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1

Representing global climate change, adaptation and mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagrammatic representation of climate change, adaptation and mitigation is important in conceptualizing the problem, identifying important feedbacks, and communicating between disciplines. The Synthesis Report of the IPCC's Third Assessment Report, 2001, uses a “cause and effect” approach developed in the integrated assessment literature. This viewpoint reviews this approach and suggests an alternative, based on stocks and flows. The alternative

Terry Barker

2003-01-01

2

Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change  

E-print Network

concerns about rising energy demand and cost, diminishing oil reserves, and climate change, Central only and shall not be self- archived in electronic repositories. If you wish to self-archive your work America . Caribbean basin initiative . Trade and investment . Energy security Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob

3

Global Climate Change Adaptation Priorities for Biodiversity and Food Security  

PubMed Central

International policy is placing increasing emphasis on adaptation to climate change, including the allocation of new funds to assist adaptation efforts. Climate change adaptation funding may be most effective where it meets integrated goals, but global geographic priorities based on multiple development and ecological criteria are not well characterized. Here we show that human and natural adaptation needs related to maintaining agricultural productivity and ecosystem integrity intersect in ten major areas globally, providing a coherent set of international priorities for adaptation funding. An additional seven regional areas are identified as worthy of additional study. The priority areas are locations where changes in crop suitability affecting impoverished farmers intersect with changes in ranges of restricted-range species. Agreement among multiple climate models and emissions scenarios suggests that these priorities are robust. Adaptation funding directed to these areas could simultaneously address multiple international policy goals, including poverty reduction, protecting agricultural production and safeguarding ecosystem services. PMID:23991125

Hannah, Lee; Ikegami, Makihiko; Hole, David G.; Seo, Changwan; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Roehrdanz, Patrick R.

2013-01-01

4

U.S. Global Climate Change Impacts Report, Adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adaptation measures improve our ability to cope with or avoid harmful climate impacts and take advantage of beneficial ones, now and as climate varies and changes. Adaptation and mitigation are necessary elements of an effective response to climate change. Adaptation options also have the potential to moderate harmful impacts of current and future climate variability and change. The Global Climate Change Impacts Report identifies examples of adaptation-related actions currently being pursued in various sectors and regions to address climate change, as well as other environmental problems that could be exacerbated by climate change such as urban air pollution and heat waves. Some adaptation options that are currently being pursued in various regions and sectors to deal with climate change and/or other environmental issues are identified in this report. A range of adaptation responses can be employed to reduce risks through redesign or relocation of infrastructure, sustainability of ecosystem services, increased redundancy of critical social services, and operational improvements. Adapting to climate change is an evolutionary process and requires both analytic and deliberative decision support. Many of the climate change impacts described in the report have economic consequences. A significant part of these consequences flow through public and private insurance markets, which essentially aggregate and distribute society's risk. However, in most cases, there is currently insufficient robust information to evaluate the practicality, efficiency, effectiveness, costs, or benefits of adaptation measures, highlighting a need for research. Adaptation planning efforts such as that being conducted in New York City and the Colorado River will be described. Climate will be continually changing, moving at a relatively rapid rate, outside the range to which society has adapted in the past. The precise amounts and timing of these changes will not be known with certainty. The disaster research and emergency management communities have shown over that early warnings of impending hazards need to be complemented by information on the risks actually posed by the hazards (including those resulting from low levels of preparedness), existing strategies on the ground, and likely pathways to mitigate the loss and damage in the particular context in which they arise. Effective adaptations require information for long-term infrastructural planning and as critically deliberative mechanisms to structure learning and redesign in the face of emergent problems. Adaptation tends to be reactive, unevenly distributed, and focused on coping rather than preventing problems. Reduction in vulnerability will require anticipatory deliberative processes focused on incorporating adaptation into long-term municipal and public service planning, including energy, water, and health services, in the face of changing climate-related risks combined with ongoing changes in population, land use and development patterns.

Pulwarty, R.

2009-12-01

5

Global Climate Change Adaptation Priorities for Biodiversity and Food Security  

E-print Network

International policy is placing increasing emphasis on adaptation to climate change, including the allocation of new funds to assist adaptation efforts. Climate change adaptation funding may be most effective where it meets integrated goals...

Hannah, Lee; Ikegami, Makihiko; Hole, David G.; Seo, Changwan; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Roehrdanz, Patrick

2013-08-21

6

Edinburgh Research Explorer Partial costs of global climate change adaptation for the supply  

E-print Network

Edinburgh Research Explorer Partial costs of global climate change adaptation for the supply of raw, 'Partial costs of global climate change adaptation for the supply of raw industrial and municipal water of global climate change adaptation for the supply of raw industrial and municipal water: a methodology

Schnaufer, Achim

7

Integrated Decision Support for Global Environmental Change Adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental changes are happening now that has caused concern in many parts of the world; particularly vulnerable are the countries and communities with limited resources and with natural environments that are more susceptible to climate change impacts. Global leaders are concerned about the observed phenomena and events such as Amazon deforestation, shifting monsoon patterns affecting agriculture in the mountain slopes of Peru, floods in Pakistan, water shortages in Middle East, droughts impacting water supplies and wildlife migration in Africa, and sea level rise impacts on low lying coastal communities in Bangladesh. These environmental changes are likely to get exacerbated as the temperatures rise, the weather and climate patterns change, and sea level rise continues. Large populations and billions of dollars of infrastructure could be affected. At Northrop Grumman, we have developed an integrated decision support framework for providing necessary information to stakeholders and planners to adapt to the impacts of climate variability and change at the regional and local levels. This integrated approach takes into account assimilation and exploitation of large and disparate weather and climate data sets, regional downscaling (dynamic and statistical), uncertainty quantification and reduction, and a synthesis of scientific data with demographic and economic data to generate actionable information for the stakeholders and decision makers. Utilizing a flexible service oriented architecture and state-of-the-art visualization techniques, this information can be delivered via tailored GIS portals to meet diverse set of user needs and expectations. This integrated approach can be applied to regional and local risk assessments, predictions and decadal projections, and proactive adaptation planning for vulnerable communities. In this paper we will describe this comprehensive decision support approach with selected applications and case studies to illustrate how this system of systems approach could help the local governments and concerned institutions worldwide to adapt to gradually changing environmental conditions as well as manage impacts of extreme events such as droughts, floods, heat waves, wildfires, hurricanes, and storm surges.

Kumar, S.; Cantrell, S.; Higgins, G. J.; Marshall, J.; VanWijngaarden, F.

2011-12-01

8

Global Change adaptation in water resources management: the Water Change project.  

PubMed

In recent years, water resources management has been facing new challenges due to increasing changes and their associated uncertainties, such as changes in climate, water demand or land use, which can be grouped under the term Global Change. The Water Change project (LIFE+ funding) developed a methodology and a tool to assess the Global Change impacts on water resources, thus helping river basin agencies and water companies in their long term planning and in the definition of adaptation measures. The main result of the project was the creation of a step by step methodology to assess Global Change impacts and define strategies of adaptation. This methodology was tested in the Llobregat river basin (Spain) with the objective of being applicable to any water system. It includes several steps such as setting-up the problem with a DPSIR framework, developing Global Change scenarios, running river basin models and performing a cost-benefit analysis to define optimal strategies of adaptation. This methodology was supported by the creation of a flexible modelling system, which can link a wide range of models, such as hydrological, water quality, and water management models. The tool allows users to integrate their own models to the system, which can then exchange information among them automatically. This enables to simulate the interactions among multiple components of the water cycle, and run quickly a large number of Global Change scenarios. The outcomes of this project make possible to define and test different sets of adaptation measures for the basin that can be further evaluated through cost-benefit analysis. The integration of the results contributes to an efficient decision-making on how to adapt to Global Change impacts. PMID:22883209

Pouget, Laurent; Escaler, Isabel; Guiu, Roger; Mc Ennis, Suzy; Versini, Pierre-Antoine

2012-12-01

9

ADAPTATION TO GLOBAL CHANGE CHALLENGES FOR RESEARCH AND ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

school that brings you in contact with students and professors of two German study programmes that focus of Eberswalde) and `Global Change Ecology' within the Elite Network of Bavaria (offered jointly

Schmidt, Matthias

10

Least-cost adaptation options for global climate change impacts on the Brazilian electric power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change induced by the emission of greenhouse gases may pose challenges to energy security. The vulnerability of energy sources, in particular of renewable sources, to climate change raises the need to identify adaptation measures. This paper applies an integrated resource planning approach to calculate least-cost adaptation measures to a set of projected climate impacts on the Brazilian power

Andre Frossard Pereira de Lucena; Roberto Schaeffer; Alexandre Salem Szklo

2010-01-01

11

Global assessment of coral bleaching and required rates of adaptation under climate change  

E-print Network

Global assessment of coral bleaching and required rates of adaptation under climate change S I M O, Australia Abstract Elevated ocean temperatures can cause coral bleaching, the loss of colour from reef studies have warned that global climate change could increase the frequency of coral bleaching

Oppenheimer, Michael

12

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION: EXAMPLES FROM RUSSIAN BOREAL FORESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Russian Federation contains approximately 20% of the world's timber resources and more than half of all boreal forests. These forests play a prominent role in environmental protection and economic development at global, national, and local levels, as well as, provide commodities for indigenous people and habitat for a variety of plant and animal species. The response and feedbacks of

O. N. Krankina; R. K. Dixon; A. P. Kirilenko; K. I. Kobak

1997-01-01

13

Climate change adaptation: Where does global health fit in the agenda?  

PubMed Central

Human-induced climate change will affect the lives of most populations in the next decade and beyond. It will have greatest, and generally earliest, impact on the poorest and most disadvantaged populations on the planet. Changes in climatic conditions and increases in weather variability affect human wellbeing, safety, health and survival in many ways. Some impacts are direct-acting and immediate, such as impaired food yields and storm surges. Other health effects are less immediate and typically occur via more complex causal pathways that involve a range of underlying social conditions and sectors such as water and sanitation, agriculture and urban planning. Climate change adaptation is receiving much attention given the inevitability of climate change and its effects, particularly in developing contexts, where the effects of climate change will be experienced most strongly and the response mechanisms are weakest. Financial support towards adaptation activities from various actors including the World Bank, the European Union and the United Nations is increasing substantially. With this new global impetus and funding for adaptation action come challenges such as the importance of developing adaptation activities on a sound understanding of baseline community needs and vulnerabilities, and how these may alter with changes in climate. The global health community is paying heed to the strengthening focus on adaptation, albeit in a slow and unstructured manner. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of adaptation and its relevance to global health, and highlight the opportunities to improve health and reduce health inequities via the new and additional funding that is available for climate change adaptation activities. PMID:22632569

2012-01-01

14

Phylogeny of extant ruminants indicates the influence of global climatic changes and dietary adaptations on diversification rates  

E-print Network

Phylogeny of extant ruminants indicates the influence of global climatic changes and dietary adaptations on diversification rates Phylogeny of extant ruminants indicates the influence of global climatic ruminants switched their feeding strategy, originally browsing, becoming more generalizad mixed feeders

Mooers, Arne

15

Partial costs of global climate change adaptation for the supply of raw industrial and municipal water: a methodology and application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite growing recognition of the importance of climate change adaptation, few global estimates of the costs involved are available for the water supply sector. We present a methodology for estimating partial global and regional adaptation costs for raw industrial and domestic water supply, for a limited number of adaptation strategies, and apply the method using results of two climate models. In this paper, adaptation costs are defined as those for providing enough raw water to meet future industrial and municipal water demand, based on country-level demand projections to 2050. We first estimate costs for a baseline scenario excluding climate change, and then additional climate change adaptation costs. Increased demand is assumed to be met through a combination of increased reservoir yield and alternative backstop measures. Under such controversial measures, we project global adaptation costs of 12 bn p.a., with 83-90% in developing countries; the highest costs are in Sub-Saharan Africa. Globally, adaptation costs are low compared to baseline costs (73 bn p.a.), which supports the notion of mainstreaming climate change adaptation into broader policy aims. The method provides a tool for estimating broad costs at the global and regional scale; such information is of key importance in international negotiations.

Ward, Philip J.; Strzepek, Kenneth M.; Pauw, W. Pieter; Brander, Luke M.; Hughes, Gordon A.; Aerts, Jeroen C. J. H.

2010-10-01

16

Effects of Global Change on U.S. Urban Areas: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Adaptation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human settlements, both large and small, are where the vast majority of people on the Earth live. Expansion of cities both in population and areal extent, is a relentless process that will accelerate in the 21st century. As a consequence of urban growth both in the United States and around the globe, it is important to develop an understanding of how urbanization will affect the local and regional environment. Of equal importance, however, is the assessment of how cities will be impacted by the looming prospects of global climate change and climate variability. The potential impacts of climate change and variability has recently been annunciated by the IPCC's "Climate Change 2007" report. Moreover, the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) is preparing a series of "Synthesis and Assessment Products" (SAPs) reports to support informed discussion and decision making regarding climate change and variability by policy matters, resource managers, stakeholders, the media, and the general public. We are authors on a SAP describing the effects of global climate change on human settlements. This paper will present the elements of our SAP report that relate to what vulnerabilities and impacts will occur, what adaptation responses may take place, and what possible effects on settlement patterns and characteristics will potentially arise, on human settlements in the U.S. as a result of climate change and climate variability. We will also present some recommendations about what should be done to further research on how climate change and variability will impact human settlements in the U.S., as well as how to engage government officials, policy and decision makers, and the general public in understanding the implications of climate change and variability on the local and regional levels. Additionally, we wish to explore how technology such as remote sensing data coupled with modeling, can be employed as synthesis tools for deriving insight across a spectrum of impacts (e.g. public health, urban planning for mitigation strategies) on how cities can cope and adapt to climate change and variability. This latter point parallels the concepts and ideas presented in the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Decadal Survey report on "Earth Science Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond" wherein the analysis of the impacts of climate change and variability, human health, and land use change are listed as key areas for development of future Earth observing remote sensing systems.

Quattrochi, Dale A.; Wilbanks, Thomas J.; Kirshen, Paul; Romero-Lnkao, Patricia; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruth, Matthias; Solecki, William; Tarr, Joel

2007-01-01

17

ADApT: A rapid integrated assessment and decision support tool to respond to global change in coastal regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystem change is happening at a rate faster than predicted, impacting the livelihoods of coastal peoples globally and precipitating the need for timely and effective response to global change. While knowledge about best practices in coping and adaptation are evolving, countries still struggle with ways to enhance coastal peoples' capacity to respond to change and reduce their vulnerability. The complexity of coastal marine ecosystems, and the multitude of challenges faced, make it difficult to know what natural and social attributes contribute to, or limit the success of adaptations to global change. We are developing a rapid integrated assessment decision support tool (ADApT: Assessment from Description, Appraisal, and Typology) based on a global database of coastal and marine case studies. The tool focuses on 1) description of the ecological and social impacts of ecosystem stresses, and responses to those stresses; 2) appraisal of how successful those responses are in mitigating impacts, as well as what risks and uncertainties are involved; and 3) development of a typology that will enable an efficient assessment of impacts and the appropriate response. ADApT will enable decision makers and local actors to triage and improve their responses to global change, to make decisions efficiently for transitions towards coastal sustainability, and to evaluate where to most effectively invest funds to reduce vulnerability and enhance resilience of coastal peoples to global change.

Cooley, S.; Bundy, A.; Chuenpagdee, R.; Isaacs, M.; Badjeck, M.; Defeo, O.; Glaeser, B.; Guillotreau, P.; Makino, M.; Perry, R. I.

2012-12-01

18

Effects of Global Change on U.S. Urban Areas: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Adaptation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that global change has on urban areas in the United States and how the growth of urban areas will affect the environment. It presents the elements of our Synthesis and Assessment Report (SAP) report that relate to what vulnerabilities and impacts will occur, what adaptation responses may take place, and what possible effects on settlement patterns and characteristics will potentially arise, on human settlements in the U.S. as a result of climate change and climate variability. We will also present some recommendations about what should be done to further research on how climate change and variability will impact human settlements in the U.S., as well as how to engage government officials, policy and decision makers, and the general public in understanding the implications of climate change and variability on the local and regional levels. Additionally, we wish to explore how technology such as remote sensing data coupled with modeling, can be employed as synthesis tools for deriving insight across a spectrum of impacts (e.g. public health, urban planning for mitigation strategies) on how cities can cope and adapt to climate change and variability. This latter point parallels the concepts and ideas presented in the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Decadal Survey report on "Earth Science Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond" wherein the analysis of the impacts of climate change and variability, human health, and land use change are listed as key areas for development of future Earth observing remote sensing systems.

Quattrochi, Dale A.; Wilbanks, Thomas J.; Kirshen, Paul; Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruth, Mattias; Solecki, William; Tarr, Joel

2008-01-01

19

Global and Local Concerns: What Attitudes and Beliefs Motivate Farmers to Mitigate and Adapt to Climate Change?  

PubMed Central

In response to agriculture's vulnerability and contribution to climate change, many governments are developing initiatives that promote the adoption of mitigation and adaptation practices among farmers. Since most climate policies affecting agriculture rely on voluntary efforts by individual farmers, success requires a sound understanding of the factors that motivate farmers to change practices. Recent evidence suggests that past experience with the effects of climate change and the psychological distance associated with people's concern for global and local impacts can influence environmental behavior. Here we surveyed farmers in a representative rural county in California's Central Valley to examine how their intention to adopt mitigation and adaptation practices is influenced by previous climate experiences and their global and local concerns about climate change. Perceived changes in water availability had significant effects on farmers' intention to adopt mitigation and adaptation strategies, which were mediated through global and local concerns respectively. This suggests that mitigation is largely motivated by psychologically distant concerns and beliefs about climate change, while adaptation is driven by psychologically proximate concerns for local impacts. This match between attitudes and behaviors according to the psychological distance at which they are cognitively construed indicates that policy and outreach initiatives may benefit by framing climate impacts and behavioral goals concordantly; either in a global context for mitigation or a local context for adaptation. PMID:23300805

Haden, Van R.; Niles, Meredith T.; Lubell, Mark; Perlman, Joshua; Jackson, Louise E.

2012-01-01

20

Operationalizing resilience for adaptive coral reef management under global environmental change  

PubMed Central

Cumulative pressures from global climate and ocean change combined with multiple regional and local-scale stressors pose fundamental challenges to coral reef managers worldwide. Understanding how cumulative stressors affect coral reef vulnerability is critical for successful reef conservation now and in the future. In this review, we present the case that strategically managing for increased ecological resilience (capacity for stress resistance and recovery) can reduce coral reef vulnerability (risk of net decline) up to a point. Specifically, we propose an operational framework for identifying effective management levers to enhance resilience and support management decisions that reduce reef vulnerability. Building on a system understanding of biological and ecological processes that drive resilience of coral reefs in different environmental and socio-economic settings, we present an Adaptive Resilience-Based management (ARBM) framework and suggest a set of guidelines for how and where resilience can be enhanced via management interventions. We argue that press-type stressors (pollution, sedimentation, overfishing, ocean warming and acidification) are key threats to coral reef resilience by affecting processes underpinning resistance and recovery, while pulse-type (acute) stressors (e.g. storms, bleaching events, crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks) increase the demand for resilience. We apply the framework to a set of example problems for Caribbean and Indo-Pacific reefs. A combined strategy of active risk reduction and resilience support is needed, informed by key management objectives, knowledge of reef ecosystem processes and consideration of environmental and social drivers. As climate change and ocean acidification erode the resilience and increase the vulnerability of coral reefs globally, successful adaptive management of coral reefs will become increasingly difficult. Given limited resources, on-the-ground solutions are likely to focus increasingly on actions that support resilience at finer spatial scales, and that are tightly linked to ecosystem goods and services. PMID:25196132

Anthony, Kenneth RN; Marshall, Paul A; Abdulla, Ameer; Beeden, Roger; Bergh, Chris; Black, Ryan; Eakin, C Mark; Game, Edward T; Gooch, Margaret; Graham, Nicholas AJ; Green, Alison; Heron, Scott F; van Hooidonk, Ruben; Knowland, Cheryl; Mangubhai, Sangeeta; Marshall, Nadine; Maynard, Jeffrey A; McGinnity, Peter; McLeod, Elizabeth; Mumby, Peter J; Nyström, Magnus; Obura, David; Oliver, Jamie; Possingham, Hugh P; Pressey, Robert L; Rowlands, Gwilym P; Tamelander, Jerker; Wachenfeld, David; Wear, Stephanie

2015-01-01

21

Operationalizing resilience for adaptive coral reef management under global environmental change.  

PubMed

Cumulative pressures from global climate and ocean change combined with multiple regional and local-scale stressors pose fundamental challenges to coral reef managers worldwide. Understanding how cumulative stressors affect coral reef vulnerability is critical for successful reef conservation now and in the future. In this review, we present the case that strategically managing for increased ecological resilience (capacity for stress resistance and recovery) can reduce coral reef vulnerability (risk of net decline) up to a point. Specifically, we propose an operational framework for identifying effective management levers to enhance resilience and support management decisions that reduce reef vulnerability. Building on a system understanding of biological and ecological processes that drive resilience of coral reefs in different environmental and socio-economic settings, we present an Adaptive Resilience-Based management (ARBM) framework and suggest a set of guidelines for how and where resilience can be enhanced via management interventions. We argue that press-type stressors (pollution, sedimentation, overfishing, ocean warming and acidification) are key threats to coral reef resilience by affecting processes underpinning resistance and recovery, while pulse-type (acute) stressors (e.g. storms, bleaching events, crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks) increase the demand for resilience. We apply the framework to a set of example problems for Caribbean and Indo-Pacific reefs. A combined strategy of active risk reduction and resilience support is needed, informed by key management objectives, knowledge of reef ecosystem processes and consideration of environmental and social drivers. As climate change and ocean acidification erode the resilience and increase the vulnerability of coral reefs globally, successful adaptive management of coral reefs will become increasingly difficult. Given limited resources, on-the-ground solutions are likely to focus increasingly on actions that support resilience at finer spatial scales, and that are tightly linked to ecosystem goods and services. PMID:25196132

Anthony, Kenneth R N; Marshall, Paul A; Abdulla, Ameer; Beeden, Roger; Bergh, Chris; Black, Ryan; Eakin, C Mark; Game, Edward T; Gooch, Margaret; Graham, Nicholas A J; Green, Alison; Heron, Scott F; van Hooidonk, Ruben; Knowland, Cheryl; Mangubhai, Sangeeta; Marshall, Nadine; Maynard, Jeffrey A; McGinnity, Peter; McLeod, Elizabeth; Mumby, Peter J; Nyström, Magnus; Obura, David; Oliver, Jamie; Possingham, Hugh P; Pressey, Robert L; Rowlands, Gwilym P; Tamelander, Jerker; Wachenfeld, David; Wear, Stephanie

2015-01-01

22

Water Resources Adaptation to Global Changes: Risk Management through Sustainable Infrastructure Planning and Managements  

EPA Science Inventory

Global changes due to cyclic and long-term climatic variations, demographic changes and economic development, have impacts on the quality and quantity of potable and irrigation source waters. Internal and external climatic forcings, for example, redistribute precipitation season...

23

Water Resources Adaptation to Global Changes: Risk Management through Sustainable Infrastructure Planning and Management - Paper  

EPA Science Inventory

Global changes due to cyclic and long-term climatic variations, demographic changes and economic development, have impacts on the quality and quantity of potable and irrigation source waters. Internal and external climatic forcings, for example, redistribute precipitation season...

24

USEPA?s Water Resource Adaptation Program (WRAP) ? Drinking Water Research and Global Climate Change  

EPA Science Inventory

The Water Resource Adaptation Program (WRAP) contributes to EPA?s efforts to provide water resource managers and decision makers with the tools they need to adapt water resources (e.g., watersheds and infrastructure) to future climate change and demographic and economic developme...

25

Global warming in the palliative care research environment: adapting to change.  

PubMed

Advocates of palliative care research have often described the cold and difficult environment that has constrained the development of research internationally. The development of palliative care research has been slow over the last few decades and has met with resistance and sometimes hostility to the idea of conducting research in 'vulnerable populations'. The seeds of advocacy for research can be found in palliative care literature from the 1980s and early 1990s. Although we have much to do, we need to recognize that palliative care research development has come a long way. Of particular note is the development of well-funded collaboratives that now exist in Europe, Canada, Australia and the USA. The European Association for Palliative Care and the International Association for Hospice and Palliative Care has recognized the need to develop and promote global research initiatives, with a special focus on developing countries. Time is needed to develop good research evidence and in a more complex healthcare environment takes increasingly more resources to be productive. The increased support (global warming) evident in the increased funding opportunities available to palliative care researchers in a number of countries brings both benefits and challenges. There is evidence that the advocacy of individuals such as Kathleen Foley, Neil MacDonald, Balfour Mount, Vittorio Ventafridda, Robert Twycross and Geoff Hanks is now providing fertile ground and a much friendlier environment for a new generation of interdisciplinary palliative care research. We have achieved many of the goals necessary to avoid failure of the 'palliative care experiment', and need to accept the challenge of our present climate and adapt and take advantage of the change. PMID:18541636

Fainsinger, R L

2008-06-01

26

Land system architecture: Using land systems to adapt and mitigate global environmental change  

SciTech Connect

Land systems (mosaics of land use and cover) are human environment systems, the changes in which drive and respond to local to global environmental changes, climate to macro-economy (Foley et al., 2005). Changes in land systems have been the principal proximate cause in the loss of habitats and biota globally, long contributed to atmospheric greenhouse gases, and hypothesized to have triggered climate changes in the early Holocene (Ruddiman, 2003). Land use, foremost agriculture, is the largest source of biologically active nitrogen to the atmosphere, critical to sources and sinks of carbon, and a major component in the hydrologic cycle (e.g., Bouwman et al., 2011). Changes in land systems also affect regional climate (Feddema et al., 2005; Pielke, 2005), ecosystem functions, and the array of ecosystem services they provide. Land systems, therefore, are a central feature of how humankind manages its relationship with nature-intended or not, or whether this relationship proceeds sustainably or not.

Turner, B.L.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Verbug, Peter H.; Murray, Alan T.

2013-04-01

27

Development of a natural practice to adapt conservation goals to global change.  

PubMed

Conservation goals at the start of the 21st century reflect a combination of contrasting ideas. Ideal nature is something that is historically intact but also futuristically flexible. Ideal nature is independent from humans, but also, because of the pervasiveness of human impacts, only able to reach expression through human management. These tensions emerge in current management rationales because scientists and managers are struggling to accommodate old and new scientific and cultural thinking, while also maintaining legal mandates from the past and commitments to preservation of individual species in particular places under the stresses of global change. Common management goals (such as integrity, wilderness, resilience), whether they are forward looking and focused on sustainability and change, or backward looking and focused on the persistence and restoration of historic states, tend to create essentialisms about how ecosystems should be. These essentialisms limit the options of managers to accommodate the dynamic, and often novel, response of ecosystems to global change. Essentialisms emerge because there is a tight conceptual coupling of place and historical species composition as an indicator of naturalness (e.g., normal, healthy, independent from humans). Given that change is increasingly the norm and ecosystems evolve in response, the focus on idealized ecosystem states is increasingly unwise and unattainable. To provide more open-ended goals, we propose greater attention be paid to the characteristics of management intervention. We suggest that the way we interact with other species in management and the extent to which those interactions reflect the interactions among other biotic organisms, and also reflect our conservation virtues (e.g., humility, respect), influences our ability to cultivate naturalness on the landscape. We call this goal a natural practice (NP) and propose it as a framework for prioritizing and formulating how, when, and where to intervene in this period of rapid change. PMID:24617971

Heller, Nicole E; Hobbs, Richard J

2014-06-01

28

Adaptive Multivariate Global Testing  

PubMed Central

We present a methodology for dealing with recent challenges in testing global hypotheses using multivariate observations. The proposed tests target situations, often arising in emerging applications of neuroimaging, where the sample size n is relatively small compared with the observations’ dimension K. We employ adaptive designs allowing for sequential modifications of the test statistics adapting to accumulated data. The adaptations are optimal in the sense of maximizing the predictive power of the test at each interim analysis while still controlling the Type I error. Optimality is obtained by a general result applicable to typical adaptive design settings. Further, we prove that the potentially high-dimensional design space of the tests can be reduced to a low-dimensional projection space enabling us to perform simpler power analysis studies, including comparisons to alternative tests. We illustrate the substantial improvement in efficiency that the proposed tests can make over standard tests, especially in the case of n smaller or slightly larger than K. The methods are also studied empirically using both simulated data and data from an EEG study, where the use of prior knowledge substantially increases the power of the test. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. PMID:25125767

Minas, Giorgos; Aston, John A.D.; Stallard, Nigel

2014-01-01

29

Global change effects on biogeochemical processes of Argentinian estuaries: An overview of vulnerabilities and ecohydrological adaptive outlooks.  

PubMed

The aims of this work are to provide an overview of the current stresses of estuaries in Argentina and to propose adaptation strategies from an ecohydrological approach. Several Argentinian estuaries are impacted by pollutants, derived mainly from sewage discharge and agricultural or industrial activities. Anthropogenic impacts are expected to rise with increasing human population. Climate-driven warmer temperature and hydrological changes will alter stratification, residence time, oxygen content, salinity, pollutant distribution, organism physiology and ecology, and nutrient dynamics. Good water quality is essential in enhancing estuarine ecological resilience to disturbances brought on by global change. The preservation, restoration, and creation of wetlands will help to protect the coast from erosion, increase sediment accretion rates, and improve water quality by removing excess nutrients and pollutants. The capacity of hydrologic basin ecosystems to absorb human and natural impacts can be improved through holistic management, which should consider social vulnerability in complex human-natural systems. PMID:25194878

Kopprio, Germán A; Biancalana, Florencia; Fricke, Anna; Garzón Cardona, John E; Martínez, Ana; Lara, Rubén J

2014-09-01

30

Corporate Climate Change Adaptation.  

E-print Network

?? On-going and future climate change is universally acknowledged. Climate changeincorporating global mean temperature rise, impacts on global hydrology and ecosystems willaffect human society and… (more)

Herbertsson, Nicole

2010-01-01

31

Global Change and Sustainable Development Global Change  

E-print Network

to Climate Change and Social Action in East Africa 5 Collaborative Research in East Africa: Towards More to Support Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change in the Drylands of East Africa Chinwe Ifejika

Richner, Heinz

32

Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation  

E-print Network

Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation David S. Liebl and Kenneth W. Potter Co scenarios for temperature and precipitation Part 2 High water impacts Adaptation strategies #12;1930 2008WI of global climate change­ WICCI Stormwater Working Group #12;Projected Climate Change 200-2100 What Global

Sheridan, Jennifer

33

Climate change, carbon dioxide, and global crop production: Adaptation to uncertainty  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Documented and projected changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide are likely to alter agricultural productivity in two ways: directly, by supplying additional carbon for photosynthesis and growth, and indirectly by altering climate, specifically surface temperatures and precipitation. In this overview...

34

Ask Dr. Global Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users of this resource may direct questions about global change to staff members at the U.S. Global Change Research Information Office (GCIRO). An archive of previous questions and answers is provided, along with links to other global change sites.

35

Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation  

E-print Network

Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation David S. Liebl and Kenneth W. Potter Co of precipitation High water impacts Adaptation strategies #12;1930 2008WI Cooperative Weather Stations We've been changes due to global climate change." ­ WICCI Stormwater Working Group #12;Future Climate Change What

Sheridan, Jennifer

36

Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how the greenhouse effect is related to global warming and how global warming impacts our planet, including global climate change. Extreme weather events, rising sea levels, and how we react to these changes are the main points of focus of this lesson.

2014-09-18

37

Food security and climate change: on the potential to adapt global crop production by active selection to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide  

PubMed Central

Agricultural production is under increasing pressure by global anthropogenic changes, including rising population, diversion of cereals to biofuels, increased protein demands and climatic extremes. Because of the immediate and dynamic nature of these changes, adaptation measures are urgently needed to ensure both the stability and continued increase of the global food supply. Although potential adaption options often consider regional or sectoral variations of existing risk management (e.g. earlier planting dates, choice of crop), there may be a global-centric strategy for increasing productivity. In spite of the recognition that atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is an essential plant resource that has increased globally by approximately 25 per cent since 1959, efforts to increase the biological conversion of atmospheric CO2 to stimulate seed yield through crop selection is not generally recognized as an effective adaptation measure. In this review, we challenge that viewpoint through an assessment of existing studies on CO2 and intraspecific variability to illustrate the potential biological basis for differential plant response among crop lines and demonstrate that while technical hurdles remain, active selection and breeding for CO2 responsiveness among cereal varieties may provide one of the simplest and direct strategies for increasing global yields and maintaining food security with anthropogenic change. PMID:22874755

Ziska, Lewis H.; Bunce, James A.; Shimono, Hiroyuki; Gealy, David R.; Baker, Jeffrey T.; Newton, Paul C. D.; Reynolds, Matthew P.; Jagadish, Krishna S. V.; Zhu, Chunwu; Howden, Mark; Wilson, Lloyd T.

2012-01-01

38

Designing Global Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a time when sensationalism rules the online world, it is best to keep things short. The people of the online world are not passing back and forth lengthy articles, but rather brief glimpses of complex information. This is the target audience we attempt to educate. Our challenge is then to attack not only ignorance, but also apathy toward global climate change, while conforming to popular modes of learning. When communicating our scientific material, it was difficult to determine what level of information was appropriate for our audience, especially with complex subject matter. Our unconventional approach for communicating the carbon crisis as it applies to global climate change caters to these 'recreational learners'. Using story-telling devices acquired from Carolyne's biomedical art background coupled with Peter's extensive knowledge of carbon cycle and ecosystems science, we developed a dynamic series of illustrations that capture the attention of a callous audience. Adapting complex carbon cycle and climate science into comic-book-style animations creates a channel between artist, scientist, and the general public. Brief scenes of information accompanied by text provide a perfect platform for visual learners, as well as fresh portrayals of stale material for the jaded. In this way art transcends the barriers of the cerebral and the abstract, paving the road to understanding.;

Griffith, P. C.; ORyan, C.

2012-12-01

39

Global climate change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Present processes of global climate change are reviewed. The processes determining global temperature are briefly described and the concept of effective temperature is elucidated. The greenhouse effect is examined, including the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases.

Levine, Joel S.

1991-01-01

40

Climate Change: Life history adaptation by a global whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, with rising temperature and carbon dioxide  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction: Climate change can have direct and indirect impacts on living organisms. A rise in ambient temperature and elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations due to global warming may have assorted impacts on arthropods such as altered life cycles, altered reproductive patterns, and change...

41

Globalization and Educational Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no greater context for educational change than that of globalization, nor no grander way of conceptualizing what\\u000a educational change is about. Wells and her colleagues analyze how economic and political globalization are affecting the identity\\u000a and independence of nation states, and the ways in which public education (like public health and welfare) are undergoing\\u000a change within the states.

Amy Stuart Wells; Sibyll Carnochan; Julie Slayton; Ricky Lee Allen; Ash Vasudeva

42

Adaptation strategies to climate change in the Arctic: a global patchwork of reactive community-scale initiatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic regions have experienced and will continue to experience the greatest rates of warming compared to any other region of the world. The people living in the Arctic are considered among most vulnerable to the impacts of environmental change ranging from decline in natural resources to increasing mental health concerns (IPCC 2014 Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)). A meta-analysis study by Ford et al (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 104005) has assessed the volume, scope and geographic distribution of reported in the English language peer-reviewed literature initiatives for adaptation to climate change in the Arctic. Their analysis highlights the reactive nature of the adopted policies with a strong emphasis on local and community-level policies mostly targeting indigenous population in Canada and Alaska. The study raises concerns about the lack of monitoring and evaluation mechanism to track the success rate of the existing policies and the need for long-term strategic planning in adaption policies spanning international boundaries and including all groups of population.

Loboda, Tatiana V.

2014-11-01

43

Climate Change Adaptation Planning  

E-print Network

hazard) Is drought having an impact? (climate hazard) #12;Phase 2: Vulnerability and Risk Assessments Report Western Water Assessment NIDIS (National Integrated Drought Information System) The University of Colorado Law School #12;What is Climate Change Adaptation? "Adjustment in natural or human systems

Neff, Jason

44

Global Change Sustainability  

E-print Network

Global Change and Sustainability Center The GCSC is an inclusionary and interdisciplinary hub that promotes, coordinates, and conducts local to global environmental- and sustainability-related research to complex environmental and sustainability issues and challenges. 2012 Annual Report #12;1GCSC 2012 ANNUAL

Tipple, Brett

45

Global Change Primer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This introductory chapter for educators provides background information to support classroom investigations of global climate change. Topics addressed include the structure and composition of the atmosphere, General Circulation Models (GCMs), 2xCO2 scenarios, uncertainty, and human impacts. The primer is part of the Ground Truth Studies Teacher Handbook, which provides more than 20 activities to build student understanding of global change and remote sensing, and includes background chapters for teachers, glossary, and appendices.

46

Global Change 1 Labs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the University of Michigan lists the labs for a course on global change. Because of the complexity of global changes, it is often not enough to read about the workings of these phenomena. Modeling is used extensively in these labs because thinking about the dynamics of a system, extracting critical functioning parts, and attempting to build a model captures its essence by making assumptions to account for external variables. Also included are tips for web project development.

University of Michigan

47

Global temperature change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global surface temperature has increased 0.2°C per decade in the past 30 years, similar to the warming rate predicted in the 1980s in initial global climate model simulations with transient greenhouse gas changes. Warming is larger in the Western Equatorial Pacific than in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific over the past century, and we suggest that the increased West-East temperature gradient

James Hansen; Makiko Sato; Reto Ruedy; Ken Lo; David W. Lea; Martin Medina-Elizade

2006-01-01

48

Global Change Master Directory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Global Change Master Directory Web site provides descriptions and access to earth science data sets and services relevant to global change research. These include data sets covering agriculture, the atmosphere, the biosphere, the hydrosphere and oceans, snow and ice, geology and geophysics, paleoclimatology, and human dimensions of global change. Users can search or browse by topic to locate specific lists of data sets that are accompanied by a summary of that data, a description of its source including contact information, spatial and temporal descriptions, and additional links. The unique and simple interface of the database does a good job of providing an easy way to locate and judge the relevancy of the data that's available.

49

Global coordination in adaptation to gene rewiring.  

PubMed

Gene rewiring is a common evolutionary phenomenon in nature that may lead to extinction for living organisms. Recent studies on synthetic biology demonstrate that cells can survive genetic rewiring. This survival (adaptation) is often linked to the stochastic expression of rewired genes with random transcriptional changes. However, the probability of adaptation and the underlying common principles are not clear. We performed a systematic survey of an assortment of gene-rewired Escherichia coli strains to address these questions. Three different cell fates, designated good survivors, poor survivors and failures, were observed when the strains starved. Large fluctuations in the expression of the rewired gene were commonly observed with increasing cell size, but these changes were insufficient for adaptation. Cooperative reorganizations in the corresponding operon and genome-wide gene expression largely contributed to the final success. Transcriptome reorganizations that generally showed high-dimensional dynamic changes were restricted within a one-dimensional trajectory for adaptation to gene rewiring, indicating a general path directed toward cellular plasticity for a successful cell fate. This finding of global coordination supports a mechanism of stochastic adaptation and provides novel insights into the design and application of complex genetic or metabolic networks. PMID:25564530

Murakami, Yoshie; Matsumoto, Yuki; Tsuru, Saburo; Ying, Bei-Wen; Yomo, Tetsuya

2015-01-30

50

Global Climate Change: Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explains how climate change affects everything from stratospheric temperatures to the golden toad of Costa Rica. Graphs, articles, and maps monitor humankind's impact on the planet. The site features five thumbnails including two maps showing Global Outgoing Longwave Heat Radiation, and Global Reflected Shortwave Solar Radiation and three graphs entitled Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Records from Mauna Loa, Hawaii (1958 - 2000), Global Average Near-Surface Temperatures - Monthly Anomalies (1961 - 2002), and Global Stratospheric and Tropospheric Temperature Anomalies (1979 - 2001). Each of these provides a link to a larger version of the visual and a detailed explanation. Each section has links to a glossary as well as links to questions about each section and additional references.

51

Global Change 2 Lectures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A list of lectures for the Global Change 2 course at the University of Michigan is featured on this site. Each lecture includes definitions and images that enhance the subject matter. Additionally, a self-test is available at the bottom of the page.

University of Michigan

52

Global Change 2 Labs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the University of Michigan features the list of labs and activities for the Global Change 2 course. An introduction to ArcView is presented and used in several of the labs. Steps and references for the Web Term Project Development are also included.

University of Michigan

53

RANGELANDS AND GLOBAL CHANGE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is an issue paper written under the auspices of the Society for Range Management. This issue paper does not contain an abstract, but for purposes of the ARS 115 the following was written by Robert R. Blank. Global change is affecting rangelands. Land use patterns, invasions by exotic species, ...

