two-stroke vehicles, steel-making. We also include emissions from waste burning and biofuels used for heating and cooking. Open biomass burning is not included. Fuel use, drawn from International Energy Agency (IEA) and United Nations (UN) data, is divided into technologies on a regional basis. We suggest that emissions in developing countries are better characterized by including high-emitting technologies than by invoking emission multipliers. Due to lack of information on emission factors and technologies in use, uncertainties are high. We estimate central values and uncertainties by combining the range of emission factors found in the literature with reasonable estimates of technology divisions. We provide regional totals of central, low and high estimates, identify the sources of greatest uncertainty to be targeted for future work, and compare our results with previous emission inventories. Both central estimates and uncertainties are given on a 1\\deg x1\\deg grid. As we have reported previously for the case of China (\\textit{Streets et al.,} 2001), low-technology combustion contributes greatly to the emissions and to the uncertainties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B33I..06N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B33I..06N"><span id="translatedtitle">Big Data for Big Questions: <span class="hlt">Global</span> Soil Change and the National Soil <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nave, L. E.; Swanston, C.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Many major questions related to <span class="hlt">global</span> soil change are too large to be answered through primary research alone. Although independent, intensive primary research at discrete study sites advances our mechanistic understanding of how specific soils change, scientists can assess larger patterns of soil change by synthesizing existing primary research, and linking individual studies via research networks. Here, we illustrate how primary research can be synthesized into large databases to answer questions beyond the reach of individual studies, using examples from a meta-analysis of forest <span class="hlt">management</span> effects on soil C storage. Questions of interest to the synthesis included: does forest harvesting have a consistent effect on soil C storage? And, how does fire affect forest soil C storage? To answer these questions, we derived >600 soil C response ratios from >100 temperate forest harvest and fire papers. Despite ample underlying variation, meta-analysis detected a significant harvesting effect on soil C storage (-13 ±4%), and also identified factors driving variation in this overall effect. Specifically, harvesting had different effects on forest floor vs. mineral soil C storage, with forest floors showing significant C losses (-30 ±6%), and mineral soils showing no overall change. Within harvested forest floors, variation in C storage shifts was best explained by forest composition (conifer presence mitigated C losses), while soil type explained the most variation in mineral soil C responses to harvest. In our synthesis of fire effects on temperate forest soil C storage, meta-analysis revealed an overall C storage reduction of 35 ±8%. As with forest harvesting, fire had no overall effect on mineral soils, but forest floor C storage declined by 59 ±7%. Forest floors from conifer stands lost more C than those from hardwood and mixed forests, and fire type also mattered—wildfires caused significantly greater forest floor C losses than prescribed burns. Across all studies, the mean recovery time for forest floor C was 128 yr. In a broader context, these results demonstrate that combining database work with quantitative synthesis (such as meta-analysis) allows scientists to detect large-scale patterns that are obscured by variation within individual studies. And, in addition to improving analytical capacity for addressing large questions, large databases are useful for identifying data gaps in <span class="hlt">global</span> soil change research. In light of these benefits, now is an opportune time to advance the study of <span class="hlt">global</span> soil change by networking and sharing data with the National Soil <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Network. The NSCN seeks participants in an effort to compile databases, answer big-picture, predictive questions about soil C vulnerability, and identify and fill data gaps and research needs. The NSCN seeks to be a facilitator that links existing resources rather than reinvents them, and offers opportunities for a variety of activities, including sharing sites, data, archives, and lab infrastructure. The NSCN is fundamentally collaborative, and operates under the assumption that our shared scientific interest in <span class="hlt">global</span> soil change will be best advanced if we work together rather than in isolation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090008500','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090008500"><span id="translatedtitle">Joining and Integration of Advanced <span class="hlt">Carbon-Carbon</span> Composites to Metallic Systems for Thermal <span class="hlt">Management</span> Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Singh, M.; Asthana, R.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Recent research and development activities in joining and integration of <span class="hlt">carbon-carbon</span> (C/C) composites to metals such as Ti and Cu-clad-Mo for thermal <span class="hlt">management</span> applications are presented with focus on advanced brazing techniques. A wide variety of <span class="hlt">carbon-carbon</span> composites with CVI and resin-derived matrices were joined to Ti and Cu-clad Mo using a number of active braze alloys. The brazed joints revealed good interfacial bonding, preferential precipitation of active elements (e.g., Ti) at the composite/braze interface. Extensive braze penetration of the inter-fiber channels in the CVI C/C composites was observed. The chemical and thermomechanical compatibility between C/C and metals at elevated temperatures is assessed. The role of residual stresses and thermal conduction in brazed C/C joints is discussed. Theoretical predictions of the effective thermal resistance suggest that composite-to-metal brazed joints may be promising for lightweight thermal <span class="hlt">management</span> applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CliPD..11.1093M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CliPD..11.1093M"><span id="translatedtitle">The simulated climate of the Last Glacial Maximum and the insights into the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matear, R. J.; Lenton, A.; Etheridge, D.; Phipps, S. J.