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1

Adaptation, extinction and global change  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss three interlinked issues: the natural pace of environmental change and adaptation, the likelihood that a population will adapt to a potentially lethal change, and adaptation to elevated CO2, the prime mover of global change. 1. Environmental variability is governed by power laws showing that ln differ- ence in conditions increases with ln elapsed time at a rate of

Graham Bell; Sinéad Collins

2008-01-01

2

Adaptation, extinction and global change  

PubMed Central

We discuss three interlinked issues: the natural pace of environmental change and adaptation, the likelihood that a population will adapt to a potentially lethal change, and adaptation to elevated CO2, the prime mover of global change. Environmental variability is governed by power laws showing that ln difference in conditions increases with ln elapsed time at a rate of 0.3–0.4. This leads to strong but fluctuating selection in many natural populations. The effect of repeated adverse change on mean fitness depends on its frequency rather than its severity. If the depression of mean fitness leads to population decline, however, severe stress may cause extinction. Evolutionary rescue from extinction requires abundant genetic variation or a high mutation supply rate, and thus a large population size. Although natural populations can sustain quite intense selection, they often fail to adapt to anthropogenic stresses such as pollution and acidification and instead become extinct. Experimental selection lines of algae show no specific adaptation to elevated CO2, but instead lose their carbon-concentrating mechanism through mutational degradation. This is likely to reduce the effectiveness of the oceanic carbon pump. Elevated CO2 is also likely to lead to changes in phytoplankton community composition, although it is not yet clear what these will be. We emphasize the importance of experimental evolution in understanding and predicting the biological response to global change. This will be one of the main tasks of evolutionary biologists in the coming decade.

Bell, Graham; Collins, Sinead

2008-01-01

3

U.S. Global Climate Change Impacts Report, Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation measures improve our ability to cope with or avoid harmful climate impacts and take advantage of beneficial ones, now and as climate varies and changes. Adaptation and mitigation are necessary elements of an effective response to climate change. Adaptation options also have the potential to moderate harmful impacts of current and future climate variability and change. The Global Climate

R. Pulwarty

2009-01-01

4

Global Climate Change Adaptation Priorities for Biodiversity and Food Security  

PubMed Central

International policy is placing increasing emphasis on adaptation to climate change, including the allocation of new funds to assist adaptation efforts. Climate change adaptation funding may be most effective where it meets integrated goals, but global geographic priorities based on multiple development and ecological criteria are not well characterized. Here we show that human and natural adaptation needs related to maintaining agricultural productivity and ecosystem integrity intersect in ten major areas globally, providing a coherent set of international priorities for adaptation funding. An additional seven regional areas are identified as worthy of additional study. The priority areas are locations where changes in crop suitability affecting impoverished farmers intersect with changes in ranges of restricted-range species. Agreement among multiple climate models and emissions scenarios suggests that these priorities are robust. Adaptation funding directed to these areas could simultaneously address multiple international policy goals, including poverty reduction, protecting agricultural production and safeguarding ecosystem services.

Hannah, Lee; Ikegami, Makihiko; Hole, David G.; Seo, Changwan; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Roehrdanz, Patrick R.

2013-01-01

5

Global climate change adaptation priorities for biodiversity and food security.  

PubMed

International policy is placing increasing emphasis on adaptation to climate change, including the allocation of new funds to assist adaptation efforts. Climate change adaptation funding may be most effective where it meets integrated goals, but global geographic priorities based on multiple development and ecological criteria are not well characterized. Here we show that human and natural adaptation needs related to maintaining agricultural productivity and ecosystem integrity intersect in ten major areas globally, providing a coherent set of international priorities for adaptation funding. An additional seven regional areas are identified as worthy of additional study. The priority areas are locations where changes in crop suitability affecting impoverished farmers intersect with changes in ranges of restricted-range species. Agreement among multiple climate models and emissions scenarios suggests that these priorities are robust. Adaptation funding directed to these areas could simultaneously address multiple international policy goals, including poverty reduction, protecting agricultural production and safeguarding ecosystem services. PMID:23991125

Hannah, Lee; Ikegami, Makihiko; Hole, David G; Seo, Changwan; Butchart, Stuart H M; Peterson, A Townsend; Roehrdanz, Patrick R

2013-08-21

6

Evolutionary adaptation of marine zooplankton to global change.  

PubMed

Predicting the response of the biota to global change remains a formidable endeavor. Zooplankton face challenges related to global warming, ocean acidification, the proliferation of toxic algal blooms, and increasing pollution, eutrophication, and hypoxia. They can respond to these changes by phenotypic plasticity or genetic adaptation. Using the concept of the evolution of reaction norms, I address how adaptive responses can be unequivocally discerned from phenotypic plasticity. To date, relatively few zooplankton studies have been designed for such a purpose. As case studies, I review the evidence for zooplankton adaptation to toxic algal blooms, hypoxia, and climate change. Predicting the response of zooplankton to global change requires new information to determine (a) the trade-offs and costs of adaptation, (b) the rates of evolution versus environmental change, (c) the consequences of adaptation to stochastic or cyclic (toxic algal blooms, coastal hypoxia) versus directional (temperature, acidification, open ocean hypoxia) environmental change, and (d) the interaction of selective pressures, and evolutionary and ecological processes, in promoting or hindering adaptation. PMID:22809192

Dam, Hans G

2012-07-31

7

Transitional states in marine fisheries: adapting to predicted global change.  

PubMed

Global climate change has the potential to substantially alter the production and community structure of marine fisheries and modify the ongoing impacts of fishing. Fish community composition is already changing in some tropical, temperate and polar ecosystems, where local combinations of warming trends and higher environmental variation anticipate the changes likely to occur more widely over coming decades. Using case studies from the Western Indian Ocean, the North Sea and the Bering Sea, we contextualize the direct and indirect effects of climate change on production and biodiversity and, in turn, on the social and economic aspects of marine fisheries. Climate warming is expected to lead to (i) yield and species losses in tropical reef fisheries, driven primarily by habitat loss; (ii) community turnover in temperate fisheries, owing to the arrival and increasing dominance of warm-water species as well as the reduced dominance and departure of cold-water species; and (iii) increased diversity and yield in Arctic fisheries, arising from invasions of southern species and increased primary production resulting from ice-free summer conditions. How societies deal with such changes will depend largely on their capacity to adapt--to plan and implement effective responses to change--a process heavily influenced by social, economic, political and cultural conditions. PMID:20980322

MacNeil, M Aaron; Graham, Nicholas A J; Cinner, Joshua E; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Loring, Philip A; Jennings, Simon; Polunin, Nicholas V C; Fisk, Aaron T; McClanahan, Tim R

2010-11-27

8

Global Change adaptation in water resources management: the Water Change project.  

PubMed

In recent years, water resources management has been facing new challenges due to increasing changes and their associated uncertainties, such as changes in climate, water demand or land use, which can be grouped under the term Global Change. The Water Change project (LIFE+ funding) developed a methodology and a tool to assess the Global Change impacts on water resources, thus helping river basin agencies and water companies in their long term planning and in the definition of adaptation measures. The main result of the project was the creation of a step by step methodology to assess Global Change impacts and define strategies of adaptation. This methodology was tested in the Llobregat river basin (Spain) with the objective of being applicable to any water system. It includes several steps such as setting-up the problem with a DPSIR framework, developing Global Change scenarios, running river basin models and performing a cost-benefit analysis to define optimal strategies of adaptation. This methodology was supported by the creation of a flexible modelling system, which can link a wide range of models, such as hydrological, water quality, and water management models. The tool allows users to integrate their own models to the system, which can then exchange information among them automatically. This enables to simulate the interactions among multiple components of the water cycle, and run quickly a large number of Global Change scenarios. The outcomes of this project make possible to define and test different sets of adaptation measures for the basin that can be further evaluated through cost-benefit analysis. The integration of the results contributes to an efficient decision-making on how to adapt to Global Change impacts. PMID:22883209

Pouget, Laurent; Escaler, Isabel; Guiu, Roger; Mc Ennis, Suzy; Versini, Pierre-Antoine

2012-08-09

9

Optimisation explains global leaf trait patterns and plant adaptations to global change (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measured values of four key leaf traits (leaf area per unit mass, nitrogen concentration, photosynthetic rate and leaf lifespan) co-vary globally according to relationships that hold across all the world’s terrestrial plants. The same leaf traits respond consistently to altered environmental conditions (e.g. light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration and nitrogen supply). Explaining observed global leaf trait patterns and leaf responses to environmental change is a prerequisite to understanding and predicting vegetation responses to global change more generally across a range of time scales. Recently [1] we have shown, using a simple model of plant carbon-nitrogen economy, that all of these leaf trait patterns and responses are consistent with an optimisation hypothesis that cumulative carbon export from leaves over their lifespan is maximised. Various closely-related optimisation hypotheses also explain other plant adaptations to environmental change, such as stomatal responses and altered patterns of growth allocation [2]. Incorporating plant optimisation into large scale vegetation-atmosphere models would ensure they are consistent with global leaf trait relationships, and would improve predictions of vegetation responses to global change. The challenge, both scientific and operational, is to do this consistently over a wide range of time scales. This talk will review our recent work using plant optimisation models [1,2] and highlight the potential of Maximum Entropy Production as a unifying optimisation principle for plant and ecosystem function across different time scales [3]. [1] McMurtrie RE, Dewar RC. 2009. Global variation of leaf traits explained from an hypothesis of optimal plant function. Manuscript in preparation. [2] Dewar RC, Franklin O, Makela A, McMurtrie RE, Valentine HT. 2009. Optimal function explains forest responses to global change. BioScience 59:127-139. [3] Dewar RC. 2009. Maximum entropy production and plants. Submitted to Phil Trans R Soc London, Special Issue "Maximum Entropy Production in environmental and ecological systems" (eds. A Kleidon, Y Mahli, P Cox).

Dewar, R. C.; McMurtrie, R. E.

2009-12-01

10

Reducing Global Warming and Adapting to Climate Change: The Potential of Organic Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change mitigation is urgent, and adaptation to climate change is crucial, particularly in agriculture, where food security is at stake. Agriculture, currently responsible for 20-30% of global greenhouse gas emissions (counting direct and indirect agricultural emissions), can however contribute to both climate change mitigation and adaptation. The main mitigation potential lies in the capacity of agricultural soils to sequester

Adrian Muller; Joergen Olesen; Laurence Smith; Joan Davis; Karolína Dytrtová; Andreas Gattinger; Nic Lampkin; Urs Niggli

2012-01-01

11

Scholarly networks on resilience, vulnerability and adaptation within the human dimensions of global environmental change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a bibliometric analysis of the knowledge domains resilience, vulnerability and adaptation within the research activities on human dimensions of global environmental change. We analyzed how 2286 publications between 1967 and 2005 are related in terms of co-authorship relations, and citation relations. The number of publications in the three knowledge domains increased rapidly between 1995

Marco A. Janssena; Michael L. Schoonc; Weimao Kee; Katy Bornere

12

Scholarly networks on resilience, vulnerability and adaptation within the human dimensions of global environmental change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a bibliometric analysis of the knowledge domains resilience, vulnerability and adaptation within the research activities on human dimensions of global environmental change. We analyzed how 2286 publications between 1967 and 2005 are related in terms of co-authorship relations, and citation relations.The number of publications in the three knowledge domains increased rapidly between 1995 and

Marco A. Janssen; Michael L. Schoon; Weimao Ke; Katy Börner

2006-01-01

13

Transitions towards adaptive management of water facing climate and global change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water management is facing major challenges due to increasing uncertainties caused by climate and global change and by fast\\u000a changing socio-economic boundary conditions. More attention has to be devoted to understanding and managing the transition\\u000a from current management regimes to more adaptive regimes that take into account environmental, technological, economic, institutional\\u000a and cultural characteristics of river basins. This implies a

Claudia Pahl-Wostl

2007-01-01

14

Local solutions to global problems: the potential of agroforestry for climate change adaptation and mitigation in southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is a global phenomenon that imposes economic, social, and ecological challenges to the global community and, to smallholder farmers particularly in low- income countries. Sustainable land use practices offer opportunities for smallholder farmers to adapt to climate change and related risks, but the challenge is that the adoption of such practices by farmers is low due to policy

Ajayi OC; Akinnifesi FK; Sileshi G; Chakeredza S

15

Global climate change  

SciTech Connect

This book places the scientific debate over global climate change into a useful policymaking framework. It presents scientific evidence in support of global warming, and describes the uncertainties surrounding predictions of climate change. Addresses potential regional impacts of global warming. It also discusses state policy options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to climate change.

Not Available

1990-01-01

16

Effects of Global Change on U.S. Urban Areas: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human settlements, both large and small, are where the vast majority of people on the Earth live. Expansion of cities both in population and areal extent, is a relentless process that will accelerate in the 21st century. As a consequence of urban growth both in the United States and around the globe, it is important to develop an understanding of how urbanization will affect the local and regional environment. Of equal importance, however, is the assessment of how cities will be impacted by the looming prospects of global climate change and climate variability. The potential impacts of climate change and variability has recently been enunciated by the IPCC's "Climate Change 2007" report. Moreover, the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) is preparing a series of "Synthesis and Assessment Products" (SAP) reports to support informed discussion and decision making regarding climate change and variability by policy makers, resource managers, stakeholders, the media, and the general public. We are working on a chapter of SAP 4.6 ("Analysis of the Effects of Global Chance on Human Health and Welfare and Human Systems") wherein we wish to describe the effects of global climate change on human settlements. This paper will present the thoughts and ideas that are being formulated for our SAP report that relate to what vulnerabilities and impacts will occur, what adaptation responses may take place, and what possible effects on settlement patterns and characteristics will potentially arise, on human settlements in the U.S. as a result of climate change and climate variability. We wish to present these ideas and concepts as a "work in progress" that are subject to several rounds of review, and we invite comments from listeners at this session on the rationale and veracity of our thoughts. Additionally, we wish to explore how technology such as remote sensing data coupled with modeling, can be employed as synthesis tools for deriving insight across a spectrum of impacts (e.g. public health, urban planning for mitigation strategies) on how cities can cope and adapt to climate change and variability. This latter point parallels the concepts and ideas presented in the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Decadal Survey report on "Earth Science Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond" wherein the analysis of the impacts of climate change and variability, human health, and land use change are listed as key areas for development of future Earth observing remote sensing systems.

Quattrochi, D. A.; Wilbanks, T. J.; Kirshen, P. H.; Romero-Lankao, P.; Rosenzweig, C. E.; Ruth, M.; Solecki, W.; Tarr, J. A.

2007-05-01

17

Adaptation to Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem: Even if significant reductions in global greenhouse gas emissions are achieved, some amount of climate change appears to be inevitable. Local, regional, state, and federal planning and regulation should begin to address how to adapt to these changes.Purpose: This article presents a policy synthesis of adaptation planning issues, using California as a case study. We examine the institutional and

Louise W. Bedsworth; Ellen Hanak

2010-01-01

18

Global and Local Concerns: What Attitudes and Beliefs Motivate Farmers to Mitigate and Adapt to Climate Change?  

PubMed Central

In response to agriculture's vulnerability and contribution to climate change, many governments are developing initiatives that promote the adoption of mitigation and adaptation practices among farmers. Since most climate policies affecting agriculture rely on voluntary efforts by individual farmers, success requires a sound understanding of the factors that motivate farmers to change practices. Recent evidence suggests that past experience with the effects of climate change and the psychological distance associated with people's concern for global and local impacts can influence environmental behavior. Here we surveyed farmers in a representative rural county in California's Central Valley to examine how their intention to adopt mitigation and adaptation practices is influenced by previous climate experiences and their global and local concerns about climate change. Perceived changes in water availability had significant effects on farmers' intention to adopt mitigation and adaptation strategies, which were mediated through global and local concerns respectively. This suggests that mitigation is largely motivated by psychologically distant concerns and beliefs about climate change, while adaptation is driven by psychologically proximate concerns for local impacts. This match between attitudes and behaviors according to the psychological distance at which they are cognitively construed indicates that policy and outreach initiatives may benefit by framing climate impacts and behavioral goals concordantly; either in a global context for mitigation or a local context for adaptation.

Haden, Van R.; Niles, Meredith T.; Lubell, Mark; Perlman, Joshua; Jackson, Louise E.

2012-01-01

19

Mitigation/adaptation and health: health policymaking in the global response to climate change and implications for other upstream determinants.  

PubMed

The time is ripe for innovation in global health governance if we are to achieve global health and development objectives in the face of formidable challenges. Integration of global health concerns into the law and governance of other, related disciplines should be given high priority. This article explores opportunities for health policymaking in the global response to climate change. Climate change and environmental degradation will affect weather disasters, food and water security, infectious disease patterns, and air pollution. Although scientific research has pointed to the interdependence of the global environment and human health, policymakers have been slow to integrate their approaches to environmental and health concerns. A robust response to climate change will require improved integration on two fronts: health concerns must be given higher priority in the response to climate change and threats associated with climate change and environmental degradation must be more adequately addressed by global health law and governance. The mitigation/adaptation response paradigm developing within and beyond the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change provides a useful framework for thinking about global health law and governance with respect to climate change, environmental degradation, and possibly other upstream determinants of health as well. PMID:20880245

Wiley, Lindsay F

2010-01-01

20

Vulnerability and adaptation to global climate change: The Estonian national report  

SciTech Connect

Because of its geography, wide coastal areas, water resources, forests, and wetlands, the environment of Estonia is sensitive to climate change and sea level rise. Therefore, the vulnerability and adaptation assessment focused on these sectors GCM-based and incremental climate change scenarios are used for V and A assessment in Estonia. The results of five GCMs provided by NCAR are available, and four of them (GISS, CCCM, GFDL30, GFDL transient) are chosen for the assessment in Estonia. The CERES-Barley model is used to assess crop productivity in four long-term (1966--1987) barley field trials situated on different types of soils in different parts of Estonia. The SPUR-2 model which was expected to be used to assess herbage sensitivity to climate change doesn`t fit Estonia. To estimate the responses of forests to proposed climate change scenarios, five study sites with relatively species rich forest stands and with different types of climate (continental and moderately maritime) are selected and the simple version of the Forest Gap Model is used. The Holdridge Life Zones Classification Models are also used to determine the potential evapotranspiration ratio for different tree species and the multiplier for temperature as a function of the forest growth. The WatBal model is used in water resources vulnerability assessment for three rivers with different hydrological regimes and landscape conditions.

Kont, A.; Punning, J.M. [Inst. of Ecology, Tallinn (Estonia); Ainsaar, M. [Univ. of Tartu (Estonia)] [and others

1996-04-01

21

Effects of Climate Change\\/Global Warming on Coral Reefs: Adaptation\\/Exaptation in Corals, Evolution in Zooxanthellae, and Biogeographic Shifts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) associated with climate change\\/global warming have caused bleaching in scleractinian corals (the loss of obligate symbiotic zooxanthellae) on a global basis, resulting in mass mortality of corals and decimation of reefs. This symbiotic relationship makes these corals an excellent bioindicator of climate change.It has been hypothesized that bleaching is a mechanism by which corals can adapt

Paul W. Sammarco; Kevin B. Strychar

2009-01-01

22

Adapting to climate change: is there scope for ecological management in the face of a global threat?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Climate change is recognized as a major threat to the survival of species and integrity of ecosystems world-wide. Although considerable research has focused on climate impacts, relatively little work to date has been conducted on the practical application of strategies for adapting to climate change. Adaptation strategies should aim to increase the flexibility in management of vulnerable ecosystems,

PHILIP E. HULME

2005-01-01

23

Food security and climate change: on the potential to adapt global crop production by active selection to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide  

PubMed Central

Agricultural production is under increasing pressure by global anthropogenic changes, including rising population, diversion of cereals to biofuels, increased protein demands and climatic extremes. Because of the immediate and dynamic nature of these changes, adaptation measures are urgently needed to ensure both the stability and continued increase of the global food supply. Although potential adaption options often consider regional or sectoral variations of existing risk management (e.g. earlier planting dates, choice of crop), there may be a global-centric strategy for increasing productivity. In spite of the recognition that atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is an essential plant resource that has increased globally by approximately 25 per cent since 1959, efforts to increase the biological conversion of atmospheric CO2 to stimulate seed yield through crop selection is not generally recognized as an effective adaptation measure. In this review, we challenge that viewpoint through an assessment of existing studies on CO2 and intraspecific variability to illustrate the potential biological basis for differential plant response among crop lines and demonstrate that while technical hurdles remain, active selection and breeding for CO2 responsiveness among cereal varieties may provide one of the simplest and direct strategies for increasing global yields and maintaining food security with anthropogenic change.

Ziska, Lewis H.; Bunce, James A.; Shimono, Hiroyuki; Gealy, David R.; Baker, Jeffrey T.; Newton, Paul C. D.; Reynolds, Matthew P.; Jagadish, Krishna S. V.; Zhu, Chunwu; Howden, Mark; Wilson, Lloyd T.

2012-01-01

24

Global Change Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Global Change Project is an undergraduate program at the University of Michigan. It is a three course interdisciplinary sequence focusing on Physical Processes, Human Impacts, and Case Studies. These courses form the core of a Global Change Academic Minor for students who want to understand the historical and modern aspects of global change. Resources in the courses include lectures, labs, course syllabi, movie clips, a formative assessment instrument for the class, references, links to related sites, and access to the Global Change Digital Library.

25

Adaptation behavior in the face of global climate change: Survey responses from experts and decision makers serving the Florida Keys  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conduct a survey to elicit responses from experts and decision makers serving the Florida Keys regarding vulnerability to global climate change. Study findings reveal deep concern among federal, state and local experts and decision makers about adverse impacts at the local level. A large majority of respondents recognize the increasing likelihood of dynamic, potentially irreversible, socioeconomic and ecological repercussions

Pallab Mozumder; Evan Flugman; Timothy Randhir

2011-01-01

26

Global Surface Temperature Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

We update the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) analysis of global surface temperature change, compare alternative analyses, and address questions about perception and reality of global warming. Satellite-observed nightlights are used to identify measurement stations located in extreme darkness and adjust temperature trends of urban and peri-urban stations for non-climatic factors, verifying that urban effects on analyzed global change

J. Hansen; R. Ruedy; M. Sato

27

Phosphorus and Global Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Phosphorus (P) is both an agent of global change, with P loads increasing in most global environments due to the loss of mined\\u000a phosphate from agricultural, industrial, and urban environments, and is affected by global change processes such as land degradation\\u000a or the need for P in biofuel production. P plays a fundamental role in food security and, because the

Holm Tiessen; Maria Victoria Ballester; Ignacio Salcedo

28

Globalization and Educational Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no greater context for educational change than that of globalization, nor no grander way of conceptualizing what\\u000a educational change is about. Wells and her colleagues analyze how economic and political globalization are affecting the identity\\u000a and independence of nation states, and the ways in which public education (like public health and welfare) are undergoing\\u000a change within the states.

Amy Stuart Wells; Sibyll Carnochan; Julie Slayton; Ricky Lee Allen; Ash Vasudeva

29

The science of global change  

SciTech Connect

This book covers the following topics: global environmental chemistry, global change and the atmosphere, acid deposition, air, water, and land pollution, UV radiation, global change and the carbon cycle, and global environmental education.

Dunnette, D.A.; O'Brien, R.J. (Portland State Univ. (US))

1992-01-01

30

Modeling Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding global climate change is challenging, even for adults, yet having an understanding of this topic is consequential for the future. In this activity, middle school students learn about global climate change using models that allow them to make predictions, observations, and then explain mechanisms for climate change. Component ideas include change over time, deep time, and accumulation. Students are asked to act as advisers on how to lower energy use, and refine their understanding of how and why this is important, before testing their ideas and finally revising their advice.