54

Global Change 1 Lectures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the University of Michigan lists the lectures and labs for the Global Change 1 course. Each lecture includes definitions and images that enhance the subject matter, and a self-test is available at the bottom of the page.

University of Michigan

55

Introduction to Global Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the University of Michigan is the homepage for an interdisciplinary three semester introductory course sequence that investigates the causes and potential impacts of global change. The curriculum is tailored to beginning student and includes three course; physical processes, human impacts, and sustainability studies. The site includes lecture notes, syllabi, and lab exercises.

Van Der Pluijm, Ben; Samson, Perry; Kling, George; Allan, Dave; Michigan, University O.

56

Farmer responses to multiple stresses in the face of global change: Assessing five case studies to enhance adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global challenge of sustaining agricultural livelihoods and yields in the face of growing populations and increasing climate change is the topic of intense research. The role of on-the-ground decision-making by individual farmers actually producing food, fuel, and fiber is often studied in individual cases to determine its environmental, economic, and social effects. However, there are few efforts to link across studies in a way that provides opportunities to better understand empirical farmer behavior, design effective policies, and be able to aggregate from case studies to a broader scale. Here we synthesize existing literature to identify four general factors affecting farmer decision-making: local technical and socio-cultural contexts; actors and institutions involved in decision-making; multiple stressors at broader scales; and the temporal gradient of decision-making. We use these factors to compare five cases that illustrate agricultural decision-making and its impacts: cotton and castor farming in Gujarat, India; swidden cultivation of upland rice in the Philippines; potato cultivation in Andean Colombia; winegrowing in Northern California; and maize production in peri-urban central Mexico. These cases span a geographic and economic range of production systems, but we find that we are able to make valid comparisons and draw lessons common across all cases by using the four factors as an organizing principle. We also find that our understanding of why farmers make the decisions they do changes if we neglect to examine even one of the four general factors guiding decision-making. This suggests that these four factors are important to understanding farmer decision-making, and can be used to guide the design and interpretation of future studies, as well as be the subject of further research in and of themselves to promote an agricultural system that is resilient to climate and other global environmental changes.

Nicholas, K. A.; Feola, G.; Lerner, A. M.; Jain, M.; Montefrio, M.

2013-12-01

57

Global Environmental Change: Deforestation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Washington State's Olympic Peninsula contains some of America's only old-growth forest. Its timber supports local, regional, and even global economies. It also supports many biological species and provides a link in biogeochemical cycling. How can these roles be balanced? Using the Olympic Peninsula as a case study, this book introduces students to basic scientific themes and equips them with tools to increase their understanding of deforestation. Hands-on classroom activities demonstrate how to integrate science with other disciplines to gather information, address problems, and make decisions. NSTA and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency created the Global Environmental Change Series so students can see how science works in today's world. Each volume links a global environmental topic directly to students' own experiences. The series covers topics ranging from biodiversity to population growth to solid waste management.

Environmental Protection Agency

1997-01-01

58

Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides a brief overview of processes and properties associated with global climate change and its rate of change, which is of current concern to scientists. The carbon cycle is discussed including its sources, sinks, and release agents along with the fact that it is critical to the biosphere and must continue cycling to support life on Earth. The information at this site should lead students to an understanding of carbon dioxide and the other major greenhouse gases, which is necessary to identify the current trends in atmospheric concentrations and climate change. Three other concepts addressed at this site include the profound effects living organisms in an ecosystem can have upon the local atmosphere, profound effects changes in vegetation can have upon wind speed, and the link of human activity to increased greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This section serves as a reference for and includes links to seven classroom activities.

2011-01-13

59

Beyond global warming: Ecology and global change  

Microsoft Academic Search

While ecologists involved in management or policy often are advised to learn to deal with uncertainty, some components of global environmental change are certainly occurring and are certainly human-caused. All have important ecological consequences. Well-documented global changes include: Increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere; alterations in the biogeochemistry of the global nitrogen cycle; and ongoing land use\\/land cover

P. M. Vitousek

1994-01-01

60

Global Environmental Change Symposium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global environmental warming issue has been catapulted to the forefront of media attention as a result of the drought of 1988 and extremely warm temperatures. NASA scientist James Hansen testified last year that the warming trend has begun and that part of the temperature rise is due to gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and chlorofluro-carbons (CFCs) being released into the atmosphere by human activity.In response to recent scientific speculation on the issue, the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., hosted the symposium Global Environmental Change April 24 as part of their annual meeting. Speakers included Bert Bolin, University of Stockholm; Robert White, National Academy of Engineering; Stephen Schneider, National Center for Atmospheric Research; and Peter Raven, Missouri Botanical Garden. Moderator was Russell Train, World Wildlife Fund.

Bush, Susan M.

61

Potential global climate change  

SciTech Connect

Global economic integration and growth contribute much to the construction of energy plants, vehicles and other industrial products that produces carbon emission and in effect cause the destruction of the environment. A coordinated policy and response worldwide to curb emissions and to effect global climate change must be introduced. Improvement in scientific understanding is required to monitor how much emission reduction is necessary. In the near term, especially in the next seven years, sustained research and development for low carbon or carbon-free energy is necessary. Other measures must also be introduced, such as limiting the use of vehicles, closing down inefficient power plants, etc. In the long term, the use of the electric car, use solar energy, etc. is required. Reforestation must also be considered to absorb large amounts of carbon in the atmosphere.

NONE

1994-09-01

62

Global Distributions of Vulnerability to Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

Signatories of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have committed themselves to addressing the “specific needs and special circumstances of developing country parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change”.1 The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has since concluded with high confidence that “developing countries will be more vulnerable to climate change than developed countries”.2 In their most recent report, however, the IPCC notes that “current knowledge of adaptation and adaptive capacity is insufficient for reliable prediction of adaptations” 3 because “the capacity to adapt varies considerably among regions, countries and socioeconomic groups and will vary over time”.4 Here, we respond to the apparent contradiction in these two statements by exploring how variation in adaptive capacity and climate impacts combine to influence the global distribution of vulnerability. We find that all countries will be vulnerable to climate change, even if their adaptive capacities are enhanced. Developing nations are most vulnerable to modest climate change. Reducing greenhouse-gas emissions would diminish their vulnerabilities significantly. Developed countries would benefit most from mitigation for moderate climate change. Extreme climate change overwhelms the abilities of all countries to adapt. These findings should inform both ongoing negotiations for the next commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol and emerging plans for implementing UNFCCC-sponsored adaptation funds.

Yohe, Gary; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Brenkert, Antoinette L.; Schlesinger, Michael; Meij, Henk; Xiaoshi, Xing

2006-12-01

63

Classifying climate change adaptation frameworks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex socio-ecological demographics are factors that must be considered when addressing adaptation to the potential effects of climate change. As such, a suite of deployable climate change adaptation frameworks is necessary. Multiple frameworks that are required to communicate the risks of climate change and facilitate adaptation. Three principal adaptation frameworks have emerged from the literature; Scenario - Led (SL), Vulnerability - Led (VL) and Decision - Centric (DC). This study aims to identify to what extent these adaptation frameworks; either, planned or deployed are used in a neighbourhood vulnerable to climate change. This work presents a criterion that may be used as a tool for identifying the hallmarks of adaptation frameworks and thus enabling categorisation of projects. The study focussed on the coastal zone surrounding the Sizewell nuclear power plant in Suffolk in the UK. An online survey was conducted identifying climate change adaptation projects operating in the study area. This inventory was analysed to identify the hallmarks of each adaptation project; Levels of dependency on climate model information, Metrics/units of analysis utilised, Level of demographic knowledge, Level of stakeholder engagement, Adaptation implementation strategies and Scale of adaptation implementation. The study found that climate change adaptation projects could be categorised, based on the hallmarks identified, in accordance with the published literature. As such, the criterion may be used to establish the matrix of adaptation frameworks present in a given area. A comprehensive summary of the nature of adaptation frameworks in operation in a locality provides a platform for further comparative analysis. Such analysis, enabled by the criterion, may aid the selection of appropriate frameworks enhancing the efficacy of climate change adaptation.

Armstrong, Jennifer

2014-05-01

64

Global change and mercury  

USGS Publications Warehouse

More than 140 nations recently agreed to a legally binding treaty on reductions in human uses and releases of mercury that will be signed in October of this year. This follows the 2011 rule in the United States that for the first time regulates mercury emissions from electricity-generating utilities. Several decades of scientific research preceded these important regulations. However, the impacts of global change on environmental mercury concentrations and human exposures remain a major uncertainty affecting the potential effectiveness of regulatory activities.

Krabbenhoft, David P.; Sunderland, Elsie M.

2013-01-01

65

Global Environmental Change: Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This book uses Costa Rica as a case study because the country's tropical forests contain four percent of Earth's total biological species diversity. Biodiversity's activities and readings help students explore efforts to balance economic expansion with resource conservation. This resource has activities to explore local biodiversity and true-to-life role-playing scenarios, so students can apply what they have learned. Biodiversity is one of four books in NSTA Press's Global Environmental Change series, a joint project of NSTA Press and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The other books in the series are Deforestation, Carrying Capacity, and Introduced Species.

Environmental Protection Agency

1997-01-01

66

Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change, and  

E-print Network

1 Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change Changes · Due to ­ Climate Change ­ Land Cover / Land Use Change ­ Interaction of Climate and Land Cover Change · Resolution ­ Space ­ Time Hydro-Climatic Change · Variability vs. Change (Trends) · Point data

67

Global Change Instruction Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series is designed by college professors to fill an urgent need for interdisciplinary materials on global change. The materials are aimed at undergraduate students who are not majoring in science. The modular materials can be integrated into a number of existing courses in, for example, the earth sciences, biology, physics, astronomy, chemistry, meteorology, and the social sciences. The materials have been written to capture the interest of the student who has little grounding in math and the technical aspects of science but whose intellectual curiosity is piqued by a concern for the environment. Modules include biogeochemical cycles, biological consequences of climate change, human energy use, population growth, international environmental law, and stratospheric ozone depletion.

Ennis, Christine; Sulzman, Elizabeth; Barron, Eric; Shaw, Glenn; Trenberth, Kevin; Few, Arthur

68

FY 2002 GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

PRA Goal 6: Reducing Global and Transboundary Environmental Risks Objective 6.2: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Sub-Objective 6.2.3: Global Climate Change Research Activity F55 - Assessing the Consequences of Global Change on Ecosystem Health NRMRL R...

69

Bibliography of global change, 1992  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This bibliography lists 585 reports, articles, and other documents introduced in the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Database in 1992. The areas covered include global change, decision making, earth observation (from space), forecasting, global warming, policies, and trends.

1993-01-01

70

Global Climate Change Key Indicators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website charts measurement of key indicators of global climate change. Simple explanations and "What Does This Mean?" sections accompany each area of sea level, carbon dioxide concentration, global surface temperature, Arctic sea ice and land ice.

71

Transformational adaptation when incremental adaptations to climate change are insufficient  

E-print Network

Transformational adaptation when incremental adaptations to climate change are insufficient Robert adaptation may be difficult to implement because of uncertainties about climate change risks and adaptation and extreme events. For example, in one extensive listing of adaptations to climate change, the US National

Colorado at Boulder, University of

72

Climate Adaptation Futures: Second International Climate Change Adaptation Conference 2012  

E-print Network

Climate Adaptation Futures: Second International Climate Change Adaptation Conference 2012 to climate change! May 29­May 31, 2012, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA Conference Web Site: http://www.adaptation.arizona.edu/adaptation, and by UNEP's Programme of Research on Climate Change Vulnerability, Impacts and Adaptation (PROVIA

Matthews, Adrian

73

AAAS - Global Climate Change Video  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video features residents of Shishmaref, Alaska, plus environmental journalist Elizabeth Kolbert and scientist John Holdren, exploring the human impacts of global climate change. The roles of teachers, scientists, policymakers, and concerned citizens in mitigating the changes are highlighted.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); Aaas

74

Perspectives on global change theory  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Global changes in ecological drivers, such as CO2 concentrations, climate, and nitrogen deposition, are increasingly recognized as key to understanding contemporary ecosystem dynamics, but a coherent theory of global change has not yet been developed. We outline the characteristics of a theory of gl...

75

Global atmospheric changes.  

PubMed Central

Increasing concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can be directly related to global warming. In terms of human health, because a major cause of increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is the increased combustion of fossil fuels, global warming also may result in increases in air pollutants, acid deposition, and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To understand better the impacts of global warming phenomena on human health, this review emphasizes the processes that are responsible for the greenhouse effect, air pollution, acid deposition, and increased exposure to UV radiation. PMID:1820255

Piver, W T

1991-01-01

76

Global atmospheric changes.  

PubMed

Increasing concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can be directly related to global warming. In terms of human health, because a major cause of increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is the increased combustion of fossil fuels, global warming also may result in increases in air pollutants, acid deposition, and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To understand better the impacts of global warming phenomena on human health, this review emphasizes the processes that are responsible for the greenhouse effect, air pollution, acid deposition, and increased exposure to UV radiation. PMID:1820255

Piver, W T

1991-12-01

77

Global Climate Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses recent changes in the Earth's climate. Summarizes reports on changes related to carbon dioxide, temperature, rain, sea level, and glaciers in polar areas. Describes the present effort to measure the changes. Lists 16 references. (YP)

Hall, Dorothy K.

1989-01-01

78

Science priorities for the human dimensions of global change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics covered include the following: defining research needs; understanding land use change; improving policy analysis -- research on the decision-making process; designing policy instruments and institutions to address energy-related environmental problems; assessing impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation to global changes; and understanding population dynamics and global change.

1994-01-01

79

Conservation and Global Climate Change  

E-print Network

V.6 Conservation and Global Climate Change Diane M. Debinski and Molly S. Cross OUTLINE 1. Introduction 2. How climate is changing 3. Environmental responses to climate change 4. Consequences of climate the coming decades will be preserving biodiversity in the face of climate change. It has become increasingly

Landweber, Laura

80

Solar influences on global change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monitoring of the Sun and the Earth has yielded new knowledge essential to this debate. There is now no doubt that the total radiative energy from the Sun that heats the Earth's surface changes over decadal time scales as a consequence of solar activity. Observations indicate as well that changes in ultraviolet radiation and energetic particles from the Sun, also connected with the solar activity, modulate the layer of ozone that protects the biosphere from the solar ultraviolet radiation. This report reassesses solar influences on global change in the light of this new knowledge of solar and atmospheric variability. Moreover, the report considers climate change to be encompassed within the broader concept of global change; thus the biosphere is recognized to be part of a larger, coupled Earth system. Implementing a program to continuously monitor solar irradiance over the next several decades will provide the opportunity to estimate solar influences on global change, assuming continued maintenance of observations of climate and other potential forcing mechanisms. In the lower atmosphere, an increase in solar radiation is expected to cause global warming. In the stratosphere, however, the two effects produce temperature changes of opposite sign. A monitoring program that would augment long term observations of tropospheric parameters with similar observations of stratospheric parameters could separate these diverse climate perturbations and perhaps isolate a greenhouse footprint of climate change. Monitoring global change in the troposphere is a key element of all facets of the United States Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), not just of the study of solar influences on global change. The need for monitoring the stratosphere is also important for global change research in its own right because of the stratospheric ozone layer.

1994-01-01

81

Space sensors for global change  

SciTech Connect

Satellite measurements should contribute to a fuller understanding of the physical processes behind the radiation budget, exchange processes, and global change. Climate engineering requires global observation for early indications of predicted effects, which puts a premium on affordable, distributed constellations of satellites with effective, affordable sensors. Defense has a requirement for continuous global surveillance for warning of aggression, which could evolve from advanced sensors and satellites in development. Many climate engineering needs match those of defense technologies.

Canavan, G.H.

1994-02-15

82

Global Climatic Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the climatic effects of trace gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. It discusses the expected changes from the increases in trace gases and the extent to which the expected changes can be found in the climate record and in the retreat of glaciers. The use of ice cores in correlating atmospheric composition and climate is discussed.

Richard A. Houghton; George M. Woodwell

1989-01-01

83

Agencies confer on global change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organization of a national forum and the development of a scientific plan for studies on global change are among the initiatives that the U.S. Committee on Global Change (CGC) is considering as a way of focusing U.S. efforts to assess anthropogenic changes in the global environment. The committee, which met for the first time at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) on June 11—12, 1987, set out to determine the status of various national and international programs. The meeting also enabled the National Science Foundation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and other agency representatives to describe their past efforts and future plans and commitments toward a national global change program. Scientific organizations such as AGU and the Smithsonian Institution will probably be invited to take part in such a national forum and in the development of the scientific plan.

Sackett, Bill

84

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation  

E-print Network

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Provincial Report executive summary #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry

Pedersen, Tom

85

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation  

E-print Network

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Provincial Report #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry

Pedersen, Tom

86

Global Climatic Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cites some of the evidence which suggests that the production of carbon dioxide and methane from human activities has begun to change the climate. Describes some measures which should be taken to stop or slow this progression. (RT)

Houghton, Richard A.; Woodwell, George M.

1989-01-01

87

USACE JUNE 2014 Climate Change Adaptation Plan  

E-print Network

USACE JUNE 2014 Climate Change Adaptation Plan #12;2 INTRODUCTIONEXECUTIVE SUMMARY This USACE Adaptation Plan describes activities underway to evaluate the most significant climate change related risks in supporting mainstreaming climate change adaptation has focused on clarifying our adaptation mission and goals

US Army Corps of Engineers

88

Climate Change Adaptation for Local Government  

E-print Network

Climate Change Adaptation for Local Government A Resource Guide June 2011 Jenny Fraser, Adaptation to Climate Change Team, Simon Fraser University #12;Page 1 of 26 Climate Change Adaptation for Local: RESOURCES THAT SUPPORT CLIMATE CHANGE ASSESSMENT 3. Past and Future Climate Change and Its Impacts 4

Pedersen, Tom

89

Global climatic change  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the climatic effects of trace gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. It discusses the expected changes from the increases in trace gases and the extent to which the expected changes can be found in the climate record and in the retreat of glaciers. The use of ice cores in correlating atmospheric composition and climate is discussed. The response of terrestrial ecosystems as a biotic feedback is discussed. Possible responses are discussed, including reduction in fossil-fuel use, controls on deforestation, and reforestation. International aspects, such as the implications for developing nations, are addressed.

Houghton, R.A.; Woodwell, G.M.

1989-04-01

90

Global Change at Edinburgh  

E-print Network

aircraft, a remote sensing platform for measuring gas fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere of climate/ chemistry, air quality. Remote sensing of the atmosphere. Climate change monitoring. FRAME biogeochemistry, palaeo-oceanography, paleoclimatology, pollutants, plankton genetics, remote sensing. Linked

Greenaway, Alan

91

U.S. Global Change Research Information Office  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The US Global Change Research Information Office (GCRIO) provides access to data and information on climate change research, adaptation/mitigation strategies, and technologies, and global change-related educational resources." Users can learn about GCRIOâÂÂs success in predicting El Niño and La Niña events, reducing the uncertainty of rainfall events in the tropics, creating maps to record the uptake of carbon by the ocean, and more. Researchers, students, and educators can find help locating information and data about global environmental change by visiting Doctor Global Change. The website features upcoming climate-related events hosted across the United States.

92

Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) is an integrated assessment model that links the world's energy, agriculture and land use systems with a climate model. The model is designed to assess various climate change policies and technology strategies for the globe over long tim...

93

Teaching about Global Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students are exposed to many different media reports about global climate change. Movies such as "The Day After Tomorrow" and "Ice Age" are examples of instances when movie producers have sought to capture the attention of audiences by augmenting the challenges that climate change poses. Students may receive information from a wide range of media…

Heffron, Susan Gallagher; Valmond, Kharra

2011-01-01

94

III International Climate Change Adaptation Adaptation Futures 2014  

E-print Network

1 III International Climate Change Adaptation Conference Adaptation Futures 2014 12-16 Maio 2014 sucesso da primeira conferência Climate Adaptation Futures realizada em Queensland, Austrália, em 2010 e, através do Programa PROVIA, a conferência Adaptation Futures 2014 foi realizada em Fortaleza, Ceará

95

Our Changing Climate 2012 Vulnerability & Adaptation  

E-print Network

Our Changing Climate 2012 Vulnerability & Adaptation to the Increasing Risks from Climate Change Climate Change Center to lead this effort. The 2009 Adaptation Strategy prepared by the California Natural for taking concrete actions to reduce climate-change impacts. This assessment examines adaptation options

96

How can cities mitigate and adapt to climate change?  

E-print Network

Forum How can cities mitigate and adapt to climate change? Julian Hunt Departments of Space@cpom.ucl.ac.uk Climate change and cities Scientific research and many practical projects are showing that global climate- ging. Comments here are based on my research on climate change (Hunt, 1999) and urban environment

Hunt, Julian

97

III International Climate Change Adaptation Adaptation Futures 2014  

E-print Network

1 III International Climate Change Adaptation Conference Adaptation Futures 2014 12-16 May 2014 of Research on Climate Change Vulnerability, Impacts and Adaptation (PROVIA), the Co and reports from the conference in newspapers 93 #12;4 1. INTRODUCTION Climate

98

Global Climate Change and Agriculture  

SciTech Connect

The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released in 2007 significantly increased our confidence about the role that humans play in forcing climate change. There is now a high degree of confidence that the (a) current atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) far exceed those of the pre-industrial era, (b) global increases in CO2 arise mainly from fossil fuel use and land use change while those of CH4 and N2O originate primarily from agricultural activities, and (c) the net effect of human activities since 1750 has led to a warming of the lower layers of the atmosphere, with an increased radiative forcing of 1.6 W m-2. Depending on the scenario of human population growth and global development, mean global temperatures could rise between 1.8 and 4.0 °C by the end of the 21st century.

Izaurralde, Roberto C.

2009-01-01

99

Local-global splitting for spatiotemporal-adaptive multiscale methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a novel spatiotemporal-adaptive Multiscale Finite Volume (MsFV) method, which is based on the natural idea that the global coarse-scale problem has longer characteristic time than the local fine-scale problems. As a consequence, the global problem can be solved with larger time steps than the local problems. In contrast to the pressure-transport splitting usually employed in the standard MsFV approach, we propose to start directly with a local-global splitting that allows to locally retain the original degree of coupling. This is crucial for highly non-linear systems or in the presence of physical instabilities. To obtain an accurate and efficient algorithm, we devise new adaptive criteria for global update that are based on changes of coarse-scale quantities rather than on fine-scale quantities, as it is routinely done before in the adaptive MsFV method. By means of a complexity analysis we show that the adaptive approach gives a noticeable speed-up with respect to the standard MsFV algorithm. In particular, it is efficient in case of large upscaling factors, which is important for multiphysics problems. Based on the observation that local time stepping acts as a smoother, we devise a self-correcting algorithm which incorporates the information from previous times to improve the quality of the multiscale approximation. We present results of multiphase flow simulations both for Darcy-scale and multiphysics (hybrid) problems, in which a local pore-scale description is combined with a global Darcy-like description. The novel spatiotemporal-adaptive multiscale method based on the local-global splitting is not limited to porous media flow problems, but it can be extended to any system described by a set of conservation equations.

Tomin, Pavel; Lunati, Ivan

2015-01-01

100

COMMUNITY ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE: AN EXPLORATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION PLANNING IN  

E-print Network

COMMUNITY ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE: AN EXPLORATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION PLANNING Columbia must adapt to climate change by preparing for expected and unexpected changes in their communities that planners do not have a high level of knowledge of climate change adaptation. Planners feel that the impacts

Pedersen, Tom

101

Climate change impacts on global food security.  

PubMed

Climate change could potentially interrupt progress toward a world without hunger. A robust and coherent global pattern is discernible of the impacts of climate change on crop productivity that could have consequences for food availability. The stability of whole food systems may be at risk under climate change because of short-term variability in supply. However, the potential impact is less clear at regional scales, but it is likely that climate variability and change will exacerbate food insecurity in areas currently vulnerable to hunger and undernutrition. Likewise, it can be anticipated that food access and utilization will be affected indirectly via collateral effects on household and individual incomes, and food utilization could be impaired by loss of access to drinking water and damage to health. The evidence supports the need for considerable investment in adaptation and mitigation actions toward a "climate-smart food system" that is more resilient to climate change influences on food security. PMID:23908229

Wheeler, Tim; von Braun, Joachim

2013-08-01

102

Assessment of global aridity change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing demand for water and the anticipated impacts of climate change necessitate a more reliable assessment of water availability for proper planning and management. Adequate understanding of the past changes in water resources availability can offer crucial information about potential changes in the future. Aridity is a reliable representation of potential water availability, especially at large scales. The present study investigates the changes in global aridity since 1960. The study considers the UNESCO aridity index, with aridity being represented as a function of its two key drivers: precipitation (P) and potential evapotranspiration (PET). First, published literature on changes in trends of P, PET, and aridity across the world is surveyed. This is followed by the analysis of trends in the aridity observations over the period 1960-2009. The nonparametric Mann-Kendall test is performed for trend analysis and outcomes investigated for the presence of clusters of trend across different grid cells the analysis is conducted over. The results suggest that arid zones are becoming slightly more humid and vice versa. They also indicate that the trend in aridity changed, or even reversed, around 1980 in most parts of the world. We speculate that the reason for this was the dramatic change (rise) in global temperature around 1980 as per both published literature and the present analysis, which, in turn, caused similar trends for global PET. We also call for additional research to verify, and possibly confirm, the present results.

Asadi Zarch, Mohammad Amin; Sivakumar, Bellie; Sharma, Ashish

2015-01-01

103

Author's personal copy Climate change and the transgenic adaptation strategy: Smallholder livelihoods,  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Climate change and the transgenic adaptation strategy: Smallholder with the effects of climate change through advances in crop breeding. Several strategies for adaptation to climate seeds that are well adapted to climate change. Global Environmental Change 22 (2012) 495­504 A R T I C L

104

Global Climate Change Briefing Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents general resources and legislative issues related to global climate change. The site includes greenhouse gas sources, trends and effects on the environment, the text of the Kyoto Protocol, and a glossary with acronyms. Other topics such as legal, economic and energy issues are also covered, and links to the latest updates on climate change from the White House and the National Academy of Sciences are found here.

Congressional Research Service

105

Global Climate Change: Evidence and Causes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This “clicker case” begins by assessing students’ impressions of global climate change and the role that human activities play in recent global warming trends. Students assume the role of an intern working for a U.S. senator. They need to understand the scientific evidence for human impact on climate change so that they can advise the senator on future policy decisions. The case was designed for use in a one-semester introductory biology course taken primarily by freshmen and sophomores to fulfill a general education requirement, but could be used in any introductory biology course or in an ecology or environmental science course. It consists of a PowerPoint presentation (~1.6MB) presented in class that is punctuated by multiple-choice questions students respond to using personal response systems (“clickers”). The case can be adapted for use without these technologies.

Maureen Knabb

2010-01-01

106

Global Climate Change: Impact and Remediation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This “clicker case” is a continuation of another case in our collection, “Global Climate Change: Evidence and Causes,” in which students assumed the role of an intern working for a U.S. senator so that they could advise the senator on future policy decisions. In this case, students learn about the impact and effects of global climate change as well as technologies and practices available to remediate the impact of climate effects. The case was designed for use in a one-semester introductory biology course taken primarily by freshmen and sophomores to fulfill a general education requirement, but could be used in any introductory biology course or in an ecology or environmental science course. It consists of a PowerPoint presentation (~2.2MB) presented in class that is punctuated by multiple-choice questions students respond to using personal response systems, or “clickers.”  The case can be adapted for use without these technologies.

Maureen Knabb

2010-01-01

107

Climate variability and climate change vulnerability and adaptation. Workshop summary  

SciTech Connect

Representatives from fifteen countries met in Prague, Czech Republic, on September 11-15, 1995, to share results from the analysis of vulnerability and adaptation to global climate change. The workshop focused on the issues of global climate change and its impacts on various sectors of a national economy. The U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which has been signed by more than 150 governments worldwide, calls on signatory parties to develop and communicate measures they are implementing to respond to global climate change. An analysis of a country`s vulnerability to changes in the climate helps it identify suitable adaptation measures. These analyses are designed to determine the extent of the impacts of global climate change on sensitive sectors such as agricultural crops, forests, grasslands and livestock, water resources, and coastal areas. Once it is determined how vulnerable a country may be to climate change, it is possible to identify adaptation measures for ameliorating some or all of the effects.The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: Provide an opportunity for countries to describe their study results; Encourage countries to learn from the experience of the more complete assessments and adjust their studies accordingly; Identify issues and analyses that require further investigation; and Summarize results and experiences for governmental and intergovernmental organizations.

Bhatti, N.; Cirillo, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Dixon, R.K. [U.S. Country Studies Program, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

108

GLOBAL CHANGE MULTI-YEAR PLAN  

EPA Science Inventory

The Global Change Research Act of 1990 establishes the U.S. Global Change Research Program to coordinate a comprehensive research program on global change. This is an inter-Agency effort, with EPA bearing responsibility to assess the consequences of global change on human health,...

109

Global Change Education Resource Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended as an aid to educators who conduct programs and activities on climate and global change issues for a variety of audiences. The selected set of currently available materials are appropriate for both formal and informal programs in environmental education and can help frame and clarify some of the key issues associated with…

Mortensen, Lynn L., Ed.

110

Ice cores and global change  

Microsoft Academic Search

For scientists interested in global change problems, ice core records provide a unique and invaluable medium for studying the past. These records yield both direct and proxy links to the paleoenvironment over periods potentially as long as hundreds of thousands of years with resolution down to seasonal scale for time-series on the order of hundreds to thousands of years. In

Paul A. Mayewski

1988-01-01

111

Global Climate Change Interaction Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students investigate the effects of global climate change on life in the Great Lakes region in this activity. Teams working together construct as many links as possible for such factors as rainfall, lake water, evaporation, skiing, zebra mussels, wetlands, shipping, walleye, toxic chemicals, coastal homes, and population. (PVD)

Fortner, Rosanne W.

1998-01-01

112

Transformational adaptation when incremental adaptations to climate change are insufficient  

PubMed Central

All human–environment systems adapt to climate and its natural variation. Adaptation to human-induced change in climate has largely been envisioned as increments of these adaptations intended to avoid disruptions of systems at their current locations. In some places, for some systems, however, vulnerabilities and risks may be so sizeable that they require transformational rather than incremental adaptations. Three classes of transformational adaptations are those that are adopted at a much larger scale, that are truly new to a particular region or resource system, and that transform places and shift locations. We illustrate these with examples drawn from Africa, Europe, and North America. Two conditions set the stage for transformational adaptation to climate change: large vulnerability in certain regions, populations, or resource systems; and severe climate change that overwhelms even robust human use systems. However, anticipatory transformational adaptation may be difficult to implement because of uncertainties about climate change risks and adaptation benefits, the high costs of transformational actions, and institutional and behavioral actions that tend to maintain existing resource systems and policies. Implementing transformational adaptation requires effort to initiate it and then to sustain the effort over time. In initiating transformational adaptation focusing events and multiple stresses are important, combined with local leadership. In sustaining transformational adaptation, it seems likely that supportive social contexts and the availability of acceptable options and resources for actions are key enabling factors. Early steps would include incorporating transformation adaptation into risk management and initiating research to expand the menu of innovative transformational adaptations. PMID:22509036

Kates, Robert W.; Travis, William R.; Wilbanks, Thomas J.

2012-01-01

113

Global Climate Change: Why Understanding the Scientific Enterprise Matters  

E-print Network

Global Climate Change: Why Understanding the Scientific Enterprise Matters Ellen MosleyPolar/ByrdPolarhttp://bprc.osu.edu/ Understanding Climate Change Risks and Identifying Opportunities for Mitigation & Adaptation in Ohio Ohio State University, May 15, 2014 #12;Key Points Earth's climate is changing - the world is warming ­ that debate

Howat, Ian M.

114

Fisheries and Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When populations of harvestable fish start to decline, managers look for explanations of the changes throughout the Earth system. In this activity, the impact of global climate change on marine and Great Lakes fish is considered. First, decline in the striped bass population of the North Atlantic, noted in the Downeaster Alexa song by Billy Joel, is examined with spreadsheet analysis and on-line searches of National Marine Fisheries Service databases. In a second investigation, ArcView generates a model of the Lake Erie depths that could be associated with global climate change (shallower water). Students identify fish species that use nearshore shallows for spawning and nursery areas, and speculate on the impact of the lower water. In both activities, the thermal niche of the species is considered as a factor in where fish populations may migrate with new climate regimes.

Rosanne Fortner

2002-07-31

115

Global Environmental Change: Introduced Species  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Human activity has introduced species to ecosystems around the globe. Some species are benign or even beneficial; others, like zebra mussels, fire ants, and water hyacinths, are causing native species extinctions and damage to human systems. Can we balance human systems with natural processes? Seven activities--using pillbugs, the school grounds, species dispersal maps, and introductory genetics--provide students with the skills they need to address this important global question. Introduced Species is one of four books in NSTA Press's Global Environmental Change series, a joint project of NSTA Press and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The other books in the series are Deforestation, Biodiversity, and Carrying Capacity.

Environmental Protection Agency

1998-01-01

116

Global Change in the Holocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many people, even perhaps the occasional Eos reader, associate the term ``global change'' with warming caused by mankind's recent addiction to fossil fuels. Some may also be well aware of enormous global changes in the distant past uninfluenced by humans; for example, Pleistocene ice ages. But was there any ``global change'' between the end of the last ice age and the onset of industrialization? The answer to this question is addressed early-in the title, even-in the new book Global Change in the Holocene. I don't suggest anyone stop reading after the title, though; the rest of the book is both highly informative and a real pleasure to read. The opening chapter tells us that the Holocene is certainly not, as sometimes charged, a ``bland, pastoral coda to the contrasted movements of a stirring Pleistocene symphony.'' Rather, it is a ``period of continuous change.'' Melodious language aside, the combination of sustained and high-amplitude climatic variability and a wealth of well-preserved, precisely datable paleoclimate archives make the Holocene unique. Only by studying the Holocene can we hope to unravel the low-frequency workings of the Earth system and the degree to which humans have changed our world. This book sets out to teach the reader how to obtain the relevant data and how to use it to do much more than showing static analogues of possible future climate states. It challenges researchers to discern in their data the effects of the dynamic processes underlying coupled variability in the Earth's climate and ecosystems. These processes continue to act today, and it is through providing an understanding of these system dynamics in the Holocene that paleo-environmental studies can make the greatest contribution to future-oriented concerns.

Alverson, Keith

2004-05-01

117

Beneath the surface of global change: Impacts of climate change on groundwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Key aspects of subsurface hydrology related to global change are synthesized. Improved understanding of the joint behaviors of climate and groundwater is needed. Disciplinary sciences benefit from cross-fertilization of whole-systems approaches. Adaptation to global change must include prudent management of groundwater. Food and energy security, environmental protection, and social welfare comingle.

Timothy R. Green; Makoto Taniguchi; Henk Kooi; Jason J. Gurdak; Diana M. Allen; Kevin M. Hiscock; Holger Treidel; Alice Aureli

2011-01-01

118

WATER ALLOCATION IN A CHANGING CLIMATE: INSTITUTIONS AND ADAPTATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming may profoundly affect temporal and spatial distributions of surface water availability. While climate modelers cannot yet predict regional hydrologic changes with confidence, it is appropriate to begin examining the likely effects of water allocation institutions on society's adaptability to prospective climate change. Such institutions include basic systems of water law, specific statutes, systems of administration and enforcement, and

KATHLEEN A. MILLER; STEVEN L. RHODES; LAWRENCE J. MACDONNELL

1997-01-01

119

Scientific linkages in global change  

SciTech Connect

In the atmosphere, certain trace gases both promote global warming and deplete the ozone layer. The primary radiatively active trace gases that affect global warming are carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, methane, and tropospheric ozone. In the troposphere, the atmosphere up to 10 miles above the earth's surface, these compounds function as greenhouse gases. Many of these gases also influence the concentration of ozone in the stratosphere, the atmospheric layer located between 10-30 miles above the earth's surface. The diffuse layer of ozone in the stratosphere protects life on earth from harmful solar radiation. A reduction of the layer could have very important impacts on the earth's systems. Interactions exist in various ecological processes as well. Physical, chemical, and biological activities of plants and animals are affected directly by global climate change and by increased ultraviolet radiation resulting from depletion of stratospheric ozone.

Jutro, P.R.; Worrest, R.C.; Janetos, A.C.

1989-06-16

120

Global Change Resources, Projects, and Tools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contains 16 articles that discuss activities relating to global change, including world data centers; the Global Change Master Directory, the Global Change Data and Information System (GCDIS) gopher, Project Earthlink, Government Information Locator Service, Global Land Information System, National Resources Inventory, Earth System Science…

Stoss, Fred; And Others

1995-01-01

121

Global Climate Change Policy Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website summarizes the current administration's approach to global climate change, including the President's Program of Domestic and International Initiatives. These include a national goal to reduce emissions growth by 18 percent in the next ten years, substantially improve the emission reduction registry, protect and provide transferable credits for emissions reduction, increase funding for America's commitment to climate change, take action on the Science and Technology Review and a range of international climate initiatives. Descriptions of these programs, as well as their costs, are included.

House, The W.

122

Adaptation to the new land or effect of global warming? An age-structured model for rapid voltinism change in an alien lepidopteran pest.  

PubMed

1. Hyphantria cunea Drury invaded Japan at Tokyo in 1945 and expanded its distribution gradually into northern and south-western Japan. All populations in Japan were bivoltine until the early 1970s, at which time trivoltine populations appeared in several southern regions. Presently, H. cunea exists as separate bivoltine and trivoltine populations divided around latitude 36 degrees . In the course of this voltinism change, the mean surface temperature in Japan rose by 1.0 degrees C. 2. To determine whether and how this temperature increase might be responsible for the voltinism change, we constructed an age-structured model incorporating growth speed driven by actual daily temperature and detailed mechanisms of diapause induction triggered by both daily photoperiod and temperature. 3. The simulation result suggests that both the acceleration of the growth speed and the prolongation of diapause induction are necessary to cause changes in voltinism, regardless of temperature increase. We concluded that the H. cunea population changed its life-history traits as an adaptation parallel with its invasion into the south-western parts of Japan. 4. Though the temperature increase had little effect on the fitness and heat stress in bivoltine and trivoltine populations, the trivoltine life cycle has become advantageous at least in marginal regions such as Tokyo. PMID:18266693

Yamanaka, Takehiko; Tatsuki, Sadahiro; Shimada, Masakazu

2008-05-01

123

Impacts of Global Warming on Agricultural Production and Adaptations in Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measures in response to global warming can be divided into two strategies: mitigation, which reduces climate change itself by the reduction of greenhouse gases, and adaptation, which reduces the impacts of climate change. Interest in the adaptation approach, in particular, has recently been rising both in Japan and internationally. Agricultural production is expected to be greatly impacted by future climate

Kiyoshi TAKAHASHI

124

Regional Agreements, Adaptation, and Climate Change  

E-print Network

1 Regional Agreements, Adaptation, and Climate Change: New Approaches to FERC Licensing...................................28 Sierra's highelevation hydropower and climate change: Temperature simulation..................88 Alteration and susceptibility of stream physical habitat to climate change

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

125

CLIMATE CHANGE GLOBAL ECONOMY How to decarbonise the global economy  

E-print Network

on low-carbon energy consistent with the 2-degree Celsius limit on global warming agreedCLIMATE CHANGE · GLOBAL ECONOMY How to decarbonise the global economy Today's report on deep of global cooperation and a novel design of the climate deal to be reached at the Cop 21 meeting in Paris

126

FAU CLIMATE CHANGE INITIATIVE PRIORITY THEME: RESEARCH, ENGINEERING, AND ADAPTATION TO A CHANGING CLIMATE  

E-print Network

FAU CLIMATE CHANGE INITIATIVE PRIORITY THEME: RESEARCH, ENGINEERING, AND ADAPTATION TO A CHANGING CLIMATE "I am persuaded that global climate change is one of the most important issues that we will face.S. Secretary of Energy Dr. Steven Chu "Ocean acidification, along with thermal heating of the oceans from

Fernandez, Eduardo

127

Cultural dimensions of climate change impacts and adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Society's response to every dimension of global climate change is mediated by culture. We analyse new research across the social sciences to show that climate change threatens cultural dimensions of lives and livelihoods that include the material and lived aspects of culture, identity, community cohesion and sense of place. We find, furthermore, that there are important cultural dimensions to how societies respond and adapt to climate-related risks. We demonstrate how culture mediates changes in the environment and changes in societies, and we elucidate shortcomings in contemporary adaptation policy.