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Global</span> climate models (GCMs) provide an important tool for simulating the earth's climate. Here we present a GCM simulation of the climate of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), which was obtained by setting atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and the earth's orbital parameters to the values which prevailed at 21 000 years before present (BP). During the LGM, we simulate a significant cooling of the ocean and a dramatic expansion of the sea-ice extent. This behaviour agrees with reconstructions from paleoclimate archives. In the ocean, the LGM simulation produces a significant redistribution of dissolved oxygen and <span class="hlt">carbon</span>. The oxygen levels rise and the volume of anoxic water declines by more than 50%, which is consistent with paleoclimate reconstructions of denitrification. The simulated LGM climate also stores more <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in the deep ocean (below 2000 m), but with a reduced atmospheric CO2 level the total <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stored in the ocean declines by 600 Pg C. The LGM ocean circulation preconditions the ocean to store <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in the deep; however, the ocean circulation and sea-ice changes are insufficient alone to increase the total <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stored in the ocean and modifications to the ocean biogeochemical cycles are required. With modifications to organic and inorganic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> export and organic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> remineralization one can increase ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage (240 Pg C) to a level that is sufficient to explain the reduction in atmospheric and land <span class="hlt">carbon</span> during the LGM (520 400 Pg C). With the modified biogeochemical cycling in the ocean, the simulated aragonite lysocline depth and dissolved oxygen become more consistent with paleo-reconstructions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......188C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......188C"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of atmospheric aerosol and tropospheric ozone effects on <span class="hlt">global</span> terrestrial ecosystem <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Min</p> <p></p> <p>The increasing human activities have produced large amounts of air pollutants ejected into the atmosphere, in which atmospheric aerosols and tropospheric ozone are considered to be especially important because of their negative impacts on human health and their impacts on <span class="hlt">global</span> climate through either their direct radiative effect or indirect effect on land-atmosphere CO2 exchange. This dissertation dedicates to quantifying and evaluating the aerosol and tropospheric ozone effects on <span class="hlt">global</span> terrestrial ecosystem dynamics using a modeling approach. An ecosystem model, the integrated Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (iTem), is developed to simulate biophysical and biogeochemical processes in terrestrial ecosystems. A two-broad-band atmospheric radiative transfer model together with the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measured atmospheric parameters are used to well estimate <span class="hlt">global</span> downward solar radiation and the direct and diffuse components in comparison with observations. The atmospheric radiative transfer modeling framework were used to quantify the aerosol direct radiative effect, showing that aerosol loadings cause 18.7 and 12.8 W m -2 decrease of direct-beam Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR) and Near Infrared Radiation (NIR) respectively, and 5.2 and 4.4 W m -2 increase of diffuse PAR and NIR, respectively, leading to a total 21.9 W m-2 decrease of total downward solar radiation over the <span class="hlt">global</span> land surface during the period of 2003-2010. The results also suggested that the aerosol effect may be overwhelmed by clouds because of the stronger extinction and scattering ability of clouds. Applications of the iTem with solar radiation data and with or without considering the aerosol loadings shows that aerosol loading enhances the terrestrial productions [Gross Primary Production (GPP), Net Primary Production (NPP) and Net Ecosystem Production (NEP)] and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emissions through plant respiration (RA) in <span class="hlt">global</span> terrestrial ecosystems over the period of 2003-2010. Ecosystem heterotrophic respiration (RH) was negatively affected by the aerosol loading. These results support previous conclusions of the advantage of aerosol light scattering effect on plant productions in other studies but suggest there is strong spatial variation. This study finds indirect aerosol effects on terrestrial ecosystem <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics through affecting plant phenology, thermal and hydrological environments. All these evidences suggested that the aerosol direct radiative effect on <span class="hlt">global</span> terrestrial ecosystem <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics should be considered to better understand the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle and climate change. An ozone sub-model is developed in this dissertation and fully coupled with iTem. The coupled model, named iTemO3 considers the processes of ozone stomatal deposition, plant defense to ozone influx, ozone damage and plant repairing mechanism. By using a <span class="hlt">global</span> atmospheric chemical transport model (GACTM) estimated ground-level ozone concentration data, the model estimated <span class="hlt">global</span> annual stomatal ozone deposition is 234.0 Tg O3 yr-1 and indicates which regions have high ozone damage risk. Different plant functional types, sunlit and shaded leaves are shown to have different responses to ozone. The model predictions suggest that ozone has caused considerable change on <span class="hlt">global</span> terrestrial ecosystem <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage and <span class="hlt">carbon</span> exchanges over the study period 2004-2008. The study suggests that uncertainty of the key parameters in iTemO3 could result in large errors in model predictions. Thus more experimental data for better model parameterization is highly needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B53G..07H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B53G..07H"><span id="translatedtitle">Testing <span class="hlt">Global</span> Approaches for Optical Remote Sensing of <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Fluxes Using EO-1 Hyperion Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huemmrich, K. F.; Campbell, P. K.; Middleton, E.