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1

Adaptation, extinction and global change  

PubMed Central

We discuss three interlinked issues: the natural pace of environmental change and adaptation, the likelihood that a population will adapt to a potentially lethal change, and adaptation to elevated CO2, the prime mover of global change. Environmental variability is governed by power laws showing that ln difference in conditions increases with ln elapsed time at a rate of 0.3–0.4. This leads to strong but fluctuating selection in many natural populations. The effect of repeated adverse change on mean fitness depends on its frequency rather than its severity. If the depression of mean fitness leads to population decline, however, severe stress may cause extinction. Evolutionary rescue from extinction requires abundant genetic variation or a high mutation supply rate, and thus a large population size. Although natural populations can sustain quite intense selection, they often fail to adapt to anthropogenic stresses such as pollution and acidification and instead become extinct. Experimental selection lines of algae show no specific adaptation to elevated CO2, but instead lose their carbon-concentrating mechanism through mutational degradation. This is likely to reduce the effectiveness of the oceanic carbon pump. Elevated CO2 is also likely to lead to changes in phytoplankton community composition, although it is not yet clear what these will be. We emphasize the importance of experimental evolution in understanding and predicting the biological response to global change. This will be one of the main tasks of evolutionary biologists in the coming decade.

Bell, Graham; Collins, Sinead

2008-01-01

2

Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change  

E-print Network

concerns about rising energy demand and cost, diminishing oil reserves, and climate change, Central to adaptation and mitigation of global climate change (Timilsina and Shrestha 2009; McFarlane and Philippidis depend exclu- sively on oil products, gasoline and diesel. Oil is imported mostly from the Middle East

3

Adaptation Strategies for Global Environmental Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global environmental challenges society faces today are unheralded due to the pace at which human activities are affecting the earth system. The rates of energy consumption, nitrogen use and production, and water use increases each year leading to greater global environmental changes affecting warming of the earth system and loss of ecosystem services. The challenge we face today as

D. S. Ojima; R. Corell

2007-01-01

4

Representing global climate change, adaptation and mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagrammatic representation of climate change, adaptation and mitigation is important in conceptualizing the problem, identifying important feedbacks, and communicating between disciplines. The Synthesis Report of the IPCC's Third Assessment Report, 2001, uses a “cause and effect” approach developed in the integrated assessment literature. This viewpoint reviews this approach and suggests an alternative, based on stocks and flows. The alternative

Terry Barker

2003-01-01

5

Global climate change adaptation priorities for biodiversity and food security.  

PubMed

International policy is placing increasing emphasis on adaptation to climate change, including the allocation of new funds to assist adaptation efforts. Climate change adaptation funding may be most effective where it meets integrated goals, but global geographic priorities based on multiple development and ecological criteria are not well characterized. Here we show that human and natural adaptation needs related to maintaining agricultural productivity and ecosystem integrity intersect in ten major areas globally, providing a coherent set of international priorities for adaptation funding. An additional seven regional areas are identified as worthy of additional study. The priority areas are locations where changes in crop suitability affecting impoverished farmers intersect with changes in ranges of restricted-range species. Agreement among multiple climate models and emissions scenarios suggests that these priorities are robust. Adaptation funding directed to these areas could simultaneously address multiple international policy goals, including poverty reduction, protecting agricultural production and safeguarding ecosystem services. PMID:23991125

Hannah, Lee; Ikegami, Makihiko; Hole, David G; Seo, Changwan; Butchart, Stuart H M; Peterson, A Townsend; Roehrdanz, Patrick R

2013-01-01

6

Global Climate Change Adaptation Priorities for Biodiversity and Food Security  

PubMed Central

International policy is placing increasing emphasis on adaptation to climate change, including the allocation of new funds to assist adaptation efforts. Climate change adaptation funding may be most effective where it meets integrated goals, but global geographic priorities based on multiple development and ecological criteria are not well characterized. Here we show that human and natural adaptation needs related to maintaining agricultural productivity and ecosystem integrity intersect in ten major areas globally, providing a coherent set of international priorities for adaptation funding. An additional seven regional areas are identified as worthy of additional study. The priority areas are locations where changes in crop suitability affecting impoverished farmers intersect with changes in ranges of restricted-range species. Agreement among multiple climate models and emissions scenarios suggests that these priorities are robust. Adaptation funding directed to these areas could simultaneously address multiple international policy goals, including poverty reduction, protecting agricultural production and safeguarding ecosystem services. PMID:23991125

Hannah, Lee; Ikegami, Makihiko; Hole, David G.; Seo, Changwan; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Roehrdanz, Patrick R.

2013-01-01

7

IMPACTS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTION ON SUSTAINABILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation presents the potential impacts that global climate change may have on the quality and quantity of water available to drinking water and wastewater treatment systems and the adaptations these systems might have to employ in order to remain in regulatory complianc...

8

Global Climate Change Adaptation Priorities for Biodiversity and Food Security  

E-print Network

International policy is placing increasing emphasis on adaptation to climate change, including the allocation of new funds to assist adaptation efforts. Climate change adaptation funding may be most effective where it meets integrated goals...

Hannah, Lee; Ikegami, Makihiko; Hole, David G.; Seo, Changwan; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Roehrdanz, Patrick

2013-08-21

9

Edinburgh Research Explorer Partial costs of global climate change adaptation for the supply  

E-print Network

Edinburgh Research Explorer Partial costs of global climate change adaptation for the supply of raw, 'Partial costs of global climate change adaptation for the supply of raw industrial and municipal water of global climate change adaptation for the supply of raw industrial and municipal water: a methodology

Schnaufer, Achim

10

Integrated Decision Support for Global Environmental Change Adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental changes are happening now that has caused concern in many parts of the world; particularly vulnerable are the countries and communities with limited resources and with natural environments that are more susceptible to climate change impacts. Global leaders are concerned about the observed phenomena and events such as Amazon deforestation, shifting monsoon patterns affecting agriculture in the mountain slopes of Peru, floods in Pakistan, water shortages in Middle East, droughts impacting water supplies and wildlife migration in Africa, and sea level rise impacts on low lying coastal communities in Bangladesh. These environmental changes are likely to get exacerbated as the temperatures rise, the weather and climate patterns change, and sea level rise continues. Large populations and billions of dollars of infrastructure could be affected. At Northrop Grumman, we have developed an integrated decision support framework for providing necessary information to stakeholders and planners to adapt to the impacts of climate variability and change at the regional and local levels. This integrated approach takes into account assimilation and exploitation of large and disparate weather and climate data sets, regional downscaling (dynamic and statistical), uncertainty quantification and reduction, and a synthesis of scientific data with demographic and economic data to generate actionable information for the stakeholders and decision makers. Utilizing a flexible service oriented architecture and state-of-the-art visualization techniques, this information can be delivered via tailored GIS portals to meet diverse set of user needs and expectations. This integrated approach can be applied to regional and local risk assessments, predictions and decadal projections, and proactive adaptation planning for vulnerable communities. In this paper we will describe this comprehensive decision support approach with selected applications and case studies to illustrate how this system of systems approach could help the local governments and concerned institutions worldwide to adapt to gradually changing environmental conditions as well as manage impacts of extreme events such as droughts, floods, heat waves, wildfires, hurricanes, and storm surges.

Kumar, S.; Cantrell, S.; Higgins, G. J.; Marshall, J.; VanWijngaarden, F.

2011-12-01

11

Transitional states in marine fisheries: adapting to predicted global change  

PubMed Central

Global climate change has the potential to substantially alter the production and community structure of marine fisheries and modify the ongoing impacts of fishing. Fish community composition is already changing in some tropical, temperate and polar ecosystems, where local combinations of warming trends and higher environmental variation anticipate the changes likely to occur more widely over coming decades. Using case studies from the Western Indian Ocean, the North Sea and the Bering Sea, we contextualize the direct and indirect effects of climate change on production and biodiversity and, in turn, on the social and economic aspects of marine fisheries. Climate warming is expected to lead to (i) yield and species losses in tropical reef fisheries, driven primarily by habitat loss; (ii) community turnover in temperate fisheries, owing to the arrival and increasing dominance of warm-water species as well as the reduced dominance and departure of cold-water species; and (iii) increased diversity and yield in Arctic fisheries, arising from invasions of southern species and increased primary production resulting from ice-free summer conditions. How societies deal with such changes will depend largely on their capacity to adapt—to plan and implement effective responses to change—a process heavily influenced by social, economic, political and cultural conditions. PMID:20980322

MacNeil, M. Aaron; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Cinner, Joshua E.; Dulvy, Nicholas K.; Loring, Philip A.; Jennings, Simon; Polunin, Nicholas V. C.; Fisk, Aaron T.; McClanahan, Tim R.

2010-01-01

12

ADAPTATION TO GLOBAL CHANGE CHALLENGES FOR RESEARCH AND ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

to evaluate practical approaches to cope with the ecological consequences of climate change. In addition of Applied Sciences of Eberswalde entrate on the ecological and societal consequences of Global Change to global climate change will be worked out for natural and semi-natural ecosystems. However, there is a gap

Schmidt, Matthias

13

Global Change adaptation in water resources management: the Water Change project.  

PubMed

In recent years, water resources management has been facing new challenges due to increasing changes and their associated uncertainties, such as changes in climate, water demand or land use, which can be grouped under the term Global Change. The Water Change project (LIFE+ funding) developed a methodology and a tool to assess the Global Change impacts on water resources, thus helping river basin agencies and water companies in their long term planning and in the definition of adaptation measures. The main result of the project was the creation of a step by step methodology to assess Global Change impacts and define strategies of adaptation. This methodology was tested in the Llobregat river basin (Spain) with the objective of being applicable to any water system. It includes several steps such as setting-up the problem with a DPSIR framework, developing Global Change scenarios, running river basin models and performing a cost-benefit analysis to define optimal strategies of adaptation. This methodology was supported by the creation of a flexible modelling system, which can link a wide range of models, such as hydrological, water quality, and water management models. The tool allows users to integrate their own models to the system, which can then exchange information among them automatically. This enables to simulate the interactions among multiple components of the water cycle, and run quickly a large number of Global Change scenarios. The outcomes of this project make possible to define and test different sets of adaptation measures for the basin that can be further evaluated through cost-benefit analysis. The integration of the results contributes to an efficient decision-making on how to adapt to Global Change impacts. PMID:22883209

Pouget, Laurent; Escaler, Isabel; Guiu, Roger; Mc Ennis, Suzy; Versini, Pierre-Antoine

2012-12-01

14

Reducing Global Warming and Adapting to Climate Change: The Potential of Organic Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change mitigation is urgent, and adaptation to climate change is crucial, particularly in agriculture, where food security is at stake. Agriculture, currently responsible for 20-30% of global greenhouse gas emissions (counting direct and indirect agricultural emissions), can however contribute to both climate change mitigation and adaptation. The main mitigation potential lies in the capacity of agricultural soils to sequester

Adrian Muller; Joergen Olesen; Laurence Smith; Joan Davis; Karolína Dytrtová; Andreas Gattinger; Nic Lampkin; Urs Niggli

2012-01-01

15

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION: EXAMPLES FROM RUSSIAN BOREAL FORESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Russian Federation contains approximately 20% of the world's timber resources and more than half of all boreal forests. These forests play a prominent role in environmental protection and economic development at global, national, and local levels, as well as, provide commodities for indigenous people and habitat for a variety of plant and animal species. The response and feedbacks of

O. N. Krankina; R. K. Dixon; A. P. Kirilenko; K. I. Kobak

1997-01-01

16

Climate change adaptation: Where does global health fit in the agenda?  

PubMed Central

Human-induced climate change will affect the lives of most populations in the next decade and beyond. It will have greatest, and generally earliest, impact on the poorest and most disadvantaged populations on the planet. Changes in climatic conditions and increases in weather variability affect human wellbeing, safety, health and survival in many ways. Some impacts are direct-acting and immediate, such as impaired food yields and storm surges. Other health effects are less immediate and typically occur via more complex causal pathways that involve a range of underlying social conditions and sectors such as water and sanitation, agriculture and urban planning. Climate change adaptation is receiving much attention given the inevitability of climate change and its effects, particularly in developing contexts, where the effects of climate change will be experienced most strongly and the response mechanisms are weakest. Financial support towards adaptation activities from various actors including the World Bank, the European Union and the United Nations is increasing substantially. With this new global impetus and funding for adaptation action come challenges such as the importance of developing adaptation activities on a sound understanding of baseline community needs and vulnerabilities, and how these may alter with changes in climate. The global health community is paying heed to the strengthening focus on adaptation, albeit in a slow and unstructured manner. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of adaptation and its relevance to global health, and highlight the opportunities to improve health and reduce health inequities via the new and additional funding that is available for climate change adaptation activities. PMID:22632569

2012-01-01

17

Partial costs of global climate change adaptation for the supply of raw industrial and municipal water: a methodology and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite growing recognition of the importance of climate change adaptation, few global estimates of the costs involved are available for the water supply sector. We present a methodology for estimating partial global and regional adaptation costs for raw industrial and domestic water supply, for a limited number of adaptation strategies, and apply the method using results of two climate models.

Philip J. Ward; Kenneth M. Strzepek; W. Pieter Pauw; Luke M. Brander; Gordon A. Hughes; Jeroen C. J. H. Aerts

2010-01-01

18

Phylogeny of extant ruminants indicates the influence of global climatic changes and dietary adaptations on diversification rates  

E-print Network

Phylogeny of extant ruminants indicates the influence of global climatic changes and dietary adaptations on diversification rates Phylogeny of extant ruminants indicates the influence of global climatic suggest that a climate shift starting at Late Oligocene became in a progressive global drying

Mooers, Arne

19

Local solutions to global problems: the potential of agroforestry for climate change adaptation and mitigation in southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is a global phenomenon that imposes economic, social, and ecological challenges to the global community and, to smallholder farmers particularly in low- income countries. Sustainable land use practices offer opportunities for smallholder farmers to adapt to climate change and related risks, but the challenge is that the adoption of such practices by farmers is low due to policy

Ajayi OC; Akinnifesi FK; Sileshi G; Chakeredza S

20

Global Climate Change Adaptation Costs in the Industrial and Municipal Water Supply Sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of global modelling studies show that many of the negative impacts of 21st century climate change will be felt through changes in the hydrological cycle, such as increased frequencies of drought and flooding. Moreover, these impacts are expected to strengthen over the course of the 21st century, regardless of whether greenhouse gas emission mitigation takes place (due to committed climate change as a result of anthropogenic greenhouse gases already emitted to the atmosphere). Hence, in addition to mitigation, it is essential to develop adequate adaptation measures to moderate the impacts and realise the opportunities associated with climate change in the water sector. Nevertheless, to date there has been little research on the costs of adaptation to climate change in the water sector at the global scale; this hampers planning and negotiating the financial resource allocations necessary for effective adaptation. Hence, we carried out a global study to estimate the costs of climate change related adaptation in the water supply sector. In this study, the cost of adaptation is defined as the cost of providing enough raw water to meet future industrial and municipal water demand, based on country-level demand projections until 2050. Increased water demand between present and the future scenarios is assumed to be met through reservoir yield by increasing the capacity of surface reservoir storage, except for when: (a) increasing supply from reservoir yield would increase withdrawals above a given threshold of river runoff; and/or (b) the cost of supplying water from reservoir yield is in excess of a given threshold. In these cases, supply is assumed to be met through alternative measures at a cost of 0.30 per cubic meter. The additional reservoir storage capacity required to meet future water demand was calculated using storage-yield curves, which show the storage capacity needed to provide a firm yield and reliability of water supply over the course of a year. The storage-yield curves were developed using simulated time-series of monthly runoff from the rainfall-runoff model CLIRUN-II. The country simulations were aggregated to 6 World Bank regions plus all high income countries, and the annual costs of adaptation were estimated between the years 2010 and 2050, using the results of two General Circulation Models (GCMs) forced by SRES emission scenario A2. The cost estimates were based on empirical relationships between reservoir capacity, slope, and costs, and were verified against a large database of reservoir construction projects. The annual costs of climate change related adaptation were estimated in two ways: (a) net costs (includes the avoided costs, or benefits, due to climate change); and (b) gross costs (ignores the avoided costs, or benefits, due to climate change). For high-income countries (i.e. non-World Bank client countries), we estimate the net costs to be 1-2 billion p.a. (USD2005), and the gross costs to be ca $3-3.5 billion p.a. The costs for developing countries are higher, and the results will be released in October 2009.

Ward, P. J.; Strzepek, K. M.; Hughes, G. A.; Aerts, J. C.; Pauw, P.; Brander, L. M.

2009-12-01

21

Effects of Global Change on U.S. Urban Areas: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Adaptation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human settlements, both large and small, are where the vast majority of people on the Earth live. Expansion of cities both in population and areal extent, is a relentless process that will accelerate in the 21st century. As a consequence of urban growth both in the United States and around the globe, it is important to develop an understanding of how urbanization will affect the local and regional environment. Of equal importance, however, is the assessment of how cities will be impacted by the looming prospects of global climate change and climate variability. The potential impacts of climate change and variability has recently been annunciated by the IPCC's "Climate Change 2007" report. Moreover, the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) is preparing a series of "Synthesis and Assessment Products" (SAPs) reports to support informed discussion and decision making regarding climate change and variability by policy matters, resource managers, stakeholders, the media, and the general public. We are authors on a SAP describing the effects of global climate change on human settlements. This paper will present the elements of our SAP report that relate to what vulnerabilities and impacts will occur, what adaptation responses may take place, and what possible effects on settlement patterns and characteristics will potentially arise, on human settlements in the U.S. as a result of climate change and climate variability. We will also present some recommendations about what should be done to further research on how climate change and variability will impact human settlements in the U.S., as well as how to engage government officials, policy and decision makers, and the general public in understanding the implications of climate change and variability on the local and regional levels. Additionally, we wish to explore how technology such as remote sensing data coupled with modeling, can be employed as synthesis tools for deriving insight across a spectrum of impacts (e.g. public health, urban planning for mitigation strategies) on how cities can cope and adapt to climate change and variability. This latter point parallels the concepts and ideas presented in the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Decadal Survey report on "Earth Science Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond" wherein the analysis of the impacts of climate change and variability, human health, and land use change are listed as key areas for development of future Earth observing remote sensing systems.

Quattrochi, Dale A.; Wilbanks, Thomas J.; Kirshen, Paul; Romero-Lnkao, Patricia; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruth, Matthias; Solecki, William; Tarr, Joel

2007-01-01

22

Effects of Global Change on U.S. Urban Areas: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Adaptation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that global change has on urban areas in the United States and how the growth of urban areas will affect the environment. It presents the elements of our Synthesis and Assessment Report (SAP) report that relate to what vulnerabilities and impacts will occur, what adaptation responses may take place, and what possible effects on settlement patterns and characteristics will potentially arise, on human settlements in the U.S. as a result of climate change and climate variability. We will also present some recommendations about what should be done to further research on how climate change and variability will impact human settlements in the U.S., as well as how to engage government officials, policy and decision makers, and the general public in understanding the implications of climate change and variability on the local and regional levels. Additionally, we wish to explore how technology such as remote sensing data coupled with modeling, can be employed as synthesis tools for deriving insight across a spectrum of impacts (e.g. public health, urban planning for mitigation strategies) on how cities can cope and adapt to climate change and variability. This latter point parallels the concepts and ideas presented in the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Decadal Survey report on "Earth Science Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond" wherein the analysis of the impacts of climate change and variability, human health, and land use change are listed as key areas for development of future Earth observing remote sensing systems.

Quattrochi, Dale A.; Wilbanks, Thomas J.; Kirshen, Paul; Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruth, Mattias; Solecki, William; Tarr, Joel

2008-01-01

23

ADApT: A rapid integrated assessment and decision support tool to respond to global change in coastal regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystem change is happening at a rate faster than predicted, impacting the livelihoods of coastal peoples globally and precipitating the need for timely and effective response to global change. While knowledge about best practices in coping and adaptation are evolving, countries still struggle with ways to enhance coastal peoples' capacity to respond to change and reduce their vulnerability. The complexity of coastal marine ecosystems, and the multitude of challenges faced, make it difficult to know what natural and social attributes contribute to, or limit the success of adaptations to global change. We are developing a rapid integrated assessment decision support tool (ADApT: Assessment from Description, Appraisal, and Typology) based on a global database of coastal and marine case studies. The tool focuses on 1) description of the ecological and social impacts of ecosystem stresses, and responses to those stresses; 2) appraisal of how successful those responses are in mitigating impacts, as well as what risks and uncertainties are involved; and 3) development of a typology that will enable an efficient assessment of impacts and the appropriate response. ADApT will enable decision makers and local actors to triage and improve their responses to global change, to make decisions efficiently for transitions towards coastal sustainability, and to evaluate where to most effectively invest funds to reduce vulnerability and enhance resilience of coastal peoples to global change.

Cooley, S.; Bundy, A.; Chuenpagdee, R.; Isaacs, M.; Badjeck, M.; Defeo, O.; Glaeser, B.; Guillotreau, P.; Makino, M.; Perry, R. I.

2012-12-01

24

SAMCO: Society Adaptation for coping with Mountain risks in a global change COntext  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SAMCO project aims to develop a proactive resilience framework enhancing the overall resilience of societies on the impacts of mountain risks. The project aims to elaborate methodological tools to characterize and measure ecosystem and societal resilience from an operative perspective on three mountain representative case studies. To achieve this objective, the methodology is split in several points with (1) the definition of the potential impacts of global environmental changes (climate system, ecosystem e.g. land use, socio-economic system) on landslide hazards, (2) the analysis of these consequences in terms of vulnerability (e.g. changes in the location and characteristics of the impacted areas and level of their perturbation) and (3) the implementation of a methodology for quantitatively investigating and mapping indicators of mountain slope vulnerability exposed to several hazard types, and the development of a GIS-based demonstration platform. The strength and originality of the SAMCO project will be to combine different techniques, methodologies and models (multi-hazard assessment, risk evolution in time, vulnerability functional analysis, and governance strategies) and to gather various interdisciplinary expertises in earth sciences, environmental sciences, and social sciences. The multidisciplinary background of the members could potentially lead to the development of new concepts and emerging strategies for mountain hazard/risk adaptation. Research areas, characterized by a variety of environmental, economical and social settings, are severely affected by landslides, and have experienced significant land use modifications (reforestation, abandonment of traditional agricultural practices) and human interferences (urban expansion, ski resorts construction) over the last century.

Grandjean, Gilles; Bernardie, Severine; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Puissant, Anne; Houet, Thomas; Berger, Frederic; Fort, Monique; Pierre, Daniel

2013-04-01

25

Global and local economic impacts of climate change in Syria and options for adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is broad consensus among scientists that climate change is altering weather patterns around the world. However, economists are only beginning to develop tools that allow for the quantification of such weather changes on countries' economies and people. This paper presents a modeling suite that links the downscaling of global climate models, crop modeling, global economic modeling, and subnational-level computable

Clemens Breisinger; Tingju Zhu; Perrihan Al Riffai; Gerald Nelson; Richard Robertson; Jose Funes; Dorte Verner

2011-01-01

26

USEPA?s Water Resource Adaptation Program (WRAP) ? Drinking Water Research and Global Climate Change  

EPA Science Inventory

The Water Resource Adaptation Program (WRAP) contributes to EPA?s efforts to provide water resource managers and decision makers with the tools they need to adapt water resources (e.g., watersheds and infrastructure) to future climate change and demographic and economic developme...

27

Mitigation/adaptation and health: health policymaking in the global response to climate change and implications for other upstream determinants.  

PubMed

The time is ripe for innovation in global health governance if we are to achieve global health and development objectives in the face of formidable challenges. Integration of global health concerns into the law and governance of other, related disciplines should be given high priority. This article explores opportunities for health policymaking in the global response to climate change. Climate change and environmental degradation will affect weather disasters, food and water security, infectious disease patterns, and air pollution. Although scientific research has pointed to the interdependence of the global environment and human health, policymakers have been slow to integrate their approaches to environmental and health concerns. A robust response to climate change will require improved integration on two fronts: health concerns must be given higher priority in the response to climate change and threats associated with climate change and environmental degradation must be more adequately addressed by global health law and governance. The mitigation/adaptation response paradigm developing within and beyond the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change provides a useful framework for thinking about global health law and governance with respect to climate change, environmental degradation, and possibly other upstream determinants of health as well. PMID:20880245

Wiley, Lindsay F

2010-01-01

28

Global assessment of coral bleaching and required rates of adaptation under climate change  

E-print Network

coral reefs. Here, we conduct the first comprehensive global assessment of coral bleaching under climate-resolution sea surface tem- peratures for thousands of coral reefs, using a global coral reef map and 1985, climate change, coral reefs, general circulation model, ocean warm- ing, symbiosis Received 22 May 2005

Oppenheimer, Michael

29

Vulnerability and adaptation to global climate change: The Estonian national report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of its geography, wide coastal areas, water resources, forests, and wetlands, the environment of Estonia is sensitive to climate change and sea level rise. Therefore, the vulnerability and adaptation assessment focused on these sectors GCM-based and incremental climate change scenarios are used for V and A assessment in Estonia. The results of five GCMs provided by NCAR are available,

A. Kont; J. M. Punning; M. Ainsaar

1996-01-01

30

Global Climate Change Adaptation Costs in the Industrial and Municipal Water Supply Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of global modelling studies show that many of the negative impacts of 21st century climate change will be felt through changes in the hydrological cycle, such as increased frequencies of drought and flooding. Moreover, these impacts are expected to strengthen over the course of the 21st century, regardless of whether greenhouse gas emission mitigation takes place (due to

P. J. Ward; K. M. Strzepek; G. A. Hughes; J. C. Aerts; P. Pauw; L. M. Brander

2009-01-01

31

Perspectives on global climate change: A review of the adaptation and mitigation approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper was prepared for the conference on Global Climate Change and International Security sponsored by the Midwest Consortium for International Security Studies of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and held in Chicago, Illinois on February 11-13, 1992. The purpose of the paper is to provide some background on the different perceptions and perspectives that are presently shaping

Morrisette

1992-01-01

32

Climate Change Adaptation Planning  

E-print Network

Climate Change Adaptation Planning On the Navajo Nation #12;Navajo Nation Climate Change Adaptation of Colorado Law School #12;What is Climate Change Adaptation? "Adjustment in natural or human systems change #12;Examples of Adaptation Activities Seed banks Land restoration #12;What is Climate Change

Neff, Jason

33

Effects of global change in the Czech Part of the River Elbe Basin and adaptation options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Integrated Water Resources Management planning the effects of changing natural conditions (natural water availability) and socio-economic development (water demand) must be taken into consideration. Climate change will influence the water availability. In some sectors, e.g. agricultural irrigation, also the water demand is influenced by climatic conditions. Both, the development of natural water availability and water demand, are connected with certain levels of uncertainty. Therefore, scenarios of socio-economic development and climate change are required for Integrated Water Resources Management planning. The river Elbe basin (catchment area approximately 150,000 km²) is located in central Europe. The river Elbe basin is a trans boundary river basin. One third is located in the Czech Republic upstream of Germany, where two thirds of the basin is located. Therefore, inflows from the Czech part are important for instance for navigation in the German part. For navigation an inflow to Germany of 100 m3/s is required. Due to climate change the inflows are expected to decline. In the project GLOWA-Elbe a water management model for the whole river Elbe basin was developed. The model for the Czech part includes among others 52 reservoirs, 20 thermoelectric power plants, 70 hydroelectric power plants, 30 industrial users, 15 agricultural irrigation users, 40 public water utilities, and 160 waste water treatment plants. Two global socio-economic trends are renationalized and used in the simulations. Renationalized climate data are used to simulate the effects of climate change on natural discharges. Using the water management model the effects of global change on inflows from the Czech Republic to Germany are simulated. Using this model is it analyzed, if reservoir management in the Czech part can sustain a required inflow of 100 m3/s to Germany.

Koch, Hagen; Kaltofen, Michael; Kaden, Stefan; Grünewald, Uwe

2010-05-01

34

Development of a natural practice to adapt conservation goals to global change.  

PubMed

Conservation goals at the start of the 21st century reflect a combination of contrasting ideas. Ideal nature is something that is historically intact but also futuristically flexible. Ideal nature is independent from humans, but also, because of the pervasiveness of human impacts, only able to reach expression through human management. These tensions emerge in current management rationales because scientists and managers are struggling to accommodate old and new scientific and cultural thinking, while also maintaining legal mandates from the past and commitments to preservation of individual species in particular places under the stresses of global change. Common management goals (such as integrity, wilderness, resilience), whether they are forward looking and focused on sustainability and change, or backward looking and focused on the persistence and restoration of historic states, tend to create essentialisms about how ecosystems should be. These essentialisms limit the options of managers to accommodate the dynamic, and often novel, response of ecosystems to global change. Essentialisms emerge because there is a tight conceptual coupling of place and historical species composition as an indicator of naturalness (e.g., normal, healthy, independent from humans). Given that change is increasingly the norm and ecosystems evolve in response, the focus on idealized ecosystem states is increasingly unwise and unattainable. To provide more open-ended goals, we propose greater attention be paid to the characteristics of management intervention. We suggest that the way we interact with other species in management and the extent to which those interactions reflect the interactions among other biotic organisms, and also reflect our conservation virtues (e.g., humility, respect), influences our ability to cultivate naturalness on the landscape. We call this goal a natural practice (NP) and propose it as a framework for prioritizing and formulating how, when, and where to intervene in this period of rapid change. PMID:24617971

Heller, Nicole E; Hobbs, Richard J

2014-06-01

35

Corporate Climate Change Adaptation.  

E-print Network

?? On-going and future climate change is universally acknowledged. Climate changeincorporating global mean temperature rise, impacts on global hydrology and ecosystems willaffect human society and… (more)

Herbertsson, Nicole

2010-01-01

36

ASSESSING THE CONSEQUENCES OF GLOBAL CHANGE ON WATER QUALITY AND QUANTITY - ADAPTATION AND CO-CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

Increased water temperatures and changes in rainfall patterns have been identified as two potential consequences of climate change. These changes could impact the types and levels of water pollutants across the country resulting in the presence of different microbial organisms, ...

37

Effects of Climate Change\\/Global Warming on Coral Reefs: Adaptation\\/Exaptation in Corals, Evolution in Zooxanthellae, and Biogeographic Shifts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) associated with climate change\\/global warming have caused bleaching in scleractinian corals (the loss of obligate symbiotic zooxanthellae) on a global basis, resulting in mass mortality of corals and decimation of reefs. This symbiotic relationship makes these corals an excellent bioindicator of climate change.It has been hypothesized that bleaching is a mechanism by which corals can adapt

Paul W. Sammarco; Kevin B. Strychar

2009-01-01

38

Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation  

E-print Network

Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation David S. Liebl and Kenneth W. Potter Co of global climate change­ WICCI Stormwater Working Group #12;Projected Climate Change 200-2100 What Global Change Probability Distribution of 14 Global Climate Model Projections D. Vimont, UW-Madison 90% chance

Sheridan, Jennifer

39

Global Change at Edinburgh  

E-print Network

Global Change at Edinburgh 2007 #12;1 | Global Change at Edinburgh © 2007 The University Illustration, Learning Technology Section, The University of Edinburgh School of GeoSciences #12;Global Change at Edinburgh | 2 The Global Change Group Human impacts on our planet are changing the atmosphere, climate, ice

Greenaway, Alan

40

Adapting to climate change: is there scope for ecological management in the face of a global threat?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Climate change is recognized as a major threat to the survival of species and integrity of ecosystems world-wide. Although considerable research has focused on climate impacts, relatively little work to date has been conducted on the practical application of strategies for adapting to climate change. Adaptation strategies should aim to increase the flexibility in management of vulnerable ecosystems,

PHILIP E. HULME

2005-01-01

41

Financing climate change adaptation.  

PubMed

This paper examines the topic of financing adaptation in future climate change policies. A major question is whether adaptation in developing countries should be financed under the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), or whether funding should come from other sources. We present an overview of financial resources and propose the employment of a two-track approach: one track that attempts to secure climate change adaptation funding under the UNFCCC; and a second track that improves mainstreaming of climate risk management in development efforts. Developed countries would need to demonstrate much greater commitment to the funding of adaptation measures if the UNFCCC were to cover a substantial part of the costs. The mainstreaming of climate change adaptation could follow a risk management path, particularly in relation to disaster risk reduction. 'Climate-proofing' of development projects that currently do not consider climate and weather risks could improve their sustainability. PMID:16512861

Bouwer, Laurens M; Aerts, Jeroen C J H

2006-03-01

42

Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation  

E-print Network

Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation David S. Liebl and Kenneth W. Potter Co changes due to global climate change." ­ WICCI Stormwater Working Group #12;Future Climate Change What of precipitation High water impacts Adaptation strategies #12;1930 2008WI Cooperative Weather Stations We've been

Sheridan, Jennifer

43

Research, Adaptation, & Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research adaptation is an endeavor that implies solid collaboration among school practitioners and university and college researchers. This volume addresses the broad issues of research as an educational endeavor, adaptation as a necessary function associated with applying research findings to school situations, and change as an inevitable…

Morris, Lee A., Ed.; And Others

44

Food security and climate change: on the potential to adapt global crop production by active selection to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide  

PubMed Central

Agricultural production is under increasing pressure by global anthropogenic changes, including rising population, diversion of cereals to biofuels, increased protein demands and climatic extremes. Because of the immediate and dynamic nature of these changes, adaptation measures are urgently needed to ensure both the stability and continued increase of the global food supply. Although potential adaption options often consider regional or sectoral variations of existing risk management (e.g. earlier planting dates, choice of crop), there may be a global-centric strategy for increasing productivity. In spite of the recognition that atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is an essential plant resource that has increased globally by approximately 25 per cent since 1959, efforts to increase the biological conversion of atmospheric CO2 to stimulate seed yield through crop selection is not generally recognized as an effective adaptation measure. In this review, we challenge that viewpoint through an assessment of existing studies on CO2 and intraspecific variability to illustrate the potential biological basis for differential plant response among crop lines and demonstrate that while technical hurdles remain, active selection and breeding for CO2 responsiveness among cereal varieties may provide one of the simplest and direct strategies for increasing global yields and maintaining food security with anthropogenic change. PMID:22874755

Ziska, Lewis H.; Bunce, James A.; Shimono, Hiroyuki; Gealy, David R.; Baker, Jeffrey T.; Newton, Paul C. D.; Reynolds, Matthew P.; Jagadish, Krishna S. V.; Zhu, Chunwu; Howden, Mark; Wilson, Lloyd T.

2012-01-01

45

Antarctica and global change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Antarctic region of the globe is of special importance for a wide range of studies of global change. The IGBP research activities needing special focus for global change should be multidisciplinary, should involve both the geosphere and the biosphere, and should be of global as well as local interest. There are a number of important Antarctic research topics which

W. F. Budd

1991-01-01

46

Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how the greenhouse effect is related to global warming and how global warming impacts our planet, including global climate change. Extreme weather events, rising sea levels, and how we react to these changes are the main points of focus of this lesson.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

47

Designing Global Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a time when sensationalism rules the online world, it is best to keep things short. The people of the online world are not passing back and forth lengthy articles, but rather brief glimpses of complex information. This is the target audience we attempt to educate. Our challenge is then to attack not only ignorance, but also apathy toward global climate change, while conforming to popular modes of learning. When communicating our scientific material, it was difficult to determine what level of information was appropriate for our audience, especially with complex subject matter. Our unconventional approach for communicating the carbon crisis as it applies to global climate change caters to these 'recreational learners'. Using story-telling devices acquired from Carolyne's biomedical art background coupled with Peter's extensive knowledge of carbon cycle and ecosystems science, we developed a dynamic series of illustrations that capture the attention of a callous audience. Adapting complex carbon cycle and climate science into comic-book-style animations creates a channel between artist, scientist, and the general public. Brief scenes of information accompanied by text provide a perfect platform for visual learners, as well as fresh portrayals of stale material for the jaded. In this way art transcends the barriers of the cerebral and the abstract, paving the road to understanding.;

Griffith, P. C.; ORyan, C.

2012-12-01

48

Global Climate Change Exploratorium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, funded by NSF, is the home page for the Global Climate Change research explorer. Multicolor tabs at the top of the page link to further information and visualizations (graphs, charts, pictures, etc.) for climate change resources in each of the Earth's spheres, including: atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, biosphere, and global effects of climate change.

Exploratorium, The

49

Phosphorus and Global Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Phosphorus (P) is both an agent of global change, with P loads increasing in most global environments due to the loss of mined\\u000a phosphate from agricultural, industrial, and urban environments, and is affected by global change processes such as land degradation\\u000a or the need for P in biofuel production. P plays a fundamental role in food security and, because the

Holm Tiessen; Maria Victoria Ballester; Ignacio Salcedo

50

PERSPECTIVE Climate change, adaptation, and phenotypic plasticity  

E-print Network

that climate change is the specific causal agent have rarely involved the testing ­ and exclusion ­ of otherPERSPECTIVE Climate change, adaptation, and phenotypic plasticity: the problem and the evidence Montreal, QC, Canada Keywords environmental change, evolution, genetics, global change, individual

Hendry, Andrew

51

Frontiers in Global Change Seminar Series  

E-print Network

. For the future, the recognition that climate change adaptation, disaster risk reduction, and sustainableFrontiers in Global Change Seminar Series Climate Change: Managing the Risks of Extreme Events on Climate Change concluded that "A changing climate leads to changes in the frequency, intensity, spatial

52

Global Change Sustainability  

E-print Network

Global Change and Sustainability Center The GCSC is an inclusionary and interdisciplinary hub that promotes, coordinates, and conducts local to global environmental- and sustainability-related research to complex environmental and sustainability issues and challenges. 2012 Annual Report #12;1GCSC 2012 ANNUAL

Tipple, Brett

53

Global Change at Edinburgh  

E-print Network

the atmosphere, climate, ice cover, global biogeochemistry, biodiversity, soils, and even ocean circulation biogeochemistry, palaeo-oceanography, paleoclimatology, pollutants, plankton genetics, remote sensing. Linked being made aware of the effects of climate change: soaring temperatures, flash floods, forest fires

Greenaway, Alan

54

The effects of global climate change on Southeast Asia: A survey of likely impacts and problems of adaptation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Study results indicate the likelihood of significant net damages from climate change, in particular damages from sea-level rise and higher temperatures that seem unlikely to be offset by favorable shifts in precipitation and carbon dioxide. Also indicated was the importance of better climate models, in particular models that can calculate climate change on a regional scale appropriate to policy-making. In spite of this potential for damage, there seems to be a low level of awareness and concern, probably caused by the higher priority given to economic growth and reinforced by the great uncertainty in the forecasts. The common property nature of global environment systems also leads to a feeling of helplessness on the part of country governments.