Svihla, Vanessa

31

Global Surface Temperature Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We update the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) analysis of global surface temperature change, compare alternative analyses, and address questions about perception and reality of global warming. Satellite-observed night lights are used to identify measurement stations located in extreme darkness and adjust temperature trends of urban and periurban stations for nonclimatic factors, verifying that urban effects on analyzed global change are small. Because the GISS analysis combines available sea surface temperature records with meteorological station measurements, we test alternative choices for the ocean data, showing that global temperature change is sensitive to estimated temperature change in polar regions where observations are limited. We use simple 12 month (and n × 12) running means to improve the information content in our temperature graphs. Contrary to a popular misconception, the rate of warming has not declined. Global temperature is rising as fast in the past decade as in the prior 2 decades, despite year-to-year fluctuations associated with the El Niño-La Niña cycle of tropical ocean temperature. Record high global 12 month running mean temperature for the period with instrumental data was reached in 2010.

Hansen, J.; Ruedy, R.; Sato, M.; Lo, K.

2010-12-01

32

Amazonia and Global Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amazonia and Global Change synthesizes results of the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) for scientists and students of Earth system science and global environmental change. LBA, led by Brazil, asks how Amazonia currently functions in the global climate and biogeochemical systems and how the functioning of Amazonia will respond to the combined pressures of climate and land use change, such as • Wet season and dry season aerosol concentrations and their effects on diffuse radiation and photosynthesis • Increasing greenhouse gas concentration, deforestation, widespread biomass burning and changes in the Amazonian water cycle • Drought effects and simulated drought through rainfall exclusion experiments • The net flux of carbon between Amazonia and the atmosphere • Floodplains as an important regulator of the basin carbon balance including serving as a major source of methane to the troposphere • The impact of the likely increased profitability of cattle ranching. The book will serve a broad community of scientists and policy makers interested in global change and environmental issues with high-quality scientific syntheses accessible to nonspecialists in a wide community of social scientists, ecologists, atmospheric chemists, climatologists, and hydrologists.

Keller, Michael; Bustamante, Mercedes; Gash, John; Silva Dias, Pedro

33

Global Climate Change: Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explains how climate change affects everything from stratospheric temperatures to the golden toad of Costa Rica. Graphs, articles, and maps monitor humankind's impact on the planet. The site features five thumbnails including two maps showing Global Outgoing Longwave Heat Radiation, and Global Reflected Shortwave Solar Radiation and three graphs entitled Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Records from Mauna Loa, Hawaii (1958 - 2000), Global Average Near-Surface Temperatures - Monthly Anomalies (1961 - 2002), and Global Stratospheric and Tropospheric Temperature Anomalies (1979 - 2001). Each of these provides a link to a larger version of the visual and a detailed explanation. Each section has links to a glossary as well as links to questions about each section and additional references.

34

RANGELANDS AND GLOBAL CHANGE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is an issue paper written under the auspices of the Society for Range Management. This issue paper does not contain an abstract, but for purposes of the ARS 115 the following was written by Robert R. Blank. Global change is affecting rangelands. Land use patterns, invasions by exotic species, ...

35

Global Change 1 Lectures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the University of Michigan lists the lectures and labs for the Global Change 1 course. Each lecture includes definitions and images that enhance the subject matter, and a self-test is available at the bottom of the page.

Michigan, University O.

36

Global Change 2 Lectures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A list of lectures for the Global Change 2 course at the University of Michigan is featured on this site. Each lecture includes definitions and images that enhance the subject matter. Additionally, a self-test is available at the bottom of the page.

Michigan, University O.

37

A Model for Climate Change Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate models predict serious impacts on the western U.S. in the next few decades, including increased temperatures and reduced precipitation. In combination, these changes are linked to profound impacts on fundamental systems, such as water and energy supplies, agriculture, population stability, and the economy. Global and national imperatives for climate change mitigation and adaptation are made actionable at the state

D. Pasqualini; G. N. Keating

2009-01-01

38

Global Environmental Change: Deforestation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Washington State's Olympic Peninsula contains some of America's only old-growth forest. Its timber supports local, regional, and even global economies. It also supports many biological species and provides a link in biogeochemical cycling. How can these roles be balanced? Using the Olympic Peninsula as a case study, this book introduces students to basic scientific themes and equips them with tools to increase their understanding of deforestation. Hands-on classroom activities demonstrate how to integrate science with other disciplines to gather information, address problems, and make decisions. NSTA and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency created the Global Environmental Change Series so students can see how science works in today's world. Each volume links a global environmental topic directly to students' own experiences. The series covers topics ranging from biodiversity to population growth to solid waste management.

Agency, Environmental P.; Press, Nsta

1997-01-01

39

Global change education: Why teach about global change issues?  

SciTech Connect

Global change issues should be a part of education because, as noted in the Global Change Research Act of 1990 definition, {open_quotes}change in the global environment (including alterations in climate, land productivity, oceans or other water resources, atmospheric chemistry, and ecological systems){hor_ellipsis} may alter the capacity of the Earth to sustain life.{close_quotes}And, according to the National Science Foundation`s Dr. Robert Corell, chair of the US government`s Subcommittee on Global Change Research (SCGR), these changes will {open_quotes}affect every man, woman, and child on the Earth.{close_quotes} This article discusses four questions about global change issues which should be addressed in an educational context: Why teach about Global change issues; what should be taught; who the audience should be for global change education programs; and how global change issues should be taught.

Carter, L.M.; Scowcroft, G.A.

1995-12-31

40

Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Global Climate Change is one of the Exploring the Environment series of online modules. Emphasizing an integrated approach to environmental earth science through problem-based learning, this module asks students to predict how increasing atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide is changing the climate, and the possible effects this may have on Kansas wheat crops. Students access remote sensing data via links to both current and historical data and work through a sequence of hyperlinked background resources to investigate this problem. The site also offers a glossary, teacher resources, and a general description of the problem-based learning model.

2000-01-01

41

Global Environmental Change Symposium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global environmental warming issue has been catapulted to the forefront of media attention as a result of the drought of 1988 and extremely warm temperatures. NASA scientist James Hansen testified last year that the warming trend has begun and that part of the temperature rise is due to gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and chlorofluro-carbons (CFCs) being released into the atmosphere by human activity.In response to recent scientific speculation on the issue, the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., hosted the symposium Global Environmental Change April 24 as part of their annual meeting. Speakers included Bert Bolin, University of Stockholm; Robert White, National Academy of Engineering; Stephen Schneider, National Center for Atmospheric Research; and Peter Raven, Missouri Botanical Garden. Moderator was Russell Train, World Wildlife Fund.

Bush, Susan M.

42

Adapting global conservation strategies to climate change at the European scale: The otter as a flagship species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change has created the need for new strategies in conservation planning that account for the dynamics of factors threatening endangered species.Here we assessed climate change threat to the European otter, a flagship species for freshwater ecosystems, considering how current conservation areas will perform in preserving the species in a climatically changed future. We used an ensemble forecasting approach considering

Carmen Cianfrani; Gwenaëlle Le Lay; Luigi Maiorano; Héctor F. Satizábal; Anna Loy; Antoine Guisan

2011-01-01

43

Global Environmental Change: Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This book uses Costa Rica as a case study because the country's tropical forests contain four percent of Earth's total biological species diversity. Biodiversity's activities and readings help students explore efforts to balance economic expansion with resource conservation. This resource has activities to explore local biodiversity and true-to-life role-playing scenarios, so students can apply what they have learned. Biodiversity is one of four books in NSTA Press's Global Environmental Change series, a joint project of NSTA Press and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The other books in the series are Deforestation, Carrying Capacity, and Introduced Species.

Agency, Environmental P.; Press, Nsta

1997-01-01

44

Global Distributions of Vulnerability to Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

Signatories of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have committed themselves to addressing the “specific needs and special circumstances of developing country parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change”.1 The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has since concluded with high confidence that “developing countries will be more vulnerable to climate change than developed countries”.2 In their most recent report, however, the IPCC notes that “current knowledge of adaptation and adaptive capacity is insufficient for reliable prediction of adaptations” 3 because “the capacity to adapt varies considerably among regions, countries and socioeconomic groups and will vary over time”.4 Here, we respond to the apparent contradiction in these two statements by exploring how variation in adaptive capacity and climate impacts combine to influence the global distribution of vulnerability. We find that all countries will be vulnerable to climate change, even if their adaptive capacities are enhanced. Developing nations are most vulnerable to modest climate change. Reducing greenhouse-gas emissions would diminish their vulnerabilities significantly. Developed countries would benefit most from mitigation for moderate climate change. Extreme climate change overwhelms the abilities of all countries to adapt. These findings should inform both ongoing negotiations for the next commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol and emerging plans for implementing UNFCCC-sponsored adaptation funds.

Yohe, Gary; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Brenkert, Antoinette L.; Schlesinger, Michael; Meij, Henk; Xiaoshi, Xing

2006-12-01

45

Global Change Instruction Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series is designed by college professors to fill an urgent need for interdisciplinary materials on global change. The materials are aimed at undergraduate students who are not majoring in science. The modular materials can be integrated into a number of existing courses in, for example, the earth sciences, biology, physics, astronomy, chemistry, meteorology, and the social sciences. The materials have been written to capture the interest of the student who has little grounding in math and the technical aspects of science but whose intellectual curiosity is piqued by a concern for the environment. Modules include biogeochemical cycles, biological consequences of climate change, human energy use, population growth, international environmental law, and stratospheric ozone depletion.

Ennis, Christine; Sulzman, Elizabeth; Barron, Eric; Shaw, Glenn; Trenberth, Kevin; Few, Arthur

46

Effects of Global Climate Change on Southeast Asia: A Survey of Likely Impacts and Problems of Adaptation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Study results indicate the likelihood of significant net damages from climate change, in particular damages from sea-level rise and higher temperatures that seem unlikely to be offset by favorable shifts in precipitation and carbon dioxide. Also indicated...

S. Njoto C. W. Howe

1991-01-01

47

Global Change Observation Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

12 Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) is a follow on mission of ADEOS and ADEOS2. It is under phase A study in NASDA (National Space Development Agency of Japan). GCOM is not a series of satellites but a mission and its concept is to continuously monitor geophysical parameters which are critical to understand global change phenomena, especially phenomena related to climate change. The measurements of geophysical parameters will continue more than 15 years after the launch of ADEOS2. The first generation of GCOM is now composed of 2 satellites, i.e. GCOM-A1 and GCOM-B1. The target of GCOM-A1 is to monitor greenhouse gases distribution and ozone as well as ozone related constituents from oblique orbit. The target of GCOM-B1 is to measure geophysical parameters which are uncertain in today's climate models. Those parameters include, but not limited to, optical thickness of aerosols and clouds, thermal fluxes, carbon fluxes, sink and source of greenhouse gases, etc. GCOM-B1 will carry three core instruments, i.e. SGLI (GLI follow on), AMSR2 (AMSR follow on), alpha-Scat (SeaWinds follow on). Another candidate instrument is ATRAS (IMG follow on). The orbit of GCOM-B1 will be a sun synchronous orbit, which is almost the same as ADEOS2. GCOM- B1 is especially powerful for the monitoring of oceanic processes. It can observe sea surface temperature, ocean color and sea surface winds simultaneously by 3 sensors, i.e. SGLI, alpha-Scat and AMSR2. GCOM-A1 is planned to be launched in Feb. 2005 while GCOM-B1 is planned to be launched in Aug. 2006.

Shimoda, Haruhisa

2001-02-01

48

Global perceptions of local temperature change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is difficult to detect global warming directly because most people experience changes only in local weather patterns, which are highly variable and may not reflect long-term global climate trends. However, local climate-change experience may play an important role in adaptation and mitigation behaviour and policy support. Previous research indicates that people can perceive and adapt to aspects of climate variability and change based on personal observations. Experience with local weather may also influence global warming beliefs. Here we examine the extent to which respondents in 89 countries detect recent changes in average local temperatures. We demonstrate that public perceptions correspond with patterns of observed temperature change from climate records: individuals who live in places with rising average temperatures are more likely than others to perceive local warming. As global climate change intensifies, changes in local temperatures and weather patterns may be increasingly detected by the global public. These findings also suggest that public opinion of climate change may shift, at least in part, in response to the personal experience of climate change.

Howe, Peter D.; Markowitz, Ezra M.; Lee, Tien Ming; Ko, Chia-Ying; Leiserowitz, Anthony

2013-04-01

49

Changing Global Biogeochemistry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Key problems for a better understanding of the global biogeochemical cycles are discussed. It is suggested that in modelling the role of terrestrial biomes for the global biogeochemical interplay more attention should be given to interactions between biom...

B. Bolin

1981-01-01

50

Global Climate Change Key Indicators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website charts measurement of key indicators of global climate change. Simple explanations and "What Does This Mean?" sections accompany each area of sea level, carbon dioxide concentration, global surface temperature, Arctic sea ice and land ice.

51

Global Governance, Educational Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the last half decade, a rising literature has focused on the idea that processes of economic, political and social globalization require analysis in terms of governance at the global level. It is argued in this article that emerging forms of global governance have produced significant challenges to conventional conceptions of international…

Mundy, Karen

2007-01-01

52

Global governance, educational change  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last half decade, a rising literature has focused on the idea that processes of economic, political and social globalization require analysis in terms of governance at the global level. It is argued in this article that emerging forms of global governance have produced significant challenges to conventional conceptions of international relations. Educational multilateralism is an area that has

Karen Mundy

2007-01-01

53

Gateway to Global Change Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides access to a wide array of global change information and data. The site features up-to-date reports about a variety of global change topics such as greenhouse gas emissions, climate modeling, oceanic currents, and temperature measurements. There is a wealth of raw data available through NASA's Global Change master on-line directory, which provides descriptions of earth science data sets and services relevant to global change research. The News section contains articles from around the world regarding policy initiatives and research results. For the non-scientist, there is a question and answer feature called Ask Dr. Global Change. This service explains in simple terms many of the complicated topics of global change. Users may search the archives of previous questions or pose new ones. This site also offers numerous links to other agencies and sources of information, reports and data.

2002-05-08

54

Climate variability and climate change vulnerability and adaptation. Workshop summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Representatives from fifteen countries met in Prague, Czech Republic, on September 11-15, 1995, to share results from the analysis of vulnerability and adaptation to global climate change. The workshop focused on the issues of global climate change and its impacts on various sectors of a national economy. The U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which has been signed by

N. Bhatti; R. R. Cirillo; R. K. Dixon

1995-01-01

55

Mitigation needs adaptation: Tropical forestry and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between tropical forests and global climate change has so far focused on mitigation, while much less emphasis\\u000a has been placed on how management activities may help forest ecosystems adapt to this change. This paper discusses how tropical\\u000a forestry practices can contribute to maintaining or enhancing the adaptive capacity of natural and planted forests to global\\u000a climate change and

Manuel R. Guariguata; Jonathan P. Cornelius; Bruno Locatelli; Claudio Forner; G. Arturo Sánchez-Azofeifa

2008-01-01

56

Dialogue on Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a summary of a 2 day seminar on the topic "Dialogue on Global Climate Change." The sessions on October 1 included a scientific overview of global climate change, a discussion on religious perspectives on global climate change, and consideration of impacts and equity. The sessions on October 2 focused on policy considerations and the Kyoto Convention on Climate Change. Panelists discussed economic challenges in responding to climate change, reviewed the Kyoto convention and its political prospects, and examined the roles of science, religion, values, and economics in crafting public policy on climate change.

;

2007-06-28

57

AAAS - Global Climate Change Video  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video features residents of Shishmaref, Alaska, plus environmental journalist Elizabeth Kolbert and scientist John Holdren, exploring the human impacts of global climate change. The roles of teachers, scientists, policymakers, and concerned citizens in mitigating the changes are highlighted.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); Aaas

58

THE EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON GLOBAL TIMBER MARKETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Ecological models predict that climate change will have widespread impacts on the distribution and growth of forests around the globe. This paper carefully links these impacts to a dynamic,global timber market model in order to determine how markets will adapt to these changes. The results suggest that climate change will expand long term global timber supply, timber prices will

Brent Sohngen; Robert Mendelsohn; Roger Sedjo

59

Global Change and Air Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a World population growth, industrialization, energy demand, and environmental goals are presently driving rapid global change\\u000a in emissions with complex consequences for climate, air quality, and ecosystems. As North America strives to reduce its pollutant\\u000a emissions to meet air quality standards, rising global emissions may increase background pollutant concentrations and offset\\u000a some of the gains. Climate change can have important impacts

Daniel J. Jacob; Denise L. Mauzerall; Julia Martínez Fernández; William T. Pennell

60

Evolutionary adaptations to dietary changes.  

PubMed

Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including humans) may shed light not only on the evolutionary history of our species, but also on the mechanisms that underlie common metabolic diseases in modern human populations. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the major dietary shifts that occurred during hominin evolution, and we discuss the methods and approaches used to identify signals of natural selection in patterns of sequence variation. We then review the results of studies aimed at detecting the genetic loci that played a major role in dietary adaptations and conclude by outlining the potential of future studies in this area. PMID:20420525

Luca, F; Perry, G H; Di Rienzo, A

2010-08-21

61

Global climatic change  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the climatic effects of trace gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. It discusses the expected changes from the increases in trace gases and the extent to which the expected changes can be found in the climate record and in the retreat of glaciers. The use of ice cores in correlating atmospheric composition and climate is discussed. The response of terrestrial ecosystems as a biotic feedback is discussed. Possible responses are discussed, including reduction in fossil-fuel use, controls on deforestation, and reforestation. International aspects, such as the implications for developing nations, are addressed.

Houghton, R.A.; Woodwell, G.M.

1989-04-01

62

Teaching about Global Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students are exposed to many different media reports about global climate change. Movies such as "The Day After Tomorrow" and "Ice Age" are examples of instances when movie producers have sought to capture the attention of audiences by augmenting the challenges that climate change poses. Students may receive information from a wide range of media…

Heffron, Susan Gallagher; Valmond, Kharra

2011-01-01

63

Global climate change: Seeking a global consensus  

SciTech Connect

Sen. Gore, conducting the hearing in the absence of the chairman, Sen. Hollings, opened by criticizing the Bush Administration for lack of leadership in addressing serious air pollution problems. Specifically cited were (1) an April 1990 White House conference on global warming where the President outraged delegates of other nations by failing to recognize the urgency or the problem; and (2) in May 1990, for a meeting on the ozone layer, the President instructed U.S. negotiators to oppose efforts by other nations to protect this layer. Making brief statements to the committee and submitting their material for the record were the following officials reporting for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (the IPCC) Working Groups: (1) Dr. Alan D. Hecht, Deputy Assistant Administrator for International Activities, EPA; (2) Dr. Frederick M. Bernthal, Deputy Director, NSF; and (3) Dr. Robert A. Watson, Office of Space Science and Applications, NASA.

Not Available

1990-01-01

64

Global change: Acronyms and abbreviations  

SciTech Connect

This list of acronyms and abbreviations is compiled to provide the user with a ready reference to dicipher the linguistic initialisms and abridgements for the study of global change. The terms included in this first edition were selected from a wide variety of sources: technical reports, policy documents, global change program announcements, newsletters, and other periodicals. The disciplinary interests covered by this document include agriculture, atmospheric science, ecology, environmental science, oceanography, policy science, and other fields. In addition to its availability in hard copy, the list of acronyms and abbreviations is available in DOS-formatted diskettes and through CDIAC`s anonymous File Transfer Protocol (FTP) area on the Internet.

Woodard, C.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Stoss, F.W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center

1995-05-01

65

Teaching About Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Association of American Geographers (AAG) presents free, online professional development modules for geography and social studies teachers at middle and high school levels who are preparing to teach about global climate change. The modules provide information and materials including assessments, overview of the Earth system science, frequently asked questions about global climate change, examples of how to address common student misconceptions and an interactive resource library that delivers a resource list to your e-mail inbox. Free registration is required to access the complete materials and resources.

66

Climate variability and climate change vulnerability and adaptation. Workshop summary  

SciTech Connect

Representatives from fifteen countries met in Prague, Czech Republic, on September 11-15, 1995, to share results from the analysis of vulnerability and adaptation to global climate change. The workshop focused on the issues of global climate change and its impacts on various sectors of a national economy. The U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which has been signed by more than 150 governments worldwide, calls on signatory parties to develop and communicate measures they are implementing to respond to global climate change. An analysis of a country`s vulnerability to changes in the climate helps it identify suitable adaptation measures. These analyses are designed to determine the extent of the impacts of global climate change on sensitive sectors such as agricultural crops, forests, grasslands and livestock, water resources, and coastal areas. Once it is determined how vulnerable a country may be to climate change, it is possible to identify adaptation measures for ameliorating some or all of the effects.The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: Provide an opportunity for countries to describe their study results; Encourage countries to learn from the experience of the more complete assessments and adjust their studies accordingly; Identify issues and analyses that require further investigation; and Summarize results and experiences for governmental and intergovernmental organizations.

Bhatti, N.; Cirillo, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Dixon, R.K. [U.S. Country Studies Program, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

67

Global Change Education Resource Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide is intended as an aid to educators who conduct programs and activities on climate and global change issues for a variety of audiences. The selected set of currently available materials are appropriate for both formal and informal programs in environmental education and can help frame and clarify some of the key issues associated with…

Mortensen, Lynn L., Ed.

68

Global change: Acronyms and abbreviations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This list of acronyms and abbreviations is compiled to provide the user with a ready reference to dicipher the linguistic initialisms and abridgements for the study of global change. The terms included in this first edition were selected from a wide varie...

C. T. Woodard F. W. Stoss

1995-01-01

69

Global Climate Change Interaction Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students investigate the effects of global climate change on life in the Great Lakes region in this activity. Teams working together construct as many links as possible for such factors as rainfall, lake water, evaporation, skiing, zebra mussels, wetlands, shipping, walleye, toxic chemicals, coastal homes, and population. (PVD)|

Fortner, Rosanne W.

1998-01-01

70

Global Climate Change Briefing Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents general resources and legislative issues related to global climate change. The site includes greenhouse gas sources, trends and effects on the environment, the text of the Kyoto Protocol, and a glossary with acronyms. Other topics such as legal, economic and energy issues are also covered, and links to the latest updates on climate change from the White House and the National Academy of Sciences are found here.

Service, Congressional R.; Environment, National C.

71

Impacts of Global Warming on Agricultural Production and Adaptations in Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measures in response to global warming can be divided into two strategies: mitigation, which reduces climate change itself by the reduction of greenhouse gases, and adaptation, which reduces the impacts of climate change. Interest in the adaptation approach, in particular, has recently been rising both in Japan and internationally. Agricultural production is expected to be greatly impacted by future climate

Kiyoshi TAKAHASHI

72

Global Climate Change: Impact and Remediation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This "clicker case" is a continuation of another case study "Global Climate Change: Evidence and Causes". Students assume the role of an intern working for a U.S. senator to learn about the effects of global climate change as well as technologies and practices available to remediate the impact of climate effects. The case was designed for use in a one-semester introductory biology course taken primarily by freshmen and sophomores to fulfill a general education requirement, but could be used in any introductory biology course or in an ecology or environmental science course. It consists of a PowerPoint presentation (2.2MB) presented in class that is punctuated by multiple-choice questions students respond to using personal responses systems, or "clickers." The case can be adapted for use without these technologies.