Adger, W. Neil; Barnett, Jon; Brown, Katrina; Marshall, Nadine; O'Brien, Karen

2013-02-01

128

Integrating climate change adaptation into forest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future climate change will affect society's ability to use forest resources. We take account of climate in forest management and this will help us adapt to the effects of climate change on forests. However, society will have to adjust to how forests adapt by changing expectations for the use of forest resources because management can only influence the timing and

David L. Spittlehouse

2005-01-01

129

Outreach and Adaptive Strategies for Climate Change  

E-print Network

Outreach and Adaptive Strategies for Climate Change: The Role of NOAA Sea Grant Extension years and generations about how to adapt to a changing climate. Effective preparation for possible effects of climate change includes engagement of resource managers, planners, public works officials

130

A Model for Climate Change Adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate models predict serious impacts on the western U.S. in the next few decades, including increased temperatures and reduced precipitation. In combination, these changes are linked to profound impacts on fundamental systems, such as water and energy supplies, agriculture, population stability, and the economy. Global and national imperatives for climate change mitigation and adaptation are made actionable at the state level, for instance through greenhouse gas (GHG) emission regulations and incentives for renewable energy sources. However, adaptation occurs at the local level, where energy and water usage can be understood relative to local patterns of agriculture, industry, and culture. In response to the greenhouse gas emission reductions required by California’s Assembly Bill 32 (2006), Sonoma County has committed to sharp emissions reductions across several sectors, including water, energy, and transportation. To assist Sonoma County develop a renewable energy (RE) portfolio to achieve this goal we have developed an integrated assessment model, CLEAR (CLimate-Energy Assessment for Resiliency) model. Building on Sonoma County’s existing baseline studies of energy use, carbon emissions and potential RE sources, the CLEAR model simulates the complex interactions among technology deployment, economics and social behavior. This model enables assessment of these and other components with specific analysis of their coupling and feedbacks because, due to the complex nature of the problem, the interrelated sectors cannot be studied independently. The goal is an approach to climate change mitigation and adaptation that is replicable for use by other interested communities. The model user interfaces helps stakeholders and policymakers understand options for technology implementation.

Pasqualini, D.; Keating, G. N.

2009-12-01

131

Climate change adaptation in the ski industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regardless of the success of climate change mitigation efforts, the international community has concluded that societies around\\u000a the world will need to adapt to some magnitude of climate change in the 21st century. While some economic sectors (e.g., agriculture,\\u000a water resources and construction) have been actively engaged in climate change adaptation research for years, adaptation has\\u000a received scant consideration within

Daniel Scott; Geoff McBoyle

2007-01-01

132

Global climate change: Implications, challenges and mitigation measures  

SciTech Connect

The present volume discusses topics in the fields of natural climatic fluctuations, the greenhouse effect, climate modeling, the biophysical and socioeconomic impacts of climate change, climate-change effect mitigation and adaptation strategies, and domestic (US) and international perspectives on regulation of climate-affecting activities. Attention is given to past climates as a guide to the future, the certainty of contemporary global warming, the physics of the greenhouse effect, the global carbon cycle, general circulation model studies of global warming, the implications of sea-level rise, forests' role in global climate change, the ecological effects of rapid climate change, predicted effects of climate change on agriculture, the impact of global warming on human health, energy supply technologies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and the U.N.'s 1992 Earth Summit Conference.

Majumdar, S.K.; Kalkstein, L.S.; Yarnal, B.M.; Miller, E.W.; Rosenfeld, L.M.

1992-01-01

133

Forest Adaptation Resources: Climate Change Tools and  

E-print Network

Forest Adaptation Resources: Climate Change Tools and Approaches for Land Managers Northern and devise adaptation tactics. It was developed in northern Wisconsin as part of the Northwoods Climate in developing ground-level climate adaptation tactics for forest ecosystems; and (4) two illustrations

134

Global Environmental Change: Carrying Capacity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Carrying Capacity addresses the ability of the Earth to sustain healthy populations of different species. Earth's human population, now past six billion, is expected to reach 10 billion by 2030. This growth will place an even greater strain on the planet's carrying capacity. With your school as a case study, link small-scale biology, ecology, and Earth science to the big picture. Carrying Capacity is one of four books in NSTA Press's Global Environmental Change series, a joint project of NSTA Press and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The other books in the series are Deforestation, Biodiversity, and Introduced Species.

Environmental Protection Agency

1997-01-01

135

Climate change and the global harvest  

SciTech Connect

This book summarizes state-of-the-art knowledge on the potential impacts of climate change on agriculture. The book begins by introducing the nonspecialist to the causes of climate change, and reviews the main climate change drivers and impacts. It then goes on to review all major aspects of climate change impact on agriculture in detail. The scope is very broad indeed--the authors consider agricultural greenhouse gas emissions; the effects of raised CO{sub 2} and climate change on crop yield (discussing in some detail the effects on vegetation); possible impacts on pests, weeds, and diseases; impacts on soils; and the effects on water resources and sea level rise. The final four chapters expand the science described in earlier chapters to the global level, providing an analysis of impacts of climate change, then examining in detail the regions at greatest risk from climate change and possible implications for future food security, and finishing with a chapter on adaptation, economics, and policy.

Rosenzweig, C.; Hillel, D.

1998-12-31

136

RISKS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Adaptation is an important approach for protecting human health, ecosystems, and economic systems from the risks posed by climate variability and change, and to exploit beneficial opportunities provided by a changing climate. This paper presents nine fundamental principles that ...

137

Adapting Cropping Patterns to Climate Change  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many studies on the potential impacts of climate change in agriculture have focused primarily on productivity of individual crops at specific locations rather than considering how cropping patterns may evolve adaptively. These adaptations likely would include both geographic and temporal changes. Th...

138

Urban climate resilience : a global assessment of city adaptation plans  

E-print Network

As policy makers accept climate change as an irrefutable threat, adaptation planning has emerged as a necessary action for countries, states, and municipalities. This thesis explores adaptive responses to climate change ...

Katich, Kristina Noel

2009-01-01

139

Enhancing Decision Support For Climate Adaptation At Sub-Regional To Local Scales Through Collaborative And Interdisciplinary Global Change Research And Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The science needed to inform society's response to global environmental change is increasingly demanded at sub-regional to local scales, placing a greater burden on the science community to respond to a wide variety of information needs. Oftentimes, communication barriers prevent even the basic articulation of information needs between the user and science research communities, and furthermore there is frequently a mismatch between available scientific talent within a sub region and the scientific resources demanded to respond appropriately to user inquiries. As a result, innovative approaches to the delivery of scientific information in response to user interests and needs at sub-regional to local levels is required. Here, the authors highlight lessons of three examples of delivering usable scientific information within a mountain watershed on questions relating to 1) local biomass energy production; 2) stream and forest health; and 3) watershed scale climate impacts assessment. We report that common elements to the success of these efforts include a) building relationships with both a broad range of disciplines within the science community as well as a wide range of stakeholder groups locally, b) collecting and translating existing monitoring data and filling monitoring gaps, c) gathering interdisciplinary teams to help answer difficult local scale questions not previously treated in literature, and d) communicating results through mechanisms such as stakeholder collaboratives, community forums, and innovative education and outreach products. We find that these components help communities at local to sub-regional scales identify vulnerabilities and adapative strategies.

Arnott, J. C.; Katzenberger, J.

2012-12-01

140

EMS adaptation for climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to find an appropriate scenario of pre-hospital transportation of an emergency medical service (EMS) system for burdensome casualties resulting from extreme climate events. A case of natural catastrophic events in Taiwan, 88 wind-caused disasters, was reviewed and analyzed. A sequential-conveyance method was designed to shorten the casualty transportation time and to promote the efficiency of ambulance services. A proposed mobile emergency medical center was first constructed in a safe area, but nearby the disaster area. The Center consists of professional medical personnel who process the triage of incoming patients and take care of casualties with minor injuries. Ambulances in the Center were ready to sequentially convey the casualties with severer conditions to an assigned hospital that is distant from the disaster area for further treatment. The study suggests that if we could construct a spacious and well-equipped mobile emergency medical center, only a small portion of casualties would need to be transferred to distant hospitals. This would reduce the over-crowding problem in hospital ERs. First-line ambulances only reciprocated between the mobile emergency medical center and the disaster area, saving time and shortening the working distances. Second-line ambulances were highly regulated between the mobile emergency medical center and requested hospitals. The ambulance service of the sequential-conveyance method was found to be more efficient than the conventional method and was concluded to be more profitable and reasonable on paper in adapting to climate change. Therefore, additional practical work should be launched to collect more precise quantitative data.

Pan, C.; Chang, Y.; Wen, J.; Tsai, M.

2010-12-01

141

Adaptation to climate change in the Ontario public health sector  

PubMed Central

Background Climate change is among the major challenges for health this century, and adaptation to manage adverse health outcomes will be unavoidable. The risks in Ontario – Canada’s most populous province – include increasing temperatures, more frequent and intense extreme weather events, and alterations to precipitation regimes. Socio-economic-demographic patterns could magnify the implications climate change has for Ontario, including the presence of rapidly growing vulnerable populations, exacerbation of warming trends by heat-islands in large urban areas, and connectedness to global transportation networks. This study examines climate change adaptation in the public health sector in Ontario using information from interviews with government officials. Methods Fifty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted, four with provincial and federal health officials and 49 with actors in public health and health relevant sectors at the municipal level. We identify adaptation efforts, barriers and opportunities for current and future intervention. Results Results indicate recognition that climate change will affect the health of Ontarians. Health officials are concerned about how a changing climate could exacerbate existing health issues or create new health burdens, specifically extreme heat (71%), severe weather (68%) and poor air-quality (57%). Adaptation is currently taking the form of mainstreaming climate change into existing public health programs. While adaptive progress has relied on local leadership, federal support, political will, and inter-agency efforts, a lack of resources constrains the sustainability of long-term adaptation programs and the acquisition of data necessary to support effective policies. Conclusions This study provides a snapshot of climate change adaptation and needs in the public health sector in Ontario. Public health departments will need to capitalize on opportunities to integrate climate change into policies and programs, while higher levels of government must improve efforts to support local adaptation and provide the capacity through which local adaptation can succeed. PMID:22712716

2012-01-01

142

GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The production of greenhouse gases due to anthropogenic activities may have begun to change the global climate. he global carbon cycle plays a significant role in projected climate change. owever, considerable uncertainty exists regarding pools and flux in the global cycle. iven ...

143

Line Orientation Adaptation: Local or Global?  

PubMed Central

Prolonged exposure to an oriented line shifts the perceived orientation of a subsequently observed line in the opposite direction, a phenomenon known as the tilt aftereffect (TAE). Here we consider whether the TAE for line stimuli is mediated by a mechanism that integrates the local parts of the line into a single global entity prior to the site of adaptation, or the result of the sum of local TAEs acting separately on the parts of the line. To test between these two alternatives we used the fact the TAE transfers almost completely across luminance contrast polarity [1]. We measured the TAE using adaptor and test lines that (1) either alternated in luminance polarity or were of a single polarity, and (2) either alternated in local orientation or were of a single orientation. We reasoned that if the TAE was agnostic to luminance polarity and was parts-based, we should obtain large TAEs using alternating-polarity adaptors with single-polarity tests. However we found that (i) TAEs using one-alternating-polarity adaptors with all-white tests were relatively small, increased slightly for two-alternating-polarity adaptors, and were largest with all-white or all-black adaptors. (ii) however TAEs were relatively large when the test was one-alternating polarity, irrespective of the adaptor type. (iii) The results with orientation closely mirrored those obtained with polarity with the difference that the TAE transfer across orthogonal orientations was weak. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the TAE for lines is mediated by a global shape mechanism that integrates the parts of lines into whole prior to the site of orientation adaptation. The asymmetry in the magnitude of TAE depending on whether the alternating-polarity lines was the adaptor or test can be explained by an imbalance in the population of neurons sensitive to 1st-and 2nd-order lines, with the 2nd-order lines being encoded by a subset of the mechanisms sensitive to 1st-order lines. PMID:24023677

Gheorghiu, Elena; Bell, Jason; Kingdom, Frederick A. A.

2013-01-01

144

Groundwater and global hydrological change current challenges and new insight  

E-print Network

Groundwater and global hydrological change ­ current challenges and new insight R. TAYLOR1 , L Groundwater Resources Assessment Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands 11 Federal Institute for Geosciences, groundwater plays a critical role in enabling communities to adapt to freshwater shortages derived from low

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

145

CLIMATE CHANGE AND GLOBAL ISOPRENE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Emission of isoprene from vegetation affects tropospheric chemistry at the regional and global scales. rojected global climate change will potentially alter emission rates, with corresponding influences on concentrations of ozone and other radiatively important trace gases. rogre...

146

Institutional dynamics and climate change adaptation in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is a multi-dimensional issue and in terms of adaptation numerous state and non-state actors are involved from\\u000a global to national and local scales. The aim of this paper is first to analyse specific institutional networks involved in\\u000a climate change predominantly at the national level in South Africa and second to determine how different stakeholders perceive\\u000a their role vis-a-vis

Ingrid Christine Koch; Coleen Vogel; Zarina Patel

2007-01-01

147

SCIENTIFIC LINKAGES IN GLOBAL CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

In the atmosphere, certain trace gases both promote global warming and deplete the ozone layer. he primary radiatively active trace gases, those that affect global warming, are carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, methane, and tropospheric ozone. n the troposphere,...

148

U.S. Global Change Research Program National Climate Assessment Global Change Information System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The program: a) Coordinates Federal research to better understand and prepare the nation for global change. b) Priori4zes and supports cutting edge scientific work in global change. c) Assesses the state of scientific knowledge and the Nation s readiness to respond to global change. d) Communicates research findings to inform, educate, and engage the global community.

Tilmes, Curt

2012-01-01

149

Higher Education's Role in Adapting to a Changing Climate  

E-print Network

Higher Education's Role in Adapting to a Changing Climate PRE S IDENTS'CLI MATE COMMITMENT AMERICAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 What Is Climate Adaptation? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Climate Adaptation Efforts Across Sectors

Linsley, Braddock K.

150

Historical Landcover changes and global climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several recent modelling studies have shown a significant effect on global climate due to human alterations of surface vegetation characteristics. Because observed vegetation changes appear to alter large scale circulations such as the Hadley and Walker cells, the effects of vegetation changes are non-localized and global in extent. Circulation changes are responsible for a large portion of the observed surface

T. Chase

2003-01-01

151

Climate change and standing freshwaters: informing adaptation strategies for conservation at  

E-print Network

Climate change and standing freshwaters: informing adaptation strategies for conservation received 26 July 2012 Climate change will have a major impact on freshwater environments globally and producing well-informed climate change adaptation strategies is a priority. Links between climate, hydrology

Hammerton, James

152

Organizational Adaptation: Managing in Complexly Changing Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model of strategic adaptation that focuses on how organizations adapt to both conditions of growth and decline is presented. The theoretical structure underlying the model is considered, with attention to organizations, niches, and environments, as well as environmental change and evolving niches. The model attempts to reconcile the perspectives…

Zammuto, Raymond F.

153

Climate Change and Agriculture: Effects and Adaptation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This document is a synthesis of science literature on the effects of climate change on agriculture and issues associated with agricultural adaptation to climate change. Information is presented on how long-term changes in air temperatures, precipitation, and atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide wi...

154

CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATIONS FOR LOCAL WATER MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATIONS FOR LOCAL WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC Climate change will affect both sea level and the temporal and spatial distribution of runoff

155

Modelling global multi-conjugated adaptive optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recently proposed concept of Global MCAO (GMCAO) aims to look for Natural Guide Stars in a very wide technical Field of View (FoV), to increase the overall sky coverage, and deals with the consequent depth of focus reduction introducing numerically a quite-high number of Virtual Deformable Mirrors (VDMs), which are then the starting point for an optimization of the real DMs shapes for the correction of the -smaller- scientific FoV. To translate the GMCAO concept into a real system, a number of parameters requires to be analyzed and optimized, like the number of references and VDMs to be used, the technical FoV size, the spatial samplings, the sensing wavelength. These and some other major choices, like the open loop WFSs concept and design, will then drive the requirements and the performance of the system (e.g. limiting magnitude, linear response, and sensitivity). This paper collects some major results of the on-going study on the feasibility of an Adaptive Optics system for the E-ELT, based on GMCAO, with a particular emphasis on the sky coverage issue. Besides the sensitivity analysis of the optimization of the already mentioned parameters, such a topic involves the implementation of an IDL code simulation tool to estimate the system performance in terms of Strehl Ratio in a 2×2 arcmin FoV, when a variable number of NGSs and VDMs are used. Different technical FoV diameters for the references selection and various constellations can be also compared. This study could be the starting point for a dedicated laboratory testing and, in the future, an on-sky experiment at an 8m telescope with a "scaled down" demonstrator.

Viotto, Valentina; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Magrin, Demetrio; Bergomi, Maria; Dima, Marco; Farinato, Jacopo; Marafatto, Luca; Greggio, Davide

2014-08-01

156

Impact of climate change on migratory birds: community reassembly versus adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim Species can respond to global climate change by range shifts or by phenotypic adaptation. At the community level, range shifts lead to a turnover of species, i.e. community reassembly. In contrast, phenotypic adaptation allows species to persist in situ , conserving community composition. So far, community reassembly and adaptation have mostly been studied separately. In nature, however, both processes

Hans-Christian Schaefer; Walter Jetz; Katrin Böhning-Gaese

2008-01-01

157

Forecasting Agriculturally Driven Global Environmental Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the next 50 years, which is likely to be the final period of rapid agricultural expansion, demand for food by a wealthier and 50% larger global population will be a major driver of global environmental change. Should past dependences of the global environmental impacts of agriculture on human population and consumption continue, 109 hectares of natural ecosystems would be

David Tilman; Joseph Fargione; Brian Wolff; Carla D'Antonio; Andrew Dobson; Robert Howarth; David Schindler; William H. Schlesinger; Daniel Simberloff; Deborah Swackhamer

2001-01-01

158

Global Climate Change and the Mitigation Challenge  

EPA Science Inventory

Book edited by Frank Princiotta titled Global Climate Change--The Technology Challenge Transparent modeling tools and the most recent literature are used, to quantify the challenge posed by climate change and potential technological remedies. The chapter examines forces driving ...

159

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR FISHERIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Several government agencies are evaluating policy options for addressing global climate change. hese include planning for anticipated effects and developing mitigation options where feasible if climate does change as predicted. or fisheries resources, policy questions address eff...

160

Global Change and the Terrestrial Biosphere  

SciTech Connect

Terrestrial ecosystems sustain life on Earth through the production of food, fuel, fiber, clean air, and naturally purified water. But how will agriculture and ecosystems be affected by global change? Rogers describes the impact of projected climate change on the terrestrial biosphere and explains why plants are not just passive respondents to global change, but play an important role in determining the rate of change.

Alistair Rogers

2009-04-22

161

Future battlegrounds for conservation under global change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global biodiversity is under significant threat from the combined effects of human-induced climate and land-use change. Covering 12% of the Earth's terrestrial surface, protected areas are crucial for conserving biodiversity and supporting ecological processes beneficial to human well-being, but their selection and design are usually uninformed about future global change. Here, we quantify the exposure of the global reserve network

Tien Ming Lee; Walter Jetz

2008-01-01

162

RESEARCH STRATEGY: GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Research Strategy of ORD's Global Change Research Program outlines a ten-year plan and a major redirection of the Program towards an emphasis on assessing the consequences of global change and on conducting research to support such assessments. Assessments will be conducted o...

163

Global Change in the Great Lakes: Scenarios.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ohio Sea Grant Education Program has produced this series of publications designed to help people understand how global change may affect the Great Lakes region. The possible implications of global change for this region of the world are explained in the hope that policymakers and individuals will be more inclined to make responsible decisions…

Garrison, Barbara K., Ed.; Rosser, Arrye R., Ed.

164

Climate Change Adaptation in the Urban Environment  

SciTech Connect

This overview chapter considers five questions that cut across the four case studies in the section to follow: (1) why are urban environments of particular interest; (2) what does an 'urban environment' mean as a focus for adaptation actions, (3) what do we know about climate change vulnerabilities and adaptation potentials in urban areas; (4) what can we expect in the future with adaptation in urban areas; and (5) what is happening with climate change adaptation in urban areas? After decades of inattention, adaptation to risks and impacts of climate change is now receiving long overdue attention, and it is only natural that a considerable share of this attention is focused on the places where most people live. This section considers climate change adaptation in the urban environment, defined as settings where human populations cluster - generally implying relatively large clusters, but not excluding smaller settlements that operate as coherent geopolitical and economic entities. Consistent with the topic of the book, the emphasis of this overview will be on urban environments in developed countries, but it will also draw on knowledge being developed from urban experiences across the globe.

Wilbanks, Thomas J [ORNL

2011-01-01

165

Tomorrow’s Forests: Adapting to A Changing Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today’s forests are largely viewed as a natural asset, growing in a climate envelope, which favors natural regeneration of species that have adapted and survived the variability’s of past climates. However, human-induced climate change, variability and extremes are no longer a theoretical concept. It is a real issue affecting all biological systems. Atmospheric scientists, using global climate models, have developed

Don C. Maciver; Elaine Wheaton

2005-01-01

166

Tomorrow’s Forests: Adapting to a Changing Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today’s forests are largely viewed as a natural asset, growing in a climate envelope, which favors natural regeneration of species that have adapted and survived the variability’s of past climates. However, human-induced climate change, variability and extremes are no longer a theoretical concept. It is a real issue affecting all biological systems. Atmospheric scientists, using global climate models, have developed

DON C. MACIVER; Elaine Wheaton

167

VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN  

E-print Network

VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURE A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012031 Commissioner), Chuck Dudley (President of the Yolo County Farm Bureau), John MottSmith (Yolo County Climate

168

Ecological Restoration and Global Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing consensus that global climate change occurs and that potential changes in climate are likely to have important regional consequences for biota and ecosystems. Ecological restoration, including (re)- afforestation and rehabilitation of degraded land, is included in the array of potential human responses to cli- mate change. However, the implications of climate change for the broader practice

James A. Harris; Richard J. Hobbs; Eric Higgs; James Aronson

2006-01-01

169

Global Economic Exposure to Future Temperature Changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In global-scale analyses of future climate change, "global average temperature change" is a commonly used summary statistic. Unfortunately, this statistic may not be useful for many types of economic analyses because it is an average over the planet's entire surface and is therefore dominated by changes over oceans and other uninhabited regions. Here, we attempt to summarize projected temperature changes in a manner that is more useful for economic analyses: we construct the distributions of future temperature exposure for a randomly selected person, a random hectare of cropland, and a random dollar of value-added. Our results streamline global cost analyses, enabling future studies to estimate global losses by combining their locally derived loss-functions with our estimates of global exposure. We demonstrate this application by estimating that low and middle income populations may suffer income losses of 9% annually due only to the effects of thermal stress on workers, a mechanism previously omitted from global cost estimates. In ancillary findings, we also document that (1) when exposure distributions are substituted for global average temperature change in standard models of economic costs, projected annual losses increase by trillions of dollars; (2) low and middle income populations will be twice as exposed to harmful temperatures as high income populations, based only on their locations; and (3) it is unlikely the direct effects of warming can have a positive net impact on the global economy.

Hsiang, S. M.

2011-12-01

170

Adapting agriculture to climate change: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The agricultural sector is highly vulnerable to future climate changes and climate variability, including increases in the incidence of extreme climate events. Changes in temperature and precipitation will result in changes in land and water regimes that will subsequently affect agricultural productivity. Given the gradual change of climate in the past, historically, farmers have adapted in an autonomous manner. However, with large and discrete climate change anticipated by the end of this century, planned and transformational changes will be needed. In light of these, the focus of this review is on farm-level and farmers responses to the challenges of climate change both spatially and over time. In this review of adapting agriculture to climate change, the nature, extent, and causes of climate change are analyzed and assessed. These provide the context for adapting agriculture to climate change. The review identifies the binding constraints to adaptation at the farm level. Four major priority areas are identified to relax these constraints, where new initiatives would be required, i.e., information generation and dissemination to enhance farm-level awareness, research and development (R&D) in agricultural technology, policy formulation that facilitates appropriate adaptation at the farm level, and strengthening partnerships among the relevant stakeholders. Forging partnerships among R&D providers, policy makers, extension agencies, and farmers would be at the heart of transformational adaptation to climate change at the farm level. In effecting this transformational change, sustained efforts would be needed for the attendant requirements of climate and weather forecasting and innovation, farmer's training, and further research to improve the quality of information, invention, and application in agriculture. The investment required for these would be highly significant. The review suggests a sequenced approach through grouping research initiatives into short-term, medium-term, and long-term initiatives, with each initiative in one stage contributing to initiatives in a subsequent stage. The learning by doing inherent in such a process-oriented approach is a requirement owing to the many uncertainties associated with climate change.

Anwar, Muhuddin Rajin; Liu, De Li; Macadam, Ian; Kelly, Georgina

2013-07-01

171

Global lightning activity and climate change  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between global lightning frequencies and global climate change is examined in this thesis. In order to study global impacts of climate change, global climate models or General Circulations Models (GCMs) need to be utilized. Since these models have coarse resolutions many atmospheric phenomena that occur at subgrid scales, such as lightning, need to be parameterized whenever possible. We begin with a simple parameterization used to Simulate total (intracloud and cloud-to-ground) lightning frequencies. The parameterization uses convective cloud top height to approximate lightning frequencies. Then we consider a parameterization for simulating cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning around the globe. This parameterization uses the thickness of the cold cloud sector in thunderstorms (0{degrees}C to cloud top) to calculate the proportion of CG flashes in a particular thunderstorm. We model lightning in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM. We present two climate change scenarios. One for a climate where the solar constant is reduced by 2% (5.9{degrees}C global cooling), and one for a climate with twice the present concentration of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere (4.2{degrees}C global warming). The results imply a 24%/30% decrease/increase in global lightning frequencies for the cooler/warmer climate. The possibility of using the above findings to monitor future global warming is discussed. The earth`s ionospheric potential, which is regulated by global thunderstorm activity, could supply valuable information regarding global surface temperature fluctuations. Finally, we look at the implications of changes in both lightning frequencies and the hydrological cycle, as a result of global warming, on natural forest fires. In the U.S. the annual mean number of lightning fires could increase by 40% while the area burned may increase by 65% in a 2{times}CO{sub 2} climate. On a global scale the largest increase in lightning fires can be expected in the tropics.

Price, C.G.

1993-12-31

172

Expert views of climate change adaptation in least developed Asia.  

PubMed

Drawing primarily from original data collected from more than 100 semi-structured research interviews, this study discusses the benefits of four climate change adaptation projects being implemented in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, and the Maldives. The article begins by explaining its research methods and selecting a sample of Global Environment Facility-Least Developed Country Fund projects being implemented in Asia to analyze. It then describes ongoing adaptation efforts in each of these four countries. It finds that projects enhance infrastructural resilience by building relevant, robust, and flexible technologies. They build institutional resilience by creating strong, permanent, legitimate organizations in place to respond to climate change issues. They promote community resilience by enhancing local ownership, building capacity, and creating networks that help ordinary people learn and adapt to climate change. We find that all four of our case studies couple adaptive improvements in technology and infrastructure with those in governance and community welfare, underscoring the holistic or systemic aspect of resilience. Our study also demonstrates the salience of a functions-based approach to resilience and adaptive capacity rather than an asset-based one. PMID:22325585

Sovacool, Benjamin K; D'Agostino, Anthony L; Meenawat, Harsha; Rawlani, Amireeta

2012-04-30

173

``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' scientific report 1 ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' Team  

E-print Network

expertise and software developments have led to the first climate experiments in which a global oceanic``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' scientific report 1 ``Climate Modelling & Global Change : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4 2 Coupled modelling of the Tropical Pacific Ocean 6 2.1 A 10­year coupled simulation

174

Ozone, Climate, and Global Atmospheric Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The delicate balance of the gases that make up our atmosphere allows life to exist on Earth. Ozone depletion and global warming are related to changes in the concentrations of these gases. To solve global atmospheric problems, we need to understand the composition and chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere and the impact of human activities on them.

Levine, Joel S.

1992-01-01

175

Towards the global monitoring of biodiversity change  

E-print Network

Towards the global monitoring of biodiversity change Henrique M. Pereira1,2,* and H. David Cooper3, Canada, H2Y1N9 Governments have set the ambitious target of reducing biodiversity loss by the year 2010. Here, we review current monitoring efforts and propose a global biodiversity monitoring network

Pereira, Henrique Miguel

176

Transformation of the Biosphere: Global Environmental Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation, available online as a printable PDF, discusses the direct impact humans have on the global environment. It contains an overview of how human negligence toward the Earth's soils, atmosphere, and waters not only harms ecosystems and species, but also degrades the quality of human life and four world maps depicting some global environmental changes.

177

Climate Change Adaptation Challenges and EO Business Opportunities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is one of the defining challenges of the 21st century, but is no longer a matter of just scientific concern. It encompasses economics, sociology, global politics as well as national and local politics, law, health and environmental security, etc. The challenge of facing the impacts of climate change is often framed in terms of two potential paths that civilization might take: mitigation and adaptation. On the one hand, mitigation involves reducing the magnitude of climate change itself and is composed of emissions reductions and geoengineering. On the other hand and by contrast, adaptation involves efforts to limit our vulnerability to climate change impacts through various measures. It refers to our ability to adjust ourselves to climate change -including climate variability and extremes, to moderate potential damage, to take advantage of opportunities, or to cope with the consequences. Therefore, we are now faced with a double challenge: next to deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions, we also need to adapt to the changing climate conditions. The use of satellites to monitor processes and trends at the global scale is essential in the context of climate change. Earth Observation has the potential to improve our predictive vision and to advance climate models. Space sciences and technologies constitute a significant issue in Education and Public Awareness of Science. Space missions face the probably largest scientific and industrial challenges of humanity. It is thus a fact that space drives innovation in the major breakthrough and cutting edge technological advances of mankind (techniques, processes, new products, … as well as in markets and business models). Technology and innovation is the basis of all space activities. Space agencies offer an entire range of space-related activities - from space science and environmental monitoring to industrial competitiveness and end-user services. More specifically, Earth Observation satellites have a unique global view of planet Earth, providing us -with better data- with consistent and frequent information on the state of our environment at the regional and global scale, also in important but remote areas. Climate Knowledge and Innovation Communities (Climate-KIC), a relatively new initiative from the European Institute of Innovation & Technology (EIT), provides the innovations, entrepreneurship, education and expert guidance needed to shape Europe's climate change agenda. This paper shows some initiatives that the University of Valencia Climate-KIC Education Group is carrying out in collaboration with the Climate-KIC Central Education Lead in the field of space education to foster and encourage students and entrepreneurs to endevour in these new space business opportunities offered by this step forward towards climate change adaptation challenges.

Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Bansal, Rahul; Del Rey, Maria; Mohamed, Ebrahim; Ruiz, Paz; Signes, Marcos

178

Global vegetation changes from satellite data  

SciTech Connect

Long-term climate, soils data along with satellite observations are sued to quantify global land cover changes between pre-agricultural and present conditions. Changes in global land cover expressed as summer, mid-afternoon, radiometric surface temperatures, T{sub r}, ranged from -8 to +16 {degrees}C. Deforestation resulted in an increase in T{sub r}, while irrigated agriculture reduced the T{sub r}. The spatial heterogeneity in land surface fluxes created by the estimated land cover changes, currently not accounted for in Global Circulation Models, could have significant impact on climate. Potential and actual land cover datasets are available for climate modelers at 0.5x0.5{degrees} resolution to study the possible impacts of land cover changes on global temperatures and circulation patterns.

Nemani, R.; Running, S. [Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States)

1995-09-01

179

Tolerance adaptation and precipitation changes complicate latitudinal patterns of climate change impacts  

PubMed Central

Global patterns of biodiversity and comparisons between tropical and temperate ecosystems have pervaded ecology from its inception. However, the urgency in understanding these global patterns has been accentuated by the threat of rapid climate change. We apply an adaptive model of environmental tolerance evolution to global climate data and climate change model projections to examine the relative impacts of climate change on different regions of the globe. Our results project more adverse impacts of warming on tropical populations due to environmental tolerance adaptation to conditions of low interannual variability in temperature. When applied to present variability and future forecasts of precipitation data, the tolerance adaptation model found large reductions in fitness predicted for populations in high-latitude northern hemisphere regions, although some tropical regions had comparable reductions in fitness. We formulated an evolutionary regional climate change index (ERCCI) to additionally incorporate the predicted changes in the interannual variability of temperature and precipitation. Based on this index, we suggest that the magnitude of climate change impacts could be much more heterogeneous across latitude than previously thought. Specifically, tropical regions are likely to be just as affected as temperate regions and, in some regions under some circumstances, possibly more so. PMID:20616038

Bonebrake, Timothy C.; Mastrandrea, Michael D.

2010-01-01

180

GAIA - Understanding Global Policy Issues in Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impacts of global climate change are wide-ranging and profound. Adapting policies to deal with public health, economic, and security issues that will arise will be a difficult and challenging process. To help address these concerns the GAIA (Global Assimilation of Information for Action) project is being initiated at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory to bring together climate, public health, economic, and security subject matter experts to focus attention on creating policy issues to address the most important problems facing the world. Plans for GAIA's first year activities as well as future directions will be discussed.

Babin, S. M.; Paxton, L. J.; Pikas, C. K.; Schaefer, R. K.; Simpkins, S.; Swartz, W. H.; Weiss, M.

2010-12-01

181

Mutations in Global Regulators Lead to Metabolic Selection during Adaptation to Complex Environments  

SciTech Connect

Adaptation to ecologically complex environments can provide insights into the evolutionary dynamics and functional constraints encountered by organisms during natural selection. Unlike adaptation to a single limiting resource, adaptation to a new environment with abundant and varied resources can be difficult to achieve by small incremental changes since many mutations are required to achieve even modest gains in fitness. Since changing complex environments are quite common in nature, we investigated how such an epistatic bottleneck can be avoided to allow rapid adaptation. We show that adaptive mutations arise repeatedly in independently evolved populations in the context of greatly increased genetic and phenotypic diversity. We go on to show that weak selection requiring substantial metabolic reprogramming can be readily achieved by mutations in the global response regulator arcA and the stress response regulator rpoS. We identified 46 unique single-nucleotide variants of arcA and 18 mutations in rpoS, nine of which resulted in stop codons or large deletions, suggesting that a subtle modulation of ArcA function and knockouts of rpoS are largely responsible for the metabolic shifts leading to adaptation. These mutations allow a higher order “metabolic selection” that eliminates epistatic bottlenecks, which could occur when many changes would be required. Proteomic and carbohydrate analysis of adapting E. coli populations revealed an up-regulation of enzymes associated with the TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism and an increase in the secretion of putrescine. The overall effect of adaptation across populations is to redirect and efficiently utilize uptake and catabolism of abundant amino acids. Concomitantly, there is a pronounced spread of more ecologically limited strains that results from specialization through metabolic erosion. Remarkably, the global regulators arcA and rpoS can provide a “one-step” mechanism of adaptation to a novel environment, which highlights the importance of global resource management as a powerful strategy to adaptation.

Saxer, Gerda; Krepps, Michael D.; Merkley, Eric D.; Ansong, Charles; Kaiser, Brooke LD; Valovska, Marie-Thrse; Ristic, Nikola; Yeh, Ping T.; Prakash, Vittal; Leiser, Owen P.; Nakhleh, Luay; Gibbons, Henry S.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Shamoo, Yousif

2014-12-11

182

Monitoring adaptive genetic responses to environmental change.  

PubMed

Widespread environmental changes including climate change, selective harvesting and landscape alterations now greatly affect selection regimes for most organisms. How animals and plants can adapt to these altered environments via contemporary evolution is thus of strong interest. We discuss how to use genetic monitoring to study adaptive responses via repeated analysis of the same populations over time, distinguishing between phenotypic and molecular genetics approaches. After describing monitoring designs, we develop explicit criteria for demonstrating adaptive responses, which include testing for selection and establishing clear links between genetic and environmental change. We then review a few exemplary studies that explore adaptive responses to climate change in Drosophila, selective responses to hunting and fishing, and contemporary evolution in Daphnia using resurrected resting eggs. We further review a broader set of 44 studies to assess how well they meet the proposed criteria, and conclude that only 23% fulfill all criteria. Approximately half (43%) of these studies failed to rule out the alternative hypothesis of replacement by a different, better-adapted population. Likewise, 34% of the studies based on phenotypic variation did not test for selection as opposed to drift. These shortcomings can be addressed via improved experimental designs and statistical testing. We foresee monitoring of adaptive responses as a future valuable tool in conservation biology, for identifying populations unable to evolve at sufficiently high rates and for identifying possible donor populations for genetic rescue. Technological advances will further augment the realization of this potential, especially next-generation sequencing technologies that allow for monitoring at the level of whole genomes. PMID:22269082

Hansen, Michael M; Olivieri, Isabelle; Waller, Donald M; Nielsen, Einar E

2012-03-01

183

Engineering change in global climate  

SciTech Connect

{open_quotes}With increased public focus on global warming and in the wake of the intense heat waves, drought, fires, and super-hurricanes that occurred in 1988 and 1989, interest in geoengineering has surged,{close_quotes} says Stephen H. Schneider, professor of biological science at Stanford University in Stanford, California. One scheme set forth in a National Research Council report proposes using 16-inch naval guns to fire aerosol shells into the stratosphere in hopes of offsetting {open_quotes}the radiative effects of increasing carbon dioxide,{close_quotes} Schneider says. Schneider, however, would prefer that we {open_quotes}seek measures that can cure our global {open_quote}addiction{close_quote} to polluting practices.{close_quotes} Rather than playing God, he says we should {open_quotes}stick to being human and pursue problem - solving methods currently within our grasp.{close_quotes} Such strategies include efforts to promote energy efficiency and reduce our reliance on automobiles.

Schneider, S.H. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1996-12-31

184

Environmental change adaptation for mobile robot navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of existing robot learning methods have considered the environment where their robots work unchanged, therefore, the robots have to learn from scratch if they encounter new environments. This paper proposes a method which adapts robots to environmental changes by efficiently transferring a learned policy in the previous environments into a new one and effectively modifying it to cope with

Takaahi Minato; Minoru Asada

1998-01-01

185

Adaptation to Global Warming: Do Climate Models Tell Us What We Need to Know? Author(s): Naomi Oreskes, David A. Stainforth, Leonard A. Smith  

E-print Network

Adaptation to Global Warming: Do Climate Models Tell Us What We Need to Know? Author(s): Naomi. All rights reserved. 1012 Adaptation to Global Warming: Do Climate Models Tell Us What We Need to Know discussion in scientific and policy circles of the need for adaptation to climate change. These arguments

Stevenson, Paul

186

Climate Effects of Global Land Cover Change  

SciTech Connect

There are two competing effects of global land cover change on climate: an albedo effect which leads to heating when changing from grass/croplands to forest, and an evapotranspiration effect which tends to produce cooling. It is not clear which effect would dominate in a global land cover change scenario. We have performed coupled land/ocean/atmosphere simulations of global land cover change using the NCAR CAM3 atmospheric general circulation model. We find that replacement of current vegetation by trees on a global basis would lead to a global annual mean warming of 1.6 C, nearly 75% of the warming produced under a doubled CO{sub 2} concentration, while global replacement by grasslands would result in a cooling of 0.4 C. These results suggest that more research is necessary before forest carbon storage should be deployed as a mitigation strategy for global warming. In particular, high latitude forests probably have a net warming effect on the Earth's climate.

Gibbard, S G; Caldeira, K; Bala, G; Phillips, T; Wickett, M

2005-08-24

187

Hormonally mediated maternal effects, individual strategy and global change  

PubMed Central

A challenge to ecologists and evolutionary biologists is predicting organismal responses to the anticipated changes to global ecosystems through climate change. Most evidence suggests that short-term global change may involve increasing occurrences of extreme events, therefore the immediate response of individuals will be determined by physiological capacities and life-history adaptations to cope with extreme environmental conditions. Here, we consider the role of hormones and maternal effects in determining the persistence of species in altered environments. Hormones, specifically steroids, are critical for patterning the behaviour and morphology of parents and their offspring. Hence, steroids have a pervasive influence on multiple aspects of the offspring phenotype over its lifespan. Stress hormones, e.g. glucocorticoids, modulate and perturb phenotypes both early in development and later into adulthood. Females exposed to abiotic stressors during reproduction may alter the phenotypes by manipulation of hormones to the embryos. Thus, hormone-mediated maternal effects, which generate phenotypic plasticity, may be one avenue for coping with global change. Variation in exposure to hormones during development influences both the propensity to disperse, which alters metapopulation dynamics, and population dynamics, by affecting either recruitment to the population or subsequent life-history characteristics of the offspring. We suggest that hormones may be an informative index to the potential for populations to adapt to changing environments. PMID:22566673

Meylan, Sandrine; Miles, Donald B.; Clobert, Jean

2012-01-01

188

The Interdisciplinary Global Change Curriculum  

E-print Network

evolution of natural world and appreciate temporal and spatial scales of change Understand how human S One course from two of three categories: Biosphere Ecology, Evolution, Ethnobotany, Limnology://globalchange.umich.edu globalchange@umich.edu Evolution of the universe Early earth Evolution of atmosphere Natural hazards Evolution

189

Climate Change Adaptation: A Collective Action Perspective on Federalism Considerations  

E-print Network

adaptation to minimize the adverse effects of climate change. Climate change adaptation is designed to increase the resilience of natural and human ecosystems to the threats posed by a changing environment. Although an extensive literature concerning...