Njoto, Sukrisno; Howe, Charles W.

1991-01-01

55

Global Change 1 Labs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the University of Michigan lists the labs for a course on global change. Because of the complexity of global changes, it is often not enough to read about the workings of these phenomena. Modeling is used extensively in these labs because thinking about the dynamics of a system, extracting critical functioning parts, and attempting to build a model captures its essence by making assumptions to account for external variables. Also included are tips for web project development.

Michigan, University O.

56

Global Change Primer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This introductory chapter for educators provides background information to support classroom investigations of global climate change. Topics addressed include the structure and composition of the atmosphere, General Circulation Models (GCMs), 2xCO2 scenarios, uncertainty, and human impacts. The primer is part of the Ground Truth Studies Teacher Handbook, which provides more than 20 activities to build student understanding of global change and remote sensing, and includes background chapters for teachers, glossary, and appendices.

57

Modeling Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding global climate change is challenging, even for adults, yet having an understanding of this topic is consequential for the future. In this activity, middle school students learn about global climate change using models that allow them to make predictions, observations, and then explain mechanisms for climate change. Component ideas include change over time, deep time, and accumulation. Students are asked to act as advisers on how to lower energy use, and refine their understanding of how and why this is important, before testing their ideas and finally revising their advice.

Svihla, Vanessa

58

Farmer responses to multiple stresses in the face of global change: Assessing five case studies to enhance adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global challenge of sustaining agricultural livelihoods and yields in the face of growing populations and increasing climate change is the topic of intense research. The role of on-the-ground decision-making by individual farmers actually producing food, fuel, and fiber is often studied in individual cases to determine its environmental, economic, and social effects. However, there are few efforts to link across studies in a way that provides opportunities to better understand empirical farmer behavior, design effective policies, and be able to aggregate from case studies to a broader scale. Here we synthesize existing literature to identify four general factors affecting farmer decision-making: local technical and socio-cultural contexts; actors and institutions involved in decision-making; multiple stressors at broader scales; and the temporal gradient of decision-making. We use these factors to compare five cases that illustrate agricultural decision-making and its impacts: cotton and castor farming in Gujarat, India; swidden cultivation of upland rice in the Philippines; potato cultivation in Andean Colombia; winegrowing in Northern California; and maize production in peri-urban central Mexico. These cases span a geographic and economic range of production systems, but we find that we are able to make valid comparisons and draw lessons common across all cases by using the four factors as an organizing principle. We also find that our understanding of why farmers make the decisions they do changes if we neglect to examine even one of the four general factors guiding decision-making. This suggests that these four factors are important to understanding farmer decision-making, and can be used to guide the design and interpretation of future studies, as well as be the subject of further research in and of themselves to promote an agricultural system that is resilient to climate and other global environmental changes.

Nicholas, K. A.; Feola, G.; Lerner, A. M.; Jain, M.; Montefrio, M.

2013-12-01

59

Technology and Global Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technology and Global Change describes how technology has shaped society and the environment over the last 200 years. Technology has led us from the farm to the factory to the internet, and its impacts are now global. Technology has eliminated many problems, but has added many others (ranging from urban smog to the ozone hole to global warming). This book is the first to give a comprehensive description of the causes and impacts of technological change and how they relate to global environmental change. Written for specialists and nonspecialists alike, it will be useful for researchers and professors, as a textbook for graduate students, for people engaged in long-term policy planning in industry (strategic planning departments) and government (R & D and technology ministries, environment ministries), for environmental activists (NGOs), and for the wider public interested in history, technology, or environmental issues.

Grübler, Arnulf

2003-10-01

60

Past Global Changes Environmental  

E-print Network

Past Global Changes Environmental Variability and Climate Change International Geosphere? - Is climate sensitive to greenhouse gas forcing? - To what extent was the warming of the last century the result of natural processes? - Was there a Medieval Warm Period? 17 · Improving Climate Predictions - Can

Bradley, Raymond S.

61

Climate Change Basics: Science, Adaptation, & Mitigation  

E-print Network

Climate Change Basics: Science, Adaptation, & Mitigation with a Family Forest Perspective Baylor Science Global atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide have increased are due primarily to fossil fuel use and land use change, while those of methane and nitrous oxide

Fox-Kemper, Baylor

62

Global Climate Change: Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explains how climate change affects everything from stratospheric temperatures to the golden toad of Costa Rica. Graphs, articles, and maps monitor humankind's impact on the planet. The site features five thumbnails including two maps showing Global Outgoing Longwave Heat Radiation, and Global Reflected Shortwave Solar Radiation and three graphs entitled Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Records from Mauna Loa, Hawaii (1958 - 2000), Global Average Near-Surface Temperatures - Monthly Anomalies (1961 - 2002), and Global Stratospheric and Tropospheric Temperature Anomalies (1979 - 2001). Each of these provides a link to a larger version of the visual and a detailed explanation. Each section has links to a glossary as well as links to questions about each section and additional references.

63

Global temperature change  

PubMed Central

Global surface temperature has increased ?0.2°C per decade in the past 30 years, similar to the warming rate predicted in the 1980s in initial global climate model simulations with transient greenhouse gas changes. Warming is larger in the Western Equatorial Pacific than in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific over the past century, and we suggest that the increased West–East temperature gradient may have increased the likelihood of strong El Niños, such as those of 1983 and 1998. Comparison of measured sea surface temperatures in the Western Pacific with paleoclimate data suggests that this critical ocean region, and probably the planet as a whole, is approximately as warm now as at the Holocene maximum and within ?1°C of the maximum temperature of the past million years. We conclude that global warming of more than ?1°C, relative to 2000, will constitute “dangerous” climate change as judged from likely effects on sea level and extermination of species. PMID:17001018

Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto; Lo, Ken; Lea, David W.; Medina-Elizade, Martin

2006-01-01

64

Global Change 2 Lectures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A list of lectures for the Global Change 2 course at the University of Michigan is featured on this site. Each lecture includes definitions and images that enhance the subject matter. Additionally, a self-test is available at the bottom of the page.

Michigan, University O.

65

Global Change 1 Lectures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the University of Michigan lists the lectures and labs for the Global Change 1 course. Each lecture includes definitions and images that enhance the subject matter, and a self-test is available at the bottom of the page.

Michigan, University O.

66

Funding for adaptation to climate change : the case of Surat  

E-print Network

The need for cities to adapt to climate change is widely acknowledged, yet the question of adaptation finance remains uncertain. Unable to access global climate funds, cities must seek out alternative sources to support ...

Patel, Toral

2014-01-01

67

MitigationAdaptation ForestsClimateChange.org  

E-print Network

Mitigation�Adaptation Synergies ForestsClimateChange.org Global Comparative Study on REDD+ Mitigation�Adaptation Synergies looks for ways to exploit the synergies between REDD+ and climate change adaptation, to ensure that REDD+ has an impact beyond mitigation and is sustainable in a changing climate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

68

Classifying climate change adaptation frameworks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex socio-ecological demographics are factors that must be considered when addressing adaptation to the potential effects of climate change. As such, a suite of deployable climate change adaptation frameworks is necessary. Multiple frameworks that are required to communicate the risks of climate change and facilitate adaptation. Three principal adaptation frameworks have emerged from the literature; Scenario - Led (SL), Vulnerability - Led (VL) and Decision - Centric (DC). This study aims to identify to what extent these adaptation frameworks; either, planned or deployed are used in a neighbourhood vulnerable to climate change. This work presents a criterion that may be used as a tool for identifying the hallmarks of adaptation frameworks and thus enabling categorisation of projects. The study focussed on the coastal zone surrounding the Sizewell nuclear power plant in Suffolk in the UK. An online survey was conducted identifying climate change adaptation projects operating in the study area. This inventory was analysed to identify the hallmarks of each adaptation project; Levels of dependency on climate model information, Metrics/units of analysis utilised, Level of demographic knowledge, Level of stakeholder engagement, Adaptation implementation strategies and Scale of adaptation implementation. The study found that climate change adaptation projects could be categorised, based on the hallmarks identified, in accordance with the published literature. As such, the criterion may be used to establish the matrix of adaptation frameworks present in a given area. A comprehensive summary of the nature of adaptation frameworks in operation in a locality provides a platform for further comparative analysis. Such analysis, enabled by the criterion, may aid the selection of appropriate frameworks enhancing the efficacy of climate change adaptation.

Armstrong, Jennifer

2014-05-01

69

Ecological effects of global change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mankind actually puts manifolds loads on our earth including stratospheric ozone depletion, rising freshwater use, changes of land cover and land use. For several of these threats, critical loads and thresholds may be already exceeded, e.g. nitrogen input, climate change and biodiversity loss (Röckström et al. 2009). The working group on Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability of the last IPCC report (AR4, 2007) concluded that anthropogenic warming over the last three decades has had a discernible influence on many physical and biological systems, thus global fingerprint of anthropogenic climate change was detectable on all continents and almost all ocean areas (Rosenzweig et al. 2007, 2008). 90% of the significant temperature related changes in 29000 records analysed were consistent with climate warming, e.g. in warming climates earlier spring events, distributional shifts pole wards and to higher altitudes, or community changes with reduced cold adapted species were observed. These impacts, already visible and only related to less than 1°C global warming, allow a limited glance at future changes and pressures on our ecosystems, as the rate of warming may accelerate and will be linked to stronger and more frequent extreme events. Vegetation is an important component of the climate system, part of biogeochemical cycles and the lower boundary of GCMs characterised by certain albedo and roughness. Thus, climate change impacts on vegetation exert feedbacks. The most striking and challenging problems in analysing climate change impacts on ecosystems are related to cases where one would expect major changes due to warming however there is reduced, limited or no reaction in the observed systems. This feature is known as divergence problem in tree ring research, called resilience in ecosystem dynamics or might be simply a time-lag or environmental monitoring problem. However, there are various other pressures by global change, e.g. land use change or pollution, leading to major changes in nature, which are not attributable to climate change and are dealt in these climate change impact assessments as ‘confounding factors’. Nevertheless, they have tremendous consequences for biodiversity, food security and human health.

Menzel, A.

2010-03-01

70

Global Environmental Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Global Environmental Change (GEC) posts three reports summarizing the findings of an Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) initiative, running from 1991 to 2000 whose original objective "was to bring social science expertise to bear on global environmental research and, at the same time, to take environmental concerns to the heart of the social sciences." The three reports focus on environmental decisionmaking, global governance, and sustainable production and consumption. Together, they constitute an unusually sustained and thoughtful consideration of how to make environmental decisions more thoughtfully and in line with consistent values and criteria. The reports are accessed through individual tables of contents that include a report summary and sidebar features for more detailed background on certain issues. In addition to these three main reports, the site features other documents, workshop and conference information, and research updates related to the GEC project.

71

Global Environmental Change: Deforestation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Washington State's Olympic Peninsula contains some of America's only old-growth forest. Its timber supports local, regional, and even global economies. It also supports many biological species and provides a link in biogeochemical cycling. How can these roles be balanced? Using the Olympic Peninsula as a case study, this book introduces students to basic scientific themes and equips them with tools to increase their understanding of deforestation. Hands-on classroom activities demonstrate how to integrate science with other disciplines to gather information, address problems, and make decisions. NSTA and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency created the Global Environmental Change Series so students can see how science works in today's world. Each volume links a global environmental topic directly to students' own experiences. The series covers topics ranging from biodiversity to population growth to solid waste management.

Agency, Environmental P.; Press, Nsta

1997-01-01

72

Understanding global health governance as a complex adaptive system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transition from international to global health reflects the rapid growth in the numbers and nature of stakeholders in health, as well as the constant change embodied in the process of globalisation itself. This paper argues that global health governance shares the characteristics of complex adaptive systems, with its multiple and diverse players, and their polyvalent and constantly evolving relationships,

Peter S. Hill

2010-01-01

73

Global Optimization by Adapted Diffusion  

E-print Network

In this paper, we study a diffusion stochastic dynamics with a general diffusion coefficient. The main result is that adapting the diffusion coefficient to the Hamiltonian allows to escape local wide minima and to speed ...

Poliannikov, Oleg V.

74

Local and global contrast adaptation in retinal ganglion cells.  

PubMed

Retinal ganglion cells react to changes in visual contrast by adjusting their sensitivity and temporal filtering characteristics. This contrast adaptation has primarily been studied under spatially homogeneous stimulation. Yet, ganglion cell receptive fields are often characterized by spatial subfields, providing a substrate for nonlinear spatial processing. This raises the question whether contrast adaptation follows a similar subfield structure or whether it occurs globally over the receptive field even for local stimulation. We therefore recorded ganglion cell activity in isolated salamander retinas while locally changing visual contrast. Ganglion cells showed primarily global adaptation characteristics, with notable exceptions in certain aspects of temporal filtering. Surprisingly, some changes in filtering were most pronounced for locations where contrast did not change. This seemingly paradoxical effect can be explained by a simple computational model, which emphasizes the importance of local nonlinearities in the retina and suggests a reevaluation of previously reported local contrast adaptation. PMID:23473321

Garvert, Mona M; Gollisch, Tim

2013-03-01

75

Transformational adaptation when incremental adaptations to climate change are insufficient  

E-print Network

Transformational adaptation when incremental adaptations to climate change are insufficient Robert to climate and its natural variation. Adaptation to human-induced change in climate has largely been adaptation may be difficult to implement because of uncertainties about climate change risks and adaptation

Colorado at Boulder, University of

76

Climate Adaptation Futures: Second International Climate Change Adaptation Conference 2012  

E-print Network

Climate Adaptation Futures: Second International Climate Change Adaptation Conference 2012 to climate change! May 29­May 31, 2012, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA Conference Web Site: http://www.adaptation.arizona.edu/adaptation, and by UNEP's Programme of Research on Climate Change Vulnerability, Impacts and Adaptation (PROVIA

Matthews, Adrian

77

Global Environmental Change: Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This book uses Costa Rica as a case study because the country's tropical forests contain four percent of Earth's total biological species diversity. Biodiversity's activities and readings help students explore efforts to balance economic expansion with resource conservation. This resource has activities to explore local biodiversity and true-to-life role-playing scenarios, so students can apply what they have learned. Biodiversity is one of four books in NSTA Press's Global Environmental Change series, a joint project of NSTA Press and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The other books in the series are Deforestation, Carrying Capacity, and Introduced Species.

Agency, Environmental P.; Press, Nsta

1997-01-01

78

Global change ecology.  

PubMed

Ecology has expanded from its traditional focus on organisms to include studies of the Earth as an integrated ecosystem. Aided by satellite technologies and computer models of the climate of the Earth, global change ecology now records basic parameters of our planet, including its net primary productivity, biogeochemical cycling and effects of humans on it. As I discuss here, this new perspective shows us what must be done to transform human behaviors to enable the persistence of life on Earth under human stewardship. PMID:16769436

Schlesinger, William H

2006-06-01

79

Global Distributions of Vulnerability to Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

Signatories of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have committed themselves to addressing the “specific needs and special circumstances of developing country parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change”.1 The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has since concluded with high confidence that “developing countries will be more vulnerable to climate change than developed countries”.2 In their most recent report, however, the IPCC notes that “current knowledge of adaptation and adaptive capacity is insufficient for reliable prediction of adaptations” 3 because “the capacity to adapt varies considerably among regions, countries and socioeconomic groups and will vary over time”.4 Here, we respond to the apparent contradiction in these two statements by exploring how variation in adaptive capacity and climate impacts combine to influence the global distribution of vulnerability. We find that all countries will be vulnerable to climate change, even if their adaptive capacities are enhanced. Developing nations are most vulnerable to modest climate change. Reducing greenhouse-gas emissions would diminish their vulnerabilities significantly. Developed countries would benefit most from mitigation for moderate climate change. Extreme climate change overwhelms the abilities of all countries to adapt. These findings should inform both ongoing negotiations for the next commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol and emerging plans for implementing UNFCCC-sponsored adaptation funds.

Yohe, Gary; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Brenkert, Antoinette L.; Schlesinger, Michael; Meij, Henk; Xiaoshi, Xing

2006-12-01

80

Beyond global warming: Ecology and global change  

SciTech Connect

While ecologists involved in management or policy often are advised to learn to deal with uncertainty, some components of global environmental change are certainly occurring and are certainly human-caused. All have important ecological consequences. Well-documented global changes include: Increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere; alterations in the biogeochemistry of the global nitrogen cycle; and ongoing land use/land cover change. Human activity - now primarily fossil fuel combustion - has increased carbon dioxide concentrations from [approximately] 280 to 355 [mu]L/L since 1800 and is likely to have climatic consequences and direct effects on biota in all terrestrial ecosystems. The global nitrogen cycle has been altered so that more nitrogen is fixed annually by humanity than by all natural pathways combined. Altering atmospheric chemistry and aquatic ecosystems, contributes to eutrophication of the biosphere, and has substantial regional effects on biological diversity. Finally, human land use/land cover change has transformed one-third to one-half of Earth's ice-free surface, representing the most important component of global change now. Any clear dichotomy between pristine ecosystems and human-altered areas that may have existed in the past has vanished, and ecological research should account for this reality. Certain components of global environmental change are the primary causes of anticipated changes in climate, and of ongoing losses of biological diversity. They are caused by the extraordinary growth in size and resource use of the human population. On a broad scale, there is little uncertainty about any of these components of change or their causes. However, much of the public believes the causes of global change to be uncertain and contentious. By speaking out effectively,the focus of public discussion towards what can and should be done about global environmental change can be shifted. 135 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

Vitousek, P.M. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

1994-10-01

81

Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change, and  

E-print Network

1 Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change Changes · Due to ­ Climate Change ­ Land Cover / Land Use Change ­ Interaction of Climate and Land Cover Change · Resolution ­ Space ­ Time Hydro-Climatic Change · Variability vs. Change (Trends) · Point data

82

FY 2002 GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

PRA Goal 6: Reducing Global and Transboundary Environmental Risks Objective 6.2: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Sub-Objective 6.2.3: Global Climate Change Research Activity F55 - Assessing the Consequences of Global Change on Ecosystem Health NRMRL R...

83

Global Governance, Educational Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the last half decade, a rising literature has focused on the idea that processes of economic, political and social globalization require analysis in terms of governance at the global level. It is argued in this article that emerging forms of global governance have produced significant challenges to conventional conceptions of international…

Mundy, Karen

2007-01-01

84

Global Climate Change Key Indicators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website charts measurement of key indicators of global climate change. Simple explanations and "What Does This Mean?" sections accompany each area of sea level, carbon dioxide concentration, global surface temperature, Arctic sea ice and land ice.

85

Bibliography of global change, 1992  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This bibliography lists 585 reports, articles, and other documents introduced in the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Database in 1992. The areas covered include global change, decision making, earth observation (from space), forecasting, global warming, policies, and trends.

1993-01-01

86

Mitigation needs adaptation: Tropical forestry and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between tropical forests and global climate change has so far focused on mitigation, while much less emphasis\\u000a has been placed on how management activities may help forest ecosystems adapt to this change. This paper discusses how tropical\\u000a forestry practices can contribute to maintaining or enhancing the adaptive capacity of natural and planted forests to global\\u000a climate change and

Manuel R. Guariguata; Jonathan P. Cornelius; Bruno Locatelli; Claudio Forner; G. Arturo Sánchez-Azofeifa

2008-01-01

87

Matching supply to demand: relating local structural adaptation to global function  

E-print Network

The heart and microvasculature have characteristics of a complex adaptive system. Extreme challenges faced by these organ systems cause structural changes which lead to global adaptation. To assess the impact of myocardial interstitial edema...

Desai, Ketaki Vimalchandra

2009-05-15

88

III International Climate Change Adaptation Adaptation Futures 2014  

E-print Network

1 III International Climate Change Adaptation Conference Adaptation Futures 2014 12-16 Maio 2014�o. A confer�ncia Adaptation Futures 2014 buscou atingir o sucesso da primeira confer�ncia Climate Adaptation PROVIA, a confer�ncia Adaptation Futures 2014 foi realizada em Fortaleza, Cear�, Brasil. Essa confer

89

US Global Change Research Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The homepage of the US Global Change Research Program offers a great deal of material about its research to understand, assess, and predict global change. Users can find links to the many governmental organizations participating in research about global carbon cycle, land use and land cover change, atmospheric composition, and other investigations on the interactions of natural and human-induced changes in the global environment. Visitors can learn how the organization is planning to address the phenomenon's potential impacts on the environment and society. The website offers numerous links to important new and archived online documents. Researchers can discover upcoming conferences and workshops.

90

Migration and Global Environmental Change  

E-print Network

conflict and security, the sustainability of communities, food supply, climate change mitigation degradation and the profound consequences of an increasing global population which is consuming ever more

91

Electric Vehicles Global Climate Change  

E-print Network

to global warming. The UKgovernment has just announced it is investing $1 billion in their developmentHot Topics Electric Vehicles Global Climate Change Green Building Hydraulic Fracturing Nuclear globally. These facilities will trap carbon emissions, which scientists believe maybe contributing

Sóbester, András

92

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation  

E-print Network

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Provincial Report #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry

Pedersen, Tom

93

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation  

E-print Network

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Provincial Report executive summary #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry

Pedersen, Tom

94

FAU CLIMATE CHANGE INITIATIVE PRIORITY THEME: RESEARCH, ENGINEERING, AND ADAPTATION TO A CHANGING CLIMATE  

E-print Network

FAU CLIMATE CHANGE INITIATIVE PRIORITY THEME: RESEARCH, ENGINEERING, AND ADAPTATION TO A CHANGING. Alvarez, J. Jolley, A. Edwards #12;RESEARCH, ENGINEERING, AND ADAPTATION TO A CHANGING CLIMATE TABLE CLIMATE "I am persuaded that global climate change is one of the most important issues that we will face

Fernandez, Eduardo

95

Human Rights, Globalization and Global Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let us think about the relationship between human rights and global climate change in terms of the idea that we live or our supposed to live within the framework of a single world economy and that economic progress involves the removal of all impediments to commercial exchange. Carla Hill, George H.W. Bush's US trade representative, spoke for this vision of

Rick Coughlin

96

AAAS - Global Climate Change Video  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video features residents of Shishmaref, Alaska, plus environmental journalist Elizabeth Kolbert and scientist John Holdren, exploring the human impacts of global climate change. The roles of teachers, scientists, policymakers, and concerned citizens in mitigating the changes are highlighted.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); Aaas

97

Analysis of trait mean and variability versus temperature in trematode cercariae: is there scope for adaptation to global warming?  

E-print Network

for adaptation to global warming? A. Studer , R. Poulin Department of Zoology, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56 t The potential of species for evolutionary adaptation in the context of global climate change has recently come

Poulin, Robert

98

Global Climate Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses recent changes in the Earth's climate. Summarizes reports on changes related to carbon dioxide, temperature, rain, sea level, and glaciers in polar areas. Describes the present effort to measure the changes. Lists 16 references. (YP)

Hall, Dorothy K.

1989-01-01

99

Space Observations for Global Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is now compelling evidence that man's activities are changing both the composition of the atmospheric and the global landscape quite drastically. The consequences of these changes on the global climate of the 21st century is currently a hotly debated subject. Global models of a coupled Earth-ocean-atmosphere system are still very primitive and progress in this area appears largely data limited, specially over the global biosphere. A concerted effort on monitoring biospheric functions on scales from pixels to global and days to decades needs to be coordinated on an international scale in order to address the questions related to global change. An international program of space observations and ground research was described.

Rasool, S. I.

1991-01-01

100

Climate Change Adaptation for Local Government  

E-print Network

Climate Change Adaptation for Local Government A Resource Guide June 2011 Jenny Fraser, Adaptation to Climate Change Team, Simon Fraser University #12;Page 1 of 26 Climate Change Adaptation for Local: RESOURCES THAT SUPPORT CLIMATE CHANGE ASSESSMENT 3. Past and Future Climate Change and Its Impacts 4

Pedersen, Tom

101

Evolutionary Adaptations to Dietary Changes  

PubMed Central

Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including humans) may shed light not only on the evolutionary history of our species, but also on the mechanisms that underlie common metabolic diseases in modern human populations. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the major dietary shifts that occurred during hominin evolution, and we discuss the methods and approaches used to identify signals of natural selection in patterns of sequence variation. We then review the results of studies aimed at detecting the genetic loci that played a major role in dietary adaptations and conclude by outlining the potential of future studies in this area. PMID:20420525

Luca, F.; Perry, G.H.; Di Rienzo, A.

2014-01-01

102

III International Climate Change Adaptation Adaptation Futures 2014  

E-print Network

1 III International Climate Change Adaptation Conference Adaptation Futures 2014 12-16 May 2014 of Research on Climate Change Vulnerability, Impacts and Adaptation (PROVIA), the Co and reports from the conference in newspapers 93 #12;4 1. INTRODUCTION Climate

103

Space sensors for global change  

SciTech Connect

Satellite measurements should contribute to a fuller understanding of the physical processes behind the radiation budget, exchange processes, and global change. Climate engineering requires global observation for early indications of predicted effects, which puts a premium on affordable, distributed constellations of satellites with effective, affordable sensors. Defense has a requirement for continuous global surveillance for warning of aggression, which could evolve from advanced sensors and satellites in development. Many climate engineering needs match those of defense technologies.

Canavan, G.H.

1994-02-15

104

Global temperature change James Hansen*  

E-print Network

Global temperature change James Hansen* , Makiko Sato* , Reto Ruedy*§ , Ken Lo*§ , David W. Lea; and ¶Department of Earth Science, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 Contributed by James Hansen to the warming rate predicted in the 1980s in initial global climate model simulations with transient greenhouse

105

A Survey of Climate Change Adaptation Planning  

E-print Network

A Survey of Climate Change Adaptation Planning THE H. JOHN HEINZ III CENTER FOR SCIENCE, ECONOMICS" "Cities Preparing for Climate Change: A Study of 6 Urban Regions" "Adapting to Climate Change and Climate Change: A Guidance Manual for Local Governments in New Zealand" "Climate Adaptation: Risk

Ford, Andrew

106

Global Climatic Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cites some of the evidence which suggests that the production of carbon dioxide and methane from human activities has begun to change the climate. Describes some measures which should be taken to stop or slow this progression. (RT)

Houghton, Richard A.; Woodwell, George M.

1989-01-01

107

Constraint to adaptive evolution in response to global warming.  

PubMed

We characterized the genetic architecture of three populations of a native North American prairie plant in field conditions that simulate the warmer and more arid climates predicted by global climate models. Despite genetic variance for traits under selection, among-trait genetic correlations that are antagonistic to the direction of selection limit adaptive evolution within these populations. Predicted rates of evolutionary response are much slower than the predicted rate of climate change. PMID:11588260

Etterson, J R; Shaw, R G

2001-10-01

108

Global climatic change  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the climatic effects of trace gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. It discusses the expected changes from the increases in trace gases and the extent to which the expected changes can be found in the climate record and in the retreat of glaciers. The use of ice cores in correlating atmospheric composition and climate is discussed. The response of terrestrial ecosystems as a biotic feedback is discussed. Possible responses are discussed, including reduction in fossil-fuel use, controls on deforestation, and reforestation. International aspects, such as the implications for developing nations, are addressed.

Houghton, R.A.; Woodwell, G.M.

1989-04-01

109

How can cities mitigate and adapt to climate change?  

E-print Network

Forum How can cities mitigate and adapt to climate change? Julian Hunt Departments of Space@cpom.ucl.ac.uk Climate change and cities Scientific research and many practical projects are showing that global climate change can be partially mitigated if the world's big cities sub- stantially reduce their environmental

Hunt, Julian

110

COMMUNITY ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE: AN EXPLORATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION PLANNING IN  

E-print Network

COMMUNITY ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE: AN EXPLORATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION PLANNING Columbia must adapt to climate change by preparing for expected and unexpected changes in their communities that planners do not have a high level of knowledge of climate change adaptation. Planners feel that the impacts

Pedersen, Tom

111

Forest Adaptation Resources: Climate Change Tools and  

E-print Network

Forest Adaptation Resources: Climate Change Tools and Approaches for Land Managers Northern. ABSTRACT #12;Forest Adaptation Resources: Climate Change Tools and Approaches for Land Managers Edited, cswanston@fs.fed.us Maria Janowiak is a climate change adaptation and carbon management scientist

112

Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) is an integrated assessment model that links the world's energy, agriculture and land use systems with a climate model. The model is designed to assess various climate change policies and technology strategies for the globe over long tim...

113

Global Change and Wilderness Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The breadth and scope of human-caused environmental change is well-established; the distribution and abundance of spe- cies, the vegetation cover of the land, and the chemistry of the atmosphere have been altered substantially and globally. How can science in wilderness areas contribute to the analysis of human- caused change? We use nitrate losses from forests to evaluate this question. Determining

Peter M. Vitousek; John D. Aber; Christine L. Goodale; Gregory H. Aplet

2000-01-01

114

Teaching about Global Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students are exposed to many different media reports about global climate change. Movies such as "The Day After Tomorrow" and "Ice Age" are examples of instances when movie producers have sought to capture the attention of audiences by augmenting the challenges that climate change poses. Students may receive information from a wide range of media…

Heffron, Susan Gallagher; Valmond, Kharra

2011-01-01

115

U.S. Global Change Research Information Office  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The US Global Change Research Information Office (GCRIO) provides access to data and information on climate change research, adaptation/mitigation strategies, and technologies, and global change-related educational resources." Users can learn about GCRIOâÂÂs success in predicting El Niño and La Niña events, reducing the uncertainty of rainfall events in the tropics, creating maps to record the uptake of carbon by the ocean, and more. Researchers, students, and educators can find help locating information and data about global environmental change by visiting Doctor Global Change. The website features upcoming climate-related events hosted across the United States.

116

Climate variability and climate change vulnerability and adaptation. Workshop summary  

SciTech Connect

Representatives from fifteen countries met in Prague, Czech Republic, on September 11-15, 1995, to share results from the analysis of vulnerability and adaptation to global climate change. The workshop focused on the issues of global climate change and its impacts on various sectors of a national economy. The U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which has been signed by more than 150 governments worldwide, calls on signatory parties to develop and communicate measures they are implementing to respond to global climate change. An analysis of a country`s vulnerability to changes in the climate helps it identify suitable adaptation measures. These analyses are designed to determine the extent of the impacts of global climate change on sensitive sectors such as agricultural crops, forests, grasslands and livestock, water resources, and coastal areas. Once it is determined how vulnerable a country may be to climate change, it is possible to identify adaptation measures for ameliorating some or all of the effects.The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: Provide an opportunity for countries to describe their study results; Encourage countries to learn from the experience of the more complete assessments and adjust their studies accordingly; Identify issues and analyses that require further investigation; and Summarize results and experiences for governmental and intergovernmental organizations.

Bhatti, N.; Cirillo, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Dixon, R.K. [U.S. Country Studies Program, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

117

Global Climate Change and Agriculture  

SciTech Connect

The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released in 2007 significantly increased our confidence about the role that humans play in forcing climate change. There is now a high degree of confidence that the (a) current atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) far exceed those of the pre-industrial era, (b) global increases in CO2 arise mainly from fossil fuel use and land use change while those of CH4 and N2O originate primarily from agricultural activities, and (c) the net effect of human activities since 1750 has led to a warming of the lower layers of the atmosphere, with an increased radiative forcing of 1.6 W m-2. Depending on the scenario of human population growth and global development, mean global temperatures could rise between 1.8 and 4.0 °C by the end of the 21st century.

Izaurralde, Roberto C.

2009-01-01

118

Global change: Acronyms and abbreviations  

SciTech Connect

This list of acronyms and abbreviations is compiled to provide the user with a ready reference to dicipher the linguistic initialisms and abridgements for the study of global change. The terms included in this first edition were selected from a wide variety of sources: technical reports, policy documents, global change program announcements, newsletters, and other periodicals. The disciplinary interests covered by this document include agriculture, atmospheric science, ecology, environmental science, oceanography, policy science, and other fields. In addition to its availability in hard copy, the list of acronyms and abbreviations is available in DOS-formatted diskettes and through CDIAC`s anonymous File Transfer Protocol (FTP) area on the Internet.

Woodard, C.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Stoss, F.W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center

1995-05-01

119

Teaching About Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Association of American Geographers (AAG) presents free, online professional development modules for geography and social studies teachers at middle and high school levels who are preparing to teach about global climate change. The modules provide information and materials including assessments, overview of the Earth system science, frequently asked questions about global climate change, examples of how to address common student misconceptions and an interactive resource library that delivers a resource list to your e-mail inbox. Free registration is required to access the complete materials and resources.

120

Global climate change: The USAID response. A report to congress  

SciTech Connect

USAID`s new Global Climate Change Strategy (GCCS) is designed to support the fundamental objectives of the FCCC as stated above. The goal of the GCCS is: To contribute to global efforts to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations and to assist countries to adapt to the adverse effects of climate change, while maintaining economic growth in developing and post-communist countries. The report will concentrate on USAID`s global greenhouse gas assessment and mitigation program. Mitigation methods, particularly in the energy sector, are generally applicable throughout the world, and therefore it is possible to address this dimension of the climate change problem on a global climate change basis.

NONE

1994-06-01

121

Global Climate Change Briefing Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents general resources and legislative issues related to global climate change. The site includes greenhouse gas sources, trends and effects on the environment, the text of the Kyoto Protocol, and a glossary with acronyms. Other topics such as legal, economic and energy issues are also covered, and links to the latest updates on climate change from the White House and the National Academy of Sciences are found here.

Service, Congressional R.; Environment, National C.

122

Global Change Education Resource Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended as an aid to educators who conduct programs and activities on climate and global change issues for a variety of audiences. The selected set of currently available materials are appropriate for both formal and informal programs in environmental education and can help frame and clarify some of the key issues associated with…

Mortensen, Lynn L., Ed.

123

Global climate change: the quantifiable sustainability challenge.  

PubMed

Population growth and the pressures spawned by increasing demands for energy and resource-intensive goods, foods, and services are driving unsustainable growth in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Recent GHG emission trends are consistent with worst-case scenarios of the previous decade. Dramatic and near-term emission reductions likely will be needed to ameliorate the potential deleterious impacts of climate change. To achieve such reductions, fundamental changes are required in the way that energy is generated and used. New technologies must be developed and deployed at a rapid rate. Advances in carbon capture and storage, renewable, nuclear and transportation technologies are particularly important; however, global research and development efforts related to these technologies currently appear to fall short relative to needs. Even with a proactive and international mitigation effort, humanity will need to adapt to climate change, but the adaptation needs and damages will be far greater if mitigation activities are not pursued in earnest. In this review, research is highlighted that indicates increasing global and regional temperatures and ties climate changes to increasing GHG emissions. GHG mitigation targets necessary for limiting future global temperature increases are discussed, including how factors such as population growth and the growing energy intensity of the developing world will make these reduction targets more challenging. Potential technological pathways for meeting emission reduction targets are examined, barriers are discussed, and global and US. modeling results are presented that suggest that the necessary pathways will require radically transformed electric and mobile sectors. While geoengineering options have been proposed to allow more time for serious emission reductions, these measures are at the conceptual stage with many unanswered cost, environmental, and political issues. Implications: This paper lays out the case that mitigating the potential for catastrophic climate change will be a monumental challenge, requiring the global community to transform its energy system in an aggressive, coordinated, and timely manner. If this challenge is to be met, new technologies will have to be developed and deployed at a rapid rate. Advances in carbon capture and storage, renewable, nuclear, and transportation technologies are particularly important. Even with an aggressive international mitigation effort, humanity will still need to adapt to significant climate change. PMID:25282995

Princiotta, Frank T; Loughlin, Daniel H

2014-09-01

124

Global Climate Change: Evidence and Causes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This “clicker case” begins by assessing students’ impressions of global climate change and the role that human activities play in recent global warming trends. Students assume the role of an intern working for a U.S. senator. They need to understand the scientific evidence for human impact on climate change so that they can advise the senator on future policy decisions. The case was designed for use in a one-semester introductory biology course taken primarily by freshmen and sophomores to fulfill a general education requirement, but could be used in any introductory biology course or in an ecology or environmental science course. It consists of a PowerPoint presentation (~1.6MB) presented in class that is punctuated by multiple-choice questions students respond to using personal response systems (“clickers”). The case can be adapted for use without these technologies.

Knabb, Maureen; Lutz, Timothy M.; Fairchild, G. W.

2010-01-01

125

Global Climate Change: Impact and Remediation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This "clicker case" is a continuation of another case study "Global Climate Change: Evidence and Causes". Students assume the role of an intern working for a U.S. senator to learn about the effects of global climate change as well as technologies and practices available to remediate the impact of climate effects. The case was designed for use in a one-semester introductory biology course taken primarily by freshmen and sophomores to fulfill a general education requirement, but could be used in any introductory biology course or in an ecology or environmental science course. It consists of a PowerPoint presentation (2.2MB) presented in class that is punctuated by multiple-choice questions students respond to using personal responses systems, or "clickers." The case can be adapted for use without these technologies.

Knabb, Maureen; Lutz, Timothy

126

Global Climate Change Pilot Course Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In fall 2011 a pilot course on "Global Climate Change" is being offered, which has been proposed to educate urban, diverse, undergraduate students about climate change at the introductory level. The course has been approved to fulfill two general college requirements, a natural sciences requirement that focuses on the scientific method, as well as a global diversity requirement. This course presents the science behind global climate change from an Earth systems and atmospheric science perspective. These concepts then provide the basis to explore the effect of global warming on regions throughout the world. Climate change has been taught as a sub-topic in other courses in the past solely using scientific concepts, with little success in altering the climate change misconceptions of the students. This pilot course will see if new, innovative projects described below can make more of an impact on the students' views of climate change. Results of the successes or failures of these projects will be reported, as well as results of a pre- and post-course questionnaire on climate change given to students taking the course. Students in the class will pair off and choose a global region or country that they will research, write papers on, and then represent in four class discussions spaced throughout the semester. The first report will include details on the current climate of their region and how the climate shapes that region's society and culture. The second report will discuss how that region is contributing to climate change and/or sequestering greenhouse gases. Thirdly, students will discuss observed and predicted changes in that region's climate and what impact it has had, and could have, on their society. Lastly, students will report on what role their region has played in mitigating climate change, any policies their region may have implemented, and how their region can or cannot adapt to future climate changes. They will also try to get a feel for the region's attitude towards climate change science, policy, and the stances taken by other regions on climate change. The professor will provide a model of integrative research using the U.S. as a focus, and on discussion days, prompt a sort of United Nations discussion on each of these topics with the intention of having the students look at climate change from a different point of view that contrasts their current U.S.-centric view, as well as realize the interdependence of regions particularly in regards to climate change.