Knabb, Maureen; Lutz, Timothy

73

Global Climate Change: Evidence and Causes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This “clicker case” begins by assessing students’ impressions of global climate change and the role that human activities play in recent global warming trends. Students assume the role of an intern working for a U.S. senator. They need to understand the scientific evidence for human impact on climate change so that they can advise the senator on future policy decisions. The case was designed for use in a one-semester introductory biology course taken primarily by freshmen and sophomores to fulfill a general education requirement, but could be used in any introductory biology course or in an ecology or environmental science course. It consists of a PowerPoint presentation (~1.6MB) presented in class that is punctuated by multiple-choice questions students respond to using personal response systems (“clickers”). The case can be adapted for use without these technologies.

Knabb, Maureen; Lutz, Timothy M.; Fairchild, G. W.

2010-01-01

74

Global Environmental Change: Introduced Species  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Human activity has introduced species to ecosystems around the globe. Some species are benign or even beneficial; others, like zebra mussels, fire ants, and water hyacinths, are causing native species extinctions and damage to human systems. Can we balance human systems with natural processes? Seven activities--using pillbugs, the school grounds, species dispersal maps, and introductory genetics--provide students with the skills they need to address this important global question. Introduced Species is one of four books in NSTA Press's Global Environmental Change series, a joint project of NSTA Press and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The other books in the series are Deforestation, Biodiversity, and Carrying Capacity.

Agency, Environmental P.; Press, Nsta

1998-01-01

75

Fisheries and Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When populations of harvestable fish start to decline, managers look for explanations of the changes throughout the Earth system. In this activity, the impact of global climate change on marine and Great Lakes fish is considered. First, decline in the striped bass population of the North Atlantic, noted in the Downeaster Alexa song by Billy Joel, is examined with spreadsheet analysis and on-line searches of National Marine Fisheries Service databases. In a second investigation, ArcView generates a model of the Lake Erie depths that could be associated with global climate change (shallower water). Students identify fish species that use nearshore shallows for spawning and nursery areas, and speculate on the impact of the lower water. In both activities, the thermal niche of the species is considered as a factor in where fish populations may migrate with new climate regimes.

Fortner, Rosanne; Merry, Carolyn

2002-07-31

76

Global Change in the Holocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many people, even perhaps the occasional Eos reader, associate the term ``global change'' with warming caused by mankind's recent addiction to fossil fuels. Some may also be well aware of enormous global changes in the distant past uninfluenced by humans; for example, Pleistocene ice ages. But was there any ``global change'' between the end of the last ice age and the onset of industrialization? The answer to this question is addressed early-in the title, even-in the new book Global Change in the Holocene. I don't suggest anyone stop reading after the title, though; the rest of the book is both highly informative and a real pleasure to read. The opening chapter tells us that the Holocene is certainly not, as sometimes charged, a ``bland, pastoral coda to the contrasted movements of a stirring Pleistocene symphony.'' Rather, it is a ``period of continuous change.'' Melodious language aside, the combination of sustained and high-amplitude climatic variability and a wealth of well-preserved, precisely datable paleoclimate archives make the Holocene unique. Only by studying the Holocene can we hope to unravel the low-frequency workings of the Earth system and the degree to which humans have changed our world. This book sets out to teach the reader how to obtain the relevant data and how to use it to do much more than showing static analogues of possible future climate states. It challenges researchers to discern in their data the effects of the dynamic processes underlying coupled variability in the Earth's climate and ecosystems. These processes continue to act today, and it is through providing an understanding of these system dynamics in the Holocene that paleo-environmental studies can make the greatest contribution to future-oriented concerns.

Alverson, Keith

2004-05-01

77

Congress scrutinizes Global Change Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Funding for NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's parts in the interagency U.S. Global Change Research Program was the focus of the House Space Subcommittee's March 30 hearing. The subcommittee authorizes spending for the two agencies, which together account for nearly 75% of the $1.3 billion of the total funding for the GCRP.The subcommittee was looking for the rationale behind this level of funding in light of the scientific uncertainties associated with two of the major issues addressed by the GCRP: global warming and ozone depletion. F. James Sensenbrenner, Jr. (R-Wis.), noted that “We cannot afford to get the science of global warming wrong.”

Bush, Susan

78

Scientific linkages in global change  

SciTech Connect

In the atmosphere, certain trace gases both promote global warming and deplete the ozone layer. The primary radiatively active trace gases that affect global warming are carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, methane, and tropospheric ozone. In the troposphere, the atmosphere up to 10 miles above the earth's surface, these compounds function as greenhouse gases. Many of these gases also influence the concentration of ozone in the stratosphere, the atmospheric layer located between 10-30 miles above the earth's surface. The diffuse layer of ozone in the stratosphere protects life on earth from harmful solar radiation. A reduction of the layer could have very important impacts on the earth's systems. Interactions exist in various ecological processes as well. Physical, chemical, and biological activities of plants and animals are affected directly by global climate change and by increased ultraviolet radiation resulting from depletion of stratospheric ozone.

Jutro, P.R.; Worrest, R.C.; Janetos, A.C.

1989-06-16

79

Line orientation adaptation: local or global?  

PubMed

Prolonged exposure to an oriented line shifts the perceived orientation of a subsequently observed line in the opposite direction, a phenomenon known as the tilt aftereffect (TAE). Here we consider whether the TAE for line stimuli is mediated by a mechanism that integrates the local parts of the line into a single global entity prior to the site of adaptation, or the result of the sum of local TAEs acting separately on the parts of the line. To test between these two alternatives we used the fact the TAE transfers almost completely across luminance contrast polarity [1]. We measured the TAE using adaptor and test lines that (1) either alternated in luminance polarity or were of a single polarity, and (2) either alternated in local orientation or were of a single orientation. We reasoned that if the TAE was agnostic to luminance polarity and was parts-based, we should obtain large TAEs using alternating-polarity adaptors with single-polarity tests. However we found that (i) TAEs using one-alternating-polarity adaptors with all-white tests were relatively small, increased slightly for two-alternating-polarity adaptors, and were largest with all-white or all-black adaptors. (ii) however TAEs were relatively large when the test was one-alternating polarity, irrespective of the adaptor type. (iii) The results with orientation closely mirrored those obtained with polarity with the difference that the TAE transfer across orthogonal orientations was weak. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the TAE for lines is mediated by a global shape mechanism that integrates the parts of lines into whole prior to the site of orientation adaptation. The asymmetry in the magnitude of TAE depending on whether the alternating-polarity lines was the adaptor or test can be explained by an imbalance in the population of neurons sensitive to 1(st)-and 2(nd)-order lines, with the 2(nd)-order lines being encoded by a subset of the mechanisms sensitive to 1(st)-order lines. PMID:24023677

Gheorghiu, Elena; Bell, Jason; Kingdom, Frederick A A

2013-08-30

80

Global Change Resources, Projects, and Tools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contains 16 articles that discuss activities relating to global change, including world data centers; the Global Change Master Directory, the Global Change Data and Information System (GCDIS) gopher, Project Earthlink, Government Information Locator Service, Global Land Information System, National Resources Inventory, Earth System Science…

Stoss, Fred; And Others

1995-01-01

81

Congress scrutinizes Global Change Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Funding for NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's parts in the interagency U.S. Global Change Research Program was the focus of the House Space Subcommittee's March 30 hearing. The subcommittee authorizes spending for the two agencies, which together account for nearly 75% of the $1.3 billion of the total funding for the GCRP.The subcommittee was looking for the

Susan Bush

1993-01-01

82

Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Global Magnetohydrodynamic Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first part of this paper reviews some physics issues representing major computational challenges for global MHD models of the space environment. These issues include: (i) mathematical formulation and discretization of the governing equations that ensure the proper jump conditions and propagation speeds, (ii) regions of relativistic Alfvén speed, (iii) regions dominated by strong intrinsic planetary magnetic field with strong gradients, and (iv) the religiously debated issue of controling the divergence of the magnetic field. The second part of the paper concentrates to modern solution methods that have been developed by the aerodynamics, applied mathematics and DoE communities. Such methods have recently begun to be implemented in space-physics codes, which solve the governing equations for a compressible magnetized plasma. These techniques include high-resolution upwind schemes, block-based solution-adaptive grids and domain decomposition for parallelization. While some of th ese techniques carry over relatively straightforwardly to space physics, space physics simulations pose some new challenges. We give a brief review of the state-of-the-art in modern space-physics codes. Finally, we describe the space physics MHD code developed at the University of Michigan and its recent coupling to a thermosphere-ionosphere and inner magnetosphere model.

Gombosi, T. I.; de Zeeuw, D. L.; Powell, K. G.; et al.

83

Biotic Response to Global Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From Cretaceous times to the present, the Earth's climate changed from a very warm, "greenhouse" phase with no ice sheets to the "ice-house" world of today. In this book over forty specialists investigate the many ways that life has reacted to the global environmental changes that have taken place during this period. Coverage details a wide spectrum of animal, plant, and protistan life, with the focus on aspects such as extinctions, diversity, and biogeography. This volume will be an invaluable reference for researchers and graduate students in paleontology, geology, biology, oceanography and climatology.

Culver, Stephen J.; Rawson, Peter F.

2000-07-01

84

A Model for Climate Change Adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate models predict serious impacts on the western U.S. in the next few decades, including increased temperatures and reduced precipitation. In combination, these changes are linked to profound impacts on fundamental systems, such as water and energy supplies, agriculture, population stability, and the economy. Global and national imperatives for climate change mitigation and adaptation are made actionable at the state level, for instance through greenhouse gas (GHG) emission regulations and incentives for renewable energy sources. However, adaptation occurs at the local level, where energy and water usage can be understood relative to local patterns of agriculture, industry, and culture. In response to the greenhouse gas emission reductions required by California’s Assembly Bill 32 (2006), Sonoma County has committed to sharp emissions reductions across several sectors, including water, energy, and transportation. To assist Sonoma County develop a renewable energy (RE) portfolio to achieve this goal we have developed an integrated assessment model, CLEAR (CLimate-Energy Assessment for Resiliency) model. Building on Sonoma County’s existing baseline studies of energy use, carbon emissions and potential RE sources, the CLEAR model simulates the complex interactions among technology deployment, economics and social behavior. This model enables assessment of these and other components with specific analysis of their coupling and feedbacks because, due to the complex nature of the problem, the interrelated sectors cannot be studied independently. The goal is an approach to climate change mitigation and adaptation that is replicable for use by other interested communities. The model user interfaces helps stakeholders and policymakers understand options for technology implementation.

Pasqualini, D.; Keating, G. N.

2009-12-01

85

Do global circulation patterns change?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate is changing. As one of the consequences it is expected that intensity and/or track of stronger cyclones will change. This is because climate change is likely modifying the global circulation pattern which - in turn - significantly drives the cyclones. Consequently, possible variations in the Brewer-Dobson circulation are currently discussed in the scientific community. Even an effect on the circulation in the mesosphere is expected due to changed filter characteristics for the propagation of gravity waves. The global circulation in middle latitudes is mainly characterised by the activity of planetary (Rossby-) waves. In order to investigate possible longer term changes in the planetary wave activity we used total column ozone data since they can be used as a conservative tracer for atmospheric dynamics. We analysed the 25 year TOMS total column ozone data record (1978 - 2005) in the Northern Hemisphere. Longitudinal and latitudinal dependant ozone trends are revealed. Sinusoidal structures in the longitudinal trend behaviour are interpreted in terms of planetary wave activity. This is tentatively interpreted as a trend predominantly in the planetary waves with zonal wave numbers one and two, respectively. It is shown that the meridional structure of the trend is similar to a Hough-function. Consequences for the occurrence of so-called "streamer events", which show up more frequently over Europe, are presented; the impact on regional atmospheric heating/cooling is discussed.

Bittner, M.; Wüst, S.

2010-09-01

86

Climate change adaptation in the ski industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regardless of the success of climate change mitigation efforts, the international community has concluded that societies around\\u000a the world will need to adapt to some magnitude of climate change in the 21st century. While some economic sectors (e.g., agriculture,\\u000a water resources and construction) have been actively engaged in climate change adaptation research for years, adaptation has\\u000a received scant consideration within

Daniel Scott; Geoff McBoyle

2007-01-01

87

Cultural dimensions of climate change impacts and adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Society's response to every dimension of global climate change is mediated by culture. We analyse new research across the social sciences to show that climate change threatens cultural dimensions of lives and livelihoods that include the material and lived aspects of culture, identity, community cohesion and sense of place. We find, furthermore, that there are important cultural dimensions to how societies respond and adapt to climate-related risks. We demonstrate how culture mediates changes in the environment and changes in societies, and we elucidate shortcomings in contemporary adaptation policy.

Adger, W. Neil; Barnett, Jon; Brown, Katrina; Marshall, Nadine; O'Brien, Karen

2013-02-01

88

KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND PRACTICES OF GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE AND HEALTH: TOWARD SUSTAINABLE BEHAVIOUR CHANGE?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental sustainability is increasingly threatened by large-scale changes to the natural environment that could significantly affect human and ecosystem health. In addition, changes to the social, political, economic and physical environment will impact populations globally. Sustainable behaviour change is needed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, mitigate related impacts, and develop the capacity to adapt to future climate and environmental changes.

Francesca Cardwell

2011-01-01

89

Remote sensing of global change  

SciTech Connect

Remote sensing instruments for monitoring global changes are examined. The use of the earth observing system, a set of instrument platforms in polar, sun-synchoronous orbit that provide coverage of the entire globe, is discussed. The radar and imaging spectrometers utilized to obtain surface measurements are described. Atmospheric data is collected by the atmospheric IR sounder, the tropospheric emission spectrometer, and the stratospheric wind IR limb sounder. Consideration is given to the operation of the microwave limb sounder, the active cavity radiometer, and the TDRSS.

Allen, LEW (JPL, Pasadena, CA (USA))

1989-09-01

90

Global Realities and Educational Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the importance of precollegiate global education for students who will have to compete in a larger global economy. Reviews aspects and practices related to three dimensions global education: global issues and topics (environmental, economic, and political); cultural studies; and global interconnections pertaining to American foreign…

Smith, Andrew F.

1995-01-01

91

Adaptation planning for climate change: concepts, assessment approaches, and key lessons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planned adaptation to climate change denotes actions undertaken to reduce the risks and capitalize on the opportunities associated\\u000a with global climate change. This paper summarizes current thinking about planned adaptation. It starts with an explanation\\u000a of key adaptation concepts, a description of the diversity of adaptation contexts, and a discussion of key prerequisites for\\u000a effective adaptation. On the basis of

H.-M. Füssel

2007-01-01

92

Global Environmental change: Understanding the Human Dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is from the National Research Council's Committee on the Human dimensions of Global Change. The object is to examine what is known about human dimensions of global environmental change, identify the major immediate needs for knowledge, and recommend a strategy over the next 5-10 years. Case studies are used in human causes of global change. issues related to

Morrisette

1993-01-01

93

Adapting Cropping Patterns to Climate Change  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many studies on the potential impacts of climate change in agriculture have focused primarily on productivity of individual crops at specific locations rather than considering how cropping patterns may evolve adaptively. These adaptations likely would include both geographic and temporal changes. Th...

94

GCOM: Global Change Observation Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) is a follow on mission of ADEOS and ADEOS2. It is under phase A study in NASDA (National Space Development Agency of Japan). GCOM is not satellites but a mission and its concept is to continuously monitor geophysical parameters which are critical to understand global change phenomena, especially phenomena related to climate change and ozone depletion. The first generation of GCOM is now composed of 2 satellites, i.e. GCOM- A1 and GCOM-B1. The target of GCOM-A1 is to monitor greenhouse gases distribution and ozone as well as ozone related constituents from oblique orbit. It is now planned to carry two core instruments, i.e. ILAS2 F/O and ODUS. ILAS2 F/O is a sun occultation sensor using a Fourier transform spectrometer and measures vertical distribution of atmospheric constituents. ODUS is an ultraviolet to visible grating spectrometer and measures total ozone and aerosols. The target of GCOM-B1 is to measure geophysical parameters which are uncertain in today's climate models. Those parameters include, but not limited to, optical thickness of aerosols and clouds, thermal fluxes, carbon fluxes, sink and source of greenhouse gases, etc. GCOM-B1 will carry four core instruments, i.e. SGLI (GLI follow on), AMSR2 (AMSR follow on), alpha-Scat (SeaWinds follow on), and APOLDER (POLDER follow on). Another candidate instrument is ATRAS (IMG follow on). The orbit of GCOM-B1 will be a sun synchronous orbit, which is almost the same as ADEOS2.GCOM-A1 is planned to be launched in Feb. 2005 while GCOM-B1 is planned to be launched in Aug. 2005.

Shimoda, Haruhisa

1999-12-01

95

Adaptation to climate change in the Ontario public health sector  

PubMed Central

Background Climate change is among the major challenges for health this century, and adaptation to manage adverse health outcomes will be unavoidable. The risks in Ontario – Canada’s most populous province – include increasing temperatures, more frequent and intense extreme weather events, and alterations to precipitation regimes. Socio-economic-demographic patterns could magnify the implications climate change has for Ontario, including the presence of rapidly growing vulnerable populations, exacerbation of warming trends by heat-islands in large urban areas, and connectedness to global transportation networks. This study examines climate change adaptation in the public health sector in Ontario using information from interviews with government officials. Methods Fifty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted, four with provincial and federal health officials and 49 with actors in public health and health relevant sectors at the municipal level. We identify adaptation efforts, barriers and opportunities for current and future intervention. Results Results indicate recognition that climate change will affect the health of Ontarians. Health officials are concerned about how a changing climate could exacerbate existing health issues or create new health burdens, specifically extreme heat (71%), severe weather (68%) and poor air-quality (57%). Adaptation is currently taking the form of mainstreaming climate change into existing public health programs. While adaptive progress has relied on local leadership, federal support, political will, and inter-agency efforts, a lack of resources constrains the sustainability of long-term adaptation programs and the acquisition of data necessary to support effective policies. Conclusions This study provides a snapshot of climate change adaptation and needs in the public health sector in Ontario. Public health departments will need to capitalize on opportunities to integrate climate change into policies and programs, while higher levels of government must improve efforts to support local adaptation and provide the capacity through which local adaptation can succeed.

2012-01-01

96

Global climate change and children's health.  

PubMed

There is broad scientific consensus that Earth's climate is warming rapidly and at an accelerating rate. Human activities, primarily the burning of fossil fuels, are very likely (>90% probability) to be the main cause of this warming. Climate-sensitive changes in ecosystems are already being observed, and fundamental, potentially irreversible, ecological changes may occur in the coming decades. Conservative environmental estimates of the impact of climate changes that are already in process indicate that they will result in numerous health effects to children. The nature and extent of these changes will be greatly affected by actions taken or not taken now at the global level. Physicians have written on the projected effects of climate change on public health, but little has been written specifically on anticipated effects of climate change on children's health. Children represent a particularly vulnerable group that is likely to suffer disproportionately from both direct and indirect adverse health effects of climate change. Pediatric health care professionals should understand these threats, anticipate their effects on children's health, and participate as children's advocates for strong mitigation and adaptation strategies now. Any solutions that address climate change must be developed within the context of overall sustainability (the use of resources by the current generation to meet current needs while ensuring that future generations will be able to meet their needs). Pediatric health care professionals can be leaders in a move away from a traditional focus on disease prevention to a broad, integrated focus on sustainability as synonymous with health. This policy statement is supported by a technical report that examines in some depth the nature of the problem of climate change, likely effects on children's health as a result of climate change, and the critical importance of responding promptly and aggressively to reduce activities that are contributing to this change. PMID:17967923

Shea, Katherine M

2007-10-29

97

Volcanoes and Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to help students use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data; develop descriptions, explanations, predictions and models using evidence; develop an understanding of the Earth as a system by understanding that global patterns of atmospheric movement influence climate, including local weather; and understand that internal and external processes of the Earth system cause natural hazards (volcanoes) that can change or destroy human and wildlife habitats, damage property and harm or kill humans. Students will demonstrate numerous cooperative learning strategies in response to a presentation of basic concepts. They will also collect, analyze, and interpret data, and make predictions based on its synthesis. The lesson provides detailed instructions as well as worksheets, charts, internet access, and publications.

98

Global Climate Change: The Effects of Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students conduct an experiment to learn about CO2 levels found in four different gases. Through this experiment and a set of multimedia resources, they will learn how atmospheric levels of CO2 relate to climate change and global warming, explore the effects of global warming on the environment (as indicated by the changes in Earth's glacial ice), and consider human contributions to global warming, particularly from the use of automobiles.

2005-01-01

99

The psychological impacts of global climate change.  

PubMed

An appreciation of the psychological impacts of global climate change entails recognizing the complexity and multiple meanings associated with climate change; situating impacts within other social, technological, and ecological transitions; and recognizing mediators and moderators of impacts. This article describes three classes of psychological impacts: direct (e.g., acute or traumatic effects of extreme weather events and a changed environment); indirect (e.g., threats to emotional well-being based on observation of impacts and concern or uncertainty about future risks); and psychosocial (e.g., chronic social and community effects of heat, drought, migrations, and climate-related conflicts, and postdisaster adjustment). Responses include providing psychological interventions in the wake of acute impacts and reducing the vulnerabilities contributing to their severity; promoting emotional resiliency and empowerment in the context of indirect impacts; and acting at systems and policy levels to address broad psychosocial impacts. The challenge of climate change calls for increased ecological literacy, a widened ethical responsibility, investigations into a range of psychological and social adaptations, and an allocation of resources and training to improve psychologists' competency in addressing climate change-related impacts. PMID:21553952

Doherty, Thomas J; Clayton, Susan

100

Global Climate Change: Impact and Remediation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This “clicker case” is a continuation of another case in our collection, “Global Climate Change: Evidence and Causes,” in which students assumed the role of an intern working for a U.S. senator so that they could advise the senator on future policy decisions. In this case, students learn about the impact and effects of global climate change as well as technologies and practices available to remediate the impact of climate effects. The case was designed for use in a one-semester introductory biology course taken primarily by freshmen and sophomores to fulfill a general education requirement, but could be used in any introductory biology course or in an ecology or environmental science course. It consists of a PowerPoint presentation (~2.2MB) presented in class that is punctuated by multiple-choice questions students respond to using personal response systems, or “clickers.”  The case can be adapted for use without these technologies.

Knabb, Maureen; Lutz, Timothy M.

2010-01-01

101

Global view of bionetwork dynamics: adaptive landscape  

PubMed Central

Based on recent work, I will give a nontechnical brief review of a powerful quantitative concept in biology, adaptive landscape, initially proposed by S. Wright over 70 years ago, reintroduced by one of the founders of molecular biology and by others in different biological contexts, but apparently forgotten by modern biologists for many years. Nevertheless, this concept finds an increasingly important role in the development of systems biology and bionetwork dynamics modeling, from phage lambda genetic switch to endogenous network for cancer genesis and progression. It is an ideal quantification to describe the robustness and stability of bionetworks. Here, I will first introduce five landmark proposals in biology on this concept, to demonstrate an important common thread in theoretical biology. Then I will discuss a few recent results, focusing on the studies showing theoretical consistency of adaptive landscape. From the perspective of a working scientist and of what is needed logically for a dynamical theory when confronting empirical data, the adaptive landscape is useful both metaphorically and quantitatively, and has captured an essential aspect of biological dynamical processes. Though at the theoretical level the adaptive landscape must exist and it can be used across hierarchical boundaries in biology, many associated issues are indeed vague in their initial formulations and their quantitative realizations are not easy, and are good research topics for quantitative biologists. I will discuss three types of open problems associated with the adaptive landscape in a broader perspective.

Ao, Ping

2011-01-01

102

CLIMATE CHANGE AND GLOBAL ISOPRENE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Emission of isoprene from vegetation affects tropospheric chemistry at the regional and global scales. rojected global climate change will potentially alter emission rates, with corresponding influences on concentrations of ozone and other radiatively important trace gases. rogre...