Glicksman, Robert L.; Levy, Richard E.

2010-01-01

190

PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND GLOBAL CHANGE CAN CLIMATE DRIVEN CHANGES IN  

E-print Network

PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND GLOBAL CHANGE CAN CLIMATE DRIVEN CHANGES IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS BE USED TO PREDICT in photosynthesis, and thus substrate supply, influence the rate of ecosystem respiration (Re). Further- more in photosynthesis might result in concomitant changes in both the rate, and temperature-sensitivity, of Re. Re

Barron-Gafford, Greg

191

Mutations in Global Regulators Lead to Metabolic Selection during Adaptation to Complex Environments  

PubMed Central

Adaptation to ecologically complex environments can provide insights into the evolutionary dynamics and functional constraints encountered by organisms during natural selection. Adaptation to a new environment with abundant and varied resources can be difficult to achieve by small incremental changes if many mutations are required to achieve even modest gains in fitness. Since changing complex environments are quite common in nature, we investigated how such an epistatic bottleneck can be avoided to allow rapid adaptation. We show that adaptive mutations arise repeatedly in independently evolved populations in the context of greatly increased genetic and phenotypic diversity. We go on to show that weak selection requiring substantial metabolic reprogramming can be readily achieved by mutations in the global response regulator arcA and the stress response regulator rpoS. We identified 46 unique single-nucleotide variants of arcA and 18 mutations in rpoS, nine of which resulted in stop codons or large deletions, suggesting that subtle modulations of ArcA function and knockouts of rpoS are largely responsible for the metabolic shifts leading to adaptation. These mutations allow a higher order metabolic selection that eliminates epistatic bottlenecks, which could occur when many changes would be required. Proteomic and carbohydrate analysis of adapting E. coli populations revealed an up-regulation of enzymes associated with the TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism, and an increase in the secretion of putrescine. The overall effect of adaptation across populations is to redirect and efficiently utilize uptake and catabolism of abundant amino acids. Concomitantly, there is a pronounced spread of more ecologically limited strains that results from specialization through metabolic erosion. Remarkably, the global regulators arcA and rpoS can provide a “one-step” mechanism of adaptation to a novel environment, which highlights the importance of global resource management as a powerful strategy to adaptation. PMID:25501822

Saxer, Gerda; Krepps, Michael D.; Merkley, Eric D.; Ansong, Charles; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L.; Valovska, Marie-Thérèse; Ristic, Nikola; Yeh, Ping T.; Prakash, Vittal P.; Leiser, Owen P.; Nakhleh, Luay; Gibbons, Henry S.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Shamoo, Yousif

2014-01-01

192

Mutations in global regulators lead to metabolic selection during adaptation to complex environments.  

PubMed

Adaptation to ecologically complex environments can provide insights into the evolutionary dynamics and functional constraints encountered by organisms during natural selection. Adaptation to a new environment with abundant and varied resources can be difficult to achieve by small incremental changes if many mutations are required to achieve even modest gains in fitness. Since changing complex environments are quite common in nature, we investigated how such an epistatic bottleneck can be avoided to allow rapid adaptation. We show that adaptive mutations arise repeatedly in independently evolved populations in the context of greatly increased genetic and phenotypic diversity. We go on to show that weak selection requiring substantial metabolic reprogramming can be readily achieved by mutations in the global response regulator arcA and the stress response regulator rpoS. We identified 46 unique single-nucleotide variants of arcA and 18 mutations in rpoS, nine of which resulted in stop codons or large deletions, suggesting that subtle modulations of ArcA function and knockouts of rpoS are largely responsible for the metabolic shifts leading to adaptation. These mutations allow a higher order metabolic selection that eliminates epistatic bottlenecks, which could occur when many changes would be required. Proteomic and carbohydrate analysis of adapting E. coli populations revealed an up-regulation of enzymes associated with the TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism, and an increase in the secretion of putrescine. The overall effect of adaptation across populations is to redirect and efficiently utilize uptake and catabolism of abundant amino acids. Concomitantly, there is a pronounced spread of more ecologically limited strains that results from specialization through metabolic erosion. Remarkably, the global regulators arcA and rpoS can provide a "one-step" mechanism of adaptation to a novel environment, which highlights the importance of global resource management as a powerful strategy to adaptation. PMID:25501822

Saxer, Gerda; Krepps, Michael D; Merkley, Eric D; Ansong, Charles; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L; Valovska, Marie-Thérèse; Ristic, Nikola; Yeh, Ping T; Prakash, Vittal P; Leiser, Owen P; Nakhleh, Luay; Gibbons, Henry S; Kreuzer, Helen W; Shamoo, Yousif

2014-12-01

193

Global Climate Change and Demand for Energy  

E-print Network

1 Global Climate Change and Demand for Energy Tyson Research Center and International Center et al. Climate Variability and Climate Change: The New Climate Dice http of air and water temperatures Losses of ice from Greenland and Antarctica Sea-level rise Energy demands

Subramanian, Venkat

194

Climate change and global water resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

By 2025, it is estimated that around 5 billion people, out of a total population of around 8 billion, will be living in countries experiencing water stress (using more than 20% of their available resources). Climate change has the potential to impose additional pressures in some regions. This paper describes an assessment of the implications of climate change for global

Nigel W. Arnell

1999-01-01

195

The Psychological Impacts of Global Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An appreciation of the psychological impacts of global climate change entails recognizing the complexity and multiple meanings associated with climate change; situating impacts within other social, technological, and ecological transitions; and recognizing mediators and moderators of impacts. This article describes three classes of psychological…

Doherty, Thomas J.; Clayton, Susan

2011-01-01

196

Frontiers in Global Change Seminar Series  

E-print Network

extreme weather and climate events." Existing data indicate increases over the last 50 years in several effective options tend to produce both immediate benefits in sustainable development and long-term benefitsFrontiers in Global Change Seminar Series Climate Change: Managing the Risks of Extreme Events

197

Global climate change and international security.  

SciTech Connect

This report originates in a workshop held at Sandia National Laboratories, bringing together a variety of external experts with Sandia personnel to discuss 'The Implications of Global Climate Change for International Security.' Whatever the future of the current global warming trend, paleoclimatic history shows that climate change happens, sometimes abruptly. These changes can severely impact human water supplies, agriculture, migration patterns, infrastructure, financial flows, disease prevalence, and economic activity. Those impacts, in turn, can lead to national or international security problems stemming from aggravation of internal conflicts, increased poverty and inequality, exacerbation of existing international conflicts, diversion of national and international resources from international security programs (military or non-military), contribution to global economic decline or collapse, or international realignments based on climate change mitigation policies. After reviewing these potential problems, the report concludes with a brief listing of some research, technology, and policy measures that might mitigate them.

Karas, Thomas H.

2003-11-01

198

Adapting to WisconsinAdapting to Wisconsin''ss Changing WatersChanging Waters  

E-print Network

, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global mean sea level. IPCC, 2007 "" "" #12;Source: J million gallons from 161 wastewater treatment plants) · FEMA paid $34 million in flood damage claims Few://wicci.wisc.edu #12;WICCI Identifying impacts and adaptation strategies Evaluate potential effects on industry

Sheridan, Jennifer

199

Adaptation to Climate Change: How does Heterogeneity in Adaptation Costs Affect Climate Coalitions?  

E-print Network

Adaptation to Climate Change: How does Heterogeneity in Adaptation Costs Affect Climate Coalitions? Itziar Lazkano Walid Marrouch Bruno Nkuiya§ Abstract We examine how adaptation to climate change affects options to tackle climate change, unfortunately the role of adaptation is largely ignored in the study

Spino, Claude

200

Changing Rural Social Systems: Adaptation and Survival.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book includes studies of globalization-related social changes in rural areas of the United States and other countries and implications of these studies for sociological theory. Although no chapter focuses exclusively on education, education-related themes include rural school dropouts and intergenerational poverty, the migration of rural…

Johnson, Nan E., Ed.; Wang, Ching-li, Ed.

201

Global Climate Change Impacts:Global Climate Change Impacts: Implications for Climate EngineeringImplications for Climate Engineering  

E-print Network

Global Climate Change Impacts:Global Climate Change Impacts: Implications for Climate Engineering Center Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States October 29, 2009 #12;2Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States 2 Response Strategies to ClimateResponse Strategies to Climate ChangeChange

Polz, Martin

202

President Clinton Speaks on Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On October 22, 1997, President Clinton addressed the National Geographic Society on the issue of global climate change and global warming. This site contains the President's speech, along with a speech by Vice President Gore (in RealAudio format). Together, the speeches take a bit over thirty-six minutes. Note that the President's remarks begin at about 10 minutes and 50 seconds into the recording.

1997-01-01

203

Global change and terrestrial hydrology - A review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reviews the role of terrestrial hydrology in determining the coupling between the surface and atmosphere. Present experience with interactive numerical simulation is discussed and approaches to the inclusion of land hydrology in global climate models ae considered. At present, a wide range of answers as to expected changes in surface hydrology is given by nominally similar models. Studies of the effects of tropical deforestation and global warming illustrate this point.

Dickinson, Robert E.

1991-01-01

204

Hot Topics: Globalization and Climate Change  

E-print Network

experience the threat of nuclear fallout, sea level rise, air pollution, and industrial runoff—all products of the global industrial system – although the localities themselves have not produced nuclear bombs nor emitted vast quantities of greenhouse gases... growth that can yield both economic prosperity and no environmental damage (as expressed in the slogans “win-wins,” 161 Hot Topics: Globalization and Climate Change win-win-wins” [the “triple bottom line”], and “pollution prevention pays”). In climate...

Malone, Elizabeth L.

2002-04-01

205

Cellular modes of adaptation to environmental changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eukaryotic cells are remarkably adaptable entities. Whether embedded in solid tissues or freely suspended in blood or other fluids, cells principally exist in an aqueous environment but maintain a hydrophobic barrier, the plasma membrane, across which changes in the environment are detected. Utilizing specialized macromolecular components, cells can sense changes in temperature, hydrostatic pressure, oxygen tension, shear, shape, osmolarity, pH, electrical potential, electromagnetic radiation, and the concentrations of specific chemical compounds. Modes of response are equally varied, ranging from rapid secretion of stored substances to irreversible functional differentiation to self-destruction. Recent research has elucidated many of the enzymatic and genetic programs that accomplish these adaptations and suggests novel targets for therapeutic intervention.

Huckle, William R.

2001-10-01

206

Adapting to Climate Change in Wisconsin Strategies for Conservation Professionals  

E-print Network

Adapting to Climate Change in Wisconsin ­ Strategies for Conservation Professionals Wisconsin · Wisconsin's changing climate · Expected impacts · Adaptation strategies #12;Visible Light Energy in = Energy on climate change in Wisconsin Climate Adaptation 2011 - Wisconsin Initiative on Climate Change Impacts

Sheridan, Jennifer

207

Climate change and the global malaria recession  

PubMed Central

The current and potential future impact of climate change on malaria is of major public health interest1,2. The proposed effects of rising global temperatures on the future spread and intensification of the disease3-5, and on existing malaria morbidity and mortality rates3, substantively influence global health policy6,7. The contemporary spatial limits of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and its endemicity within this range8, when compared with comparable historical maps, offer unique insights into the changing global epidemiology of malaria over the last century. It has long been known that the range of malaria has contracted through a century of economic development and disease control9. Here, for the first time, we quantify this contraction and the global decreases in malaria endemicity since c. 1900. We compare the magnitude of these changes to the size of effects on malaria endemicity hypothesised under future climate scenarios and associated with widely used public health interventions. Our findings have two key and often ignored implications with respect to climate change and malaria. First, widespread claims that rising mean temperatures have already led to increases in worldwide malaria morbidity and mortality are largely at odds with observed decreasing global trends in both its endemicity and geographic extent. Second, the proposed future effects of rising temperatures on endemicity are at least one order of magnitude smaller than changes observed since c. 1900 and up to two orders of magnitude smaller than those that can be achieved by the effective scale-up of key control measures. Predictions of an intensification of malaria in a warmer world, based on extrapolated empirical relationships or biological mechanisms, must be set against a context of a century of warming that has seen dramatic global declines in the disease and a substantial weakening of the global correlation between malaria endemicity and climate. PMID:20485434

Gething, Peter W.; Smith, David L.; Patil, Anand P.; Tatem, Andrew J.; Snow, Robert W.; Hay, Simon I.

2010-01-01

208

Decadal Changes in Global Ocean Chlorophyll  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The global ocean chlorophyll archive produced by the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) was revised using compatible algorithms with the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWIFS), and both were blended with in situ data. This methodology permitted a quantitative comparison of decadal changes in global ocean chlorophyll from the CZCS (1979-1986) and SeaWiFS (Sep. 1997-Dec. 2000) records. Global seasonal means of ocean chlorophyll decreased over the two observational segments, by 8% in winter to 16% in autumn. Chlorophyll in the high latitudes was responsible for most of the decadal change. Conversely, chlorophyll concentrations in the low latitudes increased. The differences and similarities of the two data records provide evidence of how the Earth's climate may be changing and how ocean biota respond. Furthermore, the results have implications for the ocean carbon cycle.

Gregg, Watson W.; Conkright, Margarita E.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

209

Title: Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation Options for Coastal Communities in Timor-Leste  

E-print Network

Title: Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation Options for Coastal Communities in Timor-Leste Summary Climate change is a major global challenge, particularly for world's coastal communities in low 2008, Kelman & West 2009, Veitayaki 2010). Within these regions, climate change impacts are already

210

Visualizing Climate Change Risk and Adaptation Options for California  

E-print Network

Visualizing Climate Change Risk and Adaptation Options for California: CalAdapt ENVIRONMENTAL AREA of the climate change adaptation community is the scarcity of tools and methods to convey to a wider audience Schwarzenegger released a Comprehensive Climate Adaptation Strategy for California and unveiled the prototype

211

Global change integrating factors: Tropical tropopause trends  

SciTech Connect

This research proposes new criteria, shifts in the height and temperature of the tropical tropopause, as measures of global climate change. The search for signs of global warming in the temperature signal near the earth`s surface is extremely difficult, largely because numerous factors contribute to surface temperature forcing with only a small signal-to-noise ratio relative to long-term effects. In the long term, no part of the atmosphere can be considered individually because the evolution will be a function of all states of all portions. A large surface greenhouse signal might ultimately be expected, but the analysis of surface temperature may not be particularly useful for early detection. What is suggested here is not an analysis of trends in the surface temperature field or any of its spatial averages, but rather an integrating factor or integrator, a single measure of global change that could be considered a test of significant change for the entire global system. Preferably, this global change integrator would vary slowly and would take into account many of the causes of climate change, with a relatively large signal-to-noise ratio. Such an integrator could be monitored, and abrupt or accelerated changes could serve as an early warning signal for policy makers and the public. Earlier work has suggested that temperature has much less short-term and small-scale noise in the lower stratosphere, and thus the global warming signal at that level might be more easily deconvoluted, because the cooling rate near the 200-mb level is almost constant with latitude. A study of the temperature signal at this pressure level might show a clearer trend due to increased levels of greenhouse gases, but it would yield information about the troposphere only by inference.

Reck, R.A.

1994-10-01

212

WATERSHED BOUNDARY CONDITIONS FOR GLOBAL CHANGE IMPACT ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) studies (among other issues) the impact of global change on water quality. This field study evaluates the impact of global changes (land-use change and climate change) on source water quality. Changes in source water quality change...

213

Deep solar minimum and global climate changes  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the deep minimum of solar cycle 23 and its potential impact on climate change. In addition, a source region of the solar winds at solar activity minimum, especially in the solar cycle 23, the deepest during the last 500 years, has been studied. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary solar activity are so weak and hence expected to cause global cooling. Prevalent global warming, caused by building-up of green-house gases in the troposphere, seems to exceed this solar effect. This paper discusses this issue.

Hady, Ahmed A.

2013-01-01

214

Global change technology architecture trade study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Described here is an architecture trade study conducted by the Langley Research Center to develop a representative mix of advanced space science instrumentation, spacecraft, and mission orbits to assist in the technology selection processes. The analyses concentrated on the highest priority classes of global change measurements which are the global climate changes. Issues addressed in the tradeoffs includes assessments of the economics of scale of large platforms with multiple instruments relative to smaller spacecraft; the influences of current and possible future launch vehicles on payload sizes, and on-orbit assembly decisions; and the respective roles of low-Earth versus geostationary Earth orbiting systems.

Garrett, L. Bernard (editor); Hypes, Warren D. (editor); Wright, Robert L. (editor)

1991-01-01

215

Deep solar minimum and global Climate Changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the deep minimum of solar cycle 23 and its likely impact on climate change. In addition, a source region of the solar winds at solar activity minimum, especially in the solar cycle 23, the deepest during the last 100 years, has been studied. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary solar activities are so weak and hence expected to cause global cooling. Prevalent global warming, caused by building-up of green-house gases in the troposphere, seems to exceed this solar effect. This paper discusses this issue.

Abdel Hady, Ahmed

2012-07-01

216

Deep solar minimum and global climate changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the deep minimum of solar cycle 23 and its potential impact on climate change. In addition, a source region of the solar winds at solar activity minimum, especially in the solar cycle 23, the deepest during the last 500 years, has been studied. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary solar activity are so weak and hence expected to cause global cooling. Prevalent global warming, caused by building-up of green-house gases in the troposphere, seems to exceed this solar effect. This paper discusses this issue.

Hady, Ahmed A.

2013-05-01

217

WHAT'S IN A NAME? GLOBAL WARMING VERSUS CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-print Network

WHAT'S IN A NAME? GLOBAL WARMING VERSUS CLIMATE CHANGE May 2014 #12;What's In A Name? Global NATIONAL SURVEY STUDY 2: GLOBAL WARMING VS. CLIMATE CHANGE............................ 10 Is global?................................................................10 When you think of global warming / climate change, what comes first to mind

Haller, Gary L.

218

Geographic Landscape Visualisation in Planning Adaptation to Climate Change in Victoria, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is a global challenge for all scientists the 21st century with a certain amount of ‘global warming’ already\\u000a inevitable. The magnitude and risks of climate change are now being more widely appreciated and the need for adaptation, including\\u000a land use, is becoming a social imperative. Profound changes to ecosystems and biodiversity are predicted, and climate induced\\u000a migration of

Ian Mansergh; Alex Lau; Rod Anderson

219

Climate Change Adaptation: Putting Principles into Practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carrying out wildlife conservation in a changing climate requires planning on long timescales at both a site and network level, while also having the flexibility to adapt actions at sites over short timescales in response to changing conditions and new information. The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB), a land-owning wildlife conservation charity in the UK, achieves this on its nature reserves through its system of management planning. This involves setting network-wide objectives which inform the 25-year vision and 5-year conservation objectives for each site. Progress toward achieving each site's conservation objectives is reviewed annually, to identify any adjustments which might be needed to the site's management. The conservation objectives and 25-year vision of each site are reviewed every 5 years. Significant long-term impacts of climate change most frequently identified at RSPB reserves are: loss of intertidal habitat through coastal squeeze, loss of low-lying islands due to higher sea levels and coastal erosion, loss of coastal freshwater and brackish wetlands due to increased coastal flooding, and changes in the hydrology of wetlands. The main types of adaptation measures in place on RSPB reserves to address climate change-related impacts are: re-creation of intertidal habitat, re-creation and restoration of freshwater wetlands away from vulnerable coastal areas, blocking artificial drainage on peatlands, and addressing pressures on freshwater supply for lowland wet grasslands in eastern and southeastern England. Developing partnerships between organizations has been crucial in delivering large-scale adaptation projects.

Ausden, Malcolm

2014-10-01

220

Climate change adaptation: putting principles into practice.  

PubMed

Carrying out wildlife conservation in a changing climate requires planning on long timescales at both a site and network level, while also having the flexibility to adapt actions at sites over short timescales in response to changing conditions and new information. The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB), a land-owning wildlife conservation charity in the UK, achieves this on its nature reserves through its system of management planning. This involves setting network-wide objectives which inform the 25-year vision and 5-year conservation objectives for each site. Progress toward achieving each site's conservation objectives is reviewed annually, to identify any adjustments which might be needed to the site's management. The conservation objectives and 25-year vision of each site are reviewed every 5 years.Significant predicted [corrected] long-term impacts of climate change most frequently identified at RSPB reserves are: loss of intertidal habitat through coastal squeeze, loss of low-lying islands due to higher sea levels and coastal erosion, loss of coastal freshwater and brackish wetlands due to increased coastal flooding, and changes in the hydrology of wetlands. The main types of adaptation measures in place on RSPB reserves to address climate change-related impacts are: re-creation of intertidal habitat, re-creation and restoration of freshwater wetlands away from vulnerable coastal areas, blocking artificial drainage on peatlands, and addressing pressures on freshwater supply for lowland wet grasslands in eastern and southeastern England. Developing partnerships between organizations has been crucial in delivering large-scale adaptation projects. PMID:24363138

Ausden, Malcolm

2014-10-01

221

Can the desert annual Salvia columbariae adapt to global warming?  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric concentrations of {open_quotes}greenhouse{close_quotes} gases are increasing, and most atmospheric scientists agree that an increase in global mean air temperatures will follow. The predictions about possible biological consequences range from {open_quotes}significant{close_quotes} to {open_quotes}catastrophic.{close_quotes} To explore the possible effects of elevated temperatures on a winter germinating desert annual, we grew seeds from two populations of Salvia columbariae in controlled environments mimicking normal temperatures for those populations and in temperatures 4 C higher. Measures of individual fitness were successful germination and the number of seeds produced. For both populations, fitness was dramatically lower in the elevated temperatures: both percent germination and seed number were significantly reduced. Sixty-five percent of the family groups (same mother) failed to flower under the elevated temperatures, whereas, all of the families grown in the normal temperatures flowered and produced seeds. There were also differences between families grown in the increased temperature treatments, implying genetic differences in high temperature tolerance. Our results suggest that while some families will be able to survive and adapt to elevated air temperatures, most will not. This could lead to a serious eroding of the genetic variability of these populations and possibly hamper their ability to respond to other kinds of environmental change.

Soulanille, E.L.; Bierzychudek, P. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)]|[Lewis and Clark College, Portland, OR (United States)

1995-06-01

222

Global Asymptotic Stabilization Using Adaptive Fuzzy PD Control.  

PubMed

It is well-known that standard adaptive fuzzy control (AFC) can only guarantee uniformly ultimately bounded stability due to inherent fuzzy approximation errors (FAEs). This paper proves that standard AFC with proportional-derivative (PD) control can guarantee global asymptotic stabilization even in the presence of FAEs for a class of uncertain affine nonlinear systems. Variable-gain PD control is designed to globally stabilize the plant. An optimal FAE is shown to be bounded by the norm of the plant state vector multiplied by a globally invertible and nondecreasing function, which provides a pivotal property for stability analysis. Without discontinuous control compensation, the closed-loop system achieves global and partially asymptotic stability in the sense that all plant states converge to zero. Compared with previous adaptive approximation-based global/asymptotic stabilization approaches, the major advantage of our approach is that global stability and asymptotic stabilization are achieved concurrently by a much simpler control law. Illustrative examples have further verified the theoretical results. PMID:25122847

Pan, Yongping; Yu, Haoyong; Sun, Tairen

2014-08-01

223

Global climate change and infectious diseases  

SciTech Connect

The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. These mosquitoes transmit dengue virus, and Aedes aegypti transmits yellow fever virus. The faster metamorphosis and a shorter extrinsic incubation of dengue and yellow fever viruses could lead to epidemics in North America. Vibrio cholera is harbored persistently in the estuaries of the U.S. Gulf Coast. Over the past 200 years, cholera has become pandemic seven times with spread from Asia to Europe, Africa, and North America. Global warming may lead to changes in water ecology that could enhance similar spread of cholera in North America. Some other infectious diseases such as LaCrosse encephalitis and Lyme disease are caused by agents closely dependent on the integrity of their environment. These diseases may become less prominent with global warming because of anticipated modification of their habitats. Ecological studies will help as to understand more fully the possible consequences of global warming. New and more effective methods for control of vectors will be needed. 12 refs., 1 tab.

Shope, R. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States))

1991-12-01

224

Historical Landcover changes and global climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several recent modelling studies have shown a significant effect on global climate due to human alterations of surface vegetation characteristics. Because observed vegetation changes appear to alter large scale circulations such as the Hadley and Walker cells, the effects of vegetation changes are non-localized and global in extent. Circulation changes are responsible for a large portion of the observed surface warming in recent decades suggesting that landcover changes may be responsible for part of that warming. Changes in surface tempearture due to landcover changes can be of the same size as those due to present day levels of atmospheric CO2 and so represent a significant and confounding influence on attribution of anthropogenic climate change. Climate change predictions made by state of the art general circulation models for several key variables have not been confirmed in observational data. For example, accelerated warming in the free troposphere relative to the surface predicted in simulations of increasing CO2 has not occurred. Tropical monsoon circulations appear to have diminished in intensity over the last 50 years despite predictions of a more intense hydrological cycle. It is possible that the effect of landcover changes may explain some part of the discrepancy between climate change simulations and observations.

Chase, T.

2003-04-01

225

Connecting Global Climate Change with Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-paced tutorial explores the importance of engineering solutions to the management of climate change by brainstorming ways to remove CO² from the atmosphere and store it in a form that does not promote global warming. The module also provides resources for students to learn about engineering careers related to climate change. Learners compare the design process used in engineering projects with the scientific process, and explore elements of the engineering design process through global climate change. Multimedia educational resources including video clips are included. This is the ninth of 10 self-paced professional development modules providing opportunities for teachers to learn about climate change through first-hand data exploration.

2012-10-18

226

Change and Aging Senescence as an Adaptation  

PubMed Central

Understanding why we age is a long-lived open problem in evolutionary biology. Aging is prejudicial to the individual, and evolutionary forces should prevent it, but many species show signs of senescence as individuals age. Here, I will propose a model for aging based on assumptions that are compatible with evolutionary theory: i) competition is between individuals; ii) there is some degree of locality, so quite often competition will be between parents and their progeny; iii) optimal conditions are not stationary, and mutation helps each species to keep competitive. When conditions change, a senescent species can drive immortal competitors to extinction. This counter-intuitive result arises from the pruning caused by the death of elder individuals. When there is change and mutation, each generation is slightly better adapted to the new conditions, but some older individuals survive by chance. Senescence can eliminate those from the genetic pool. Even though individual selection forces can sometimes win over group selection ones, it is not exactly the individual that is selected but its lineage. While senescence damages the individuals and has an evolutionary cost, it has a benefit of its own. It allows each lineage to adapt faster to changing conditions. We age because the world changes. PMID:21949706

Martins, André C. R.

2011-01-01

227

Global Environmental Change: Modelling and Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The second half of the 20th century was a period of unprecedented and rapid change in the global population, the biosphere, the world economy and society. Recent inquiry related to the environmental effects has focused on the complexities of how the Earth behaves as a system, with connectivity linking its oceans, land, atmosphere, living, and non-living components. The search for

John J. Kelley

2003-01-01

228

Climate change, biofuels, and global food security  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a new urgency to improve the accuracy of predicting climate change impact on crop yields because the balance between food supply and demand is shifting abruptly from surplus to deficit. This reversal is being driven by a rapid rise in petroleum prices and, in response, a massive global expansion of biofuel production from maize, oilseed, and sugar crops.

Kenneth G Cassman

2007-01-01

229

Climate change: the global public good  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is the exemplary global public good, because each country’s emissions of greenhouse gases contribute cumulatively to the increase of the overall concentration, and each country’s abatements entail higher cost than benefit, unless effective concerted collective actions take place. Unfortunately there are weak political and economic instruments for entering a climate agreement and for attaining and maintaining its goals.

Marco Grasso

2004-01-01

230

Global Atmospheric Change and Animal Populations  

E-print Network

in the atmosphere (i.e., the "greenhouse effect"; IPCC 2007; Figure 1). The greenhouse effect is a natural of this century (IPCC 2007). #12;Figure 1: The "greenhouse" effect When radiative energy becomes absorbedGlobal Atmospheric Change and Animal Populations By: Edward B. Mondor (Department of Biology

231

Saving and Demographic Change: The Global Dimension  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a panel data set of 85 countries covering 1960-2005 to investigate the macroeconomic linkages between national rates of saving and investment and population aging. The issue takes on added significance because of the recent suggestion that the decline in global interest rates has been driven by demographic changes in the industrial economies. We do find a significant

Barry Bosworth; Gabriel Chodorow-Reich

2007-01-01

232

Dawn of astronomy and global climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author proposes that the birth of astronomy in ancient civilizations, which took place nearly simultaneously (4000 - 5000 years ago) around the Nile, Tigris and Euphrates, Indus, and the Yellow River, was caused by the global climate change (cooling and drying) that started about 5000 years ago after the hypsithermal (high-temperature) period. It is also pointed out that a

Tsuko Nakamura

2007-01-01

233

GLOBAL CHANGE EFFECTS ON CORAL REEF CONDITION  

EPA Science Inventory

Fisher, W., W. Davis, J. Campbell, L. Courtney, P. Harris, B. Hemmer, M. Parsons, B. Quarles and D. Santavy. In press. Global Change Effects on Coral Reef Condition (Abstract). To be presented at the EPA Science Forum: Healthy Communities and Ecosystems, 1-3 June 2004, Washington...

234

Capturing provenance of global change information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global change information demands access to data sources and well-documented provenance to provide the evidence needed to build confidence in scientific conclusions and decision making. A new generation of web technology, the Semantic Web, provides tools for that purpose.

Ma, Xiaogang; Fox, Peter; Tilmes, Curt; Jacobs, Katharine; Waple, Anne

2014-06-01

235

Climate Kids: What is Global Climate Change?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A question and answer format is used to differentiate between weather and climate, and to provide a brief overview of global warming. This lesson is part of the Climate Kids website, a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

236

GLOBAL CHANGE AND TIDAL FRESHWATER WETLANDS  

E-print Network

Chapter 23 GLOBAL CHANGE AND TIDAL FRESHWATER WETLANDS: SCENARIOS AND IMPACTS Scott C. Neubauer Tidal Freshwater Wetlands, edited by Aat Barendregt, Dennis Whigham & Andrew Baldwin 2009, viii + 320pp Publishers GmbH This chapter was originally published in the book ,,Tidal Freshwater Wetlands". The copy

Neubauer, Scott C.

237

Mapping vulnerability and conservation adaptation strategies under climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identification of spatial gradients in ecosystem vulnerability to global climate change and local stressors is an important step in the formulation and implementation of appropriate countermeasures. Here we build on recent work to map ecoregional exposure to future climate, using an envelope-based gauge of future climate stability--defined as a measure of how similar the future climate of a region will be to the present climate. We incorporate an assessment of each ecoregion's adaptive capacity, based on spatial analysis of its natural integrity--the proportion of intact natural vegetation--to present a measure of global ecosystem vulnerability. The relationship between intactness (adaptive capacity) and stability (exposure) varies widely across ecoregions, with some of the most vulnerable, according to this measure, located in southern and southeastern Asia, western and central Europe, eastern South America and southern Australia. To ensure the applicability of these findings to conservation, we provide a matrix that highlights the potential implications of this vulnerability assessment for adaptation planning and offers a spatially explicit management guide.

Watson, James E. M.; Iwamura, Takuya; Butt, Nathalie

2013-11-01

238

Adaptation options in agriculture to climate change: a typology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation in agriculture to climate change is important for impact andvulnerability assessment and for the development of climate change policy. A wide variety of adaptation options has been proposed as having thepotential to reduce vulnerability of agricultural systems to risks related toclimate change, often in an ad hoc fashion. This paper develops atypology of adaptation to systematically classify and characterize

Barry Smit; Mark W. Skinner

2002-01-01

239

Adaptation options in agriculture to climate change: a typology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation in agriculture to climate change is important for impact and vulnerability assessment and for the development of climate change policy. A wide variety of adaptation options has been proposed as having the potential to reduce vulnerability of agricultural systems to risks related to climate change, often in an ad hoc fashion. This paper develops a typology of adaptation to

Barry Smit; MARK W. SKINNER

2002-01-01

240

Market-based mechanisms for climate change adaptation  

E-print Network

Market-based mechanisms for climate change adaptation Final Report John McAneney, Ryan Crompton FOR CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION Assessing the potential for and limits to insurance and market-based mechanisms for encouraging climate change adaptation AUTHORS John McAneney (Risk Frontiers, Macquarie University) Ryan

Colorado at Boulder, University of

241

Adapting to Climate Change: A Planning Guide for  

E-print Network

Adapting to Climate Change: A Planning Guide for State Coastal Managers www.noaa.gov NOAA Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management #12;Adapting to Climate Change 2010 National Oceanic.html Suggested Citation: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 2010. Adapting to Climate Change

242

Adaptation to climate change in the developing world  

E-print Network

Adaptation to climate change in the developing world W. Neil Adger,a,b,* Saleemul Huq,c Katrina situations in the past where societies have adapted to changes in climate and to similar risks. But some in the context of competing sustainable development objectives. Key words: adaptation, climate change

Hulme, Mike

243

Change-point estimation under adaptive sampling  

E-print Network

We consider the problem of locating a jump discontinuity (change-point) in a smooth parametric regression model with a bounded covariate. It is assumed that one can sample the covariate at different values and measure the corresponding responses. Budget constraints dictate that a total of $n$ such measurements can be obtained. A multistage adaptive procedure is proposed, where at each stage an estimate of the change point is obtained and new points are sampled from its appropriately chosen neighborhood. It is shown that such procedures accelerate the rate of convergence of the least squares estimate of the change-point. Further, the asymptotic distribution of the estimate is derived using empirical processes techniques. The latter result provides guidelines on how to choose the tuning parameters of the multistage procedure in practice. The improved efficiency of the procedure is demonstrated using real and synthetic data. This problem is primarily motivated by applications in engineering systems.

Lan, Yan; Michailidis, George; 10.1214/08-AOS602

2009-01-01

244

Satellite Contributions to Global Change Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By providing a global view with a level playing field (no region missed because of unfavorable surface conditions or political boundaries), satellites have made major contributions to improved monitoring and understanding of our constantly changing planet. The global view has allowed surprising realizations like the relative sparsity of lightning strikes over oceans and the large-scale undulations on the massive Antarctic ice sheet. It has allowed the tracking of all sorts of phenomena, including aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, as they move with the atmospheric circulation and impact weather and human health. But probably nothing that the global view allows is more important in the long term than its provision. of unbiased data sets to address the issue of global change, considered by many to be among the most important issues facing humankind today. With satellites we can monitor atmospheric temperatures at all latitudes and longitudes, and obtain a global average that lessens the likelihood of becoming endlessly mired in the confusions brought about by the certainty of regional differences. With satellites we can monitor greenhouse gases such as CO2 not just above individual research stations but around the globe. With satellites we can monitor the polar sea ice covers, as we have done since the late 1970s, determining and quantifying the significant reduction in Arctic sea ice and the slight growth in Antarctic sea ice over that period, With satellites we can map the full extent and changes in the Antarctic stratospheric ozone depletions that were first identified from using a single ground station; and through satellite data we have witnessed from afar land surface changes brought about by humans both intentionally, as with wide-scale deforestation, and unintentionally, as with the decay of the Aral Sea. The satellite data are far from sufficient for all that we need in order to understand the global system and forecast its changes, as we also need sophisticated climate models, in situ process studies, and data sets that extend back well before the introduction of satellite technology. Nonetheless, the repetitive, global view provided by satellites is contributing in a major way to our improved recognition of how the Earth im changing, a recognition that is none too soon in view of the magnitude of the impacts that humans can now have.

Parkinson, Claire L.

2009-01-01

245

Seagrass meadows in a globally changing environment.  

PubMed

Seagrass meadows are valuable ecosystem service providers that are now being lost globally at an unprecedented rate, with water quality and other localised stressors putting their future viability in doubt. It is therefore critical that we learn more about the interactions between seagrass meadows and future environmental change in the anthropocene. This needs to be with particular reference to the consequences of poor water quality on ecosystem resilience and the effects of change on trophic interactions within the food web. Understanding and predicting the response of seagrass meadows to future environmental change requires an understanding of the natural long-term drivers of change and how these are currently influenced by anthropogenic stress. Conservation management of coastal and marine ecosystems now and in the future requires increased knowledge of how seagrass meadows respond to environmental change, and how they can be managed to be resilient to these changes. Finding solutions to such issues also requires recognising people as part of the social-ecological system. This special issue aims to further enhance this knowledge by bringing together global expertise across this field. The special issues considers issues such as ecosystem service delivery of seagrass meadows, the drivers of long-term seagrass change and the socio-economic consequences of environmental change to seagrass. PMID:24874505

Unsworth, Richard K F; van Keulen, Mike; Coles, Rob G

2014-06-30

246

Adaptive robot path planning in changing environments  

SciTech Connect

Path planning needs to be fast to facilitate real-time robot programming. Unfortunately, current planning techniques are still too slow to be effective, as they often require several minutes, if not hours of computation. To overcome this difficulty, we present an adaptive algorithm that uses past experience to speed up future performance. It is a learning algorithm suitable for incrementally-changing environments such as those encountered in manufacturing of evolving products and waste-site remediation. The algorithm allows the robot to adapt to its environment by having two experience manipulation schemes: For minor environmental change, we use an object-attached experience abstraction scheme to increase the flexibility of the learned experience; for major environmental change, we use an on-demand experience repair scheme to retain those experiences that remain valid and useful. Using this algorithm, we can effectively reduce the overall robot planning time by re-using the computation result for one task to plan a path for another.

Chen, P.C.

1994-08-01

247

Thermohaline circulations and global climate change  

SciTech Connect

Thermohaline Circulations and Global Climate Change'' is concerned with investigating the hypothesis that changes in surface thermal and hydrological forcing of the North Atlantic, changes that might be expected to accompany CO{sub 2}-induced global warming, could result in ocean-atmosphere interactions' exerting a positive feedback on the climate system. Because the North Atlantic is the source of much of the global ocean's reservoir of deep water, and because this deep water could sequester large amounts of anthropogenically produced Co{sub 2}, changes in the rate of deep-water production are important to future climates. Since deep-water production is controlled, in part, by the annual cycle of the atmospheric forcing of the North Atlantic, and since this forcing depends strongly on both hydrological and thermal processes as well as the windstress, there is the potential for feedback between the relatively short-term response of the atmosphere to changing radiative forcing and the longer-term processes in the oceans. Work over the past 12 months has proceeded in several directions.

Hanson, H.P.

1992-01-01

248

Thermohaline circulations and global climate change  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses research activities conducted during the period 15 January 1992--14 December 1992. Thermohaline Circulations and Global Climate Change is concerned with investigating the hypothesis that changes in surface thermal and hydrological forcing of the North Atlantic, changes that might be expected to accompany C0[sub 2]-induced global warming, could result in ocean-atmosphere interactions' exerting a positive feedback on the climate system. Because the North Atlantic is the source of much of the global ocean's reservoir of deep water, and because this deep water could sequester large amounts of anthropogenically produced C0[sub 2], changes in the rate of deep-water production are important to future climates. Since deep-water Production is controlled, in part, by the annual cycle of the atmospheric forcing of the North Atlantic, and since this forcing depends strongly on both hydrological and thermal processes as well as the windstress, there is the potential for feedback between the relatively short-term response of the atmosphere to changing radiative forcing and the longer-term processes in the oceans. Work over the past 11 months has proceeded according to the continuation discussion of last January and several new results have arisen.

Hanson, H.P.

1992-01-01

249

Global Change: Logs of Straw; Dendrochronology  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Geological Survey has produced a teacher`s packet targeted for grades 4 through 6 entitled Global Change. Each Global Change packet contains the following inserts: (1) A color poster depicting the earth as a fragile planet on one side, and examples of visible global change on the reverse. (2) Three activities addressing {open_quotes}Time and Cycles,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}Change and Cycles,{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Earth as Home{close_quotes} (3) A teacher guide (4) An evaluation questionnaire. Trees are some of nature`s most accurate time-keepers. Their growth layers, appearing as rings in the cross section of the tree trunk, record evidence of floods, droughts, insect attacks, lightning strikes, and even earthquakes. Tree growth depends on local conditions, which include the availability of water. Because the water cycle, or hydrologic cycle, is uneven-that is, the amount of water in the environment varies from year to year-scientist use tree-ring patterns to reconstruct regional patterns of drought and climatic change. This field of study, known as dendrochronology, was begun in the early 1900s by an American astronomer named Andrew Ellicott Douglass.