Schuenemann, K. C.; Wagner, R.

2011-12-01

127

Fisheries and Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When populations of harvestable fish start to decline, managers look for explanations of the changes throughout the Earth system. In this activity, the impact of global climate change on marine and Great Lakes fish is considered. First, decline in the striped bass population of the North Atlantic, noted in the Downeaster Alexa song by Billy Joel, is examined with spreadsheet analysis and on-line searches of National Marine Fisheries Service databases. In a second investigation, ArcView generates a model of the Lake Erie depths that could be associated with global climate change (shallower water). Students identify fish species that use nearshore shallows for spawning and nursery areas, and speculate on the impact of the lower water. In both activities, the thermal niche of the species is considered as a factor in where fish populations may migrate with new climate regimes.

Fortner, Rosanne; Merry, Carolyn

2008-04-08

128

Global Environmental Change: Introduced Species  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Human activity has introduced species to ecosystems around the globe. Some species are benign or even beneficial; others, like zebra mussels, fire ants, and water hyacinths, are causing native species extinctions and damage to human systems. Can we balance human systems with natural processes? Seven activities--using pillbugs, the school grounds, species dispersal maps, and introductory genetics--provide students with the skills they need to address this important global question. Introduced Species is one of four books in NSTA Press's Global Environmental Change series, a joint project of NSTA Press and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The other books in the series are Deforestation, Biodiversity, and Carrying Capacity.

Agency, Environmental P.; Press, Nsta

1998-01-01

129

Global Climate Change: Why Understanding the Scientific Enterprise Matters  

E-print Network

Global Climate Change: Why Understanding the Scientific Enterprise Matters Ellen MosleyPolar/ByrdPolarhttp://bprc.osu.edu/ Understanding Climate Change Risks and Identifying Opportunities for Mitigation & Adaptation in Ohio Ohio State University, May 15, 2014 #12;Key Points Earth's climate is changing - the world is warming ­ that debate

Howat, Ian M.

130

Integrating climate change adaptation into forest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future climate change will affect society's ability to use forest resources. We take account of climate in forest management and this will help us adapt to the effects of climate change on forests. However, society will have to adjust to how forests adapt by changing expectations for the use of forest resources because management can only influence the timing and

David L. Spittlehouse

2005-01-01

131

Outreach and Adaptive Strategies for Climate Change  

E-print Network

Outreach and Adaptive Strategies for Climate Change: The Role of NOAA Sea Grant Extension years and generations about how to adapt to a changing climate. Effective preparation for possible effects of climate change includes engagement of resource managers, planners, public works officials

132

Climate change adaptation in the ski industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regardless of the success of climate change mitigation efforts, the international community has concluded that societies around\\u000a the world will need to adapt to some magnitude of climate change in the 21st century. While some economic sectors (e.g., agriculture,\\u000a water resources and construction) have been actively engaged in climate change adaptation research for years, adaptation has\\u000a received scant consideration within

Daniel Scott; Geoff McBoyle

2007-01-01

133

Line orientation adaptation: local or global?  

PubMed

Prolonged exposure to an oriented line shifts the perceived orientation of a subsequently observed line in the opposite direction, a phenomenon known as the tilt aftereffect (TAE). Here we consider whether the TAE for line stimuli is mediated by a mechanism that integrates the local parts of the line into a single global entity prior to the site of adaptation, or the result of the sum of local TAEs acting separately on the parts of the line. To test between these two alternatives we used the fact the TAE transfers almost completely across luminance contrast polarity [1]. We measured the TAE using adaptor and test lines that (1) either alternated in luminance polarity or were of a single polarity, and (2) either alternated in local orientation or were of a single orientation. We reasoned that if the TAE was agnostic to luminance polarity and was parts-based, we should obtain large TAEs using alternating-polarity adaptors with single-polarity tests. However we found that (i) TAEs using one-alternating-polarity adaptors with all-white tests were relatively small, increased slightly for two-alternating-polarity adaptors, and were largest with all-white or all-black adaptors. (ii) however TAEs were relatively large when the test was one-alternating polarity, irrespective of the adaptor type. (iii) The results with orientation closely mirrored those obtained with polarity with the difference that the TAE transfer across orthogonal orientations was weak. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the TAE for lines is mediated by a global shape mechanism that integrates the parts of lines into whole prior to the site of orientation adaptation. The asymmetry in the magnitude of TAE depending on whether the alternating-polarity lines was the adaptor or test can be explained by an imbalance in the population of neurons sensitive to 1(st)-and 2(nd)-order lines, with the 2(nd)-order lines being encoded by a subset of the mechanisms sensitive to 1(st)-order lines. PMID:24023677

Gheorghiu, Elena; Bell, Jason; Kingdom, Frederick A A

2013-01-01

134

Line Orientation Adaptation: Local or Global?  

PubMed Central

Prolonged exposure to an oriented line shifts the perceived orientation of a subsequently observed line in the opposite direction, a phenomenon known as the tilt aftereffect (TAE). Here we consider whether the TAE for line stimuli is mediated by a mechanism that integrates the local parts of the line into a single global entity prior to the site of adaptation, or the result of the sum of local TAEs acting separately on the parts of the line. To test between these two alternatives we used the fact the TAE transfers almost completely across luminance contrast polarity [1]. We measured the TAE using adaptor and test lines that (1) either alternated in luminance polarity or were of a single polarity, and (2) either alternated in local orientation or were of a single orientation. We reasoned that if the TAE was agnostic to luminance polarity and was parts-based, we should obtain large TAEs using alternating-polarity adaptors with single-polarity tests. However we found that (i) TAEs using one-alternating-polarity adaptors with all-white tests were relatively small, increased slightly for two-alternating-polarity adaptors, and were largest with all-white or all-black adaptors. (ii) however TAEs were relatively large when the test was one-alternating polarity, irrespective of the adaptor type. (iii) The results with orientation closely mirrored those obtained with polarity with the difference that the TAE transfer across orthogonal orientations was weak. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the TAE for lines is mediated by a global shape mechanism that integrates the parts of lines into whole prior to the site of orientation adaptation. The asymmetry in the magnitude of TAE depending on whether the alternating-polarity lines was the adaptor or test can be explained by an imbalance in the population of neurons sensitive to 1st-and 2nd-order lines, with the 2nd-order lines being encoded by a subset of the mechanisms sensitive to 1st-order lines. PMID:24023677

Gheorghiu, Elena; Bell, Jason; Kingdom, Frederick A. A.

2013-01-01

135

Global Change: Options for Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter summarizes the main messages discussed in this volume on global changes affecting water and food security, draws\\u000a conclusions, and identifies areas for future research and policy reform to help ensure water and food security now and in\\u000a the future. The chapter attempts to provide partial answers to the key questions posed at the beginning of the volume. It

Claudia Ringler; Asit Biswas; Sarah A. Cline

136

Urban climate resilience : a global assessment of city adaptation plans  

E-print Network

As policy makers accept climate change as an irrefutable threat, adaptation planning has emerged as a necessary action for countries, states, and municipalities. This thesis explores adaptive responses to climate change ...

Katich, Kristina Noel

2009-01-01

137

Biotic Response to Global Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From Cretaceous times to the present, the Earth's climate changed from a very warm, "greenhouse" phase with no ice sheets to the "ice-house" world of today. In this book over forty specialists investigate the many ways that life has reacted to the global environmental changes that have taken place during this period. Coverage details a wide spectrum of animal, plant, and protistan life, with the focus on aspects such as extinctions, diversity, and biogeography. This volume will be an invaluable reference for researchers and graduate students in paleontology, geology, biology, oceanography and climatology.

Culver, Stephen J.; Rawson, Peter F.

2000-07-01

138

Global Climate Change Policy Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website summarizes the current administration's approach to global climate change, including the President's Program of Domestic and International Initiatives. These include a national goal to reduce emissions growth by 18 percent in the next ten years, substantially improve the emission reduction registry, protect and provide transferable credits for emissions reduction, increase funding for America's commitment to climate change, take action on the Science and Technology Review and a range of international climate initiatives. Descriptions of these programs, as well as their costs, are included.

House, The W.

139

Earth's Climate and Global Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on the way climate affects our world. Global climate, regional climate, and climate change are all explained. There is an important section on what controls climate change, like the sun, volcanic eruptions, greenhouse gases, snow, and ice. there is a module called Energy Choices and Climate Change that provides a new way to look at issues related to energy and climate change. In the scenarios within this module, you will be able to make decisions about the types and amount of energy used and see what effect your decisions have on the amount of greenhouse gases emitted to the atmosphere. Your goal is to reduce the amount of warming greenhouse gases added to the atmosphere from fossil fuel emissions while keeping costs within reason.

2004-05-11

140

Climate Change Adaptation as a Social Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Research on the impacts of climate change suggests that developed countries are not immune to the effects of a changing climate.\\u000a The assumption that because of their high adaptive capacity, developed countries will adapt effectively is beginning to be\\u000a dispelled by empirical evidence. While advancements in projections have facilitated a move from the study of impacts to concrete\\u000a adaptation strategies,

Johanna Wolf

141

RISKS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Adaptation is an important approach for protecting human health, ecosystems, and economic systems from the risks posed by climate variability and change, and to exploit beneficial opportunities provided by a changing climate. This paper presents nine fundamental principles that ...

142

Enhancing Decision Support For Climate Adaptation At Sub-Regional To Local Scales Through Collaborative And Interdisciplinary Global Change Research And Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The science needed to inform society's response to global environmental change is increasingly demanded at sub-regional to local scales, placing a greater burden on the science community to respond to a wide variety of information needs. Oftentimes, communication barriers prevent even the basic articulation of information needs between the user and science research communities, and furthermore there is frequently a mismatch between available scientific talent within a sub region and the scientific resources demanded to respond appropriately to user inquiries. As a result, innovative approaches to the delivery of scientific information in response to user interests and needs at sub-regional to local levels is required. Here, the authors highlight lessons of three examples of delivering usable scientific information within a mountain watershed on questions relating to 1) local biomass energy production; 2) stream and forest health; and 3) watershed scale climate impacts assessment. We report that common elements to the success of these efforts include a) building relationships with both a broad range of disciplines within the science community as well as a wide range of stakeholder groups locally, b) collecting and translating existing monitoring data and filling monitoring gaps, c) gathering interdisciplinary teams to help answer difficult local scale questions not previously treated in literature, and d) communicating results through mechanisms such as stakeholder collaboratives, community forums, and innovative education and outreach products. We find that these components help communities at local to sub-regional scales identify vulnerabilities and adapative strategies.

Arnott, J. C.; Katzenberger, J.

2012-12-01

143

A Global Pattern of Thermal Adaptation in Marine Phytoplankton  

E-print Network

given predictions of global warming (11). We estimated these traits from >5000 growth rate measurementsA Global Pattern of Thermal Adaptation in Marine Phytoplankton Mridul K. Thomas,1,2 * Colin T the productivity and composition of marine phytoplankton communities, thereby affecting global biogeochemical

144

Global Climate Change Earth, 1972, Apollo 17,  

E-print Network

that there is a discernible human influence on global climate." December 1995. #12;Ecological Consequences of Past Change #12Global Climate Change Earth, 1972, Apollo 17, 29,000 km into space. #12;Natural Variation the paleo record of the earth. Global Change Impacts 2009. #12;Has Climate Changed as Predicted? #12;Mc

Hansen, Andrew J.

145

Understanding Climate Change: The Global Carbon  

E-print Network

­ convenient? Temperature Changes #12;Global Warming Past + Present (From: Mann and Kump, 2009) During the pastUnderstanding Climate Change: The Global Carbon Budget and Ocean Chemistry Talk Overview - Climate Change Basics - CO2 and Temperature Relationship - Global C Budget - High Latitude Climate Change - Ocean

Parker, Matthew D. Brown

146

Global change monitoring with lichens  

SciTech Connect

Environmental monitoring involves observations and assessment of changes in ecosystems and their components caused by anthropogenetic influence. An ideal monitoring system enables quantification of the contemporary state of the environment and detect changes in it. An important function of monitoring is to assess environment quality of areas that are not affected by local anthropogenic impacts, i.e. background areas. In background areas terrestrial ecosystems are mainly affected by such anthropogenic factors as lowered air pollution and global climate change. Assessment of biotic responses to altered climatic and atmospheric conditions provides an important basis for ecosystem management and environmental decision making. Without the ability to make such assessment, sustainability of ecosystems as a support system for humans remains uncertain.

Insarov, G. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Mizpe Ramon (Israel)

1997-12-31

147

Modelling global multi-conjugated adaptive optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recently proposed concept of Global MCAO (GMCAO) aims to look for Natural Guide Stars in a very wide technical Field of View (FoV), to increase the overall sky coverage, and deals with the consequent depth of focus reduction introducing numerically a quite-high number of Virtual Deformable Mirrors (VDMs), which are then the starting point for an optimization of the real DMs shapes for the correction of the -smaller- scientific FoV. To translate the GMCAO concept into a real system, a number of parameters requires to be analyzed and optimized, like the number of references and VDMs to be used, the technical FoV size, the spatial samplings, the sensing wavelength. These and some other major choices, like the open loop WFSs concept and design, will then drive the requirements and the performance of the system (e.g. limiting magnitude, linear response, and sensitivity). This paper collects some major results of the on-going study on the feasibility of an Adaptive Optics system for the E-ELT, based on GMCAO, with a particular emphasis on the sky coverage issue. Besides the sensitivity analysis of the optimization of the already mentioned parameters, such a topic involves the implementation of an IDL code simulation tool to estimate the system performance in terms of Strehl Ratio in a 2×2 arcmin FoV, when a variable number of NGSs and VDMs are used. Different technical FoV diameters for the references selection and various constellations can be also compared. This study could be the starting point for a dedicated laboratory testing and, in the future, an on-sky experiment at an 8m telescope with a "scaled down" demonstrator.

Viotto, Valentina; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Magrin, Demetrio; Bergomi, Maria; Dima, Marco; Farinato, Jacopo; Marafatto, Luca; Greggio, Davide

2014-08-01

148

The role of China in combating global climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is the world's second largest CO2 emitter behind the U.S. To what extent China gets involved in combating global climate change is extremely important both for lowering compliance costs of climate mitigation and adaptation and for moving international climate negotiations forward. This explains why the role of China is an issue of perennial concern at the international climate change

ZhongXiang Zhang

1999-01-01

149

Adaptation to climate change in the Ontario public health sector  

PubMed Central

Background Climate change is among the major challenges for health this century, and adaptation to manage adverse health outcomes will be unavoidable. The risks in Ontario – Canada’s most populous province – include increasing temperatures, more frequent and intense extreme weather events, and alterations to precipitation regimes. Socio-economic-demographic patterns could magnify the implications climate change has for Ontario, including the presence of rapidly growing vulnerable populations, exacerbation of warming trends by heat-islands in large urban areas, and connectedness to global transportation networks. This study examines climate change adaptation in the public health sector in Ontario using information from interviews with government officials. Methods Fifty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted, four with provincial and federal health officials and 49 with actors in public health and health relevant sectors at the municipal level. We identify adaptation efforts, barriers and opportunities for current and future intervention. Results Results indicate recognition that climate change will affect the health of Ontarians. Health officials are concerned about how a changing climate could exacerbate existing health issues or create new health burdens, specifically extreme heat (71%), severe weather (68%) and poor air-quality (57%). Adaptation is currently taking the form of mainstreaming climate change into existing public health programs. While adaptive progress has relied on local leadership, federal support, political will, and inter-agency efforts, a lack of resources constrains the sustainability of long-term adaptation programs and the acquisition of data necessary to support effective policies. Conclusions This study provides a snapshot of climate change adaptation and needs in the public health sector in Ontario. Public health departments will need to capitalize on opportunities to integrate climate change into policies and programs, while higher levels of government must improve efforts to support local adaptation and provide the capacity through which local adaptation can succeed. PMID:22712716

2012-01-01

150

Adapting to Climate Change: Research Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability Community Coordination; Boulder, Colorado, 8-9 January 2009; In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) reaffirmed that anthropogenic climate change is under way, that future climate change is unavoidable, and that observed impacts can be attributed, at least in part, to anthropogenic warming. In addition, a growing number of

Jean Palutikof; Patricia Romero-Lankao

2009-01-01

151

Our Changing Climate 2012 Vulnerability & Adaptation  

E-print Network

understanding of climate change. A solid body of vital data is available to assist state and local leadersOur Changing Climate 2012 Vulnerability & Adaptation to the Increasing Risks from Climate Change in California A Summary Report on the Third Assessment from the California Climate Change Center #12;1 OUR

152

Integrating Fine-Grained Application Adaptation with Global Adaptation for Saving Energy  

E-print Network

one application in the system [25] or only a sin- gle adaptive layer [8]. To balance the conflict. These algorithms must balance the conflicting demands of adapta- tion scope and frequency. On one handIntegrating Fine-Grained Application Adaptation with Global Adaptation for Saving Energy Vibhore

Kravets, Robin

153

Agricultural adaptation of climate change in China.  

PubMed

This paper presents the study on agriculture adaptation to climate change by adopting the assumed land use change strategy to resist the water shortage and to build the capacity to adapt the expected climate change in the northern China. The cost-benefit analysis result shows that assumed land use change from high water consuming rice cultivation to other crops is very effective. Over 7 billions m3 of water can be saved. Potential conflicts between different social interest groups, different regions, demand and supply, and present and future interests have been analyzed for to form a policy to implement the adaptation strategy. Trade, usually taken as one of adaptation strategies, was suggested as a policy option for to support land use change, which not only meets the consumption demand, but also, in terms of resources, imports water resources. PMID:11590741

You, S C

2001-04-01

154

Organizational Adaptation: Managing in Complexly Changing Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model of strategic adaptation that focuses on how organizations adapt to both conditions of growth and decline is presented. The theoretical structure underlying the model is considered, with attention to organizations, niches, and environments, as well as environmental change and evolving niches. The model attempts to reconcile the perspectives…

Zammuto, Raymond F.

155

Adapting to climate change in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differences between mitigation and adaptation strategies are explained in terms of their environmental, institutional and political significance and linkages. The potential climate changes for Canada's different regions are presented and discussed for their overall and specific built environment impacts. Current national strategies and polices related to adaptation are still in a formative stage, but they recognize that responding to

Nils Larsson

2003-01-01

156

Institutional dynamics and climate change adaptation in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is a multi-dimensional issue and in terms of adaptation numerous state and non-state actors are involved from\\u000a global to national and local scales. The aim of this paper is first to analyse specific institutional networks involved in\\u000a climate change predominantly at the national level in South Africa and second to determine how different stakeholders perceive\\u000a their role vis-a-vis

Ingrid Christine Koch; Coleen Vogel; Zarina Patel

2007-01-01

157

Climate change and health: impacts, vulnerability, adaptation and mitigation.  

PubMed

Global climate change is progressing and health impacts have been observed in a number of countries, including Australia. The main health impacts will be due to direct heat exposure, extreme weather, air pollution, reduced local food production, food- and vectorborne infectious diseases and mental stress. The issue is one of major public health importance. Adaptation to reduce the effects of climate change involves many different sectors to minimise negative health outcomes. Wide-scale mitigation is also required, in order to reduce the effects of climate change. In addition, future urban design must be modified to mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate change. Strategies for mitigation and adaptation can create co-benefits for both individual and community health, by reducing non-climate-related health hazard exposures and by encouraging health promoting behaviours and lifestyles. PMID:19261209

Kjellstrom, Tord; Weaver, Haylee J

2009-01-01

158

Global climate change and children's health.  

PubMed

There is broad scientific consensus that Earth's climate is warming rapidly and at an accelerating rate. Human activities, primarily the burning of fossil fuels, are very likely (>90% probability) to be the main cause of this warming. Climate-sensitive changes in ecosystems are already being observed, and fundamental, potentially irreversible, ecological changes may occur in the coming decades. Conservative environmental estimates of the impact of climate changes that are already in process indicate that they will result in numerous health effects to children. The nature and extent of these changes will be greatly affected by actions taken or not taken now at the global level. Physicians have written on the projected effects of climate change on public health, but little has been written specifically on anticipated effects of climate change on children's health. Children represent a particularly vulnerable group that is likely to suffer disproportionately from both direct and indirect adverse health effects of climate change. Pediatric health care professionals should understand these threats, anticipate their effects on children's health, and participate as children's advocates for strong mitigation and adaptation strategies now. Any solutions that address climate change must be developed within the context of overall sustainability (the use of resources by the current generation to meet current needs while ensuring that future generations will be able to meet their needs). Pediatric health care professionals can be leaders in a move away from a traditional focus on disease prevention to a broad, integrated focus on sustainability as synonymous with health. This policy statement is supported by a technical report that examines in some depth the nature of the problem of climate change, likely effects on children's health as a result of climate change, and the critical importance of responding promptly and aggressively to reduce activities that are contributing to this change. PMID:17967923

Shea, Katherine M

2007-11-01

159

Adaptive prediction of environmental changes by microorganisms  

E-print Network

ARTICLES Adaptive prediction of environmental changes by microorganisms Amir Mitchell1 , Gal H,4 * Natural habitats of some microorganisms may fluctuate erratically, whereas others, which are more to classical Pavlovian conditioning, microorganisms may have evolved to anticipate environmental stimuli

Pilpel, Yitzhak

160

CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATIONS FOR LOCAL WATER MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATIONS FOR LOCAL WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC Climate change will affect both sea level and the temporal and spatial distribution of runoff

161

Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change (2006) 11: 377401 C Springer 2006 DOI: 10.1007/s11027-005-9005-6  

E-print Network

storage of fluids in the subsurface. CO2 can be stored in the subsurface using settings of: (A) thick, Spectrum of Cycles The climate of Earth has changed continually during geological time. Cycles of warming #12;378 R.S. HASZELDINE Figure 1. Spectrum of temperature change through geological timescales. Change

Haszeldine, Stuart

162

Adaptation to Global Warming: Do Climate Models Tell Us What We Need to Know? Author(s): Naomi Oreskes, David A. Stainforth, Leonard A. Smith  

E-print Network

Adaptation to Global Warming: Do Climate Models Tell Us What We Need to Know? Author(s): Naomi. All rights reserved. 1012 Adaptation to Global Warming: Do Climate Models Tell Us What We Need to Know) for a synthesis of three Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) working groups. #12;ADAPTATION TO GLOBAL

Stevenson, Paul

163

GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The production of greenhouse gases due to anthropogenic activities may have begun to change the global climate. he global carbon cycle plays a significant role in projected climate change. owever, considerable uncertainty exists regarding pools and flux in the global cycle. iven ...

164

Global Climate Change: Impact and Remediation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This “clicker case” is a continuation of another case in our collection, “Global Climate Change: Evidence and Causes,” in which students assumed the role of an intern working for a U.S. senator so that they could advise the senator on future policy decisions. In this case, students learn about the impact and effects of global climate change as well as technologies and practices available to remediate the impact of climate effects. The case was designed for use in a one-semester introductory biology course taken primarily by freshmen and sophomores to fulfill a general education requirement, but could be used in any introductory biology course or in an ecology or environmental science course. It consists of a PowerPoint presentation (~2.2MB) presented in class that is punctuated by multiple-choice questions students respond to using personal response systems, or “clickers.”  The case can be adapted for use without these technologies.

Knabb, Maureen; Lutz, Timothy M.

2010-01-01

165

Global Adaptive Request Distribution with Broker  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the application of fuzzy logic and neural networks to HTTP request dispatching performed within a geographically\\u000a distributed Web system. Web sites serve as a global content delivery system where each Web server can respond to the client\\u000a request. We propose broker-based system architecture with a global request dispatching algorithm called GARDiB. The algorithm\\u000a uses the fuzzy-neural decision-making

Leszek Borzemski; Anna Zatwarnicka; Krzysztof Zatwarnicki

2007-01-01

166

U.S. Global Change Research Program National Climate Assessment Global Change Information System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The program: a) Coordinates Federal research to better understand and prepare the nation for global change. b) Priori4zes and supports cutting edge scientific work in global change. c) Assesses the state of scientific knowledge and the Nation s readiness to respond to global change. d) Communicates research findings to inform, educate, and engage the global community.

Tilmes, Curt

2012-01-01

167

Beyond Brainstorming: Exploring Climate Change Adaptation Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate Change Adaptation for Water Managers; Oracle, Arizona, 4-5 February 2008; The most visible manifestation of climate change in the American Southwest is its effects on water resources. Since 1999, the region's water supplies and major rivers have been tested by burgeoning population growth and drought. Model projections suggest increasing drought severity and duration due to rising temperatures, increased evapotranspiration,

Gregg Garfin; Katharine Jacobs; James Buizer

2008-01-01

168

SIMULATING STRUCTURAL CHANGE IN ADAPTIVE ORGANIZATIONS  

E-print Network

. Addition- ally, when the quality of items is changed, agents can quickly select the better new knowledgeSIMULATING STRUCTURAL CHANGE IN ADAPTIVE ORGANIZATIONS OSWALDO TERA´ N Centro de Simulacioon y Tecnoloogico de Ejido, Ejido, Me´rida, Venezuela This paper presents an agent-based model of an organization

Alfonseca, Manuel

169

VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN  

E-print Network

VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURE A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012031 Commissioner), Chuck Dudley (President of the Yolo County Farm Bureau), John MottSmith (Yolo County Climate

170

Adaptive mesh generation for global diffuse illumination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid developments in the design of algorithms for rendering globally illuminated scenes have taken place in the past five years. Net energy methods such as the hemicube and other radiosity algorithms have become very effective at computing the energy balance for scenes containing diffusely reflecting objects. Such methods first break up a scene description into a relatively large number of

A. T. Campbell III; Donald S. Fussell

1990-01-01

171

Global climate change and international security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report originates in a workshop held at Sandia National Laboratories, bringing together a variety of external experts with Sandia personnel to discuss 'The Implications of Global Climate Change for International Security.' Whatever the future of the current global warming trend, paleoclimatic history shows that climate change happens, sometimes abruptly. These changes can severely impact human water supplies, agriculture, migration

Karas; Thomas H

2003-01-01

172

Global change research: Science and policy  

SciTech Connect

This report characterizes certain aspects of the Global Change Research Program of the US Government, and its relevance to the short and medium term needs of policy makers in the public and private sectors. It addresses some of the difficulties inherent in the science and policy interface on the issues of global change. Finally, this report offers some proposals for improving the science for policy process in the context of global environmental change.

Rayner, S.

1993-05-01

173

Global Environmental change: Understanding the Human Dimensions  

SciTech Connect

This book is from the National Research Council's Committee on the Human dimensions of Global Change. The object is to examine what is known about human dimensions of global environmental change, identify the major immediate needs for knowledge, and recommend a strategy over the next 5-10 years. Case studies are used in human causes of global change. issues related to theory, methods, and data are covered, as well as institutional needs for interdicipinary approaches.

Morrisette, P.M.

1993-01-01

174

Global Climate Change and National Security  

E-print Network

5/16/2014 1 Global Climate Change and National Security RADM Jon White Oceanographer and Navigator of the Navy Director, Task Force Climate Change 15 May 2014 Our climate is changing ... Our world is changing Change Increases with Time CLIMATE CHANGE CONSIDERATIONS Maintenance Actions Major Refurbishment

Howat, Ian M.

175

GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #15: WORKSHOP ON ANCILLARY BENEFITS AND COSTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE STRATEGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's Global Change Research Program is co-sponsoring a three-day workshop to examine possible ancillary benefits of climate change adaptation and mitigation policies. The goals of the workshop are: (1)to establish a common basis of understanding about the conceptual and empiric...

176

CDNs with Global Adaptive Request Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the application of fuzzy logic and neural networks to HTTP request dispatching performed within Content\\u000a Delivery Network. We propose a global request distribution algorithm called GARD to support request routing to the surrogate\\u000a servers that deliver the requested content in an efficient manner. The algorithm uses the fuzzy-neural decision-making mechanism\\u000a to assign each incoming request to the

Leszek Borzemski; Krzysztof Zatwarnicki

2008-01-01

177

Microcirculatory changes during chronic adaptation to hypoxia.  

PubMed

Microcirculatory changes in the window chamber preparation in Syrian golden hamsters, secondary to chronic hypoxia adaptation, are presented herein. Adaptation was attained by keeping animals in a 10% oxygen environment for 1 wk and 5% the following week. The following groups were studied: group 1, adapted to chronic hypoxia and kept in a 5% oxygen environment throughout the experiment; group 2, adapted to chronic hypoxia and kept in a 21% oxygen environment 24 h before and during the experiment; and group 3, control. Adaptation caused venule enlargement and hematocrit increase (68.6 +/- 2.44 in group 1, 70 +/- 2.66 in group 2, and 43.27 +/- 2.30 in group 3; P < 0.05). Whereas heart rate decreased in adapted animals, blood pressure remained constant. Group 1 presented alkalosis, hypocapnia, and hypoxemia. The adapted groups had decreased blood flow velocity in arterioles and veins. We found no difference in microvasculature oxygen tension between groups 2 and 3; however, the number of capillaries with flow was markedly reduced in group 1 but significantly increased in group 2. Our findings suggest that, as an adaptation to hypoxia, erythropoiesis may prove beneficial by increasing blood viscosity and shear stress, leading to vasodilatation, in addition to the increase in oxygen-carrying capacity. Calculations show that oxygen extraction in the tissue of the window chamber model was significantly lowered in adapted animals breathing 5% oxygen, but was unchanged from the control when breathing 21% oxygen, even though blood hemoglobin content was increased from 14.5 +/- 0.07 g/dl at control to 21.04 +/- 1.24 g/dl in the adapted animals (P < 0.05). PMID:14561680

Saldívar, Enrique; Cabrales, Pedro; Tsai, Amy G; Intaglietta, Marcos

2003-11-01

178

1 Global Change Research for Sustainable Development  

E-print Network

, societies, and the economy in multiple ways. Indeed, global warming and weather extremes have started (IPCC 2007). For example, the tropical zone is expected to expand with global warming (Seidel et al 200815 1 Global Change Research for Sustainable Development Hans Hurni1 and Urs Wiesmann2

Richner, Heinz

179

Is global warming already changing ocean productivity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming is predicted to alter the ocean's biological productivity. But how will we recognise the impacts of climate change on ocean productivity? The most comprehensive information available on the global distribution of ocean productivity comes from satellite ocean colour data. Now that over ten years of SeaWiFS data have accumulated, can we begin to detect and attribute global warming

S. A. Henson; J. L. Sarmiento; J. P. Dunne; L. Bopp; I. Lima; S. C. Doney; J. John; C. Beaulieu

2009-01-01

180

Global Climate Change Electric Power Industry  

E-print Network

description of the global warming which been attributed to the unprecedented accumulation CO2 and other GHG atmospheric CO2 and reduce the risks of global warming. Reducing CO2 emissions will be a centuryGlobal Climate Change and the Electric Power Industry to appear in Competitive Electricity Markets

Ford, Andrew

181

Global Atmospheric Change and Animal Populations  

E-print Network

by 2100 (IPCC 2007). (Approximate contribution to global warming: 33%; Hansen & Sato 2001). Methane (CH4Global Atmospheric Change and Animal Populations By: Edward B. Mondor (Department of Biology) © 2010 Nature Education http://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/global

182

Frontiers in Global Change Seminar Series  

E-print Network

: Global warming is likely to exceed 2 C by 2050. Mitigation of Carbon Dioxide, by itself of global warming. http://www-ramanathan.ucsd.edu/about/index.php Please join us for a meet and greetFrontiers in Global Change Seminar Series Short-lived Climate Pollutants: A Second Front in Climate

183

Global Change and Human Vulnerability to Vector-Borne Diseases  

PubMed Central

Global change includes climate change and climate variability, land use, water storage and irrigation, human population growth and urbanization, trade and travel, and chemical pollution. Impacts on vector-borne diseases, including malaria, dengue fever, infections by other arboviruses, schistosomiasis, trypanosomiasis, onchocerciasis, and leishmaniasis are reviewed. While climate change is global in nature and poses unknown future risks to humans and natural ecosystems, other local changes are occurring more rapidly on a global scale and are having significant effects on vector-borne diseases. History is invaluable as a pointer to future risks, but direct extrapolation is no longer possible because the climate is changing. Researchers are therefore embracing computer simulation models and global change scenarios to explore the risks. Credible ranking of the extent to which different vector-borne diseases will be affected awaits a rigorous analysis. Adaptation to the changes is threatened by the ongoing loss of drugs and pesticides due to the selection of resistant strains of pathogens and vectors. The vulnerability of communities to the changes in impacts depends on their adaptive capacity, which requires both appropriate technology and responsive public health systems. The availability of resources in turn depends on social stability, economic wealth, and priority allocation of resources to public health. PMID:14726459

Sutherst, Robert W.

2004-01-01

184

Migration as an adaptation to climate change  

E-print Network

Abstract. This article presents a conceptual model to investigate population migration as a possible adaptive response to risks associated with climate change. The model reflects established theories of human migration behaviour, and is based upon the concepts of vulnerability, exposure to risk and adaptive capacity, as developed in the climate change research community. The application of the model is illustrated using the case of 1930s migration patterns in rural Eastern Oklahoma, which took place during a period of repeated crop failures due to drought and flooding. 1.

R. Mcleman; B. Smit

2006-01-01

185

Adapting agriculture to climate change: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The agricultural sector is highly vulnerable to future climate changes and climate variability, including increases in the incidence of extreme climate events. Changes in temperature and precipitation will result in changes in land and water regimes that will subsequently affect agricultural productivity. Given the gradual change of climate in the past, historically, farmers have adapted in an autonomous manner. However, with large and discrete climate change anticipated by the end of this century, planned and transformational changes will be needed. In light of these, the focus of this review is on farm-level and farmers responses to the challenges of climate change both spatially and over time. In this review of adapting agriculture to climate change, the nature, extent, and causes of climate change are analyzed and assessed. These provide the context for adapting agriculture to climate change. The review identifies the binding constraints to adaptation at the farm level. Four major priority areas are identified to relax these constraints, where new initiatives would be required, i.e., information generation and dissemination to enhance farm-level awareness, research and development (R&D) in agricultural technology, policy formulation that facilitates appropriate adaptation at the farm level, and strengthening partnerships among the relevant stakeholders. Forging partnerships among R&D providers, policy makers, extension agencies, and farmers would be at the heart of transformational adaptation to climate change at the farm level. In effecting this transformational change, sustained efforts would be needed for the attendant requirements of climate and weather forecasting and innovation, farmer's training, and further research to improve the quality of information, invention, and application in agriculture. The investment required for these would be highly significant. The review suggests a sequenced approach through grouping research initiatives into short-term, medium-term, and long-term initiatives, with each initiative in one stage contributing to initiatives in a subsequent stage. The learning by doing inherent in such a process-oriented approach is a requirement owing to the many uncertainties associated with climate change.

Anwar, Muhuddin Rajin; Liu, De Li; Macadam, Ian; Kelly, Georgina

2013-07-01

186

Fossil Energy Perspective on Global Climate Change.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses global climates change from a fossil energy power generation perspective. As such, it highlights the substantial uncertainties that underlie the forecasts of GHG emissions, GHG concentrations, and climate change--forecasts that some ...

1990-01-01

187

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR FISHERIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Several government agencies are evaluating policy options for addressing global climate change. hese include planning for anticipated effects and developing mitigation options where feasible if climate does change as predicted. or fisheries resources, policy questions address eff...

188

Climate change: Global risks, challenges and decisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2009, world leaders at the 15th Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change agreed to the Copenhagen Accord, which states in the opening paragraph, “To achieve the ultimate objective of the Convention to stabilize greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system, we shall, recognizing the scientific view that the increase in global temperature should be below 2 degrees Celsius, on the basis of equity and in the context of sustainable development, enhance our long-term cooperative action to combat climate change.” This book addresses the key elements of that statement: On the basis of analyses of climate science, what is dangerous? Where does the 2°C come from? What are possible response measures, and can we hold at 2°C? What are the critical impacts and needs for adaptation? The book presents these issues in the basis of equity and in the context of sustainable development and, most important, talks about the challenges.

McBean, Gordon

2012-05-01

189

Global Change in the Great Lakes: Scenarios.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ohio Sea Grant Education Program has produced this series of publications designed to help people understand how global change may affect the Great Lakes region. The possible implications of global change for this region of the world are explained in the hope that policymakers and individuals will be more inclined to make responsible decisions…

Garrison, Barbara K., Ed.; Rosser, Arrye R., Ed.

190

Frontiers in Global Change Seminar Series  

E-print Network

Frontiers in Global Change Seminar Series Clouds, Aerosol, Radiation and Rain ­ Insights Gained Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology Abstract: The cloud systems of our planet climate models and the predictions of precipitation change associated with global warming. Please join us

191

RESEARCH STRATEGY: GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Research Strategy of ORD's Global Change Research Program outlines a ten-year plan and a major redirection of the Program towards an emphasis on assessing the consequences of global change and on conducting research to support such assessments. Assessments will be conducted o...

192

Expert views of climate change adaptation in least developed Asia.  

PubMed

Drawing primarily from original data collected from more than 100 semi-structured research interviews, this study discusses the benefits of four climate change adaptation projects being implemented in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, and the Maldives. The article begins by explaining its research methods and selecting a sample of Global Environment Facility-Least Developed Country Fund projects being implemented in Asia to analyze. It then describes ongoing adaptation efforts in each of these four countries. It finds that projects enhance infrastructural resilience by building relevant, robust, and flexible technologies. They build institutional resilience by creating strong, permanent, legitimate organizations in place to respond to climate change issues. They promote community resilience by enhancing local ownership, building capacity, and creating networks that help ordinary people learn and adapt to climate change. We find that all four of our case studies couple adaptive improvements in technology and infrastructure with those in governance and community welfare, underscoring the holistic or systemic aspect of resilience. Our study also demonstrates the salience of a functions-based approach to resilience and adaptive capacity rather than an asset-based one. PMID:22325585

Sovacool, Benjamin K; D'Agostino, Anthony L; Meenawat, Harsha; Rawlani, Amireeta

2012-04-30

193

Teacher Professional Development Global Change  

E-print Network

saturation, acid rain, and invasive species. Through lecture, hands-on data collection and field trips & Environmental Science at Michigan Technological University. Coordinated by the Western U.P. Center for Science in and receive the Michigan Air Quality unit (easily adapted to other states). National and Michigan content

194

Teacher Professional Development Global Change  

E-print Network

, acid rain, and invasive species. Through lecture, hands-on data collection and field trips & Environmental Science at Michigan Technological University. Coordinated by the Western U.P. Center for Science in and receive the Michigan Air Quality unit (easily adapted to other states). National and Michigan content

195

Smallholders adaptation to climate change in Mali  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to assess the potential impacts of climate change on agriculture in the Sikasso region of southern\\u000a Mali, as part of an effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) to integrate climate change adaptation\\u000a considerations into their development projects. The region is considered to be the breadbasket of Mali, providing a substantial\\u000a amount of the

Kristie L. Ebi; Jonathan Padgham; Mamadou Doumbia; Alpha Kergna; Joel Smith; Tanveer Butt; Bruce McCarl

2011-01-01

196

Climate change: believing and seeing implies adapting.  