103

Global change integrating factors: Tropical tropopause trends.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research proposes new criteria, shifts in the height and temperature of the tropical tropopause, as measures of global climate change. The search for signs of global warming in the temperature signal near the earth's surface is extremely difficult, l...

R. A. Reck

1994-01-01

104

Climate Change and Global Isoprene Emissions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Emission of isoprene from vegetation affects tropospheric chemistry at the regional and global scales. Projected global climate change will potentially alter emission rates, with corresponding influences on concentrations of ozone and other radiatively im...

D. P. Turner A. G. Wones D. Pross D. L. Phillips

1991-01-01

105

Overview-Climate Change and Adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change poses a grave threat to sustainability. The first section of Sustainability2009: The Next Horizon, therefore, is devoted to Climate Change and Adaptation. Contributions focus on the historical consequences of climate change for human societies, as well as the effects of current climate change on sea level, lightning intensity, fire, the El Nin~o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and hurricane intensity. Chapters on fisheries and coral reefs highlight the cascading effects climatic warming, rising sea level, and ocean acidification. Adaptation to climate change and its consequences will be necessary to buy time for mitigation and reversal of the effects of greenhouse-gas emissions.

Aronson, Richard B.

2009-07-01

106

Societal adaptation Options to Changes in Phenology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter I provided a qualitative overview of how phenological changes will strongly influence human well-being through\\u000a changes in primary production sectors depending on natural productivity, including agriculture, forestry and fisheries, and\\u000a the public health sector. Farmers, commercial enterprises, patients, doctors and policy makers have to adapt pro-actively\\u000a to cope with, prevent or reduce potential negative impacts. Adaptation should

Arnold J. H. van Vliet

107

Global environmental change: Understanding the human dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global environmental change often seems to be the most carefully examined issue of our time. Yet understanding the human side--human causes of and responses to environmental change--has not yet received sustained attention. The report offers a strategy for combining the efforts of natural and social scientists to better understand how our actions influence the global environment and how change in

P. C. Stern; O. R. Young; D. Druckman

1992-01-01

108

Climate change; Confronting the global experiment - Treesearch  

Treesearch

... of directional change (warming), and superelevated carbon dioxide and methane levels. ... The extensive human footprint of land use severely restricts the capacity of plant species to adapt to the rapid changes. ... Continent: North America.

109

Impact of climate change on migratory birds: community reassembly versus adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim Species can respond to global climate change by range shifts or by phenotypic adaptation. At the community level, range shifts lead to a turnover of species, i.e. community reassembly. In contrast, phenotypic adaptation allows species to persist in situ , conserving community composition. So far, community reassembly and adaptation have mostly been studied separately. In nature, however, both processes

Hans-Christian Schaefer; Walter Jetz; Katrin Böhning-Gaese

2008-01-01

110

Is global warming already changing ocean productivity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming is predicted to alter the ocean's biological productivity. But how will we recognise the impacts of climate change on ocean productivity? The most comprehensive information available on the global distribution of ocean productivity comes from satellite ocean colour data. Now that over ten years of SeaWiFS data have accumulated, can we begin to detect and attribute global warming

S. A. Henson; J. L. Sarmiento; J. P. Dunne; L. Bopp; I. Lima; S. C. Doney; J. John; C. Beaulieu

2009-01-01

111

Global Carbon Cycle and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kirill Kondratyev and his colleagues present an unusual look at global change issues, with particular emphasis on quantitative models that can capture diverse aspects of the complete Earth system-vegetation, atmosphere, oceans, and human beings. The focus is on the global carbon cycle as a prime indicator of global environmental stresses. It includes some remarkably sharp, and insightful critical analysis of

Steven C. Wofsy

2004-01-01

112

Global change and human vulnerability to vector-borne diseases.  

PubMed

Global change includes climate change and climate variability, land use, water storage and irrigation, human population growth and urbanization, trade and travel, and chemical pollution. Impacts on vector-borne diseases, including malaria, dengue fever, infections by other arboviruses, schistosomiasis, trypanosomiasis, onchocerciasis, and leishmaniasis are reviewed. While climate change is global in nature and poses unknown future risks to humans and natural ecosystems, other local changes are occurring more rapidly on a global scale and are having significant effects on vector-borne diseases. History is invaluable as a pointer to future risks, but direct extrapolation is no longer possible because the climate is changing. Researchers are therefore embracing computer simulation models and global change scenarios to explore the risks. Credible ranking of the extent to which different vector-borne diseases will be affected awaits a rigorous analysis. Adaptation to the changes is threatened by the ongoing loss of drugs and pesticides due to the selection of resistant strains of pathogens and vectors. The vulnerability of communities to the changes in impacts depends on their adaptive capacity, which requires both appropriate technology and responsive public health systems. The availability of resources in turn depends on social stability, economic wealth, and priority allocation of resources to public health. PMID:14726459

Sutherst, Robert W

2004-01-01

113

Global Change and Human Vulnerability to Vector-Borne Diseases  

PubMed Central

Global change includes climate change and climate variability, land use, water storage and irrigation, human population growth and urbanization, trade and travel, and chemical pollution. Impacts on vector-borne diseases, including malaria, dengue fever, infections by other arboviruses, schistosomiasis, trypanosomiasis, onchocerciasis, and leishmaniasis are reviewed. While climate change is global in nature and poses unknown future risks to humans and natural ecosystems, other local changes are occurring more rapidly on a global scale and are having significant effects on vector-borne diseases. History is invaluable as a pointer to future risks, but direct extrapolation is no longer possible because the climate is changing. Researchers are therefore embracing computer simulation models and global change scenarios to explore the risks. Credible ranking of the extent to which different vector-borne diseases will be affected awaits a rigorous analysis. Adaptation to the changes is threatened by the ongoing loss of drugs and pesticides due to the selection of resistant strains of pathogens and vectors. The vulnerability of communities to the changes in impacts depends on their adaptive capacity, which requires both appropriate technology and responsive public health systems. The availability of resources in turn depends on social stability, economic wealth, and priority allocation of resources to public health.

Sutherst, Robert W.

2004-01-01

114

Climate Change Adaptation in the Urban Environment  

SciTech Connect

This overview chapter considers five questions that cut across the four case studies in the section to follow: (1) why are urban environments of particular interest; (2) what does an 'urban environment' mean as a focus for adaptation actions, (3) what do we know about climate change vulnerabilities and adaptation potentials in urban areas; (4) what can we expect in the future with adaptation in urban areas; and (5) what is happening with climate change adaptation in urban areas? After decades of inattention, adaptation to risks and impacts of climate change is now receiving long overdue attention, and it is only natural that a considerable share of this attention is focused on the places where most people live. This section considers climate change adaptation in the urban environment, defined as settings where human populations cluster - generally implying relatively large clusters, but not excluding smaller settlements that operate as coherent geopolitical and economic entities. Consistent with the topic of the book, the emphasis of this overview will be on urban environments in developed countries, but it will also draw on knowledge being developed from urban experiences across the globe.

Wilbanks, Thomas J [ORNL

2011-01-01

115

Adaptation to Change in Multiple Probability Tasks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The findings reported here indicate that adaptation to change in a multiple-cue, probabilistic task is substantially affected by which aspects of the task undergo change. Both (a) the initial decrement in performance and (b) the rate of improvement follow...

D. A. Summers

1968-01-01

116

Climate change and urban bioclimate: Adaptation possibilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change will affect climate in urban areas and also urban bioclimate. Therefore, there is a demand on adaptation strategies and possibilities in the urban structures and microclimate. The performed simulations are based on changes in parameters which have the biggest variation in urban structures: mean radiant temperature and wind speed. REMO data for A1B and B1 one have been

Andreas Matzarakis; Christina Endler

117

Global Climate Change: Threat Multiplier for AFRICOM.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The recent increased pace in which extreme weather patterns are occurring has received national attention. Whatever the catalyst for this abrupt climate change, stability for Africa hinges upon mitigating the effects of global climate change to prevent fu...

T. A. Yackle

2007-01-01

118

Global Climate Change: Policy Implications for Fisheries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several government agencies are evaluating policy options for addressing global climate change. These include planning for anticipated effects and developing mitigation options where feasible if climate does change as predicted. For fisheries resources, p...

H. Gucinski R. T. Lackey B. C. Spence

1990-01-01

119

Global change science and the Arctic citizen  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that global change science is both shaping and being shaped by a new type of citizen, namely the Arctic citizen, in at least three ways. First, global change science regionalizes the Arctic and underwrites an Arctic identity centered on the notion that its peoples comprise an at-risk community. Second, the ways in which science imagines nature-society interactions

Marybeth Long Martello

2004-01-01

120

Integrated land history and global change science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land histories originate in multiple disciplines. The corpus of this research, however, does not link well to the science of global environmental change, despite explicit recognition by that science to incorporate land history. History and global change science would both benefit by such linkages, which necessitates the development of “integrated land history.” This interdisciplinary research subject is identified here, illustrated

Peter Klepeis; B. L Turner II

2001-01-01

121

Federal global change data plan reviewed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientists and data managers are grappling with an unprecedented challenge: how to handle the explosion of data being produced by global change research. The federal government is developing a plan to manage data among the various federal agencies that participate in the U.S. Global Change Research Program. From January 22 to 24, some 80 scientists, data managers, and officials from

Lynn Teo Simarski

1992-01-01

122

Global Change in the Great Lakes: Scenarios.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Ohio Sea Grant Education Program has produced this series of publications designed to help people understand how global change may affect the Great Lakes region. The possible implications of global change for this region of the world are explained in the hope that policymakers and individuals will be more inclined to make responsible…

Garrison, Barbara K., Ed.; Rosser, Arrye R., Ed.

123

Globalizing General Education: Changing World, Changing Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Argues that general education curricula should promote understanding of cultural and geographical relationships among the world's peoples and adopt a globalized concept of cultural literacy. Recommends the establishment of first-year World Civilizations courses, reviewing curricular models and implementation approaches, and discusses other course…

Sjoquist, Douglas P.

1993-01-01

124

Population Growth. Understanding Global Change: Earth Science and Human Impacts. Global Change Instruction Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Global Change Instruction Program was designed by college professors to fill a need for interdisciplinary materials on the emerging science of global change. This instructional module concentrates on interactions between population growth and human activities that produce global change. The materials are designed for undergraduate students…

Jacobsen, Judith E.

125

Carbon dioxide and global change  

SciTech Connect

This book presents an analysis and review of the many potential consequences of the rapidly rising CO{sub 2} content of Earth's atmosphere. Covering both the physical (climatic) and biological effects of atmospheric CO{sub 2} enrichment, the book presents an overview of the interrelated aspects of this complex and demanding subject. Focus is on the search for evidence of global warming (the highly speculative climatic greenhouse effect) and global vegetative stimulation (the well established biological greenhouse effect). The pros and cons of all issues related to these phenomena are discussed. The author's estimate of where the world is headed as a result of mankind's great geophysical experiments is offered.

Idso, S.B. (Arizona State Univ. (US))

1989-01-01

126

Earth observations and global change decision making, 1990  

SciTech Connect

This book covers: technology to monitor global change; the World Meteorological Organization and its role in earth observations and global change; data policy supporting global change research; and guidelines for making decisions about global warming.

Ginsberg, I.W. (Information Analysis and Exploitation Lab., ERIM, MI (US)); Angelo, J.A. (Florida Institute of Technology, FL (US))

1991-01-01

127

Dealing with Scale and Adaptation of Global Web Services Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Service Oriented Architectures (SOA) are becoming the prevalent approach for realizing modern services and systems. SOA offers superior support for autonomy (decoupling) and heterogeneity compared to previous generation middleware systems, resulting in more scalable and adaptive solutions. However, SOA have not adequately addressed management, while traditional management solutions do not sufficiently scale to address the needs of (global) Web services.

William Vambenepe; Carol Thompson; Vanish Talwar; Sandro Rafaeli; Bryan Murray; Dejan S. Milojicic; Subu Iyer; Keith I. Farkas; Martin F. Arlitt

2005-01-01

128

Eighth symposium on global change studies  

SciTech Connect

The conference proceedings contain papers from 16 of 20 sessions. The topics of the sessions from which papers were selected were: (1) implications of the IPCC projections of the 21st century climate, (2) natural and forced climate variability, (3) atmospheric circulation; (4) climate trends and abrupt changes; (5) clouds, water vapor, and precipitation; (6) climate impacts; (7) correcting observational biases; (8) the World Ocean Circulation Experiment; (9) land surface and land surface/atmosphere coupling; (10) detection of anthropogenic climate change; (11) climate and global change and the insurance industry; (12) the paleoclimate record; (13) proxy indicators of climate reconstruction; (14) climate predictions; (15) monitoring global change; and (16) historical, current, and project climate trends. Conference sessions from which papers were not selected were: (1) The United States Global Change Research Program perspectives; (2) CLIVAR; (3) the temperature record; and (4) global change educational initiatives. A total of 63 papers were selected for the database.

NONE

1997-11-01

129

Ecological Restoration and Global Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing consensus that global climate change occurs and that potential changes in climate are likely to have important regional consequences for biota and ecosystems. Ecological restoration, including (re)- afforestation and rehabilitation of degraded land, is included in the array of potential human responses to cli- mate change. However, the implications of climate change for the broader practice

James A. Harris; Richard J. Hobbs; Eric Higgs; James Aronson

2006-01-01

130

The human dimensions of global environmental change: Ecosystem services, resilience, and governance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global environmental change affects all societies and their environments at various spatial and temporal scales. The linking of natural ecosystems to social ones is of central importance for the analysis, mitigation of and adaptation to any action or issue related to sustainability and global change. When examining the human dimensions of environmental change, the study of ecosystem services illustrates the

A. Rechkemmer; L. von Falkenhayn

2009-01-01

131

Global Warming and Climate Change Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change has emerged as a major scientific and political issue within a few short decades. Scientific evidence clearly indicates that this change is a result of a complex interplay between a number of human-related and natural earth systems. While the complexity of the earth-ocean-atmosphere system makes the understanding and prediction of global climate change very difficult, improved scientific

Atul Jain

2008-01-01

132

Climate change and water resources in the Murray Darling Basin, Australia Impacts and possible adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Australia, changes to the hydrological cycle under conditions of enhanced global warming are likely to be complex and spatially diverse. While a number of emission scenarios have been developed to explore the key drivers of global warming, the capacity to adapt to climate change has not received the same level of attention. A simulation model was used to examine

Stephen Beare; Anna Heaney

133

Expert views of climate change adaptation in least developed Asia.  

PubMed

Drawing primarily from original data collected from more than 100 semi-structured research interviews, this study discusses the benefits of four climate change adaptation projects being implemented in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, and the Maldives. The article begins by explaining its research methods and selecting a sample of Global Environment Facility-Least Developed Country Fund projects being implemented in Asia to analyze. It then describes ongoing adaptation efforts in each of these four countries. It finds that projects enhance infrastructural resilience by building relevant, robust, and flexible technologies. They build institutional resilience by creating strong, permanent, legitimate organizations in place to respond to climate change issues. They promote community resilience by enhancing local ownership, building capacity, and creating networks that help ordinary people learn and adapt to climate change. We find that all four of our case studies couple adaptive improvements in technology and infrastructure with those in governance and community welfare, underscoring the holistic or systemic aspect of resilience. Our study also demonstrates the salience of a functions-based approach to resilience and adaptive capacity rather than an asset-based one. PMID:22325585

Sovacool, Benjamin K; D'Agostino, Anthony L; Meenawat, Harsha; Rawlani, Amireeta

2011-12-29

134

Administration pro-active on global change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some drastic climate events during the past year alone (March blizzard, mid-western flooding, intensifying El Niño) have raised even more concern lately about the effects of global environmental change, which may in part be caused by an increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. “We could see changes in climate greater than any we've seen in the past 10,000 years,“ said Katie McGinty, director of the White House Office of Environmental Policy.Addressing the attendees of a meeting entitled “Global Change: A New Direction for Decision Making,” held October 27-28 in Washington, D.C., where representatives of some federal science agencies, among others, presented their views on global environmental change policy and scientific issues, McGinty noted that the Clinton Administration is bringing a new direction to global change policy.

Bush, Susan

135

Global change and the ecology of cities.  

PubMed

Urban areas are hot spots that drive environmental change at multiple scales. Material demands of production and human consumption alter land use and cover, biodiversity, and hydrosystems locally to regionally, and urban waste discharge affects local to global biogeochemical cycles and climate. For urbanites, however, global environmental changes are swamped by dramatic changes in the local environment. Urban ecology integrates natural and social sciences to study these radically altered local environments and their regional and global effects. Cities themselves present both the problems and solutions to sustainability challenges of an increasingly urbanized world. PMID:18258902

Grimm, Nancy B; Faeth, Stanley H; Golubiewski, Nancy E; Redman, Charles L; Wu, Jianguo; Bai, Xuemei; Briggs, John M

2008-02-01

136

Successful adaptation to climate change across scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change impacts andresponses are presently observedin physical andecological systems. Ad aptation to these impacts is increasingly being observedin both physical andecological systems as well as in human adjustments to resource availability andrisk at different spatial and societal scales. We review the nature of adaptation and the implications of different spatial scales for these processes. We outline a set of

W. Neil Adger; Nigel W. Arnella; Emma L. Tompkins

137

Transformation of the Biosphere: Global Environmental Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation, available online as a printable PDF, discusses the direct impact humans have on the global environment. It contains an overview of how human negligence toward the Earth's soils, atmosphere, and waters not only harms ecosystems and species, but also degrades the quality of human life and four world maps depicting some global environmental changes.

138

Assessing Global Change from a Regional Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global change has become eminent in our everyday lives. Slowly, but noticeably, the faces surrounding us represent the international global community. Climate doomsday is as present as ethnical and religious controversy. The press reports how eastern German women to flee the catastrophic economic conditions that prevail after the fall of socialism, while catastrophic flooding is haunting the eastern German men

Markus Zimmer

2008-01-01

139

Can the desert annual Salvia columbariae adapt to global warming?  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric concentrations of {open_quotes}greenhouse{close_quotes} gases are increasing, and most atmospheric scientists agree that an increase in global mean air temperatures will follow. The predictions about possible biological consequences range from {open_quotes}significant{close_quotes} to {open_quotes}catastrophic.{close_quotes} To explore the possible effects of elevated temperatures on a winter germinating desert annual, we grew seeds from two populations of Salvia columbariae in controlled environments mimicking normal temperatures for those populations and in temperatures 4 C higher. Measures of individual fitness were successful germination and the number of seeds produced. For both populations, fitness was dramatically lower in the elevated temperatures: both percent germination and seed number were significantly reduced. Sixty-five percent of the family groups (same mother) failed to flower under the elevated temperatures, whereas, all of the families grown in the normal temperatures flowered and produced seeds. There were also differences between families grown in the increased temperature treatments, implying genetic differences in high temperature tolerance. Our results suggest that while some families will be able to survive and adapt to elevated air temperatures, most will not. This could lead to a serious eroding of the genetic variability of these populations and possibly hamper their ability to respond to other kinds of environmental change.

Soulanille, E.L.; Bierzychudek, P. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)]|[Lewis and Clark College, Portland, OR (United States)

1995-06-01

140

Using expert elicitation to define successful adaptation to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops definitions of adaptation and successful adaptation to climate change, with a view to evaluating adaptations. There is little consensus on the definition of adapting to climate change in existing debates or on the criteria by which adaptation actions can be deemed successful or sustainable. In this paper, a variant of the Delphi technique is used to elicit

Miguel de França Doria; Emily Boyd; Emma L. Tompkins; W. Neil Adger

2009-01-01

141

Global environmental change: Its nature and impact  

SciTech Connect

This book is intended as an entry-level textbook on environmental science for nonscience majors. Twenty chapters address topics from historical geology and climatic change to population dynamics, land-use, water pollution, ozone depletion and biodiversity, global warming.

Hidore, J.J.

1996-12-31

142

Global vegetation changes from satellite data  

SciTech Connect

Long-term climate, soils data along with satellite observations are sued to quantify global land cover changes between pre-agricultural and present conditions. Changes in global land cover expressed as summer, mid-afternoon, radiometric surface temperatures, T{sub r}, ranged from -8 to +16 {degrees}C. Deforestation resulted in an increase in T{sub r}, while irrigated agriculture reduced the T{sub r}. The spatial heterogeneity in land surface fluxes created by the estimated land cover changes, currently not accounted for in Global Circulation Models, could have significant impact on climate. Potential and actual land cover datasets are available for climate modelers at 0.5x0.5{degrees} resolution to study the possible impacts of land cover changes on global temperatures and circulation patterns.

Nemani, R.; Running, S. [Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States)

1995-09-01

143

International business and global climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change has become an important topic on the business agenda with strong pressure being placed on companies to respond and contribute to finding solutions to this urgent problem. This text provides a comprehensive analysis of international business responses to global climate change and climate change policy. Embedded in relevant management literature, this book gives a concise treatment of developments

J. Pinkse; A. Kolk

2008-01-01

144

Global Climate Change, Stress and Plant Productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Global climate change, rated as the most serious threat to the environment, has been the center of debate among environmentalists\\u000a and policy makers as it has become not only an environmental, a political and an economic issue, but also a global problem,\\u000a of which agriculture is the major target. At the plant or field scale, climate change is likely to

Altaf Ahmad; Hema Diwan; Yash P. Abrol

145

Budget increase sought for global change  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distinct federal budget initiative this year has spotlighted global change research for FY 1992. The budget asks for almost $1.2 billion---an increase of $232 million, 24% more than last year---to be spread among nine federal agencies in the U.S. Global Change Research Program. Climate modelling and prediction is the top scientific priority for 1992, according to the National Science

Lynn Teo Simarski

1991-01-01

146

GAIA - Understanding Global Policy Issues in Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impacts of global climate change are wide-ranging and profound. Adapting policies to deal with public health, economic, and security issues that will arise will be a difficult and challenging process. To help address these concerns the GAIA (Global Assimilation of Information for Action) project is being initiated at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory to bring together climate, public health, economic, and security subject matter experts to focus attention on creating policy issues to address the most important problems facing the world. Plans for GAIA's first year activities as well as future directions will be discussed.

Babin, S. M.; Paxton, L. J.; Pikas, C. K.; Schaefer, R. K.; Simpkins, S.; Swartz, W. H.; Weiss, M.

2010-12-01

147

Changing Face of Global Terrorism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Systematic manifestation of terrorism did not appear until the French Revolution and became pronounced in later part of the 19th century. Since then, terrorism has been continuously changing due to social, political and technological developments. Contemp...

L. Ali Khan

2001-01-01

148

Environment and Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is intended to convey a broad understanding of the nature of climate change and its potential impacts. Students will come to understand the effects of radiation imbalance in the Arctic, fluctuations in albedo, and ecological consequences of decreasing albedo in the Arctic. Upon completion of the module, they will be able to explain: the consequences of decreasing stratospheric ozone, potential hazards of POP's entering Arctic food chains, and the possible impacts of environmental changes on traditional lifestyles in the Arctic.

149

Changing Rural Social Systems: Adaptation and Survival.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book includes studies of globalization-related social changes in rural areas of the United States and other countries and implications of these studies for sociological theory. Although no chapter focuses exclusively on education, education-related themes include rural school dropouts and intergenerational poverty, the migration of rural…

Johnson, Nan E., Ed.; Wang, Ching-li, Ed.