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Understanding the dynamics of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle requires an accurate description of the spatial and temporal distribution of photosynthetic CO2 uptake by terrestrial vegetation. Can a single algorithm driven by hyperspectral satellite data provide an estimate of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux variables over a wide range of sites? To examine this question ecosystem <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux data measured with the existing <span class="hlt">global</span> network of eddy covariance towers in the LaThuile Fluxnet synthesis analysis were matched to Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) Hyperion imaging spectrometer observations. The synthesis dataset provided data from multiple sites processed in a consistent way, and 33 <span class="hlt">globally</span> distributed flux tower sites, representing a variety of different vegetation types, were identified that were observed by EO-1 during mid-growing season over the period from 2001 to 2007. This provided 80 usable observations with both flux and spectra extracted from 77 Hyperion scenes. Spectra were compared with Ecosystem Respiration (Reco) and Light Use Efficiency (LUE) calculated from the flux tower data. The best spectral vegetation index (SVI), out of 107 tested, for LUE was the first derivative of the reflectance spectra at 732 nm divided by the derivative at 712 nm (R2=0.5). The best SVI for Reco was the Normalized Difference Water Index, the normalized difference of reflectances at 876 and 1245 nm (R2=0.50). Partial Least Squares analysis, which utilizes all of the spectral information, developed using randomly selected training subsets applied to the rest of the data produce R2 values over 0.7 for LUE. For this study Hyperion on EO-1 provides the capability of collecting consistent hyperspectral observations of <span class="hlt">globally</span>-distributed sites along with the ability to make repeated measurements of a site. The analysis suggests multiple different approaches and spectral bands may be used to provide usable estimates of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3206505','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3206505"><span id="translatedtitle">A Basic Strategy to <span class="hlt">Manage</span> <span class="hlt">Global</span> Health with Reference to Livestock Production in Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hall, David C.; Le, Quynh Ba</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Newly emerging infectious diseases (nEIDs) have increased rapidly presenting alarming challenges to <span class="hlt">global</span> health. We argue that for effective <span class="hlt">management</span> of <span class="hlt">global</span> health a basic strategy should include at least three essential tactical forms: actions of a directly focused nature, institutional coordination, and disciplinary integration in approaches to health <span class="hlt">management</span>. Each level of action is illustrated with examples from the livestock sector in Asia. No clear example of all three tactical forms in place can be found from developing countries where food security is a significant threat although Vietnam is developing a comprehensive strategy. Finally, an ecosystem health approach to <span class="hlt">global</span> health <span class="hlt">management</span> is advocated; such an approach moves away from the traditional single disciplinary approach. Stronger guidance is needed to direct ecohealth research and application in the <span class="hlt">management</span> of <span class="hlt">global</span> health. PMID:22135772</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25075978','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25075978"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> profile of the <span class="hlt">managed</span> forest sector in Canada in the 20th century: sink or source?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Jiaxin; Colombo, Stephen J; Ter-Mikaelian, Michael T; Heath, Linda S</p> <p>2014-08-19</p> <p>Canada contains 10% of <span class="hlt">global</span> forests and has been one of the world's largest harvested wood products (HWP) producers. Therefore, Canada's <span class="hlt">managed</span> forest sector, the <span class="hlt">managed</span> forest area and HWP, has the potential to significantly increase or reduce atmospheric greenhouse gases. Using the most comprehensive <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance analysis to date, this study shows Canada's <span class="hlt">managed</span> forest area and resulting HWP were a sink of 7510 and 849 teragrams <span class="hlt">carbon</span> (TgC), respectively, in the period 1901-2010, exceeding Canada's fossil fuel-based emissions over this period (7333 TgC). If Canadian HWP were not produced and used for residential construction, and instead more energy intensive materials were used, there would have been an additional 790 TgC fossil fuel-based emissions. Because the forest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> increases in the 20th century were mainly due to younger growing forests that resulted from disturbances in the 19th century, and future increases in forest <span class="hlt">carbon</span> stocks appear uncertain, in coming decades most of the mitigation contribution from Canadian forests will likely accrue from wood substitution that reduces fossil fuel-based emissions and stores <span class="hlt">carbon</span>, so long as those forests are <span class="hlt">managed</span> sustainably. PMID:25075978</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/833649','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/833649"><span id="translatedtitle">STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR <span class="hlt">MANAGING</span> HIGH-<span class="hlt">CARBON</span> ASH</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen</p> <p>2002-09-10</p> <p>The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the <span class="hlt">management</span> of industry problems related to <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this fourth project period we completed the characterization of ozone-treated <span class="hlt">carbon</span> surfaces and wrote a comprehensive report on the mechanism through which ozone suppresses the adsorption of concrete surfactants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/833646','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/833646"><span id="translatedtitle">STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR <span class="hlt">MANAGING</span> HIGH-<span class="hlt">CARBON</span> ASH</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen</p> <p>2003-05-20</p> <p>The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the <span class="hlt">management</span> of industry problems related to <span class="hlt">carbon</span> in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this fourth project period we completed the characterization of ozone-treated <span class="hlt">carbon</span> surfaces and wrote a comprehensive report on the mechanism through which ozone suppresses the adsorption of concrete surfactants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/577052','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/577052"><span id="translatedtitle">Technologies for improved soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> <span class="hlt">management</span> and environmental quality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reicosky, D.C.