PubMed

Knowledge of factors that trigger human response to climate change is crucial for effective climate change policy communication. Climate change has been claimed to have low salience as a risk issue because it cannot be directly experienced. Still, personal factors such as strength of belief in local effects of climate change have been shown to correlate strongly with responses to climate change and there is a growing literature on the hypothesis that personal experience of climate change (and/or its effects) explains responses to climate change. Here we provide, using survey data from 845 private forest owners operating in a wide range of bio-climatic as well as economic-social-political structures in a latitudinal gradient across Europe, the first evidence that the personal strength of belief and perception of local effects of climate change, highly significantly explain human responses to climate change. A logistic regression model was fitted to the two variables, estimating expected probabilities ranging from 0.07 (SD ± 0.01) to 0.81 (SD ± 0.03) for self-reported adaptive measures taken. Adding socio-demographic variables improved the fit, estimating expected probabilities ranging from 0.022 (SD ± 0.008) to 0.91 (SD ± 0.02). We conclude that to explain and predict adaptation to climate change, the combination of personal experience and belief must be considered. PMID:23185568

Blennow, Kristina; Persson, Johannes; Tomé, Margarida; Hanewinkel, Marc

2012-01-01

197

Climate Change: Believing and Seeing Implies Adapting  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of factors that trigger human response to climate change is crucial for effective climate change policy communication. Climate change has been claimed to have low salience as a risk issue because it cannot be directly experienced. Still, personal factors such as strength of belief in local effects of climate change have been shown to correlate strongly with responses to climate change and there is a growing literature on the hypothesis that personal experience of climate change (and/or its effects) explains responses to climate change. Here we provide, using survey data from 845 private forest owners operating in a wide range of bio-climatic as well as economic-social-political structures in a latitudinal gradient across Europe, the first evidence that the personal strength of belief and perception of local effects of climate change, highly significantly explain human responses to climate change. A logistic regression model was fitted to the two variables, estimating expected probabilities ranging from 0.07 (SD ±0.01) to 0.81 (SD ±0.03) for self-reported adaptive measures taken. Adding socio-demographic variables improved the fit, estimating expected probabilities ranging from 0.022 (SD ±0.008) to 0.91 (SD ±0.02). We conclude that to explain and predict adaptation to climate change, the combination of personal experience and belief must be considered. PMID:23185568

Blennow, Kristina; Persson, Johannes; Tome, Margarida; Hanewinkel, Marc

2012-01-01

198

Climate Change Adaptation Challenges and EO Business Opportunities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is one of the defining challenges of the 21st century, but is no longer a matter of just scientific concern. It encompasses economics, sociology, global politics as well as national and local politics, law, health and environmental security, etc. The challenge of facing the impacts of climate change is often framed in terms of two potential paths that civilization might take: mitigation and adaptation. On the one hand, mitigation involves reducing the magnitude of climate change itself and is composed of emissions reductions and geoengineering. On the other hand and by contrast, adaptation involves efforts to limit our vulnerability to climate change impacts through various measures. It refers to our ability to adjust ourselves to climate change -including climate variability and extremes, to moderate potential damage, to take advantage of opportunities, or to cope with the consequences. Therefore, we are now faced with a double challenge: next to deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions, we also need to adapt to the changing climate conditions. The use of satellites to monitor processes and trends at the global scale is essential in the context of climate change. Earth Observation has the potential to improve our predictive vision and to advance climate models. Space sciences and technologies constitute a significant issue in Education and Public Awareness of Science. Space missions face the probably largest scientific and industrial challenges of humanity. It is thus a fact that space drives innovation in the major breakthrough and cutting edge technological advances of mankind (techniques, processes, new products, … as well as in markets and business models). Technology and innovation is the basis of all space activities. Space agencies offer an entire range of space-related activities - from space science and environmental monitoring to industrial competitiveness and end-user services. More specifically, Earth Observation satellites have a unique global view of planet Earth, providing us -with better data- with consistent and frequent information on the state of our environment at the regional and global scale, also in important but remote areas. Climate Knowledge and Innovation Communities (Climate-KIC), a relatively new initiative from the European Institute of Innovation & Technology (EIT), provides the innovations, entrepreneurship, education and expert guidance needed to shape Europe's climate change agenda. This paper shows some initiatives that the University of Valencia Climate-KIC Education Group is carrying out in collaboration with the Climate-KIC Central Education Lead in the field of space education to foster and encourage students and entrepreneurs to endevour in these new space business opportunities offered by this step forward towards climate change adaptation challenges.

Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Bansal, Rahul; Del Rey, Maria; Mohamed, Ebrahim; Ruiz, Paz; Signes, Marcos

199

NASA NDATC Global Climate Change Education Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project aligns with NASA’s Strategic Goal 3A - “Study Earth from space to advance scientific understanding and meet societal needs and focuses on funding from the GCCE Funding Category 2: Strengthen the Teaching and Learning About Global Climate Change Within Formal Education Systems. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Report (2007) those communities with the least amount of resources will be most vulnerable, and least likely to adapt to the impacts brought on by a changing climate. Further, the level of vulnerability of these communities is directly correlated with their ability to implement short, medium and long range mitigation measures. The North Dakota Association of Tribal Colleges (NDATC) has established a climate change education initiative among its six member Tribal Colleges and Universities (TCUs). The goal of this project is to enhance the TCUs capacity to educate their constituents on the science of climate change and mitigation strategies specifically as they apply to Indian Country. NDATC is comprised of six American Indian tribally chartered colleges (TCUs) which include: Cankdeska Cikana Community College, serving the Spirit Lake Dakota Nation; Fort Berthold Community College, serving the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Nation; Sitting Bull College, serving the Hunkpapa Lakota and Dakota Nation; Turtle Mountain Community College, serving the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa; Sisseton Wahpeton College serving the Sisseton and Wahpeton Dakota Nation, and United Tribes Technical College, serving over 70 Tribal groups from across the United States. The purpose of this project is to (1) increase awareness of climate change and its potential impacts in Indian Country through education for students, faculty and presidents of the TCUs as well as Tribal leadership; (2) increase the capacity of TCUs to respond to this global threat on behalf of tribal people; (3) develop climate change mitigation strategies relevant to Indian Country in the Northern Plains; (4) strengthen our partnerships in the scientific community in addressing climate change issues that will impact our reservations; and (5) utilize NASA resources and instrumentation through LPDAAC (Landsat TM and ETM +, MODIS, ASTER and other remotely sensed data) to educate our TCU students about appropriate research and modeling applications. Few of the TCU STEM faculty have read and comprehend the “Summaries for Policy Makers” published by the IPCC working groups, the Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States, or the ACIA report. Many of these same faculty have little or no experience with remote sensing applications. Through this project we will empower our colleges and students to fully understand the threats posed by this important phenomenon. We will provide training for our TCU faculty, who, in turn, will prepare our students with the knowledge to implement the diverse and comprehensive mitigation strategies needed to sustain our resources and tribal communities.

Bennett, B.; Wood, E.; Meyer, D.; Maynard, N.; Pandya, R. E.

2009-12-01

200

Global change and the evolution of phenotypic plasticity in plants.  

PubMed

Global change drivers create new environmental scenarios and selective pressures, affecting plant species in various interacting ways. Plants respond with changes in phenology, physiology, and reproduction, with consequences for biotic interactions and community composition. We review information on phenotypic plasticity, a primary means by which plants cope with global change scenarios, recommending promising approaches for investigating the evolution of plasticity and describing constraints to its evolution. We discuss the important but largely ignored role of phenotypic plasticity in range shifts and review the extensive literature on invasive species as models of evolutionary change in novel environments. Plasticity can play a role both in the short-term response of plant populations to global change as well as in their long-term fate through the maintenance of genetic variation. In new environmental conditions, plasticity of certain functional traits may be beneficial (i.e., the plastic response is accompanied by a fitness advantage) and thus selected for. Plasticity can also be relevant in the establishment and persistence of plants in novel environments that are crucial for populations at the colonizing edge in range shifts induced by climate change. Experimental studies show taxonomically widespread plastic responses to global change drivers in many functional traits, though there is a lack of empirical support for many theoretical models on the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. Future studies should assess the adaptive value and evolutionary potential of plasticity under complex, realistic global change scenarios. Promising tools include resurrection protocols and artificial selection experiments. PMID:20860682

Matesanz, Silvia; Gianoli, Ernesto; Valladares, Fernando

2010-09-01

201

Global Climate Change Earth, 1972, Apollo 17,  

E-print Network

Variability in Rates of Climate Change IPCC WGI AR5. 2013 Chang. 2013 #12;Ecological Consequences of PastGlobal Climate Change Earth, 1972, Apollo 17, 29,000 km into space. #12;Natural Variation in Climate #12;Natural Variation in Climate Precession - change in the orientation of the rotational axis

Hansen, Andrew J.

202

Global Warming and Climate Change Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change has emerged as a major scientific and political issue within a few short decades. Scientific evidence clearly indicates that this change is a result of a complex interplay between a number of human-related and natural earth systems. While the complexity of the earth-ocean-atmosphere system makes the understanding and prediction of global climate change very difficult, improved scientific

Atul Jain

2008-01-01

203

Building responsiveness to climate change through community based adaptation in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the drivers, benefits, and challenges to climate change adaptation in Bangladesh. It specifically investigates\\u000a the “Community Based Adaptation to Climate Change through Coastal Afforestation Program,” a 5-year $5 million adaptation scheme\\u000a being funded and implemented in part by the Government of Bangladesh, United Nations Development Program, and Global Environment\\u000a Facility. The article explores how the CBACC-CA builds

Amireeta K. Rawlani; Benjamin K. Sovacool

2011-01-01

204

Tolerance adaptation and precipitation changes complicate latitudinal patterns of climate change impacts  

PubMed Central

Global patterns of biodiversity and comparisons between tropical and temperate ecosystems have pervaded ecology from its inception. However, the urgency in understanding these global patterns has been accentuated by the threat of rapid climate change. We apply an adaptive model of environmental tolerance evolution to global climate data and climate change model projections to examine the relative impacts of climate change on different regions of the globe. Our results project more adverse impacts of warming on tropical populations due to environmental tolerance adaptation to conditions of low interannual variability in temperature. When applied to present variability and future forecasts of precipitation data, the tolerance adaptation model found large reductions in fitness predicted for populations in high-latitude northern hemisphere regions, although some tropical regions had comparable reductions in fitness. We formulated an evolutionary regional climate change index (ERCCI) to additionally incorporate the predicted changes in the interannual variability of temperature and precipitation. Based on this index, we suggest that the magnitude of climate change impacts could be much more heterogeneous across latitude than previously thought. Specifically, tropical regions are likely to be just as affected as temperate regions and, in some regions under some circumstances, possibly more so. PMID:20616038

Bonebrake, Timothy C.; Mastrandrea, Michael D.

2010-01-01

205

Changing Rural Social Systems: Adaptation and Survival.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book includes studies of globalization-related social changes in rural areas of the United States and other countries and implications of these studies for sociological theory. Although no chapter focuses exclusively on education, education-related themes include rural school dropouts and intergenerational poverty, the migration of rural…

Johnson, Nan E., Ed.; Wang, Ching-li, Ed.

206

Climate Change Adaptation: A Collective Action Perspective on Federalism Considerations  

E-print Network

adaptation to minimize the adverse effects of climate change. Climate change adaptation is designed to increase the resilience of natural and human ecosystems to the threats posed by a changing environment. Although an extensive literature concerning...

Glicksman, Robert L.; Levy, Richard E.

2010-01-01

207

Global Environmental Change: Modelling and Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The second half of the 20th century was a period of unprecedented and rapid change in the global population, the biosphere, the world economy and society. Recent inquiry related to the environmental effects has focused on the complexities of how the Earth behaves as a system, with connectivity linking its oceans, land, atmosphere, living, and non-living components. The search for delineation of natural and human causes and effects of global change has ushered in new mathematical approaches to the pursuit of a global environmental system science. Judging from the reports of several international conferences—for example, The Amsterdam Declaration on Global Change, 2000—a consistent theme has emerged, calling for the development of an effective ethical framework of global stewardship and strategies (modeling and monitoring) for Earth system management.

Kelley, John J.

208

Conservation and Global Climate Change  

E-print Network

it back down to earth, creating a ``greenhouse effect'' that warms the earth's surface interannual how the Earth is responding, both from an abiotic perspective (including atmo- spheric changes for conservation under conditions of a changing climate. Finally, we end with a discussion of Go here for book

Landweber, Laura

209

Global River Flood Risk in a Changing World (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding is the most frequent and damaging natural hazard for society globally. Over the last decades, we have seen indications that the impacts of flooding are becoming more severe. The increases in risk may be cause by on the one hand increasing frequency and intensity of flood events under climate change, and on the other, by growing potential impacts due to increases in population and the economic utilization of flood prone areas. In 2012, the global damage from floods was estimated to be about US 29 billion. For the first half of 2013, the global damage was already estimated to be US 45 billion. Almost half of this amount was due to river flooding such as the devastating floods in East Germany in June 2013. In this contribution we give insights into the size and causes of growth of river flood risk in the future and the consequences for adaptation investments. We investigate this by comparing estimates of current and future river flood risk at the global scale, taking into account that risks are likely to grow due to changes in climate change and socio-economic development. The flood risk estimates are based on a validated physical global flood risk model that utilizes current meteorological data, as well as climate scenario data as forcing to estimate hazard, and current as well as future socio-economic conditions as drivers for flood impact. Our study reveals that flood risk changes are very diverse from region to region, as are the drivers of that change. The results emphasize the importance of future investments in flood risk adaptation across the world and show which adaptation strategies should receive most attention.

Winsemius, H.; Ward, P.; Bouwman, A.; Van Beek, L. P.; Jongman, B.; Stehfest, E.; Bierkens, M. F.; Aerts, J.; Ligtvoet, W.; Kwadijk, J.; Sperna Weiland, F.

2013-12-01

210

Food security and global environmental change: emerging Global environmental change (GEC), including land degrada-  

E-print Network

change and food security focuses solely on agriculture: either the impact of climate change to be considered to understand food security. A recent international conference on ``Environ- mental ChangeEditorial Food security and global environmental change: emerging challenges Global environmental

211

Energy, the Environment, and Global Change Energy, the Environment, and Global Change: Overview 1 2 9  

E-print Network

PART 6 Energy, the Environment, and Global Change Energy, the Environment, and Global Change that improve human welfare -- illumination, heating and cooling, communication, transporta- tion, manufacturing, and scientific and technological develop- ments have dramatically increased the global demand for energy in its

Colorado at Boulder, University of

212

Adapting to a New or Changing Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this outline of a 4-6 weeks unit is to assist pupils (K-2) in adapting to a new or changing environment. Its goals are to: 1) help each student acquire a better self-image and realization of his or her worth as an individual; 2) create an environment that promotes a feeling of personal security for each child, free from anxiety and…

Craycraft, Kenneth

213

Engineering change in global climate  

SciTech Connect

{open_quotes}With increased public focus on global warming and in the wake of the intense heat waves, drought, fires, and super-hurricanes that occurred in 1988 and 1989, interest in geoengineering has surged,{close_quotes} says Stephen H. Schneider, professor of biological science at Stanford University in Stanford, California. One scheme set forth in a National Research Council report proposes using 16-inch naval guns to fire aerosol shells into the stratosphere in hopes of offsetting {open_quotes}the radiative effects of increasing carbon dioxide,{close_quotes} Schneider says. Schneider, however, would prefer that we {open_quotes}seek measures that can cure our global {open_quote}addiction{close_quote} to polluting practices.{close_quotes} Rather than playing God, he says we should {open_quotes}stick to being human and pursue problem - solving methods currently within our grasp.{close_quotes} Such strategies include efforts to promote energy efficiency and reduce our reliance on automobiles.

Schneider, S.H. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1996-12-31

214

Climate effects of global land cover change  

Microsoft Academic Search

When changing from grass and croplands to forest, there are two competing effects of land cover change on climate: an albedo effect which leads to warming and an evapotranspiration effect which tends to produce cooling. It is not clear which effect would dominate. We have performed simulations of global land cover change using the NCAR CAM3 atmospheric general circulation model

S. Gibbard; K. Caldeira; G. Bala; T. J. Phillips; M. Wickett

2005-01-01

215

Global vegetation changes from satellite data  

SciTech Connect

Long-term climate, soils data along with satellite observations are sued to quantify global land cover changes between pre-agricultural and present conditions. Changes in global land cover expressed as summer, mid-afternoon, radiometric surface temperatures, T{sub r}, ranged from -8 to +16 {degrees}C. Deforestation resulted in an increase in T{sub r}, while irrigated agriculture reduced the T{sub r}. The spatial heterogeneity in land surface fluxes created by the estimated land cover changes, currently not accounted for in Global Circulation Models, could have significant impact on climate. Potential and actual land cover datasets are available for climate modelers at 0.5x0.5{degrees} resolution to study the possible impacts of land cover changes on global temperatures and circulation patterns.

Nemani, R.; Running, S. [Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States)

1995-09-01

216

Global changes in marine systems: A social-ecological approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the case for the adoption of a social-ecological approach to marine systems, which recognises the interdependence of biophysical and human social components. It discusses the management and governance challenges that arise when biophysical marine systems and fishing-dependent human communities, considered as interdependent marine social-ecological systems, are stressed by global changes. Drivers of change in marine biophysical systems include processes such as climate variability and change, human processes such as fishing, habitat degradation, and contaminants, and their interactions. Fishing makes marine populations, marine communities, and ecosystems more sensitive to climate forcing. Human communities’ responses to marine ecosystem variability can ameliorate or exacerbate these changes. Drivers of change in fishing-dependent human communities include environmental and resource changes, human social changes relating to demographics, health issues, and shifting societal values, and their interactions at local and global scales. This multi-faceted interdependence means that fisheries management needs to develop approaches which maintain the capacities of both fish and fishing communities, acting as interactive social-ecological systems, to adapt to the impacts of globalization and environmental change. In general, a less-heavily fished marine system managed on an ecosystem basis is likely to provide more stable catches under normal conditions than would a heavily fished system. However, under climate change the whole ecosystem may alter in ways that cannot yet be predicted. Issues of scale are crucial, and fisheries governance needs a concerted effort to contrast and compare multiple local management ‘experiments’, since the exposure, susceptibility, and adaptive capacities of biophysical and human social marine systems varies immensely. These ‘experiments’ should be conducted in developed and developing nations so as to understand the range of policy issues which support marine social-ecological systems in an era of global change.

Perry, R. Ian; Barange, Manuel; Ommer, Rosemary E.

2010-10-01

217

Global Climate Change, Stress and Plant Productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Global climate change, rated as the most serious threat to the environment, has been the center of debate among environmentalists\\u000a and policy makers as it has become not only an environmental, a political and an economic issue, but also a global problem,\\u000a of which agriculture is the major target. At the plant or field scale, climate change is likely to

Altaf Ahmad; Hema Diwan; Yash P. Abrol

218

Future battlegrounds for conservation under global change  

PubMed Central

Global biodiversity is under significant threat from the combined effects of human-induced climate and land-use change. Covering 12% of the Earth's terrestrial surface, protected areas are crucial for conserving biodiversity and supporting ecological processes beneficial to human well-being, but their selection and design are usually uninformed about future global change. Here, we quantify the exposure of the global reserve network to projected climate and land-use change according to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and set these threats in relation to the conservation value and capacity of biogeographic and geopolitical regions. We find that geographical patterns of past human impact on the land cover only poorly predict those of forecasted change, thus revealing the inadequacy of existing global conservation prioritization templates. Projected conservation risk, measured as regional levels of land-cover change in relation to area protected, is the greatest at high latitudes (due to climate change) and tropics/subtropics (due to land-use change). Only some high-latitude nations prone to high conservation risk are also of high conservation value, but their high relative wealth may facilitate additional conservation efforts. In contrast, most low-latitude nations tend to be of high conservation value, but they often have limited capacity for conservation which may exacerbate the global biodiversity extinction crisis. While our approach will clearly benefit from improved land-cover projections and a thorough understanding of how species range will shift under climate change, our results provide a first global quantitative demonstration of the urgent need to consider future environmental change in reserve-based conservation planning. They further highlight the pressing need for new reserves in target regions and support a much extended ‘north–south’ transfer of conservation resources that maximizes biodiversity conservation while mitigating global climate change. PMID:18302999

Lee, Tien Ming; Jetz, Walter

2008-01-01

219

Potential effects of global climate change  

SciTech Connect

The difficulties of detecting climatic changes do not diminish the need to examine the consequences of a changing global radiative energy balance. In part, detecting global changes is difficult (even though many, though by no means all, theoretical climatic processes are well understood) because the potential effects of changes on the unmanaged ecosystems of the globe, especially forests, which may have great human significance, involve tightly woven ecosystems, inextricably linked to global habitat. Coniferous forests are of particular interest because they dominate high-latitude forest systems, and potential effects of global climate change are likely to be greatest at high latitudes. The degree of projected climate change is a function of many likely scenarios of fossil fuel consumption, and the ratios of manmade effects to natural sources and sinks of CO{sub 2}. Because CO{sub 2}, like water vapor, CH{sub 4}, CFCs, and other gases, absorbs infrared energy, it will alter the radiation balance of the global atmosphere. The consequences of this alteration to the radiation balance cannot simply be translated into changing climate because (1) the existence of large energy reservoirs (the oceans) can introduce a lag in responses, (2) feedback loops between atmosphere, oceans, and biosphere can change the net rate of buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, (3) complex interactions in the atmospheric water balance can change the rate of cloud formation with their persistence, in turn, changing the global albedo and the energy balance, and (4) there is intrusion of other global effects, such as periodic volcanic gas injections to the stratosphere.

Gucinski, H.; Vance, E.; Reiners, W.A.

1995-07-01

220

76 FR 55060 - Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...variety of existing stresses and mal- adaptations. DATES: The report was posted publicly...external forces, such as long-term climate and land-use change. The report does...existing global change stresses and mal-adaptations. The work described in this...

2011-09-06

221

Dictionary of global climate change  

SciTech Connect

This book represents a revision of the climate change lexicon that was prepared for the Second World Climate Conference in 1990. The conference had 1400 participants and consisted of a scientific component followed by a ministerial meeting. To foster communication among the different constituencies, a lexicon of climate and climate change was prepared for the participants. The dictionary includes definitions and descriptions of most of the scientific terms, organizations, and programs related to the physical aspects of climate change. Nearly 40% of the material describes organized projects, experiments, or programs, mostly international. Some information on biological topics, such as the difference between C3 and C4 plants, is also included. The length of definitions and descriptions ranges from one line to one or more pages, with the longer descriptions usually related to programs.

Maunder, W.J. (ed.)

1992-01-01

222

Climate Change Adaptation: Putting Principles into Practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carrying out wildlife conservation in a changing climate requires planning on long timescales at both a site and network level, while also having the flexibility to adapt actions at sites over short timescales in response to changing conditions and new information. The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB), a land-owning wildlife conservation charity in the UK, achieves this on its nature reserves through its system of management planning. This involves setting network-wide objectives which inform the 25-year vision and 5-year conservation objectives for each site. Progress toward achieving each site's conservation objectives is reviewed annually, to identify any adjustments which might be needed to the site's management. The conservation objectives and 25-year vision of each site are reviewed every 5 years. Significant long-term impacts of climate change most frequently identified at RSPB reserves are: loss of intertidal habitat through coastal squeeze, loss of low-lying islands due to higher sea levels and coastal erosion, loss of coastal freshwater and brackish wetlands due to increased coastal flooding, and changes in the hydrology of wetlands. The main types of adaptation measures in place on RSPB reserves to address climate change-related impacts are: re-creation of intertidal habitat, re-creation and restoration of freshwater wetlands away from vulnerable coastal areas, blocking artificial drainage on peatlands, and addressing pressures on freshwater supply for lowland wet grasslands in eastern and southeastern England. Developing partnerships between organizations has been crucial in delivering large-scale adaptation projects.

Ausden, Malcolm

2014-10-01

223

Climate change adaptation: putting principles into practice.  

PubMed

Carrying out wildlife conservation in a changing climate requires planning on long timescales at both a site and network level, while also having the flexibility to adapt actions at sites over short timescales in response to changing conditions and new information. The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB), a land-owning wildlife conservation charity in the UK, achieves this on its nature reserves through its system of management planning. This involves setting network-wide objectives which inform the 25-year vision and 5-year conservation objectives for each site. Progress toward achieving each site's conservation objectives is reviewed annually, to identify any adjustments which might be needed to the site's management. The conservation objectives and 25-year vision of each site are reviewed every 5 years. Significant long-term impacts of climate change most frequently identified at RSPB reserves are: loss of intertidal habitat through coastal squeeze, loss of low-lying islands due to higher sea levels and coastal erosion, loss of coastal freshwater and brackish wetlands due to increased coastal flooding, and changes in the hydrology of wetlands. The main types of adaptation measures in place on RSPB reserves to address climate change-related impacts are: re-creation of intertidal habitat, re-creation and restoration of freshwater wetlands away from vulnerable coastal areas, blocking artificial drainage on peatlands, and addressing pressures on freshwater supply for lowland wet grasslands in eastern and southeastern England. Developing partnerships between organizations has been crucial in delivering large-scale adaptation projects. PMID:24363138

Ausden, Malcolm

2014-10-01

224

Climate Effects of Global Land Cover Change  

SciTech Connect

There are two competing effects of global land cover change on climate: an albedo effect which leads to heating when changing from grass/croplands to forest, and an evapotranspiration effect which tends to produce cooling. It is not clear which effect would dominate in a global land cover change scenario. We have performed coupled land/ocean/atmosphere simulations of global land cover change using the NCAR CAM3 atmospheric general circulation model. We find that replacement of current vegetation by trees on a global basis would lead to a global annual mean warming of 1.6 C, nearly 75% of the warming produced under a doubled CO{sub 2} concentration, while global replacement by grasslands would result in a cooling of 0.4 C. These results suggest that more research is necessary before forest carbon storage should be deployed as a mitigation strategy for global warming. In particular, high latitude forests probably have a net warming effect on the Earth's climate.

Gibbard, S G; Caldeira, K; Bala, G; Phillips, T; Wickett, M

2005-08-24

225

CLIMATE CHANGE GLOBAL ECONOMY How to decarbonise the global economy  

E-print Network

and burn fossil fuels at a rate that is increasing rapidly: enough to raise temperatures not just by 2, nuclear and fossil fuels combined with Home UK World Companies Markets Global Economy Lex Comment avoid dangerous climate change and achieve sustainable development. The report, produced by the Deep

226

Hormonally mediated maternal effects, individual strategy and global change.  

PubMed

A challenge to ecologists and evolutionary biologists is predicting organismal responses to the anticipated changes to global ecosystems through climate change. Most evidence suggests that short-term global change may involve increasing occurrences of extreme events, therefore the immediate response of individuals will be determined by physiological capacities and life-history adaptations to cope with extreme environmental conditions. Here, we consider the role of hormones and maternal effects in determining the persistence of species in altered environments. Hormones, specifically steroids, are critical for patterning the behaviour and morphology of parents and their offspring. Hence, steroids have a pervasive influence on multiple aspects of the offspring phenotype over its lifespan. Stress hormones, e.g. glucocorticoids, modulate and perturb phenotypes both early in development and later into adulthood. Females exposed to abiotic stressors during reproduction may alter the phenotypes by manipulation of hormones to the embryos. Thus, hormone-mediated maternal effects, which generate phenotypic plasticity, may be one avenue for coping with global change. Variation in exposure to hormones during development influences both the propensity to disperse, which alters metapopulation dynamics, and population dynamics, by affecting either recruitment to the population or subsequent life-history characteristics of the offspring. We suggest that hormones may be an informative index to the potential for populations to adapt to changing environments. PMID:22566673

Meylan, Sandrine; Miles, Donald B; Clobert, Jean

2012-06-19

227

Change and Aging Senescence as an Adaptation  

PubMed Central

Understanding why we age is a long-lived open problem in evolutionary biology. Aging is prejudicial to the individual, and evolutionary forces should prevent it, but many species show signs of senescence as individuals age. Here, I will propose a model for aging based on assumptions that are compatible with evolutionary theory: i) competition is between individuals; ii) there is some degree of locality, so quite often competition will be between parents and their progeny; iii) optimal conditions are not stationary, and mutation helps each species to keep competitive. When conditions change, a senescent species can drive immortal competitors to extinction. This counter-intuitive result arises from the pruning caused by the death of elder individuals. When there is change and mutation, each generation is slightly better adapted to the new conditions, but some older individuals survive by chance. Senescence can eliminate those from the genetic pool. Even though individual selection forces can sometimes win over group selection ones, it is not exactly the individual that is selected but its lineage. While senescence damages the individuals and has an evolutionary cost, it has a benefit of its own. It allows each lineage to adapt faster to changing conditions. We age because the world changes. PMID:21949706

Martins, André C. R.

2011-01-01

228

Energy and global climate change: Why ORNL?  

SciTech Connect

Subtle signs of global warming have been detected in studies of the climate record of the past century after figuring in the cooling effects of sulfur emissions from volcanoes and human sources. According to the December 1995 report of the Intergovernment Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the earth`s surface temperature has increased by about 0.2{degrees}C per decade since 1975. the panel projects about a 2{degrees} increase in global temperature by 2100. The IPCC report states that pollutants-greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and fluorocarbons that warm the globe and sulfur emission that cool it-are responsible for recent patterns of climate change. {open_quotes}The balance of evidence,{close_quotes} states the report, {open_quotes}suggests that there is a discrenible human influence on global climate.{close_quotes} This human influence stems largely from fossil fuel combustion, cement production, and the burning of forests, and could intensify as populations grow and developing countries increase energy production and industrial development. The two facts have caught the attention of the news media and public. First, 1995 was declared the hottest year in the 140-year-long record of reliable global measurements. Second, recent years have been marked by an unusually high number of extreme weather events, such as hurricanes, blizzards, and floods. In the 1990`s the world has become more aware of the prospect and possible impacts of global climate change. In the late 1950`s, global climate change was an unknown threat to the world`s environment and social systems. Except for a few ORNL researchers who had just completed their first briefing to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission on the need to understand the global carbon cycle, the connection between rising carbon dioxide concentrations and potential changes in global climate was not common knowledge, nor were the consequences of climate change understood.

Farrell, M.P.

1995-12-31

229

Global Change Biology (1998) 4, 581590 Terrestrial models and global change: challenges for the  

E-print Network

Global Change Biology (1998) 4, 581­590 Terrestrial models and global change: challenges A . L E V I N Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 biological feedbacks on climate and climate change; yet our ability to make precise predictions is severely

Moorcroft, Paul R.

230

GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of climate change issues and their related international initiatives to response the challenge of the global warming. It addresses the different technologies for the mitigation of climate changes, including energy efficiency improvement, renewable energy, and greenhouse gas capture and sequestration. It focuses on the technologies of CO2 capture and sequestration and the recent development on

Jinyue Yan

231

Global climate change and international security  

Microsoft Academic Search

On May 8--10, 1991, the Midwest Consortium of International Security Studies (MCISS) and Argonne National Laboratory cosponsored a conference on Global Climate Change and International Security. The aim was to bring together natural and social scientists to examine the economic, sociopolitical, and security implications of the climate changes predicted by the general circulation models developed by natural scientists. Five themes

1991-01-01

232

NASA NDATC Global Climate Change Education Initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project aligns with NASA's Strategic Goal 3A - ``Study Earth from space to advance scientific understanding and meet societal needs and focuses on funding from the GCCE Funding Category 2: Strengthen the Teaching and Learning About Global Climate Change Within Formal Education Systems. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Report (2007) those communities with the least amount

B. Bennett; E. Wood; D. Meyer; N. Maynard; R. E. Pandya

2009-01-01

233

The Psychological Impacts of Global Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An appreciation of the psychological impacts of global climate change entails recognizing the complexity and multiple meanings associated with climate change; situating impacts within other social, technological, and ecological transitions; and recognizing mediators and moderators of impacts. This article describes three classes of psychological…

Doherty, Thomas J.; Clayton, Susan

2011-01-01

234

Global climate change and international security.  

SciTech Connect

This report originates in a workshop held at Sandia National Laboratories, bringing together a variety of external experts with Sandia personnel to discuss 'The Implications of Global Climate Change for International Security.' Whatever the future of the current global warming trend, paleoclimatic history shows that climate change happens, sometimes abruptly. These changes can severely impact human water supplies, agriculture, migration patterns, infrastructure, financial flows, disease prevalence, and economic activity. Those impacts, in turn, can lead to national or international security problems stemming from aggravation of internal conflicts, increased poverty and inequality, exacerbation of existing international conflicts, diversion of national and international resources from international security programs (military or non-military), contribution to global economic decline or collapse, or international realignments based on climate change mitigation policies. After reviewing these potential problems, the report concludes with a brief listing of some research, technology, and policy measures that might mitigate them.

Karas, Thomas H.

2003-11-01

235

PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND GLOBAL CHANGE CAN CLIMATE DRIVEN CHANGES IN  

E-print Network

PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND GLOBAL CHANGE CAN CLIMATE DRIVEN CHANGES IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS BE USED TO PREDICT in photosynthesis, and thus substrate supply, influence the rate of ecosystem respiration (Re). Further- more in photosynthesis might result in concomitant changes in both the rate, and temperature-sensitivity, of Re. Re

Barron-Gafford, Greg

236

Adapting to Climate Change at the Local Level: The Spatial Planning Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is a major issue for all levels of government, global, national and local. Local authorities' responses to climate change have tended to concentrate on their role in reducing greenhouse gases. However, the scientific consensus is that we also need to adapt to unavoidable climate change. Spatial planning at a local level has a critical anticipatory role to play

Elizabeth Wilson

2006-01-01

237

Title: Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation Options for Coastal Communities in Timor-Leste  

E-print Network

Title: Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation Options for Coastal Communities in Timor-Leste Summary Climate change is a major global challenge, particularly for world's coastal communities in low 2008, Kelman & West 2009, Veitayaki 2010). Within these regions, climate change impacts are already

238

Mapping vulnerability and conservation adaptation strategies under climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identification of spatial gradients in ecosystem vulnerability to global climate change and local stressors is an important step in the formulation and implementation of appropriate countermeasures. Here we build on recent work to map ecoregional exposure to future climate, using an envelope-based gauge of future climate stability--defined as a measure of how similar the future climate of a region will be to the present climate. We incorporate an assessment of each ecoregion's adaptive capacity, based on spatial analysis of its natural integrity--the proportion of intact natural vegetation--to present a measure of global ecosystem vulnerability. The relationship between intactness (adaptive capacity) and stability (exposure) varies widely across ecoregions, with some of the most vulnerable, according to this measure, located in southern and southeastern Asia, western and central Europe, eastern South America and southern Australia. To ensure the applicability of these findings to conservation, we provide a matrix that highlights the potential implications of this vulnerability assessment for adaptation planning and offers a spatially explicit management guide.

Watson, James E. M.; Iwamura, Takuya; Butt, Nathalie

2013-11-01

239

Adaptive robot path planning in changing environments  

SciTech Connect

Path planning needs to be fast to facilitate real-time robot programming. Unfortunately, current planning techniques are still too slow to be effective, as they often require several minutes, if not hours of computation. To overcome this difficulty, we present an adaptive algorithm that uses past experience to speed up future performance. It is a learning algorithm suitable for incrementally-changing environments such as those encountered in manufacturing of evolving products and waste-site remediation. The algorithm allows the robot to adapt to its environment by having two experience manipulation schemes: For minor environmental change, we use an object-attached experience abstraction scheme to increase the flexibility of the learned experience; for major environmental change, we use an on-demand experience repair scheme to retain those experiences that remain valid and useful. Using this algorithm, we can effectively reduce the overall robot planning time by re-using the computation result for one task to plan a path for another.

Chen, P.C.

1994-08-01

240

Adaptively Combining Local with Global Information for Natural Scenes Categorization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes the Extended Bag-of-Visterms (EBOV) to represent semantic scenes. In previous methods, most representations are bag-of-visterms (BOV), where visterms referred to the quantized local texture information. Our new representation is built by introducing global texture information to extend standard bag-of-visterms. In particular we apply the adaptive weight to fuse the local and global information together in order to provide a better visterm representation. Given these representations, scene classification can be performed by pLSA (probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis) model. The experiment results show that the appropriate use of global information improves the performance of scene classification, as compared with BOV representation that only takes the local information into account.

Liu, Shuoyan; Xu, De; Yang, Xu

241

From Local Impact Functions to Global Adaptation of Service Compositions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of self-optimization and adaptation in the context of customizable systems is becoming increasingly important with the emergence of complex software systems and unpredictable execution environments. Here, a general framework for automatically deciding on when and how to adapt a system whenever it deviates from the desired behavior is presented. In this framework, the adaptation targets of the system are described in terms of a high-level policy that establishes goals for a set of performance indicators. The decision process is based on information provided independently for each service that describes the available adaptations, their impact on performance indicators, and any limitations or requirements. The technique consists of both offline and online phases. Offline, rules are generated specifying service adaptations that may help to achieve the specified goals when a given change in the execution context occurs. Online, the corresponding rule is evaluated when a change occurs to choose which adaptations to perform. Experimental results using a prototype framework in the context of a web-based application demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach.

Rosa, Liliana; Rodrigues, Luís; Lopes, Antónia; Hiltunen, Matti; Schlichting, Richard

242

Information technology and global change science  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this paper is to identify and briefly describe major existing and near term information technologies that cold have a positive impact on the topics being discussed at this conference by helping to manage the data of global change science and helping global change scientists conduct their research. Desktop computer systems have changed dramatically during the past seven years. Faster data processing can be expected in the future through full development of traditional serial computer architectures. Some other proven information technologies may be currently underutilized by global change scientists. Relational database management systems and good organization of data through the use of thoughtful database design would enable the scientific community to better share and maintain quality research data. Custodians of the data should use rigorous data administration to ensure integrity and long term value of the data resource. Still other emerging information technologies that involve the use of artificial intelligence, parallel computer architectures, and new sensors for data collection will be in relatively common use in the near term and should become part of the global science community's technical toolkit. Consideration should also be given to the establishment of Information Analysis Centers to facilitate effective organization and management of interdisciplinary data and the prototype testing and use of advanced information technology to facilitate rapid and cost-effective integration of these tools into global change science. 8 refs.