150

Changing Rural Social Systems: Adaptation and Survival.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book includes studies of globalization-related social changes in rural areas of the United States and other countries and implications of these studies for sociological theory. Although no chapter focuses exclusively on education, education-related themes include rural school dropouts and intergenerational poverty, the migration of rural…

Johnson, Nan E., Ed.; Wang, Ching-li, Ed.

151

Climate Effects of Global Land Cover Change  

SciTech Connect

There are two competing effects of global land cover change on climate: an albedo effect which leads to heating when changing from grass/croplands to forest, and an evapotranspiration effect which tends to produce cooling. It is not clear which effect would dominate in a global land cover change scenario. We have performed coupled land/ocean/atmosphere simulations of global land cover change using the NCAR CAM3 atmospheric general circulation model. We find that replacement of current vegetation by trees on a global basis would lead to a global annual mean warming of 1.6 C, nearly 75% of the warming produced under a doubled CO{sub 2} concentration, while global replacement by grasslands would result in a cooling of 0.4 C. These results suggest that more research is necessary before forest carbon storage should be deployed as a mitigation strategy for global warming. In particular, high latitude forests probably have a net warming effect on the Earth's climate.

Gibbard, S G; Caldeira, K; Bala, G; Phillips, T; Wickett, M

2005-08-24

152

Dictionary of global climate change  

SciTech Connect

This book represents a revision of the climate change lexicon that was prepared for the Second World Climate Conference in 1990. The conference had 1400 participants and consisted of a scientific component followed by a ministerial meeting. To foster communication among the different constituencies, a lexicon of climate and climate change was prepared for the participants. The dictionary includes definitions and descriptions of most of the scientific terms, organizations, and programs related to the physical aspects of climate change. Nearly 40% of the material describes organized projects, experiments, or programs, mostly international. Some information on biological topics, such as the difference between C3 and C4 plants, is also included. The length of definitions and descriptions ranges from one line to one or more pages, with the longer descriptions usually related to programs.

Maunder, W.J. (ed.)

1992-01-01

153

Climate effects of global land cover change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When changing from grass and croplands to forest, there are two competing effects of land cover change on climate: an albedo effect which leads to warming and an evapotranspiration effect which tends to produce cooling. It is not clear which effect would dominate. We have performed simulations of global land cover change using the NCAR CAM3 atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a slab ocean model. We find that global replacement of current vegetation by trees would lead to a global mean warming of 1.3°C, nearly 60% of the warming produced under a doubled CO2 concentration, while replacement by grasslands would result in a cooling of 0.4°C. It has been previously shown that boreal forestation can lead to warming; our simulations indicate that mid-latitude forestation also could lead to warming. These results suggest that more research is necessary before forest carbon storage should be deployed as a mitigation strategy for global warming.

Gibbard, S.; Caldeira, K.; Bala, G.; Phillips, T. J.; Wickett, M.

2005-12-01

154

Uncertainty and global climate change research  

SciTech Connect

The Workshop on Uncertainty and Global Climate Change Research March 22--23, 1994, in Knoxville, Tennessee. This report summarizes the results and recommendations of the workshop. The purpose of the workshop was to examine in-depth the concept of uncertainty. From an analytical point of view, uncertainty is a central feature of global climate science, economics and decision making. The magnitude and complexity of uncertainty surrounding global climate change has made it quite difficult to answer even the most simple and important of questions-whether potentially costly action is required now to ameliorate adverse consequences of global climate change or whether delay is warranted to gain better information to reduce uncertainties. A major conclusion of the workshop is that multidisciplinary integrated assessments using decision analytic techniques as a foundation is key to addressing global change policy concerns. First, uncertainty must be dealt with explicitly and rigorously since it is and will continue to be a key feature of analysis and recommendations on policy questions for years to come. Second, key policy questions and variables need to be explicitly identified, prioritized, and their uncertainty characterized to guide the entire scientific, modeling, and policy analysis process. Multidisciplinary integrated assessment techniques and value of information methodologies are best suited for this task. In terms of timeliness and relevance of developing and applying decision analytic techniques, the global change research and policy communities are moving rapidly toward integrated approaches to research design and policy analysis.

Tonn, B.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Weiher, R. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States)

1994-06-01

155

Solar Influences on Global Change.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Monitoring of the Sun and the Earth has yielded new knowledge essential to this debate. There is now no doubt that the total radiative energy from the Sun that heats the Earth's surface changes over decadal time scales as a consequence of solar activity. ...

1994-01-01

156

Energy and global climate change: Why ORNL?  

SciTech Connect

Subtle signs of global warming have been detected in studies of the climate record of the past century after figuring in the cooling effects of sulfur emissions from volcanoes and human sources. According to the December 1995 report of the Intergovernment Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the earth`s surface temperature has increased by about 0.2{degrees}C per decade since 1975. the panel projects about a 2{degrees} increase in global temperature by 2100. The IPCC report states that pollutants-greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and fluorocarbons that warm the globe and sulfur emission that cool it-are responsible for recent patterns of climate change. {open_quotes}The balance of evidence,{close_quotes} states the report, {open_quotes}suggests that there is a discrenible human influence on global climate.{close_quotes} This human influence stems largely from fossil fuel combustion, cement production, and the burning of forests, and could intensify as populations grow and developing countries increase energy production and industrial development. The two facts have caught the attention of the news media and public. First, 1995 was declared the hottest year in the 140-year-long record of reliable global measurements. Second, recent years have been marked by an unusually high number of extreme weather events, such as hurricanes, blizzards, and floods. In the 1990`s the world has become more aware of the prospect and possible impacts of global climate change. In the late 1950`s, global climate change was an unknown threat to the world`s environment and social systems. Except for a few ORNL researchers who had just completed their first briefing to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission on the need to understand the global carbon cycle, the connection between rising carbon dioxide concentrations and potential changes in global climate was not common knowledge, nor were the consequences of climate change understood.

Farrell, M.P.

1995-12-31

157

Hormonally mediated maternal effects, individual strategy and global change  

PubMed Central

A challenge to ecologists and evolutionary biologists is predicting organismal responses to the anticipated changes to global ecosystems through climate change. Most evidence suggests that short-term global change may involve increasing occurrences of extreme events, therefore the immediate response of individuals will be determined by physiological capacities and life-history adaptations to cope with extreme environmental conditions. Here, we consider the role of hormones and maternal effects in determining the persistence of species in altered environments. Hormones, specifically steroids, are critical for patterning the behaviour and morphology of parents and their offspring. Hence, steroids have a pervasive influence on multiple aspects of the offspring phenotype over its lifespan. Stress hormones, e.g. glucocorticoids, modulate and perturb phenotypes both early in development and later into adulthood. Females exposed to abiotic stressors during reproduction may alter the phenotypes by manipulation of hormones to the embryos. Thus, hormone-mediated maternal effects, which generate phenotypic plasticity, may be one avenue for coping with global change. Variation in exposure to hormones during development influences both the propensity to disperse, which alters metapopulation dynamics, and population dynamics, by affecting either recruitment to the population or subsequent life-history characteristics of the offspring. We suggest that hormones may be an informative index to the potential for populations to adapt to changing environments.

Meylan, Sandrine; Miles, Donald B.; Clobert, Jean

2012-01-01

158

Similar adaptation effects on motion pattern detection and position discrimination tasks: Unusual properties of global and local level motion adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we examine adaptation effects on pattern detection and position discrimination tasks in radial and rotational motion patterns, induced by adapting stimuli moving in the same or opposite directions to the test stimuli. Adaptation effects on the two tasks were similar, suggesting these tasks are performed by the same population of neurons. Global motion specific adaptation was then induced by

Benjamin M. Harvey; Oliver J. Braddick

2011-01-01

159

NASA NDATC Global Climate Change Education Initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project aligns with NASA's Strategic Goal 3A - ``Study Earth from space to advance scientific understanding and meet societal needs and focuses on funding from the GCCE Funding Category 2: Strengthen the Teaching and Learning About Global Climate Change Within Formal Education Systems. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Report (2007) those communities with the least amount

B. Bennett; E. Wood; D. Meyer; N. Maynard; R. E. Pandya

2009-01-01

160

Global climate change and international security  

Microsoft Academic Search

On May 8--10, 1991, the Midwest Consortium of International Security Studies (MCISS) and Argonne National Laboratory cosponsored a conference on Global Climate Change and International Security. The aim was to bring together natural and social scientists to examine the economic, sociopolitical, and security implications of the climate changes predicted by the general circulation models developed by natural scientists. Five themes

1991-01-01

161

The Psychological Impacts of Global Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An appreciation of the psychological impacts of global climate change entails recognizing the complexity and multiple meanings associated with climate change; situating impacts within other social, technological, and ecological transitions; and recognizing mediators and moderators of impacts. This article describes three classes of psychological…

Doherty, Thomas J.; Clayton, Susan

2011-01-01

162

Adaptation to changes in traffic noise exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research has shown that where an increase (or decrease) in noise occurs, the change in dissatisfaction with noise is considerably greater than would be predicted on the basis of findings in steady state conditions. This paper reports an investigation of whether there is any adaptation to this effect, carried out by repeating the ``after'' phase of two previous studies of decreases in noise exposure. The results show that the effect of change is persistent over a period of at least two years, and a major part of it is visible over 7-9 years. Now at the Department of the Environment, Building Research Station, Watford, WD2 7JR, England

Griffiths, I. D.; Raw, G. J.

1989-07-01

163

Information technology and global change science  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this paper is to identify and briefly describe major existing and near term information technologies that cold have a positive impact on the topics being discussed at this conference by helping to manage the data of global change science and helping global change scientists conduct their research. Desktop computer systems have changed dramatically during the past seven years. Faster data processing can be expected in the future through full development of traditional serial computer architectures. Some other proven information technologies may be currently underutilized by global change scientists. Relational database management systems and good organization of data through the use of thoughtful database design would enable the scientific community to better share and maintain quality research data. Custodians of the data should use rigorous data administration to ensure integrity and long term value of the data resource. Still other emerging information technologies that involve the use of artificial intelligence, parallel computer architectures, and new sensors for data collection will be in relatively common use in the near term and should become part of the global science community's technical toolkit. Consideration should also be given to the establishment of Information Analysis Centers to facilitate effective organization and management of interdisciplinary data and the prototype testing and use of advanced information technology to facilitate rapid and cost-effective integration of these tools into global change science. 8 refs.

Baxter, F.P.

1990-01-01

164

Global Warming - The Science of Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extremely topical over recent years, global warming has been the subject of a huge and growing amount of literature. Current literature however tends to fall into two camps: that which is highly scientific in nature and inaccessible to the average student, and that which is directed to the "lay" reader and lacks detail required by students. This book successfully bridges this gap, prividing an accessible explanation of the physical mechanisms of global warming--discussed within the wider context of climate change.

Drake, Frances

2000-07-01

165

Reconciling Observations of Global Temperature Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Research Council's Panel on Reconciling Temperature Observations published this report in 2000. The National Academy Press Website offers free online viewing of this important publication, which evaluated the much-publicized discrepancy between surface and atmospheric temperatures in the global change records. The Panel found that "the warming trend in global-mean surface temperature observations during the past 20 years is undoubtedly real and is substantially greater than the average rate of warming during the twentieth century."

National Research Council (U.S.).

2000-01-01

166

President Clinton Speaks on Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On October 22, 1997, President Clinton addressed the National Geographic Society on the issue of global climate change and global warming. This site contains the President's speech, along with a speech by Vice President Gore (in RealAudio format). Together, the speeches take a bit over thirty-six minutes. Note that the President's remarks begin at about 10 minutes and 50 seconds into the recording.

1997-01-01

167

Globalization and changes in Australian international migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australian international migration has undergone a massive transformation in the last decade, in part as a result of globalization.\\u000a Although Australia has long been a country of immigration with a relatively high proportion of its residents foreign-born,\\u000a the nature of international migration shaping the country has undergone profound change in the era of globalization. This\\u000a paper outlines some of the

Graeme Hugo

2006-01-01

168

Global climate change and international security  

SciTech Connect

On May 8--10, 1991, the Midwest Consortium of International Security Studies (MCISS) and Argonne National Laboratory cosponsored a conference on Global Climate Change and International Security. The aim was to bring together natural and social scientists to examine the economic, sociopolitical, and security implications of the climate changes predicted by the general circulation models developed by natural scientists. Five themes emerged from the papers and discussions: (1) general circulation models and predicted climate change; (2) the effects of climate change on agriculture, especially in the Third World; (3) economic implications of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; (4) the sociopolitical consequences of climate change; and (5) the effect of climate change on global security.

Rice, M.

1991-01-01

169

Global flood risks under changing climate and socioeconomic conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Worldwide major flood events result in both economic losses and large numbers of casualties. Recent global scale studies indicate that in many regions of the world discharge extremes are likely to increase under changing climate conditions. However, few studies have so far examined how these changes in climate conditions may affect flood risk (defined here as the probability of a flood multiplied by the consequences). In the current study we investigate the impacts of changing climate and socioeconomic conditions on flood extents and depths, and also assess the potential impacts on flood risk. The study is conducted on a global scale, thereby indicating in which regions of the world flood risk is likely to change most. To assess global food risk under changing conditions, we combined socio-economic data from the Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment (IMAGE) framework of the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) with high resolution maps of inundation depth (1 km). To this end, projections from a number of GCMs were bias-corrected and used to force the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB which simulates (amongst other variables) global maps with daily flood volumes on a 0.5 degree resolution. These time series were used to derive flood volume maps for multiple return periods, which were downscaled to inundation depth maps at 1 km resolution using a 1 km resolution DEM. Finally, these high resolution flood maps were combined with spatial datasets on future GDP and population density from the IMAGE model. Results are presented on both the global scale and at the country level. We believe that the obtained flood extend and flood risk maps can assist development agencies in planning climate adaptation investments that aim to reduce flood risks.

Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; Ward, Philip; Bouwman, Arno; Ligtvoet, Willem; van Beek, Rens; Winsemius, Hessel

2013-04-01

170

Adaptation to Climate Change: Needs and Opportunities in Southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the adaptation strategies of developing countries and the possible adaptation options available for Southeast Asia. Adaptation refers to the actions taken by individuals, communities, or governments in response to climate change, to reduce the adverse impacts or to take advantage of opportunities offered by such changes. Adaptation strategies have hardly been considered by many Southeast Asian

Herminia A. Francisco

2008-01-01

171

Climate change and the global malaria recession.  

PubMed

The current and potential future impact of climate change on malaria is of major public health interest. The proposed effects of rising global temperatures on the future spread and intensification of the disease, and on existing malaria morbidity and mortality rates, substantively influence global health policy. The contemporary spatial limits of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and its endemicity within this range, when compared with comparable historical maps, offer unique insights into the changing global epidemiology of malaria over the last century. It has long been known that the range of malaria has contracted through a century of economic development and disease control. Here, for the first time, we quantify this contraction and the global decreases in malaria endemicity since approximately 1900. We compare the magnitude of these changes to the size of effects on malaria endemicity proposed under future climate scenarios and associated with widely used public health interventions. Our findings have two key and often ignored implications with respect to climate change and malaria. First, widespread claims that rising mean temperatures have already led to increases in worldwide malaria morbidity and mortality are largely at odds with observed decreasing global trends in both its endemicity and geographic extent. Second, the proposed future effects of rising temperatures on endemicity are at least one order of magnitude smaller than changes observed since about 1900 and up to two orders of magnitude smaller than those that can be achieved by the effective scale-up of key control measures. Predictions of an intensification of malaria in a warmer world, based on extrapolated empirical relationships or biological mechanisms, must be set against a context of a century of warming that has seen marked global declines in the disease and a substantial weakening of the global correlation between malaria endemicity and climate. PMID:20485434

Gething, Peter W; Smith, David L; Patil, Anand P; Tatem, Andrew J; Snow, Robert W; Hay, Simon I

2010-05-20

172

Global change. Past, present and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major international effort is now underway to understand in quantitative terms the interacting physical, chemical and biological processes that govern the global environment. The contributions of Professor Bert Bolin to this initiative are noted. It is now timely to incorporate the social processes into the triad of natural phenomena that determine global change. If society is to cope successfully with global change generated by an exponential growth in both population and economic production, society itself must change—in its way of thinking and in its institutions. A dynamic and creative interaction among science, technology and society must be fostered worldwide. The UN Conference on Environment and Development in 1992 provides an opportunity to take a decisive step toward this end.

Malone, Thomas F.

1991-09-01

173

Change and Aging Senescence as an Adaptation  

PubMed Central

Understanding why we age is a long-lived open problem in evolutionary biology. Aging is prejudicial to the individual, and evolutionary forces should prevent it, but many species show signs of senescence as individuals age. Here, I will propose a model for aging based on assumptions that are compatible with evolutionary theory: i) competition is between individuals; ii) there is some degree of locality, so quite often competition will be between parents and their progeny; iii) optimal conditions are not stationary, and mutation helps each species to keep competitive. When conditions change, a senescent species can drive immortal competitors to extinction. This counter-intuitive result arises from the pruning caused by the death of elder individuals. When there is change and mutation, each generation is slightly better adapted to the new conditions, but some older individuals survive by chance. Senescence can eliminate those from the genetic pool. Even though individual selection forces can sometimes win over group selection ones, it is not exactly the individual that is selected but its lineage. While senescence damages the individuals and has an evolutionary cost, it has a benefit of its own. It allows each lineage to adapt faster to changing conditions. We age because the world changes.

Martins, Andre C. R.

2011-01-01

174

Adapting to Climate Change at the Local Level: The Spatial Planning Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is a major issue for all levels of government, global, national and local. Local authorities' responses to climate change have tended to concentrate on their role in reducing greenhouse gases. However, the scientific consensus is that we also need to adapt to unavoidable climate change. Spatial planning at a local level has a critical anticipatory role to play

Elizabeth Wilson

2006-01-01

175

Deep solar minimum and global climate changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the deep minimum of solar cycle 23 and its potential impact on climate change. In addition, a source region of the solar winds at solar activity minimum, especially in the solar cycle 23, the deepest during the last 500 years, has been studied. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary solar activity are so weak and hence expected to cause global cooling. Prevalent global warming, caused by building-up of green-house gases in the troposphere, seems to exceed this solar effect. This paper discusses this issue.

Hady, Ahmed A.

2013-05-01

176

Open access: changing global science publishing.  

PubMed

The article reflects on open access as a strategy of changing the quality of science communication globally. Successful examples of open-access journals are presented to highlight implications of archiving in open digital repositories for the quality and citability of research output. Advantages and downsides of gold, green, and hybrid models of open access operating in diverse scientific environments are described. It is assumed that open access is a global trend which influences the workflow in scholarly journals, changing their quality, credibility, and indexability. PMID:23986284

Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Kitas, George D

2013-08-28

177

Open access: changing global science publishing  

PubMed Central

The article reflects on open access as a strategy of changing the quality of science communication globally. Successful examples of open-access journals are presented to highlight implications of archiving in open digital repositories for the quality and citability of research output. Advantages and downsides of gold, green, and hybrid models of open access operating in diverse scientific environments are described. It is assumed that open access is a global trend which influences the workflow in scholarly journals, changing their quality, credibility, and indexability.

Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Kitas, George D.

2013-01-01

178

Global Warming and Climate Change Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate change has emerged as a major scientific and political issue within a few short decades. Scientific evidence clearly indicates that this change is a result of a complex interplay between a number of human-related and natural earth systems. While the complexity of the earth-ocean-atmosphere system makes the understanding and prediction of global climate change very difficult, improved scientific knowledge and research capabilities are advancing our understanding of global climate change resulting from rising atmospheric levels of radiatively important (mostly heat-trapping) gases and particles. The effects of climate change can be assessed with climate models, which account for complex physical, chemical and biological processes, and interactions of these processes with human activities, especially the burning of fossil fuels along with land use changes. This presentation begins with a discussion of the current understanding of the concerns about climate change, and then discusses the role climate models in scientific projections of climate change as well as their current strengths and weaknesses.

Jain, Atul

2008-03-01

179

Adaptive phase change metamaterials for infrared aperture control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the use of chalcogenide phase change materials to create tunable metamaterials as potential candidates for application to adaptive coded aperture control in the infrared. Phase change materials exhibit large and reversible changes in optical properties (?n, ?k) when switched between the amorphous and crystalline phases. Thermally-induced phase transitions from the insulating amorphous to the conductive crystalline state can be controlled through external means, facilitating the design of reconfigurable metamaterial devices that operate with ultrafast response times. In this work, robust global stochastic optimization algorithms were combined with full-wave electromagnetic simulation tools to design periodic subwavelength chalcogenide nanostructured arrays to meet the specified device performance goals in each phase. The measured optical properties (n, k) of deposited chalcogenide thin films and nanofabrication constraints were incorporated into the optimization algorithm to guarantee that the designed nanostructures could be manufactured. By choosing the appropriate cost functions, adaptive metamaterials were designed to switch between transmissive and reflective, transmissive and absorptive, and reflective and absorptive states. These design demonstrations represent a significant step forward in the development of adaptive infrared metamaterials.

Werner, Douglas H.; Mayer, Theresa S.; Rivero-Baleine, Clara; Podraza, Nikolas; Richardson, Kathleen; Turpin, Jeremy; Pogrebnyakov, Alexej; Musgraves, J. David; Bossard, Jeremy A.; Shin, Hee Jung; Muise, Robert; Rogers, Stanley; Johnson, Jeremy D.

2011-09-01

180

Global climate change and infectious diseases.  

PubMed Central

The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. These mosquitoes transmit dengue virus, and Aedes aegypti transmits yellow fever virus. The faster metamorphosis and a shorter extrinsic incubation of dengue and yellow fever viruses could lead to epidemics in North America. Vibrio cholerae is harbored persistently in the estuaries of the U.S. Gulf Coast. Over the past 200 years, cholera has become pandemic seven times with spread from Asia to Europe, Africa, and North America. Global warming may lead to changes in water ecology that could enhance similar spread of cholera in North America. Some other infectious diseases such as LaCrosse encephalitis and Lyme disease are caused by agents closely dependent on the integrity of their environment. These diseases may become less prominent with global warming because of anticipated modification of their habitats. Ecological studies will help us to understand more fully the possible consequences of global warming. New and more effective methods for control of vectors will be needed.

Shope, R

1991-01-01

181

Adaptive robot path planning in changing environments  

SciTech Connect

Path planning needs to be fast to facilitate real-time robot programming. Unfortunately, current planning techniques are still too slow to be effective, as they often require several minutes, if not hours of computation. To overcome this difficulty, we present an adaptive algorithm that uses past experience to speed up future performance. It is a learning algorithm suitable for incrementally-changing environments such as those encountered in manufacturing of evolving products and waste-site remediation. The algorithm allows the robot to adapt to its environment by having two experience manipulation schemes: For minor environmental change, we use an object-attached experience abstraction scheme to increase the flexibility of the learned experience; for major environmental change, we use an on-demand experience repair scheme to retain those experiences that remain valid and useful. Using this algorithm, we can effectively reduce the overall robot planning time by re-using the computation result for one task to plan a path for another.

Chen, P.C.

1994-08-01

182

WATERSHED BOUNDARY CONDITIONS FOR GLOBAL CHANGE IMPACT ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) studies (among other issues) the impact of global change on water quality. This field study evaluates the impact of global changes (land-use change and climate change) on source water quality. Changes in source water quality change...

183

Forecasting Agriculturally Driven Global Environmental Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the next 50 years, which is likely to be the final period of rapid agricultural expansion, demand for food by a wealthier and 50% larger global population will be a major driver of global environmental change. Should past dependences of the global environmental impacts of agriculture on human population and consumption continue, 109 hectares of natural ecosystems would be converted to agriculture by 2050. This would be accompanied by 2.4- to 2.7-fold increases in nitrogen- and phosphorus-driven eutrophication of terrestrial, freshwater, and near-shore marine ecosystems, and comparable increases in pesticide use. This eutrophication and habitat destruction would cause unprecedented ecosystem simplification, loss of ecosystem services, and species extinctions. Significant scientific advances and regulatory, technological, and policy changes are needed to control the environmental impacts of agricultural expansion.