</p> <p>1997-12-31</p> <p>The objective of this paper is to create an environmental awareness of and to provide insight into the future balance of environment and economic issues in developing new technologies that benefit the farmer, the public, and agricultural product sales. Agricultural impacts of tillage-induced CO{sub 2} losses are addressed along with new and existing technologies to minimize tillage-induced flow of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere, Emphasis is placed on the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle and the cost of environmental damage to illustrate the need for improved technologies leading to reduced environmental impacts by business ventures. New technologies and concepts related to methods of tillage and stover <span class="hlt">management</span> for <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration with the agricultural production systems are presented. 16 refs., 3 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26531329','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26531329"><span id="translatedtitle">Analyzing the impact of climate and <span class="hlt">management</span> factors on the productivity and soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration of poplar plantations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Dan; Fan, Jiazhi; Jing, Panpan; Cheng, Yong; Ruan, Honghua</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>It is crucial to investigate how climate and <span class="hlt">management</span> factors impact poplar plantation production and soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration interactively. We extracted above-ground net primary production (ANPP), climate and <span class="hlt">management</span> factors from peer-reviewed journal articles and analyzed impact of <span class="hlt">management</span> factor and climate on the mean annual increment (MAI) of poplar ANPP statistically. Previously validated mechanistic model (ED) is used to perform case simulations for <span class="hlt">managed</span> poplar plantations under different harvesting rotations. The meta-analysis indicate that the dry matter MAI was 6.3Mgha(-1)yr(-1) (n=641, sd=4.9) <span class="hlt">globally</span>, and 5.1 (n=292, sd=4.0), 8.1 (n=224, sd=4.7) and 4.4Mgha(-1)yr(-1) (n=125, sd=3.2) in Europe, the US and China, respectively. Poplar MAI showed a significant response to GDD, precipitation and planting density and formed a quadratic relationship with stand age. The low annual production for poplar <span class="hlt">globally</span> was probably caused by suboptimal water availability, rotation length and planting density. SEM attributes the variance of poplar growth rate more to climate than to <span class="hlt">management</span> effects. Case simulations indicated that longer rotation cycle significantly increased soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> storage. Findings of this work suggests that <span class="hlt">management</span> factor of rotation cycle alone could have dramatic impact on the above ground growth, as well as on the soil <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration of poplar plantations and will be helpful to quantify the long-term <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sequestration through short rotation plantation. The findings of this study are useful in guiding further research, policy and <span class="hlt">management</span> decisions towards sustainable poplar plantations. PMID:26531329</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19396143','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19396143"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of changes in diffuse radiation on the <span class="hlt">global</span> land <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mercado, Lina M; Bellouin, Nicolas; Sitch, Stephen; Boucher, Olivier; Huntingford, Chris; Wild, Martin; Cox, Peter M</p> <p>2009-04-23</p> <p>Plant photosynthesis tends to increase with irradiance. However, recent theoretical and observational studies have demonstrated that photosynthesis is also more efficient under diffuse light conditions. Changes in cloud cover or atmospheric aerosol loadings, arising from either volcanic or anthropogenic emissions, alter both the total photosynthetically active radiation reaching the surface and the fraction of this radiation that is diffuse, with uncertain overall effects on <span class="hlt">global</span> plant productivity and the land <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink. Here we estimate the impact of variations in diffuse fraction on the land <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink using a <span class="hlt">global</span> model modified to account for the effects of variations in both direct and diffuse radiation on canopy photosynthesis. We estimate that variations in diffuse fraction, associated largely with the '<span class="hlt">global</span> dimming' period, enhanced the land <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sink by approximately one-quarter between 1960 and 1999. However, under a climate mitigation scenario for the twenty-first century in which sulphate aerosols decline before atmospheric CO(2) is stabilized, this 'diffuse-radiation' fertilization effect declines rapidly to near zero by the end of the twenty-first century. PMID:19396143</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045137','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045137"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Building Inventory for Earthquake Loss Estimation and Risk <span class="hlt">Management</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David; Porter, Keith</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>We develop a <span class="hlt">global</span> database of building inventories using taxonomy of <span class="hlt">global</span> building types for use in near-real-time post-earthquake loss estimation and pre-earthquake risk analysis, for the U.S. Geological Survey’s Prompt Assessment of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) program. The database is available for public use, subject to peer review, scrutiny, and open enhancement. On a country-by-country level, it contains estimates of the distribution of building types categorized by material, lateral force resisting system, and occupancy type (residential or nonresidential, urban or rural). The database draws on and harmonizes numerous sources: (1) UN statistics, (2) UN Habitat’s demographic and health survey (DHS) database, (3) national housing censuses, (4) the World Housing Encyclopedia and (5) other literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=licensing&pg=4&id=EJ772566','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=licensing&pg=4&id=EJ772566"><span id="translatedtitle">Surveying the Need for Technology <span class="hlt">Management</span> for <span class="hlt">Global</span> Health Training Programmes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Balakrishnan, Usha R.; Troyer, Lisa; Brands, Edwin</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Technology licensing office <span class="hlt">managers</span> often need to evaluate profitability and commercial potential in their decision making. However, increased consideration of important <span class="hlt">global</span> public health goals requires forging new collaborative relationships, incorporating creative licensing practices and embracing <span class="hlt">global</span> public good within the academic and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1022917.