Baxter, F.P.

1990-01-01

243

Adaptation options in agriculture to climate change: a typology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation in agriculture to climate change is important for impact andvulnerability assessment and for the development of climate change policy. A wide variety of adaptation options has been proposed as having thepotential to reduce vulnerability of agricultural systems to risks related toclimate change, often in an ad hoc fashion. This paper develops atypology of adaptation to systematically classify and characterize

Barry Smit; Mark W. Skinner

2002-01-01

244

Adapting to Climate Change and Variability in the  

E-print Network

1 Adapting to Climate Change and Variability in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Basin PROCEEDINGS) April 1998 #12;Adapting to Climate Change and Variability in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Basin 2 #12 before further action could be taken on these impacts. Preface #12;Adapting to Climate Change

245

Adaptation to Climate Change; from Resilience to Transformation  

E-print Network

Adaptation to Climate Change; from Resilience to Transformation · Transformation and incremental change towards resilience · The adaptive cycle heuristic · Applying the heuristic in Mexico · A journey - with no normative conditionality #12;Adaptive Cycle heuristic: exploring risk-society relations and systems change

Botea, Adi

246

Reconciling Observations of Global Temperature Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Research Council's Panel on Reconciling Temperature Observations published this report in 2000. The National Academy Press Website offers free online viewing of this important publication, which evaluated the much-publicized discrepancy between surface and atmospheric temperatures in the global change records. The Panel found that "the warming trend in global-mean surface temperature observations during the past 20 years is undoubtedly real and is substantially greater than the average rate of warming during the twentieth century."

National Research Council (U.S.).

2000-01-01

247

President Clinton Speaks on Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On October 22, 1997, President Clinton addressed the National Geographic Society on the issue of global climate change and global warming. This site contains the President's speech, along with a speech by Vice President Gore (in RealAudio format). Together, the speeches take a bit over thirty-six minutes. Note that the President's remarks begin at about 10 minutes and 50 seconds into the recording.

1997-01-01

248

Climate change and global infectious disease threats.  

PubMed

The world's climate is warming up and, while debate continues about how much change we can expect, it is becoming clear that even small changes in climate can have major effects on the spread of disease. Erwin K Jackson, a member of Greenpeace International's Climate Impacts Unit and a delegate to the 11th session of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Rome, 11-15 December), reviews the scientific evidence of this new global threat to health. PMID:8538543

Jackson, E K

249

Call 2012: Road owners adapting to climate change Roads for today, adapted for tomorrow  

E-print Network

Call 2012: Road owners adapting to climate change Roads for today, adapted for tomorrow 2013, March measures and techniques to adapt to climate change Objective ROADAPT: to provide understanding 29 #12;Requests in CEDR-call: A. Identification and modeling of climate change effects regarding

Haak, Hein

250

Climate change and the global malaria recession.  

PubMed

The current and potential future impact of climate change on malaria is of major public health interest. The proposed effects of rising global temperatures on the future spread and intensification of the disease, and on existing malaria morbidity and mortality rates, substantively influence global health policy. The contemporary spatial limits of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and its endemicity within this range, when compared with comparable historical maps, offer unique insights into the changing global epidemiology of malaria over the last century. It has long been known that the range of malaria has contracted through a century of economic development and disease control. Here, for the first time, we quantify this contraction and the global decreases in malaria endemicity since approximately 1900. We compare the magnitude of these changes to the size of effects on malaria endemicity proposed under future climate scenarios and associated with widely used public health interventions. Our findings have two key and often ignored implications with respect to climate change and malaria. First, widespread claims that rising mean temperatures have already led to increases in worldwide malaria morbidity and mortality are largely at odds with observed decreasing global trends in both its endemicity and geographic extent. Second, the proposed future effects of rising temperatures on endemicity are at least one order of magnitude smaller than changes observed since about 1900 and up to two orders of magnitude smaller than those that can be achieved by the effective scale-up of key control measures. Predictions of an intensification of malaria in a warmer world, based on extrapolated empirical relationships or biological mechanisms, must be set against a context of a century of warming that has seen marked global declines in the disease and a substantial weakening of the global correlation between malaria endemicity and climate. PMID:20485434

Gething, Peter W; Smith, David L; Patil, Anand P; Tatem, Andrew J; Snow, Robert W; Hay, Simon I

2010-05-20

251

Climate change and the global malaria recession  

PubMed Central

The current and potential future impact of climate change on malaria is of major public health interest1,2. The proposed effects of rising global temperatures on the future spread and intensification of the disease3-5, and on existing malaria morbidity and mortality rates3, substantively influence global health policy6,7. The contemporary spatial limits of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and its endemicity within this range8, when compared with comparable historical maps, offer unique insights into the changing global epidemiology of malaria over the last century. It has long been known that the range of malaria has contracted through a century of economic development and disease control9. Here, for the first time, we quantify this contraction and the global decreases in malaria endemicity since c. 1900. We compare the magnitude of these changes to the size of effects on malaria endemicity hypothesised under future climate scenarios and associated with widely used public health interventions. Our findings have two key and often ignored implications with respect to climate change and malaria. First, widespread claims that rising mean temperatures have already led to increases in worldwide malaria morbidity and mortality are largely at odds with observed decreasing global trends in both its endemicity and geographic extent. Second, the proposed future effects of rising temperatures on endemicity are at least one order of magnitude smaller than changes observed since c. 1900 and up to two orders of magnitude smaller than those that can be achieved by the effective scale-up of key control measures. Predictions of an intensification of malaria in a warmer world, based on extrapolated empirical relationships or biological mechanisms, must be set against a context of a century of warming that has seen dramatic global declines in the disease and a substantial weakening of the global correlation between malaria endemicity and climate. PMID:20485434

Gething, Peter W.; Smith, David L.; Patil, Anand P.; Tatem, Andrew J.; Snow, Robert W.; Hay, Simon I.

2010-01-01

252

Global Stream Temperatures and Flows under Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change will affect thermal and hydrologic regimes of rivers, having a direct impact on human water use and freshwater ecosystems. Here we assess the impact of climate change on stream temperature and streamflow globally. We used a physically-based stream temperature river basin model (RBM) linked to the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. The modelling framework was adapted for global application including impacts of reservoirs and thermal heat discharges, and was validated using observed water temperature and river discharge records in large river basins globally. VIC-RBM was forced with an ensemble of bias-corrected Global Climate Model (GCM) output resulting in global projections of daily streamflow and water temperature for the 21st century. Global mean and high (95th percentile) stream temperatures are projected to increase on average by 0.8-1.6 (1.0-2.2)°C for the SRES B1-A2 scenario for 2071-2100 relative to 1971-2000. The largest water temperature increases are projected for Europe, North America, Southeast Asia, South Africa and parts of Australia. In these regions, the sensitivities for warming are exacerbated by projected decreases in summer low flows. Large increases in water temperature combined with decreases in low flows are found for the southeastern U.S., Europe and eastern China. These regions could potentially be affected by increased deterioration of water quality and freshwater habitats, and reduced water available for beneficial uses such as thermoelectric power production.

van Vliet, M. T.; Yearsley, J. R.; Franssen, W. H.; Ludwig, F.; Haddeland, I.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Kabat, P.

2012-12-01

253

America's Climate Choices: Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the request of Congress, the National Academy of Sciences convened a series of coordinated activities to provide advice on actions and strategies that the nation can take to respond to climate change. As part of this suite of activities, this study assessed, this study assessed how the nation can begin to adapt to the impacts of climate change. Much of the nation’s experience to date in managing and protecting its people, resources, and infrastructure is based on the historic record of climate variability during a period of relatively stable climate. Adaptation to climate change calls for a new paradigm - one that considers a range of possible future climate conditions and associated impacts. The Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change report calls for action at all levels of government, NGOs, and the private sector to assess vulnerabilities to the impacts of climate change and identify options for adaptation. Current adaptation efforts are hampered by a lack of solid information about the benefits, costs, and effectiveness of various adaptation options, by uncertainty about future climate change impacts at a scale necessary for decision-making, and by a lack of coordination. The report outlines a risk management framework that can be applied to assess vulnerabilities, compare and evaluate potential adaptation options, recognizing that decision makers across the country are likely to pursue a diverse set of adaptation measures. A major research effort is needed to improve knowledge about current and future vulnerabilities, explore new adaptation options, and better inform adaptation decisions. Therefore, the report also emphasizes the need to continually re-assess adaptation decisions as the experience and knowledge regarding effective adaptation evolves. A national adaptation strategy is needed in which the federal government would support and enhance adaptation activities undertaken by state, local, tribal, and private entities; identify and modify policies that might provide incentives for maladaptive behavior; bolster scientific research regarding adaptation; and encourage adaptation on a global scale through national programs with international components.

Wilbanks, T.; Yohe, G.; Mengelt, C.; Casola, J.

2010-12-01

254

Global Climate Change Impacts:Global Climate Change Impacts: Implications for Climate EngineeringImplications for Climate Engineering  

E-print Network

Global Climate Change Impacts:Global Climate Change Impacts: Implications for Climate Engineering Center Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States October 29, 2009 #12;2Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States 2 Response Strategies to ClimateResponse Strategies to Climate ChangeChange

Polz, Martin

255

Open access: changing global science publishing  

PubMed Central

The article reflects on open access as a strategy of changing the quality of science communication globally. Successful examples of open-access journals are presented to highlight implications of archiving in open digital repositories for the quality and citability of research output. Advantages and downsides of gold, green, and hybrid models of open access operating in diverse scientific environments are described. It is assumed that open access is a global trend which influences the workflow in scholarly journals, changing their quality, credibility, and indexability. PMID:23986284

Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Kitas, George D.

2013-01-01

256

Deep solar minimum and global climate changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the deep minimum of solar cycle 23 and its potential impact on climate change. In addition, a source region of the solar winds at solar activity minimum, especially in the solar cycle 23, the deepest during the last 500 years, has been studied. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary solar activity are so weak and hence expected to cause global cooling. Prevalent global warming, caused by building-up of green-house gases in the troposphere, seems to exceed this solar effect. This paper discusses this issue.

Hady, Ahmed A.

2013-05-01

257

Deep solar minimum and global Climate Changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the deep minimum of solar cycle 23 and its likely impact on climate change. In addition, a source region of the solar winds at solar activity minimum, especially in the solar cycle 23, the deepest during the last 100 years, has been studied. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary solar activities are so weak and hence expected to cause global cooling. Prevalent global warming, caused by building-up of green-house gases in the troposphere, seems to exceed this solar effect. This paper discusses this issue.

Abdel Hady, Ahmed

2012-07-01

258

Open access: changing global science publishing.  

PubMed

The article reflects on open access as a strategy of changing the quality of science communication globally. Successful examples of open-access journals are presented to highlight implications of archiving in open digital repositories for the quality and citability of research output. Advantages and downsides of gold, green, and hybrid models of open access operating in diverse scientific environments are described. It is assumed that open access is a global trend which influences the workflow in scholarly journals, changing their quality, credibility, and indexability. PMID:23986284

Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Kitas, George D

2013-08-01

259

Global change technology architecture trade study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Described here is an architecture trade study conducted by the Langley Research Center to develop a representative mix of advanced space science instrumentation, spacecraft, and mission orbits to assist in the technology selection processes. The analyses concentrated on the highest priority classes of global change measurements which are the global climate changes. Issues addressed in the tradeoffs includes assessments of the economics of scale of large platforms with multiple instruments relative to smaller spacecraft; the influences of current and possible future launch vehicles on payload sizes, and on-orbit assembly decisions; and the respective roles of low-Earth versus geostationary Earth orbiting systems.

Garrett, L. Bernard (editor); Hypes, Warren D. (editor); Wright, Robert L. (editor)

1991-01-01

260

Climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction: Contested spaces and emerging opportunities in development theory and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pursuit of adaptation to climate change, both theoretically and practically, has intensified considerably over the past decade in response to increasing awareness of the potential impacts of global climate change. Despite this momentum, the interaction of climate change adaptation with pre-existing strategies to reduce vulnerability and build resilience in the developing world has only recently received significant attention. Using

PHILIP IRELAND

2010-01-01

261

Global Climate Change: What is science is telling us?  

E-print Network

its range to theits range to the north.north. #12;How is Global Warming different from Global Climate Change? ·Global warming ­ increased temperature resulting from greenhouse effect. ·Global Climate ChangeGlobal Climate Change: What is science is telling us? Dr. David Flaspohler djflaspo@mtu.edu School

262

WHAT'S IN A NAME? GLOBAL WARMING VERSUS CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-print Network

WHAT'S IN A NAME? GLOBAL WARMING VERSUS CLIMATE CHANGE May 2014 #12;What's In A Name? Global NATIONAL SURVEY STUDY 2: GLOBAL WARMING VS. CLIMATE CHANGE............................ 10 Is global?................................................................10 When you think of global warming / climate change, what comes first to mind

Haller, Gary L.

263

WATERSHED BOUNDARY CONDITIONS FOR GLOBAL CHANGE IMPACT ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) studies (among other issues) the impact of global change on water quality. This field study evaluates the impact of global changes (land-use change and climate change) on source water quality. Changes in source water quality change...

264

Biological consequences of global change for birds.  

PubMed

Climate is currently changing at an unprecedented rate; so also human exploitation is rapidly changing the Earth for agriculture, forestry, fisheries and urbanization. In addition, pollution has affected even the most remote ecosystems, as has the omnipresence of humans, with consequences in particular for animals that keep a safe distance from potential predators, including human beings. Importantly, all of these changes are occurring simultaneously, with increasing intensity, and further deterioration in both the short and the long-term is predicted. While the consequences of these components of global change are relatively well studied on their own, the effects of their interactions, such as the combined effects of climate change and agriculture, or the combined effects of agriculture through nutrient leakage to freshwater and marine ecosystems and fisheries, and the effects of climate change and urbanization, are poorly understood. Here, I provide a brief overview of the effects of climate change on phenology, diversity, abundance, interspecific interactions and population dynamics of birds. I address whether these effects of changing temperatures are direct, or indirect through effects of climate change on the phenology, distribution or abundance of food, parasites and predators. Finally, I review interactions between different components of global change. PMID:23731810

Møller, Anders Pape

2013-06-01

265

Connecting Global Climate Change with Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-paced tutorial explores the importance of engineering solutions to the management of climate change by brainstorming ways to remove CO² from the atmosphere and store it in a form that does not promote global warming. The module also provides resources for students to learn about engineering careers related to climate change. Learners compare the design process used in engineering projects with the scientific process, and explore elements of the engineering design process through global climate change. Multimedia educational resources including video clips are included. This is the ninth of 10 self-paced professional development modules providing opportunities for teachers to learn about climate change through first-hand data exploration.

266

Fatigue and Structural Change: Two Consequences of Visual Pattern Adaptation  

E-print Network

Fatigue and Structural Change: Two Consequences of Visual Pattern Adaptation Jeremy M. Wolfe-term fatigue, produced very quickly and (2) long-term structural change, requiring more extended adaptation reductions in the sensitivity of the mechanisms detecting the stimulus. Adaptation fatigues the mechanism

267

City of Minneapolis Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies  

E-print Network

City of Minneapolis ­ Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies MURP/MPP Capstone Paper of Capstone Instructor #12;Minneapolis Climate Change Impacts & Adaptation Strategies #12;Brendon Slotterback Perspectives 14 Climate adaptation: Best Practices 20 Goal 1: Manage Heat 24 1) Improve tracking heat

Levinson, David M.

268

Lessons for climate change adaptation from better management of rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous adaptation in the water sector is assessed to derive lessons for more successful climate change adaptation from six empirical, consistently designed river management case studies based on projects of WWF. They show that when adaptation measures are considered in the context of common problems in water management, many practical ways of building resilience to climate change through mainstream programs

JAMIE PITTOCK

2009-01-01

269

A global pattern of thermal adaptation in marine phytoplankton.  

PubMed

Rising ocean temperatures will alter the productivity and composition of marine phytoplankton communities, thereby affecting global biogeochemical cycles. Predicting the effects of future ocean warming on biogeochemical cycles depends critically on understanding how existing global temperature variation affects phytoplankton. Here we show that variation in phytoplankton temperature optima over 150 degrees of latitude is well explained by a gradient in mean ocean temperature. An eco-evolutionary model predicts a similar relationship, suggesting that this pattern is the result of evolutionary adaptation. Using mechanistic species distribution models, we find that rising temperatures this century will cause poleward shifts in species' thermal niches and a sharp decline in tropical phytoplankton diversity in the absence of an evolutionary response. PMID:23112294

Thomas, Mridul K; Kremer, Colin T; Klausmeier, Christopher A; Litchman, Elena

2012-11-23

270

Global climate changes and the soil cover  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between climate changes and the soil cover are analyzed. The greenhouse effect induced by the rising concentrations\\u000a of CO2, CH4, N2O, and many other trace gases in the air has been one of the main factors of the global climate warming in the past 30–40\\u000a years. The response of soils to climate changes is considered by the example

V. N. Kudeyarov; V. A. Demkin; D. A. Gilichinskii; S. V. Goryachkin; V. A. Rozhkov

2009-01-01

271

Global climate change and US agriculture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Agricultural productivity is expected to be sensitive to global climate change. Models from atmospheric science, plant science, and agricultural economics are linked to explore this sensitivity. Although the results depend on the severity of climate change and the compensating effects of carbon dioxide on crop yields, the simulation suggests that irrigated acreage will expand and regional patterns of U.S. agriculture will shift. The impact of the U.S. economy strongly depends on which climate model is used.

Adams, Richard M.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Peart, Robert M.; Ritchie, Joe T.; Mccarl, Bruce A.

1990-01-01

272

Global Change: A View from Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this talk, I will discuss the fundamental science and society problems associated with global change, with an emphasis on the view from space. I will provide an overview of the vision and activities of the World Climate Research Program in the next two decades. Then I will show regional climate changes and environmental problems in the East Asian region, such as biomass burning, urban pollutions, yellow sand, and their possible interaction with the Asian monsoon, particularly over Southern China.

Lau, William K. M.

2003-01-01

273

Soil Respiration in Future Global Change Scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Terrestrial ecosystems are expected to experience multiple changes in climate in the future. Global changes including rising\\u000a concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), increases in temperature and rates of nitrogen deposition, and severity of precipitation extremes can directly or indirectly\\u000a influence biological processes in soil such as root and microbial respiration. For example, rising atmospheric [CO2] may alter belowground carbon

Bhupinder Pal Singh; Vivien Rémy de Courcelles; Mark A. Adams

274

GLOBAL CHANGE EFFECTS ON CORAL REEF CONDITION  

EPA Science Inventory

Fisher, W., W. Davis, J. Campbell, L. Courtney, P. Harris, B. Hemmer, M. Parsons, B. Quarles and D. Santavy. In press. Global Change Effects on Coral Reef Condition (Abstract). To be presented at the EPA Science Forum: Healthy Communities and Ecosystems, 1-3 June 2004, Washington...

275

Sustainable biochar to mitigate global climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of biochar (the carbon (C)-rich solid formed by pyrolysis of biomass) and its storage in soils have been suggested as a means of abating climate change by sequestering carbon, while simultaneously providing energy and increasing crop yields. Substantial uncertainties exist, however, regarding the impact, capacity and sustainability of biochar at the global level. In this paper we estimate the

Dominic Woolf; James E. Amonette; Johannes C. Lehmann; Stephen Joseph

2010-01-01

276

Frontiers in Global Change Seminar Series  

E-print Network

Frontiers in Global Change Seminar Series Aerosol-Cloud Interactions: The Elusive Component particles ("aerosols") exert a net cooling effect by directly scattering and absorption of solar radiation that aerosol impacts on clouds (known as "aerosol indirect climatic effects") have a net cooling effect

277

Climate change, biofuels, and global food security  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a new urgency to improve the accuracy of predicting climate change impact on crop yields because the balance between food supply and demand is shifting abruptly from surplus to deficit. This reversal is being driven by a rapid rise in petroleum prices and, in response, a massive global expansion of biofuel production from maize, oilseed, and sugar crops.

Kenneth G Cassman

2007-01-01

278

Gender and REDD+ Global instruments and changing  

E-print Network

Gender and REDD+ Global instruments and changing forest governanceforest governance Seema Arora The aim of the current project is to study howThe aim of the current project is to study how gender of development and gender equality?of development and gender equality? #12;The gendered impacts of REDD+ policy

279

GLOBAL CHANGE AND TIDAL FRESHWATER WETLANDS  

E-print Network

Chapter 23 GLOBAL CHANGE AND TIDAL FRESHWATER WETLANDS: SCENARIOS AND IMPACTS Scott C. Neubauer Tidal Freshwater Wetlands, edited by Aat Barendregt, Dennis Whigham & Andrew Baldwin 2009, viii + 320pp Publishers GmbH This chapter was originally published in the book ,,Tidal Freshwater Wetlands". The copy

Neubauer, Scott C.

280

Surfing Global Change: Negotiating Sustainable Solutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

SURFING GLOBAL CHANGE (SGC) serves as a procedural shell for attaining sustainable solutions for any interdisciplinary issue and is intended for use in advanced university courses. The participants' activities evolve through five levels from individual argumentation to molding one's own views for the "common good." The paradigm of "ethics of…

Ahamer, Gilbert

2006-01-01

281

Climate Kids: What is Global Climate Change?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A question and answer format is used to differentiate between weather and climate, and to provide a brief overview of global warming. This lesson is part of the Climate Kids website, a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

282

Consumer Fronts, Global Change, and Runaway Collapse  

E-print Network

Consumer Fronts, Global Change, and Runaway Collapse in Ecosystems Brian R. Silliman,1 Michael W availability) ultimately controlled the distribution and primary productivity of vegetation (Warming 1895/or growth on local scales and in certain situations (Warming 1895, Thomas 1937), the overwhelming consensus

Holt, Robert D.

283

Capturing provenance of global change information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global change information demands access to data sources and well-documented provenance to provide the evidence needed to build confidence in scientific conclusions and decision making. A new generation of web technology, the Semantic Web, provides tools for that purpose.

Ma, Xiaogang; Fox, Peter; Tilmes, Curt; Jacobs, Katharine; Waple, Anne

2014-06-01

284

Global Climate Change and Sea Level Rise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will practice the steps involved in a scientific investigation as they learn why ice formations on land (and not those on water) will cause a rise in sea level upon melting. This is a discovery lesson in ice and water density and displacement of water by ice floating on the surface as it relates to global climate change.

Sciences, California A.

285

Aiding cities in their work on climate change adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban areas around the world are at the frontlines of climate change because of their enormous aggregate populations and because of their vulnerability to multiple climate change stressors. Half of our planet's 7.1 billion inhabitants currently reside in cities with six billion people projected to call cities home by 2050. In the U.S. and much of the rest of the world, cities are warming at twice the rate of the planet. Superimposed on urban climate changes driven by global warming are the regional effects of urban heat domes driven by large differences in land use, building materials, and vegetation between cities and their rural surroundings. In megacities - those with populations exceeding 10 million people - such as Tokyo - urban heat domes can contribute to daytime temperatures that soar to more than 11°C higher than their rural surroundings. In addition, the localized warming can alter patterns of precipitation in metropolitan regions and perhaps even influence the frequency and severity of severe weather. Municipal officials need to accelerate their efforts to prepare and implement climate change adaptation strategies but what are the institutions that can help enable this work? Informal science education centers can play vital roles because they are overwhelmingly in urban settings and because they can act as ';competent outsiders.' They are neither responsible for conducting climate change research nor accountable for implementing public policies to address climate change. They instead can play an essential role of ensuring that solid science informs the formulation of good practices and policies. It is incumbent, therefore, for informal science education centers to accelerate and enhance their abilities to help translate scientific insights into on-the-ground actions. This session will explore the potential roles of informal science education centers to advance climate change adaptation through a review of the urban climate change education initiatives for municipal officials that the Science Museum of Minnesota has implemented over the past two years.

Hamilton, P.

2013-12-01

286

Global Change and Climate Change by Miles R. Silman, Ph.D.  

E-print Network

and acrimonious political debate, global change, including the global warming, can be thought of in the same terms54 Global Change and Climate Change by Miles R. Silman, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Biology A tale of pools and fluxes. A perspective on global change Global change? Change is the rule of the earth

Silman, Miles R.

287

Higher Education's Role in Adapting to a Changing Climate  

E-print Network

Higher Education's Role in Adapting to a Changing Climate PRE S IDENTS'CLI MATE COMMITMENT AMERICAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Background on Higher Education's Climate Leadership Planet are the primary authors. The members of the Higher Education Climate Adaptation Committee provided

Linsley, Braddock K.

288

Perspective of Adaptation as Responses to Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kyoto Protocol, which became effective in February 2005, has been promoting a series of countermeasures against global warming on an international scale under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). As a result of overwhelming impacts of the heat wave in Europe in 2003 and Hurricane Katrina that devastated the city of New Orleans in August 2005, there

Nobuo MIMURA

289

Adaptation measures for climate change and the urban heat island in Japan's built environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change scenarios are discussed for Japan with clear implications drawn for the built environment in terms of increased temperatures of 4–5°C, rising sea levels and subterranean water tables. Research on the impacts and adaptation measures for global warming in Japan is reviewed. One of the most significant impacts of climate change in Japan will exacerbate the existing heat island

Yoshiyuki Shimoda

2003-01-01

290

UEA Water Security Research Centre Climate Change and Variability Adaptation and Vulnerability  

E-print Network

UEA Water Security Research Centre Climate Change and Variability · Adaptation and Vulnerability to critical global policy concerns: climate change, food trade and food security, energy security ­ and the international cooperation that affects human, community, environmental, national and regional security. Our

Everest, Graham R

291

Scales of governance and environmental justice for adaptation and mitigation of climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change is a significant challenge to structures of governance at all temporal and spatial scales, particularly in the area of managing natural resources. Advances in understanding of the nature of observed and future climate change has led to a realization that significant future impacts are inevitable and increased efforts towards understanding the process of adaptation to the threatened

W. Neil Adger

2001-01-01

292

Climate Change in the High Andes: Implications and Adaptation Strategies for Small-scale Farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Global climate change represents a major threat to sustainable farming in the Andes. Farmers have used local ecological knowledge and intricate production systems to cope, adapt and reorganize to meet climate uncertainty and risk, which have always been a fact of life. Those traditional systems are generally highly resilient, but the predicted effects, rates and variability of climate change

C. Perez; C. Nicklin; O. Dangles; Steven Vanek

2010-01-01

293

Adapting to and Coping with the Threat and Impacts of Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the nature and challenge of adaptation in the context of global climate change. The complexity of "climate change" as threat, environmental stressor, risk domain, and impacting process with dramatic environmental and human consequences requires a synthesis of perspectives and models from diverse areas of psychology to…

Reser, Joseph P.; Swim, Janet K.

2011-01-01

294

Satellite Contributions to Global Change Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By providing a global view with a level playing field (no region missed because of unfavorable surface conditions or political boundaries), satellites have made major contributions to improved monitoring and understanding of our constantly changing planet. The global view has allowed surprising realizations like the relative sparsity of lightning strikes over oceans and the large-scale undulations on the massive Antarctic ice sheet. It has allowed the tracking of all sorts of phenomena, including aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, as they move with the atmospheric circulation and impact weather and human health. But probably nothing that the global view allows is more important in the long term than its provision. of unbiased data sets to address the issue of global change, considered by many to be among the most important issues facing humankind today. With satellites we can monitor atmospheric temperatures at all latitudes and longitudes, and obtain a global average that lessens the likelihood of becoming endlessly mired in the confusions brought about by the certainty of regional differences. With satellites we can monitor greenhouse gases such as CO2 not just above individual research stations but around the globe. With satellites we can monitor the polar sea ice covers, as we have done since the late 1970s, determining and quantifying the significant reduction in Arctic sea ice and the slight growth in Antarctic sea ice over that period, With satellites we can map the full extent and changes in the Antarctic stratospheric ozone depletions that were first identified from using a single ground station; and through satellite data we have witnessed from afar land surface changes brought about by humans both intentionally, as with wide-scale deforestation, and unintentionally, as with the decay of the Aral Sea. The satellite data are far from sufficient for all that we need in order to understand the global system and forecast its changes, as we also need sophisticated climate models, in situ process studies, and data sets that extend back well before the introduction of satellite technology. Nonetheless, the repetitive, global view provided by satellites is contributing in a major way to our improved recognition of how the Earth im changing, a recognition that is none too soon in view of the magnitude of the impacts that humans can now have.

Parkinson, Claire L.

2009-01-01

295

Aspen Global Change Institute Summer Science Sessions  

SciTech Connect

The Aspen Global Change Institute (AGCI) successfully organized and convened six interdisciplinary meetings over the course of award NNG04GA21G. The topics of the meetings were consistent with a range of issues, goals and objectives as described within the NASA Earth Science Enterprise Strategic Plan and more broadly by the US Global Change Research Program/Our Changing Planet, the more recent Climate Change Program Strategic Plan and the NSF Pathways report. The meetings were chaired by two or more leaders from within the disciplinary focus of each session. 222 scholars for a total of 1097 participants-days were convened under the auspices of this award. The overall goal of each AGCI session is to further the understanding of Earth system science and global environmental change through interdisciplinary dialog. The format and structure of the meetings allows for presentation by each participant, in-depth discussion by the whole group, and smaller working group and synthesis activities. The size of the group is important in terms of the group dynamics and interaction, and the ability for each participant's work to be adequately presented and discussed within the duration of the meeting, while still allowing time for synthesis

Katzenberger, John; Kaye, Jack A

2006-10-01

296

Thermohaline circulations and global climate change  

SciTech Connect

Thermohaline Circulations and Global Climate Change'' is concerned with investigating the hypothesis that changes in surface thermal and hydrological forcing of the North Atlantic, changes that might be expected to accompany CO{sub 2}-induced global warming, could result in ocean-atmosphere interactions' exerting a positive feedback on the climate system. Because the North Atlantic is the source of much of the global ocean's reservoir of deep water, and because this deep water could sequester large amounts of anthropogenically produced Co{sub 2}, changes in the rate of deep-water production are important to future climates. Since deep-water production is controlled, in part, by the annual cycle of the atmospheric forcing of the North Atlantic, and since this forcing depends strongly on both hydrological and thermal processes as well as the windstress, there is the potential for feedback between the relatively short-term response of the atmosphere to changing radiative forcing and the longer-term processes in the oceans. Work over the past 12 months has proceeded in several directions.

Hanson, H.P.

1992-01-01

297

Thermohaline circulations and global climate change  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses research activities conducted during the period 15 January 1992--14 December 1992. Thermohaline Circulations and Global Climate Change is concerned with investigating the hypothesis that changes in surface thermal and hydrological forcing of the North Atlantic, changes that might be expected to accompany C0[sub 2]-induced global warming, could result in ocean-atmosphere interactions' exerting a positive feedback on the climate system. Because the North Atlantic is the source of much of the global ocean's reservoir of deep water, and because this deep water could sequester large amounts of anthropogenically produced C0[sub 2], changes in the rate of deep-water production are important to future climates. Since deep-water Production is controlled, in part, by the annual cycle of the atmospheric forcing of the North Atlantic, and since this forcing depends strongly on both hydrological and thermal processes as well as the windstress, there is the potential for feedback between the relatively short-term response of the atmosphere to changing radiative forcing and the longer-term processes in the oceans. Work over the past 11 months has proceeded according to the continuation discussion of last January and several new results have arisen.

Hanson, H.P.

1992-01-01

298

Avian migration phenology and global climate change  

PubMed Central

There is mounting evidence that global climate change has extended growing seasons, changed distribution patterns, and altered the phenology of flowering, breeding, and migration. For migratory birds, the timing of arrival on breeding territories and over-wintering grounds is a key determinant of reproductive success, survivorship, and fitness. But we know little of the factors controlling earlier passage in long-distance migrants. Over the past 30 years in Oxfordshire, U.K., the average arrival and departure dates of 20 migrant bird species have both advanced by 8 days; consequently, the overall residence time in Oxfordshire has remained unchanged. The timing of arrival has advanced in relation to increasing winter temperatures in sub-Saharan Africa, whereas the timing of departure has advanced after elevated summer temperatures in Oxfordshire. This finding demonstrates that migratory phenology is quite likely to be affected by global climate change and links events in tropical winter quarters with those in temperate breeding areas. PMID:14519854

Cotton, Peter A.

2003-01-01

299

Researchers Find Genetic Response to Global Warming: Changing Climate Prompts Genetic Change in Squirrels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

University of Alberta biologist Stan Boutin and his research team have recently published findings that North American red squirrels exhibit genetic changes in response to a warming climate. This Web site contains a University of Alberta press release detailing this first-ever demonstration of genetic adaptation to global warming. With implications that extend far beyond the immediate research concerns of geneticists and environmental scientists, Boutin's work as presented in this Web site should be interesting to wide audience.

Dey, Phoebe.

2003-01-01

300

GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #37: PUBLICATION OF "OUR CHANGING PLANET: THE FY 2002 U.S. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH PROGRAM"  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA Global Change Research Program is pleased to inform you of the publication of the new Our Changing Planet: The FY 2002 U.S. Global Change Research Program. This annual report to the Congress was prepared under the auspices of the Committee on Environment and Natural Reso...

301

GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #8: OUR CHANGING PLANET: THE FY2000 U.S. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

This edition of Global Change Research News focuses on the publication of the new Our Changing Planet: The FY2000 U.S. Global Change Research Program. This annual report to the Congress was prepared under the auspices of the President's National Science and Technology Council. It...

302

Towards the global monitoring of biodiversity change.  

PubMed

Governments have set the ambitious target of reducing biodiversity loss by the year 2010. The scientific community now faces the challenge of assessing the progress made towards this target and beyond. Here, we review current monitoring efforts and propose a global biodiversity monitoring network to complement and enhance these efforts. The network would develop a global sampling programme for indicator taxa (we suggest birds and vascular plants) and would integrate regional sampling programmes for taxa that are locally relevant to the monitoring of biodiversity change. The network would also promote the development of comparable maps of global land cover at regular time intervals. The extent and condition of specific habitat types, such as wetlands and coral reefs, would be monitored based on regional programmes. The data would then be integrated with other environmental and socioeconomic indicators to design responses to reduce biodiversity loss. PMID:16701487

Pereira, Henrique M; David Cooper, H

2006-03-01

303

Response of Earth's Ecosystem to Global Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth is in the midst of rapid and unprecedented change, much of it caused by the enormous reproductive and resource acquisition success of the human population. For the first time in Earth's history, the actions of one species-humans-are altering the atmospheric, climatic, biospheric, and edaphic processes on a scale that rivals natural processes. How will ecosystems, involving those manipulated and managed by humans largely for human use, respond to these changes? Clearly ecosystems have been adjusting to change throughout Earth's history and evolving in ways to adapt and to maintain self-organizing behavior. And in this process, the metabolic activity of the biosphere has altered the environmental conditions it experiences. I am going to confine this presentation to a few thoughts on the present state of terrestrial ecosystems and the urgency that changes in it is bringing to all of us.

Peterson, David L.

1996-01-01

304

Stellar activity: Astrophysics relevant to global change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

FRESIP will obtain a great deal of data on stellar activity and flares on F, G and K dwarfs. Rotation periods, flare distributions and possibly stellar cycles will emerge. This apparently curiosity-driven research actually has implications for our understanding of global climate change. Significant climate change during the seventeenth-century Maunder Minimum is thought to be related to a change in the solar condition. Recently acquired data from the Greenland Ice-core Project suggest that far greater climate changes on decade time scales may have occurred during the previous interglacial. It is possible that a yet more drastic change in state of the Sun was responsible. We have no relevant solar data, but can begin to explore this possibility by observing an ensemble of solar-like stars.

Haisch, Bernhard M.

1994-01-01

305

COMMUNICATING GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: INVESTIGATING MESSAGE STRATEGIES FOR COMMUNICATING THE IMPACT OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE.  

EPA Science Inventory

The research program is designed to generate findings that provide specific guidance to science communicators and government officials on how to best communicate knowledge about global climate change and other environmental issues to diverse lay audiences. Beyond providing gui...

306

``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' scientific report ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' Team  

E-print Network

PARADIGMS 20 5.1 El Ni~no: theoretical approach and GCM confrontation (95) : : : : : : : : : : : : 20 5 Modelling & Global Change #12; 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Overview of the team activities During the first years

307

Adapting to Climate Change in Wisconsin Strategies for Conservation Professionals  

E-print Network

addresses ways to adapt to consequences of climate change. #12;We've been measuring temperature and rainfallAdapting to Climate Change in Wisconsin ­ Strategies for Conservation Professionals Wisconsin: Assess and anticipate climate change impacts on specific Wisconsin natural resources, ecosystems

Sheridan, Jennifer

308

Adapting to Climate Change: Ideals and Practical Challenges  

E-print Network

Adapting to Climate Change: Ideals and Practical Challenges Thursday, October 31, 2013 12:00 - 1 Institute for the Environment, Stanford University What does "successful" adaptation to climate change look contributed to IPCC, US, and regional climate- change assessments. Moser has been recognized as a fellow

Zhang, Junshan

309

Excellent adaptations: Managing projects through changing technologies, teams, and clients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether working for one or more companies, information developers must adapt to changes in both the planning and implementation stages of product development. These changes include product and document delivery technologies, varying levels of process maturity, and changing demands of internal and external customers. We examine selected project management models and apply them as part of an adaptation strategy to

Jill Holdaway; M. Rauch; L. Flink

2009-01-01

310

Beyond Reduction: Climate Change Adaptation Planning for Universities and Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to outline a unique six-step process for the inclusion of climate change adaption goals and strategies in a University Climate Change Plan. Design/methodology/approach: A mixed-method approach was used to gather data on campus climate change vulnerabilities and adaption strategies. A literature review…

Owen, Rochelle; Fisher, Erica; McKenzie, Kyle

2013-01-01

311

National Institute for Global Environmental Change  

SciTech Connect

This document is the Semi-Annual Report of the National Institute for Global Environmental Change for the reporting period July 1 to December 31, 1991. The report is in two parts. Part I presents the mission of the Institute, examples of progress toward that mission, a brief description of the revised management plan, and the financial report. Part II presents the statements of the Regional Center Directors along with progress reports of the projects written by the researchers themselves.

Werth, G.C.

1992-04-01

312

Technologies for global change earth observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advances in the areas of space-based observations, data/information analysis, and spacecraft/operations for the studying of global changes are discussed. Research involving systems analysis, observation technologies, information technologies, and spacecraft technologies is examined. Consideration is given to cryogenic coolers, IR arrays, laser and submillimeter sensing, large array CCD, information visualization, design knowledge capture, optical communications, multiinstrument pointing, propulsion, space environmental effects, and platform thermal systems.