Tilman, David; Fargione, Joseph; Wolff, Brian; D'Antonio, Carla; Dobson, Andrew; Howarth, Robert; Schindler, David; Schlesinger, William H.; Simberloff, Daniel; Swackhamer, Deborah

2001-04-01

184

A global pattern of thermal adaptation in marine phytoplankton.  

PubMed

Rising ocean temperatures will alter the productivity and composition of marine phytoplankton communities, thereby affecting global biogeochemical cycles. Predicting the effects of future ocean warming on biogeochemical cycles depends critically on understanding how existing global temperature variation affects phytoplankton. Here we show that variation in phytoplankton temperature optima over 150 degrees of latitude is well explained by a gradient in mean ocean temperature. An eco-evolutionary model predicts a similar relationship, suggesting that this pattern is the result of evolutionary adaptation. Using mechanistic species distribution models, we find that rising temperatures this century will cause poleward shifts in species' thermal niches and a sharp decline in tropical phytoplankton diversity in the absence of an evolutionary response. PMID:23112294

Thomas, Mridul K; Kremer, Colin T; Klausmeier, Christopher A; Litchman, Elena

2012-10-25

185

Climate change and animal diseases: making the case for adaptation.  

PubMed

The exponential expansion of the human population has led to overexploitation of resources and overproduction of items that have caused a series of potentially devastating effects, including ocean acidification, ozone depletion, biodiversity loss, the spread of invasive flora and fauna and climatic changes - along with the emergence of new diseases in animals and humans. Climate change occurs as a result of imbalances between incoming and outgoing radiation in the atmosphere. This process generates heat. As concentrations of atmospheric gases reach record levels, global temperatures are expected to increase significantly. The hydrologic cycle will be altered, since warmer air can retain more moisture than cooler air. This means that some geographic areas will have more rainfall, whereas others have more drought and severe weather. The potential consequences of significant and permanent climatic changes are altered patterns of diseases in animal and human populations, including the emergence of new disease syndromes and changes in the prevalence of existing diseases. A wider geographic distribution of known vectors and the recruitment of new strains to the vector pool could result in infections spreading to more and potentially new species of hosts. If these predictions turn out to be accurate, there will be a need for policymakers to consider alternatives, such as adaptation. This review explores the linkages between climate change and animal diseases, and examines interrelated issues that arise from altered biological dynamics. Its aim is to consider various risks and vulnerabilities and to make the case for policies favoring adaptation. PMID:23253166

Cáceres, Sigfrido Burgos

2012-12-01

186

Biomass burning a driver for global change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has identified another biospheric process that has instantaneous and longer term effects on the production of atmospheric gases: biomass burning. Biomass burning includes the burning of the world`s vegetation-forests, savannas. and agricultural lands, to clear the land and change its use. Only in the past decade have researchers realized the important contributions of biomass burning to the global

J. S. Levine; W. R. Cofer III; D. R. Jr. Cahoon; E. L. Winstead

1995-01-01

187

Federal global change data plan reviewed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists and data managers are grappling with an unprecedented challenge: how to handle the explosion of data being produced by global change research. The federal government is developing a plan to manage data among the various federal agencies that participate in the U.S. Global Change Research Program. From January 22 to 24, some 80 scientists, data managers, and officials from federal agencies, universities, laboratories, and other institutions met in Washington, D.C. to critique the draft plan. New observational tools are expected to increase the flow of global change data to ever more massive proportions, while all the data now available is not catalogued properly. Even now, if a researcher does manage to find appropriate data, it may not be documented sufficiently to use. “These practical difficulties are especially acute for global change researchers, who need to search for data and information very broadly across scientific disciplines and sometimes decades after the data were archived,” explains the draft plan by the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences of the Office of Science and Technology Policy.

Simarski, Lynn Teo

1992-02-01

188

GLOBAL CHANGE EFFECTS ON CORAL REEF CONDITION  

EPA Science Inventory

Fisher, W., W. Davis, J. Campbell, L. Courtney, P. Harris, B. Hemmer, M. Parsons, B. Quarles and D. Santavy. In press. Global Change Effects on Coral Reef Condition (Abstract). To be presented at the EPA Science Forum: Healthy Communities and Ecosystems, 1-3 June 2004, Washington...

189

Global Changes of the Water Cycle Intensity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this study, we evaluate numerical simulations of the twentieth century climate, focusing on the changes in the intensity of the global water cycle. A new diagnostic of atmospheric water vapor cycling rate is developed and employed, that relies on const...

M. G. Bosilovich S. D. Schubert G. K. Walker

2003-01-01

190

Student's Guide to Global Climate Change  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Refrigerant:  A substance that is used for cooling or heating because of its ability to absorb and transfer energy. For example, in a geothermal heat pump, a liquid refrigerant travels through pipes, absorbing heat from underground and then bringing this heat into a building.   From Student's Guide to Global Climate Change  -  Search all glossaries for terms containing refrigerant

2013-08-28

191

Sustainable biochar to mitigate global climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of biochar (the carbon (C)-rich solid formed by pyrolysis of biomass) and its storage in soils have been suggested as a means of abating climate change by sequestering carbon, while simultaneously providing energy and increasing crop yields. Substantial uncertainties exist, however, regarding the impact, capacity and sustainability of biochar at the global level. In this paper we estimate the

Dominic Woolf; James E. Amonette; Johannes C. Lehmann; Stephen Joseph

2010-01-01

192

Climate change, biofuels, and global food security  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a new urgency to improve the accuracy of predicting climate change impact on crop yields because the balance between food supply and demand is shifting abruptly from surplus to deficit. This reversal is being driven by a rapid rise in petroleum prices and, in response, a massive global expansion of biofuel production from maize, oilseed, and sugar crops.

Kenneth G Cassman

2007-01-01

193

Soil Respiration in Future Global Change Scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Terrestrial ecosystems are expected to experience multiple changes in climate in the future. Global changes including rising\\u000a concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), increases in temperature and rates of nitrogen deposition, and severity of precipitation extremes can directly or indirectly\\u000a influence biological processes in soil such as root and microbial respiration. For example, rising atmospheric [CO2] may alter belowground carbon

Bhupinder Pal Singh; Vivien Rémy de Courcelles; Mark A. Adams

194

Administration pro-active on global change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some drastic climate events during the past year alone (March blizzard, mid-western flooding, intensifying El Niño) have raised even more concern lately about the effects of global environmental change, which may in part be caused by an increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. ``We could see changes in climate greater than any we've seen in the past 10,000 years,``

Susan Bush

1993-01-01

195

America's Climate Choices: Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the request of Congress, the National Academy of Sciences convened a series of coordinated activities to provide advice on actions and strategies that the nation can take to respond to climate change. As part of this suite of activities, this study assessed, this study assessed how the nation can begin to adapt to the impacts of climate change. Much of the nation’s experience to date in managing and protecting its people, resources, and infrastructure is based on the historic record of climate variability during a period of relatively stable climate. Adaptation to climate change calls for a new paradigm - one that considers a range of possible future climate conditions and associated impacts. The Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change report calls for action at all levels of government, NGOs, and the private sector to assess vulnerabilities to the impacts of climate change and identify options for adaptation. Current adaptation efforts are hampered by a lack of solid information about the benefits, costs, and effectiveness of various adaptation options, by uncertainty about future climate change impacts at a scale necessary for decision-making, and by a lack of coordination. The report outlines a risk management framework that can be applied to assess vulnerabilities, compare and evaluate potential adaptation options, recognizing that decision makers across the country are likely to pursue a diverse set of adaptation measures. A major research effort is needed to improve knowledge about current and future vulnerabilities, explore new adaptation options, and better inform adaptation decisions. Therefore, the report also emphasizes the need to continually re-assess adaptation decisions as the experience and knowledge regarding effective adaptation evolves. A national adaptation strategy is needed in which the federal government would support and enhance adaptation activities undertaken by state, local, tribal, and private entities; identify and modify policies that might provide incentives for maladaptive behavior; bolster scientific research regarding adaptation; and encourage adaptation on a global scale through national programs with international components.

Wilbanks, T.; Yohe, G.; Mengelt, C.; Casola, J.

2010-12-01

196

Integrating Fine-Grained Application Adaptation with Global Adaptation for Saving Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy efficiency has become a primary design criterion for mobile multimedia devices. Prior work has proposed saving energy through coordinated adaptation in multiple system layers, in response to changing application demands and system resources. The scope and frequency of adapta-tion pose a fundamental conflict in such systems. The Illi-nois GRACE project addresses this conflict through a hier-archical solution which combines

Vibhore Vardhan; Daniel Grobe Sachs; Wanghong Yuan; Albert F. Harris

197

Adaptive path planning in changing environments  

SciTech Connect

Path planning needs to be fast to facilitate real-time robot programming. Unfortunately, current planning techniques are still too slow to be effective, as they often require several minutes, if not hours of computation. To overcome this difficulty, we present an adaptive algorithm that uses previous experience to speed up future performance. It is a learning algorithm suitable for incrementally-changing environments such as those encountered in manufacturing of evolving products and waste-site remediation. The algorithm extends our previous work for stationary environments in two directions: For minor environmental change, an object-attached experience abstraction scheme is introduced to increase the flexibility of the learned experience; for major environmental change, an on-demand experience repair scheme is also introduced to retain those experiences that remain valid and useful. In addition to presenting this algorithm, we identify three other variants with different repair strategies. To compare these algorithms, we develop an analytic model to compare the costs and benefits of the corresponding repair processes. Using this model, we formalize the concept of incremental change, and prove the optimality of our proposed algorithm under such change. Empirically, we also characterize the performance curve of each variant, confirm our theoretical optimality results, and demonstrate the practicality of our algorithm.

Chen, Pang C.

1993-10-01

198

Global Climate Change: The Southern Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southern Ocean, which surrounds Antarctica, is a key region in determining global climate. This video lecture presents data revealing that the Southern Ocean is undergoing an alarming warming trend that may affect climates in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans. What does the Antarctic region tell us about our future? Is Antarctica especially sensitive, so that now it serves as an early warning system for catastrophic change? The speaker questions the belief that human input is local not global. The video is 9 minutes in length.

Gille, Sarah

199

European perspectives on global climate change  

SciTech Connect

To attempt to understand European views on global climate change, the authors interviewed 24 policymakers in a sample of European countries: Austria, Germany, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. The interviews focused on the views, motivations, values, and logic of each government`s environmental policy community. The interview questions covered perceptions of global warming as a problem, potential policies, country-specific motivations, and politics affecting policy formation. Interviews also covered deeper issues, such as whether the informants felt they had environmental values and what they were. This paper discusses the results and compares European views with those in the US.

Kempton, W.; Craig, P.P. [Univ. of Deleware, Newark, DE (United States)

1993-04-01

200

Biomass burning a driver for global change  

SciTech Connect

Recent research has identified another biospheric process that has instantaneous and longer term effects on the production of atmospheric gases: biomass burning. Biomass burning includes the burning of the world`s vegetation-forests, savannas. and agricultural lands, to clear the land and change its use. Only in the past decade have researchers realized the important contributions of biomass burning to the global budgets of many radiatively and chemically active gases - carbon dioxide, methane, nitric oxide, tropospheric ozone, methyl chloride - and elemental carbon particulates. International field experiments and satellite data are yielding a clearer understanding of this important global source of atmospheric gases and particulates. It is seen that in addition to being a significant instantaneous global source of atmospheric gases and particulates, burning enhances the biogenic emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide from the world`s soils. Biomass burning affects the reflectivity and emissivity of the Earth`s surface as well as the hydrological cycle by changing rates of land evaporation and water runoff. For these reasons, it appears that biomass burning is a significant driver of global change. 20 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Levine, J.S.; Cofer, W.R. III; Cahoon, D.R. Jr. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Winstead, E.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Hampton, VA (United States)

1995-03-01

201

Thermohaline circulations and global climate change  

SciTech Connect

Thermohaline Circulations and Global Climate Change'' is concerned with investigating the hypothesis that changes in surface thermal and hydrological forcing of the North Atlantic, changes that might be expected to accompany CO{sub 2}-induced global warming, could result in ocean-atmosphere interactions' exerting a positive feedback on the climate system. Because the North Atlantic is the source of much of the global ocean's reservoir of deep water, and because this deep water could sequester large amounts of anthropogenically produced Co{sub 2}, changes in the rate of deep-water production are important to future climates. Since deep-water production is controlled, in part, by the annual cycle of the atmospheric forcing of the North Atlantic, and since this forcing depends strongly on both hydrological and thermal processes as well as the windstress, there is the potential for feedback between the relatively short-term response of the atmosphere to changing radiative forcing and the longer-term processes in the oceans. Work over the past 12 months has proceeded in several directions.

Hanson, H.P.

1992-01-01

202

Thermohaline circulations and global climate change  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses research activities conducted during the period 15 January 1992--14 December 1992. Thermohaline Circulations and Global Climate Change is concerned with investigating the hypothesis that changes in surface thermal and hydrological forcing of the North Atlantic, changes that might be expected to accompany C0[sub 2]-induced global warming, could result in ocean-atmosphere interactions' exerting a positive feedback on the climate system. Because the North Atlantic is the source of much of the global ocean's reservoir of deep water, and because this deep water could sequester large amounts of anthropogenically produced C0[sub 2], changes in the rate of deep-water production are important to future climates. Since deep-water Production is controlled, in part, by the annual cycle of the atmospheric forcing of the North Atlantic, and since this forcing depends strongly on both hydrological and thermal processes as well as the windstress, there is the potential for feedback between the relatively short-term response of the atmosphere to changing radiative forcing and the longer-term processes in the oceans. Work over the past 11 months has proceeded according to the continuation discussion of last January and several new results have arisen.

Hanson, H.P.

1992-01-01

203

Aspen Global Change Institute Summer Science Sessions  

SciTech Connect

The Aspen Global Change Institute (AGCI) successfully organized and convened six interdisciplinary meetings over the course of award NNG04GA21G. The topics of the meetings were consistent with a range of issues, goals and objectives as described within the NASA Earth Science Enterprise Strategic Plan and more broadly by the US Global Change Research Program/Our Changing Planet, the more recent Climate Change Program Strategic Plan and the NSF Pathways report. The meetings were chaired by two or more leaders from within the disciplinary focus of each session. 222 scholars for a total of 1097 participants-days were convened under the auspices of this award. The overall goal of each AGCI session is to further the understanding of Earth system science and global environmental change through interdisciplinary dialog. The format and structure of the meetings allows for presentation by each participant, in-depth discussion by the whole group, and smaller working group and synthesis activities. The size of the group is important in terms of the group dynamics and interaction, and the ability for each participant's work to be adequately presented and discussed within the duration of the meeting, while still allowing time for synthesis

Katzenberger, John; Kaye, Jack A

2006-10-01

204

Linking population, fertility, and family planning with adaptation to climate change: perspectives from Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Global climate change is felt disproportionately in the world's most economically disadvantaged countries. As adaption to an evolving climate becomes increasingly salient on national and global scales, it is important to assess how people at the local-level are already coping with changes. Understanding local responses to climate change is essential for helping countries to construct strategies to bolster resilience to current and future effects. This qualitative research investigated responses to climate change in Ethiopia; specifically, how communities react to and cope with climate variation, which groups are most vulnerable, and the role of family planning in increasing resilience. Participants were highly aware of changing climate effects, impacts of rapid population growth, and the need for increased access to voluntary family planning. Identification of family planning as an important adaptation strategy supports the inclusion of rights-based voluntary family planning and reproductive health into local and national climate change adaptation plans. PMID:24069764

Rovin, Kimberly; Hardee, Karen; Kidanu, Aklilu

2013-09-01

205

Climate Change Adaptation, Adaptive Capacity and Development Discussion Paper DSA-DFID Policy Forum 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Introduction The integration of climate change (CC) adaptation and adaptive capacity issues within development processes is now a central issue for development policy and practice. This paper aims to tease out how adaptation, adaptive capacity and development inter- relate, and to explore the way forward in terms of building response capacity. It is important to understand these linkages, because

Valerie Nelson; Richard Lamboll; Adele Arendse

206

Shoulder adaptive changes in youth baseball players.  

PubMed

Shoulder adaptive changes in response to overhand throwing have been observed in adults, but the age of onset and progression of these adaptive changes have not been established. Two-hundred ninety-eight youth baseball players (8- to 28-year-olds) were studied to determine whether shoulder range of motion and laxity differences between the dominant and non-dominant shoulders exist between different age groups. The subjects were separated into 3 different age groups of 100 8- to 12-year-olds (Group 1), 100 13- to-14 year-olds (Group 2), and 98 15- to 28-year-olds (Group 3). For dominant shoulder external rotation with the humerus in abduction, all groups were significantly different from each other, with Group 2 having the greatest range and Group 1 having the smallest range (P < .05). When comparing dominant shoulder internal rotation in abduction among different groups, Group 3 and Group 2 motion was significantly less than that for Group 1 (P < .05.) When comparing dominant to non-dominant shoulder motion within each group, a significant increase in dominant shoulder external rotation in abduction was found in all 3 age groups (P < .05). Comparison of the differences in external rotation in abduction between the dominant and non-dominant shoulders demonstrated an increase with increasing age, Group 1 (1.5 +/- 6.8 degrees), Group 2 (9.6 +/- 15.3 degrees), and Group 3 (15.0 +/- 11.2 degrees; P < .05). Comparison of differences in internal rotation in abduction between dominant and non-dominant shoulders demonstrated a decrease with increasing age, Group 1 (4.6 +/- 8.2 degrees), Group 2 (8.4 +/- 14.5 degrees), and Group 3 (15.5 +/- 11.7 degrees; P < .05). For shoulder laxity, Groups 2 and 3 had significantly more inferior shoulder laxity when compared to Group 1. In summary, our results indicate that shoulder range of motion and laxity of youth baseball players are caused by adaptive changes that manifest during adolescence. PMID:16920368

Levine, William N; Brandon, Mark L; Stein, Beth Shubin; Gardner, Thomas R; Bigliani, Louis U; Ahmad, Christopher S

2006-08-22

207

Emerging Landscapes: Using Ecological Theory to Guide Urban Planting Design: An adaptation strategy for climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change threatens the structure and function of ecological communities in urban areas, including public and private gardens. An adaptation strategy was developed to accommodate the challenges of urban greenspace design under a changing climate. The strategy offers a protocol for planting design that focuses on adding resilience to plantings rather than matching specific plant species to specific predictions

MaryCarol Hunter

2011-01-01

208

Adapting to and Coping with the Threat and Impacts of Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article addresses the nature and challenge of adaptation in the context of global climate change. The complexity of "climate change" as threat, environmental stressor, risk domain, and impacting process with dramatic environmental and human consequences requires a synthesis of perspectives and models from diverse areas of psychology to…

Reser, Joseph P.; Swim, Janet K.

2011-01-01

209

Rationales for adaptation in EU climate change policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper sets out a series of rationales for public policy related to adaptation to the impacts of climatic change in the EU. It begins by arguing that that both mitigation and adaptation are necessary parts of a coordinated policy response to the problem of climatic change. However, the 'problem structure' of adaptation is significantly different to that of mitigation.

Frans Berkhout

2005-01-01

210

Climate change, nuclear power, and the adaptation–mitigation dilemma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many policy-makers view nuclear power as a mitigation for climate change. Efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change, however, interact with existing and new nuclear power plants, and these installations must contend with dilemmas between adaptation and mitigation. This paper develops five criteria to assess the adaptation–mitigation dilemma on two major points: (1) the ability of nuclear power to

Natalie Kopytko; John Perkins

2011-01-01

211

Climate change and extreme weather events: can developing countries adapt?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing countries are vulnerable to extremes of normal climatic variability, and climate change is likely to increase the frequency and magnitude of some extreme weather events and disasters. Adaptation to climate change is dependent on current adaptive capacity and the development models that are being pursued by developing countries. Various frameworks are available for vulnerability and adaptation (V&A) assessments, and

M. Monirul Qader Mirza; Qader Mirza

2003-01-01

212

Global climate change and freshwater ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

This book is based on a symposium held in May 1990, sponsored by NASA, US EPA, and the North American Benthological Society. It focuses on the potential interactions between climate change and freshwater ecosystems. The assumption of global warming 2-5 degrees occurring in the next century was presented to the authors by the editors, and each author was asked to comment on how this warming might affect their particular system or process of interest. The book deals primarily with streams in the USA. Other chapters deal with the following topics: mechanisms driving global climate change; remote sensing; wetlands; lakes; general issues related to water resources and regional studies as they apply to flowing water.

Firth, P.; Fisher, S.G. (eds.)

1992-01-01

213

National Institute for Global Environmental Change (NIGEC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established by the US Congress in the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act of 1990, the primary goal of NIGEC is "to pursue excellent research in the field of global climate change." Additionally, NIGEC aims to serve as "a virtual institute that crosses regional boundaries to integrate and synthesize information for decision makers." To these ends, the NIGEC homepage provides detailed information on the Institute's research projects (organized by year and region), including a Global Change News Highlights section (includes abstracts and citations for cutting-edge scientific articles), a Publications section (organized by year and Region), and a Cross-Cutting Initiatives section (on specific NIGEC focal areas). Contact information for regional centers and links to related sites round out this research-oriented site.

214

Adaptation, adaptive capacity and vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the concept of adaptation of human communities to global changes, especially climate change, in the context of adaptive capacity and vulnerability. It focuses on scholarship that contributes to practical implementation of adaptations at the community scale. In numerous social science fields, adaptations are considered as responses to risks associated with the interaction of environmental hazards and human

Barry Smit; Johanna Wandel

2006-01-01

215

Problem free nuclear power and global change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear fission power reactors represent a solution-in-principle to all aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high- grade heat for electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-driving around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates. However, a substantial

E. Teller; L. Wood; J. Nuckolls; M. Ishikawa; R. Hyde

1997-01-01

216

Changing Conceptions of Globalization: Changing Conceptions of Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines changing conceptions of globalization in education, highlighting new electronic information technologies that, rather than promoting homogeneity, are producing a stimulus for a politics of difference. Cyborgs and cyberspace are emerging as discourses of disunity and difference. The essay recommends a form of critical localism to challenge…

Fitzsimons, Patrick

2000-01-01

217

Global climate changes, natural disasters, and travel health risks.  