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1022917.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Management</span> Trainee Program of Turkish Airlines: <span class="hlt">Global</span> Distance Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Karasar, Sahin; Öztürk, Ömer Faruk</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>It has always been a contested task to try to present a scientific base for the concept of "<span class="hlt">management</span>." The concept of <span class="hlt">management</span>, which has always been of great importance to the institutions and organizations, has gone through periodical changes both in terms of its structure and scope, and improved in a parallel fashion as the time…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960003385','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960003385"><span id="translatedtitle">The role of tropical deforestation in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle: Spatial and temporal dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Houghton, R. A.; Skole, David; Moore, Berrien; Melillo, Jerry; Steudler, Paul</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>'The Role of Tropical Deforestation in the <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> cycle: Spatial and Temporal Dynamics', was a joint project involving the University of New Hampshire, the Marine Biological Laboratory, and the Woods Hole Research Center. The contribution of the Woods Hole Research Center consisted of three tasks: (1) assist University of New Hampshire in determining the net flux of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> between the Brazilian Amazon and the atmosphere by means of a terrestrial <span class="hlt">carbon</span> model; (2) address the spatial distribution of biomass across the Amazon Basin; and (3) assist NASA Headquarters in development of a science plan for the Terrestrial Ecology component of the NASA-Brazilian field campaign (anticipated for 1997-2001). Progress on these three tasks is briefly described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996PPCF...38..251T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996PPCF...38..251T"><span id="translatedtitle">LETTER TO THE EDITOR: <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> production and transport in Tore Supra</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tobin, S. J.; Hogan, J. T.; DeMichelis, C.; Klepper, C. C.; Mattioli, M.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Guilhem, D.; Hess, W. R.; Isler, R. C.</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>Impurity production and transport have been studied in small Tore Supra plasmas, for which the sole source of impurities (essentially <span class="hlt">carbon</span>) is an outboard limiter. The main diagnostic was a visible endoscope, allowing absolute intensity calibrated CCD camera images of the entire limiter to be obtained at selected wavelengths. The experimental results show that, while chemical sputtering is essential to explain the limiter images, it does not contribute much to the central impurity content (for which physical sputtering is more important). The experimental edge <span class="hlt">carbon</span> fluxes and the core plasma <span class="hlt">carbon</span> content were simulated by coupling the 3D Monte Carlo edge impurity code BBQ with the 1D Tore Supra core impurity transport code, thus modelling (for the first time) the <span class="hlt">global</span> impurity production and transport.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25296295','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25296295"><span id="translatedtitle">Low <span class="hlt">carbon</span> technology performance vs infrastructure vulnerability: analysis through the local and <span class="hlt">global</span> properties space.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dawson, David A; Purnell, Phil; Roelich, Katy; Busch, Jonathan; Steinberger, Julia K</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Renewable energy technologies, necessary for low-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> infrastructure networks, are being adopted to help reduce fossil fuel dependence and meet <span class="hlt">carbon</span> mitigation targets. The evolution of these technologies has progressed based on the enhancement of technology-specific performance criteria, without explicitly considering the wider system (<span class="hlt">global</span>) impacts. This paper presents a methodology for simultaneously assessing local (technology) and <span class="hlt">global</span> (infrastructure) performance, allowing key technological interventions to be evaluated with respect to their effect on the vulnerability of wider infrastructure systems. We use exposure of low <span class="hlt">carbon</span> infrastructure to critical material supply disruption (criticality) to demonstrate the methodology. A series of local performance changes are analyzed; and by extension of this approach, a method for assessing the combined criticality of multiple materials for one specific technology is proposed. Via a case study of wind turbines at both the material (magnets) and technology (turbine generators) levels, we demonstrate that analysis of a given intervention at different levels can lead to differing conclusions regarding the effect on vulnerability. Infrastructure design decisions should take a systemic approach; without these multilevel considerations, strategic goals aimed to help meet low-<span class="hlt">carbon</span> targets, that is, through long-term infrastructure transitions, could be significantly jeopardized. PMID:25296295</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B23C0215A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B23C0215A"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle Modeling in GISS ModelE2 GCM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aleinov, I. D.; Kiang, N. Y.; Romanou, A.; Romanski, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Consistent and accurate modeling of the <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle remains one of the main challenges for the Earth System Models. NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) ModelE2 General Circulation Model (GCM) was recently equipped with a complete <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle algorithm, consisting of three integrated components: Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model (Ent TBM), Ocean Biogeochemistry Module and atmospheric CO2 tracer. Ent TBM provides CO2 fluxes from the land surface to the atmosphere. Its biophysics utilizes the well-known photosynthesis functions of Farqhuar, von Caemmerer, and Berry and Farqhuar and von Caemmerer, and stomatal conductance of Ball and Berry. Its phenology is based on temperature, drought, and radiation fluxes, and growth is controlled via allocation of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> from labile carbohydrate reserve storage