NONE

1994-09-01

250

Biomass burning a driver for global change  

SciTech Connect

Recent research has identified another biospheric process that has instantaneous and longer term effects on the production of atmospheric gases: biomass burning. Biomass burning includes the burning of the world`s vegetation-forests, savannas. and agricultural lands, to clear the land and change its use. Only in the past decade have researchers realized the important contributions of biomass burning to the global budgets of many radiatively and chemically active gases - carbon dioxide, methane, nitric oxide, tropospheric ozone, methyl chloride - and elemental carbon particulates. International field experiments and satellite data are yielding a clearer understanding of this important global source of atmospheric gases and particulates. It is seen that in addition to being a significant instantaneous global source of atmospheric gases and particulates, burning enhances the biogenic emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide from the world`s soils. Biomass burning affects the reflectivity and emissivity of the Earth`s surface as well as the hydrological cycle by changing rates of land evaporation and water runoff. For these reasons, it appears that biomass burning is a significant driver of global change. 20 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Levine, J.S.; Cofer, W.R. III; Cahoon, D.R. Jr. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Winstead, E.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Hampton, VA (United States)

1995-03-01

251

Call 2012: Road owners adapting to climate change Roads for today, adapted for tomorrow  

E-print Network

Call 2012: Road owners adapting to climate change Roads for today, adapted for tomorrow 2013, March measures and techniques to adapt to climate change Objective ROADAPT: to provide understanding 29 #12;Requests in CEDR-call: A. Identification and modeling of climate change effects regarding

Haak, Hein

252

An Adaptive Unified Differential Evolution Algorithm for Global Optimization  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we propose a new adaptive unified differential evolution algorithm for single-objective global optimization. Instead of the multiple mutation strate- gies proposed in conventional differential evolution algorithms, this algorithm employs a single equation unifying multiple strategies into one expression. It has the virtue of mathematical simplicity and also provides users the flexibility for broader exploration of the space of mutation operators. By making all control parameters in the proposed algorithm self-adaptively evolve during the process of optimization, it frees the application users from the burden of choosing appro- priate control parameters and also improves the performance of the algorithm. In numerical tests using thirteen basic unimodal and multimodal functions, the proposed adaptive unified algorithm shows promising performance in compari- son to several conventional differential evolution algorithms.

Qiang, Ji; Mitchell, Chad

2014-11-03

253

COMMUNICATING GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: INVESTIGATING MESSAGE STRATEGIES FOR COMMUNICATING THE IMPACT OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE.  

EPA Science Inventory

The research program is designed to generate findings that provide specific guidance to science communicators and government officials on how to best communicate knowledge about global climate change and other environmental issues to diverse lay audiences. Beyond providing gui...

254

Stellar activity: Astrophysics relevant to global change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

FRESIP will obtain a great deal of data on stellar activity and flares on F, G and K dwarfs. Rotation periods, flare distributions and possibly stellar cycles will emerge. This apparently curiosity-driven research actually has implications for our understanding of global climate change. Significant climate change during the seventeenth-century Maunder Minimum is thought to be related to a change in the solar condition. Recently acquired data from the Greenland Ice-core Project suggest that far greater climate changes on decade time scales may have occurred during the previous interglacial. It is possible that a yet more drastic change in state of the Sun was responsible. We have no relevant solar data, but can begin to explore this possibility by observing an ensemble of solar-like stars.

Haisch, Bernhard M.

1994-01-01

255

Practicing Coastal Adaptation to Climate Change: Lessons from Integrated Coastal Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenges faced in adapting to climate change present themselves with increasing urgency. Nowhere will these challenges be greater than in the developing world where often weak institutions and governance systems struggle to deal with mounting pressures from population growth, inadequate infrastructure, and diminishing or already depleted natural resources. This article synthesizes the many global climate change and other anthropogenic

James Tobey; Pamela Rubinoff; Donald Robadue Jr; Glen Ricci; Richard Volk; John Furlow; Glen Anderson

2010-01-01

256

Adapting to and Coping with the Threat and Impacts of Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the nature and challenge of adaptation in the context of global climate change. The complexity of "climate change" as threat, environmental stressor, risk domain, and impacting process with dramatic environmental and human consequences requires a synthesis of perspectives and models from diverse areas of psychology to…

Reser, Joseph P.; Swim, Janet K.

2011-01-01

257

City of Minneapolis Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies  

E-print Network

City of Minneapolis ­ Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies MURP/MPP Capstone Paper of Capstone Instructor #12;Minneapolis Climate Change Impacts & Adaptation Strategies #12;Brendon Slotterback Perspectives 14 Climate adaptation: Best Practices 20 Goal 1: Manage Heat 24 1) Improve tracking heat

Levinson, David M.

258

Adapting to Climate Change and Variability in the  

E-print Network

1 Adapting to Climate Change and Variability in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Basin PROCEEDINGS) April 1998 #12;Adapting to Climate Change and Variability in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Basin 2 #12 projects form part of the broader regional Project. As part of the Project, a Symposium Adapting to Climate

259

Lessons for climate change adaptation from better management of rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous adaptation in the water sector is assessed to derive lessons for more successful climate change adaptation from six empirical, consistently designed river management case studies based on projects of WWF. They show that when adaptation measures are considered in the context of common problems in water management, many practical ways of building resilience to climate change through mainstream programs

JAMIE PITTOCK

2009-01-01

260

Fatigue and Structural Change: Two Consequences of Visual Pattern Adaptation  

E-print Network

Fatigue and Structural Change: Two Consequences of Visual Pattern Adaptation Jeremy M. Wolfe-term fatigue, produced very quickly and (2) long-term structural change, requiring more extended adaptation reductions in the sensitivity of the mechanisms detecting the stimulus. Adaptation fatigues the mechanism

261

Climate change, nuclear power, and the adaptation–mitigation dilemma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many policy-makers view nuclear power as a mitigation for climate change. Efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change, however, interact with existing and new nuclear power plants, and these installations must contend with dilemmas between adaptation and mitigation. This paper develops five criteria to assess the adaptation–mitigation dilemma on two major points: (1) the ability of nuclear power to

Natalie Kopytko; John Perkins

2011-01-01

262

National Institute for Global Environmental Change  

SciTech Connect

This document is the Semi-Annual Report of the National Institute for Global Environmental Change for the reporting period July 1 to December 31, 1991. The report is in two parts. Part I presents the mission of the Institute, examples of progress toward that mission, a brief description of the revised management plan, and the financial report. Part II presents the statements of the Regional Center Directors along with progress reports of the projects written by the researchers themselves.

Werth, G.C.

1992-04-01

263

Energy and global climate change: Why ORNL?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subtle signs of global warming have been detected in studies of the climate record of the past century after figuring in the cooling effects of sulfur emissions from volcanoes and human sources. According to the December 1995 report of the Intergovernment Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the earth`s surface temperature has increased by about 0.2°C per decade since 1975. the

1995-01-01

264

Harnessing nature to help people adapt to climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adapting to climate change is among the biggest challenges humanity faces in the next century. An overwhelming focus of adaptation strategies to reduce climate change-related hazards has been on hard-engineering structures such as sea walls, irrigation infrastructure and dams. Closer attention to a broader spectrum of adaptation options is urgently needed. In particular, ecosystem-based adaptation approaches provide flexible, cost-effective and broadly applicable alternatives for buffering the impacts of climate change, while overcoming many drawbacks of hard infrastructure. As such, they are a critical tool at adaptation planners' disposal for tackling the threats that climate change poses to peoples' lives and livelihoods.

Jones, Holly P.; Hole, David G.; Zavaleta, Erika S.

2012-07-01

265

Adaptive capacity and human cognition: The process of individual adaptation to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation has emerged as an important area of research and assessment among climate change scientists. Most scholarly work has identified resource constraints as being the most significant determinants of adaptation. However, empirical research on adaptation has so far mostly not addressed the importance of measurable and alterable psychological factors in determining adaptation. Drawing from the literature in psychology and behavioural

Torsten Grothmann; Anthony Patt

2005-01-01

266

Global Change Impacts on Mangrove Ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mangroves are tropical/subtropical communities of primarily tree species that grow in the intertidal zone. These tidal forests are important coastal ecosystems that are valued for a variety of ecological and societal goods and services. Major local threats to mangrove ecosystems worldwide include clearcutting and trimming of forests for urban, agricultural, or industrial expansion; hydrological alterations; toxic chemical spills; and eutrophication. In many countries with mangroves, much of the human population resides in the coastal zone, and their activities often negatively impact the integrity of mangrove forests. In addition, eutrophication, which is the process whereby nutrients build up to higher than normal levels in a natural system, is possibly one of the most serious threats to mangroves and associated ecosystems such as coral reefs. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at the National Wetlands Research Center are working to more fully understand global impacts on these significant ecosystems. Changes in climate and other factors may also affect mangroves, but in complex ways. Global warming may promote expansion of mangrove forests to higher latitudes and accelerate sea-level rise through melting of polar ice or steric expansion of oceans. Changes in sea level would alter flooding patterns and the structure and areal extent of mangroves. Climate change may also alter rainfall patterns, which would in turn change local salinity regimes and competitive interactions of mangroves with other wetland species. Increases in frequency or intensity of tropical storms and hurricanes in combination with sea-level rise may alter erosion and sedimentation rates in mangrove forests. Another global change factor that may directly affect mangrove growth is increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), caused by burning of fossil fuels and other factors. Elevated CO2 concentration may increase mangrove growth by stimulating photosynthesis or improving water use efficiency, but the consequences of this growth enhancement for the ecosystem are unknown.

McKee, Karen L.

2004-01-01

267

Evaluating Global Climate Change Education Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Climate Change Education initiative (GCCE) is a multi-site effort funded by the National Science Foundation to develop web resources. The objective of curricular modules is to improve content knowledge and change attitudes about climate change among undergraduate science students. The two-year evaluation of the project was conducted by Tim Weston from the University of Colorado. The small-scale evaluation first developed measures for attitude and content about climate change, and then administered the measures online. Analysis of results is ongoing. The evaluator wanted to know the attitudes and content knowledge of students after completing the modules, and if attitudes and content knowledge shifted from pre to post. An additional component of the evaluation focused on student understanding of specific global warming topics after completing the modules. Developing the test and survey involved reviewing existing measures, soliciting content from stakeholders in the grant, and then establishing a content framework that covered the important topics in climate change linked to project curricula. The pilot attitude measure contained fourteen agree/disagree items (I believe people should change their lifestyles to help minimize climate change), five self-assessment questions (How informed are you about the different causes of climate change? ), and wo previous experience questions about previous science courses taken, and actions related to climate change. The content measure contained 10 multiple-choice items asking about changes in global average temperature, the scientific methods of climate change, and the primary countries and human activities responsible for climate change. Questions were designed to reflect a mixture of general science literacy about climate change and more specific content related knowledge taught in the curricula. Both content and attitude measures were piloted with students, who answered questions using a think-aloud" interview protocol meant to clarify any ambiguous wording or over-specialized vocabulary in the items. Corrected versions of the measures were then given to small groups of students to check for instrument and sub-scale reliability and to learn if any items had ceiling or floor effects. Results from administration of the post attitude survey showed a majority of students in multiple courses agreed with attitude items across the range of topics. For instance, 72 - 90% or students in 8 courses using the modules agreed or strongly agreed with the statement "I believe people should change their lifestyles to help minimize climate change." A majority of students also agreed with statements such as "Human actions are causing climate change, " and "there is sufficient scientific evidence that climate change is taking place." Where pre/post data was available, average scores across items increased after students used the curricula by an average of .5 on a scale of 1 - 5. Students also scored high on the climate change content measure. Average percentage correct scores per item ranged from 32% to 90%. Average scores also gained by 2 -4 points depending on course.

Weston, T. J.

2011-12-01

268

Global Climate Change: Understanding the Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about ways in which scientists study past climate change. These studies involve investigations of ice cores taken from the vast ice sheet that covers Greenland and fossil evidence that parts of the Sahara Desert were once lush and filled with animal species more often associated with the African savanna far to the south. With the help of multimedia interactives and video, they will understand what global climate change is and that it has fluctuated many times during the history of the planet. They will also understand how changing climate affects our lives, learn about greenhouse gases, and consider the events that are causing an increase in the amount of these gases in the atmosphere.

2005-01-01

269

Global warming and changes in ocean circulation  

SciTech Connect

This final report provides an overview of the goals and accomplishments of this project. Modeling and observational work has raised the possibility that global warming may cause changes in the circulation of the ocean. If such changes would occur they could have important climatic consequences. The first technical goal of this project was to investigate some of these possible changes in ocean circulation in a quantitative way, using a state-of -the-art numerical model of the ocean. Another goal was to develop our ocean model, a detailed three-dimensional numerical model of the ocean circulation and ocean carbon cycles. A major non-technical goal was to establish LLNL as a center of excellence in modelling the ocean circulation and carbon cycle.

Duffy, P.B.; Caldeira, K.C.

1998-02-01

270

Marine ecosystem responses to Cenozoic global change.  

PubMed

The future impacts of anthropogenic global change on marine ecosystems are highly uncertain, but insights can be gained from past intervals of high atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure. The long-term geological record reveals an early Cenozoic warm climate that supported smaller polar ecosystems, few coral-algal reefs, expanded shallow-water platforms, longer food chains with less energy for top predators, and a less oxygenated ocean than today. The closest analogs for our likely future are climate transients, 10,000 to 200,000 years in duration, that occurred during the long early Cenozoic interval of elevated warmth. Although the future ocean will begin to resemble the past greenhouse world, it will retain elements of the present "icehouse" world long into the future. Changing temperatures and ocean acidification, together with rising sea level and shifts in ocean productivity, will keep marine ecosystems in a state of continuous change for 100,000 years. PMID:23908226

Norris, R D; Turner, S Kirtland; Hull, P M; Ridgwell, A

2013-08-01

271

Global change and human susceptibility to disease  

SciTech Connect

Although the loss of good health is inherently unpredictable, human behavior at the individual and societal levels profoundly influences the incidence and evolution of disease. In this review, the authors define the human epidemiological environment and describe key biophysical, economic, sociocultural, and political factors that shape it. The potential impact upon the epidemiological environment of biophysical aspects of global change--changes in the size; mobility, and geographic distribution of the human population; land conversion; agricultural intensification; and climate change--is then examined. Human vulnerability to disease is strongly and deleteriously influenced by many of these ongoing, intensifying alterations. The authors then examine threats to human defenses against disease, including immune suppression, loss of biodiversity and indigenous knowledge, and the evolution of antibiotic resistance. Effective responses will require greatly enhanced attention by and collaboration among experts in diverse academic disciplines, in the private sector, and in government worldwide. 157 refs.

Daily, G.C.; Ehrlich, P.R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)] [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1996-12-31

272

Global change: What you can do  

SciTech Connect

Hearings before the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation are presented on simple things that a person can do to reduce threats to the global environment. Specific threats addressed include greenhouse warming, ozone depletion, acid rain, and other effects of pollution and global changes in marine ecosystems, agriculture, forestry, and human health. It is noted that even small steps, such as more double-sided photocopying, can save trees; that maintaining a second home wastes resources; and that several books written by one witness describe other things one can do to save the Earth. The Federal Government is urged to set an example and to pass appropriate legislation to encourage conservation and reduce pollution.

Not Available

1990-01-01

273

The impacts of climate change on global irrigation water requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change tends to affect the irrigation water requirement of current irrigated agricultural land, and also changes the water availability for current rain-fed land by the end of this century. We use the most up-to-date climatic and crop datasets (e.g., global irrigated/rain-fed crop areas and grid level crop growing calendar (Portmann, Siebert and Döll, 2010, Global Biogeochemical Cycles 24)) to evaluate the requirements of currently irrigated land and the water deficit for rain-fed land for all major crops under current and projected climate. Six general circulation models (GCMs) under two emission scenarios, A1B & B1, are assembled using two methods, the Simple Average Method (SAM) and Root Mean Square Error Ensemble Method (RMSEMM), to deal with the GCM regional variability. It is found that the global irrigation requirement and the water deficit are both going to increase significantly under all scenarios, particularly under the A1B emission scenario. For example, the projected irrigation requirement is expected to increase by about 2500 million m3 for wheat, 3200 million m3 for maize and another 3300 million m3 for rice. At the same time, the water deficit for current rain-fed cropland will be widened by around 3000, 4000, 2100 million m3 for wheat, maize and rice respectively. Regional analysis is conducted for Africa, China, Europe, India, South America and the United States. It is found that the U.S. may expect the greatest rise in irrigation requirements for wheat and maize, while the South America may suffer the greatest increase for rice. In addition, Africa and the U.S. may face a larger water deficit for both wheat and maize on rain-fed land, and South America just for rice. In summary, climate change is likely to bring severe challenges for irrigation systems and make global water shortage even worse by the end of this century. These pressures will call for extensive adaptation measures. The change in crop water requirements and availability will lead to changes in regional food production, demand and trade, and will affect global food markets. It is also likely that the network and paths of the so-called global virtual water flow will be altered due to the impact of climate change on food production at the regional level.

Zhang, X.; Cai, X.

2011-12-01

274

Global Epistasis Makes Adaptation Predictable Despite Sequence-Level Stochasticity  

PubMed Central

Epistatic interactions between mutations can make evolutionary trajectories contingent on the chance occurrence of initial mutations. We used experimental evolution in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to quantify this contingency, finding differences in adaptability between 64 closely related genotypes. Despite these differences, sequencing of 104 evolved clones showed that initial genotype did not constrain future mutational trajectories. Instead, reconstructed combinations of mutations revealed a pattern of diminishing returns epistasis: beneficial mutations have consistently smaller effects in fitter backgrounds. Taken together, these results show that beneficial mutations affecting a variety of biological processes are globally coupled: they interact strongly, but only through their combined effect on fitness. As a consequence, fitness evolution follows a predictable trajectory even though sequence-level adaptation is stochastic. PMID:24970088

Jerison, Elizabeth R.; Desai, Michael M.

2015-01-01

275

Adapting to Climate Change: Ideals and Practical Challenges  

E-print Network

Adapting to Climate Change: Ideals and Practical Challenges Thursday, October 31, 2013 12:00 - 1 Institute for the Environment, Stanford University What does "successful" adaptation to climate change look contributed to IPCC, US, and regional climate- change assessments. Moser has been recognized as a fellow

Zhang, Junshan

276

Adaptation to Climate Change; from Resilience to Transformation  

E-print Network

Adaptation to Climate Change; from Resilience to Transformation · Transformation and incremental transformative space opened post-Dean with an organisational expression. Playa: Climate change remains external change towards resilience · The adaptive cycle heuristic · Applying the heuristic in Mexico · A journey

Botea, Adi

277

Beyond Reduction: Climate Change Adaptation Planning for Universities and Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to outline a unique six-step process for the inclusion of climate change adaption goals and strategies in a University Climate Change Plan. Design/methodology/approach: A mixed-method approach was used to gather data on campus climate change vulnerabilities and adaption strategies. A literature review…

Owen, Rochelle; Fisher, Erica; McKenzie, Kyle

2013-01-01

278

Beneath the surface of global change: Impacts of climate change on groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryGlobal change encompasses changes in the characteristics of inter-related climate variables in space and time, and derived changes in terrestrial processes, including human activities that affect the environment. As such, projected global change includes groundwater systems. Here, groundwater is defined as all subsurface water including soil water, deeper vadose zone water, and unconfined and confined aquifer waters. Potential effects of climate change combined with land and water management on surface waters have been studied in some detail. Equivalent studies of groundwater systems have lagged behind these advances, but research and broader interest in projected climate effects on groundwater have been accelerating in recent years. In this paper, we provide an overview and synthesis of the key aspects of subsurface hydrology, including water quantity and quality, related to global change. Adaptation to global change must include prudent management of groundwater as a renewable, but slow-feedback resource in most cases. Groundwater storage is already over-tapped in many regions, yet available subsurface storage may be a key to meeting the combined demands of agriculture, industry, municipal and domestic water supply, and ecosystems during times of shortage. The future intensity and frequency of dry periods combined with warming trends need to be addressed in the context of groundwater resources, even though projections in space and time are fraught with uncertainty. Finally, potential impacts of groundwater on the global climate system are largely unknown. Research to improve our understanding of the joint behaviors of climate and groundwater is needed, and spin-off benefits on each discipline are likely.

Green, Timothy R.; Taniguchi, Makoto; Kooi, Henk; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Hiscock, Kevin M.; Treidel, Holger; Aureli, Alice

2011-08-01

279

Characterizing Uncertainty for Regional Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Decisions  

SciTech Connect

This white paper describes the results of new research to develop an uncertainty characterization process to help address the challenges of regional climate change mitigation and adaptation decisions.

Unwin, Stephen D.; Moss, Richard H.; Rice, Jennie S.; Scott, Michael J.

2011-09-30

280

From global change science to action with social sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

US efforts to integrate social and biophysical sciences to address the issue of global change exist within a wider movement to understand global change as a societal challenge and to inform policy. Insights from the social sciences can help transform global change research into action.

Weaver, C. P.; Mooney, S.; Allen, D.; Beller-Simms, N.; Fish, T.; Grambsch, A. E.; Hohenstein, W.; Jacobs, K.; Kenney, M. A.; Lane, M. A.; Langner, L.; Larson, E.; McGinnis, D. L.; Moss, R. H.; Nichols, L. G.; Nierenberg, C.; Seyller, E. A.; Stern, P. C.; Winthrop, R.

2014-08-01

281

Global Biodiversity Change: The Bad, the Good, and  

E-print Network

Global Biodiversity Change: The Bad, the Good, and the Unknown Henrique Miguel Pereira, Laetitia Abstract Global biodiversity change is one of the most pressing environmental is- sues of our time. Here, we review current scientific knowledge on global biodiversity change and identify the main knowledge

Pereira, Henrique Miguel

282

Predicting plant invasions in an era of global change  

E-print Network

Predicting plant invasions in an era of global change Bethany A. Bradley1,2 , Dana M. Blumenthal3 The relationship between plant invasions and global change is complex. Whereas some components of global change, can help or hinder plant invasion. Additionally, experimental studies and models suggest that invasive

Schweik, Charles M.

283

Stormy Weather: 101 Solutions to Global Climate Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents 101 solutions to global climate change. These solutions are actions that are well suited to every level of society. This book creates awareness about global climate change. The history of Earth and the greenhouse effect are discussed, and explanations and solutions to global climate change are provided including traveling…

Dauncey, Guy

284

Modeling Climate Change Adaptation: Challenges, Recent Developments and Future Directions  

E-print Network

Modeling Climate Change Adaptation: Challenges, Recent Developments and Future Directions Karen scenario analyses. A key missing component in IAMs is the representation of climate impacts and adaptation of climate impacts and adaptation, we identify five characteristics of an ideal IAM: regional and sectoral

Wing, Ian Sue

285

NEWS AND COMMENTARY Adaptive genomic changes in Antarctic fish...............................................................  

E-print Network

NEWS AND COMMENTARY Adaptive genomic changes in Antarctic fish-zero temperatures of the Southern Ocean requires special adaptation to extreme cold, and the notothenioid fish, the authors investigated the transcriptome of the cold-adapted fish Dissostichus mawsoni by sequencing c

Renn, Susan C.P.

286

Gene pleiotropy constrains gene expression changes in fish adapted to different thermal conditions  

PubMed Central

Understanding the factors that shape the evolution of gene expression is a central goal in biology, but the molecular mechanisms behind this remain controversial. A related major goal is ascertaining how such factors may affect the adaptive potential of a species or population. Here we demonstrate that temperature-driven gene expression changes in fish adapted to differing thermal environments are constrained by the level of gene pleiotropy estimated by either the number of protein interactions or gene biological processes. Genes with low pleiotropy levels were the main drivers of both plastic and evolutionary global expression profile changes, while highly pleiotropic genes had limited expression response to temperature treatment. Our study provides critical insights into the molecular mechanisms by which natural populations can adapt to changing environments. In addition to having important implications for climate change adaptation, these results suggest that gene pleiotropy should be considered more carefully when interpreting expression profiling data. PMID:24892934

Papakostas, Spiros; Vøllestad, L. Asbjørn; Bruneaux, Matthieu; Aykanat, Tutku; Vanoverbeke, Joost; Ning, Mei; Primmer, Craig R.; Leder, Erica H.

2014-01-01

287

Gene pleiotropy constrains gene expression changes in fish adapted to different thermal conditions.  

PubMed

Understanding the factors that shape the evolution of gene expression is a central goal in biology, but the molecular mechanisms behind this remain controversial. A related major goal is ascertaining how such factors may affect the adaptive potential of a species or population. Here we demonstrate that temperature-driven gene expression changes in fish adapted to differing thermal environments are constrained by the level of gene pleiotropy estimated by either the number of protein interactions or gene biological processes. Genes with low pleiotropy levels were the main drivers of both plastic and evolutionary global expression profile changes, while highly pleiotropic genes had limited expression response to temperature treatment. Our study provides critical insights into the molecular mechanisms by which natural populations can adapt to changing environments. In addition to having important implications for climate change adaptation, these results suggest that gene pleiotropy should be considered more carefully when interpreting expression profiling data. PMID:24892934

Papakostas, Spiros; Vøllestad, L Asbjørn; Bruneaux, Matthieu; Aykanat, Tutku; Vanoverbeke, Joost; Ning, Mei; Primmer, Craig R; Leder, Erica H

2014-01-01

288

Dawn of astronomy and global climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author proposes that the birth of astronomy in ancient civilizations, which took place nearly simultaneously (4000 - 5000 years ago) around the Nile, Tigris and Euphrates, Indus, and the Yellow River, was caused by the global climate change (cooling and drying) that started about 5000 years ago after the hypsithermal (high-temperature) period. It is also pointed out that a few names of Twenty-Four Qi's appearing in old Chinese calendars are remnants of the calm climate in the hypsithermal period. It is discussed that numerous meteorological records seen in divination inscriptions on bones and tortoise-shells excavated at the capital of the ancient Yin (Shang) dynasty suggest occurrence of the climatic cooling and drying at that time and this change triggered spawning the early Chinese astronomy.

Nakamura, Tsuko

2007-12-01

289

Global fish production and climate change  

PubMed Central

Current global fisheries production of ?160 million tons is rising as a result of increases in aquaculture production. A number of climate-related threats to both capture fisheries and aquaculture are identified, but we have low confidence in predictions of future fisheries production because of uncertainty over future global aquatic net primary production and the transfer of this production through the food chain to human consumption. Recent changes in the distribution and productivity of a number of fish species can be ascribed with high confidence to regional climate variability, such as the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. Future production may increase in some high-latitude regions because of warming and decreased ice cover, but the dynamics in low-latitude regions are governed by different processes, and production may decline as a result of reduced vertical mixing of the water column and, hence, reduced recycling of nutrients. There are strong interactions between the effects of fishing and the effects of climate because fishing reduces the age, size, and geographic diversity of populations and the biodiversity of marine ecosystems, making both more sensitive to additional stresses such as climate change. Inland fisheries are additionally threatened by changes in precipitation and water management. The frequency and intensity of extreme climate events is likely to have a major impact on future fisheries production in both inland and marine systems. Reducing fishing mortality in the majority of fisheries, which are currently fully exploited or overexploited, is the principal feasible means of reducing the impacts of climate change. PMID:18077405

Brander, K. M.

2007-01-01

290

Changes in global average surface temperature, global average sea level, and northern hemisphere snow cover  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Key figure from the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report that shows changes in global average surface temperature, global average sea level, and Northern Hemisphere snow cover from as far back as 1850.

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) AR4 Synthesis Report

291

No increase in global temperature variability despite changing regional patterns.  

PubMed

Evidence from Greenland ice cores shows that year-to-year temperature variability was probably higher in some past cold periods, but there is considerable interest in determining whether global warming is increasing climate variability at present. This interest is motivated by an understanding that increased variability and resulting extreme weather conditions may be more difficult for society to adapt to than altered mean conditions. So far, however, in spite of suggestions of increased variability, there is considerable uncertainty as to whether it is occurring. Here we show that although fluctuations in annual temperature have indeed shown substantial geographical variation over the past few decades, the time-evolving standard deviation of globally averaged temperature anomalies has been stable. A feature of the changes has been a tendency for many regions of low variability to experience increases, which might contribute to the perception of increased climate volatility. The normalization of temperature anomalies creates the impression of larger relative overall increases, but our use of absolute values, which we argue is a more appropriate approach, reveals little change. Regionally, greater year-to-year changes recently occurred in much of North America and Europe. Many climate models predict that total variability will ultimately decrease under high greenhouse gas concentrations, possibly associated with reductions in sea-ice cover. Our findings contradict the view that a warming world will automatically be one of more overall climatic variation. PMID:23883935

Huntingford, Chris; Jones, Philip D; Livina, Valerie N; Lenton, Timothy M; Cox, Peter M

2013-08-15

292

ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE  

PubMed Central

Changes to sources, stressors, habitats, and geographic ranges; toxicological effects; end points; and uncertainty estimation require significant changes in the implementation of ecological risk assessment (ERA). Because of the lack of analog systems and circumstances in historically studied sites, there is a likelihood of type III error. As a first step, the authors propose a decision key to aid managers and risk assessors in determining when and to what extent climate change should be incorporated. Next, when global climate change is an important factor, the authors recommend seven critical changes to ERA. First, develop conceptual cause–effect diagrams that consider relevant management decisions as well as appropriate spatial and temporal scales to include both direct and indirect effects of climate change and the stressor of management interest. Second, develop assessment end points that are expressed as ecosystem services. Third, evaluate multiple stressors and nonlinear responses—include the chemicals and the stressors related to climate change. Fourth, estimate how climate change will affect or modify management options as the impacts become manifest. Fifth, consider the direction and rate of change relative to management objectives, recognizing that both positive and negative outcomes can occur. Sixth, determine the major drivers of uncertainty, estimating and bounding stochastic uncertainty spatially, temporally, and progressively. Seventh, plan for adaptive management to account for changing environmental conditions and consequent changes to ecosystem services. Good communication is essential for making risk-related information understandable and useful for managers and stakeholders to implement a successful risk-assessment and decision-making process. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2013;32:79–92. © 2012 SETAC PMID:23161373

Landis, Wayne G; Durda, Judi L; Brooks, Marjorie L; Chapman, Peter M; Menzie, Charles A; Stahl, Ralph G; Stauber, Jennifer L

2013-01-01

293

Conditional Uncertainty in Anthropogenic Global Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although, the uncertainty associated with human-induced climate change is less that in many other human activities such as economic management and warfare, the uncertainties in the climate system have assumed a disproportionate profile in public debate. Achieving improved public understanding is dependent on consistent use of the various categories of change and their respective uncertainties. Probably the most important distinction to be made is between uncertainties associated with uncertain societal choices and uncertainties associated with the consequences of such choices. For the biogeochemical system, categories of uncertainty are adapted from those used in the study of uncertainty for the REgional Carbon Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) study. These are then extended and applied to the discussion of the combined carbon-climate system. Characterising uncertainties in future change requires a consistent approach to propagating into the future the uncertainties associated with the past and present state of the climate system. Again, previous analysis for the carbon system is extended to the carbon-climate system. The potential category ambiguities that arise from feedbacks between climate and carbon are identified and resolved. A consistent characterisation of the uncertainties in the earth system provides a basis for factoring the overall uncertainty into human and natural contributions.

Enting, I. G.

2012-12-01

294

Adapting wheat in Europe for climate change  

PubMed Central

Increasing cereal yield is needed to meet the projected increased demand for world food supply of about 70% by 2050. Sirius, a process-based model for wheat, was used to estimate yield potential for wheat ideotypes optimized for future climatic projections for ten wheat growing areas of Europe. It was predicted that the detrimental effect of drought stress on yield would be decreased due to enhanced tailoring of phenology to future weather patterns, and due to genetic improvements in the response of photosynthesis and green leaf duration to water shortage. Yield advances could be made through extending maturation and thereby improve resource capture and partitioning. However the model predicted an increase in frequency of heat stress at meiosis and anthesis. Controlled environment experiments quantify the effects of heat and drought at booting and flowering on grain numbers and potential grain size. A current adaptation of wheat to areas of Europe with hotter and drier summers is a quicker maturation which helps to escape from excessive stress, but results in lower yields. To increase yield potential and to respond to climate change, increased tolerance to heat and drought stress should remain priorities for the genetic improvement of wheat. PMID:24882934

Semenov, M.A.; Stratonovitch, P.; Alghabari, F.; Gooding, M.J.

2014-01-01

295

Adaptation of a globally important coccolithophore to ocean warming and acidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although ocean warming and acidification are recognized as two major anthropogenic perturbations of today's oceans we know very little about how marine phytoplankton may respond via evolutionary change. We tested for adaptation to ocean warming in combination with ocean acidification in the globally important phytoplankton species Emiliania huxleyi. Temperature adaptation occurred independently of ocean acidification levels. Growth rates were up to 16% higher in populations adapted for one year to warming when assayed at their upper thermal tolerance limit. Particulate inorganic (PIC) and organic (POC) carbon production was restored to values under present-day ocean conditions, owing to adaptive evolution, and were 101% and 55% higher under combined warming and acidification, respectively, than in non-adapted controls. Cells also evolved to a smaller size while they recovered their initial PIC:POC ratio even under elevated CO2. The observed changes in coccolithophore growth, calcite and biomass production, cell size and elemental composition demonstrate the importance of evolutionary processes for phytoplankton performance in a future ocean.

Schlüter, Lothar; Lohbeck, Kai T.; Gutowska, Magdalena A.; Gröger, Joachim P.; Riebesell, Ulf; Reusch, Thorsten B. H.

2014-11-01

296

Changing Planet: Adaptation of Species (Birds and Butterflies)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video addresses the impact of climate change on several butterfly populations. Warming temperatures lead to shifts in location of populations of butterflies or die-offs of populations unable to adapt to changing conditions or shift to new locations.

National Earth Science Teachers Association

297

Global Change. Teaching Activities on Global Change for Grades 4-6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet contains a series of teaching guides on global change. The series includes lessons on dendrochronology; land, air, and water; and island living. Included is information such as : laws of straws; where land, air, and water meet; and Earth as home. Each section provides an introductory description of the activity, the purpose of the…

Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

298

Hurricanes and Climate Change: Global Systems and Local Impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With funding from NOAA, the Miami Science Museum has been working with exhibit software developer Ideum to create an interactive exhibit exploring the global dimensions and local impacts of climate change. A particular focus is on climate-related impacts on coastal communities, including the potential effects on South Florida of ocean acidification, rising sea level, and the possibility of more intense hurricanes. The exhibit is using a 4-foot spherical display system in conjunction with a series of touchscreen kiosks and accompanying flat screens to create a user-controlled, multi-user interface that lets visitors control the sphere and choose from a range of global and local content they wish to explore. The exhibit has been designed to promote engagement of diverse, multigenerational audiences through development of a fully bilingual user interface that promotes social interaction and conversation among visitors as they trade off control of global content on the sphere and related local content on the flat screens. The open-source learning module will be adaptable by other museums, to explore climate impacts specific to their region.

Santer, J.

2011-12-01

299

Evolutionary history underlies plant physiological responses to global change since the last glacial maximum.  

PubMed

Assessing family- and species-level variation in physiological responses to global change across geologic time is critical for understanding factors that underlie changes in species distributions and community composition. Here, we used stable carbon isotopes, leaf nitrogen content and stomatal measurements to assess changes in leaf-level physiology in a mixed conifer community that underwent significant changes in composition since the last glacial maximum (LGM) (21 kyr BP). Our results indicate that most plant taxa decreased stomatal conductance and/or maximum photosynthetic capacity in response to changing conditions since the LGM. However, plant families and species differed in the timing and magnitude of these physiological responses, and responses were more similar within families than within co-occurring species assemblages. This suggests that adaptation at the level of leaf physiology may not be the main determinant of shifts in community composition, and that plant evolutionary history may drive physiological adaptation to global change over recent geologic time. PMID:24636555

Becklin, Katie M; Medeiros, Juliana S; Sale, Kayla R; Ward, Joy K

2014-06-01

300

White House Conference on Global Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

President Clinton has directed the White House office on Environmental Policy to coordinate an interagency process to develop a plan to fulfill the commitment he made in his Earth Day address on April 21, 1993. This plan will become the cornerstone of the Climate Change Plan that will be completed shortly after the Rio Accord enters into force. The Office on Environmental Policy established the Interagency Climate Change Mitigation Group to draw on the expertise of federal agencies including the National Economic Council; the Council of Economic Advisors; the Office of Science and Technology Policy; the Office of Management and Budget; the National Security Council; the Domestic Policy Council; the Environmental Protection Agency; and the Departments of Energy, Transportation, Agriculture, Interior, Treasury, Commerce, and State. Working groups have been established to examine six key policy areas: energy demand, energy supply, joint implementation, methane and other gases, sinks, and transportation. The purpose of the White House Conference on Global Climate Change was to ``tap the real-world experiences`` of diverse participants and seek ideas and information for meeting the President`s goals. During the opening session, senior administration officials defined the challenge ahead and encouraged open and frank conversation about the best possible ways to meet it.

Not Available

1993-11-01

301

Sustainable biochar to mitigate global climate change.  

PubMed

Production of biochar (the carbon (C)-rich solid formed by pyrolysis of biomass) and its storage in soils have been suggested as a means of abating climate change by sequestering carbon, while simultaneously providing energy and increasing crop yields. Substantial uncertainties exist, however, regarding the impact, capacity and sustainability of biochar at the global level. In this paper we estimate the maximum sustainable technical potential of biochar to mitigate climate change. Annual net emissions of carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane and nitrous oxide could be reduced by a maximum of 1.8?Pg CO(2)-C equivalent (CO(2)-C(e)) per year (12% of current anthropogenic CO(2)-C(e) emissions; 1?Pg=1?Gt), and total net emissions over the course of a century by 130?Pg CO(2)-C(e), without endangering food security, habitat or soil conservation. Biochar has a larger climate-change mitigation potential than combustion of the same sustainably procured biomass for bioenergy, except when fertile soils are amended while coal is the fuel being offset. PMID:20975722

Woolf, Dominic; Amonette, James E; Street-Perrott, F Alayne; Lehmann, Johannes; Joseph, Stephen

2010-01-01

302

Sustainable biochar to mitigate global climate change  

PubMed Central

Production of biochar (the carbon (C)-rich solid formed by pyrolysis of biomass) and its storage in soils have been suggested as a means of abating climate change by sequestering carbon, while simultaneously providing energy and increasing crop yields. Substantial uncertainties exist, however, regarding the impact, capacity and sustainability of biochar at the global level. In this paper we estimate the maximum sustainable technical potential of biochar to mitigate climate change. Annual net emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane and nitrous oxide could be reduced by a maximum of 1.8?Pg CO2-C equivalent (CO2-Ce) per year (12% of current anthropogenic CO2-Ce emissions; 1?Pg=1?Gt), and total net emissions over the course of a century by 130?Pg CO2-Ce, without endangering food security, habitat or soil conservation. Biochar has a larger climate-change mitigation potential than combustion of the same sustainably procured biomass for bioenergy, except when fertile soils are amended while coal is the fuel being offset. PMID:20975722

Woolf, Dominic; Amonette, James E.; Street-Perrott, F. Alayne; Lehmann, Johannes; Joseph, Stephen

2010-01-01

303

[Translation and cultural adaptation of the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs - Initial].  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to perform the translation and cultural adaptation of the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs - Initial instrument, and calculate its content validity index. This is a methodological study designed for the cultural adaptation of the instrument. The instrument was translated into Portuguese in two versions that originated the synthesis of the translations, which were then submitted to the evaluation of four judges, experts in the field of alcohol and other drugs. After the suggested changes were made, the instrument was back-translated and resubmitted to the judges and authors of the original instrument, resulting in the final version of the instrument, Avaliação Global das Necessidades Individuais - Inicial. The content validity index of the instrument was 0.91, considered valid according to the literature. The instrument Avaliação Global das Necessidades Individuais - Inicial was culturally adapted to the Portuguese language spoken in Brazil; however, it was not submitted to tests with the target population, which suggests further studies should be performed to test its reliability and validity. PMID:23223731

Claro, Heloísa Garcia; de Oliveira, Márcia Aparecida Ferreira; Paglione, Heloisa Barbosa; Pinho, Paula Hayasi; Pereira, Maria Odete; de Vargas, Divane

2012-10-01

304

Global Environmental Change: Modifying Human Contributions Through Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1995 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 1996) Science report concludes that evidence now available “points toward a discernible human influence on global climate” (p. 439). Reductions in emissions will require changes in human behavior. This study assessed whether gains in global environmental change knowledge would lead to changes in human behaviors that could be deemed environmentally responsible. The

Lynne M. Carter

1998-01-01

305

Public Health Adaptation to Climate Change in Canadian Jurisdictions  

PubMed Central

Climate change poses numerous risks to the health of Canadians. Extreme weather events, poor air quality, and food insecurity in northern regions are likely to increase along with the increasing incidence and range of infectious diseases. In this study we identify and characterize Canadian federal, provincial, territorial and municipal adaptation to these health risks based on publically available information. Federal health adaptation initiatives emphasize capacity building and gathering information to address general health, infectious disease and heat-related risks. Provincial and territorial adaptation is varied. Quebec is a leader in climate change adaptation, having a notably higher number of adaptation initiatives reported, addressing almost all risks posed by climate change in the province, and having implemented various adaptation types. Meanwhile, all other Canadian provinces and territories are in the early stages of health adaptation. Based on publically available information, reported adaptation also varies greatly by municipality. The six sampled Canadian regional health authorities (or equivalent) are not reporting any adaptation initiatives. We also find little relationship between the number of initiatives reported in the six sampled municipalities and their provinces, suggesting that municipalities are adapting (or not adapting) autonomously. PMID:25588156

Austin, Stephanie E.; Ford, James D.; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Araos, Malcolm; Parker, Stephen; Fleury, Manon D.