PubMed

Whether the result of cyclical atmospheric changes, anthropogenic activities, or combinations of both, authorities now agree that the earth is warming from a variety of climatic effects, including the cascading effects of greenhouse gas emissions to support human activities. To date, most reports of the public health outcomes of global warming have been anecdotal and retrospective in design and have focused on heat stroke deaths following heat waves, drowning deaths in floods and tsunamis, and mosquito-borne infectious disease outbreaks following tropical storms and cyclones. Accurate predictions of the true public health outcomes of global climate change are confounded by several effect modifiers including human acclimatization and adaptation, the contributions of natural climatic changes, and many conflicting atmospheric models of climate change. Nevertheless, temporal relationships between environmental factors and human health outcomes have been identified and may be used as criteria to judge the causality of associations between the human health outcomes of climate changes and climate-driven natural disasters. Travel medicine physicians are obligated to educate their patients about the known public health outcomes of climate changes, about the disease and injury risk factors their patients may face from climate-spawned natural disasters, and about the best preventive measures to reduce infectious diseases and injuries following natural disasters throughout the world. PMID:17107430

Diaz, James H

218

Think Locally, Act Globally! Linking Local and Global Communities through Democracy and Environment. Hands-On! Developing Active Learning Modules on the Human Dimensions of Global Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed so that it can be adapted to a wide range of student abilities and institutional settings, this learning module on the human dimensions of global change seeks to: actively engage students in problem solving, challenge them to think critically, invite them to participate in the process of scientific inquiry, and involve them in cooperative…

Dowler, Lorraine

219

Global fish production and climate change  

PubMed Central

Current global fisheries production of ?160 million tons is rising as a result of increases in aquaculture production. A number of climate-related threats to both capture fisheries and aquaculture are identified, but we have low confidence in predictions of future fisheries production because of uncertainty over future global aquatic net primary production and the transfer of this production through the food chain to human consumption. Recent changes in the distribution and productivity of a number of fish species can be ascribed with high confidence to regional climate variability, such as the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. Future production may increase in some high-latitude regions because of warming and decreased ice cover, but the dynamics in low-latitude regions are governed by different processes, and production may decline as a result of reduced vertical mixing of the water column and, hence, reduced recycling of nutrients. There are strong interactions between the effects of fishing and the effects of climate because fishing reduces the age, size, and geographic diversity of populations and the biodiversity of marine ecosystems, making both more sensitive to additional stresses such as climate change. Inland fisheries are additionally threatened by changes in precipitation and water management. The frequency and intensity of extreme climate events is likely to have a major impact on future fisheries production in both inland and marine systems. Reducing fishing mortality in the majority of fisheries, which are currently fully exploited or overexploited, is the principal feasible means of reducing the impacts of climate change.

Brander, K. M.

2007-01-01

220

Global fish production and climate change  

SciTech Connect

Current global fisheries production of {approx}160 million tons is rising as a result of increases in aquaculture production. A number of climate-related threats to both capture fisheries and aquaculture are identified, but there is low confidence in predictions of future fisheries production because of uncertainty over future global aquatic net primary production and the transfer of this production through the food chain to human consumption. Recent changes in the distribution and productivity of a number of fish species can be ascribed with high confidence to regional climate variability, such as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. Future production may increase in some high-latitude regions because of warming and decreased ice cover, but the dynamics in low-latitude regions are giverned by different processes, and production may decline as a result of reduced vertical mixing of the water column and, hence, reduced recycling of nutrients. There are strong interactions between the effects of fishing and the effects of climate because fishing reduces the age, size, and geographic diversity of populations and the biodiversity of marine ecosystems, making both more sensitive to additional stresses such as climate change. Inland fisheries are additionally threatened by changes in precipiation and water management. The frequency and intensity of extreme climate events is likely to have a major impact on future fisheries production in both inland and marine systems. Reducing fishing mortality in the majority of fisheries, which are currently fully exploited or overexploited, is the pricipal feasible means of reducing the impacts of climate change.

Brander, K.M. [International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Copenhagen (Denmark)

2007-12-11

221

Predictive Modeling of Effects under Global Change.  

SciTech Connect

The status of computer simulation models from around the world for evaluating the possible ecological, environmental, and societal consequences of global change is presented in this paper. In addition, a brief synopsis of the state of the science of these impacts is included. Issues considered include future changes in climate and patterns of land use for societal needs. Models discussed relate to vegetation (e.g. crop), soil, biogeochemistry, water, and wildlife responses to conventional, forecasted changes in temperature and precipitation. Also described are models of these responses, alone and interactively, to increased CO2 , other air pollutants and UV-B radiation, as the state of the science allows. Further, models of land-use change are included. Additionally, global multiple sector models of environment, natural resources, human population dynamics, economics, energy, and political relations are reviewed for integrated impact assessment. To the extent available, information on computer software and hardware requirements is presented for the various models. The paper concludes with comments about using these technologies as they relate to ecological risk assessment for policy decision analysis. Such an effort is hampered by considerable uncertainties with the output of existing models, because of the uncertainties associated with input data and the definitions of their dose-response relationships.The concluding suggestions point the direction for new developments in modeling and analyses that are needed for the 21st century.

Kickert, Ronald N. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Tonella, Giorgio; Simonov, A.; Krupa, Sagar V.

1998-11-01

222

Psychology's Contributions to Understanding and Addressing Global Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change poses one of the greatest challenges facing humanity in this century. This article, which introduces the American Psychologist special issue on global climate change, follows from the report of the American Psychological Association Task Force on the Interface Between Psychology and Global Climate Change. In this article, we place psychological dimensions of climate change within the broader

Janet K. Swim; Paul C. Stern; Thomas J. Doherty; Susan Clayton; Joseph P. Reser; Elke U. Weber; Robert Gifford; George S. Howard

2011-01-01

223

The impact of global climatic changes on the aquatic environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climatic change, as defined by the U.S. Global Change Research Act of 1990 (GCRA), “means changes in the global environment (including alterations in climate, land productivity, oceans or other water resources, atmospheric chemistry, and ecological systems) that may alter the capacity of the Earth to sustain life”. Climatic changes are the most drastic variables interacting with all live aspects

Alaa E. Eissa; Manal M. Zaki

2011-01-01

224

Feedback from a Global Change blog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I have been doing a column for SeattlePI.com which deals a lot with Global Warming. I opened it up to comments - so it is effectively a blog. I often report basic global change results. The comments are an extraordinary range from support to rude dissent. The anti-GW or Deniers have marked me. I give some of the observations that support GW, and some of the comments from dissenters. I have been asked why I subject myself to these rude replies and I reply that I’ve lectured for decades to college groups and meetings of atmospheric scientists, and almost never met a Denier. Yet I know that Senators, many US legislators and some prominent physicists do not believe in GW. I want to see what they think and where they are coming from. The replies will give an idea.

Brown, R. A.

2010-12-01

225

Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into Public Health Practice: Using Adaptive Management to Increase Adaptive Capacity and Build Resilience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Climate change is expected to have a range of health impacts, some of which are already apparent. Public health adaptation is imperative, but there has been little discussion of how to increase adaptive capacity and resilience in public health systems. Objectives: We explored possible explanations for the lack of work on adaptive capacity, outline climate— health challenges that may

Jeremy J. Hess; Julia Z. McDowell; George Luber

2012-01-01

226

Developing a framework for regional destination adaptation to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tourism sector is particularly vulnerable to changes in climate, as it is often the weather that sets the parameters for various forms of tourism. Despite this, little research has been done to assist tourism destinations in adapting to climate change. Adaptation aims to moderate, cope with, and benefit from the consequences of climate change in order to manage risk

Ryan Jopp; Terry DeLacy; Judith Mair

2010-01-01

227

Beyond Reduction: Climate Change Adaptation Planning for Universities and Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to outline a unique six-step process for the inclusion of climate change adaption goals and strategies in a University Climate Change Plan. Design/methodology/approach: A mixed-method approach was used to gather data on campus climate change vulnerabilities and adaption strategies. A literature review…

Owen, Rochelle; Fisher, Erica; McKenzie, Kyle

2013-01-01

228

Global warming and changes in ocean circulation  

SciTech Connect

This final report provides an overview of the goals and accomplishments of this project. Modeling and observational work has raised the possibility that global warming may cause changes in the circulation of the ocean. If such changes would occur they could have important climatic consequences. The first technical goal of this project was to investigate some of these possible changes in ocean circulation in a quantitative way, using a state-of -the-art numerical model of the ocean. Another goal was to develop our ocean model, a detailed three-dimensional numerical model of the ocean circulation and ocean carbon cycles. A major non-technical goal was to establish LLNL as a center of excellence in modelling the ocean circulation and carbon cycle.

Duffy, P.B.; Caldeira, K.C.

1998-02-01

229

Global Climate Change: Understanding the Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about ways in which scientists study past climate change. These studies involve investigations of ice cores taken from the vast ice sheet that covers Greenland and fossil evidence that parts of the Sahara Desert were once lush and filled with animal species more often associated with the African savanna far to the south. With the help of multimedia interactives and video, they will understand what global climate change is and that it has fluctuated many times during the history of the planet. They will also understand how changing climate affects our lives, learn about greenhouse gases, and consider the events that are causing an increase in the amount of these gases in the atmosphere.

2005-01-01

230

Characterizing Uncertainty for Regional Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Decisions  

SciTech Connect

This white paper describes the results of new research to develop an uncertainty characterization process to help address the challenges of regional climate change mitigation and adaptation decisions.

Unwin, Stephen D.; Moss, Richard H.; Rice, Jennie S.; Scott, Michael J.

2011-09-30

231

HOW VALID ARE THE BIOLOGICAL AND ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES UNDERPINNING GLOBAL CHANGE SCIENCE?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevailing scientific approach to investigating and understanding the environmental consequences of human-induced global change is underpinned by two basic biological principles. First, the principle that species genetically adapt to changing environment conditions. Second, the principle that nutrients present in the environment in the smallest relative concentrations limit biological productivity. We contend that both principles have been formulated based on

Anastassia Makarieva; Victor G. Gorshkov; Brendan Mackey; Vadim V. Gorshkov

232

Agricultural adaptation to climate change in the news  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canadian researchers and policy makers dealing with climate change adaptation in the agriculture field frequently point to an apparent lack of interest from producers when the topic is raised. This attitude may be the result of several conditions, including the fact that adaptation, as a term, is poorly understood and rarely recognised and that adaptation strategies are not separable in

Ellen Wall; Barry Smit

2006-01-01

233

Recommendation for funding the 1992 Global Change Summer Institute: Industrial ecology and global change  

SciTech Connect

A summer institute on Industrial Ecology and Global Change was held at Snow Mass, Colorado, July 20--31, 1992. Topics of discussion included the following: the patterns and prospects of global industrialization; the vulnerability of the global environment to human activity; how industrial activity might be reconfigured in response to a deeper understanding of the major biogeochemical cycles in which this activity is embedded; how industrial activity might be reconfigured in response to a deeper understanding of associated exotic disturbances of the environment; interactions of human activity with basic environmental cycles; human activity in the form of exotic disturbance of the environment; and the dynamics of industrial development and the environmental implications.

Fein, J.S.

1992-12-31

234

Global flood risk under a changing climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This session focuses on data, methodologies and models available to develop a global probabilistic flood/drought risk model based on stochastic precipitation and temperature simulations. We will introduce a new framework to compute flood/drought risk and compare this approach with other currently used methodologies. We will explore the spatial and temporal correlations present in historical data as well as the contributions of tropical cyclone precipitation to the overall risk. Based on the analysis of current flood/drought risk the authors with give an outlook how this newly developed framework can be used to quantify the impacts of climate change on weather related risks.

Lohmann, Dag; Eppert, Stefan; Morrow, Guy

2013-04-01

235

Global Change Research and NASA's Earth Observing System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States is spending billions of dollars in a multiyear Global Change Research Program (the USGCRP) to monitor, understand, and ultimately predict the nature of global changes and the mechanisms that cause them. The background report examines the...

1993-01-01

236

Summary of NHEERL Ecological Research on Global Climate Change.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NHEERL is studying the potential effects of global change on vulnerable ecosystems. Species or ecosystems whose natural habitat is within an ecotone are expected to exhibit the first signals of global change. Latitudinal migration of high altitude wild fl...

D. T. Tingey P. A. Beedlow

2007-01-01

237

Global Change: A Research Strategy for Australia 1992-1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An overview of the current status and new initiatives for the global change program conducted in Australia is presented. The Australian global change research program consists of 10 major projects, each involving a multi-disciplinary team of scientists fr...

W. Steffen

1992-01-01

238

Global climate change: Policy implications for fisheries  

SciTech Connect

Several government agencies are evaluating policy options for addressing global climate change. These include planning for anticipated effects and developing mitigation options where feasible if climate does change as predicted. For fisheries resources, policy questions address effects on international, national, and regional scales. Climate change variables expected to affect inland and offshore fisheries include temperature rise, changes in the hydrologic cycle, alterations in nutrient fluxes, and reduction and relocation of spawning and nursery habitat. These variables will affect resources at all levels of biological organization, including the genetic, organism, population, and ecosystem levels. In this context, changes in primary productivity, species composition in the food-web, migration, invasions, synchrony in biological cycles, shifts in utilization of niches, and problems of larvae entrainment in estuaries have been identified. Maintaining ecosystem robustness (i.e., high biodiversity) is another component of the problem. Action requires establishing priorities for information needs, determining appropriate temporal and spatial scales at which to model effects, and accounting for interactive changes in physical and biological cycles. A policy response can be derived when these results are integrated with social needs and human population constraints.

Gucinski, H.; Lackey, R.T.; Spence, B.C.

1990-01-01

239

Geomorphology and the consequences of global climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Popularist accounts, mediated through the lens of the physical science community behind the successive reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, see a direct linkage between global climate changes and their impacts on passive human populations. Conversely, at the same time, there has been a huge research effort directed towards understanding land use and land cover changes caused by human activity, the associated impacts on land surface processes, ecosystem services and biodiversity, and their feedbacks on climate. In reality, however, global environmental change is mediated through, and by, four large-scale drivers which go beyond these two approaches to the global change problem: the globally-scaled controls of hydroclimate and sea level; the spatially and temporally discontinuous impacts of direct human activity; and the spatial context provided by topographic relief. These drivers are not all active in every landscape system and their relative importance varies between environments and biomes. An important task for geomorphology, at the spatial scale of 1 - 10 000 sq km and over timescales of decades to centuries, is to provide an alternative perspective on patterns of landscape vulnerability, akin to those already produced by ecosystem science and conservation biology. In meeting this challenge, geomorphology needs to focus more strongly on how knowledge gained from intensively studied small scale systems - typical of the Anglo-American process-based geomorphology of the last half century - to the time and space scales associated with adaptive strategies to climate change. Furthermore, geomorphology needs to promote an understanding of core geomorphological principles within the wider scientific community, emphasising the fact that landscape change under climate change is unlikely to be simply progressive and linear; highlighting the variable magnitude, mode and timeframes of morphological adjustment (responsiveness) from different geomorphic elements; identifying the key uncertainties in landscape responses; and promoting better-informed, landscape-based decision making. Ultimately, a geomorphology for the 21st century should have a strong underlying focus on making communities more resilient to the effects of climate change, particularly in helping those who are the most vulnerable and least able to cope with a rapidly changing environment.

Spencer, Thomas

2010-05-01

240

The global changes and influencing factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The climate of the Earth is defined by global features of atmospheric pressure field distribution APF Spatial features of APF are characterized by latitudinal zone and local features of quasistationary type anomalies such as Azores maximum and Icelandic minimum APF is formed by energy in the form of heat streams as movement Irregularity of receipt of a solar energy on the Earth surface and arising by it systems of circulation in atmosphere and ocean like would form known features APF and accordingly a climate Experience of studying a climate changes problem shows on existence of objective discrepancies between changes of analyzed streams of energy and actual changes of a climate We offer to consider a climate as function of wider spectrum of influencing factors It is expediently to add the system by the energy of gravitational interaction between mobile spheres of the Earth a cloak hydrosphere and an atmosphere Energy of such interaction just as the energy of the sunlight can form latitudinal zone of climatic zones of the Earth The changes of a gravitational field of the Earth are identical to the changes of its form and sizes The attendant effect of such changes is a variability of streams geothermal energy and changes in the system moisture rotation in atmosphere The cchanges of the form and the sizes of the Earth are connected to changes of parameters of its rotation about the axis The attendant effects of such changes are activization of seismicity and vulcanism and respective alterations of gas structure of an atmosphere its optical

Dolia, D.; Dolia, D.

241

Stormy Weather: 101 Solutions to Global Climate Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents 101 solutions to global climate change. These solutions are actions that are well suited to every level of society. This book creates awareness about global climate change. The history of Earth and the greenhouse effect are discussed, and explanations and solutions to global climate change are provided including traveling…

Dauncey, Guy

242

Dawn of astronomy and global climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author proposes that the birth of astronomy in ancient civilizations, which took place nearly simultaneously (4000 - 5000 years ago) around the Nile, Tigris and Euphrates, Indus, and the Yellow River, was caused by the global climate change (cooling and drying) that started about 5000 years ago after the hypsithermal (high-temperature) period. It is also pointed out that a few names of Twenty-Four Qi's appearing in old Chinese calendars are remnants of the calm climate in the hypsithermal period. It is discussed that numerous meteorological records seen in divination inscriptions on bones and tortoise-shells excavated at the capital of the ancient Yin (Shang) dynasty suggest occurrence of the climatic cooling and drying at that time and this change triggered spawning the early Chinese astronomy.

Nakamura, Tsuko

2007-12-01

243

Global Sea Level Change From Satellite Altimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the feasibility of using satellite altimeter data to measure the long-term change of global sea level (estimated from tide gauge data to be a rise of approximately 0.2 cm yr-1). Two and one-half years of collinear Geosat altimeter data (1986-1989) are used together with a 17-day set of Seasat altimetry (July-August 1978) having nearly the same ground track. A consistent set of precise orbits was used throughout, and residual orbit error was removed as a sinusoidal fit to approximately 3-day arcs of sea level collinear differences. The globally averaged Geosat data show sea level falling at 1.2 ± 0.3 cm yr-1 over the first 2 years, even after removal of tide errors and instrument biases not accounted for in the Geosat geophysical data records. This unrealistic result is found to be due largely to long-term error in the ionospheric model for the single-frequency Geosat altimeter. The Geosat-Seasat comparison, based on data 10 years apart, shows an apparent sea level rise of 1.0 cm yr-1. Assuming this result is also unrealistic, a possible explanation is a biased scale to the Doppler-determined Geosat orbit which, unlike Seasat, did not have the benefit of laser tracking. It is also possible that the Geosat altimeter (without external in-orbit calibration) had a bias of the order of 10 cm. We conclude that for satellite altimetry to make a fundamental contribution to monitoring global mean sea level change, both the altimeter (including its media corrections) and the orbit model which provides a geocentric reference for the ocean surface will need continuing and careful calibration with absolute standards.

Wagner, Carl A.; Cheney, Robert E.

1992-10-01

244

Global climate changes and the soil cover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationships between climate changes and the soil cover are analyzed. The greenhouse effect induced by the rising concentrations of CO2, CH4, N2O, and many other trace gases in the air has been one of the main factors of the global climate warming in the past 30-40 years. The response of soils to climate changes is considered by the example of factual data on soil evolution in the dry steppe zone of Russia. Probable changes in the carbon cycle under the impact of rising CO2 concentrations are discussed. It is argued that this rise may have an effect of an atmospheric fertilizer and lead to a higher productivity of vegetation, additional input of organic residues into the soils, and activation of soil microflora. Soil temperature and water regimes, composition of soil gases, soil biotic parameters, and other dynamic soil characteristics are most sensitive to climate changes. For the territory of Russia, in which permafrost occupies more than 50% of the territory, the response of this highly sensitive natural phenomenon to climate changes is particularly important. Long-term data on soil temperatures at a depth of 40 cm are analyzed for four large regions of Russia. In all of them, except for the eastern sector of Russian Arctic, a stable trend toward the rise in the mean annual soil temperature. In the eastern sector (the Verkhoyansk weather station), the soil temperature remains stable.

Kudeyarov, V. N.; Demkin, V. A.; Gilichinskii, D. A.; Goryachkin, S. V.; Rozhkov, V. A.

2009-09-01

245

Changes in global average surface temperature, global average sea level, and northern hemisphere snow cover  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Key figure from the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report that shows changes in global average surface temperature, global average sea level, and Northern Hemisphere snow cover from as far back as 1850.

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) AR4 Synthesis Report

246

Global fish production and climate change.  

PubMed

Current global fisheries production of approximately 160 million tons is rising as a result of increases in aquaculture production. A number of climate-related threats to both capture fisheries and aquaculture are identified, but we have low confidence in predictions of future fisheries production because of uncertainty over future global aquatic net primary production and the transfer of this production through the food chain to human consumption. Recent changes in the distribution and productivity of a number of fish species can be ascribed with high confidence to regional climate variability, such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Future production may increase in some high-latitude regions because of warming and decreased ice cover, but the dynamics in low-latitude regions are governed by different processes, and production may decline as a result of reduced vertical mixing of the water column and, hence, reduced recycling of nutrients. There are strong interactions between the effects of fishing and the effects of climate because fishing reduces the age, size, and geographic diversity of populations and the biodiversity of marine ecosystems, making both more sensitive to additional stresses such as climate change. Inland fisheries are additionally threatened by changes in precipitation and water management. The frequency and intensity of extreme climate events is likely to have a major impact on future fisheries production in both inland and marine systems. Reducing fishing mortality in the majority of fisheries, which are currently fully exploited or overexploited, is the principal feasible means of reducing the impacts of climate change. PMID:18077405

Brander, K M

2007-12-06

247

Including Cities in Projections of Global Climate Change (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of land use change through urbanisation has long been recognised as an important driver of localised climate change, resulting from the thermal and aerodynamic properties of the built environment that impact heat, moisture and momentum exchange at the atmosphere-surface interface. Urban areas contain a majority of the global population, and account for approximately 70% of primary energy demand. Therefore urban areas are focal points of vulnerability and exposure to climate change, but also potentially powerful focal points for adaptation and mitigation strategies. Urban areas occupy only a tiny fraction of the available land surface of the globe, and therefore have generally been ignored in the context of global climate change simulation. Rapid advances in recent decades have lead to the development of numerical urban models suitable for coupling to weather prediction and climate models. While the urban micro-climate and greenhouse gas induced climate change operate over very different space and time-scales we should not assume that their evolution will be independent. In this paper we demonstrate the use of an urban land surface exchange scheme nested in Hadley Centre climate models contributing to the fifth assessment report of the IPCC. This has been used to quantify the development of urban heat islands in response to both radiatively forced climate change from greenhouse gas emissions, and local forcing from anthropogenic heat release associated with energy use within the urban environment. Urban citizens will be exposed to the cumulative impacts of urbanisation and climate change trends through the 21st Century, and here we demonstrate that these would be much greater than climate change alone. We also find that those areas of the world expected to undergo large urbanisation over the 21st Century are within climate zones that are among those most sensitive to the nocturnal urban heat island effect.

McCarthy, M.; Best, M.; Betts, R.

2010-12-01

248

Growing Primacy of Human Agency in Adaptation and Change in the Electronic Era  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraordinary advances in electronic technologies and global human interconnectedness present novel adaptational challenges and expanded opportunities for people to shape their social future and national life. The present article analyzes these pervasive transformational changes from an agentic theoretical perspective rooted in the exercise of perceived personal and collective efficacy. By acting on their efficacy beliefs, people ply the enabling

Albert Bandura

2002-01-01

249

Beyond Adaptation: Resilience for Business in Light of Climate Change and Weather Extremes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific findings forecast that one of the major consequences of human-induced climate change and global warming is a greater occurrence of extreme weather events with potentially catastrophic effects for organizations, industries, and society. Current management and adaptation approaches typically focus on economic factors of competition, such as technology and innovation. Although offering useful insights, these approaches are potentially ill equipped

Martina Linnenluecke; Andrew Griffiths

2010-01-01

250

Age and adaptation to changes in the workplace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to investigate the relationship between age and adaptation to changes in the workplace (perceived demand-ability fit, task performance before and after change). It also seeks to explore two mediators of the potential age-adaptation relationships: adaptive self-efficacy and job experience. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A sample of 117 employees from three multinational organizations completed two questionnaires one month

Cornelia Niessen; Christine Swarowsky; Markus Leiz

2010-01-01

251

Changing Planet: Adaptation of Species (Birds and Butterflies)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video addresses the impact of climate change on several butterfly populations. Warming temperatures lead to shifts in location of populations of butterflies or die-offs of populations unable to adapt to changing conditions or shift to new locations.