to different plant components. Soil biogeochemistry is based on the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford (CASA) model of Potter et al. Ocean biogeochemistry module (the NASA Ocean Biogeochemistry Model, NOBM), computes prognostic distributions for biotic and abiotic fields that influence the air-sea flux of CO2 and the deep ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> transport and storage. Atmospheric CO2 is advected with a quadratic upstream algorithm implemented in atmospheric part of ModelE2. Here we present the results for pre-industrial equilibrium and modern transient simulations and provide comparison to available observations. We also discuss the process of validation and tuning of particular algorithms used in the model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020021959&hterms=global+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bwarming','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020021959&hterms=global+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bwarming"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity Studies for Space-Based <span class="hlt">Global</span> Measurements of Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Dioxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mao, Jian-Ping; Kawa, S. Randolph; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Carbon</span> dioxide (CO2) is well known as the primary forcing agent of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. Although the climate forcing due to CO2 is well known, the sources and sinks of CO2 are not well understood. Currently the lack of <span class="hlt">global</span> atmospheric CO2 observations limits our ability to diagnose the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget (e.g., finding the so-called "missing sink") and thus limits our ability to understand past climate change and predict future climate response. Space-based techniques are being developed to make high-resolution and high-precision <span class="hlt">global</span> column CO2 measurements. One of the proposed techniques utilizes the passive remote sensing of Earth's reflected solar radiation at the weaker vibration-rotation band of CO2 in the near infrared (approx. 1.57 micron). We use a line-by-line radiative transfer model to explore the potential of this method. Results of sensitivity studies for CO2 concentration variation and geophysical conditions (i.e., atmospheric temperature, surface reflectivity, solar zenith angle, aerosol, and cirrus cloud) will be presented. We will also present sensitivity results for an O2 A-band (approx. 0.76 micron) sensor that will be needed along with CO2 to make surface pressure and cloud height measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9777Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9777Z"><span id="translatedtitle">The impact of different <span class="hlt">management</span> techniques on <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance of a pine stand after windthrow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ziemblinska, Klaudia; Urbaniak, Marek; Merbold, Lutz; Chojnicki, Bogdan H.; Olejnik, Janusz</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Forest ecosystems cover approximately 1/3 of the <span class="hlt">global</span> land area (and 29.8% in Poland). Since forests are constantly exposed to various types of disturbances - both natural and anthropogenic such as fires, wind, insects outbreaks or clear cuts - it is important to investigate the impact of such damages on the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics. This becomes even more important due to the fact that future climate change will most likely result in a higher frequency and intensity of extreme climatic events. Even though wind damages cause large disturbances to forests only few places in the world exist where continuous measurements of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> exchange (CO2) in windthrown sites are carried out. Besides the opportunity to assess the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dynamics following wind disturbance, there is an additional possibility of evaluating differences in post windthrow forest <span class="hlt">management</span> practices. To fill this knowledge gap we set up two measuring stations in north-western Poland in the 500ha area of pine forest damaged by tornado in July 2012, to assess the impact of such disturbance on CO2 and H2O exchange by use of Eddy Covariance (EC) technique (Tlen I and Tlen II). Both sites are characterized by similar climatic as well as soil conditions and are located 3km from each other. While at the site Tlen I all biomass (coarse and fine woody debris were collected together with stumps) was removed and ploughed thereafter, at Tlen II only trunks and main branches were taken out from the site without ploughing. Total harvested biomass per hectare, as derived from local forest inventory, were almost 18 % higher at Tlen I than Tlen II site (where uprooted stumps were left to decompose). First analysis of the eddy covariance data shows that both sites are significant <span class="hlt">carbon</span> sources. Emissions of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide from the non-ploughed site (Tlen II) are higher than from the ploughed site (Tlen I). Both sites released more than 8.1 t of CO2 per ha during a three month time period (mid July to mid August 2014) after being prepared for reforestation as described above . Future analysis and continuation of the measurements will help to answer the following remaining questions: How does the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> flux change in time at both sites? When does either system reach a compensation point (NEP0)? How large are the differences in CO2 loss between both sites? Which <span class="hlt">management</span> technique appears to be more "<span class="hlt">carbon</span> friendly" (less CO2 released to the atmosphere per decade). If these questions are answered they will allow to adapt current post-windthrow <span class="hlt">management</span> activities and provide potential mitigation abilities in disturbed forest ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22410221','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22410221"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermometry and thermal <span class="hlt">management</span> of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> nanotube circuits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mayle, Scott; Gupta, Tanuj; Davis, Sam; Chandrasekhar, Venkat; Shafraniuk, Serhii</p> <p>2015-05-21</p> <p>Monitoring of the intrinsic temperature and the thermal <span class="hlt">management</span> is discussed for the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> nanotube nano-circuits. The experimental results concerning fabricating and testing of a thermometer able to monitor the intrinsic temperature on nanoscale are reported. We also suggest a model which describes a bi-metal multilayer system able to filter the heat flow, based on separating the electron and phonon components one from another. The bi-metal multilayer structure minimizes the phonon component of the heat flow, while retaining the electronic part. The method allows one to improve the overall performance of the electronic nano-circuits due to minimizing the energy dissipation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP11D..05H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP11D..05H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Perturbation of the <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Cycle at the Onset of the Miocene Climatic Optimum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holbourn, A. E.; Kuhnt, W.; Kochhann, K. G. D.; Andersen, N.