Johnston, Gordon I.; Hudson, Wayne R.

1990-01-01

313

Preparing for Change: Challenges and Opportunities in a Global World  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our world is becoming increasingly global. This may sound like a clich'e, yet it is true nonetheless, and poses unprecedented challenges for graduate education. For the new generation of researchers, teachers and professionals to be successful they must be prepared in more than the content area of their chosen field. They must also acquire proficiency in global awareness, cultural literacy, multicultural teamwork and language facility. These global skill sets form the basis for effective multicultural collaboration and will become increasingly important even for those who do not intend to study or work abroad. Knowledge has become more portable in the internet age; large data bases and reports can be accessed in real time from various locations around the globe; information is exchanged in multifaceted knowledge networks; collaborative research takes place within and outside of the traditional venue of the research university in the private sector, research institutes, and associations; research networks span multiple disciplines as progress invariably occurs at the intersection of previously discrete fields of inquiry. Global collaboration thus is no longer dependent on the physical proximity of collaborators but can take place anywhere any time. This then requires yet another set of skills, namely the ability to adapt to change, exhibit flexibility and transfer skills to a range of contexts and applications. Effective graduate education must address these realities and expose students to learning opportunities that will enable them to acquire these much needed global skills sets.

O'Hara, Sabine

2009-03-01

314

An adaptability limit to climate change due to heat stress  

PubMed Central

Despite the uncertainty in future climate-change impacts, it is often assumed that humans would be able to adapt to any possible warming. Here we argue that heat stress imposes a robust upper limit to such adaptation. Peak heat stress, quantified by the wet-bulb temperature TW, is surprisingly similar across diverse climates today. TW never exceeds 31?°C. Any exceedence of 35?°C for extended periods should induce hyperthermia in humans and other mammals, as dissipation of metabolic heat becomes impossible. While this never happens now, it would begin to occur with global-mean warming of about 7?°C, calling the habitability of some regions into question. With 11–12?°C warming, such regions would spread to encompass the majority of the human population as currently distributed. Eventual warmings of 12?°C are possible from fossil fuel burning. One implication is that recent estimates of the costs of unmitigated climate change are too low unless the range of possible warming can somehow be narrowed. Heat stress also may help explain trends in the mammalian fossil record. PMID:20439769

Sherwood, Steven C.; Huber, Matthew

2010-01-01

315

An adaptability limit to climate change due to heat stress.  

PubMed

Despite the uncertainty in future climate-change impacts, it is often assumed that humans would be able to adapt to any possible warming. Here we argue that heat stress imposes a robust upper limit to such adaptation. Peak heat stress, quantified by the wet-bulb temperature T(W), is surprisingly similar across diverse climates today. T(W) never exceeds 31 degrees C. Any exceedence of 35 degrees C for extended periods should induce hyperthermia in humans and other mammals, as dissipation of metabolic heat becomes impossible. While this never happens now, it would begin to occur with global-mean warming of about 7 degrees C, calling the habitability of some regions into question. With 11-12 degrees C warming, such regions would spread to encompass the majority of the human population as currently distributed. Eventual warmings of 12 degrees C are possible from fossil fuel burning. One implication is that recent estimates of the costs of unmitigated climate change are too low unless the range of possible warming can somehow be narrowed. Heat stress also may help explain trends in the mammalian fossil record. PMID:20439769

Sherwood, Steven C; Huber, Matthew

2010-05-25

316

A DBMS architecture for global change research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this research is the design and development of an integrated system for the management of very large scientific databases, cartographic/geographic information processing, and exploratory scientific data analysis for global change research. The system will represent both spatial and temporal knowledge about natural and man-made entities on the eath's surface, following an object-oriented paradigm. A user will be able to derive, modify, and apply, procedures to perform operations on the data, including comparison, derivation, prediction, validation, and visualization. This work represents an effort to extend the database technology with an intrinsic class of operators, which is extensible and responds to the growing needs of scientific research. Of significance is the integration of many diverse forms of data into the database, including cartography, geography, hydrography, hypsography, images, and urban planning data. Equally important is the maintenance of metadata, that is, data about the data, such as coordinate transformation parameters, map scales, and audit trails of previous processing operations. This project will impact the fields of geographical information systems and global change research as well as the database community. It will provide an integrated database management testbed for scientific research, and a testbed for the development of analysis tools to understand and predict global change.

Hachem, Nabil I.; Gennert, Michael A.; Ward, Matthew O.

1993-08-01

317

Characterizing Uncertainty for Regional Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Decisions  

SciTech Connect

This white paper describes the results of new research to develop an uncertainty characterization process to help address the challenges of regional climate change mitigation and adaptation decisions.

Unwin, Stephen D.; Moss, Richard H.; Rice, Jennie S.; Scott, Michael J.

2011-09-30

318

The gender perspective in climate change and global health  

PubMed Central

Background Population health is a primary goal of sustainable development. United Nations international conferences like the Beijing Platform for Action have highlighted the key role of women in ensuring sustainable development. In the context of climate change, women are affected the most while they display knowledge and skills to orient themselves toward climate adaptation activities within their societies. Objective To investigate how the gender perspective is addressed as an issue in research and policy-making concerning climate change and global health. Methods A broad literature search was undertaken using the databases Pubmed and Web of Science to explore the terms ‘climate change,’ ‘health,’ ‘gender,’ and ‘policy.’ Climate change and health-related policy documents of the World Health Organization (WHO) and National Communications and National Adaptation Programs of Action reports submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change of selected countries were studied. Assessment guidelines to review these reports were developed from this study's viewpoint. Results The database search results showed almost no articles when the four terms were searched together. The WHO documents lacked a gender perspective in their approach and future recommendations on climate policies. The reviewed UN reports were also neutral to gender perspective except one of the studied documents. Conclusion Despite recognizing the differential effects of climate change on health of women and men as a consequence of complex social contexts and adaptive capacities, the study finds gender to be an underrepresented or non-existing variable both in research and studied policy documents in the field of climate change and health. PMID:21160554

Preet, Raman; Nilsson, Maria; Schumann, Barbara; Evengard, Birgitta

2010-01-01

319

Atmospheric signatures of changing global biogeochemistry (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precise measurements of the relative abundance of the major components of the Earth's atmosphere, N2, O2, Ar, CO2 and their isotopic composition can provide powerful insights into how the planet is changing. Despite low variability in these components, measurement technologies now allow changes to be detected in a range of components each providing a unique perspective into changing global biogeochemistry. This talk will provide a brief overview of progress on this frontier, discussing measurements of O2/N2, Ar/N2, ratios, and CO2 and O2 isotopic abundances in background air and their applications relating to changing ocean biogeochemistry, ocean ventilation, ocean heat storage, land gross primary production and water-use efficiency.

Keeling, R. F.

2013-12-01

320

Adaptation of a globally important coccolithophore to ocean warming and acidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although ocean warming and acidification are recognized as two major anthropogenic perturbations of today's oceans we know very little about how marine phytoplankton may respond via evolutionary change. We tested for adaptation to ocean warming in combination with ocean acidification in the globally important phytoplankton species Emiliania huxleyi. Temperature adaptation occurred independently of ocean acidification levels. Growth rates were up to 16% higher in populations adapted for one year to warming when assayed at their upper thermal tolerance limit. Particulate inorganic (PIC) and organic (POC) carbon production was restored to values under present-day ocean conditions, owing to adaptive evolution, and were 101% and 55% higher under combined warming and acidification, respectively, than in non-adapted controls. Cells also evolved to a smaller size while they recovered their initial PIC:POC ratio even under elevated CO2. The observed changes in coccolithophore growth, calcite and biomass production, cell size and elemental composition demonstrate the importance of evolutionary processes for phytoplankton performance in a future ocean.

Schlüter, Lothar; Lohbeck, Kai T.; Gutowska, Magdalena A.; Gröger, Joachim P.; Riebesell, Ulf; Reusch, Thorsten B. H.

2014-11-01

321

GLOBAL CHANGE ECOLOGY -ORIGINAL RESEARCH Local effects of a global problem: modelling the risk of parasite-  

E-print Network

and pathogens in relation to climate change, especially global warming, has been of major concern in many predicted climate change--especially global warming--and parasitism may impact on marine host populationsGLOBAL CHANGE ECOLOGY - ORIGINAL RESEARCH Local effects of a global problem: modelling the risk

Poulin, Robert

322

Evaluating Global Climate Change Education Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Climate Change Education initiative (GCCE) is a multi-site effort funded by the National Science Foundation to develop web resources. The objective of curricular modules is to improve content knowledge and change attitudes about climate change among undergraduate science students. The two-year evaluation of the project was conducted by Tim Weston from the University of Colorado. The small-scale evaluation first developed measures for attitude and content about climate change, and then administered the measures online. Analysis of results is ongoing. The evaluator wanted to know the attitudes and content knowledge of students after completing the modules, and if attitudes and content knowledge shifted from pre to post. An additional component of the evaluation focused on student understanding of specific global warming topics after completing the modules. Developing the test and survey involved reviewing existing measures, soliciting content from stakeholders in the grant, and then establishing a content framework that covered the important topics in climate change linked to project curricula. The pilot attitude measure contained fourteen agree/disagree items (I believe people should change their lifestyles to help minimize climate change), five self-assessment questions (How informed are you about the different causes of climate change? ), and wo previous experience questions about previous science courses taken, and actions related to climate change. The content measure contained 10 multiple-choice items asking about changes in global average temperature, the scientific methods of climate change, and the primary countries and human activities responsible for climate change. Questions were designed to reflect a mixture of general science literacy about climate change and more specific content related knowledge taught in the curricula. Both content and attitude measures were piloted with students, who answered questions using a think-aloud" interview protocol meant to clarify any ambiguous wording or over-specialized vocabulary in the items. Corrected versions of the measures were then given to small groups of students to check for instrument and sub-scale reliability and to learn if any items had ceiling or floor effects. Results from administration of the post attitude survey showed a majority of students in multiple courses agreed with attitude items across the range of topics. For instance, 72 - 90% or students in 8 courses using the modules agreed or strongly agreed with the statement "I believe people should change their lifestyles to help minimize climate change." A majority of students also agreed with statements such as "Human actions are causing climate change, " and "there is sufficient scientific evidence that climate change is taking place." Where pre/post data was available, average scores across items increased after students used the curricula by an average of .5 on a scale of 1 - 5. Students also scored high on the climate change content measure. Average percentage correct scores per item ranged from 32% to 90%. Average scores also gained by 2 -4 points depending on course.

Weston, T. J.

2011-12-01

323

Toward an understanding of global change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the international scientific community, the International Council of Scientific Unions has organized the International Geosphere Biosphere Program (IGBP) to address the problems of global change. The objective of the IGBP is to describe and understand the interactive physical, chemical, and biological processes that regulate the total earth system, the unique environment that it provides for life, the changes that are occurring in this system, and the manner in which they are influenced by human activities. The IGBP is currently in its preparatory phase, during which the program's goals and research components are slowly evolving and coming into focus. In this report, a limited number of high-priority research initiatives are recommended for early implementation as part of the U.S. contribution to the preparatory phase of the IGBP. The recommendations are based on the committee's analysis of the most critical gaps, not being addressed by existing programs, in the scientific knowledge needed to understand the changes that are occurring in the earth system on time scales of decades to centuries. These initiatives will build upon the capabilities of the U.S. program in global change.

1988-01-01

324

Gene pleiotropy constrains gene expression changes in fish adapted to different thermal conditions  

PubMed Central

Understanding the factors that shape the evolution of gene expression is a central goal in biology, but the molecular mechanisms behind this remain controversial. A related major goal is ascertaining how such factors may affect the adaptive potential of a species or population. Here we demonstrate that temperature-driven gene expression changes in fish adapted to differing thermal environments are constrained by the level of gene pleiotropy estimated by either the number of protein interactions or gene biological processes. Genes with low pleiotropy levels were the main drivers of both plastic and evolutionary global expression profile changes, while highly pleiotropic genes had limited expression response to temperature treatment. Our study provides critical insights into the molecular mechanisms by which natural populations can adapt to changing environments. In addition to having important implications for climate change adaptation, these results suggest that gene pleiotropy should be considered more carefully when interpreting expression profiling data. PMID:24892934

Papakostas, Spiros; V?llestad, L. Asbj?rn; Bruneaux, Matthieu; Aykanat, Tutku; Vanoverbeke, Joost; Ning, Mei; Primmer, Craig R.; Leder, Erica H.

2014-01-01

325

The impact of global climatic changes on the aquatic environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climatic change, as defined by the U.S. Global Change Research Act of 1990 (GCRA), “means changes in the global environment (including alterations in climate, land productivity, oceans or other water resources, atmospheric chemistry, and ecological systems) that may alter the capacity of the Earth to sustain life”. Climatic changes are the most drastic variables interacting with all live aspects

Alaa E. Eissa; Manal M. Zaki

2011-01-01

326

Global Climate Change: Economics, Science, and Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How will various institutions respond to global warming? It's a multifaceted question, and one that forms the basis of this thoughtful course offered by MIT's Sloan School of Management. Materials for the course are offered as part of MIT's OpenCourseWare initiative, and they include a syllabus, reading suggestions, lecture notes, and several assignments. The course was originally taught in the spring of 2007 by Professors Henry Jacoby and Ronald Prinn, and it also draws on research from the university's Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change. Visitors can get a sense of the course's basic objectives by looking over the readings and the lecture notes, and interested parties may even want to take on some of the homework assignments offered here.

Jacoby, Henry D.; Prinn, Ronald G.; Webster, Mort

2008-05-29

327

Marine ecosystem responses to Cenozoic global change.  

PubMed

The future impacts of anthropogenic global change on marine ecosystems are highly uncertain, but insights can be gained from past intervals of high atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure. The long-term geological record reveals an early Cenozoic warm climate that supported smaller polar ecosystems, few coral-algal reefs, expanded shallow-water platforms, longer food chains with less energy for top predators, and a less oxygenated ocean than today. The closest analogs for our likely future are climate transients, 10,000 to 200,000 years in duration, that occurred during the long early Cenozoic interval of elevated warmth. Although the future ocean will begin to resemble the past greenhouse world, it will retain elements of the present "icehouse" world long into the future. Changing temperatures and ocean acidification, together with rising sea level and shifts in ocean productivity, will keep marine ecosystems in a state of continuous change for 100,000 years. PMID:23908226

Norris, R D; Turner, S Kirtland; Hull, P M; Ridgwell, A

2013-08-01

328

Global change and human susceptibility to disease  

SciTech Connect

Although the loss of good health is inherently unpredictable, human behavior at the individual and societal levels profoundly influences the incidence and evolution of disease. In this review, the authors define the human epidemiological environment and describe key biophysical, economic, sociocultural, and political factors that shape it. The potential impact upon the epidemiological environment of biophysical aspects of global change--changes in the size; mobility, and geographic distribution of the human population; land conversion; agricultural intensification; and climate change--is then examined. Human vulnerability to disease is strongly and deleteriously influenced by many of these ongoing, intensifying alterations. The authors then examine threats to human defenses against disease, including immune suppression, loss of biodiversity and indigenous knowledge, and the evolution of antibiotic resistance. Effective responses will require greatly enhanced attention by and collaboration among experts in diverse academic disciplines, in the private sector, and in government worldwide. 157 refs.

Daily, G.C.; Ehrlich, P.R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)] [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1996-12-31

329

Global Climate Change: Understanding the Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about ways in which scientists study past climate change. These studies involve investigations of ice cores taken from the vast ice sheet that covers Greenland and fossil evidence that parts of the Sahara Desert were once lush and filled with animal species more often associated with the African savanna far to the south. With the help of multimedia interactives and video, they will understand what global climate change is and that it has fluctuated many times during the history of the planet. They will also understand how changing climate affects our lives, learn about greenhouse gases, and consider the events that are causing an increase in the amount of these gases in the atmosphere.

2005-01-01

330

Global warming and changes in ocean circulation  

SciTech Connect

This final report provides an overview of the goals and accomplishments of this project. Modeling and observational work has raised the possibility that global warming may cause changes in the circulation of the ocean. If such changes would occur they could have important climatic consequences. The first technical goal of this project was to investigate some of these possible changes in ocean circulation in a quantitative way, using a state-of -the-art numerical model of the ocean. Another goal was to develop our ocean model, a detailed three-dimensional numerical model of the ocean circulation and ocean carbon cycles. A major non-technical goal was to establish LLNL as a center of excellence in modelling the ocean circulation and carbon cycle.

Duffy, P.B.; Caldeira, K.C.

1998-02-01

331

Explaining Climate Change - a Global Educational Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding and responding to human caused climate change is one of the defining challenges facing humanity in the early 21st century. The need to both educate our youth and equip them to take decisive and effective action must become a critical focus of education. To this end we present www.explainingclimatechange.ca - a comprehensive learning package that presents the underlying science of climate change to a global student cohort aged 16 - 19 years. The materials within this resource include many interactive components that encourage an active learning approach to understanding the evidential bases for the science of climate change as well as tools enabling students to begin to develop mitigation strategies to reduce human impact on climate. These materials are a joint International Year of Chemistry legacy project of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, UNESCO, the American Chemical Society, the Royal Society of Chemistry and the King's Centre for Visualization in Science.

Martin, B.; Mahaffy, P.; Kirchhoff, M.

2012-12-01

332

Changing Planet: Adaptation of Species (Birds and Butterflies)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video addresses the impact of climate change on several butterfly populations. Warming temperatures lead to shifts in location of populations of butterflies or die-offs of populations unable to adapt to changing conditions or shift to new locations.

Association, National E.; Learn, Windows T.

333

Facing the Unpredictable: Automated Adaption of IT Change Plans  

E-print Network

the continuity of the business. In order to tackle this problem, we propose a logically sound approach to adapt to changed management domains is unavoidable because the reliability and business continuityFacing the Unpredictable: Automated Adaption of IT Change Plans for Unpredictable Management

Kemper, Alfons

334

The impacts of climate change on global irrigation water requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change tends to affect the irrigation water requirement of current irrigated agricultural land, and also changes the water availability for current rain-fed land by the end of this century. We use the most up-to-date climatic and crop datasets (e.g., global irrigated/rain-fed crop areas and grid level crop growing calendar (Portmann, Siebert and Döll, 2010, Global Biogeochemical Cycles 24)) to evaluate the requirements of currently irrigated land and the water deficit for rain-fed land for all major crops under current and projected climate. Six general circulation models (GCMs) under two emission scenarios, A1B & B1, are assembled using two methods, the Simple Average Method (SAM) and Root Mean Square Error Ensemble Method (RMSEMM), to deal with the GCM regional variability. It is found that the global irrigation requirement and the water deficit are both going to increase significantly under all scenarios, particularly under the A1B emission scenario. For example, the projected irrigation requirement is expected to increase by about 2500 million m3 for wheat, 3200 million m3 for maize and another 3300 million m3 for rice. At the same time, the water deficit for current rain-fed cropland will be widened by around 3000, 4000, 2100 million m3 for wheat, maize and rice respectively. Regional analysis is conducted for Africa, China, Europe, India, South America and the United States. It is found that the U.S. may expect the greatest rise in irrigation requirements for wheat and maize, while the South America may suffer the greatest increase for rice. In addition, Africa and the U.S. may face a larger water deficit for both wheat and maize on rain-fed land, and South America just for rice. In summary, climate change is likely to bring severe challenges for irrigation systems and make global water shortage even worse by the end of this century. These pressures will call for extensive adaptation measures. The change in crop water requirements and availability will lead to changes in regional food production, demand and trade, and will affect global food markets. It is also likely that the network and paths of the so-called global virtual water flow will be altered due to the impact of climate change on food production at the regional level.

Zhang, X.; Cai, X.

2011-12-01

335

Global climate change: Policy implications for fisheries  

SciTech Connect

Several government agencies are evaluating policy options for addressing global climate change. These include planning for anticipated effects and developing mitigation options where feasible if climate does change as predicted. For fisheries resources, policy questions address effects on international, national, and regional scales. Climate change variables expected to affect inland and offshore fisheries include temperature rise, changes in the hydrologic cycle, alterations in nutrient fluxes, and reduction and relocation of spawning and nursery habitat. These variables will affect resources at all levels of biological organization, including the genetic, organism, population, and ecosystem levels. In this context, changes in primary productivity, species composition in the food-web, migration, invasions, synchrony in biological cycles, shifts in utilization of niches, and problems of larvae entrainment in estuaries have been identified. Maintaining ecosystem robustness (i.e., high biodiversity) is another component of the problem. Action requires establishing priorities for information needs, determining appropriate temporal and spatial scales at which to model effects, and accounting for interactive changes in physical and biological cycles. A policy response can be derived when these results are integrated with social needs and human population constraints.

Gucinski, H.; Lackey, R.T.; Spence, B.C.

1990-01-01

336

Recommendation for funding the 1992 Global Change Summer Institute: Industrial ecology and global change  

SciTech Connect

A summer institute on Industrial Ecology and Global Change was held at Snow Mass, Colorado, July 20--31, 1992. Topics of discussion included the following: the patterns and prospects of global industrialization; the vulnerability of the global environment to human activity; how industrial activity might be reconfigured in response to a deeper understanding of the major biogeochemical cycles in which this activity is embedded; how industrial activity might be reconfigured in response to a deeper understanding of associated exotic disturbances of the environment; interactions of human activity with basic environmental cycles; human activity in the form of exotic disturbance of the environment; and the dynamics of industrial development and the environmental implications.

Fein, J.S.

1992-12-31

337

Geomorphology and the consequences of global climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Popularist accounts, mediated through the lens of the physical science community behind the successive reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, see a direct linkage between global climate changes and their impacts on passive human populations. Conversely, at the same time, there has been a huge research effort directed towards understanding land use and land cover changes caused by human activity, the associated impacts on land surface processes, ecosystem services and biodiversity, and their feedbacks on climate. In reality, however, global environmental change is mediated through, and by, four large-scale drivers which go beyond these two approaches to the global change problem: the globally-scaled controls of hydroclimate and sea level; the spatially and temporally discontinuous impacts of direct human activity; and the spatial context provided by topographic relief. These drivers are not all active in every landscape system and their relative importance varies between environments and biomes. An important task for geomorphology, at the spatial scale of 1 - 10 000 sq km and over timescales of decades to centuries, is to provide an alternative perspective on patterns of landscape vulnerability, akin to those already produced by ecosystem science and conservation biology. In meeting this challenge, geomorphology needs to focus more strongly on how knowledge gained from intensively studied small scale systems - typical of the Anglo-American process-based geomorphology of the last half century - to the time and space scales associated with adaptive strategies to climate change. Furthermore, geomorphology needs to promote an understanding of core geomorphological principles within the wider scientific community, emphasising the fact that landscape change under climate change is unlikely to be simply progressive and linear; highlighting the variable magnitude, mode and timeframes of morphological adjustment (responsiveness) from different geomorphic elements; identifying the key uncertainties in landscape responses; and promoting better-informed, landscape-based decision making. Ultimately, a geomorphology for the 21st century should have a strong underlying focus on making communities more resilient to the effects of climate change, particularly in helping those who are the most vulnerable and least able to cope with a rapidly changing environment.

Spencer, Thomas

2010-05-01

338

Antarctic Benthic Fauna in the Global Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last 50 years a significant climatic shift has been observed along the Antarctic Peninsula (air and seawater temperature rise, glacial retreat, localized instances of lowered shallow waters salinities). Many Antarctic marine benthic invertebrates are adapted to specific environmental conditions (e.g. low stable temperatures, high salinity and oxygen content). Changes caused by global climate changes and subsequent glacial melting can be expected to have significant impacts on species physiology and distribution. The rise of sea water temperature coupled with such additional stress factors as melt water run-off, increased ice disturbance, disruption of food webs or invasion of alien species can be a serious problem for their long-term survival.

Kidawa, Anna; Janecki, Tomasz

2011-01-01

339

Strengthening socio-ecological resilience through disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation: Identifying gaps in an uncertain world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global environmental change and climate change are rapidly altering the world's socio-ecological systems and affecting human populations at multiple scales. Important manifestations of these changes are hazard and disaster events. The emerging fields of climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction provide significant opportunities to avoid and\\/or reduce many of the negative consequences associated with such events. Reviewing current attempts

WILLIAM M. COLLIER; KASEY R. JACOBS; ALARK SAXENA; JULIANNE BAKER-GALLEGOS; MATTHEW CARROLL; GARY W. YOHE

2009-01-01

340

A roadmap for climate change adaptation in Sweden's forests: addressing wicked problems using adaptive management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is expected to have significant direct and indirect effects on forest ecosystems. Forests will have to adapt not only to changes in mean climate variables but also to increased climatic variability and altered disturbance regimes. Rates of change will likely exceed many forests capabilities to naturally adapt and many of today's trees will be exposed to the climates of 2090. In Sweden the effects are already being seen and more severe impacts are expected in the future. Exacerbating the challenge posed by climate change, a large proportion of Sweden's forests are, as a consequence of dominant production goals, greatly simplified and thus potentially more vulnerable to the uncertainties and risks associated with climate change. This simplification also confers reduced adaptive capacity to respond to potential impacts. Furthermore, many adaptation measures themselves carry uncertainties and risks. Future changes and effects are thus uncertain, yet forest managers, policymakers, scientists and other stakeholders must act. Strategies that build social and ecological resilience in the face of multiple interacting unknowns and surprises are needed. Adaptive management aims to collect and integrate knowledge about how a managed system is likely to respond to alternative management schemes and changing environmental conditions within a continuous decision process. There have been suggestions that adaptive management is not well suited to the large complex uncertainties associated with climate change and associated adaptation measures. However, more recently it has been suggested that adaptive management can handle such wicked problems, given adequate resources and a suitable breakdown of the targeted uncertainties. Here we test this hypothesis by evaluating how an adaptive management process could be used to manage the uncertainties and risks associated with securing resilient, biodiverse and productive forests in Sweden in the face of climate change. We illustrate how, along with the engagement of other stakeholders, scientific research and management agency actions can interact to develop and implement measures to assist climate change adaptation in Sweden's forests.

Rist, L.; Felton, A.; Samuelsson, L.; Marald, E.; Karlsson, B.; Johansson, U.; Rosvall, O.

2013-12-01

341

Global fish production and climate change  

PubMed Central

Current global fisheries production of ?160 million tons is rising as a result of increases in aquaculture production. A number of climate-related threats to both capture fisheries and aquaculture are identified, but we have low confidence in predictions of future fisheries production because of uncertainty over future global aquatic net primary production and the transfer of this production through the food chain to human consumption. Recent changes in the distribution and productivity of a number of fish species can be ascribed with high confidence to regional climate variability, such as the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. Future production may increase in some high-latitude regions because of warming and decreased ice cover, but the dynamics in low-latitude regions are governed by different processes, and production may decline as a result of reduced vertical mixing of the water column and, hence, reduced recycling of nutrients. There are strong interactions between the effects of fishing and the effects of climate because fishing reduces the age, size, and geographic diversity of populations and the biodiversity of marine ecosystems, making both more sensitive to additional stresses such as climate change. Inland fisheries are additionally threatened by changes in precipitation and water management. The frequency and intensity of extreme climate events is likely to have a major impact on future fisheries production in both inland and marine systems. Reducing fishing mortality in the majority of fisheries, which are currently fully exploited or overexploited, is the principal feasible means of reducing the impacts of climate change. PMID:18077405

Brander, K. M.

2007-01-01

342

Stormy Weather: 101 Solutions to Global Climate Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents 101 solutions to global climate change. These solutions are actions that are well suited to every level of society. This book creates awareness about global climate change. The history of Earth and the greenhouse effect are discussed, and explanations and solutions to global climate change are provided including traveling…

Dauncey, Guy

343

A need for planned adaptation to climate change in the wine industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diversity of wine production depends on subtle differences in microclimate and is therefore especially sensitive to climate change. A warmer climate will impact directly on wine-grapes through over-ripening, drying out, rising acidity levels, and greater vulnerability to pests and disease, resulting in changes in wine quality (e.g. complexity, balance and structure) or potentially the style of wine that can be produced. The growing scientific evidence for significant climate change in the coming decades means that adaptation will be of critical importance to the multi-billion dollar global wine-industry in general, and to quality wine producers in particular (White et al 2006, 2009; Hertsgaard 2011). Adaptation is understood as an adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected environmental change, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities (IPCC 2007). Autonomous adaptation has been an integral part of the 20th century wine industry. Technological advances, changes in consumer demand, and global competition have meant that growers and producers have had to adapt to stay in business. The gradual temperature rise in the 20th Century (0.7 °C globally) has been accommodated successfully by gradual changes in vine management, technological measures, production control, and marketing (White et al 2009), although this has in many cases resulted in the production of bolder, more alcoholic wines (Hertsgaard 2011). In spite of this success, the wine industry is surprisingly conservative when it comes to considering longer term planned adaptation for substantial climate change impacts. A few producers are expanding to new locations at higher altitudes or cooler climates (e.g. Torres is developing new vineyards high in the Pyrenees, and Mouton Rothschild is setting up new vineyards in South America), and the legal and cultural restrictions of Appelation d'Origine C?ntrollée (AOC) systems are being discussed (White et al 2009). Changes in the AOC regulations would, for example, be imperative if different grape varieties were to be cultivated in response to climate change. Thus far, however, there has been little coordinated action to plan ahead. The third Climate Change and Wine conference organised by the wine industry (April 2011 in Marbella, Spain; www.climatechangeandwine.com), exemplifies this situation since it focused on observed impacts and sustainable production (mitigation), rather than on adaptation to cope with projected change. Awareness and understanding of potential change is crucial in raising adaptive capacity (Metzger et al 2008). Diffenbaugh et al (2011) have recently developed a novel method for communicating potential climate change impacts for the wine industry using climate adaptation wedges. These diagrams summarise projected climate change impacts over time and distinguish the net gain or loss in wine production under a range of adaptation strategies. The climate adaptation wedges form a strong synthesis, illustrating how some losses can be negated with continued autonomous adaptation, but that even with effective planned adaptation the quality of premium wine-grapes is likely to alter. Although the study focused on the western US, the adaptation wedges can be compiled fairly easily for other wine regions, or even individual producers. As such, they can form an important communication tool, but can also help guide longer term strategic planning. Adaptation wedges require careful interpretation and it is probably this interpretation process that will provide the most valuable insights. The climate change impacts in the diagrams are based on observed relationships between climate and wine production, which is assumed to stay unchanged in the future. However, rapid climate change will be a great stimulus for a complex and unprecedented transformation of the industry. Similarly, the potential contributions of the alternative adaptation strategies to cope with climate change are best-estimates given current knowledge, but are open to discussion among experts. As

Metzger, Marc J.; Rounsevell, Mark D. A.

2011-09-01

344

Changes in global average surface temperature, global average sea level, and northern hemisphere snow cover  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Key figure from the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report that shows changes in global average surface temperature, global average sea level, and Northern Hemisphere snow cover from as far back as 1850.

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) AR4 Synthesis Report

345

Conditional Uncertainty in Anthropogenic Global Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although, the uncertainty associated with human-induced climate change is less that in many other human activities such as economic management and warfare, the uncertainties in the climate system have assumed a disproportionate profile in public debate. Achieving improved public understanding is dependent on consistent use of the various categories of change and their respective uncertainties. Probably the most important distinction to be made is between uncertainties associated with uncertain societal choices and uncertainties associated with the consequences of such choices. For the biogeochemical system, categories of uncertainty are adapted from those used in the study of uncertainty for the REgional Carbon Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) study. These are then extended and applied to the discussion of the combined carbon-climate system. Characterising uncertainties in future change requires a consistent approach to propagating into the future the uncertainties associated with the past and present state of the climate system. Again, previous analysis for the carbon system is extended to the carbon-climate system. The potential category ambiguities that arise from feedbacks between climate and carbon are identified and resolved. A consistent characterisation of the uncertainties in the earth system provides a basis for factoring the overall uncertainty into human and natural contributions.

Enting, I. G.

2012-12-01

346

Uncertainty and climate change adaptation : a scoping study  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is increasingly recognized that adaptation to climate change has become unavoidable. It is\\u000athe only response available for the impacts that will occur over the next several decades\\u000abefore mitigation measures can have an effect. Societies, organisations and individuals have\\u000abeen adapting to changing conditions for centuries but the advent of climate change brings\\u000anew challenges. Some of the

Suraje Dessai; Jeroen van de Sluijs

2007-01-01

347

Changes in Lake Ice: Ecosystem Response to Global Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This TIEE Data Set presents long term data on changes in dates of ice cover in three Wisconsin lakes. Global temperatures have increased by about 1 degree Fahrenheit during the last century, most likely the result of ÃÂgreenhouse gasesÃÂ such as carbon dioxide from burning of gasoline, oil, and coal. There are many environmental consequences of warmer temperatures, some unexpected. One challenge to our understanding of environmental effects due to global warming is lack of data collected over long periods of time. In this activity, students plot more than 100 years of data on dates of "ice on" and "ice off" and duration of ice cover and examine patterns of variation at different time scales.

Bohanan, Robert

2010-02-16

348

Planning for Adaptation to Climate Change in the City of Chicago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under Mayor Richard M. Daley's leadership, the City of Chicago initiated the Chicago Climate Action Plan (CCAP) to better understand local implications of global climate change in both higher and lower emissions scenarios, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and implement programs to build future climate change resilience. The City approached this work not only as a way to make Chicago more adaptable in the future, but also to improve Chicago's quality of life today. The Chicago Climate Action Plan adopted stresses the importance of both reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Chicago and preparing for climate changes that may be unavoidable. Building off of the City's significant environmental programs and projects, and based on our analyses of the climate effects and impacts that improved the scientific understanding of future climate change impacts on Chicago, the City then developed a set of climate change adaptation strategies, resulting in the City of Chicago Climate Change Adaptation Summary. This document includes prioritization of climate change adaptations based on relative risk as well as framework strategies for those tactics categorized as "must do/early action." In early 2008, The Mayor's Office asked five Commissioners from its Green Steering Committee to chair adaptation work groups including: extreme heat; extreme precipitation; buildings, infrastructure and equipment; ecosystems; and leadership, planning and communications. Working with staff from relevant departments, sister agencies and other stakeholders, these work groups developed 39 basic adaptation work plans, including plans for enhancing the City's existing projects and programs that relate to climate change adaptation. Climate change adaptation work will be on-going in City Departments under the Mayor's Office leadership. The City intends to continually monitor and improve its response to climate change, resulting in an improved quality of life for Chicago residents.

Wuebbles, D. J.; Hayhoe, K.; Coffee, J.; McGraw, J.; Parzen, J.

2008-12-01

349

Including species interactions in risk assessments for global change  

E-print Network

of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and World assessments for global change are restricted to evaluating the effects of incremental changes in climatic of climate change, there are other pressing drivers of global change, which need to be addressed effectively

Queensland, University of

350

Towards adaptation of agriculture to climate change in the Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate, water and agriculture and society are closely interlinked in Mediterranean countries and shape the social development in many rural areas. Societies, cultures and economies have evolved adapting to mean climatic conditions. The success of adaptation depends on the strategy, and it is determined by the economic, social, and environmental vulnerability. In this region, it is likely that the stress imposed by climate change to agriculture is by means of reducing water availability. Adaptation is a key factor that will shape the future severity of climate change impacts on agricultural production but prioritizing adaptation needs is complex, and, at least, requires information on: (1) water scarcity pressures, being water availability the main determinant of agriculture in the region; (2) a measure of the potential impacts; and (3) a measure of the potential limits (social and physical) to adaptation. Here we evaluate these three aspects discussing the adaptation priorities for agriculture in the Mediterranean region.

Iglesias, Ana; Garrote, Luis; Quiroga, Sonia; Schlickenrieder, Jeremy

2010-05-01

351

Climate change: impacts and adaptation in England's woodlands  

E-print Network

Climate change: impacts and adaptation in England's woodlands The changing climate presents associated with climate change, and the likely impact on trees, silviculture and forest operations that increase resilience whatever climate change brings, or that are likely to reap the greatest rewards

352

No increase in global temperature variability despite changing regional patterns.  

PubMed

Evidence from Greenland ice cores shows that year-to-year temperature variability was probably higher in some past cold periods, but there is considerable interest in determining whether global warming is increasing climate variability at present. This interest is motivated by an understanding that increased variability and resulting extreme weather conditions may be more difficult for society to adapt to than altered mean conditions. So far, however, in spite of suggestions of increased variability, there is considerable uncertainty as to whether it is occurring. Here we show that although fluctuations in annual temperature have indeed shown substantial geographical variation over the past few decades, the time-evolving standard deviation of globally averaged temperature anomalies has been stable. A feature of the changes has been a tendency for many regions of low variability to experience increases, which might contribute to the perception of increased climate volatility. The normalization of temperature anomalies creates the impression of larger relative overall increases, but our use of absolute values, which we argue is a more appropriate approach, reveals little change. Regionally, greater year-to-year changes recently occurred in much of North America and Europe. Many climate models predict that total variability will ultimately decrease under high greenhouse gas concentrations, possibly associated with reductions in sea-ice cover. Our findings contradict the view that a warming world will automatically be one of more overall climatic variation. PMID:23883935

Huntingford, Chris; Jones, Philip D; Livina, Valerie N; Lenton, Timothy M; Cox, Peter M

2013-08-15

353

Are there social limits to adaptation to climate change?  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there is a recognised need to adapt to changing climatic conditions, there is an emerging discourse of limits to such\\u000a adaptation. Limits are traditionally analysed as a set of immutable thresholds in biological, economic or technological parameters.\\u000a This paper contends that limits to adaptation are endogenous to society and hence contingent on ethics, knowledge, attitudes\\u000a to risk and culture.