2015-01-01

306

Public health adaptation to climate change in canadian jurisdictions.  

PubMed

Climate change poses numerous risks to the health of Canadians. Extreme weather events, poor air quality, and food insecurity in northern regions are likely to increase along with the increasing incidence and range of infectious diseases. In this study we identify and characterize Canadian federal, provincial, territorial and municipal adaptation to these health risks based on publically available information. Federal health adaptation initiatives emphasize capacity building and gathering information to address general health, infectious disease and heat-related risks. Provincial and territorial adaptation is varied. Quebec is a leader in climate change adaptation, having a notably higher number of adaptation initiatives reported, addressing almost all risks posed by climate change in the province, and having implemented various adaptation types. Meanwhile, all other Canadian provinces and territories are in the early stages of health adaptation. Based on publically available information, reported adaptation also varies greatly by municipality. The six sampled Canadian regional health authorities (or equivalent) are not reporting any adaptation initiatives. We also find little relationship between the number of initiatives reported in the six sampled municipalities and their provinces, suggesting that municipalities are adapting (or not adapting) autonomously. PMID:25588156

Austin, Stephanie E; Ford, James D; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Araos, Malcolm; Parker, Stephen; Fleury, Manon D

2015-01-01

307

Global change - Geoengineering and space exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geoengineering options and alternatives are proposed for mitigating the effects of global climate change and depletion of the ozone layer. Geoengineering options were discussed by the National Academy of Science Panel on the Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. Several of the ideas conveyed in their published report are space-based or depend on space systems for implementation. Among the geoengineering options using space that are discussed include the use of space power systems as an alternative to fossil fuels for generating electricity, the use of lunar He-3 to aid in the development of fusion energy, and the establishment of a lunar power system for solar energy conversion and electric power beaming back to earth. Other geoengineering options are discussed. They include the space-based modulation of hurricane forces and two space-based approaches in dealing with ozone layer depletion. The engineering challenges and policy implementation issues are discussed for these geongineering options.

Jenkins, Lyle M.

1992-01-01

308

Global environmental change research: empowering developing countries.  

PubMed

This paper discusses ways to reconcile the United Nations Millennium Development Goals with environmental sustainability at the national and international levels. The authors argue that development and better use of sustainability relevant knowledge is key, and that this requires capacity building globally, and especially in the less developed regions of the world. Also essential is stronger integration of high-quality knowledge creation and technology--and policy--development, including, importantly, the creation of centers of excellence in developing regions which effectively use and produce applications-directed high quality research and bring it to bear on decision making and practices related to environmental change and sustainable management of natural resources. The authors argue that Southern centers of excellence are a necessary first step for bottom-up societal transformation towards sustainability, and that such centers must help design innovative ways to assess and place value on ecosystem services. PMID:18797803

Nobre, Carlos A; Lahsen, Myanna; Ometto, Jean P H B

2008-09-01

309

A need for planned adaptation to climate change in the wine industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diversity of wine production depends on subtle differences in microclimate and is therefore especially sensitive to climate change. A warmer climate will impact directly on wine-grapes through over-ripening, drying out, rising acidity levels, and greater vulnerability to pests and disease, resulting in changes in wine quality (e.g. complexity, balance and structure) or potentially the style of wine that can be produced. The growing scientific evidence for significant climate change in the coming decades means that adaptation will be of critical importance to the multi-billion dollar global wine-industry in general, and to quality wine producers in particular (White et al 2006, 2009; Hertsgaard 2011). Adaptation is understood as an adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected environmental change, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities (IPCC 2007). Autonomous adaptation has been an integral part of the 20th century wine industry. Technological advances, changes in consumer demand, and global competition have meant that growers and producers have had to adapt to stay in business. The gradual temperature rise in the 20th Century (0.7 °C globally) has been accommodated successfully by gradual changes in vine management, technological measures, production control, and marketing (White et al 2009), although this has in many cases resulted in the production of bolder, more alcoholic wines (Hertsgaard 2011). In spite of this success, the wine industry is surprisingly conservative when it comes to considering longer term planned adaptation for substantial climate change impacts. A few producers are expanding to new locations at higher altitudes or cooler climates (e.g. Torres is developing new vineyards high in the Pyrenees, and Mouton Rothschild is setting up new vineyards in South America), and the legal and cultural restrictions of Appelation d'Origine C?ntrollée (AOC) systems are being discussed (White et al 2009). Changes in the AOC regulations would, for example, be imperative if different grape varieties were to be cultivated in response to climate change. Thus far, however, there has been little coordinated action to plan ahead. The third Climate Change and Wine conference organised by the wine industry (April 2011 in Marbella, Spain; www.climatechangeandwine.com), exemplifies this situation since it focused on observed impacts and sustainable production (mitigation), rather than on adaptation to cope with projected change. Awareness and understanding of potential change is crucial in raising adaptive capacity (Metzger et al 2008). Diffenbaugh et al (2011) have recently developed a novel method for communicating potential climate change impacts for the wine industry using climate adaptation wedges. These diagrams summarise projected climate change impacts over time and distinguish the net gain or loss in wine production under a range of adaptation strategies. The climate adaptation wedges form a strong synthesis, illustrating how some losses can be negated with continued autonomous adaptation, but that even with effective planned adaptation the quality of premium wine-grapes is likely to alter. Although the study focused on the western US, the adaptation wedges can be compiled fairly easily for other wine regions, or even individual producers. As such, they can form an important communication tool, but can also help guide longer term strategic planning. Adaptation wedges require careful interpretation and it is probably this interpretation process that will provide the most valuable insights. The climate change impacts in the diagrams are based on observed relationships between climate and wine production, which is assumed to stay unchanged in the future. However, rapid climate change will be a great stimulus for a complex and unprecedented transformation of the industry. Similarly, the potential contributions of the alternative adaptation strategies to cope with climate change are best-estimates given current knowledge, but are open to discussion among experts. As

Metzger, Marc J.; Rounsevell, Mark D. A.

2011-09-01

310

CERFACS: Scientific Report ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' Project  

E-print Network

are necessary before we can defend a prediction of the global warming of the next century, with a state­of­the art climate model. Based on these actual and potential achievements, the Global Change CERFACS projectCERFACS: Scientific Report ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' Project 1992 ­ 1993 October 25 th

311

Feedbacks and Acceleration of Global Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The burning of fossil fuels since the beginning of the Industrial revolution has increased the level of atmospheric CO2 by about 45 % over that of earlier times. The increasing greenhouse effect is augmented by a series of feedbacks; most have been positive, but a few are negative. The most important are 1) Slowing of the thermohaline circulation system; 2) Decreasing Atlantic to Pacific vapor transport; 3) Increasing Arctic river runoff; 4) Melting of Arctic sea ice; 5) Periodic replacement of the Arctic atmospheric high by a cyclonic low pressure system; 6) Increased exchange of waters between the Arctic and North Atlantic; 7) Lessening of the Northern Hemisphere ice-albedo feedback effect; 8) Addition of methane from melting permafrost; 9) Overall changes in the rate of ocean mixing; 10) Overall changes in vegetation cover of land; 11) Increase in the area covered by C4 vegetation; 12) Addition of nitrous oxide from agricultural practices; 13) Changes in insect populations and their effect on vegetation; 14) Wildfires; 15) Soot accumulation on snow and ice; 16) Accelerated melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet; 17) Changes in the East Antarctic Ice Sheet; 18) Closing of the ozone hole over Antarctica; 19) Decay of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet; 20) Expansion of Southern Ocean sea ice; 21) Slowing of the rate of organic matter sinking into the deep ocean; 22) Decrease in insolation reaching the surface of the Earth as a result of introduction of aerosols into the atmosphere; 23) Depletion of stratospheric ozone by nitrous oxide. The global and regional effects and relative importance of many of these feedbacks are uncertain, and they may change both in magnitude and sign with time. New and unexpected mechanisms are constantly being discovered. The uncertainties and complexity associated with climate system feedbacks are responsible for the acceleration of climate change beyond the rates predicted by numerical modeling. To add to the difficulties inherent in predictions of future climate change, the increasingly chaotic weather is an indication that the Earth's climate system is becoming unstable in response to the ongoing perturbations.

Hay, William

2014-05-01

312

High-resolution Global Crop Simulation Design and Implementation for Sustainability and Climate Change Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

International communities seek expanded understanding of the land use change issues associated with food and bioenergy production, and climate change; however, the existing assessments of large-scale deployment, utilization, and sustainability of crop production systems are insufficiently quantitative at the global scale. To undertake this broad analysis of large-scale crop production, an analysis framework to meet the challenges with a regionally and globally distributed agroecosystem model is needed. We designed a global modeling platform of crop production, consisting of five major components: (i) standardized global natural resources and management databases, ii) global simulation unit and management scenarios, iii) model calibration and validation, iv) high-performance computing (HPC) modeling, and v) simulation output processing and analysis. A case study with the HPC-EPIC model and a perennial bioenergy crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and global biomass productivity analysis on grassland was conducted to demonstrate the application of this platform. The results indicated that this modeling platform was effective to catch global productivity variability of switchgrass and applicable for the global analysis of crop production and sustainability. Future efforts include enhancing the databases of crops and implementing global simulations for various crops and studying impacts, adaptation and vulnerability of climate change. We anticipated this platform to provide effective tools and assessment data for international communities to conduct global analysis of crop production and sustainability associated with climate change issues.

Kang, S.; Kline, K.; Post, W.; Nichols, J.; Nair, S.; Singh, N.; Wang, D.; Wullschleger, S. D.; Izaurralde, R. C.

2012-12-01

313

Using Immersion to teach Global Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students are increasingly jaded to programs that preach, and museums are increasingly finding it difficult to attract students who can retrieve information quickly from the internet or cable TV. A new medium of immersive theater can now engulf the viewer in the subject, bringing a novel view to the exciting new data sets and images now available. By telling a compelling story with characters they can identify with, global climate change can be experienced and its effects brought home in a dramatic and effective way. We have developed several shows highlighting climate change (Powers of Time, Secrets of the Dead Sea), and are developing new shows (Earth's Wild Ride, Earth in the Balance) which can be used to take the visitor into the past or into the future. Clips from the shows and evidence of their effectiveness as an educational tool for Earth science will be shown. If possible, our new portable dome system will be set up in the poster hall for longer live demos of our shows.

Sumners, C. T.; Handron, K.; Reiff, P. H.; Law, C. C.

2004-12-01

314

Climate change: impacts and adaptation in England's woodlands  

E-print Network

Climate change: impacts and adaptation in England's woodlands The changing climate presents associated with climate change, and the likely impact on trees, silviculture and forest operations that increase resilience whatever climate change brings, or that are likely to reap the greatest rewards

315

A roadmap for climate change adaptation in Sweden's forests: addressing wicked problems using adaptive management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is expected to have significant direct and indirect effects on forest ecosystems. Forests will have to adapt not only to changes in mean climate variables but also to increased climatic variability and altered disturbance regimes. Rates of change will likely exceed many forests capabilities to naturally adapt and many of today's trees will be exposed to the climates of 2090. In Sweden the effects are already being seen and more severe impacts are expected in the future. Exacerbating the challenge posed by climate change, a large proportion of Sweden's forests are, as a consequence of dominant production goals, greatly simplified and thus potentially more vulnerable to the uncertainties and risks associated with climate change. This simplification also confers reduced adaptive capacity to respond to potential impacts. Furthermore, many adaptation measures themselves carry uncertainties and risks. Future changes and effects are thus uncertain, yet forest managers, policymakers, scientists and other stakeholders must act. Strategies that build social and ecological resilience in the face of multiple interacting unknowns and surprises are needed. Adaptive management aims to collect and integrate knowledge about how a managed system is likely to respond to alternative management schemes and changing environmental conditions within a continuous decision process. There have been suggestions that adaptive management is not well suited to the large complex uncertainties associated with climate change and associated adaptation measures. However, more recently it has been suggested that adaptive management can handle such wicked problems, given adequate resources and a suitable breakdown of the targeted uncertainties. Here we test this hypothesis by evaluating how an adaptive management process could be used to manage the uncertainties and risks associated with securing resilient, biodiverse and productive forests in Sweden in the face of climate change. We illustrate how, along with the engagement of other stakeholders, scientific research and management agency actions can interact to develop and implement measures to assist climate change adaptation in Sweden's forests.

Rist, L.; Felton, A.; Samuelsson, L.; Marald, E.; Karlsson, B.; Johansson, U.; Rosvall, O.

2013-12-01

316

UWM Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development Initiative CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT  

E-print Network

UWM Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development Initiative CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Sponsored By UWM Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development Initiative Co Conference Description This conference will discuss the global issue of climate change in the regional

Saldin, Dilano

317

The state of climate change vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation research: strengthening knowledge base and community  

SciTech Connect

It has taken about 35 years for scientists to bring the global climate change issue to the attention of the world s people and their leaders. With the Copenhagen Climate Change Conference of December 2009, it was hoped that the issue identification phase would segue at last into the solution phase. However, the outcome of COP15 shows that interdisciplinary work on impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability is still critically needed to advance the development of the solution phase.

Wilbanks, Thomas J [ORNL; Rosenzweig, Dr. Cynthia [NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS)

2010-01-01

318

Implications of simultaneously mitigating and adapting to climate change: Initial experiments using GCAM  

SciTech Connect

Historically climate impacts research and climate mitigation research have been two separate and independent domains of inquiry. Climate mitigation research has investigated greenhouse gas emissions assuming that climate is unchanging. At the same time climate mitigation research has investigated the implications of climate change on the assumption that climate mitigation will proceed without affecting the degree of climate impacts or the ability of human and natural systems to adapt. The Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) has largely been employed to study climate mitigation. Here we explore the development of capabilities to assess climate change impacts and adaptation within the GCAM model. These capabilities are being developed so as to be able to simultaneously reconcile the joint implications of climate change mitigation, impacts and adaptive potential. This is an important step forward in that it enables direct comparison between climate mitigation activities and climate impacts and the opportunity to understand interactions between the two.

Calvin, Katherine V.; Wise, Marshall A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Kyle, G. Page; Luckow, Patrick W.; Thomson, Allison M.

2013-04-01

319

STEM417: NASA Resources for Teaching Global Climate Change in High School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online, facilitated course is designed for high-school educators wishing to teach global climate change using an inquiry/problem-based approach. The course focusses on evidence that supports global climate change and how to use NASA data and resources to help high-school students discover mitigations or adaptations to climate change. The course is part of PBS Education's outreach and offerings to educators across the country; it is a 45-hour experience over six weeks and eligible for three graduate credits.

320

Simulating land use change in China from a global perspective  

E-print Network

1 Simulating land use change in China from a global perspective Xuefeng Cui1,2,3,* , Mark explores land use change in China using a global, parsimonious land use model (PLUM). The model links as usual scenario suggests that PLUM could be used to project future land use change at the country level

Palmer, Paul

321

A Joint Newsletter of the Past Global Changes Project (PAGES)  

E-print Network

and their Significance for the Future CLIVAR section: Changes in the CLIVAR SSG; First International Conference 21A Joint Newsletter of the Past Global Changes Project (PAGES) and the Climate Variability 17 and Other Proxy Records; PMIP Report; Addenda to NL 99­3; Past Global Changes

Quartly, Graham

322

Global Climate Change: Opinions and Perceptions of Rural Nebraskans  

E-print Network

Global Climate Change: Opinions and Perceptions of Rural Nebraskans 2008 Nebraska Rural Poll that they understand the issue of global climate change either fairly or very well. #12;Most rural Nebraskans believe climate change is already happening. #12;Most rural Nebraskans believe that our actions contribute

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

323

INTRODUCTION: Anticipated changes in the global atmospheric water cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmospheric branch of the water cycle, although containing just a tiny fraction of the Earth's total water reserves, presents a crucial interface between the physical climate (such as large-scale rainfall patterns) and the ecosystems upon which human societies ultimately depend. Because of the central importance of water in the Earth system, the question of how the water cycle is changing, and how it may alter in future as a result of anthropogenic changes, present one of the greatest challenges of this century. The recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report on Climate Change and Water (Bates et al 2008) highlighted the increasingly strong evidence of change in the global water cycle and associated environmental consequences. It is of critical importance to climate prediction and adaptation strategies that key processes in the atmospheric water cycle are precisely understood and determined, from evaporation at the surface of the ocean, transport by the atmosphere, condensation as cloud and eventual precipitation, and run-off through rivers following interaction with the land surface, sub-surface, ice, snow and vegetation. The purpose of this special focus issue of Environmental Research Letters on anticipated changes in the global atmospheric water cycle is to consolidate the recent substantial advances in understanding past, present and future changes in the global water cycle through evidence built upon theoretical understanding, backed up by observations and borne out by climate model simulations. Thermodynamic rises in water vapour provide a central constraint, as discussed in a guest editorial by Bengtsson (2010). Theoretical implications of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation are presented by O'Gorman and Muller (2010) and with reference to a simple model (Sherwood 2010) while observed humidity changes confirm these anticipated responses at the land and ocean surface (Willett et al 2008). Rises in low-level moisture are thought to fuel an intensification of precipitation (O'Gorman and Schneider 2009) and analysis of observed and simulated changes in extreme rainfall for Europe (Lenderink and van Mijgaard 2008) and over tropical oceans by Allan et al (2010) appear to corroborate this. Radiative absorption by water vapour (Previdi 2010, Stephens and Ellis 2008) also provides a thermodynamic feedback on the water cycle, and explains why climate model projections of global precipitation and evaporation of around 1-3% K-1 are muted with respect to the expected 7% K-1 increases in low-level moisture. Climate models achieve dynamical responses through reductions in strength of the Walker circulation (Vecchi et al 2006) and small yet systematic changes in the atmospheric boundary layer over the ocean that modify evaporation (Richter and Xie 2008). A further consequence is anticipated sub-tropical drying (Neelin et al 2006, Chou et al 2007); Allan et al (2010) confirm a decline in dry sub-tropical precipitation while the wet regions become wetter both in model simulations and satellite-based observations. Discrepancies between observed and climate model simulated hydrological response to warming (Wentz et al 2007, Yu and Weller 2007) are of immediate concern in understanding and predicting future responses. Over decadal time-scales it is important to establish whether such discrepancies relate to the observing system, climate modeling deficiencies, or are a statistical artifact of the brevity of the satellite records (Liepert and Previdi 2009). Techniques for extracting information on century-scale changes in precipitation are emerging (Smith et al 2009) but are also subject to severe limitations. Past decadal-scale changes in the water cycle may be further influenced by regionally and temporally varying forcings and resulting feedbacks which must be represented realistically by models (Andrews et al 2009). The radiative impact of aerosols and their indirect effects on clouds and precipitation (Liepert et al 2004) provide an important example. Understanding surface solar 'dimming' and 'brightening' trends in th

Allan, Richard P.; Liepert, Beate G.

2010-06-01

324

Are there social limits to adaptation to climate change?  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there is a recognised need to adapt to changing climatic conditions, there is an emerging discourse of limits to such\\u000a adaptation. Limits are traditionally analysed as a set of immutable thresholds in biological, economic or technological parameters.\\u000a This paper contends that limits to adaptation are endogenous to society and hence contingent on ethics, knowledge, attitudes\\u000a to risk and culture.

W. Neil Adger; Suraje Dessai; Marisa Goulden; Mike Hulme; Irene Lorenzoni; Donald R. Nelson; Lars Otto Naess; Johanna Wolf; Anita Wreford

2009-01-01

325

Climate Change Adaptation in Light of Sustainable Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural activity has always included adaptation to a number of diverse stresses and opportunities-elements that continue influencing developments in the agri-food sector. Climate and weather conditions are a good example of factors that require on-going adaptation. With climate change they take on even more significance. Based on data from Canadian producers, this article identifies several climate and weather risk adaptation

Ellen Wall; Barry Smit

2005-01-01

326

Climate change and eHealth: a promising strategy for health sector mitigation and adaptation  

PubMed Central

Climate change is one of today's most pressing global issues. Policies to guide mitigation and adaptation are needed to avoid the devastating impacts of climate change. The health sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, and its climate impact in low-income countries is growing steadily. This paper reviews and discusses the literature regarding health sector mitigation potential, known and hypothetical co-benefits, and the potential of health information technology, such as eHealth, in climate change mitigation and adaptation. The promising role of eHealth as an adaptation strategy to reduce societal vulnerability to climate change, and the link's between mitigation and adaptation, are also discussed. The topic of environmental eHealth has gained little attention to date, despite its potential to contribute to more sustainable and green health care. A growing number of local and global initiatives on ‘green information and communication technology (ICT)’ are now mentioning eHealth as a promising technology with the potential to reduce emission rates from ICT use. However, the embracing of eHealth is slow because of limitations in technological infrastructure, capacity and political will. Further research on potential emissions reductions and co-benefits with green ICT, in terms of health outcomes and economic effectiveness, would be valuable to guide development and implementation of eHealth in health sector mitigation and adaptation policies. PMID:22679398

Holmner, Åsa; Rocklöv, Joacim; Ng, Nawi; Nilsson, Maria

2012-01-01

327

Adapting to the Effects of Climate Change on Inuit Health  

PubMed Central

Climate change will have far-reaching implications for Inuit health. Focusing on adaptation offers a proactive approach for managing climate-related health risks—one that views Inuit populations as active agents in planning and responding at household, community, and regional levels. Adaptation can direct attention to the root causes of climate vulnerability and emphasize the importance of traditional knowledge regarding environmental change and adaptive strategies. An evidence base on adaptation options and processes for Inuit regions is currently lacking, however, thus constraining climate policy development. In this article, we tackled this deficit, drawing upon our understanding of the determinants of health vulnerability to climate change in Canada to propose key considerations for adaptation decision-making in an Inuit context. PMID:24754615

Ford, James D.; Willox, Ashlee Cunsolo; Chatwood, Susan; Furgal, Christopher; Harper, Sherilee; Mauro, Ian; Pearce, Tristan

2014-01-01

328

Water - The key to global change. [of weather and climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of water in processes of global change is discussed. The importance of water in global warming, the loss of biological diversity, the activity of the El Nino southern oscillation, and the melting of polar ice are examined. Plans for a mission to measure tropical rainfall using a two frequency radar, a visible/IR radiometer and a passive microwave radiometer are noted. The way in which global change is affected by changes in patterns of available water is considered.

Soffen, Gerald A.

1988-01-01

329

Adaptive changes in visual cortex following prolonged contrast reduction  

PubMed Central

How does prolonged reduction in retinal-image contrast affect visual-contrast coding? Recent evidence indicates that some forms of long-term visual deprivation result in compensatory perceptual and neural changes in the adult visual pathway. It has not been established whether changes due to contrast adaptation are best characterized as “contrast gain” or “response gain.” We present a theoretical rationale for predicting that adaptation to long-term contrast reduction should result in response gain. To test this hypothesis, normally sighted subjects adapted for four hours by viewing their environment through contrast-reducing goggles. During the adaptation period, the subjects went about their usual daily activities. Subjects' contrast-discrimination thresholds and fMRI BOLD responses in cortical areas V1 and V2 were obtained before and after adaptation. Following adaptation, we observed a significant decrease in contrast-discrimination thresholds, and significant increase in BOLD responses in V1 and V2. The observed interocular transfer of the adaptation effect suggests that the adaptation has a cortical origin. These results reveal a new kind of adaptability of the adult visual cortex, an adjustment in the gain of the contrast-response in the presence of a reduced range of stimulus contrasts, which is consistent with a response-gain mechanism. The adaptation appears to be compensatory, such that the precision of contrast coding is improved for low retinal-image contrasts. PMID:19271930

Kwon, MiYoung; Legge, Gordon E.; Fang, Fang; Cheong, Allen M. Y.; He, Sheng

2009-01-01

330

Global supply chain adaptations to improve financial performance : Supply base establishment and logistics integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to understand and describe the conditions that compel and underscore global supply chain (SC) adaptations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Insights from contingency theory, Porter's economic cluster theory and international factory mapping are used to analyze the SC adaptations that follow when an automotive firm moves from a domestic to a global SC. Findings –

Kun Liao; Erika Marsillac; Eldon Johnson; Ying Liao

2011-01-01

331

Achievement of Global Second Order Mesh Convergence for Discontinuous Flows with Adapted  

E-print Network

Achievement of Global Second Order Mesh Convergence for Discontinuous Flows with Adapted to govern the adapted mesh generation. As regards steady flow computations with discontinuities, a global discontinuities or sharp gradients in the modelled flow. In order to address this issue, a continuous mesh

Frey, Pascal

332

Global climate change: Implications, challenges, and mitigation measures  

SciTech Connect

This book presents a perspective of the potential problem of global climate change induced by human activity. The editors have presented viewpoints of experts (advocates and skeptics) representing the issues of climate change. Possible results from long-term global change discussed in this book include mass migrations of plants and animals; changes in crop yields; flood and drought; and economic, political, and cultural changes. The text contains 20 chapters on the impact of global climate change and 10 chapters on the mitigation of effects and policy development.

Majumdar, S.K.

1992-01-01

333

Possible implications of global climate change on global lightning distributions and frequencies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM) is used to study the possible implications of past and future climate change on global lightning frequencies. Two climate change experiments were conducted: one for a 2 x CO2 climate (representing a 4.2 degs C global warming) and one for a 2% decrease in the solar constant (representing a 5.9 degs C global cooling). The results suggest at 30% increase in global lightning activity for the warmer climate and a 24% decrease in global lightning activity for the colder climate. This implies an approximate 5-6% change in global lightning frequencies for every 1 degs C global warming/cooling. Both intracloud and cloud-to-ground frequencies are modeled, with cloud-to-ground lightning frequencies showing larger sensitivity to climate change than intracloud frequencies. The magnitude of the modeled lightning changes depends on season, location, and even time of day.

Price, Colin; Rind, David

1994-01-01

334

Development Futures in the light of climate change: creating new insights into the past, the present and global futures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Current development planning and practice relating to climate change focus pragmatically on actions within a fairly narrow range of mitigation and adaptation options and opportunities. Climate change is one component of a complex of factors affecting global futures and ideas of 'development'. Futures studies project enormous changes in technology, wealth, population and inequality over the next 50 years, which

Nick Brooks; Natasha Grist

2008-01-01

335

EPA'S GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE PROGRAM -- GLOBAL LANDFILL METHANE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses AEERL's research efforts on global landfill methane (CH4). H4 is of particular concern because its radiative forcing potential is thought to be much greater than that of carbon dioxide. lthough the major sources of CH4 are known qualitatively, considerable unc...

336

European information on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vulnerability to natural and technological disasters is increasing due to a combination of intensifying land use, increasing industrial development, further urban expansion and expanding infrastructure and also climate change. At EU level the European Commission's White Paper on adaptation to climate change (published in 2009) highlights that adaptation actions should be focused on the most vulnerable areas and communities in Europe (e.g. mountains, coastal areas, river flood prone areas, Mediterranean, Arctic). Mainstreaming of climate change into existing EU policies will be a key policy, including within the Water Framework Directive, Marine Strategy Framework Directive, Nature protection and biodiversity policies, integrated coastal zone management, other (sectoral) policies (agriculture, forestry, energy, transport, health) and disaster risk prevention. 2010 is the international year on biodiversity and the Conference of Parties of the biodiversity convention will meet in autumn 2010 (Japan) to discuss amongst other post-2010 strategies, objectives and indicators. Both within the Biodiversity Convention (CBD) and the Climate Change Convention (UNFCCC) there is increasing recognition of the need for integration of biodiversity conservation into climate change mitigation and adaptation activities. Furthermore a number of European countries and also some regions have started to prepare and/or have adopted national adaptation plans or frameworks. Sharing of good practices on climate change vulnerability methods and adaptation actions is so far limited, but is essential to improve such plans, at national, sub national and local level where much of the adaptation action is already taking place and will be expanding in future, also involving increasingly the business community. The EU Clearinghouse on CC impacts, vulnerability and adaptation should address these needs and it is planned to be operational end of 2011. The EEA is expected to have a role in its development in 2010 and is likely to manage the system after 2011. The European Commission in its Communication in 2009 on disaster risk prevention also calls for improving and better sharing of data on disasters, disaster risk mapping and disaster risk management, in the context of the EU civil protection mechanism. Such information might also be linked to the planned EU Clearinghouse on climate change adaptation. The activities of EEA on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation (including disaster risk reduction) include indicators of the impacts of climate change; a regularly updated overview of national assessments and adaptation plans on the EEA web site and specific focused reports, e.g. on adaptation to the challenges of changing water resources in the Alps (2009) and on analysis of past trends in natural disasters (due in 2010) and regular expert meetings and workshops with EEA member countries. The ECAC presentation will include the latest developments in the EU Clearinghouse on adaptation and progress in relevant EEA activities.

Jol, A.; Isoard, S.

2010-09-01

337

Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into Public Health Practice: Using Adaptive Management to Increase Adaptive Capacity and Build Resilience  

PubMed Central

Background: Climate change is expected to have a range of health impacts, some of which are already apparent. Public health adaptation is imperative, but there has been little discussion of how to increase adaptive capacity and resilience in public health systems. Objectives: We explored possible explanations for the lack of work on adaptive capacity, outline climate–health challenges that may lie outside public health’s coping range, and consider changes in practice that could increase public health’s adaptive capacity. Methods: We conducted a substantive, interdisciplinary literature review focused on climate change adaptation in public health, social learning, and management of socioeconomic systems exhibiting dynamic complexity. Discussion: There are two competing views of how public health should engage climate change adaptation. Perspectives differ on whether climate change will primarily amplify existing hazards, requiring enhancement of existing public health functions, or present categorically distinct threats requiring innovative management strategies. In some contexts, distinctly climate-sensitive health threats may overwhelm public health’s adaptive capacity. Addressing these threats will require increased emphasis on institutional learning, innovative management strategies, and new and improved tools. Adaptive management, an iterative framework that embraces uncertainty, uses modeling, and integrates learning, may be a useful approach. We illustrate its application to extreme heat in an urban setting. Conclusions: Increasing public health capacity will be necessary for certain climate–health threats. Focusing efforts to increase adaptive capacity in specific areas, promoting institutional learning, embracing adaptive management, and developing tools to facilitate these processes are important priorities and can improve the resilience of local public health systems to climate change. PMID:21997387

McDowell, Julia Z.; Luber, George

2011-01-01

338

Migration and climate change: examining thresholds of change to guide effective adaptation decision-making  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implications of environmental change for migration are little understood. Migration as a response to climate change could\\u000a be seen as a failure of in situ adaptation methods, or migration could be alternatively perceived as a rational component\\u000a of creative adaptation to environmental risk. This paper frames migration as part of an adaptation response to climate change\\u000a impacts to natural

Douglas K. Bardsley; Graeme J. Hugo

2010-01-01

339

Global Change Simulations Affect Potential Methane Oxidation in Upland Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric concentrations of methane (CH4) are higher now than they have ever been during the past 420,000 years. However, concentrations have remained stable since 1999. Emissions associated with livestock husbandry are unlikely to have changed, so some combination of reduced production in wetlands, more efficient capture by landfills, or increased consumption by biological CH4 oxidation in upland soils may be responsible. Methane oxidizing bacteria are ubiquitous in upland soils and little is known about how these bacteria respond to anthropogenic global change, and how they will influence - or already are influencing - the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Might ongoing and future global changes increase biological CH4 oxidation? Soils were sampled from two field experiments to assess changes in rates of CH4 oxidation in response to global change simulations. Potential activities of CH4 oxidizing bacterial communities were measured through laboratory incubations under optimal temperature, soil moisture, and atmospheric CH4 concentrations (~18 ppm, or 10x ambient). The ongoing 6-year multifactorial Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment (JRGCE) simulates warming, elevated precipitation, elevated atmospheric CO2, elevated atmospheric N deposition, and increased wildfire frequency in an annual grassland in a Mediterranean-type climate in central California. The ongoing 1-year multifactorial Merriam Climate Change Experiment (MCCE) simulates warming, elevated precipitation, and reduced precipitation in four different types of ecosystems along an elevational gradient in a semi-arid climate in northern Arizona. The high desert grassland, pinyon-juniper woodland, ponderosa pine forest, and mixed conifer forest ecosystems range in annual precipitation from 100 to 1000 mm yr-1, and from productivity being strongly water limited to strongly temperature limited. Among JRGCE soils, elevated atmospheric CO2 increased potential CH4 oxidation rates (p=0.052) and wildfire decreased rates (p=0.014). These responses may be explained by improved soil aggregate stability in the first case, and reduced aggregate stability in the latter case. No effects of warming, elevated precipitation, elevated N deposition, or multifactor interactions were found. Among MCCE soils, similarly, no effects of elevated or reduced precipitation were found. While warming did not affect low elevation ecosystems, it did significantly decrease rates in the highest elevation mixed conifer forest (p=0.004). This suggests a vulnerability of cold-adapted CH4 oxidizing bacteria to elevated temperature. However, bacterial communities in all sampled ecosystems appear to be resistant to drier conditions and unaffected by wetter conditions. If biological oxidation is responsible for the current stability in atmospheric CH4 concentrations, then the improved function of this global CH4 sink is likely driven by indirect plant effects under elevated atmospheric CO2. Improved function, however, may be absent or reversed in future ecosystems that experience increased wildfire frequency and in high altitude and latitude ecosystems that experience rapid warming.

Blankinship, J. C.; Hungate, B. A.

2004-12-01

340

Severe Weather in a Changing Climate: Getting to Adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyses of observation records from U.S. weather stations indicate there is an increasing trend over recent decades in certain types of severe weather, especially large precipitation events. Widespread changes in temperature extremes have been observed over the last 50 years. In particular, the number of heat waves globally (and some parts of the U.S.) has increased, and there have been widespread increases in the numbers of warm nights. Also, analyses show that we are now breaking twice as many heat records as cold records in the U.S. Since 1957, there has been an increase in the number of historically top 1% of heavy precipitation events across the U.S. Our new analyses of the repeat or reoccurrence frequencies of large precipitation storms are showing that such events are occurring more often than in the past. The pattern of precipitation change is one of increases generally at higher northern latitudes and drying in the tropics and subtropics over land. It needs to be recognized that every weather event that happens nowadays takes place in the context of the changes in the background climate system. So nothing is entirely "natural" anymore. It's a fallacy to think that individual events are caused entirely by any one thing, either natural variation or human-induced climate change. Every event is influenced by many factors. Human-induced climate change is now a factor in weather events. The changes occurring in precipitation are consistent with the analyses of our changing climate. For extreme precipitation, we know that more precipitation is falling in very heavy events. And we know key reasons why; warmer air holds more water vapor, and so when any given weather system moves through, the extra water dumps can lead to a heavy downpour. As the climate system continues to warm, models of the Earth's climate system indicate severe precipitation events will likely become more commonplace. Water vapor will continue to increase in the atmosphere along with the warming, and large precipitation events will likely increase in intensity and frequency. In the presentation, we will not only discuss the recent trends in severe weather and the projections of the impacts of climate change on severe weather in the future, but also specific examples of how this information is being used in developing and applying adaptation policies.

Wuebbles, D. J.; Janssen, E.; Kunkel, K.

2011-12-01

341

The state of climate change adaptation in the Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic climate is rapidly changing, with wide ranging impacts on natural and social systems. A variety of adaptation policies, programs and practices have been adopted to this end, yet our understanding of if, how, and where adaptation is occurring is limited. In response, this paper develops a systematic approach to characterize the current state of adaptation in the Arctic. Using reported adaptations in the English language peer reviewed literature as our data source, we document 157 discrete adaptation initiatives between 2003 and 2013. Results indicate large variations in adaptation by region and sector, dominated by reporting from North America, particularly with regards to subsistence harvesting by Inuit communities. Few adaptations were documented in the European and Russian Arctic, or have a focus on the business and economy, or infrastructure sectors. Adaptations are being motivated primarily by the combination of climatic and non-climatic factors, have a strong emphasis on reducing current vulnerability involving incremental changes to existing risk management processes, and are primarily initiated and led at the individual/community level. There is limited evidence of trans-boundary adaptations or initiatives considering potential cross-scale/sector impacts.

Ford, James D.; McDowell, Graham; Jones, Julie

2014-10-01

342

Changing Composition of the Global Stratosphere.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the chemistry of the stratosphere at mid-latitudes, the Antarctic phenomenon, and temporal trends in ozone levels. Includes equations, diagrams of the global distribution of ozone, and halogen growth projections. Concludes that studies of stratospheric ozone demonstrate that the global environment is fragile and is impacted by human…

McElroy, Michael B.; Salawitch, Ross J.

1989-01-01

343

Ozone, Climate, and Global Atmospheric Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of global atmospheric problems relating to ozone depletion and global warming. Provides background information on the composition of the earth's atmosphere and origin of atmospheric ozone. Describes causes, effects, and evidence of ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect. A vignette provides a summary of a 1991 assessment of…

Levine, Joel S.

1992-01-01

344

Climate Change Education for Mitigation and Adaptation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article makes the case for the education sector an untapped opportunity to combat climate change. It sets forth a definition of Climate Change Education for Sustainable Development that is comprehensive and multidisciplinary and asserts that it must not only include relevant content knowledge on climate change, environmental and social…

Anderson, Allison

2012-01-01

345

78 FR 65980 - Notice of Availability for Public Review and Comment: Draft EPA Climate Change Adaptation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review and Comment: Draft EPA Climate Change Adaptation Implementation Plans...society has adapted in the past. Climate change can pose significant challenges...therefore, that the EPA adapt to climate change in order to continue...

2013-11-04

346

76 FR 12945 - Instructions for Implementing Climate Change Adaptation Planning in Accordance With Executive...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Instructions for Implementing Climate Change Adaptation Planning in Accordance...ACTION: Notice of Availability of Climate Change Adaptation Planning Implementing...Federal agencies for integrating climate change adaptation into agency...

2011-03-09

347

Explaining and overcoming barriers to climate change adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of barriers is increasingly used to describe the obstacles that hinder the planning and implementation of climate change adaptation. The growing literature on barriers to adaptation reveals not only commonly reported barriers, but also conflicting evidence, and few explanations of why barriers exist and change. There is thus a need for research that focuses on the interdependencies between barriers and considers the dynamic ways in which barriers develop and persist. Such research, which would be actor-centred and comparative, would help to explain barriers to adaptation and provide insights into how to overcome them.

Eisenack, Klaus; Moser, Susanne C.; Hoffmann, Esther; Klein, Richard J. T.; Oberlack, Christoph; Pechan, Anna; Rotter, Maja; Termeer, Catrien J. A. M.

2014-10-01

348

Separating the nature and nurture of the allocation of energy in response to global change.  

PubMed

Understanding and predicting biological stability and change in the face of rapid anthropogenic modifications of ecosystems and geosystems are grand challenges facing environmental and life scientists. Physiologically, organisms withstand environmental stress through changes in biochemical regulation that maintain homeostasis, which necessarily demands tradeoffs in the use of metabolic energy. Evolutionarily, in response to environmentally forced energetic tradeoffs, populations adapt based on standing genetic variation in the ability of individual organisms to reallocate metabolic energy. Combined study of physiology and genetics, separating "Nature and Nurture," is, thus, the key to understanding the potential for evolutionary adaptation to future global change. To understand biological responses to global change, we need experimentally tractable model species that have the well-developed physiological, genetic, and genomic resources necessary for partitioning variance in the allocation of metabolic energy into its causal components. Model species allow for discovery and for experimental manipulation of relevant phenotypic contrasts and enable a systems-biology approach that integrates multiple levels of analyses to map genotypic-to-phenotypic variation. Here, we illustrate how combined physiological and genetic studies that focus on energy metabolism in developmental stages of a model marine organism contribute to an understanding of the potential to adapt to environmental change. This integrative research program provides insights that can be readily incorporated into individual-based ecological models of population persistence under global change. PMID:24907199

Applebaum, Scott L; Pan, T-C Francis; Hedgecock, Dennis; Manahan, Donal T

2014-07-01

349

The U.S. Global Change Research Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the U.S. Global Research Program (USGCRP), an initiative to support research on the interactions of natural and human-induced changes in the global environment and their implications for society. Visitors can study overviews of the topics of greatest interest to the USGCRP, which include atmospheric composition, climatic variability and change, global cycles for carbon and water, ecosystems, land use/land cover, and human contributions and responses to global change. Links are also provided to news articles, participating government agencies, and international research cooperative efforts.

350

The global impact of land-use change  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand global change, natural scientists must consider the social context influencing human impact on the environment. This overview paper discusses three questions central to the issue: How are land-use changes contributing to global environmental changes (land-management practices, growing human populations, regional differences in technology and wealth). What social-economic factors determine land use, and how will they change (understanding human

D. S. Ojima; K. A. Galvin; B. L. II Turner

1994-01-01

351

Developing Countries & Global Climate Change: Electric Power Options in Korea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pew Center on Global Climate Change has recently placed online the October 1999 report entitled "Developing Countries & Global Climate Change: Electric Power Options in Korea." Written by Jin-Gyu Oh and others, the report (.pdf format) discusses the implications of Korea's energy choices -- coal, gas, nuclear, or renewable energy -- and how the chosen "mix of policy, growth, and technology will affect investment costs and the local and global environment."