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The processes driving high-amplitude climate variability and sustaining <span class="hlt">global</span> warmth during the Miocene climatic optimum (~17-14.7 Ma) are highly enigmatic. We present high-resolution benthic and bulk <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> isotope records in an exceptional sedimentary archive (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1337, eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean), which offer a new view of climate evolution over the onset of the climatic optimum. A sharp decline in benthic and bulk <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> δ18O and δ13C at ~16.9 Ma, contemporaneous with a massive increase in <span class="hlt">carbonate</span> dissolution, demonstrates that abrupt climate warming was coupled to an intense perturbation of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle. We conclude that elevated atmospheric pCO2 acted as an amplifier of climate variability after 16.9 Ma, driving profound changes in the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> reservoir. Comparison with a high-resolution δ13C record spanning the onset of the Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a (~120 Ma ago) reveals common forcing factors and climatic responses during two unusually warm episodes of Earth's history with widely differing boundary conditions: the virtually ice-free Cretaceous "Super Greenhouse" and the Miocene "Icehouse" with dominant Southern Hemisphere ice cover. In both periods, rapid CO2 addition to the atmosphere induced abrupt climate warming and drove fundamental changes in the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle that were only mitigated over long timescales (>100 kyr). Despite obvious differences with the modern ocean/climate system, these results provide a useful perspective to evaluate future climate impacts in response to anthropogenic CO2 rise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ClDy...36..783A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ClDy...36..783A"><span id="translatedtitle">A regional and <span class="hlt">global</span> analysis of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide physiological forcing and its impact on climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Andrews, Timothy; Doutriaux-Boucher, Marie; Boucher, Olivier; Forster, Piers M.</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>An increase in atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide concentration has both a radiative (greenhouse) effect and a physiological effect on climate. The physiological effect forces climate as plant stomata do not open as wide under enhanced CO2 levels and this alters the surface energy balance by reducing the evapotranspiration flux to the atmosphere, a process referred to as `<span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide physiological forcing'. Here the climate impact of the <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide physiological forcing is isolated using an ensemble of twelve 5-year experiments with the Met Office Hadley Centre HadCM3LC fully coupled atmosphere-ocean model where atmospheric <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide levels are instantaneously quadrupled and thereafter held constant. Fast responses (within a few months) to <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide physiological forcing are analyzed at a <span class="hlt">global</span> and regional scale. Results show a strong influence of the physiological forcing on the land surface energy budget, hydrological cycle and near surface climate. For example, <span class="hlt">global</span> precipitation rate reduces by ~3% with significant decreases over most land-regions, mainly from reductions to convective rainfall. This fast hydrological response is still evident after 5 years of model integration. Decreased evapotranspiration over land also leads to land surface warming and a drying of near surface air, both of which lead to significant reductions in near surface relative humidity (~6%) and cloud fraction (~3%). Patterns of fast responses consistently show that results are largest in the Amazon and central African forest, and to a lesser extent in the boreal and temperate forest. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> dioxide physiological forcing could be a source of uncertainty in many model predicted quantities, such as climate sensitivity, transient climate response and the hydrological sensitivity. These results highlight the importance of including biological components of the Earth system in climate change studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED307204.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED307204.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Managing</span> the Future: Public Policy, Scientific Uncertainty, and <span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jamieson, Dale</p> <p></p> <p>Due to the injection of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> dioxide and various other gasses into the atmosphere, the world of the 21st century may well have a climate that is beyond the parameters of human existence. Physical science produces information regarding the physical effects of increasing concentrations of "greenhouse" gasses. Once this information is developed, it…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC43C1045B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC43C1045B"><span id="translatedtitle">An audit of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> budget: identifying and reducing sources of uncertainty</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ballantyne, A. P.; Tans, P. P.; Marland, G.; Stocker, B. D.