W. Neil Adger; Suraje Dessai; Marisa Goulden; Mike Hulme; Irene Lorenzoni; Donald R. Nelson; Lars Otto Naess; Johanna Wolf; Anita Wreford

2009-01-01

354

Climate Change Adaptation in Light of Sustainable Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural activity has always included adaptation to a number of diverse stresses and opportunities-elements that continue influencing developments in the agri-food sector. Climate and weather conditions are a good example of factors that require on-going adaptation. With climate change they take on even more significance. Based on data from Canadian producers, this article identifies several climate and weather risk adaptation

Ellen Wall; Barry Smit

2005-01-01

355

Spatial modeling of agricultural land use change at global scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term modeling of agricultural land use is central in global scale assessments of climate change, food security, biodiversity, and climate adaptation and mitigation policies. We present a global-scale dynamic land use allocation model and show that it can reproduce the broad spatial features of the past 100 years of evolution of cropland and pastureland patterns. The modeling approach integrates economic theory, observed land use history, and data on both socioeconomic and biophysical determinants of land use change, and estimates relationships using long-term historical data, thereby making it suitable for long-term projections. The underlying economic motivation is maximization of expected profits by hypothesized landowners within each grid cell. The model predicts fractional land use for cropland and pastureland within each grid cell based on socioeconomic and biophysical driving factors that change with time. The model explicitly incorporates the following key features: (1) land use competition, (2) spatial heterogeneity in the nature of driving factors across geographic regions, (3) spatial heterogeneity in the relative importance of driving factors and previous land use patterns in determining land use allocation, and (4) spatial and temporal autocorrelation in land use patterns. We show that land use allocation approaches based solely on previous land use history (but disregarding the impact of driving factors), or those accounting for both land use history and driving factors by mechanistically fitting models for the spatial processes of land use change do not reproduce well long-term historical land use patterns. With an example application to the terrestrial carbon cycle, we show that such inaccuracies in land use allocation can translate into significant implications for global environmental assessments. The modeling approach and its evaluation provide an example that can be useful to the land use, Integrated Assessment, and the Earth system modeling communities.

Meiyappan, P.; Dalton, M.; O'Neill, B. C.; Jain, A. K.

2014-11-01

356

ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE  

PubMed Central

Changes to sources, stressors, habitats, and geographic ranges; toxicological effects; end points; and uncertainty estimation require significant changes in the implementation of ecological risk assessment (ERA). Because of the lack of analog systems and circumstances in historically studied sites, there is a likelihood of type III error. As a first step, the authors propose a decision key to aid managers and risk assessors in determining when and to what extent climate change should be incorporated. Next, when global climate change is an important factor, the authors recommend seven critical changes to ERA. First, develop conceptual cause–effect diagrams that consider relevant management decisions as well as appropriate spatial and temporal scales to include both direct and indirect effects of climate change and the stressor of management interest. Second, develop assessment end points that are expressed as ecosystem services. Third, evaluate multiple stressors and nonlinear responses—include the chemicals and the stressors related to climate change. Fourth, estimate how climate change will affect or modify management options as the impacts become manifest. Fifth, consider the direction and rate of change relative to management objectives, recognizing that both positive and negative outcomes can occur. Sixth, determine the major drivers of uncertainty, estimating and bounding stochastic uncertainty spatially, temporally, and progressively. Seventh, plan for adaptive management to account for changing environmental conditions and consequent changes to ecosystem services. Good communication is essential for making risk-related information understandable and useful for managers and stakeholders to implement a successful risk-assessment and decision-making process. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2013;32:79–92. © 2012 SETAC PMID:23161373

Landis, Wayne G; Durda, Judi L; Brooks, Marjorie L; Chapman, Peter M; Menzie, Charles A; Stahl, Ralph G; Stauber, Jennifer L

2013-01-01

357

Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into Public Health Practice: Using Adaptive Management to Increase Adaptive Capacity and Build Resilience  

PubMed Central

Background: Climate change is expected to have a range of health impacts, some of which are already apparent. Public health adaptation is imperative, but there has been little discussion of how to increase adaptive capacity and resilience in public health systems. Objectives: We explored possible explanations for the lack of work on adaptive capacity, outline climate–health challenges that may lie outside public health’s coping range, and consider changes in practice that could increase public health’s adaptive capacity. Methods: We conducted a substantive, interdisciplinary literature review focused on climate change adaptation in public health, social learning, and management of socioeconomic systems exhibiting dynamic complexity. Discussion: There are two competing views of how public health should engage climate change adaptation. Perspectives differ on whether climate change will primarily amplify existing hazards, requiring enhancement of existing public health functions, or present categorically distinct threats requiring innovative management strategies. In some contexts, distinctly climate-sensitive health threats may overwhelm public health’s adaptive capacity. Addressing these threats will require increased emphasis on institutional learning, innovative management strategies, and new and improved tools. Adaptive management, an iterative framework that embraces uncertainty, uses modeling, and integrates learning, may be a useful approach. We illustrate its application to extreme heat in an urban setting. Conclusions: Increasing public health capacity will be necessary for certain climate–health threats. Focusing efforts to increase adaptive capacity in specific areas, promoting institutional learning, embracing adaptive management, and developing tools to facilitate these processes are important priorities and can improve the resilience of local public health systems to climate change. PMID:21997387

McDowell, Julia Z.; Luber, George

2011-01-01

358

GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #26: NEW WEBSITE FOR EPA'S GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

I am pleased to announce that the new website for EPA's Global ChangeResearch Program is now publicly accessible. The website address is: www.epa.gov/globalresearch. This website is designed to provide a portal through which scientists, resource managers, and the public can acc...

359

Adapting to the Effects of Climate Change on Inuit Health  

PubMed Central

Climate change will have far-reaching implications for Inuit health. Focusing on adaptation offers a proactive approach for managing climate-related health risks—one that views Inuit populations as active agents in planning and responding at household, community, and regional levels. Adaptation can direct attention to the root causes of climate vulnerability and emphasize the importance of traditional knowledge regarding environmental change and adaptive strategies. An evidence base on adaptation options and processes for Inuit regions is currently lacking, however, thus constraining climate policy development. In this article, we tackled this deficit, drawing upon our understanding of the determinants of health vulnerability to climate change in Canada to propose key considerations for adaptation decision-making in an Inuit context. PMID:24754615

Ford, James D.; Willox, Ashlee Cunsolo; Chatwood, Susan; Furgal, Christopher; Harper, Sherilee; Mauro, Ian; Pearce, Tristan

2014-01-01

360

Porous Glass Technology for Global Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current and projected increases in carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gasses are expected to increase the trapping of outgoing longwave radiation by the Earth's atmosphere, forcing the surface to warm to restore radiative balance. Most proposed ways to avoid the potentially large temperature increases (and their costly effects) are aimed at minimizing future carbon dioxide concentrations, keeping them at or near current levels (or even reducing them). An alternative to these plans is to actively regulate the amount of solar radiation hitting the surface. Various proposals have been put forth to do this, but our research focuses on the introduction of porous glass microspheres into the stratosphere, where they will be expected to persist for long periods. Unlike similar plans to release sulfate aerosol into the stratosphere, the use of a manufactured aerosol allows us to prescribe the aerosol size and other properties. We have performed theoretical calculations to determine the mass of glass aerosol needed to make significant reductions in the surface shortwave flux, and we have used a global climate model to simulate the effect of placing these microspheres in the stratosphere. The consequent changes in the Earth's radiative balance and the effects on global climate are used as measures to evaluate the scheme.

Werth, D.; Rhodes, W.; Wicks, G.; Calloway, B.; Newell, D.

2008-05-01

361

Global climate change crosses state boundaries  

SciTech Connect

The hot, dry summer of 1988 brought the specter of global warming a bit too close for comfort. {open_quotes}Scorching heat, not scientific models, attracted media attention,{close_quotes} says Stanley A. Changnon, senior scientist with the Illinois State Water Survey in Champaign, Illinois. Rising temperatures in the late 1980`s prompted individual states to begin to take action to curb greenhouse-gas emissions. A 1990 report by the National Governors Association identified two guiding principles for addressing climate change issues. {open_quotes}First, that energy policy must be at the center of any efforts to control greenhouse-gas emissions. Second, that state can...restrict emissions through state policies related to public utilities, land use, transportation, and even taxation,{close_quotes} Changnon says. Even if concerns for global warming prove to be overblown, states decided to act for broader economic and environmental reasons. Such initiatives not only save money, but they improve air quality and leave the nation more energy independent,{close_quotes} Changnon says.

Changnon, S.A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

1996-12-31

362

Sustainable biochar to mitigate global climate change  

PubMed Central

Production of biochar (the carbon (C)-rich solid formed by pyrolysis of biomass) and its storage in soils have been suggested as a means of abating climate change by sequestering carbon, while simultaneously providing energy and increasing crop yields. Substantial uncertainties exist, however, regarding the impact, capacity and sustainability of biochar at the global level. In this paper we estimate the maximum sustainable technical potential of biochar to mitigate climate change. Annual net emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane and nitrous oxide could be reduced by a maximum of 1.8?Pg CO2-C equivalent (CO2-Ce) per year (12% of current anthropogenic CO2-Ce emissions; 1?Pg=1?Gt), and total net emissions over the course of a century by 130?Pg CO2-Ce, without endangering food security, habitat or soil conservation. Biochar has a larger climate-change mitigation potential than combustion of the same sustainably procured biomass for bioenergy, except when fertile soils are amended while coal is the fuel being offset. PMID:20975722

Woolf, Dominic; Amonette, James E.; Street-Perrott, F. Alayne; Lehmann, Johannes; Joseph, Stephen

2010-01-01

363

Hurricanes and Climate Change: Global Systems and Local Impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With funding from NOAA, the Miami Science Museum has been working with exhibit software developer Ideum to create an interactive exhibit exploring the global dimensions and local impacts of climate change. A particular focus is on climate-related impacts on coastal communities, including the potential effects on South Florida of ocean acidification, rising sea level, and the possibility of more intense hurricanes. The exhibit is using a 4-foot spherical display system in conjunction with a series of touchscreen kiosks and accompanying flat screens to create a user-controlled, multi-user interface that lets visitors control the sphere and choose from a range of global and local content they wish to explore. The exhibit has been designed to promote engagement of diverse, multigenerational audiences through development of a fully bilingual user interface that promotes social interaction and conversation among visitors as they trade off control of global content on the sphere and related local content on the flat screens. The open-source learning module will be adaptable by other museums, to explore climate impacts specific to their region.

Santer, J.

2011-12-01

364

Global change - Geoengineering and space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geoengineering options and alternatives are proposed for mitigating the effects of global climate change and depletion of the ozone layer. Geoengineering options were discussed by the National Academy of Science Panel on the Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. Several of the ideas conveyed in their published report are space-based or depend on space systems for implementation. Among the geoengineering options using space that are discussed include the use of space power systems as an alternative to fossil fuels for generating electricity, the use of lunar He-3 to aid in the development of fusion energy, and the establishment of a lunar power system for solar energy conversion and electric power beaming back to earth. Other geoengineering options are discussed. They include the space-based modulation of hurricane forces and two space-based approaches in dealing with ozone layer depletion. The engineering challenges and policy implementation issues are discussed for these geongineering options.

Jenkins, Lyle M.

1992-01-01

365

Science-policy linkages in climate change adaptation in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to emphasise the importance of resolving the disconnect between issues of quality, timing and uncertainty in climate projections and the need for swift, informed and appropriate climate change adaptation decisions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper utilises results from a multi-level study of adaptation policy conducted in early 2009 to assess the different approaches

Lisa Westerhoff; Sirkku Juhola

2010-01-01

366

Assessing institutional capacities to adapt to climate change - integrating psychological dimensions in the Adaptive Capacity Wheel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several case studies show that "soft social factors" (e.g. institutions, perceptions, social capital) strongly affect social capacities to adapt to climate change. Many soft social factors can probably be changed faster than "hard social factors" (e.g. economic and technological development) and are therefore particularly important for building social capacities. However, there are almost no methodologies for the systematic assessment of soft social factors. Gupta et al. (2010) have developed the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) for assessing the adaptive capacity of institutions. The ACW differentiates 22 criteria to assess six dimensions: variety, learning capacity, room for autonomous change, leadership, availability of resources, fair governance. To include important psychological factors we extended the ACW by two dimensions: "adaptation motivation" refers to actors' motivation to realise, support and/or promote adaptation to climate. "Adaptation belief" refers to actors' perceptions of realisability and effectiveness of adaptation measures. We applied the extended ACW to assess adaptive capacities of four sectors - water management, flood/coastal protection, civil protection and regional planning - in North Western Germany. The assessments of adaptation motivation and belief provided a clear added value. The results also revealed some methodological problems in applying the ACW (e.g. overlap of dimensions), for which we propose methodological solutions.

Grothmann, T.; Grecksch, K.; Winges, M.; Siebenhüner, B.

2013-03-01

367

Climate Change Education for Mitigation and Adaptation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article makes the case for the education sector an untapped opportunity to combat climate change. It sets forth a definition of Climate Change Education for Sustainable Development that is comprehensive and multidisciplinary and asserts that it must not only include relevant content knowledge on climate change, environmental and social…

Anderson, Allison

2012-01-01

368

Climate change adaptation in light of sustainable agriculture  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT. Agricultural activity has always included adaptation to a number of diverse stresses and opportunities–elements that continue influencing developments in the agri-food sector. Climate and weather conditions are a good example of factors that require on-going adaptation. Withclimatechangetheytakeonevenmoresignificance.Basedondata from Canadian producers, this article identifies several climate and weather risk adaptation strategies currently in use and notes their close links to sustainable agriculture practices. The article concludes that the mutually supportive relationship between sustainable agriculture and climate change adaptation could be used to justify more government support for sustainable agriculture policies and programs. [Article copies available for a fee

Ellen Wall; Barry Smit

2005-01-01

369

Feedbacks and Acceleration of Global Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The burning of fossil fuels since the beginning of the Industrial revolution has increased the level of atmospheric CO2 by about 45 % over that of earlier times. The increasing greenhouse effect is augmented by a series of feedbacks; most have been positive, but a few are negative. The most important are 1) Slowing of the thermohaline circulation system; 2) Decreasing Atlantic to Pacific vapor transport; 3) Increasing Arctic river runoff; 4) Melting of Arctic sea ice; 5) Periodic replacement of the Arctic atmospheric high by a cyclonic low pressure system; 6) Increased exchange of waters between the Arctic and North Atlantic; 7) Lessening of the Northern Hemisphere ice-albedo feedback effect; 8) Addition of methane from melting permafrost; 9) Overall changes in the rate of ocean mixing; 10) Overall changes in vegetation cover of land; 11) Increase in the area covered by C4 vegetation; 12) Addition of nitrous oxide from agricultural practices; 13) Changes in insect populations and their effect on vegetation; 14) Wildfires; 15) Soot accumulation on snow and ice; 16) Accelerated melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet; 17) Changes in the East Antarctic Ice Sheet; 18) Closing of the ozone hole over Antarctica; 19) Decay of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet; 20) Expansion of Southern Ocean sea ice; 21) Slowing of the rate of organic matter sinking into the deep ocean; 22) Decrease in insolation reaching the surface of the Earth as a result of introduction of aerosols into the atmosphere; 23) Depletion of stratospheric ozone by nitrous oxide. The global and regional effects and relative importance of many of these feedbacks are uncertain, and they may change both in magnitude and sign with time. New and unexpected mechanisms are constantly being discovered. The uncertainties and complexity associated with climate system feedbacks are responsible for the acceleration of climate change beyond the rates predicted by numerical modeling. To add to the difficulties inherent in predictions of future climate change, the increasingly chaotic weather is an indication that the Earth's climate system is becoming unstable in response to the ongoing perturbations.

Hay, William

2014-05-01

370

Diatom Community Response to Global Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diatoms are ubiquitous components of marine and freshwater environments and are responsible for nearly a quarter of the world's primary production. These microscopic algae are excellent indicators of environmental change and are routinely used as indicators of water quality. Diatom frustules have also been used to infer past climate change. With anticipated increases in atmospheric CO2 and eutrophication, understanding the contribution by diatoms as sinks for carbon in the world's oceans and estuaries is crucial. Benthic diatoms are especially significant in this respect due to their interactions with both atmospheric and sedimentary carbon cycling. We investigated changes in marsh sediment diatom community structure in response to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen input. Twenty plots of brackish marsh were enclosed in environmental chambers and exposed to two levels of atmospheric CO2 (ambient and elevated) crossed with a nitrogen-addition treatment (2 x 2 factorial) beginning in May 2006. DNA was extracted from sediment samples obtained from environmentally controlled marsh plots in June, 2008. Using diatom-specific primers, the diatom community was amplified by PCR and evaluated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The diatom community composition was then compared across the four treatments (Amb, Amb+N, Elev, Elev+N) using multivariate statistical methods. Multidimensional scaling plots revealed clear grouping of samples according to treatment. A global analysis of similarity test was significant, as were all pairwise comparisons of treatments. The greatest changes in community structure occurred in the elevated CO2 group. In contrast, Amb+N was more similar to Elev+N, suggesting that nitrogen effects may mask elevated CO2 effects on diatom community structure in these plots.

Hook, W. F.; Rose, J.; Langley, J. A.; Coyne, K. J.

2008-12-01

371

The effects of global climate change on seagrasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing rate of global climate change seen in this century, and predicted to accelerate into the next, will significantly impact the Earth's oceans. In this review, we examine previously published seagrass research through a lens of global climate change in order to consider the potential effects on the world's seagrasses. A primary effect of increased global temperature on seagrasses

Frederick T. Short; Hilary A. Neckles

1999-01-01

372

Managing Global Atmospheric Change: A U.S. Policy Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are several air pollution issues that concern the international community at the regional and global level, including acid deposition, heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, stratospheric ozone depletion, and climate change. Governments at the regional and global levels have entered into various agreements in an effort to deal with these problems. This paper deals with two major global atmospheric change

Dennis Leaf

2001-01-01

373

A global framework for monitoring phenological responses to climate change  

E-print Network

A global framework for monitoring phenological responses to climate change Michael A. White,1, it is difficult to extract a clear signal from the usually assumed forcing: climate change. Here, using global 8, W. W. Hargrove, and R. R. Nemani (2005), A global framework for monitoring phenological responses

Hargrove, William W.

374

Evolutionary history underlies plant physiological responses to global change since the last glacial maximum  

PubMed Central

Assessing family- and species-level variation in physiological responses to global change across geologic time is critical for understanding factors that underlie changes in species distributions and community composition. Here, we used stable carbon isotopes, leaf nitrogen content and stomatal measurements to assess changes in leaf-level physiology in a mixed conifer community that underwent significant changes in composition since the last glacial maximum (LGM) (21 kyr BP). Our results indicate that most plant taxa decreased stomatal conductance and/or maximum photosynthetic capacity in response to changing conditions since the LGM. However, plant families and species differed in the timing and magnitude of these physiological responses, and responses were more similar within families than within co-occurring species assemblages. This suggests that adaptation at the level of leaf physiology may not be the main determinant of shifts in community composition, and that plant evolutionary history may drive physiological adaptation to global change over recent geologic time. PMID:24636555

Becklin, Katie M.; Medeiros, Juliana S.; Sale, Kayla R.; Ward, Joy K.

2014-01-01

375

The state of climate change adaptation in the Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic climate is rapidly changing, with wide ranging impacts on natural and social systems. A variety of adaptation policies, programs and practices have been adopted to this end, yet our understanding of if, how, and where adaptation is occurring is limited. In response, this paper develops a systematic approach to characterize the current state of adaptation in the Arctic. Using reported adaptations in the English language peer reviewed literature as our data source, we document 157 discrete adaptation initiatives between 2003 and 2013. Results indicate large variations in adaptation by region and sector, dominated by reporting from North America, particularly with regards to subsistence harvesting by Inuit communities. Few adaptations were documented in the European and Russian Arctic, or have a focus on the business and economy, or infrastructure sectors. Adaptations are being motivated primarily by the combination of climatic and non-climatic factors, have a strong emphasis on reducing current vulnerability involving incremental changes to existing risk management processes, and are primarily initiated and led at the individual/community level. There is limited evidence of trans-boundary adaptations or initiatives considering potential cross-scale/sector impacts.

Ford, James D.; McDowell, Graham; Jones, Julie

2014-10-01

376

Extracting the globally and locally adaptive backbone of complex networks.  

PubMed

A complex network is a useful tool for representing and analyzing complex systems, such as the world-wide web and transportation systems. However, the growing size of complex networks is becoming an obstacle to the understanding of the topological structure and their characteristics. In this study, a globally and locally adaptive network backbone (GLANB) extraction method is proposed. The GLANB method uses the involvement of links in shortest paths and a statistical hypothesis to evaluate the statistical importance of the links; then it extracts the backbone, based on the statistical importance, from the network by filtering the less important links and preserving the more important links; the result is an extracted subnetwork with fewer links and nodes. The GLANB determines the importance of the links by synthetically considering the topological structure, the weights of the links and the degrees of the nodes. The links that have a small weight but are important from the view of topological structure are not belittled. The GLANB method can be applied to all types of networks regardless of whether they are weighted or unweighted and regardless of whether they are directed or undirected. The experiments on four real networks show that the link importance distribution given by the GLANB method has a bimodal shape, which gives a robust classification of the links; moreover, the GLANB method tends to put the nodes that are identified as the core of the network by the k-shell algorithm into the backbone. This method can help us to understand the structure of the networks better, to determine what links are important for transferring information, and to express the network by a backbone easily. PMID:24936975

Zhang, Xiaohang; Zhang, Zecong; Zhao, Han; Wang, Qi; Zhu, Ji

2014-01-01

377

Extracting the Globally and Locally Adaptive Backbone of Complex Networks  

PubMed Central

A complex network is a useful tool for representing and analyzing complex systems, such as the world-wide web and transportation systems. However, the growing size of complex networks is becoming an obstacle to the understanding of the topological structure and their characteristics. In this study, a globally and locally adaptive network backbone (GLANB) extraction method is proposed. The GLANB method uses the involvement of links in shortest paths and a statistical hypothesis to evaluate the statistical importance of the links; then it extracts the backbone, based on the statistical importance, from the network by filtering the less important links and preserving the more important links; the result is an extracted subnetwork with fewer links and nodes. The GLANB determines the importance of the links by synthetically considering the topological structure, the weights of the links and the degrees of the nodes. The links that have a small weight but are important from the view of topological structure are not belittled. The GLANB method can be applied to all types of networks regardless of whether they are weighted or unweighted and regardless of whether they are directed or undirected. The experiments on four real networks show that the link importance distribution given by the GLANB method has a bimodal shape, which gives a robust classification of the links; moreover, the GLANB method tends to put the nodes that are identified as the core of the network by the k-shell algorithm into the backbone. This method can help us to understand the structure of the networks better, to determine what links are important for transferring information, and to express the network by a backbone easily. PMID:24936975

Zhang, Xiaohang; Zhang, Zecong; Zhao, Han; Wang, Qi; Zhu, Ji

2014-01-01

378

Accommodating migration to promote adaptation to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explains how climate change may increase future migration, and which risks are associated with such migration. It also examines how some of this migration may enhance the capacity of communities to adapt to climate change. Climate change is likely to result in some increase above baseline rates of migration in the next 40 years. Most of this migration

Jon Barnett; Michael Webber

2010-01-01

379

Walking infants adapt locomotion to changing body dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infants acquire independent mobility amidst a flux of body growth. Changes in body dimensions and variations in the ground change the physical constraints on keeping balance. The study examined whether toddlers can adapt to changes in their body dimensions and variations in the terrain by loading them with lead weights and observing how they navigated safe and risky slopes. Experiment

Karen E. Adolph; Anthony M. Avolio

2000-01-01

380

Modeling Climate Change Adaptation: Challenges, Recent Developments and Future Directions  

E-print Network

Modeling Climate Change Adaptation: Challenges, Recent Developments and Future Directions Karen of modeling practice in the field of integrated assessment of climate change and ways forward. Past efforts assessments of climate change have concentrated on developing baseline emissions scenarios and analyzing

Wing, Ian Sue

381

Adapting to Workload Changes Through On-The-Fly Reconfiguration  

E-print Network

details our methodology in handling unexpected workload changes, including the training of our agentAdapting to Workload Changes Through On-The-Fly Reconfiguration Jonathan Wildstrom , Peter Stone of reconfiguring distributed systems online to optimize for dy- namically changing workloads. This paper presents

Stone, Peter

382

Assessing institutional capacities to adapt to climate change: integrating psychological dimensions in the Adaptive Capacity Wheel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several case studies show that social factors like institutions, perceptions and social capital strongly affect social capacities to adapt to climate change. Together with economic and technological development they are important for building social capacities. However, there are almost no methodologies for the systematic assessment of social factors. After reviewing existing methodologies we identify the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) by Gupta et al. (2010), developed for assessing the adaptive capacity of institutions, as the most comprehensive and operationalised framework to assess social factors. The ACW differentiates 22 criteria to assess 6 dimensions: variety, learning capacity, room for autonomous change, leadership, availability of resources, fair governance. To include important psychological factors we extended the ACW by two dimensions: "adaptation motivation" refers to actors' motivation to realise, support and/or promote adaptation to climate; "adaptation belief" refers to actors' perceptions of realisability and effectiveness of adaptation measures. We applied the extended ACW to assess adaptive capacities of four sectors - water management, flood/coastal protection, civil protection and regional planning - in northwestern Germany. The assessments of adaptation motivation and belief provided a clear added value. The results also revealed some methodological problems in applying the ACW (e.g. overlap of dimensions), for which we propose methodological solutions.

Grothmann, T.; Grecksch, K.; Winges, M.; Siebenhüner, B.

2013-12-01

383

Severe Weather in a Changing Climate: Getting to Adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyses of observation records from U.S. weather stations indicate there is an increasing trend over recent decades in certain types of severe weather, especially large precipitation events. Widespread changes in temperature extremes have been observed over the last 50 years. In particular, the number of heat waves globally (and some parts of the U.S.) has increased, and there have been widespread increases in the numbers of warm nights. Also, analyses show that we are now breaking twice as many heat records as cold records in the U.S. Since 1957, there has been an increase in the number of historically top 1% of heavy precipitation events across the U.S. Our new analyses of the repeat or reoccurrence frequencies of large precipitation storms are showing that such events are occurring more often than in the past. The pattern of precipitation change is one of increases generally at higher northern latitudes and drying in the tropics and subtropics over land. It needs to be recognized that every weather event that happens nowadays takes place in the context of the changes in the background climate system. So nothing is entirely "natural" anymore. It's a fallacy to think that individual events are caused entirely by any one thing, either natural variation or human-induced climate change. Every event is influenced by many factors. Human-induced climate change is now a factor in weather events. The changes occurring in precipitation are consistent with the analyses of our changing climate. For extreme precipitation, we know that more precipitation is falling in very heavy events. And we know key reasons why; warmer air holds more water vapor, and so when any given weather system moves through, the extra water dumps can lead to a heavy downpour. As the climate system continues to warm, models of the Earth's climate system indicate severe precipitation events will likely become more commonplace. Water vapor will continue to increase in the atmosphere along with the warming, and large precipitation events will likely increase in intensity and frequency. In the presentation, we will not only discuss the recent trends in severe weather and the projections of the impacts of climate change on severe weather in the future, but also specific examples of how this information is being used in developing and applying adaptation policies.

Wuebbles, D. J.; Janssen, E.; Kunkel, K.

2011-12-01

384

Explaining and overcoming barriers to climate change adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of barriers is increasingly used to describe the obstacles that hinder the planning and implementation of climate change adaptation. The growing literature on barriers to adaptation reveals not only commonly reported barriers, but also conflicting evidence, and few explanations of why barriers exist and change. There is thus a need for research that focuses on the interdependencies between barriers and considers the dynamic ways in which barriers develop and persist. Such research, which would be actor-centred and comparative, would help to explain barriers to adaptation and provide insights into how to overcome them.

Eisenack, Klaus; Moser, Susanne C.; Hoffmann, Esther; Klein, Richard J. T.; Oberlack, Christoph; Pechan, Anna; Rotter, Maja; Termeer, Catrien J. A. M.

2014-10-01

385

Local adaptation in brown trout early life-history traits: implications for climate change adaptability.  

PubMed

Knowledge of local adaptation and adaptive potential of natural populations is becoming increasingly relevant due to anthropogenic changes in the environment, such as climate change. The concern is that populations will be negatively affected by increasing temperatures without the capacity to adapt. Temperature-related adaptability in traits related to phenology and early life history are expected to be particularly important in salmonid fishes. We focused on the latter and investigated whether four populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta) are locally adapted in early life-history traits. These populations spawn in rivers that experience different temperature conditions during the time of incubation of eggs and embryos. They were reared in a common-garden experiment at three different temperatures. Quantitative genetic differentiation (QST) exceeded neutral molecular differentiation (FST) for two traits, indicating local adaptation. A temperature effect was observed for three traits. However, this effect varied among populations due to locally adapted reaction norms, corresponding to the temperature regimes experienced by the populations in their native environments. Additive genetic variance and heritable variation in phenotypic plasticity suggest that although increasing temperatures are likely to affect some populations negatively, they may have the potential to adapt to changing temperature regimes. PMID:18755673

Jensen, Lasse Fast; Hansen, Michael M; Pertoldi, Cino; Holdensgaard, Gert; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons; Loeschcke, Volker

2008-12-22

386

Local adaptation in brown trout early life-history traits: implications for climate change adaptability  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of local adaptation and adaptive potential of natural populations is becoming increasingly relevant due to anthropogenic changes in the environment, such as climate change. The concern is that populations will be negatively affected by increasing temperatures without the capacity to adapt. Temperature-related adaptability in traits related to phenology and early life history are expected to be particularly important in salmonid fishes. We focused on the latter and investigated whether four populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta) are locally adapted in early life-history traits. These populations spawn in rivers that experience different temperature conditions during the time of incubation of eggs and embryos. They were reared in a common-garden experiment at three different temperatures. Quantitative genetic differentiation (QST) exceeded neutral molecular differentiation (FST) for two traits, indicating local adaptation. A temperature effect was observed for three traits. However, this effect varied among populations due to locally adapted reaction norms, corresponding to the temperature regimes experienced by the populations in their native environments. Additive genetic variance and heritable variation in phenotypic plasticity suggest that although increasing temperatures are likely to affect some populations negatively, they may have the potential to adapt to changing temperature regimes. PMID:18755673

Jensen, Lasse Fast; Hansen, Michael M; Pertoldi, Cino; Holdensgaard, Gert; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons; Loeschcke, Volker

2008-01-01

387

Adapting California's water management to climate change  

E-print Network

that can limit vulnerability to changing conditions. Water supply managers have begun using underground change, needed reforms include forward-looking reservoir operation planning and floodplain mapping, less array of activities, ranging from supply planning and delivery, to water quality protection for humans

Pasternack, Gregory B.

388

GLOBAL CHANGE ECOLOGY Kim N. Mouritsen Daniel M. Tompkins  

E-print Network

GLOBAL CHANGE ECOLOGY Kim N. Mouritsen Ã? Daniel M. Tompkins Ã? Robert Poulin Climate warming may conditions in general and global warming in particular (Harvell et al. 2002; Mouritsen and Poulin 2002a

Poulin, Robert

389

Future Arctic climate changes: Adaptation and mitigation time scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The climate in the Arctic is changing faster than in midlatitudes. This is shown by increased temperatures, loss of summer sea ice, earlier snow melt, impacts on ecosystems, and increased economic access. Arctic sea ice volume has decreased by 75% since the 1980s. Long-lasting global anthropogenic forcing from carbon dioxide has increased over the previous decades and is anticipated to increase over the next decades. Temperature increases in response to greenhouse gases are amplified in the Arctic through feedback processes associated with shifts in albedo, ocean and land heat storage, and near-surface longwave radiation fluxes. Thus, for the next few decades out to 2040, continuing environmental changes in the Arctic are very likely, and the appropriate response is to plan for adaptation to these changes. For example, it is very likely that the Arctic Ocean will become seasonally nearly sea ice free before 2050 and possibly within a decade or two, which in turn will further increase Arctic temperatures, economic access, and ecological shifts. Mitigation becomes an important option to reduce potential Arctic impacts in the second half of the 21st century. Using the most recent set of climate model projections (CMIP5), multimodel mean temperature projections show an Arctic-wide end of century increase of +13°C in late fall and +5°C in late spring for a business-as-usual emission scenario (RCP8.5) in contrast to +7°C in late fall and +3°C in late spring if civilization follows a mitigation scenario (RCP4.5). Such temperature increases demonstrate the heightened sensitivity of the Arctic to greenhouse gas forcing.

Overland, James E.; Wang, Muyin; Walsh, John E.; Stroeve, Julienne C.

2014-02-01

390

Sustainable biochar to mitigate global climate change  

SciTech Connect

Production of biochar (the carbon-rich solid formed by pyrolysis of biomass), in combination with its storage in soils, has been suggested as a means to abate anthropogenic climate change, while simultaneously increasing crop yields. The climate mitigation potential stems primarily from the highly recalcitrant nature of biochar, which slows the rate at which photosynthetically fixed carbon is returned to the atmosphere. Significant uncertainties exist, however, regarding the impact, capacity, and sustainability of biochar for carbon capture and storage when scaled to the global level. Previous estimates, based on simple assumptions, vary widely. Here we show that, subject to strict environmental and modest economic constraints on biomass procurement and biochar production methods, annual net emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O could be reduced by 1.1 - 1.9 Pg CO2-C equivalent (CO2-Ce)/yr (7 - 13% of current anthropogenic CO2-Ce emissions; 1Pg = 1 Gt). Over one century, cumulative net emissions of these gases could be reduced by 72-140 Pg CO2-Ce. The lower end of this range uses currently untapped residues and wastes; the upper end requires substantial alteration to global biomass management, but would not endanger food security, habitat or soil conservation. Half the avoided emissions are due to the net C sequestered as biochar, one-quarter to replacement of fossil-fuel energy by pyrolysis energy, and one-quarter to avoided emissions of CH4 and N2O. The total mitigation potential is 18-30% greater than if the same biomass were combusted to produce energy. Despite limited data for the decomposition rate of biochar in soils and the effects of biochar additions on soil greenhouse-gas fluxes, sensitivity within realistic ranges of these parameters is small, resulting in an uncertainty of ±8% (±1 s.d.) in our estimates. Achieving these mitigation results requires, however, that biochar production be performed using only low-emissions technologies and feedstocks obtained sustainably, with minimal carbon debt incurred from land-use change.

Woolf, Dominic; Amonette, James E.; Street-Perrott, F. A.; Lehmann, Johannes C.; Joseph, Stephen

2010-08-10

391

Migration and climate change: examining thresholds of change to guide effective adaptation decision-making  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implications of environmental change for migration are little understood. Migration as a response to climate change could\\u000a be seen as a failure of in situ adaptation methods, or migration could be alternatively perceived as a rational component\\u000a of creative adaptation to environmental risk. This paper frames migration as part of an adaptation response to climate change\\u000a impacts to natural

Douglas K. Bardsley; Graeme J. Hugo

2010-01-01

392

Adapting to Climate Change in West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impacts of climate change vary from region to region. The 4th Assessment Report of the IPCC mentions that drier areas will be affected by more droughts and that the rainfall regime, in general, will become \\

Nick van de Giesen; Winston Andah; Marc Andreini; Boubacar Barry; Gerlinde Jung; Harald Kunstmann; Wolfram Laube; Patrick Laux; Jens Liebe

393

Challenges of Adapting to a Changing Climate  

E-print Network

ports, and coastal developments, may be at risk of under-coastal populations may be exacerbated by relief, rebuilding, and insurance institutions that facilitate the transfer of associated costs and risksrisks of climate change. Although people are drawn to coastal

Hurd, Brian H.

2008-01-01

394

Adaptation to climate change: European agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is considered as one of the main environmental problems of the 21st<\\/sup> century. Assessments of climate change impacts on European agriculture suggest that in northern Europe crop yields increase and possibilities for new crops and varieties emerge. In southern Europe, adverse effects are expected. Here, projected increases in water shortage reduce crop yields and the area for cropping,

P. Reidsma

2007-01-01

395

ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT OF CLIMATE CHANGE RISKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) has sponsored several state-of-the-art assessments of future impacts of climate change on various climate-sensitive threats such as malaria, hunger, water shortage, coastal flooding, habitat loss, lowered carbon-sink capacity, and diminished coastal wetlands. The results, based on IPCC emission scenarios, figure prominently in the international debate about climate change, and

Indur M. Goklany

2008-01-01

396

U.S. Global Climate Change Impacts Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This past year the US Global Change Research Program released a report that summarized the science of climate change and the impacts of climate change on the United States, now and in the future. The report underscores the importance of measures to reduce climate change. In the context of impacts, the report identifies examples of actions currently being pursued in various sectors and regions to address climate change as well as other environmental problems that could be exacerbated by climate change. This state-of-knowledge report also identifies areas in which scientific uncertainty limits our ability to estimate future climate changes and its impacts. Key findings of the report include: (1) Global warming is unequivocal and primarily human induced. - This statement is stronger than the IPCC (2007) statement because new attribution studies since that report continue to implicate human caused changes over the past 50 years. (2) Climate Changes are underway in the Unites States and are projected to grow. - These include increases in heavy downpours, rising temperature and sea level, rapidly retreating glaciers, thawing permafrost, lengthening growing seasons lengthening ice-free seasons in the oceans and on lakes and rivers, earlier snowmelt and alteration in river flows. (3) Widespread climate-related impacts are occurring now and are expected to increase. - The impacts vary from region to region, but are already affecting many sectors e.g., water, energy, transportation, agriculture, ecosystems, etc. (4) Climate change will stress water resources. - Water is an issue in every region of the US, but the nature of the impacts vary (5) Crop and livestock production will be increasingly challenged. - Warming related to high emission scenarios often negatively affect crop growth and yields levels. Increased pests, water stress, diseases, and weather extremes will pose adaptation challenges for crops and livestock production. (6) Coastal areas are at increased risk from sea-level rise and storm surge. - Sea-level rise and storm surge place many U.S. coastal cities at risk of erosion and flooding. Estimates for sea level rise by the end of this century are up to five feet for portions of the Gulf Coast where global sea level rise acts in concert with sinking coastal land. Global sea level projections are as high as 3 to 3.5 feet for emission scenarios that are comparable to business as usual. (7) Risk to human health will increase. - Robust public health infrastructure can reduce the potential for negative impacts. (8) Climate change will interact with many social and environmental stresses. - Climate change will combine with pollutions, population growth, overuse of resources, urbanization, and other social, economic, and environmental stresses to create larger impacts than from any of these factors alone. (9) Thresholds will be crossed, leading to large changes in climate and ecosystems

Karl, T. R.

2009-12-01

397

78 FR 65980 - Notice of Availability for Public Review and Comment: Draft EPA Climate Change Adaptation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review and Comment: Draft EPA Climate Change Adaptation Implementation Plans...society has adapted in the past. Climate change can pose significant challenges...therefore, that the EPA adapt to climate change in order to continue...

2013-11-04

398

76 FR 12945 - Instructions for Implementing Climate Change Adaptation Planning in Accordance With Executive...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Instructions for Implementing Climate Change Adaptation Planning in Accordance...ACTION: Notice of Availability of Climate Change Adaptation Planning Implementing...Federal agencies for integrating climate change adaptation into agency...