Chandler, William.; Jo, Sung B.; Kim, Jinwoo.; Logan, Jeffrey.; Oh, Jin-Gyu.; Roh, Dong-Seok.

1999-01-01

352

Regional news portrayals of global warming and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we utilize content analysis techniques to examine how the issue of global warming and climate change has been characterized during the period of 1992 through 2005 by the Houston Chronicle—the largest regional newspaper in the Texas coastal region. A total of 795 global warming and climate change news articles from the Houston Chronicle are collected, coded and

Xinsheng Liu; Arnold Vedlitz; Letitia Alston

2008-01-01

353

Global Climate Change. Selected Annotated Bibliography. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography on global climate change contains 27 articles designed to expand the breadth and depth of information presented in the Global Change Information Packet. Most articles were chosen from journals likely to be available in most medium-sized public or college libraries. The articles cover a variety of topics related to…

Jones, Douglas E.

354

Optimizing Reservoir Operation to Adapt to the Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change and upcoming variation in flood timing necessitates the adaptation of current rule curves developed for operation of water reservoirs as to reduce the potential damage from either flood or draught events. This study attempts to optimize the current rule curves of Cougar Dam on McKenzie River in Oregon addressing some possible climate conditions in 21th century. The objective is to minimize the failure of operation to meet either designated demands or flood limit at a downstream checkpoint. A simulation/optimization model including the standard operation policy and a global optimization method, tunes the current rule curve upon 8 GCMs and 2 greenhouse gases emission scenarios. The Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) is used as the hydrology model to project the streamflow for the period of 2000-2100 using downscaled precipitation and temperature forcing from 8 GCMs and two emission scenarios. An ensemble of rule curves, each associated with an individual scenario, is obtained by optimizing the reservoir operation. The simulation of reservoir operation, for all the scenarios and the expected value of the ensemble, is conducted and performance assessment using statistical indices including reliability, resilience, vulnerability and sustainability is made.

Madadgar, S.; Jung, I.; Moradkhani, H.

2010-12-01

355

GLOBAL ECOSYSTEMS DATABASE PROJECT: AN EXPERIMENT IN DATA INTEGRATION FOR GLOBAL CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The Global Ecosystems Database Project (GEDP) is developing an integrated global database to support global change characterization and modeling. ne CD ROM of integrated data was published in 1992 (NOAA-EPA, 1992) with supporting documents, and another is in development. his pape...

356

Local adaptation in brown trout early life-history traits: implications for climate change adaptability  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of local adaptation and adaptive potential of natural populations is becoming increasingly relevant due to anthropogenic changes in the environment, such as climate change. The concern is that populations will be negatively affected by increasing temperatures without the capacity to adapt. Temperature-related adaptability in traits related to phenology and early life history are expected to be particularly important in salmonid fishes. We focused on the latter and investigated whether four populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta) are locally adapted in early life-history traits. These populations spawn in rivers that experience different temperature conditions during the time of incubation of eggs and embryos. They were reared in a common-garden experiment at three different temperatures. Quantitative genetic differentiation (QST) exceeded neutral molecular differentiation (FST) for two traits, indicating local adaptation. A temperature effect was observed for three traits. However, this effect varied among populations due to locally adapted reaction norms, corresponding to the temperature regimes experienced by the populations in their native environments. Additive genetic variance and heritable variation in phenotypic plasticity suggest that although increasing temperatures are likely to affect some populations negatively, they may have the potential to adapt to changing temperature regimes. PMID:18755673

Jensen, Lasse Fast; Hansen, Michael M; Pertoldi, Cino; Holdensgaard, Gert; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons; Loeschcke, Volker

2008-01-01

357

The Role of Decision Support in Adapting to Climate Change: Findings from Three Place-based Regional Assessments  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the methodologies and findings of three regional assessments and considers the role of decision support in assisting adaptation to climate change. Background. In conjunction with the US Global Change Research Program?s (USGCRP?s) National Assessment of ...

358

Adaptive governance and the human dimensions of marine mammal management: Implications for policy in a changing North  

Microsoft Academic Search

As climate change has driven dramatic changes in Northern sea ice regimes, marine mammals have gained iconic status around the world reflecting the perils of global warming. There is a tension between policies that have international support like a ban on seal hunting or whaling, and the adoption of adaptive, flexible rules that are likely to work in Northern places.

Chanda L. Meek; Amy Lauren Lovecraft; Riku Varjopuro; Martha Dowsley; Aaron T. Dale

2011-01-01

359

ASSESSING THE CONSEQUENCES OF GLOBAL CHANGE FOR THE UNITED STATES: AN OVERVIEW OF EPA'S GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper presents an overview of EPA's assessment-oriented program, which focuses on understanding the potential consequences of global change (particularly climate variability and change) on human health, ecosystems, and socioeconomic systems in the United States. It was prepar...

360

Climate change adaptation and Integrated Water Resource Management in the water sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) was introduced in 1980s to better optimise water uses between different water demanding sectors. However, since it was introduced water systems have become more complicated due to changes in the global water cycle as a result of climate change. The realization that climate change will have a significant impact on water availability and flood risks has driven research and policy making on adaptation. This paper discusses the main similarities and differences between climate change adaptation and IWRM. The main difference between the two is the focus on current and historic issues of IWRM compared to the (long-term) future focus of adaptation. One of the main problems of implementing climate change adaptation is the large uncertainties in future projections. Two completely different approaches to adaptation have been developed in response to these large uncertainties. A top-down approach based on large scale biophysical impacts analyses focussing on quantifying and minimizing uncertainty by using a large range of scenarios and different climate and impact models. The main problem with this approach is the propagation of uncertainties within the modelling chain. The opposite is the bottom up approach which basically ignores uncertainty. It focusses on reducing vulnerabilities, often at local scale, by developing resilient water systems. Both these approaches however are unsuitable for integrating into water management. The bottom up approach focuses too much on socio-economic vulnerability and too little on developing (technical) solutions. The top-down approach often results in an “explosion” of uncertainty and therefore complicates decision making. A more promising direction of adaptation would be a risk based approach. Future research should further develop and test an approach which starts with developing adaptation strategies based on current and future risks. These strategies should then be evaluated using a range of future scenarios in order to develop robust adaptation measures and strategies.

Ludwig, Fulco; van Slobbe, Erik; Cofino, Wim

2014-10-01

361

Prismatic adaptation changes visuospatial representation in the inferior parietal lobule.  

PubMed

Prismatic adaptation has been shown to induce a realignment of visuoproprioceptive representations and to involve parietocerebellar networks. We have investigated in humans how far other types of functions known to involve the parietal cortex are influenced by a brief exposure to prismatic adaptation. Normal subjects underwent an fMRI evaluation before and after a brief session of prismatic adaptation using rightward deviating prisms for one group or after an equivalent session using plain glasses for the other group. Activation patterns to three tasks were analyzed: (1) visual detection; (2) visuospatial short-term memory; and (3) verbal short-term memory. The prismatic adaptation-related changes were found bilaterally in the inferior parietal lobule when prisms, but not plain glasses, were used. This effect was driven by selective changes during the visual detection task: an increase in neural activity was induced on the left and a decrease on the right parietal side after prismatic adaptation. Comparison of activation patterns after prismatic adaptation on the visual detection task demonstrated a significant increase of the ipsilateral field representation in the left inferior parietal lobule and a significant decrease in the right inferior parietal lobule. In conclusion, a brief exposure to prismatic adaptation modulates differently left and right parietal activation during visual detection but not during short-term memory. Furthermore, the visuospatial representation within the inferior parietal lobule changes, with a decrease of the ipsilateral hemifield representation on the right and increase on the left side, suggesting thus a left hemispheric dominance. PMID:25164675

Crottaz-Herbette, Sonia; Fornari, Eleonora; Clarke, Stephanie

2014-08-27

362

Global-motion aftereffect does not depend on awareness of the adapting motion direction.  

PubMed

It has been shown that humans cannot perceive more than three directions from a multidirectional motion stimulus. However, it remains unknown whether adapting to such imperceptible motion directions could generate motion aftereffects (MAEs). A series of psychophysical experiments were conducted to address this issue. Using a display consisting of randomly oriented Gabors, we replicated previous findings that observers were unable to perceive the global directions embedded in a five-direction motion pattern. However, adapting to this multidirectional pattern induced both static and dynamic MAEs, despite the fact that observers were unaware of any global motion directions during adaptation. Furthermore, by comparing the strengths of the dynamic MAEs induced at different levels of motion processing, we found that spatial integration of local illusory signals per se was sufficient to produce a significant global MAE. These psychophysical results show that the generation of a directional global MAE does not require conscious perception of the global motion during adaptation. PMID:24430562

Lee, Alan L F; Lu, Hongjing

2014-04-01

363

Providing Global Change Information for Decision-Making: Capturing and Presenting Provenance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global change information demands access to data sources and well-documented provenance to provide evidence needed to build confidence in scientific conclusions and, in specific applications, to ensure the information's suitability for use in decision-making. A new generation of Web technology, the Semantic Web, provides tools for that purpose. The topic of global change covers changes in the global environment (including alterations in climate, land productivity, oceans or other water resources, atmospheric composition and or chemistry, and ecological systems) that may alter the capacity of the Earth to sustain life and support human systems. Data and findings associated with global change research are of great public, government, and academic concern and are used in policy and decision-making, which makes the provenance of global change information especially important. In addition, since different types of decisions benefit from different types of information, understanding how to capture and present the provenance of global change information is becoming more of an imperative in adaptive planning.

Ma, Xiaogang; Fox, Peter; Tilmes, Curt; Jacobs, Katherine; Waple, Anne

2014-01-01

364

Change in agricultural land use constrains adaptation of national wildlife refuges to climate change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Land-use change around protected areas limits their ability to conserve biodiversity by altering ecological processes such as natural hydrologic and disturbance regimes, facilitating species invasions, and interfering with dispersal of organisms. This paper informs USA National Wildlife Refuge System conservation planning by predicting future land-use change on lands within 25 km distance of 461 refuges in the USA using an econometric model. The model contained two differing policy scenarios, namely a ‘business-as-usual’ scenario and a ‘pro-agriculture’ scenario. Regardless of scenario, by 2051, forest cover and urban land use were predicted to increase around refuges, while the extent of range and pasture was predicted to decrease; cropland use decreased under the business-as-usual scenario, but increased under the pro-agriculture scenario. Increasing agricultural land value under the pro-agriculture scenario slowed an expected increase in forest around refuges, and doubled the rate of range and pasture loss. Intensity of land-use change on lands surrounding refuges differed by regions. Regional differences among scenarios revealed that an understanding of regional and local land-use dynamics and management options was an essential requirement to effectively manage these conserved lands. Such knowledge is particularly important given the predicted need to adapt to a changing global climate.

Hamilton, Christopher M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Martinuzzi, Sebastian; Pidgeon, Anna M.

2014-01-01

365

Earth observations and global change decision making, 1990: A national partnership. Vol. 2  

SciTech Connect

Papers are presented on multispectral sensor technology to monitor global change, the global change master directory, application of the dynamic systems-engineering process to global change initiative data systems, and global change and biodiversity loss. Also considered are rational guidelines for national and international decision about global warming, and the dissemination of global change research data available to educators.

Ginsberg, I.W.; Angelo, J.A. Jr.; (Michigan, Environmental Research Institute, Ann Arbor; Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne)

1991-01-01

366

A meta-analysis of crop yield under climate change and adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feeding a growing global population in a changing climate presents a significant challenge to society. The projected yields of crops under a range of agricultural and climatic scenarios are needed to assess food security prospects. Previous meta-analyses have summarized climate change impacts and adaptive potential as a function of temperature, but have not examined uncertainty, the timing of impacts, or the quantitative effectiveness of adaptation. Here we develop a new data set of more than 1,700 published simulations to evaluate yield impacts of climate change and adaptation. Without adaptation, losses in aggregate production are expected for wheat, rice and maize in both temperate and tropical regions by 2 °C of local warming. Crop-level adaptations increase simulated yields by an average of 7-15%, with adaptations more effective for wheat and rice than maize. Yield losses are greater in magnitude for the second half of the century than for the first. Consensus on yield decreases in the second half of the century is stronger in tropical than temperate regions, yet even moderate warming may reduce temperate crop yields in many locations. Although less is known about interannual variability than mean yields, the available data indicate that increases in yield variability are likely.

Challinor, A. J.; Watson, J.; Lobell, D. B.; Howden, S. M.; Smith, D. R.; Chhetri, N.

2014-04-01

367

Vulnerability Assessment, Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Measures in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In relation to the priority tasks of the climate change measures, the Republic of Slovenia estimates that special attention needs to be devoted to the following sectors in general: - sectors that currently indicate a strong vulnerability for the current climate variability (for instance, agriculture), - sectors where the vulnerability for climate change is increased by current trends (for instance, urban development, use of space), - sectors where the adaptation time is the longest and the subsequent development changes are connected with the highest costs (for instance, use of space, infrastructural objects, forestry, urban development, building stock). Considering the views of Slovenia to the climate change problem in Europe and Slovenia, priority measures and emphasis on future adaptation to climate change, the Republic of Slovenia has especially exposed the following action areas: - sustainable and integrated management of water sources for water power production, prevention of floods, provision of water for the enrichment of low flow rates, and preservation of environmental function as well as provision of water for other needs; - sustainable management of forest ecosystems, adjusted to changes, for the provision of their environmental function as well as being a source of biomass, wood for products for the conservation of carbon, and carbon sinks; - spatial planning as one of the important preventive instruments for the adaptation to climate change through the processes of integral planning of spatial and urban development; - sustainable use and preservation of natural wealth and the preservation of biodiversity as well as ecosystem services with measures and policies that enable an enhanced resistance of ecosystems to climate change, and the role of biological diversity in integral adaptation measures; - informing and awareness on the consequences of climate change and adaptation possibilities. For years, the most endangered sectors have been agriculture and forestry; therefore, they are also the only sectors for which a national adaptation strategy was adopted.

Cegnar, T.

2010-09-01

368

Global Climate Change and Tropical Forest Genetic Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change may have a serious impact on genetic resources in tropical forest trees. Genetic diversity plays a critical role in the survival of populations in rapidly changing environments. Furthermore, most tropical plant species are known to have unique ecological niches, and therefore changes in climate may directly affect the distribution of biomes, ecosystems, and constituent species. Climate change

Kamaljit S. Bawa; S. Dayanandan

1998-01-01

369

ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT OF CLIMATE CHANGE RISKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) has sponsored several state-of-the-art assessments of future impacts of climate change on various climate-sensitive threats such as malaria, hunger, water shortage, coastal flooding, habitat loss, lowered carbon-sink capacity, and diminished coastal wetlands. The results, based on IPCC emission scenarios, figure prominently in the international debate about climate change, and

Indur M. Goklany

2008-01-01

370

A new dataset for systematic assessments of climate change impacts as a function of global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the ongoing political debate on climate change, global mean temperature change (?Tglob) has become the yardstick by which mitigation costs, impacts from unavoided climate change, and adaptation requirements are discussed. For a scientifically informed discourse along these lines systematic assessments of climate change impacts as a function of ?Tglob are required. The current availability of climate change scenarios constrains this type of assessment to a~narrow range of temperature change and/or a reduced ensemble of climate models. Here, a newly composed dataset of climate change scenarios is presented that addresses the specific requirements for global assessments of climate change impacts as a function of ?Tglob. A pattern-scaling approach is applied to extract generalized patterns of spatially explicit change in temperature, precipitation and cloudiness from 19 AOGCMs. The patterns are combined with scenarios of global mean temperature increase obtained from the reduced-complexity climate model MAGICC6 to create climate scenarios covering warming levels from 1.5 to 5 degrees above pre-industrial levels around the year 2100. The patterns are shown to sufficiently maintain the original AOGCMs' climate change properties, even though they, necessarily, utilize a simplified relationships between?Tglob and changes in local climate properties. The dataset (made available online upon final publication of this paper) facilitates systematic analyses of climate change impacts as it covers a wider and finer-spaced range of climate change scenarios than the original AOGCM simulations.

Heinke, J.; Ostberg, S.; Schaphoff, S.; Frieler, K.; M{ü}ller, C.; Gerten, D.; Meinshausen, M.; Lucht, W.

2012-11-01

371

Beneath the surface of global change: Impacts of climate change on groundwater  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Global change encompasses changes in the characteristics of inter-related climate variables in space and time, and derived changes in terrestrial processes. As such, projected global change includes groundwater systems. Here, groundwater is defined as all subsurface water including soil water, dee...

372

Adapting to Change: The Value of Change Information and Meaning-Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this 3-wave study is to examine the micro process of how employees adapt to change over time. We combined Conservation of Resources theory with insights from the organizational change literature to study employees in a Dutch police district undergoing reorganization. A model was tested where employee adaptability, operationalized by…

van den Heuvel, Machteld; Demerouti, Evangelia; Bakker, Arnold B.; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

2013-01-01

373

NASA Policy Statement Adapting to a Changing Climate  

E-print Network

NASA Policy Statement Adapting to a Changing Climate Scientific evidence continues to mount to predict, it is clear that climate variability and climate change could have important impacts on NASA's ability to fulfill its mission and thus merits a proactive and integrated response. NASA's goal is climate

Waliser, Duane E.

374

Biomimetic design for climate change adaptation and mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines biomimicry, where organisms or ecosystems are mimicked in human design, as a means to either mitigate the causes of climate change that the built environment is responsible for, or adapt to the impacts of climate change. Different biomimetic approaches to design are discussed and categorized, and a series of examples illustrate the benefits and drawbacks of each

Maibritt Pedersen Zari

2010-01-01

375

The science of climate change in Africa: impacts and adaptation  

E-print Network

The science of climate change in Africa: impacts and adaptation Gordon Conway, ProfessorArned in recent yeArs, there is still a great deal about climate change in Africa that we do not know. the African climate is determined at the macro-level by three major pro- cesses or drivers: tropical convection

376

The Competencies Demonstrated by Farmers while Adapting to Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

World population growth, overconsumption of resources, competition among countries and climate change are putting significant pressure on agriculture. In Canada, changes in precipitation, the appearance of new pests and poor soil quality are threatening the prosperity of small farmers. What human competencies could facilitate citizens' adaptation

Pruneau, Diane; Kerry, Jackie; Mallet, Marie-Andree; Freiman, Viktor; Langis, Joanne; Laroche, Anne-Marie; Evichnevetski, Evgueni; Deguire, Paul; Therrien, Jimmy; Lang, Mathieu; Barbier, Pierre-Yves

2012-01-01

377

Climate Change and Expected Impacts on the Global Water Cycle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

How the elements of the global hydrologic cycle may respond to climate change is reviewed, first from a discussion of the physical sensitivity of these elements to changes in temperature, and then from a comparison of observations of hydrologic changes over the past 100 million years. Observations of current changes in the hydrologic cycle are then compared with projected future changes given the prospect of global warming. It is shown that some of the projections come close to matching the estimated hydrologic changes that occurred long ago when the earth was very warm.

Rind, David; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

378

Global ratings of change do not accurately reflect functional change over time in clinical practice.  

PubMed

Study Design Retrospective longitudinal cohort study. Objectives To determine whether the global rating of change (GROC) is valid for assessing functional change over time in the clinical setting, and whether validity decreases as length of recall increases. Background The validity of GROC instruments for representing change over time has been questioned. Our previous study showed that GROC did not adequately represent functional change over time in patients with knee disorders. This was a validation study in patients with hip or ankle/foot disorders. Methods We obtained complete data from the Focus On Therapeutic Outcomes clinical database on episodes of care for 7341 patients with hip or ankle/foot disorders. Functional status (FS) was assessed at the intake and discharge physical therapy visits via computerized adaptive testing. Each patient's GROC was assessed at the discharge visit. We assessed the extent to which GROC was associated with intake, discharge, and change in FS using correlation and linear regression analyses, stratified by recall period and anatomical location. Results Correlations of GROC with hip and ankle FS change scores were modest for recall less than 30 days and deteriorated further as the recall period lengthened. Prediction of GROC from discharge and change in FS scores by linear regression modeling demonstrated a decline of standardized beta coefficients and R(2) values as the recall period lengthened. Regression analyses indicated that GROC was biased toward discharge FS, with little or no influence of intake FS. Conclusion These results confirm that GROC does not adequately or consistently correlate with functional change across varying lengths of time, and is therefore not recommended as a substitute for change scores on valid functional outcome measures for use in routine clinical practice. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(2):106-111. Epub 8 Jan 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.5247. PMID:25573006

Schmitt, John; Abbott, J Haxby

2015-02-01

379

Extracting the globally and locally adaptive backbone of complex networks.  

PubMed

A complex network is a useful tool for representing and analyzing complex systems, such as the world-wide web and transportation systems. However, the growing size of complex networks is becoming an obstacle to the understanding of the topological structure and their characteristics. In this study, a globally and locally adaptive network backbone (GLANB) extraction method is proposed. The GLANB method uses the involvement of links in shortest paths and a statistical hypothesis to evaluate the statistical importance of the links; then it extracts the backbone, based on the statistical importance, from the network by filtering the less important links and preserving the more important links; the result is an extracted subnetwork with fewer links and nodes. The GLANB determines the importance of the links by synthetically considering the topological structure, the weights of the links and the degrees of the nodes. The links that have a small weight but are important from the view of topological structure are not belittled. The GLANB method can be applied to all types of networks regardless of whether they are weighted or unweighted and regardless of whether they are directed or undirected. The experiments on four real networks show that the link importance distribution given by the GLANB method has a bimodal shape, which gives a robust classification of the links; moreover, the GLANB method tends to put the nodes that are identified as the core of the network by the k-shell algorithm into the backbone. This method can help us to understand the structure of the networks better, to determine what links are important for transferring information, and to express the network by a backbone easily. PMID:24936975

Zhang, Xiaohang; Zhang, Zecong; Zhao, Han; Wang, Qi; Zhu, Ji

2014-01-01

380

How and why is global temperature changing?How and why is global temperature changing? Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia, Norwich  

E-print Network

How and why is global temperature changing?How and why is global temperature changing? Climatic below shows how the global average air temperature has changed between 1850 and 2005. The changes. The right-hand map shows predictions from one global climate model of how temperatures might change over

Feigon, Brooke

381

Climate Change in Central Taiwan: Impact and Adaptive Capacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to evaluate the spatial vulnerability distribution of water resources and propose the adaptive strategies for centeral Taiwan. The main tasks of this study are future water demand estimation, Rainfall trend analysis, climate change impact analysis and adaptive strategy proposing. Future water demand estimation considers the impact of GDP and temperature on domestic use water demand. MK Test, MWP Test and KW Test are used to analyze the variation trend of precipitation, intensity and drought day. The water allocation simulation model build by Vensim are used to analyze climate change impact. Based on impact analysis result, multi-criteria analysis is used to optimize optimal adaptive strategies combination. For Miaoli and Nantou, the furture demand (2031) can be fulfilled under Tiahuahu reservoir and Niaozueitan artificial lake is finished. It is not necessary to propose adaptive strategy. For Taichung, the optimal adaptive combinations for A1B worse case are Water Saving and Futian Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant. For Changhua, the optimal adaptive strategy for A1B worse case is seawater desalinization. For Yunlin, the optimal adaptive combinations for A1B worse case are Water Saving and tap water pipe replacement.

Ho, Chih-Chao; Chang, Liang-Cheng; Tsai, Chan-Ming

2013-04-01

382

Global Climate Change: The Effects of Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The activity follows a progression that examines the CO2 content of various gases, explores the changes in the atmospheric levels of CO2 from 1958 to 2000 from the Mauna Loa Keeling curve, and the relationship between CO2 and temperature over the past 160,000 years. This provides a foundation for examining individuals' input of CO2 to the atmosphere and how to reduce it.

Teachers' Domain

383

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE--THE TECHNOLOGY CHALLENGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, have led to increasing atmospheric concentrations which are at least partly responsible for the roughly 0.7% degree C global warming earth has experienced since the industrial revolution. With industrial activit...

384

Marine viruses and global climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea-surface warming, sea-ice melting and related freshening, changes in circulation and mixing regimes, and ocean acidification induced by the present climate changes are modifying marine ecosystem structure and function and have the potential to alter the cycling of carbon and nutrients in surface oceans. Changing climate has direct and indirect consequences on marine viruses, including cascading effects on biogeochemical cycles,

R. Danovaro; C. Corinaldesi; A. Dell'Anno; J. A. Fuhrman; J. J. Middelburg; R. T. Noble; C. A. Suttle

2011-01-01

385

Spatial planning for adapting to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past decades human interference in regional hydrologic systems has intensified. These systems act as an integrating medium. They link climate, human activities and ecologic processes through groundwater and surface water interactions. For simulating these linkages an integrated regional hydrologic model has been coupled to an ecologic evaluation model. The simulated ecologic effects of climate change on mesotrophic riverine

Walsum van P. E. V; J. Runhaar; J. F. M. Helming

2005-01-01

386

Scaling adaptation: climate change response and  

E-print Network

in the face of potential future changes in sea level, rainfall and storm patterns. In the case of climate environmental negotiation by actors at different levels, shaping knowledge production, conflict and governance. Specifically, we look at decision-making processes regarding future coastal defence management in the UK

Watson, Andrew

387

Gender Inclusion in Climate Change Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing evidence that climate change has an impact on natural disasters, such as flooding, and on agricultural production, both of which have implications for gender issues. In this paper the authors briefly review issues related to gender and poverty and examine the relationships between gender and various indices. They then look at systems of land ownership and inheritance,

Midori Aoyagi; Eiko Suda; Tomomi Shinada

2011-01-01

388

Gender Inclusion in Climate Change Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing evidence that climate change has an impact on natural disasters, such as flooding, and on agricultural production, both of which have implications for gender issues. In this paper we briefly review issues related to gender and poverty and examine the relationships between gender and various indices, including the human development index (HDI), the gender inequality index (GII),

Midori Aoyagi; Eiko Suda; Tomomi Shinada

2011-01-01

389

Synthetic circuit for exact adaptation and fold-change detection  

PubMed Central

Biological organisms use their sensory systems to detect changes in their environment. The ability of sensory systems to adapt to static inputs allows wide dynamic range as well as sensitivity to input changes including fold-change detection, a response that depends only on fold changes in input, and not on absolute changes. This input scale invariance underlies an important strategy for search that depends solely on the spatial profile of the input. Synthetic efforts to reproduce the architecture and response of cellular circuits provide an important step to foster understanding at the molecular level. We report the bottom-up assembly of biochemical systems that show exact adaptation and fold-change detection. Using a malachite green aptamer as the output, a synthetic transcriptional circuit with the connectivity of an incoherent feed-forward loop motif exhibits pulse generation and exact adaptation. A simple mathematical model was used to assess the amplitude and duration of pulse response as well as the parameter regimes required for fold-change detection. Upon parameter tuning, this synthetic circuit exhibits fold-change detection for four successive rounds of two-fold input changes. The experimental realization of fold-change detection circuit highlights the programmability of transcriptional switches and the ability to obtain predictive dynamical systems in a cell-free environment for technological applications. PMID:24728988

Kim, Jongmin; Khetarpal, Ishan; Murray, Richard M.

2014-01-01

390

Systems approaches in global change and biogeochemistry research  

PubMed Central

Systems approaches have great potential for application in predictive ecology. In this paper, we present a range of examples, where systems approaches are being developed and applied at a range of scales in the field of global change and biogeochemical cycling. Systems approaches range from Bayesian calibration techniques at plot scale, through data assimilation methods at regional to continental scales, to multi-disciplinary numerical model applications at country to global scales. We provide examples from a range of studies and show how these approaches are being used to address current topics in global change and biogeochemical research, such as the interaction between carbon and nitrogen cycles, terrestrial carbon feedbacks to climate change and the attribution of observed global changes to various drivers of change. We examine how transferable the methods and techniques might be to other areas of ecosystem science and ecology. PMID:22144393

Smith, Pete; Albanito, Fabrizio; Bell, Madeleine; Bellarby, Jessica; Blagodatskiy, Sergey; Datta, Arindam; Dondini, Marta; Fitton, Nuala; Flynn, Helen; Hastings, Astley; Hillier, Jon; Jones, Edward O.; Kuhnert, Matthias; Nayak, Dali R.; Pogson, Mark; Richards, Mark; Sozanska-Stanton, Gosia; Wang, Shifeng; Yeluripati, Jagadeesh B.; Bottoms, Emily; Brown, Chris; Farmer, Jenny; Feliciano, Diana; Hao, Cui; Robertson, Andy; Vetter, Sylvia; Wong, Hon Man; Smith, Jo

2012-01-01

391

Thermohaline circulations and global climate change. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses results from the project entitled Thermohaline Circulations and Global Climate Change. Results are discussed in three sections related to the development of the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model (MICOM), surface forcing of the ocean by the atmosphere, and experiments with the MICOM related to the problem of the ocean`s response to global climate change. It will require the use of a global, coupled ocean-atmospheric climate model to quantify the feedbacks between ocean and atmosphere associated with climate changes. The results presented here do provide guidance for such studies in the future.

Hanson, H.P.

1996-10-01

392

Guiding Climate Change Adaptation Within Vulnerable Natural Resource Management Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change has the potential to compromise the sustainability of natural resources in Mediterranean climatic systems, such that short-term reactive responses will increasingly be insufficient to ensure effective management. There is a simultaneous need for both the clear articulation of the vulnerabilities of specific management systems to climate risk, and the development of appropriate short- and long-term strategic planning responses that anticipate environmental change or allow for sustainable adaptive management in response to trends in resource condition. Governments are developing climate change adaptation policy frameworks, but without the recognition of the importance of responding strategically, regional stakeholders will struggle to manage future climate risk. In a partnership between the South Australian Government, the Adelaide and Mt Lofty Ranges Natural Resource Management Board and the regional community, a range of available research approaches to support regional climate change adaptation decision-making, were applied and critically examined, including: scenario modelling; applied and participatory Geographical Information Systems modelling; environmental risk analysis; and participatory action learning. As managers apply ideas for adaptation within their own biophysical and socio-cultural contexts, there would be both successes and failures, but a learning orientation to societal change will enable improvements over time. A base-line target for regional responses to climate change is the ownership of the issue by stakeholders, which leads to an acceptance that effective actions to adapt are now both possible and vitally important. Beyond such baseline knowledge, the research suggests that there is a range of tools from the social and physical sciences available to guide adaptation decision-making.

Bardsley, Douglas K.; Sweeney, Susan M.

2010-05-01

393

Global Climate Change: Resources for Environmental Literacy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most scientists believe that Earth's climate is changing and in fact heating up. However, they don't all agree about the rate of change, the extent of the impact on our environment, or what can or should be done about it. This module is based on the premise that understanding what influences Earth's energy balance is necessary (though not sufficient) to make sound decisions about climate change. Among the key concepts: how weather and climate relate to transfer of energy in and out of Earth's atmosphere, and how human activities have changed Earth's land, oceans, and atmosphere.

Council, Environmental L.; National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-05-16

394

Frontiers in Global Change Seminar Series  

E-print Network

by... Dr. Antonio J. Busalacchi Director, Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center Professor-producing regions. As viticulture is extremely sensitive to changes in temperature, precipitation, solar insolation

395

Impacts of climate change on the global forest sector  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The path and magnitude of future anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide will likely influence changes in climate that may impact the global forest sector. These responses in the global forest sector may have implications for international efforts to stabilize the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide. This study takes a step toward including the role of global forest sector in integrated assessments of the global carbon cycle by linking global models of climate dynamics, ecosystem processes and forest economics to assess the potential responses of the global forest sector to different levels of greenhouse gas emissions. We utilize three climate scenarios and two economic scenarios to represent a range of greenhouse gas emissions and economic behavior. At the end of the analysis period (2040), the potential responses in regional forest growing stock simulated by the global ecosystem model range from decreases and increases for the low emissions climate scenario to increases in all regions for the high emissions climate scenario. The changes in vegetation are used to adjust timber supply in the softwood and hardwood sectors of the economic model. In general, the global changes in welfare are positive, but small across all scenarios. At the regional level, the changes in welfare can be large and either negative or positive. Markets and trade in forest products play important roles in whether a region realizes any gains associated with climate change. In general, regions with the lowest wood fiber production cost are able to expand harvests. Trade in forest products leads to lower prices elsewhere. The low-cost regions expand market shares and force higher-cost regions to decrease their harvests. Trade produces different economic gains and losses across the globe even though, globally, economic welfare increases. The results of this study indicate that assumptions within alternative climate scenarios and about trade in forest products are important factors that strongly influence the effects of climate change on the global forest sector.

Perez-Garcia, J.; Joyce, L.A.; McGuire, A.D.; Xiao, X.

2002-01-01

396

Environmental insurance adapts to changing needs  

SciTech Connect

No longer simply a specialty service niche, environmental insurance has become an increasingly important asset to businesses worldwide. Companies of all sizes are using insurance as a proactive tool for prudent environmental risk management. During the last five years, the environmental insurance industry has matured to meet the ever-changing environmental insurance needs of business. A broad range of policies and programs offers coverage against damages caused by chemical spills, hazardous material and related environmental contaminants. Securing environmental insurance coverage has become as customary for many businesses as acquiring general liability and automobile insurance.

Vuono, M. (ECS Underwriting, Inc., Exton, PA (United States))

1995-03-01

397

Climate Change Adaptation Science Activities at NASA Johnson Space Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Johnson Space Center (JSC), located in the southeast metropolitan region of Houston, TX is the prime NASA center for human spaceflight operations and astronaut training, but it also houses the unique collection of returned extraterrestrial samples, including lunar samples from the Apollo missions. The Center's location adjacent to Clear Lake and the Clear Creek watershed, an estuary of Galveston Bay, puts it at direct annual risk from hurricanes, but also from a number of other climate-related hazards including drought, floods, sea level rise, heat waves, and high wind events all assigned Threat Levels of 2 or 3 in the most recent NASA Center Disaster/Risk Matrix produced by the Climate Adaptation Science Investigator Working Group. Based on prior CASI workshops at other NASA centers, it is recognized that JSC is highly vulnerable to climate-change related hazards and has a need for adaptation strategies. We will present an overview of prior CASI-related work at JSC, including publication of a climate change and adaptation informational data brochure, and a Resilience and Adaptation to Climate Risks Workshop that was held at JSC in early March 2012. Major outcomes of that workshop that form a basis for work going forward are 1) a realization that JSC is embedded in a regional environmental and social context, and that potential climate change effects and adaptation strategies will not, and should not, be constrained by the Center fence line; 2) a desire to coordinate data collection and adaptation planning activities with interested stakeholders to form a regional climate change adaptation center that could facilitate interaction with CASI; 3) recognition that there is a wide array of basic data (remotely sensed, in situ, GIS/mapping, and historical) available through JSC and other stakeholders, but this data is not yet centrally accessible for planning purposes.

Stefanov, William L.; Lulla, Kamlesh

2012-01-01

398

Assessing Elementary Science Methods Students' Understanding about Global Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Global climate change, referred to as climate change in this paper, has become an important planetary issue, and given that K-12 students have numerous alternative conceptions or lack of prior knowledge, it is critical that teachers have an understanding of the fundamental science underlying climate change. Teachers need to understand the natural…

Lambert, Julie L.; Lindgren, Joan; Bleicher, Robert

2012-01-01

399

The impact of global change on terrestrial Vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examples of the impact of human activities on Vertebrate populations abound, with famous cases of extinction. This article reviews how and why Vertebrates are affected by the various components of global change. The effect of direct exploitation, while strong, is currently superseded by changes in use of all sorts, while climate change has started having significant effects on some Vertebrate

Jean-Dominique Lebreton

2011-01-01

400

Coral reefs: Corals' adaptive response to climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-term response of coral reefs to climate change depends on the ability of reef-building coral symbioses to adapt or acclimatize to warmer temperatures, but there has been no direct evidence that such a response can occur. Here we show that corals containing unusual algal symbionts that are thermally tolerant and commonly associated with high-temperature environments are much more abundant on reefs that have been severely affected by recent climate change. This adaptive shift in symbiont communities indicates that these devastated reefs could be more resistant to future thermal stress, resulting in significantly longer extinction times for surviving corals than had been previously assumed.

Baker, Andrew C.; Starger, Craig J.; McClanahan, Tim R.; Glynn, Peter W.

2004-08-01

401

Coral reefs: corals' adaptive response to climate change.  

PubMed

The long-term response of coral reefs to climate change depends on the ability of reef-building coral symbioses to adapt or acclimatize to warmer temperatures, but there has been no direct evidence that such a response can occur. Here we show that corals containing unusual algal symbionts that are thermally tolerant and commonly associated with high-temperature environments are much more abundant on reefs that have been severely affected by recent climate change. This adaptive shift in symbiont communities indicates that these devastated reefs could be more resistant to future thermal stress, resulting in significantly longer extinction times for surviving corals than had been previously assumed. PMID:15306799

Baker, Andrew C; Starger, Craig J; McClanahan, Tim R; Glynn, Peter W

2004-08-12

402

Climate Change Adaptation: Getting Ahead of the Curve1 Alexis Saba, Michela Biasutti, Michael B. Gerrard,*  

E-print Network

! 1 ! Climate Change Adaptation: Getting Ahead of the Curve1 Alexis Saba, Michela Biasutti, Michael climate change adaptation in developing countries. Other sources of financing, from multilateral adaptation and how climate change forecasts are used to plan for and evaluate climate change adaptation. We

Biasutti, Michela

403

Twenty-Five Years of Interdisciplinary Global Change Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interdisciplinary approach to global change research is required for scientific advances that are both fundamental and relevant to real-world problems. The Aspen Global Change Institute (AGCI), under the leadership of director John Katzenberger, has provided global leadership for such interdisciplinary science over the past 25 years. From its first workshop, AGCI has brought together physical and social scientists researching the drivers of change, Earth system response, natural and human system impacts, and options for risk management. The sessions are small (usually around 30 participants), held in a retreat-like setting (recently in a tent near a stream), and long enough (a week or more) to allow communication, reflection, and planning. Landmark AGCI science sessions have frequently set the course of future global change research.

Meehl, Gerald A.; Moss, Richard

2014-12-01

404

Ecosystem Change and Public Health: A Global Perspective  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This textbook was published to: 1) raise awareness of changes in human health related to global ecosystem change; and 2) expand the scope of the traditional curriculum in environmental health to include the interactions of major environmental forces and public health on a global scale. The book covers such topics as global climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, water resources management and ecology and infectious disease. Case studies of cholera, malaria, the effects of water resources and global climate change and air pollution illustrate the analysis and methodology. The book also includes a resource center describing places to start searches on the Web, guidelines for finding and evaluating information, suggested study projects and strategies for encouraging communication among course participants.

2001-01-01

405

Global Change and Sustainability Center Spring Seminar Series  

E-print Network

Global Change and Sustainability Center Spring Seminar Series "Air pollution, science, and society" Patrick Barickman Utah Division of Air Quality Tuesday, January 8, 2013 4:00 to 5:00 p.m. 210 ASB #12;Abstract "Air

Tipple, Brett

406

Global lightning activity and climate change. Ph.D. Thesis  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between global lightning frequencies and global climate change is examined in this thesis. In order to study global impacts of climate change, global climate models or General Circulations Models (GCM`s) need to be utilized. Since these models have coarse resolutions many atmospheric phenomena that occur at subgrid scales, such as lightning, need to be parameterized whenever possible. The first chapter introduces a simple parameterization used to simulate total (intracloud and cloud-to-ground) lightning frequencies. The parameterization uses convective cloud top height to approximate lightning frequencies. The second chapter deals with a parameterization for simulating cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning around the globe. This parameterization uses the thickness of the cold cloud sector in thunderstorms (0 C to cloud top) to calculate the proportion of CG flashes in a particular thunderstorm. The third chapter deals with the modelling of lightning in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM. This chapter presents results from the model`s control run. The fourth chapter presents two climate change scenarios. One for a climate where the solar constant is reduced by 2% (5.9 C global cooling), and one for a climate with twice the present concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere (4.2 C global warming). The results imply a 24% / 30% decrease/increase in global lightning frequencies for the cooler/warmer climate. The fifth chapter considers the possibility of using the above findings to monitor future global warming. The results show that the earth`s ionospheric potential, which is regulated by global thunderstorm activity, could possibly supply valuable information regarding global surface temperature fluctuations. The sixth and final chapter looks at the implications of changes in both lightning frequencies and the hydrological cycle, as a result of global warming, on natural forest fires.

Price, C.G.