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Uncertainties in our <span class="hlt">carbon</span> accounting practices may limit our ability to objectively verify emission reductions on regional scales. Furthermore uncertainties in the <span class="hlt">global</span> C budget must be reduced to benchmark Earth System Models that incorporate <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-climate interactions. Here we present an audit of the <span class="hlt">global</span> C budget where we try to identify sources of uncertainty for major terms in the <span class="hlt">global</span> C budget. The atmospheric growth rate of CO2 has increased significantly over the last 50 years, while the uncertainty in calculating the <span class="hlt">global</span> atmospheric growth rate has been reduced from 0.4 ppm/yr to 0.2 ppm/yr (95% confidence). Although we have greatly reduced <span class="hlt">global</span> CO2 growth rate uncertainties, there remain regions, such as the Southern Hemisphere, Tropics and Arctic, where changes in regional sources/sinks will remain difficult to detect without additional observations. Increases in fossil fuel (FF) emissions are the primary factor driving the increase in <span class="hlt">global</span> CO2 growth rate; however, our confidence in FF emission estimates has actually gone down. Based on a comparison of multiple estimates, FF emissions have increased from 2.45 0.12 PgC/yr in 1959 to 9.40 0.66 PgC/yr in 2010. Major sources of increasing FF emission uncertainty are increased emissions from emerging economies, such as China and India, as well as subtle differences in accounting practices. Lastly, we evaluate emission estimates from Land Use Change (LUC). Although relative errors in emission estimates from LUC are quite high (2 sigma ~ 50%), LUC emissions have remained fairly constant in recent decades. We evaluate the three commonly used approaches to estimating LUC emissions- Bookkeeping, Satellite Imagery, and Model Simulations- to identify their main sources of error and their ability to detect net emissions from LUC.; Uncertainties in Fossil Fuel Emissions over the last 50 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=international+AND+business+AND+model&pg=4&id=EJ620056','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=international+AND+business+AND+model&pg=4&id=EJ620056"><span id="translatedtitle">International <span class="hlt">Management</span>: Creating a More Realistic <span class="hlt">Global</span> Planning Environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Waldron, Darryl G.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the need for realistic <span class="hlt">global</span> planning environments in international business education, introducing a strategic planning model that has teams interacting with teams to strategically analyze a selected multinational company. This dynamic process must result in a single integrated written analysis that specifies an optimal strategy for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=working+AND+team&pg=2&id=EJ962337','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=working+AND+team&pg=2&id=EJ962337"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Managing</span> <span class="hlt">Global</span> Virtual Teams across Classrooms, Students and Faculty</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shea, Timothy P.; Sherer, Pamela D.; Quilling, Rosemary D.; Blewett, Craig N.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Virtual teams are becoming commonplace in business today so our business school students should have experience in effectively working in virtual teams. Based on a month-long virtual team project conducted by the authors between classes in South Africa and the United States, this paper discusses the opportunities and challenges of using <span class="hlt">global</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=social%2c+AND+educational+AND+development+AND+perspectives&pg=5&id=EJ865856','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=social%2c+AND+educational+AND+development+AND+perspectives&pg=5&id=EJ865856"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Managing</span> Educational Transformation in the <span class="hlt">Globalized</span> World: A Deweyan Perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Striano, Maura</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>In the <span class="hlt">globalization</span> scenarios we currently face, educational systems are challenged by different and sometimes competing pressures and requests. These call for a deep transformation of the organization, role, and social function of educational systems. Within this context, the very concept of education has come to be understood in different ways,</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/656543','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/656543"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> impacts of using forest harvest residues for district heating in Vermont</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McLain, H.A.</p> <p>1998-07-01</p> <p>Forests in Vermont are selectively logged periodically to generate wood products and useful energy. <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> remains stored in the wood products during their lifetime and in fossil fuel displaced by using these products in place of energy-intensive products. Additional <span class="hlt">carbon</span> is sequestered by new forest growth, and the forest inventory is sustained using this procedure. A significant portion of the harvest residue can be used as biofuel in central plants to generate electricity and thermal energy, which also displaces the use of fossil fuels. The impact of this action on the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">carbon</span> balance was analyzed using a model derived from the Graz/Oak Ridge <span class="hlt">Carbon</span> Accounting Model (GORCAM). The analysis showed that when forests are harvested only to manufacture wood products, more than 100 years are required to match the sequestered <span class="hlt">carbon</span> present if the forest is left undisturbed. If part of the harvest residue is collected and used as biofuel in place of oil or natural gas, it is possible to reduce this time to about 90 years, but it is usually longer. Given that harvesting the forest for products will continue, <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emission benefits relative to this practice can start within 10 to 70 years if part of the harvest residue is used as biofuel. This time is usually higher for electric generation plants, but it can be reduced substantially by converting to cogeneration operation. Cogeneration makes possible a ratio of <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emission reduction for district heating to <span class="hlt">carbon</span> emission increase for electricity generation in the range of 3 to 5. Additional sequestering benefits can be realized by using discarded wood products as biofuels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ClDy...37.1929V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ClDy...37.1929V"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> and regional ocean <span class="hlt">carbon</span> uptake and climate change: sensitivity to a substantial mitigation scenario</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vichi, Marcello; Manzini, Elisa; Fogli, Pier Giuseppe; Alessandri, Andrea; Patara, Lavinia; Scoccimarro, Enrico; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Under future scenarios of business-as-usual emissions, the ocean storage of anthropogenic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> is anticipated to decrease because of ocean chemistry constraints and positive feedbacks in the <span class="hlt">carbon</span>-climate dynamics, whereas it is still unknown how the oceanic <span class="hlt">carbon</span> cycle will respond to m