2011-03-09

399

Climate Change and Agricultural Sustainability - A Global Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study provides a spatially explicit estimate of climate change impact on world-wide agricultural sustainability, considering uncertainty in climate change projections. The potential changes in agricultural land and crop water requirement and availability are assessed by region in the world. Uncertainty in General Circulation Model (GCM) projections is addressed using data assembled from a number of GCMs and representative emission scenarios. Erroneous data and the uncertain nature of land classifications based on multiple indices (i.e., soil properties, land slope, temperature, and humidity) are handled with fuzzy logic modeling. It is found that global arable land area is likely to be affected by emission scenarios, for example, it may decrease by 0.8% ~ 1.7% under scenario A1B (CO2-equivalent GHG concentrations of 850 ppmv) but increase by 2.0% ~ 4.4% under scenario B1 (CO2-equivalent GHG concentrations of 600 ppmv, which represents a greener economy than A1B). However, at the regional scale, although the magnitudes of the projected changes vary by scenario, the increasing or decreasing trends in arable land area are consistent: Regions with relative high latitudes - Russia, China and the U.S. - could see a significant increase in arable land in coming years, but South America, Africa, Europe and India could lose land area. For agricultural water use, the following questions are addressed: Where will there be a need for irrigation expansion and by how much? Where and how much of current irrigation pressures or water deficits for rainfed crops can be mitigated or aggravated? And finally, what is the overall situation for the entire world? It is found that despite the universally rising mean temperature, the global irrigation requirements are likely to decrease. This is probably due to the declining diurnal temperature range, which plays a key role in the evapotranspiration control, as well as the increasing precipitation in many areas contributing to the global balance-out of irrigation requirement. Regional impacts vary by direction and magnitude over the GCM and emission scenarios. In particular, the statistics of changes in the wetness index, referring to the ratio of effective rainfall over crop evapotranspiration, are investigated for different regions, showing the possible regional change trends in the future. Agricultural adaptations to climate change are necessary measures to sustain the world's agriculture, which are addressed considering the possible changes of both land and water. The adverse impacts of climate change require new irrigated areas or higher irrigation demands for some regions; while climate change can reduce irrigation while remaining suitable for cultivation in other regions; new agricultural land may emerge in some areas with reasonable productivity for rainfed crops. These situations will be discussed with regard to appropriate agricultural adaptations in different regions considering the robustness and uncertainty of the assessments under the various scenarios.

Cai, X.; Zhang, X.

2012-12-01

400

Southern Ocean: Its involvement in global change  

SciTech Connect

Southern Ocean is the site of considerable water mass formation which cools and ventilates the modern world ocean. At the polar front zone, formation of cool, low salinity water sinks and spreads northward at intermediate depths limiting the downward penetration of the thermocline. Within the seasonal sea ice zone and along the margins of Antarctica, convection injects very cold oxygenated water into the deep and bottom ocean. These conditions developed as Antarctica shifted into its present configuration and grew a persistent glacial ice sheet, about 14 million years ago. The potential of the Southern Ocean to ventilate the deep and bottom ocean layers is related to occurrence of polynyas that form within the winter sea ice cover. Global climate changes would be expected to alter the polynya size and frequency. Under greenhouse-induced warming offshore polynyas may become less common as the static stability of the Southern Ocean mixed layer increases. This would diminish the Southern Ocean's cooling influence on the deep layers of the world ocean, resulting in a warmer deep ocean. The fate of coastal polynyas is less clear.

Gordon, A.L.

1992-03-01

401

INTRODUCTION: Anticipated changes in the global atmospheric water cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmospheric branch of the water cycle, although containing just a tiny fraction of the Earth's total water reserves, presents a crucial interface between the physical climate (such as large-scale rainfall patterns) and the ecosystems upon which human societies ultimately depend. Because of the central importance of water in the Earth system, the question of how the water cycle is changing, and how it may alter in future as a result of anthropogenic changes, present one of the greatest challenges of this century. The recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report on Climate Change and Water (Bates et al 2008) highlighted the increasingly strong evidence of change in the global water cycle and associated environmental consequences. It is of critical importance to climate prediction and adaptation strategies that key processes in the atmospheric water cycle are precisely understood and determined, from evaporation at the surface of the ocean, transport by the atmosphere, condensation as cloud and eventual precipitation, and run-off through rivers following interaction with the land surface, sub-surface, ice, snow and vegetation. The purpose of this special focus issue of Environmental Research Letters on anticipated changes in the global atmospheric water cycle is to consolidate the recent substantial advances in understanding past, present and future changes in the global water cycle through evidence built upon theoretical understanding, backed up by observations and borne out by climate model simulations. Thermodynamic rises in water vapour provide a central constraint, as discussed in a guest editorial by Bengtsson (2010). Theoretical implications of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation are presented by O'Gorman and Muller (2010) and with reference to a simple model (Sherwood 2010) while observed humidity changes confirm these anticipated responses at the land and ocean surface (Willett et al 2008). Rises in low-level moisture are thought to fuel an intensification of precipitation (O'Gorman and Schneider 2009) and analysis of observed and simulated changes in extreme rainfall for Europe (Lenderink and van Mijgaard 2008) and over tropical oceans by Allan et al (2010) appear to corroborate this. Radiative absorption by water vapour (Previdi 2010, Stephens and Ellis 2008) also provides a thermodynamic feedback on the water cycle, and explains why climate model projections of global precipitation and evaporation of around 1-3% K-1 are muted with respect to the expected 7% K-1 increases in low-level moisture. Climate models achieve dynamical responses through reductions in strength of the Walker circulation (Vecchi et al 2006) and small yet systematic changes in the atmospheric boundary layer over the ocean that modify evaporation (Richter and Xie 2008). A further consequence is anticipated sub-tropical drying (Neelin et al 2006, Chou et al 2007); Allan et al (2010) confirm a decline in dry sub-tropical precipitation while the wet regions become wetter both in model simulations and satellite-based observations. Discrepancies between observed and climate model simulated hydrological response to warming (Wentz et al 2007, Yu and Weller 2007) are of immediate concern in understanding and predicting future responses. Over decadal time-scales it is important to establish whether such discrepancies relate to the observing system, climate modeling deficiencies, or are a statistical artifact of the brevity of the satellite records (Liepert and Previdi 2009). Techniques for extracting information on century-scale changes in precipitation are emerging (Smith et al 2009) but are also subject to severe limitations. Past decadal-scale changes in the water cycle may be further influenced by regionally and temporally varying forcings and resulting feedbacks which must be represented realistically by models (Andrews et al 2009). The radiative impact of aerosols and their indirect effects on clouds and precipitation (Liepert et al 2004) provide an important example. Understanding surface solar 'dimming' and 'brightening' trends in th

Allan, Richard P.; Liepert, Beate G.

2010-06-01

402

Global Climate Change in the Wider Context of Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few years, the political discussion on global change has become focused on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports and anthropogenic CO2 emissions into the wider context of sustainability. This broadens the view and changes the focus to issues of global ethics and the necessity for industrial countries to drastically reduce their resource consumption. Insurance companies

Walter R Stahel

2008-01-01

403

GLOBAL WARMING, CLIMATE CHANGE AND HUMAN PSYCHOLOGY 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter considers psychological aspects of global warming and climate change. It begins with a brief consideration of the public and political recognition of global warming and climate change as significant environmental issues. The chapter then turns to a review of the scientific evidence of the causes and consequences of climate change, and some of the issues in psychology that

Taciano L. Milfont

404

Regional Implications of Global Climate Change for the Great  

E-print Network

reliable are they? Future projections of climate change due to global warming What about regional climateRegional Implications of Global Climate Change for the Great Plains Robert J. Oglesby Department between climate variability and climate change? What is a climate model, and how are they used? How

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

405

Global food security under climate change Josef Schmidhuber*  

E-print Network

Global food security under climate change Josef Schmidhuber* and Francesco N. Tubiello§ *Global March 3, 2007) This article reviews the potential impacts of climate change on food security Research, Columbia University, New York, NY 10025; and §Land Use Change Program, International Institute

406

Global impacts of abrupt climate change: an initial assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Executive summary This report describes the potential global-scale implications of three types of abrupt climate - collapse of the thermohaline circulation, leading to lower temperatures across Europe and parts of North America, and precipitation changes globally (but with effects depending on the degree of warming at the time of collapse), accelerated climate change, leading to very high rates of change

Nigel W. Arnell

2006-01-01

407

METEOROLOGY 112: Global Climate Change Course Description and Prerequisites  

E-print Network

of concepts and ideas. This course introduces students to the science of global climate change including how1 METEOROLOGY 112: Global Climate Change Course Description and Prerequisites: Meteorology 112. the natural factors that cause climate change 2. the degree to which human actions are now causing climate

Clements, Craig

408

Global Climate Change: Opinions and Perceptions of Rural Nebraskans  

E-print Network

Global Climate Change: Opinions and Perceptions of Rural Nebraskans 2008 Nebraska Rural Poll that they understand the issue of global climate change either fairly or very well. #12;Most rural Nebraskans believe climate change is already happening. #12;Most rural Nebraskans believe that our actions contribute

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

409

UWM Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development Initiative CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT  

E-print Network

UWM Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development Initiative CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Sponsored By UWM Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development Initiative Co Conference Description This conference will discuss the global issue of climate change in the regional

Saldin, Dilano

410

Adaptively Managing Wildlife for Climate Change: A Fuzzy Logic Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildlife managers have little or no control over climate change. However, they may be able to alleviate potential adverse\\u000a impacts of future climate change by adaptively managing wildlife for climate change. In particular, wildlife managers can\\u000a evaluate the efficacy of compensatory management actions (CMAs) in alleviating potential adverse impacts of future climate\\u000a change on wildlife species using probability-based or fuzzy

Tony Prato

2011-01-01

411

STEM417: NASA Resources for Teaching Global Climate Change in High School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online, facilitated course is designed for high-school educators wishing to teach global climate change using an inquiry/problem-based approach. The course focusses on evidence that supports global climate change and how to use NASA data and resources to help high-school students discover mitigations or adaptations to climate change. The course is part of PBS Education's outreach and offerings to educators across the country; it is a 45-hour experience over six weeks and eligible for three graduate credits.

412

Meta-analysis and its application in global change research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meta-analysis is a quantitative synthetic research method that statistically integrates results from individual studies to\\u000a find common trends and differences. With increasing concern over global change, meta-analysis has been rapidly adopted in\\u000a global change research. Here, we introduce the methodologies, advantages and disadvantages of meta-analysis, and review its\\u000a application in global climate change research, including the responses of ecosystems to

XiangDong Lei; ChangHui Peng; DaLun Tian; JianFeng Sun

2007-01-01

413

Water - The key to global change. [of weather and climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of water in processes of global change is discussed. The importance of water in global warming, the loss of biological diversity, the activity of the El Nino southern oscillation, and the melting of polar ice are examined. Plans for a mission to measure tropical rainfall using a two frequency radar, a visible/IR radiometer and a passive microwave radiometer are noted. The way in which global change is affected by changes in patterns of available water is considered.

Soffen, Gerald A.

1988-01-01

414

Spatial planning for adapting to climate change.  

PubMed

During the past decades human interference in regional hydrologic systems has intensified. These systems act as an integrating medium. They link climate, human activities and ecologic processes through groundwater and surface water interactions. For simulating these linkages an integrated regional hydrologic model has been coupled to an ecologic evaluation model. The simulated ecologic effects of climate change on mesotrophic riverine grasslands are clearly positive. Simulation results also indicate a high sensitivity of the peak discharges to the precipitation. For modelling the long-term development of land use and water management an integrated 'bio-economic' model has been constructed. It includes a model for the development of agriculture. Results for the autonomous development in reaction to climate change indicate a strong increase of field drainage by agriculture. This development would substantially reduce the predicted positive effects of climate change on riverine grasslands. The challenge is to guide regional developments in such a manner that opportunities for improving nature are not lost, but that at the same time the peak discharges are kept under control. Flow retardation in the 'fine arteries' of the upstream areas appear to be a viable option for the latter. The bio-economic model can provide help in anticipating on climate change through spatial planning. PMID:15918358

van Walsum, P E V; Runhaar, J; Helming, J F M

2005-01-01

415

Adapting California's Water Management to Climate Change  

E-print Network

4 High Stream and Reservoir Temperatures 5 Increased Water Demands 5 Increased Flood Flows Water Transfer Mechanisms 20 Changing Reservoir Operation Policy 21 New Policies for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta 21 New Surface Storage Investments 22 Flood Management 22 Water Quality Management 24

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

416

Adaptations to changing times: Agency in context  

Microsoft Academic Search

British society has changed greatly over the past half century. Increasing uncertainty about economic and social developments is becoming a distinctive feature of modern industrialized countries, affecting the life chances and opportunities of young people making the transition from dependent childhood into independent adulthood. Summarizing recent findings from data collected from about 30,000 individuals born 12 years apart, in 1958

Ingrid Schoon

2007-01-01

417

Vulnerability Assessment, Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Measures in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In relation to the priority tasks of the climate change measures, the Republic of Slovenia estimates that special attention needs to be devoted to the following sectors in general: - sectors that currently indicate a strong vulnerability for the current climate variability (for instance, agriculture), - sectors where the vulnerability for climate change is increased by current trends (for instance, urban development, use of space), - sectors where the adaptation time is the longest and the subsequent development changes are connected with the highest costs (for instance, use of space, infrastructural objects, forestry, urban development, building stock). Considering the views of Slovenia to the climate change problem in Europe and Slovenia, priority measures and emphasis on future adaptation to climate change, the Republic of Slovenia has especially exposed the following action areas: - sustainable and integrated management of water sources for water power production, prevention of floods, provision of water for the enrichment of low flow rates, and preservation of environmental function as well as provision of water for other needs; - sustainable management of forest ecosystems, adjusted to changes, for the provision of their environmental function as well as being a source of biomass, wood for products for the conservation of carbon, and carbon sinks; - spatial planning as one of the important preventive instruments for the adaptation to climate change through the processes of integral planning of spatial and urban development; - sustainable use and preservation of natural wealth and the preservation of biodiversity as well as ecosystem services with measures and policies that enable an enhanced resistance of ecosystems to climate change, and the role of biological diversity in integral adaptation measures; - informing and awareness on the consequences of climate change and adaptation possibilities. For years, the most endangered sectors have been agriculture and forestry; therefore, they are also the only sectors for which a national adaptation strategy was adopted.

Cegnar, T.

2010-09-01

418

Adaptation to climate change to enhance food security and preserve environmental quality: example for southern Sri Lanka  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation strategies to climate change have been explored using a linked field-scale basin-scale modeling framework for Walawe basin, Sri Lanka. An integrated approach was followed concentrating on enhancement of food security and preservation of environmental quality. Climate change projections were extracted from the Hadley Climate Center (HadCM3) coupled global circulation model (GCM). Impact and adaptation strategies were evaluated with a

Peter Droogers

2004-01-01

419

Biomimetic design for climate change adaptation and mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines biomimicry, where organisms or ecosystems are mimicked in human design, as a means to either mitigate the causes of climate change that the built environment is responsible for, or adapt to the impacts of climate change. Different biomimetic approaches to design are discussed and categorized, and a series of examples illustrate the benefits and drawbacks of each

Maibritt Pedersen Zari

2010-01-01

420

The Competencies Demonstrated by Farmers while Adapting to Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

World population growth, overconsumption of resources, competition among countries and climate change are putting significant pressure on agriculture. In Canada, changes in precipitation, the appearance of new pests and poor soil quality are threatening the prosperity of small farmers. What human competencies could facilitate citizens' adaptation

Pruneau, Diane; Kerry, Jackie; Mallet, Marie-Andree; Freiman, Viktor; Langis, Joanne; Laroche, Anne-Marie; Evichnevetski, Evgueni; Deguire, Paul; Therrien, Jimmy; Lang, Mathieu; Barbier, Pierre-Yves

2012-01-01

421

Adapting to Changing Landscapes in Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

While we are currently witnessing the renaissance of Tim Berners-Lee's original vision for a Two- Way-Web, many institutions in higher education still develop and maintain landscapes of tools and services that largely ignore the ongoing power-shift towards the individual. This paper argues that these institutional landscapes need to be reorganised and changed into augmented landscapes, in which the application of

Sebastian Fiedler; Barbara Kieslinger

422

POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON NEOTROPICAL BIODIVERSITY: ADAPTATION STRATEGIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world is warming. The global average temperature has increased by approximately 0.7°C since pre-industrial times. The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projects a further increase in global mean temperatures of 1.1° - 6.4° C by the year 2100. The question is not one of whether climate change will impact neotropical biodiversity but rather one of how

Jeff Price; Rachel Warren

423

Changing Composition of the Global Stratosphere.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the chemistry of the stratosphere at mid-latitudes, the Antarctic phenomenon, and temporal trends in ozone levels. Includes equations, diagrams of the global distribution of ozone, and halogen growth projections. Concludes that studies of stratospheric ozone demonstrate that the global environment is fragile and is impacted by human…

McElroy, Michael B.; Salawitch, Ross J.

1989-01-01

424

Ozone, Climate, and Global Atmospheric Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of global atmospheric problems relating to ozone depletion and global warming. Provides background information on the composition of the earth's atmosphere and origin of atmospheric ozone. Describes causes, effects, and evidence of ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect. A vignette provides a summary of a 1991 assessment of…

Levine, Joel S.

1992-01-01

425

Causes and Consequences of Global Climate Change.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The intent of this paper is to outline the science underlying our understanding of the causes and consequences of global warming research, including: how a global warming might be induced; how sure we can be about both causes and consequences; and what re...

W. T. Hinds

1988-01-01

426

Geoengineering as global climate change policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of hydrocarbon-based energy systems is deeply embedded in the contemporary global capitalist world system. Billions of individuals always are already engaged in an on-going, essentially unplanned, and still uncontrolled (with regard to the negative impact of burning fossil on the global climate) collective experiment in the growing use of these sources of energy. The unanticipated, and yet still

Timothy W. Luke

2010-01-01

427

Climate change adaptation and Integrated Water Resource Management in the water sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) was introduced in 1980s to better optimise water uses between different water demanding sectors. However, since it was introduced water systems have become more complicated due to changes in the global water cycle as a result of climate change. The realization that climate change will have a significant impact on water availability and flood risks has driven research and policy making on adaptation. This paper discusses the main similarities and differences between climate change adaptation and IWRM. The main difference between the two is the focus on current and historic issues of IWRM compared to the (long-term) future focus of adaptation. One of the main problems of implementing climate change adaptation is the large uncertainties in future projections. Two completely different approaches to adaptation have been developed in response to these large uncertainties. A top-down approach based on large scale biophysical impacts analyses focussing on quantifying and minimizing uncertainty by using a large range of scenarios and different climate and impact models. The main problem with this approach is the propagation of uncertainties within the modelling chain. The opposite is the bottom up approach which basically ignores uncertainty. It focusses on reducing vulnerabilities, often at local scale, by developing resilient water systems. Both these approaches however are unsuitable for integrating into water management. The bottom up approach focuses too much on socio-economic vulnerability and too little on developing (technical) solutions. The top-down approach often results in an “explosion” of uncertainty and therefore complicates decision making. A more promising direction of adaptation would be a risk based approach. Future research should further develop and test an approach which starts with developing adaptation strategies based on current and future risks. These strategies should then be evaluated using a range of future scenarios in order to develop robust adaptation measures and strategies.

Ludwig, Fulco; van Slobbe, Erik; Cofino, Wim

2014-10-01

428

Regional to global changes in drought and implications for future changes under global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought can have large impacts on multiple sectors, including agriculture, water resources, ecosystems, transport, industry and tourism. In extreme cases, regional drought can lead to food insecurity and famine, and in intensive agricultural regions, extend to global economic impacts in a connected world. Recent droughts globally have been severe and costly but whether they are becoming more frequent and severe, and the attribution of this, is a key question. Observational evidence at large scales, such as satellite remote sensing are often subject to short-term records and inhomogeneities, and ground based data are sparse in many regions. Reliance on model output is also subject to error and simplifications in the model physics that can, for example, amplify the impact of global warming on drought. This presentation will show the observational and model evidence for changes in drought, with a focus on the interplay between precipitation and atmospheric evaporative demand and its impact on the terrestrial water cycle and drought. We discuss the fidelity of climate models to reproduce our best estimates of drought variability and its drivers historically, and the implications of this on uncertainties in future projections of drought from CMIP5 models, and how this has changed since CMIP3.

Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.; Kam, J.

2012-12-01

429

Data management and global change research: Technology and infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

There is a consensus among many scientists who would perform global change research that global-scale scientific data management programs and enabling policies need to be developed and implemented concomitantly with, if not in advance of, global change research programs. They are hopeful that US Federal government policies for scientific and technical data and information management will provide timely archival, analysis, and dissemination of global change research data and will enable them to share that data with colleagues, internationally. Federal data managers believe that data management technology and infrastructure requirements for global change research programs can be met through existing or planned enhancements to systems in operation used for scientific data gathering, processing, and dissemination. Scientists are concerned, however, that because of the scope and diversity of global change research programs entirely new systems and approaches to data management may need to be devised.

Morrissey, W.A. (Technical Information Specialist, Congressional Research Service, Washington, DC (United States))

1993-01-01

430

Prioritizing climate change adaptation needs for food security in 2030.  

PubMed

Investments aimed at improving agricultural adaptation to climate change inevitably favor some crops and regions over others. An analysis of climate risks for crops in 12 food-insecure regions was conducted to identify adaptation priorities, based on statistical crop models and climate projections for 2030 from 20 general circulation models. Results indicate South Asia and Southern Africa as two regions that, without sufficient adaptation measures, will likely suffer negative impacts on several crops that are important to large food-insecure human populations. We also find that uncertainties vary widely by crop, and therefore priorities will depend on the risk attitudes of investment institutions. PMID:18239122

Lobell, David B; Burke, Marshall B; Tebaldi, Claudia; Mastrandrea, Michael D; Falcon, Walter P; Naylor, Rosamond L

2008-02-01

431

A meta-analysis of crop yield under climate change and adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feeding a growing global population in a changing climate presents a significant challenge to society. The projected yields of crops under a range of agricultural and climatic scenarios are needed to assess food security prospects. Previous meta-analyses have summarized climate change impacts and adaptive potential as a function of temperature, but have not examined uncertainty, the timing of impacts, or the quantitative effectiveness of adaptation. Here we develop a new data set of more than 1,700 published simulations to evaluate yield impacts of climate change and adaptation. Without adaptation, losses in aggregate production are expected for wheat, rice and maize in both temperate and tropical regions by 2 °C of local warming. Crop-level adaptations increase simulated yields by an average of 7-15%, with adaptations more effective for wheat and rice than maize. Yield losses are greater in magnitude for the second half of the century than for the first. Consensus on yield decreases in the second half of the century is stronger in tropical than temperate regions, yet even moderate warming may reduce temperate crop yields in many locations. Although less is known about interannual variability than mean yields, the available data indicate that increases in yield variability are likely.

Challinor, A. J.; Watson, J.; Lobell, D. B.; Howden, S. M.; Smith, D. R.; Chhetri, N.

2014-04-01

432

MSC 220: Climate and Global Change SPRING Semester 2014  

E-print Network

MSC 220: Climate and Global Change SPRING Semester 2014 Tuesday and Thursday Time: 11:00-12:15 Room millennium (1 lecture) Global warming: Present and future: Climate Impacts on Human Evolution and the Rise (www.galuzzi.it) Confused about the global warming debate? This course will help you to make sense

Miami, University of

433

Change in agricultural land use constrains adaptation of national wildlife refuges to climate change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Land-use change around protected areas limits their ability to conserve biodiversity by altering ecological processes such as natural hydrologic and disturbance regimes, facilitating species invasions, and interfering with dispersal of organisms. This paper informs USA National Wildlife Refuge System conservation planning by predicting future land-use change on lands within 25 km distance of 461 refuges in the USA using an econometric model. The model contained two differing policy scenarios, namely a ‘business-as-usual’ scenario and a ‘pro-agriculture’ scenario. Regardless of scenario, by 2051, forest cover and urban land use were predicted to increase around refuges, while the extent of range and pasture was predicted to decrease; cropland use decreased under the business-as-usual scenario, but increased under the pro-agriculture scenario. Increasing agricultural land value under the pro-agriculture scenario slowed an expected increase in forest around refuges, and doubled the rate of range and pasture loss. Intensity of land-use change on lands surrounding refuges differed by regions. Regional differences among scenarios revealed that an understanding of regional and local land-use dynamics and management options was an essential requirement to effectively manage these conserved lands. Such knowledge is particularly important given the predicted need to adapt to a changing global climate.

Hamilton, Christopher M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Martinuzzi, Sebastian; Pidgeon, Anna M.

2014-01-01

434

Local Response to Global Climate Change: The Role of Local Development Plans in Climate Change Management  

E-print Network

actors in the global climate change management strategy. Cities are centers of production and consumption in our society and as such will be crucial for global climate change management strategy. Despite these links, demands for consideration of climate...

Grover, Himanshu

2011-10-21

435

The Role of Decision Support in Adapting to Climate Change: Findings from Three Place-based Regional Assessments  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the methodologies and findings of three regional assessments and considers the role of decision support in assisting adaptation to climate change. Background. In conjunction with the US Global Change Research Program?s (USGCRP?s) National Assessment of ...

436

Climate change, water resources, and the politics of adaptation in the Middle East and North Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through an examination of global climate change models combined with hydrological data on deteriorating water quality in the\\u000a Middle East and North Africa (MENA), we elucidate the ways in which the MENA countries are vulnerable to climate-induced impacts\\u000a on water resources. Adaptive governance strategies, however, remain a low priority for political leaderships in the MENA region.\\u000a To date, most MENA

Jeannie Sowers; Avner Vengosh; Erika Weinthal

2011-01-01

437

Synthetic circuit for exact adaptation and fold-change detection  

PubMed Central

Biological organisms use their sensory systems to detect changes in their environment. The ability of sensory systems to adapt to static inputs allows wide dynamic range as well as sensitivity to input changes including fold-change detection, a response that depends only on fold changes in input, and not on absolute changes. This input scale invariance underlies an important strategy for search that depends solely on the spatial profile of the input. Synthetic efforts to reproduce the architecture and response of cellular circuits provide an important step to foster understanding at the molecular level. We report the bottom-up assembly of biochemical systems that show exact adaptation and fold-change detection. Using a malachite green aptamer as the output, a synthetic transcriptional circuit with the connectivity of an incoherent feed-forward loop motif exhibits pulse generation and exact adaptation. A simple mathematical model was used to assess the amplitude and duration of pulse response as well as the parameter regimes required for fold-change detection. Upon parameter tuning, this synthetic circuit exhibits fold-change detection for four successive rounds of two-fold input changes. The experimental realization of fold-change detection circuit highlights the programmability of transcriptional switches and the ability to obtain predictive dynamical systems in a cell-free environment for technological applications. PMID:24728988

Kim, Jongmin; Khetarpal, Ishan; Murray, Richard M.

2014-01-01

438

Synthetic circuit for exact adaptation and fold-change detection.  

PubMed

Biological organisms use their sensory systems to detect changes in their environment. The ability of sensory systems to adapt to static inputs allows wide dynamic range as well as sensitivity to input changes including fold-change detection, a response that depends only on fold changes in input, and not on absolute changes. This input scale invariance underlies an important strategy for search that depends solely on the spatial profile of the input. Synthetic efforts to reproduce the architecture and response of cellular circuits provide an important step to foster understanding at the molecular level. We report the bottom-up assembly of biochemical systems that show exact adaptation and fold-change detection. Using a malachite green aptamer as the output, a synthetic transcriptional circuit with the connectivity of an incoherent feed-forward loop motif exhibits pulse generation and exact adaptation. A simple mathematical model was used to assess the amplitude and duration of pulse response as well as the parameter regimes required for fold-change detection. Upon parameter tuning, this synthetic circuit exhibits fold-change detection for four successive rounds of two-fold input changes. The experimental realization of fold-change detection circuit highlights the programmability of transcriptional switches and the ability to obtain predictive dynamical systems in a cell-free environment for technological applications. PMID:24728988

Kim, Jongmin; Khetarpal, Ishan; Sen, Shaunak; Murray, Richard M

2014-01-01

439

Development Futures in the light of climate change: creating new insights into the past, the present and global futures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Current development planning and practice relating to climate change focus pragmatically on actions within a fairly narrow range of mitigation and adaptation options and opportunities. Climate change is one component of a complex of factors affecting global futures and ideas of 'development'. Futures studies project enormous changes in technology, wealth, population and inequality over the next 50 years, which

Nick Brooks; Natasha Grist

2008-01-01

440

Adapting to Change: The Value of Change Information and Meaning-Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this 3-wave study is to examine the micro process of how employees adapt to change over time. We combined Conservation of Resources theory with insights from the organizational change literature to study employees in a Dutch police district undergoing reorganization. A model was tested where employee adaptability, operationalized by…

van den Heuvel, Machteld; Demerouti, Evangelia; Bakker, Arnold B.; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

2013-01-01

441

GLOBAL SURFACE TEMPERATURE CHANGE J. Hansen,1  

E-print Network

analyses, and address questions about perception and reality of global warming. Satelliteobserved night and that this conclusion differs from some popular perceptions, we discuss reasons for such misperceptions including

442

Global Change and Sustainability Center Spring Seminar Series  

E-print Network

of the economic market to provide incentive for change. The Clean Air Act was passed in 1970 with the last major update to the Act taken in 1990. This updateGlobal Change and Sustainability Center Spring Seminar Series "Air

Tipple, Brett

443

Changes in the global water cycle Water in a Changing World 211  

E-print Network

of the world's rivers. Global warming is expected to have substantial effects on energy flows and matterChanges in the global water cycle Water in a Changing World 211 3 Part Key messages In many places changes in the global water cycle that analysed more than 100 studies (based on observations) found ris

Olden, Julian D.

444

Climate change and the adaptability of agriculture: a review.  

PubMed

The assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture has emerged as a recognizable field of research over the past 15 years or so. In a relatively short period, this area of work has undergone a number of important conceptual and methodological developments. Among many questions that have been debated are the adaptability of agriculture to climate change and the importance of land management adjustments in reducing the adverse effects of climate change. In turn, this latter focus has spawned a discussion regarding the nature of adaptation and the ability of agriculture to respond to sudden and rapid climatic changes. In this paper we present an overview of this debate. It is argued that the first generation of climate change impact studies generally ignored the possibility that agriculturalists may adjust their farming practices in order to cope with climate change or to take advantage of new production opportunities. This conceptual oversight has been largely eliminated over the past five years or so. However, questions remain surrounding the likelihood that various adaptive strategies will actually be deployed in particular places. In this paper, we stress the importance of studying adaptation in the context of decision-making at the individual farm level and beyond. PMID:10786008

Johnston, T; Chiotti, Q

2000-04-01

445

Adapting to Climate ChangeAdapting to Climate Change ExtremeExtreme Water Levels, Invasive Species andWater Levels, Invasive Species and  

E-print Network

Adapting to Climate ChangeAdapting to Climate Change ­­ ExtremeExtreme Water Levels, Invasive." IPCC Risk management is the framework to discuss adaptation to climate change impacts. Risk The Water Resources Working Group will assess and synthesize climate change impacts to Wisconsin's water

Sheridan, Jennifer

446

Water governance: learning by developing adaptive capacity to incorporate climate variability and change.  

PubMed

There is increasing evidence that global climate variability and change is affecting the quality and availability of water supplies. Integrated water resources development, use, and management strategies, represent an effective approach to achieve sustainable development of water resources in a changing environment with competing demands. It is also a key to achieving the Millennium Development Goals. It is critical that integrated water management strategies must incorporate the impacts of climate variability and change to reduce vulnerability of the poor, strengthen sustainable livelihoods and support national sustainable development. UNDP's strategy focuses on developing adaptation in the water governance sector as an entry point within the framework of poverty reduction and national sustainable development. This strategy aims to strengthen the capacity of governments and civil society organizations to have access to early warning systems, ability to assess the impact of climate variability and change on integrated water resources management, and developing adaptation intervention through hands-on learning by undertaking pilot activities. PMID:15195430

Kashyap, A

2004-01-01

447

Climate Change Adaptation Science Activities at NASA Johnson Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Johnson Space Center (JSC), located in the southeast metropolitan region of Houston, TX is the prime NASA center for human spaceflight operations and astronaut training, but it also houses the unique collection of returned extraterrestrial samples, including lunar samples from the Apollo missions. The Center's location adjacent to Clear Lake and the Clear Creek watershed, an estuary of Galveston Bay, puts it at direct annual risk from hurricanes, but also from a number of other climate-related hazards including drought, floods, sea level rise, heat waves, and high wind events all assigned Threat Levels of 2 or 3 in the most recent NASA Center Disaster/Risk Matrix produced by the Climate Adaptation Science Investigator Working Group. Based on prior CASI workshops at other NASA centers, it is recognized that JSC is highly vulnerable to climate-change related hazards and has a need for adaptation strategies. We will present an overview of prior CASI-related work at JSC, including publication of a climate change and adaptation informational data brochure, and a Resilience and Adaptation to Climate Risks Workshop that was held at JSC in early March 2012. Major outcomes of that workshop that form a basis for work going forward are 1) a realization that JSC is embedded in a regional environmental and social context, and that potential climate change effects and adaptation strategies will not, and should not, be constrained by the Center fence line; 2) a desire to coordinate data collection and adaptation planning activities with interested stakeholders to form a regional climate change adaptation center that could facilitate interaction with CASI; 3) recognition that there is a wide array of basic data (remotely sensed, in situ, GIS/mapping, and historical) available through JSC and other stakeholders, but this data is not yet centrally accessible for planning purposes.

Stefanov, William L.; Lulla, Kamlesh

2012-01-01

448

GlobalWarminclJ A global change scientist explains the connection.  

E-print Network

change scientist, I have been asked over and over if the Katrina disaster was caused by global warming is really not a controversial issue. Global warming is real. It is already happen- ing.We can see its academy of science in the world), global warming is here, it is primarily caused by people, and the only

449

Global error estimation based on the tolerance proportionality for some adaptive Runge-Kutta codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern codes for the numerical solution of Initial Value Problems (IVPs) in ODEs are based in adaptive methods that, for a user supplied tolerance [delta], attempt to advance the integration selecting the size of each step so that some measure of the local error is [similar, equals][delta]. Although this policy does not ensure that the global errors are under the prescribed tolerance, after the early studies of Stetter [Considerations concerning a theory for ODE-solvers, in: R. Burlisch, R.D. Grigorieff, J. Schröder (Eds.), Numerical Treatment of Differential Equations, Proceedings of Oberwolfach, 1976, Lecture Notes in Mathematics, vol. 631, Springer, Berlin, 1978, pp. 188-200; Tolerance proportionality in ODE codes, in: R. März (Ed.), Proceedings of the Second Conference on Numerical Treatment of Ordinary Differential Equations, Humbold University, Berlin, 1980, pp. 109-123] and the extensions of Higham [Global error versus tolerance for explicit Runge-Kutta methods, IMA J. Numer. Anal. 11 (1991) 457-480; The tolerance proportionality of adaptive ODE solvers, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 45 (1993) 227-236; The reliability of standard local error control algorithms for initial value ordinary differential equations, in: Proceedings: The Quality of Numerical Software: Assessment and Enhancement, IFIP Series, Springer, Berlin, 1997], it has been proved that in many existing explicit Runge-Kutta codes the global errors behave asymptotically as some rational power of [delta]. This step-size policy, for a given IVP, determines at each grid point tn a new step-size hn+1=h(tn;[delta]) so that h(t;[delta]) is a continuous function of t. In this paper a study of the tolerance proportionality property under a discontinuous step-size policy that does not allow to change the size of the step if the step-size ratio between two consecutive steps is close to unity is carried out. This theory is applied to obtain global error estimations in a few problems that have been solved with the code Gauss2 [S. Gonzalez-Pinto, R. Rojas-Bello, Gauss2, a Fortran 90 code for second order initial value problems, ], based on an adaptive two stage Runge-Kutta-Gauss method with this discontinuous step-size policy.

Calvo, M.; González-Pinto, S.; Montijano, J. I.

2008-09-01

450

The global impact of land-use change  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand global change, natural scientists must consider the social context influencing human impact on the environment. This overview paper discusses three questions central to the issue: How are land-use changes contributing to global environmental changes (land-management practices, growing human populations, regional differences in technology and wealth). What social-economic factors determine land use, and how will they change (understanding human

D. S. Ojima; K. A. Galvin; B. L. II Turner

1994-01-01

451

Using the Global Electric Circuit to monitor global climate change (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global atmospheric electric circuit describes the global link between fair weather electric fields and currents measured at the Earth's surface, and the generator of these fields and currents in regions of stormy weather. Ever since the 1920s we have known about the global nature of these electric parameters, which appear to vary as a function of universal time (UT) and not local time (LT). It was also shown in the late 1920s that the "batteries" of the GEC are related to thunderstorm activity around the globe, that produce a clear global diurnal cycle due to the longitudinal distribution of the tropical landmasses. Due to the global nature of these electric fields and currents, the GEC supplies perhaps the only global geophysical index that can be measured at a single location on the Earth's surface, representing global electrical activity on the planet. The GEC can be broken down into a DC (direct current) part, and an AC (alternating current) part. Due to the global nature of the electric circuit it has been proposed by some to use geo-electric indices as proxies for changes in the global climate. If global warming results in changes in thunderstorm distribution, number and/or intensity, the GEC may allow us to monitor these changes from only a few ground stations. The advantages and disadvantages of using the GEC to monitor climate change will be presented together with some examples of how the global electric circuit has already been used to monitor changes in the Earth's climate.

Price, C. G.

2013-12-01

452

Regional news portrayals of global warming and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we utilize content analysis techniques to examine how the issue of global warming and climate change has been characterized during the period of 1992 through 2005 by the Houston Chronicle—the largest regional newspaper in the Texas coastal region. A total of 795 global warming and climate change news articles from the Houston Chronicle are collected, coded and

Xinsheng Liu; Arnold Vedlitz; Letitia Alston

2008-01-01

453

Global Change of Aquatic Ecosystems BIOL 497/ ERSC 497  

E-print Network

and consequences of global environmental change and their interactions with ecological processes. The emphasis of the course will be on the interactions between global change and freshwater ecosystems (lakes, rivers, land use, emergent diseases, invasive species, dams, aquaculture, fisheries, water supply

Fox, Michael

454

Global Climate Change. Selected Annotated Bibliography. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography on global climate change contains 27 articles designed to expand the breadth and depth of information presented in the Global Change Information Packet. Most articles were chosen from journals likely to be available in most medium-sized public or college libraries. The articles cover a variety of topics related to…

Jones, Douglas E.

455

Balancing Change and Tradition in Global Education Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Balancing Change and Tradition in Global Education Reform, Rotberg brings t