1993-01-01

407

Grassland vegetation changes and nocturnal global warming  

PubMed

Global minimum temperatures (TMIN) are increasing faster than maximum temperatures, but the ecological consequences of this are largely unexplored. Long-term data sets from the shortgrass steppe were used to identify correlations between TMIN and several vegetation variables. This ecosystem is potentially sensitive to increases in TMIN. Most notably, increased spring TMIN was correlated with decreased net primary production by the dominant C4 grass (Bouteloua gracilis) and with increased abundance and production by exotic and native C3 forbs. Reductions in B. gracilis may make this system more vulnerable to invasion by exotic species and less tolerant of drought and grazing. PMID:9880257

Alward; Detling; Milchunas

1999-01-01

408

Potential Biodiversity Change: Global Patterns and Biome Comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The purpose of the exercise reported in this book was to develop biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100. The scenarios focused\\u000a on 10 terrestrial biomes and freshwater ecosystems, and were based on global scenarios of changes in the environment and current\\u000a understanding about the specific biome sensitivity to global change. The first step was to identify the major drivers of

Osvaldo E. Sala; F. Stuart Chapin; Elisabeth Huber-Sannwald

409

Global Positioning System Antenna Fixed Height Tripod Adapter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved Global Positioning em antenna adaptor allows fixed antenna height measurements by removably attaching an adaptor plate to a conventional surveyor's tripod. Antenna height is controlled by an antenna boom which is a fixed length rod. The antenna is attached to one end of the boom. The opposite end of the boom tapers to a point sized to fit into a depression at the center of survey markers. The boom passes through the hollow center of a universal ball joint which is mounted at the center of the adaptor plate so that the point of the rod can be fixed in the marker's central depression. The mountains of the ball joint allow the joint to be moved horizontally in any direction relative to the tripod. When the ball joint is moved horizontally, the angle between the boom and the vertical changes because the boom's position is fixed at its lower end. A spirit level attached to the rod allows an operator to determine when the boom is plumb. The position of the ball joint is adjusted horizontally until the boom is plumb. At that time the antenna is positioned exactly over the center of the monument and the elevation of the antenna is precisely set by the length of the boom.

Dinardo, Steven J.; Smith, Mark A.

1997-01-01

410

Contextualizing the global relevance of local land change observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand global changes in the Earth system, scientists must generalize globally from observations made locally and regionally. In land change science (LCS), local field-based observations are costly and time consuming, and generally obtained by researchers working at disparate local and regional case-study sites chosen for different reasons. As a result, global synthesis efforts in LCS tend to be based on non-statistical inferences subject to geographic biases stemming from data limitations and fragmentation. Thus, a fundamental challenge is the production of generalized knowledge that links evidence of the causes and consequences of local land change to global patterns and vice versa. The GLOBE system was designed to meet this challenge. GLOBE aims to transform global change science by enabling new scientific workflows based on statistically robust, globally relevant integration of local and regional observations using an online social-computational and geovisualization system. Consistent with the goals of Digital Earth, GLOBE has the capability to assess the global relevance of local case-study findings within the context of over 50 global biophysical, land-use, climate, and socio-economic datasets. We demonstrate the implementation of one such assessment - a representativeness analysis - with a recently published meta-study of changes in swidden agriculture in tropical forests. The analysis provides a standardized indicator to judge the global representativeness of the trends reported in the meta-study, and a geovisualization is presented that highlights areas for which sampling efforts can be reduced and those in need of further study. GLOBE will enable researchers and institutions to rapidly share, compare, and synthesize local and regional studies within the global context, as well as contributing to the larger goal of creating a Digital Earth.

Magliocca, N. R.; Ellis, E. C.; Oates, T.; Schmill, M.

2014-02-01

411

Visuomotor adaptation changes stereoscopic depth perception and tactile discrimination.  

PubMed

Perceptual judgments of relative depth from binocular disparity are systematically distorted in humans, despite in principle having access to reliable 3D information. Interestingly, these distortions vanish at a natural grasping distance, as if perceived stereo depth is contingent on a specific reference distance for depth-disparity scaling that corresponds to the length of our arm. Here we show that the brain's representation of the arm indeed powerfully modulates depth perception, and that this internal calibration can be quickly updated. We used a classic visuomotor adaptation task in which subjects execute reaching movements with the visual feedback of their reaching finger displaced farther in depth, as if they had a longer arm. After adaptation, 3D perception changed dramatically, and became accurate at the "new" natural grasping distance, the updated disparity scaling reference distance. We further tested whether the rapid adaptive changes were restricted to the visual modality or were characteristic of sensory systems in general. Remarkably, we found an improvement in tactile discrimination consistent with a magnified internal image of the arm. This suggests that the brain integrates sensory signals with information about arm length, and quickly adapts to an artificially updated body structure. These adaptive processes are most likely a relic of the mechanisms needed to optimally correct for changes in size and shape of the body during ontogenesis. PMID:24155312

Volcic, Robert; Fantoni, Carlo; Caudek, Corrado; Assad, John A; Domini, Fulvio

2013-10-23

412

Global hydrological droughts in the 21st century under a changing hydrological regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change very likely impacts future hydrological drought characteristics across the world. Here, we quantify the impact of climate change on future low flows and associated hydrological drought characteristics on a global scale using an alternative drought identification approach that considers adaptation to future changes in hydrological regime. The global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB was used to simulate daily discharge at 0.5° globally for 1971-2099. The model was forced with CMIP5 climate projections taken from five global circulation models (GCMs) and four emission scenarios (representative concentration pathways, RCPs), from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project. Drought events occur when discharge is below a threshold. The conventional variable threshold (VTM) was calculated by deriving the threshold from the period 1971-2000. The transient variable threshold (VTMt) is a non-stationary approach, where the threshold is based on the discharge values of the previous 30 years implying the threshold to vary every year during the 21st century. The VTMt adjusts to gradual changes in the hydrological regime as response to climate change. Results show a significant negative trend in the low flow regime over the 21st century for large parts of South America, southern Africa, Australia and the Mediterranean. In 40-52% of the world reduced low flows are projected, while increased low flows are found in the snow-dominated climates. In 27% of the global area both the drought duration and the deficit volume are expected to increase when applying the VTMt. However, this area will significantly increase to 62% when the VTM is applied. The mean global area in drought, with the VTMt, remains rather constant (11.7 to 13.4%), compared to the substantial increase when the VTM is applied (11.7 to 20%). The study illustrates that an alternative drought identification that considers adaptation to an altered hydrological regime has a substantial influence on future hydrological drought characteristics.

Wanders, N.; Wada, Y.; Van Lanen, H. A. J.

2015-01-01

413

Integrated Earth Systems: Confronting Global Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is the course syllabus for a geography course taught at Ohio State University. The course is designed to provide a basic understanding of both natural and human caused climate change. Lectures explore the issues surrounding recent climate change and the role of human activities in shaping the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the environment that sustains life on Earth. Links to the class homepage, tutorials and quizzes from the textbook, and a list of course topics are also included.

Ellen Mosley-Thompson

414

From global change to a butterfly flapping: biophysics and behaviour affect tropical climate change impacts.  

PubMed

Difficulty in characterizing the relationship between climatic variability and climate change vulnerability arises when we consider the multiple scales at which this variation occurs, be it temporal (from minute to annual) or spatial (from centimetres to kilometres). We studied populations of a single widely distributed butterfly species, Chlosyne lacinia, to examine the physiological, morphological, thermoregulatory and biophysical underpinnings of adaptation to tropical and temperate climates. Microclimatic and morphological data along with a biophysical model documented the importance of solar radiation in predicting butterfly body temperature. We also integrated the biophysics with a physiologically based insect fitness model to quantify the influence of solar radiation, morphology and behaviour on warming impact projections. While warming is projected to have some detrimental impacts on tropical ectotherms, fitness impacts in this study are not as negative as models that assume body and air temperature equivalence would suggest. We additionally show that behavioural thermoregulation can diminish direct warming impacts, though indirect thermoregulatory consequences could further complicate predictions. With these results, at multiple spatial and temporal scales, we show the importance of biophysics and behaviour for studying biodiversity consequences of global climate change, and stress that tropical climate change impacts are likely to be context-dependent. PMID:25165769

Bonebrake, Timothy C; Boggs, Carol L; Stamberger, Jeannie A; Deutsch, Curtis A; Ehrlich, Paul R

2014-10-22

415

An adaptive method to derive direct irradiance from global , P. Blanc2  

E-print Network

An adaptive method to derive direct irradiance from global irradiance A. Oumbe1* , Z. Qu2 , P for Concentrated Solar Technology (CST) such as solar energy conversion systems: parabolic through, solar towers, parabolic dish or concentrated photovoltaic. Several global-to-direct irradiance conversion schemes

Boyer, Edmond

416

How climate change will exacerbate global water scarcity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water scarcity, in particular the dearth of renewable water resources for agricultural, industrial and domestic purposes, severely impairs food security and economic prosperity in many countries today. Ex- pected future population changes will, in most countries as well as globally, increase water scarcity through increased demand. On the supply side, renewable water resources will be affected by projected changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, and other climate variables. The magnitude and pattern of hydrological changes however depend on complex interactions between climate, biosphere, and surface properties. Here we use a large ensemble of global hydrological models (GHMs) driven by five global climate models (GCMs) in the framework of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP) to show that climate change is very likely to exacerbate the global water scarcity problem significantly. In particular, the simulation ensemble average projects that beyond a global warming of 1°C above 1980-2010 levels (approx. 1.5°C above pre-industrial), each additional degree of warming confronts an additional 7-10% of global population with a severe (>20%) decrease in water resources. A warming of 3°C is projected to enhance the global increase in absolute water scarcity, expected from population changes alone, by about 25%, together amounting to more 13% (5-30%) of the world population living at less than 500m3 annual runoff per capita by the end of this century. The projected impacts at different levels of global warming are similar across different climate change scenarios, indicating that dependence on the rate of climate change is low. At the same time, the study highlights significant uncertainties associated with these projections, resulting both from the spread among climate projections and from the GHMs.

Schewe, Jacob; Heinke, Jens; Gerten, Dieter; Haddeland, Ingjerd; Arnell, Nigel; Clark, Douglas; Dankers, Rutger; Eisner, Stephanie; Fekete, Balázs; Kim, Hyungjun; Liu, Xingcai; Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Portmann, Felix; Satoh, Yusuke; Stacke, Tobias; Tang, Qiuhong; Wada, Yoshihide; Wisser, Dominik; Albrecht, Torsten

2013-04-01

417

Some guidelines for helping natural resources adapt to climate change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The changes occurring in mountain regions are an epitome of climate change. The dramatic shrinkage of major glaciers over the past century – and especially in the last 30 years – is one of several iconic images that have come to symbolize climate change. Climate creates the context for ecosystems, and climate variables strongly influence the structure, composition, and processes that characterize distinct ecosystems. Climate change, therefore, is having direct and indirect effects on species attributes, ecological interactions, and ecosystem processes. Because changes in the climate system will continue regardless of emissions mitigation, management strategies to enhance the resilience of ecosystems will become increasingly important. It is essential that management responses to climate change proceed using the best available science despite uncertainties associated with the future path of climate change, the response of ecosystems to climate effects, and the effects of management. Given these uncertainties, management adaptation will require flexibility to reflect our growing understanding of climate change impacts and management effectiveness.

Baron, Jill S.; Julius, Susan Herrod; West, Jordan M.; Joyce, Linda A.; Blate, Geoffrey; Peterson, Charles H.; Palmer, Margaret; Keller, Brian D.; Kareiva, Peter; Scott, J. Michael; Griffith, Brad

2008-01-01

418

Health impacts of heat in a changing climate: how can emerging science inform urban adaptation planning?  

PubMed

Extreme heat is one of the most important global causes of weather-related mortality, and climate change is leading to more frequent and intense heat waves. Recent epidemiologic findings on heat-related health impacts have reinforced our understanding of mortality impacts of extreme heat and have shown a range of impacts on morbidity outcomes including cardiovascular, respiratory and mental health responses. Evidence is also emerging on temporal trends towards decreasing exposure-response, probably reflecting autonomous population adaptation. Many cities are actively engaged in the development of heat adaptation plans to reduce future health impacts. Epidemiologic research into the evolution of local heat-health responses over time can greatly aid adaptation planning for heat, prevention of adverse health outcomes among vulnerable populations, as well as evaluation of new interventions. Such research will be facilitated by the formation of research partnerships involving epidemiologists, climate scientists, and local stakeholders. PMID:25422797

Petkova, Elisaveta P; Morita, Haruka; Kinney, Patrick L

2014-06-01

419

Gardening and urban landscaping: significant players in global change.  

PubMed

Global warming leads to shifts in vegetation types in given temperate environments. The fastest species movement is due to the globalized supply and use of exotic plants in gardening and urban landscaping. These standard practices circumvent dispersal limitations and biological and environmental stresses; they have three major global impacts: (i) the enhancement of biological invasions, (ii) the elevation of volatile organic compound emissions and the resulting increase in photochemical smog formation, and (iii) the enhancement of CO(2) fixation and water use by gardened plants. These global effects, none of which are currently considered in global-change scenarios, are increasingly amplified with further warming and urbanization. We urge for quantitative assessment of the global effects of gardening and urban landscaping. PMID:18262823

Niinemets, Ulo; Peñuelas, Josep

2008-02-01

420

Optimizing Reservoir Operation to Adapt to the Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change and upcoming variation in flood timing necessitates the adaptation of current rule curves developed for operation of water reservoirs as to reduce the potential damage from either flood or draught events. This study attempts to optimize the current rule curves of Cougar Dam on McKenzie River in Oregon addressing some possible climate conditions in 21th century. The objective

S. Madadgar; I. Jung; H. Moradkhani

2010-01-01

421

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series  

E-print Network

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series Livestock Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry of Environment Pacific Institute for Climate

Pedersen, Tom

422

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series  

E-print Network

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series Grain & Oilseed Production Peace Region snapshot report #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri

Pedersen, Tom

423

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series  

E-print Network

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series Fraser Valley & Metro Vancouver snapshot report #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry

Pedersen, Tom

424

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series  

E-print Network

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series Wine Grape & Tree Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry of Environment Pacific Institute for Climate

Pedersen, Tom

425

Autonomous Adaptation to Simultaneous Unexpected Changes in Modular Robots  

E-print Network

Autonomous Adaptation to Simultaneous Unexpected Changes in Modular Robots Nadeesha Ranasinghe@isi.edu Abstract-- To accomplish tasks in the real world, a robot (especially a modular and self-reconfigurable one/configurations in the environment. Failures, faults and reconfiguration that commonly occur in modular robots result in simultaneous

Shen, Wei-Min

426

Global Ups and Downs, Changing Sea Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unitfocuses on the concept that changes in sea level have occurred in the past, are occurring now, and will continue to occur. The unit provides an inquiry-based exploration of the lines of evidence for periodic melting of ice and resulting sea level rise: glacial evidence, geologic evidence, fossil evidence, and isotopic evidence. Students learn about the worldwide effects of sea level changes in the past and then use a study on topography and sea level to demonstrate their understanding of impact of sea level change on flora, fauna, and human society. Details about the supported concepts and standards, lessons with activities organized into teachable units, and a section describing the online resources used in the unit are provided for ready reference.

2005-01-01

427

South Australian farmers' concerns and adaptation options for climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports some of the suggested adaptations to climate change from about 500 primary producers in South Australia during a series of thirty-five climate risk workshops held from 2006 to 2008. Not surprisingly, many of the impacts that primary producers were concerned about from the early stages of climate change were similar to climate risks associated with year-to-year variability.

Melissa Rebbeck; Trudi Duffield

428

Adaptability of Regional Planning in Lower Saxony to Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this contribution, adaptability is considered to be an aspect of resilience with the goal of dealing successfully with\\u000a change and shaping it in a sustainable fashion. Using Lower Saxony as an example, this contribution discusses the extent to\\u000a which the institutional framework of regional planning appears to be suitable for confronting the challenges of climate change.

Enke Franck

429

Synergisms between climate change mitigation and adaptation: an insurance perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the world’s largest industry, the insurance sector is both an aggregator of the impacts of climate change and a market\\u000a actor able to play a material role in decreasing the vulnerability of human and natural systems. This article reviews the\\u000a implications of climate change for insurers and provides specific examples of insurance-relevant synergisms between adaptation\\u000a and mitigation in the

Evan Mills

2007-01-01

430

Climate change: linking adaptation and mitigation through agroforestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture is the human enterprise that is most vulnerable to climate change. Tropical agriculture, particularly subsistence\\u000a agriculture is particularly vulnerable, as smallholder farmers do not have adequate resources to adapt to climate change.\\u000a While agroforestry may play a significant role in mitigating the atmospheric accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG), it also\\u000a has a role to play in helping smallholder farmers

Louis V. Verchot; Meine Van Noordwijk; Serigne Kandji; Tom Tomich; Chin Ong; Alain Albrecht; Jens Mackensen; Cynthia Bantilan; K. V. Anupama; Cheryl Palm

2007-01-01

431

Threat to future global food security from climate change and ozone air pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future food production is highly vulnerable to both climate change and air pollution with implications for global food security. Climate change adaptation and ozone regulation have been identified as important strategies to safeguard food production, but little is known about how climate and ozone pollution interact to affect agriculture, nor the relative effectiveness of these two strategies for different crops and regions. Here we present an integrated analysis of the individual and combined effects of 2000-2050 climate change and ozone trends on the production of four major crops (wheat, rice, maize and soybean) worldwide based on historical observations and model projections, specifically accounting for ozone-temperature co-variation. The projections exclude the effect of rising CO2, which has complex and potentially offsetting impacts on global food supply. We show that warming reduces global crop production by >10% by 2050 with a potential to substantially worsen global malnutrition in all scenarios considered. Ozone trends either exacerbate or offset a substantial fraction of climate impacts depending on the scenario, suggesting the importance of air quality management in agricultural planning. Furthermore, we find that depending on region some crops are primarily sensitive to either ozone (for example, wheat) or heat (for example, maize) alone, providing a measure of relative benefits of climate adaptation versus ozone regulation for food security in different regions.

Tai, Amos P. K.; Martin, Maria Val; Heald, Colette L.

2014-09-01

432

Ecosystem Service Supply and Vulnerability to Global Change in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global change will alter the supply of ecosystem services that are vital for human well-being. To investigate ecosystem service supply during the 21st century, we used a range of ecosystem models and scenarios of climate and land-use change to conduct a Europe-wide assessment. Large changes in climate and land use typically resulted in large changes in ecosystem service supply. Some

Dagmar Schröter; Wolfgang Cramer; Rik Leemans; I. Colin Prentice; Miguel B. Araújo; Nigel W. Arnell; Alberte Bondeau; Harald Bugmann; Timothy R. Carter; Carlos A. Gracia; Anne C. de la Vega-Leinert; Markus Erhard; Frank Ewert; Margaret Glendining; Joanna I. House; Susanna Kankaanpää; Sandra Lavorel; Marcus Lindner; Marc J. Metzger; Jeannette Meyer; Timothy D. Mitchell; Isabelle Reginster; Mark Rounsevell; Santi Sabaté; Stephen Sitch; Ben Smith; Jo Smith; Pete Smith; Martin T. Sykes; Kirsten Thonicke; Wilfried Thuiller; Gill Tuck; Sönke Zaehle; Bärbel Zierl

2005-01-01

433

Tropical forests and global atmospheric change: a synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a personal perspective on the highlights of the Theme Issue 'Tropical forests and global atmospheric change'. We highlight the key findings on the contemporary rate of climatic change in the tropics, the evidence—gained from field studies—of large-scale and rapid change in the dynamics and biomass of old-growth forests, and evidence of how climate change and fragmentation can interact

Yadvinder Malhi; Oliver L. Phillips

2004-01-01

434

Technological Change, Globalization, and the Community College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In early nineteenth-century England, workers now known as Luddites roamed the countryside destroying machinery that they saw as creating unemployment and upsetting their traditional way of life. They believed that the growing mechanization of production, what people would now call technological change, and the expanding volume of trade ushered in…

Romano, Richard M.; Dellow, Donald A.

2009-01-01

435

Adapting to Climate Change in WisconsinAdapting to Climate Change in Wisconsin Strategies for Conservation ProfessionalsStrategies for Conservation Professionals  

E-print Network

Adapting to Climate Change in WisconsinAdapting to Climate Change in Wisconsin ­ Strategies Association December 9, 2010 David S. Liebl #12;Overview · Understanding climate change · Wisconsin's changing Vegetation indicators #12;Indicators of a changing climate J. Magnuson Source: IPCC 2007 Potter, et al

Sheridan, Jennifer

436

Mission to Planet Earth: A program to understand global environmental change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description of Mission to Planet Earth, a program to understand global environmental change, is presented. Topics discussed include: changes in the environment; global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; and NASA's role in global change research.

1994-01-01

437

Mission to Planet Earth: A program to understand global environmental change  

SciTech Connect

A description of Mission to Planet Earth, a program to understand global environmental change, is presented. Topics discussed include: changes in the environment; global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; and NASA's role in global change research.

Not Available

1994-02-01

438

Global Climate Change and Ocean Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The New England Aquarium, collaborating with other aquariums across the country, is leading a national effort to enable aquariums and related informal science education institutions to effectively communicate the impacts of climate change and ocean acidification on marine animals, habitats and ecosystems. Our goal is to build on visitors' emotional connection with ocean animals, connect to their deeply held values, help them understand causes and effects of climate change and motivate them to embrace effective solutions. Our objectives are to: (1) Build a national coalition of aquariums and related informal education institutions collaborating on climate change education; (2) Develop an interpretive framework for climate change and the ocean that is scientifically sound, research-based, field tested and evaluated; and (3) Build capacity of aquariums to interpret climate change via training for interpreters, interactive exhibits and activities and communities of practice for ongoing support. Centers of informal learning have the potential to bring important environmental issues to the public by presenting the facts, explaining the science, connecting with existing values and interests, and motivating concern and action. Centers that work with live animals (including aquariums, zoos, nature centers, national parks, national marine sanctuaries, etc.) are unique in that they attract large numbers of people of all ages (over 140 million in the US), have strong connections to the natural, and engage many visitors who may not come with a primary interest in science. Recent research indicates that that the public expects and trusts aquariums, zoos, and museums to communicate solutions to environmental and ocean issues, and to advance ocean conservation, and that climate change is the environmental issue of most concern to the public; Ironically, however, most people do not associate climate change with ocean health, or understand the critical role that the ocean plays in the Earth's climate system. The problem is not simply that the public lacks information. In fact, the problem is often that there is too much information available with much of it complicated and even contradictory. The news media, both print and electronic, tend to exacerbate this by aiming for "balance" even when there is an overwhelming scientific or policy consensus. An additional problem is "reinforcement bias," which tends to lead people to focus on information that supports what they already believe or think they know. Instead, we need an approach that facilitates "meaning-making." A "framing" approach to communication (Frameworks Institute, 2010) supports meaning-making by appealing to strongly held values, providing metaphoric language and models, and illustrating specific applications to real world problems. This approach translates complex science in a way that allows people to examine evidence, make well-informed decisions, and embrace science-based solutions. However, interpreters need specialized training, resources, up-to-date information, and ongoing support to help understand a complex topic such as climate change, its connections to the ocean, and how to relate it to the live animals, habitats and exhibits they interpret.

Spitzer, W.; Anderson, J.

2011-12-01

439

Global climate change and the mitigation challenge  

SciTech Connect

Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), have led to increasing atmospheric concentrations, very likely the primary cause of the 0.8{sup o}C warming the Earth has experienced since the Industrial Revolution. With industrial activity and population expected to increase for the rest of the century, large increases in greenhouse gas emissions are projected, with substantial global additional warming predicted. This paper examines forces driving CO{sub 2} emissions, a concise sector-by-sector summary of mitigation options, and research and development (R&D) priorities. To constrain warming to below approximately 2.5{sup o}C in 2100, the recent annual 3% CO{sub 2} emission growth rate needs to transform rapidly to an annual decrease rate of from 1 to 3% for decades. Furthermore, the current generation of energy generation and end-use technologies are capable of achieving less than half of the emission reduction needed for such a major mitigation program. New technologies will have to be developed and deployed at a rapid rate, especially for the key power generation and transportation sectors. Current energy technology research, development, demonstration, and deployment (RDD&D) programs fall far short of what is required. 20 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

Frank Princiotta [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division

2009-10-15

440

CHANGES IN SHADE, COLOR, AND PATTERN IN FISHES, AND THEIR BEARING ON THE PROBLEMS OF ADAPTATION  

E-print Network

CHANGES IN SHADE, COLOR, AND PATTERN IN FISHES, AND THEIR BEARING ON THE PROBLEMS OF ADAPTATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 General survey of changes in shade, color, and pattern in fishes Behavior ' 182 Adaptive changes in shade, color, and pattern

441

Marine alien species as an aspect of global change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transport of organisms across oceans is an anthropogenic agent of global change that has profoundly affected the natural distribution of littoral biota and altered the makeup of biogeographic regions. The homogenization of marine biotas is a phenomenon especially affecting coastal regions and is spearheaded by a suite of opportunistic species at the expense of native species. Climate change may

Anna Occhipinti-Ambrogi; Bella Galil

2010-01-01

442

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND AGRICULTURE: AN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE  

EPA Science Inventory

Climate change and related global concerns dominate the current environmental agenda as evidenced by the recent wave of articles, symposia workshops, and other scientific and lay forms dealing with this issue. hile most atmospheric scientists agree that a climate change "signal" ...

443

NOAA's Office of Global Programs Climate Change Data and Detection  

E-print Network

NOAA's Office of Global Programs Climate Change Data and Detection Applied Research Center (ARC) 12 stations worldwide. A WMO baseline data set, GHCN is used operationally by NCDC to monitor climatic variability, and it is widely applied in studies of climate change and in international assessment activities

444

A Tale of Two Minds: Psychology and Global Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Psychological Association recently released its Presidential Task Force report on Psychology and Global Climate Change. Its principles and proposals would inaugurate a long and productive program of psychological research on climate change. But is it too little, too late? Climatologists have been growing progressively gloomier over…

Howard, George S.

2010-01-01

445

Sulfur dioxide initiates global climate change in four ways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change, prior to the 20th century, appears to have been initiated primarily by major changes in volcanic activity. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is the most voluminous chemically active gas emitted by volcanoes and is readily oxidized to sulfuric acid normally within weeks. But trace amounts of SO2 exert significant influence on climate. All major historic volcanic eruptions have formed

Peter L. Ward

2009-01-01

446

Loss of adaptive variation during evolutionary responses to climate change.  

PubMed

The changes in species' geographical distribution demanded by climate change are often critically limited by the availability of key interacting species. In such cases, species' persistence will depend on the rapid evolution of biotic interactions. Understanding evolutionary limits to such adaptation is therefore crucial for predicting biological responses to environmental change. The recent poleward range expansion of the UK brown argus butterfly has been associated with a shift in female preference from its main host plant, rockrose (Cistaceae), onto Geraniaceae host plants throughout its new distribution. Using reciprocal transplants onto natural host plants across the UK range, we demonstrate reduced fitness of females from recently colonised Geraniaceae-dominated habitat when moved to ancestral rockrose habitats. By contrast, individuals from ancestral rockrose habitats show no reduction in fitness on Geraniaceae. Climate-driven range expansion in this species is therefore associated with the rapid evolution of biotic interactions and a significant loss of adaptive variation. PMID:25104062

Buckley, James; Bridle, Jon R

2014-10-01

447

Global Climate Change and Children’s Health: Threats and Strategies for Prevention  

PubMed Central

Background Global climate change will have multiple effects on human health. Vulnerable populations—children, the elderly, and the poor—will be disproportionately affected. Objective We reviewed projected impacts of climate change on children’s health, the pathways involved in these effects, and prevention strategies. Data sources We assessed primary studies, review articles, and organizational reports. Data synthesis Climate change is increasing the global burden of disease and in the year 2000 was responsible for > 150,000 deaths worldwide. Of this disease burden, 88% fell upon children. Documented health effects include changing ranges of vector-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue; increased diarrheal and respiratory disease; increased morbidity and mortality from extreme weather; changed exposures to toxic chemicals; worsened poverty; food and physical insecurity; and threats to human habitation. Heat-related health effects for which research is emerging include diminished school performance, increased rates of pregnancy complications, and renal effects. Stark variation in these outcomes is evident by geographic region and socioeconomic status, and these impacts will exacerbate health disparities. Prevention strategies to reduce health impacts of climate change include reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation through multiple public health interventions. Conclusions Further quantification of the effects of climate change on children’s health is needed globally and also at regional and local levels through enhanced monitoring of children’s environmental health and by tracking selected indicators. Climate change preparedness strategies need to be incorporated into public health programs. PMID:20947468

Sheffield, Perry E.; Landrigan, Philip J.

2011-01-01

448

Global hydrological droughts in the 21st century under a changing hydrological regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change very likely impacts future hydrological drought characteristics across the world. Here, we quantify the impact of climate change on future low flows and associated hydrological drought characteristics on a global scale using an alternative drought identification approach that considers adaptation to future changes in hydrological regime. The global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB was used to simulate daily discharge at 0.5° globally for 1971-2099. The model was forced with CMIP5 climate projections taken from five GCMs and four emission scenarios (RCPs), from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project. Drought events occur when discharge is below a threshold. The conventional variable threshold (VTM) was calculated by deriving the threshold from the period 1971-2000. The transient variable threshold (VTMt) is a non-stationary approach, where the threshold is based on the discharge values of the previous 30 years implying the threshold to vary every year during the 21st century. The VTMt adjusts to gradual changes in the hydrological regime as response to climate change. Results show a significant negative trend in the low flow regime over the 21st century for large parts of South America, southern Africa, Australia and the Mediterranean. In 40-52% of the world reduced low flows are projected, while increased low flows are found in the snow dominated climates. In 27% of the global area both the drought duration and the deficit volume are expected to increase when applying the VTMt. However, this area will significantly increase to 62% when the VTM is applied. The mean global area in drought, with the VTMt, remains rather constant (11.7 to 13.4%), compared to the substantial increase when the VTM is applied (11.7 to 20%). The study illustrates that an alternative drought identification that considers adaptation to an altered hydrological regime, has a substantial influence on future hydrological drought characteristics.

Wanders, N.; Wada, Y.; Van Lanen, H. A. J.

2014-06-01

449

Global climate change and tropical cyclones  

SciTech Connect

This paper offers an overview of the authors's studies during a specialized international symposium where they aimed at making an objective assessment of whether climate changes, consequent on an expected doubling of atmospheric CO[sub 2] in the next six or seven decades, are likely to increase significantly the frequency or intensity of tropical cyclones (TC). Out of three methodologies available for addressing the question they employ two, discarding the third for reasons set out in the appendix. In the first methodology, the authors enumerate reasons why, in tropical oceans, the increase in sea surface temperature (SST) suggested by climate change models might be expected to affect either (i) TC frequency, because a well-established set of six conditions for TC formation include a condition that SST should exceed 26[degrees]C, or (ii) TC intensity, because this is indicated by thermodynamic analysis to depend critically on the temperature at which energy transfer to air near the sea surface takes place. But careful study of both suggestions indicates that the expected effects of increased SST would be largely self-limiting (i) because the other five conditions strictly control how far the band of latitudes for TC formation can be further widened, and (ii) because intense winds at the sea surface may receive their energy input at a temperature significantly depressed by evaporation of spray, and possibly through sea surface cooling. In the second methodology, the authors study available historical records that have very large year-to-year variability in TC statistics. They find practically no consistent statistical relationships with temperature anomalies; also, a thorough analysis of how the El Nino-Southern Oscillation cycle influences the frequency and distribution of TCs shows any direct effects of local SST changes to be negligible. 28 refs., 4 figs.

Lighthill, J. (Univ. College London (United Kingdom)); Holland, G. (Bureau of Meteorology Research Center, Melbourne (Australia)); Gray, W.; Landsea, C. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)); Craig, G. (Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom)); Evans, J. (Pennsylvania State Univ., College Park, PA (United States)); Kurihara, Yoshio (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)); Guard, C. (Univ. of Guam, Mangilao (Guam))

1994-11-01

450

Global Climate Change Research Explorer: Biosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Take a first-hand look at how climate change affects the biosphere at this Web site from San Francisco's Exploratorium. Visitors can access long-term, short-term, and even near real time data from a number of research projects conducted by various institutions. All data are presented graphically, with straightforward explanations of phenomena in question. Science educators may find this Web site useful in that it conveys the sense of "how researchers gather evidence, test theories, and come to conclusions." A helpful glossary and a number of useful related links are included.

2002-01-01

451

Global Climate Change : The Ross Ice Shelf  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video lecture explores the effects of climate change on the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica. Slides depict how a large iceberg fell off the Ross Ice Shelf in March 2000. The lecturer describes his expedition to the ice shelf shortly after this event. He describes dives conducted to observe the underwater ecosystems containing krill and jellyfish, and the ocean currents around the icebergs. Facts about the icebergs in Antarctica are presented, and the sensitivity of polar regions to climate is explained. The video is 14 minutes in length.

2007-12-12

452

Defining Health Diplomacy: Changing Demands in the Era of Globalization  

PubMed Central

Context: Accelerated globalization has produced obvious changes in diplomatic purposes and practices. Health issues have become increasingly preeminent in the evolving global diplomacy agenda. More leaders in academia and policy are thinking about how to structure and utilize diplomacy in pursuit of global health goals. Methods: In this article, we describe the context, practice, and components of global health diplomacy, as applied operationally. We examine the foundations of various approaches to global health diplomacy, along with their implications for the policies shaping the international public health and foreign policy environments. Based on these observations, we propose a taxonomy for the subdiscipline. Findings: Expanding demands on global health diplomacy require a delicate combination of technical expertise, legal knowledge, and diplomatic skills that have not been systematically cultivated among either foreign service or global health professionals. Nonetheless, high expectations that global health initiatives will achieve development and diplomatic goals beyond the immediate technical objectives may be thwarted by this gap. Conclusions: The deepening links between health and foreign policy require both the diplomatic and global health communities to reexamine the skills, comprehension, and resources necessary to achieve their mutual objectives. PMID:21933277

Katz, Rebecca; Kornblet, Sarah; Arnold, Grace; Lief, Eric; Fischer, Julie E

2011-01-01

453

Between adaptation and resistance : labor responses to globalization in France  

E-print Network

This dissertation aims at accounting for labor responses to globalization in France. It addresses this issue through a comparative study of two labor organizations-the French Democratic Labor Confederation (CFDT) and the ...

Ancelovici, Marcos, 1971-

2008-01-01

454

Little change in global drought over the past 60 years.  

PubMed

Drought is expected to increase in frequency and severity in the future as a result of climate change, mainly as a consequence of decreases in regional precipitation but also because of increasing evaporation driven by global warming. Previous assessments of historic changes in drought over the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries indicate that this may already be happening globally. In particular, calculations of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) show a decrease in moisture globally since the 1970s with a commensurate increase in the area in drought that is attributed, in part, to global warming. The simplicity of the PDSI, which is calculated from a simple water-balance model forced by monthly precipitation and temperature data, makes it an attractive tool in large-scale drought assessments, but may give biased results in the context of climate change. Here we show that the previously reported increase in global drought is overestimated because the PDSI uses a simplified model of potential evaporation that responds only to changes in temperature and thus responds incorrectly to global warming in recent decades. More realistic calculations, based on the underlying physical principles that take into account changes in available energy, humidity and wind speed, suggest that there has been little change in drought over the past 60 years. The results have implications for how we interpret the impact of global warming on the hydrological cycle and its extremes, and may help to explain why palaeoclimate drought reconstructions based on tree-ring data diverge from the PDSI-based drought record in recent years. PMID:23151587

Sheffield, Justin; Wood, Eric F; Roderick, Michael L

2012-11-15

455

Malaria and global change: Insights, uncertainties and possible surprises  

SciTech Connect

Malaria may change with global change. Indeed, global change may affect malaria risk and malaria epidemiology. Malaria risk may change in response to a greenhouse warming; malaria epidemiology, in response to the social, economic, and political developments which a greenhouse warming may trigger. To date, malaria receptivity and epidemiology futures have been explored within the context of equilibrium studies. Equilibrium studies of climate change postulate an equilibrium present climate (the starting point) and a doubled-carbon dioxide climate (the end point), simulate conditions in both instances, and compare the two. What happens while climate changes, i.e., between the starting point and the end point, is ignored. The present paper focuses on malaria receptivity and addresses what equilibrium studies miss, namely transient malaria dynamics.

Martin, P.H.; Steel, A.

1996-12-31

456

Role of Bioethanol in Global Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has supported a research and development program for the establishment of renewable, biomass-derived, liquid fuels for the better part of the last twenty years. These 'biofuels' represent opportunities to respond to uncertainties about our energy security and the future health of our environment. Throughout its history, the Biofuels program has experienced an ongoing fiscal 'roller coaster'. Funding has ebbed and flowed with changing political and public attitudes about energy. The program was initiated in a flood of funding in the late 1970s related to the energy shortages experienced in that period. The flooding turned rapidly to drought as falling oil prices dissipated public concern about energy supplies. In the late 1980s, funding for the program slowly increased, driven by national security issues.

Sheehan, J.

1998-01-01

457

Global change and biodiversity loss: Some impediments to response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussed here are the effects of anthropogenic global climate change on biodiversity. The focus is on human responses to the problem. Greenhouse warming-induced climate change may shift agricultural growing belts, reduce forests of the Northern Hemisphere and drive many species to extinction, among other effects. If these changes occur together with the mass extinctions already occurring, we may suffer a profound loss of biological diversity.

Borza, Karen; Jamieson, Dale

1991-01-01

458

Future changes in global warming potentials under representative concentration pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming potentials (GWPs) are the metrics currently used to compare emissions of different greenhouse gases under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Future changes in greenhouse gas concentrations will alter GWPs because the radiative efficiencies of marginal changes in CO2, CH4 and N2O depend on their background concentrations, the removal of CO2 is influenced by climate-carbon cycle

Andy Reisinger; Malte Meinshausen; Martin Manning

2011-01-01

459

Parasitic and Infectious Disease Responses to Changing Global Nutrient Cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitic and infectious diseases (PIDs) are a significant threat to human, livestock, and wildlife health and are changing\\u000a dramatically in the face of human-induced environmental changes such as those in climate and land use. In this article we\\u000a explore the little-studied but potentially important response of PIDs to another major environmental change, that in the global\\u000a nutrient cycles. Humans have

Valerie J. McKenzie; Alan R. Townsend

2007-01-01

460

Examining Long-Term Global Climate Change on the Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes an activity in which students use web-based resources to investigate global climate change. The investigation takes the form of a computer activity in which they collect data from the internet on temperature, concentrations of various gases, oxygen isotopes, and others. The activity begins by posing the question: 'Should the U.S. and other countries limit emissions of greenhouse gases to reduce global warming?' The students then construct graphs, look for trends, and report their findings.

Jacqueline Huntoon

461

Linked Open Data in the Global Change Information System (GCIS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Global Change Research Program (http://globalchange.gov) coordinates and integrates federal research on changes in the global environment and their implications for society. The USGCRP is developing a Global Change Information System (GCIS) that will centralize access to data and information related to global change across the U.S. federal government. The first implementation will focus on the 2013 National Climate Assessment (NCA) . (http://assessment.globalchange.gov) The NCA integrates, evaluates, and interprets the findings of the USGCRP; analyzes the effects of global change on the natural environment, agriculture, energy production and use, land and water resources, transportation, human health and welfare, human social systems, and biological diversity; and analyzes current trends in global change, both human-induced and natural, and projects major trends for the subsequent 25 to 100 years. The NCA has received over 500 distinct technical inputs to the process, many of which are reports distilling and synthesizing even more information, coming from thousands of individuals around the federal, state and local governments, academic institutions and non-governmental organizations. The GCIS will present a web-based version of the NCA including annotations linking the findings and content of the NCA with the scientific research, datasets, models, observations, etc. that led to its conclusions. It will use semantic tagging and a linked data approach, assigning globally unique, persistent, resolvable identifiers to all of the related entities and capturing and presenting the relationships between them, both internally and referencing out to other linked data sources and back to agency data centers. The developing W3C PROV Data Model and ontology will be used to capture the provenance trail and present it in both human readable web pages and machine readable formats such as RDF and SPARQL. This will improve visibility into the assessment process, increase understanding and reproducibility, and ultimately increase credibility and trust of the resulting report. Building on the foundation of the NCA, longer term plans for the GCIS include extending these capabilities throughout the U.S. Global Change Research Program, centralizing access to global change data and information across the thirteen agencies that comprise the program.

Tilmes, Curt A.

2012-01-01

462

Interactive Sectoring and Animation of Global Change Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to analyze and share results of global change data sets, scientists require a venue in which to exchange their results. One appropriate medium for these collaborative efforts is the world wide web. Intuitive and efficient user interfaces, and background processes have been developed at the Global Hydrology and Climate Center to interactively view weather satellite, radar, global temperature anomaly, and model output data using the world wide web. These tools combine scripts, Java and C code which allows the user to easily interact with data, to create high resolution sector images, and sectored animation sequences. This paper examines the architecture and interfaces and how they are used for collaborative research.

Meyer, Paul J.; Buillory, Anthony R.; Atkinson, Robert J.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

1999-01-01

463