Association, National E.; Learn, Windows T.

252

Constraints and Barriers to Public Health Adaptation to Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public health adaptation to climate change is an important issue and inevitably is needed to address the adverse health impacts of climate change over the next few decades. This paper provides an overview of the constraints and barriers to public health adaptation and explores future research directions in this emerging field. An extensive literature review was conducted in 2010 and

Cunrui Huang; Pavla Vaneckova; Xiaoming Wang; Gerry FitzGerald; Yuming Guo; Shilu Tong

2011-01-01

253

Nitrogen turnover in soil and global change.  

PubMed

Nitrogen management in soils has been considered as key to the sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems and a protection of major ecosystem services. However, the microorganisms driving processes like nitrification, denitrification, N-fixation and mineralization are highly influenced by changing climatic conditions, intensification of agriculture and the application of new chemicals to a so far unknown extent. In this review, the current knowledge concerning the influence of selected scenarios of global change on the abundance, diversity and activity of microorganisms involved in nitrogen turnover, notably in agricultural and grassland soils, is summarized and linked to the corresponding processes. In this context, data are presented on nitrogen-cycling processes and the corresponding microbial key players during ecosystem development and changes in functional diversity patterns during shifts in land use. Furthermore, the impact of increased temperature, carbon dioxide and changes in precipitation regimes on microbial nitrogen turnover is discussed. Finally, some examples of the effects of pesticides and antibiotics after application to soil for selected processes of nitrogen transformation are also shown. PMID:21707675

Ollivier, Julien; Töwe, Stefanie; Bannert, Andrea; Hai, Brigitte; Kastl, Eva-Maria; Meyer, Annabel; Su, Ming Xia; Kleineidam, Kristina; Schloter, Michael

2011-07-29

254

No increase in global temperature variability despite changing regional patterns.  

PubMed

Evidence from Greenland ice cores shows that year-to-year temperature variability was probably higher in some past cold periods, but there is considerable interest in determining whether global warming is increasing climate variability at present. This interest is motivated by an understanding that increased variability and resulting extreme weather conditions may be more difficult for society to adapt to than altered mean conditions. So far, however, in spite of suggestions of increased variability, there is considerable uncertainty as to whether it is occurring. Here we show that although fluctuations in annual temperature have indeed shown substantial geographical variation over the past few decades, the time-evolving standard deviation of globally averaged temperature anomalies has been stable. A feature of the changes has been a tendency for many regions of low variability to experience increases, which might contribute to the perception of increased climate volatility. The normalization of temperature anomalies creates the impression of larger relative overall increases, but our use of absolute values, which we argue is a more appropriate approach, reveals little change. Regionally, greater year-to-year changes recently occurred in much of North America and Europe. Many climate models predict that total variability will ultimately decrease under high greenhouse gas concentrations, possibly associated with reductions in sea-ice cover. Our findings contradict the view that a warming world will automatically be one of more overall climatic variation. PMID:23883935

Huntingford, Chris; Jones, Philip D; Livina, Valerie N; Lenton, Timothy M; Cox, Peter M

2013-07-24

255

GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #18: SYMPOSIUM SESSION ON "GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC CHANGE"  

EPA Science Inventory

A session on "Understanding and Managing Effects of Global Atmospheric Change" will be held at the Fifth Symposium of the U.S. EPA National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory. The Symposium topic is "Indicators in Health and Ecological Risk Assessment." The s...

256

Electric utility industry addresses issue of global climate change  

SciTech Connect

Global climate change is a high priority issue for the electric utility industry, and careful consideration is under-way of numerous options to deal effectively with the potential consequences. The earth's temperature has risen about 0.5 degrees Celsius during the past 100 years. It is not known, however, whether this warning is part of a natural cycle or whether man-made emissions will cause additional warning. Scientists speculate the earth's temperature would have to rise another four to five degrees Celsius for significant adverse effects to result from global warming. The utility industry plans to give careful consideration to an array of supply and demand options, he said. Reliable and affordable electric generation is imperative to our society and will be increasingly important in helping societies adapt if global warning does occur. The nation needs a balanced energy mix to ensure an adequate energy supply. The development of new clean coal burning technologies is essential and should be accelerated to increase efficiency and minimize atmospheric emissions. The utility industry is also looking at processes that will reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in the industrial and transportation sectors.

Not Available

1989-04-01

257

Sustainable biochar to mitigate global climate change  

PubMed Central

Production of biochar (the carbon (C)-rich solid formed by pyrolysis of biomass) and its storage in soils have been suggested as a means of abating climate change by sequestering carbon, while simultaneously providing energy and increasing crop yields. Substantial uncertainties exist, however, regarding the impact, capacity and sustainability of biochar at the global level. In this paper we estimate the maximum sustainable technical potential of biochar to mitigate climate change. Annual net emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane and nitrous oxide could be reduced by a maximum of 1.8?Pg CO2-C equivalent (CO2-Ce) per year (12% of current anthropogenic CO2-Ce emissions; 1?Pg=1?Gt), and total net emissions over the course of a century by 130?Pg CO2-Ce, without endangering food security, habitat or soil conservation. Biochar has a larger climate-change mitigation potential than combustion of the same sustainably procured biomass for bioenergy, except when fertile soils are amended while coal is the fuel being offset.

Woolf, Dominic; Amonette, James E.; Street-Perrott, F. Alayne; Lehmann, Johannes; Joseph, Stephen

2010-01-01

258

White House Conference on Global Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

President Clinton has directed the White House office on Environmental Policy to coordinate an interagency process to develop a plan to fulfill the commitment he made in his Earth Day address on April 21, 1993. This plan will become the cornerstone of the Climate Change Plan that will be completed shortly after the Rio Accord enters into force. The Office on Environmental Policy established the Interagency Climate Change Mitigation Group to draw on the expertise of federal agencies including the National Economic Council; the Council of Economic Advisors; the Office of Science and Technology Policy; the Office of Management and Budget; the National Security Council; the Domestic Policy Council; the Environmental Protection Agency; and the Departments of Energy, Transportation, Agriculture, Interior, Treasury, Commerce, and State. Working groups have been established to examine six key policy areas: energy demand, energy supply, joint implementation, methane and other gases, sinks, and transportation. The purpose of the White House Conference on Global Climate Change was to ``tap the real-world experiences`` of diverse participants and seek ideas and information for meeting the President`s goals. During the opening session, senior administration officials defined the challenge ahead and encouraged open and frank conversation about the best possible ways to meet it.

Not Available

1993-11-01

259

Global ocean chlorophyll in a changing climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oceans are the Earth's principle sink for atmospheric CO2. While the impact of individual El Niños on ocean productivity have been investigated, how the ocean biology responds to recent changes in climate across a range of time scales has not been previously characterised. A doubling in the intensity of El Niños in the central equatorial Pacific over the past 30 years should have affected ocean productivity and thereby the sink of CO2. Based on near-global satellite remote-sensed chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) estimates since the late 1990s (omitting the anomalous 1997/98 El Niño event) , we find that the dominant Chl-a interannual variability couples with central Pacific (CP) El Niño (in contrast to current understanding), and includes a decadal, or longer-term, trend. The limited length of the satellite record precludes an attribution of this trend to anthropogenic forcing. However, by projecting the dominant Chl-a empirical orthogonal function onto sea surface temperatures and reconstructing the time series back to 1870, we demonstrate that CP El Niño has been the key driver of Chl-a changes in the recent decade. We also find that CP El Niño acts to increase ocean net primary productivity (NPP), contrary to our current understanding of El Niño effects. This highlights the important distinction between El Niño 'flavours' on the global system. We estimate that there is an equivalent offset at the rate of ~10% of current anthropogenic CO2 emissions during peak CP El Nino events, due to the increase in NPP.

Couto, Andre B.; Maharaj, Angela M.; Holbrook, Neil J.

2013-04-01

260

EPA's Global Climate Change Program: Global landfill methane  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses AEERL's research efforts on global landfill methane (CH4). CH4 is of particular concern because its radiative forcing potential is thought to be much greater than that of carbon dioxide. Although the major sources of CH4 are known qualitatively, considerable uncertainty exists about the quantitative emissions from each source. One goal of AEERL's global climate research program is to develop a more accurate inventory of CH4 emissions from landfills. For major sources of greenhouse gases, AEERL has a program to develop and demonstrate mitigation/control opportunities for sources that are amenable to cost-effective control. The paper describes how global landfill CH4 is being estimated and what work has been initiated relating to the mitigation of global landfill CH4.

Thorneloe, S.A.; Peer, R.L.

1991-06-01

261

Clinal adaptation and adaptive plasticity in Artemisia californica: implications for the response of a foundation species to predicted climate change.  

PubMed

Local adaptation and plasticity pose significant obstacles to predicting plant responses to future climates. Although local adaptation and plasticity in plant functional traits have been documented for many species, less is known about population-level variation in plasticity and whether such variation is driven by adaptation to environmental variation. We examined clinal variation in traits and performance - and plastic responses to environmental change - for the shrub Artemisia californica along a 700 km gradient characterized (from south to north) by a fourfold increase in precipitation and a 61% decrease in interannual precipitation variation. Plants cloned from five populations along this gradient were grown for 3 years in treatments approximating the precipitation regimes of the north and south range margins. Most traits varying among populations did so clinally; northern populations (vs. southern) had higher water-use efficiencies and lower growth rates, C : N ratios and terpene concentrations. Notably, there was variation in plasticity for plant performance that was strongly correlated with source site interannual precipitation variability. The high-precipitation treatment (vs. low) increased growth and flower production more for plants from southern populations (181% and 279%, respectively) than northern populations (47% and 20%, respectively). Overall, precipitation variability at population source sites predicted 86% and 99% of variation in plasticity in growth and flowering, respectively. These striking, clinal patterns in plant traits and plasticity are indicative of adaptation to both the mean and variability of environmental conditions. Furthermore, our analysis of long-term coastal climate data in turn indicates an increase in interannual precipitation variation consistent with most global change models and, unexpectedly, this increased variation is especially pronounced at historically stable, northern sites. Our findings demonstrate the critical need to integrate fundamental evolutionary processes into global change models, as contemporary patterns of adaptation to environmental clines will mediate future plant responses to projected climate change. PMID:23505064

Pratt, Jessica D; Mooney, Kailen A

2013-04-15

262

The effects of global climate change on seagrasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing rate of global climate change seen in this century, and predicted to accelerate into the next, will significantly impact the Earth's oceans. In this review, we examine previously published seagrass research through a lens of global climate change in order to consider the potential effects on the world's seagrasses. A primary effect of increased global temperature on seagrasses

Frederick T. Short; Hilary A. Neckles

1999-01-01

263

Global climate change and carbon management in multifunctional forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil-fuel burning and deforestation have emerged as principal anthropogenic sources of rising atmospheric CO2 and consequential global warming. Variability in temperature, precipitation, snow cover, sea level and extreme weather events provide collateral evi- dence of global climate change. I review recent advances on causes and consequences of global climate change and its impact on nature and society. I also examine

Deep Narayan Pandey

264

Reconciling adaptation and mitigation to climate change in agricultureast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An effective adaptation to the changing climate at farm, sector and policy level is a prerequisite for reducing negative impacts and for obtaining possible benefits. These adaptations include land use and land management, as well as changes in inputs of water, nutrients and pesticides. Some of the most wide ranging adaptations involve changes in water management and water conservation, which involves issues such as changing irrigation, adoption of drought tolerant crops and water saving cropping methods (e.g. mulching and minimum tillage). Many of these adaptation options have substantial effects on greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. However, so far few studies have attempted to link the issue of adaptation and mitigation in agriculture. This is primarily because the issues have so far been dealt with by different research communities and within different policy contexts. As both issues are becoming increasingly relevant from a policy perspective, these issues will have to be reconciled. Dealing with these issues requires a highly interdisciplinary approach.

Olesen, J. E.

2006-12-01

265

Global Environmental Change: Modifying Human Contributions Through Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1995 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 1996) Science report concludes that evidence now available “points toward a discernible human influence on global climate” (p. 439). Reductions in emissions will require changes in human behavior. This study assessed whether gains in global environmental change knowledge would lead to changes in human behaviors that could be deemed environmentally responsible. The

Lynne M. Carter

1998-01-01

266

Diatom Community Response to Global Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diatoms are ubiquitous components of marine and freshwater environments and are responsible for nearly a quarter of the world's primary production. These microscopic algae are excellent indicators of environmental change and are routinely used as indicators of water quality. Diatom frustules have also been used to infer past climate change. With anticipated increases in atmospheric CO2 and eutrophication, understanding the contribution by diatoms as sinks for carbon in the world's oceans and estuaries is crucial. Benthic diatoms are especially significant in this respect due to their interactions with both atmospheric and sedimentary carbon cycling. We investigated changes in marsh sediment diatom community structure in response to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen input. Twenty plots of brackish marsh were enclosed in environmental chambers and exposed to two levels of atmospheric CO2 (ambient and elevated) crossed with a nitrogen-addition treatment (2 x 2 factorial) beginning in May 2006. DNA was extracted from sediment samples obtained from environmentally controlled marsh plots in June, 2008. Using diatom-specific primers, the diatom community was amplified by PCR and evaluated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The diatom community composition was then compared across the four treatments (Amb, Amb+N, Elev, Elev+N) using multivariate statistical methods. Multidimensional scaling plots revealed clear grouping of samples according to treatment. A global analysis of similarity test was significant, as were all pairwise comparisons of treatments. The greatest changes in community structure occurred in the elevated CO2 group. In contrast, Amb+N was more similar to Elev+N, suggesting that nitrogen effects may mask elevated CO2 effects on diatom community structure in these plots.

Hook, W. F.; Rose, J.; Langley, J. A.; Coyne, K. J.

2008-12-01

267

Using Immersion to teach Global Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students are increasingly jaded to programs that preach, and museums are increasingly finding it difficult to attract students who can retrieve information quickly from the internet or cable TV. A new medium of immersive theater can now engulf the viewer in the subject, bringing a novel view to the exciting new data sets and images now available. By telling a compelling story with characters they can identify with, global climate change can be experienced and its effects brought home in a dramatic and effective way. We have developed several shows highlighting climate change (Powers of Time, Secrets of the Dead Sea), and are developing new shows (Earth's Wild Ride, Earth in the Balance) which can be used to take the visitor into the past or into the future. Clips from the shows and evidence of their effectiveness as an educational tool for Earth science will be shown. If possible, our new portable dome system will be set up in the poster hall for longer live demos of our shows.

Sumners, C. T.; Handron, K.; Reiff, P. H.; Law, C. C.

2004-12-01

268

Are there social limits to adaptation to climate change?  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there is a recognised need to adapt to changing climatic conditions, there is an emerging discourse of limits to such\\u000a adaptation. Limits are traditionally analysed as a set of immutable thresholds in biological, economic or technological parameters.\\u000a This paper contends that limits to adaptation are endogenous to society and hence contingent on ethics, knowledge, attitudes\\u000a to risk and culture.

W. Neil Adger; Suraje Dessai; Marisa Goulden; Mike Hulme; Irene Lorenzoni; Donald R. Nelson; Lars Otto Naess; Johanna Wolf; Anita Wreford

2009-01-01

269

Climate change and climate variability: personal motivation for adaptation and mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Global climate change impacts on human and natural systems are predicted to be severe, far reaching, and to affect the most\\u000a physically and economically vulnerable disproportionately. Society can respond to these threats through two strategies: mitigation\\u000a and adaptation. Industry, commerce, and government play indispensable roles in these actions but so do individuals, if they\\u000a are receptive to behavior change. We

Jan C Semenza; George B Ploubidis; Linda A George

2011-01-01

270

Climate change and eHealth: a promising strategy for health sector mitigation and adaptation.  

PubMed

Climate change is one of today's most pressing global issues. Policies to guide mitigation and adaptation are needed to avoid the devastating impacts of climate change. The health sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, and its climate impact in low-income countries is growing steadily. This paper reviews and discusses the literature regarding health sector mitigation potential, known and hypothetical co-benefits, and the potential of health information technology, such as eHealth, in climate change mitigation and adaptation. The promising role of eHealth as an adaptation strategy to reduce societal vulnerability to climate change, and the link's between mitigation and adaptation, are also discussed. The topic of environmental eHealth has gained little attention to date, despite its potential to contribute to more sustainable and green health care. A growing number of local and global initiatives on 'green information and communication technology (ICT)' are now mentioning eHealth as a promising technology with the potential to reduce emission rates from ICT use. However, the embracing of eHealth is slow because of limitations in technological infrastructure, capacity and political will. Further research on potential emissions reductions and co-benefits with green ICT, in terms of health outcomes and economic effectiveness, would be valuable to guide development and implementation of eHealth in health sector mitigation and adaptation policies. PMID:22679398

Holmner, Asa; Rocklöv, Joacim; Ng, Nawi; Nilsson, Maria

2012-06-05

271

EPA'S GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE PROGRAM -- GLOBAL LANDFILL METHANE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses AEERL's research efforts on global landfill methane (CH4). H4 is of particular concern because its radiative forcing potential is thought to be much greater than that of carbon dioxide. lthough the major sources of CH4 are known qualitatively, considerable unc...

272

Science-policy linkages in climate change adaptation in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to emphasise the importance of resolving the disconnect between issues of quality, timing and uncertainty in climate projections and the need for swift, informed and appropriate climate change adaptation decisions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper utilises results from a multi-level study of adaptation policy conducted in early 2009 to assess the different approaches

Lisa Westerhoff; Sirkku Juhola

2010-01-01

273

Climate change risks and opportunities in hospital adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The future of healthcare delivery will depend in part on the adaptive capacity of hospital infrastructure required to respond to the predicted physical and health-related impacts of climate change. The purpose of this paper is to assess the vulnerabilities and opportunities of existing hospital facilities faced with climate-related extreme weather events and to identify adaptive strategies that will

Martin Loosemore; Jane Carthey; Venny Chandra; Anumitra Mirti Chand

2011-01-01

274

Using a Regional Tourism Adaptation Framework to Determine Climate Change Adaptation Options for Victoria's Surf Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports research into adaptation to climate change for regional tourism destinations. It explains the application of a regional tourism adaptation framework model to the Surf Coast destination, within the state of Victoria, Australia. It then examines the usefulness of the framework model in guiding a vulnerability resilience assessment of the destination and developing strategies to increase the destinations

Ryan Jopp; Terry DeLacy; Judith Mair; Martin Fluker

2012-01-01

275

Climate Change Education for Mitigation and Adaptation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article makes the case for the education sector an untapped opportunity to combat climate change. It sets forth a definition of Climate Change Education for Sustainable Development that is comprehensive and multidisciplinary and asserts that it must not only include relevant content knowledge on climate change, environmental and social…

Anderson, Allison

2012-01-01

276

Compensation for and adaptation to changes in the environment.  

PubMed

Human motor behavior is remarkably accurate, even though many everyday skills require flexible adjustments between motor activity and its consequences in extracorporeal space. The present study addressed two questions: first, how do people compensate for unpredictable changes in the environment, and second, how do they adapt to such changes? In Experiment 1, participants repeatedly and continuously drew up and down strokes on a writing pad. After drawing under a base mapping, either (a) a change of target position, or (b) a change of gain, or (c) both occurred. Compensation for gain changes occurred later than compensation for changes in target position. In addition, there were aftereffects of the previous movement in accuracy and movement time. Adaptation to changes occurred in reference to extracorporeal space, with motor constraints as a limiting factor. In Experiment 2 we obtained similar effects when participants had more time to adapt. The view that movements are planned in reference to their goals in extracorporeal space is supported. PMID:15742199

Rieger, Martina; Knoblich, Günther; Prinz, Wolfgang

2005-03-02

277

Climate change impacts on global rainfed agricultural land availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global rainfed agricultural land availability can be subject to significant changes in both magnitude and spatial distribution due to climate change. We assess the possible changes using current and projected climate data from thirteen general circulation models (GCMs) under two emission scenarios, A1B & B1, together with global databases on land, including soil properties and slope. Two ensemble methods with

X. Zhang; X. Cai

2010-01-01

278

Delivering Global Environmental Change Science Through Documentary Film  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communicating authentic science to society presents a significant challenge to researchers. This challenge stems from unfortunate misrepresentation and misunderstanding in the mainstream media, particularly in relation to science on global environmental change. This has resulted in a lower level of confidence and interest amongst audiences in regards to global environmental change and anthropogenic climate change discussions. This project describes a

K. Dodgson; J. M. Byrne; J. R. Graham

2010-01-01

279

SCOPE OF WORK: EFFECTS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE ON AGROECOSYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development (ORD), is initiating a Global Climate Change Program to evaluate the potential environmental effects of climate change. This document describes one project, Effects of Global Climate Change on Agroecosys...

280

Southern Ocean: Its involvement in global change  

SciTech Connect

Southern Ocean is the site of considerable water mass formation which cools and ventilates the modern world ocean. At the polar front zone, formation of cool, low salinity water sinks and spreads northward at intermediate depths limiting the downward penetration of the thermocline. Within the seasonal sea ice zone and along the margins of Antarctica, convection injects very cold oxygenated water into the deep and bottom ocean. These conditions developed as Antarctica shifted into its present configuration and grew a persistent glacial ice sheet, about 14 million years ago. The potential of the Southern Ocean to ventilate the deep and bottom ocean layers is related to occurrence of polynyas that form within the winter sea ice cover. Global climate changes would be expected to alter the polynya size and frequency. Under greenhouse-induced warming offshore polynyas may become less common as the static stability of the Southern Ocean mixed layer increases. This would diminish the Southern Ocean's cooling influence on the deep layers of the world ocean, resulting in a warmer deep ocean. The fate of coastal polynyas is less clear.

Gordon, A.L.

1992-03-01

281

Collaborative Supercomputing for Global Change Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is increasing pressure on the science community not only to understand how recent and projected changes in climate will affect Earth's global environment and the natural resources on which society depends but also to design solutions to mitigate or cope with the likely impacts. Responding to this multidimensional challenge requires new tools and research frameworks that assist scientists in collaborating to rapidly investigate complex interdisciplinary science questions of critical societal importance. One such collaborative research framework, within the NASA Earth sciences program, is the NASA Earth Exchange (NEX). NEX combines state-of-the-art supercomputing, Earth system modeling, remote sensing data from NASA and other agencies, and a scientific social networking platform to deliver a complete work environment. In this platform, users can explore and analyze large Earth science data sets, run modeling codes, collaborate on new or existing projects, and share results within or among communities (see Figure S1 in the online supplement to this Eos issue (http://www.agu.org/eos_elec)).

Nemani, R.; Votava, P.; Michaelis, A.; Melton, F.; Milesi, C.

2011-03-01

282

Atlas of human adaptation to environmental change, challenge, and ...  

Treesearch

Title: Atlas of human adaptation to environmental change, challenge, and ... in natural resource management policy as well as large decreases in timber harvests. ... synthesized by examining the fundamental attributes of the region, provinces, ...

283

INTRODUCTION: Anticipated changes in the global atmospheric water cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmospheric branch of the water cycle, although containing just a tiny fraction of the Earth's total water reserves, presents a crucial interface between the physical climate (such as large-scale rainfall patterns) and the ecosystems upon which human societies ultimately depend. Because of the central importance of water in the Earth system, the question of how the water cycle is changing, and how it may alter in future as a result of anthropogenic changes, present one of the greatest challenges of this century. The recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report on Climate Change and Water (Bates et al 2008) highlighted the increasingly strong evidence of change in the global water cycle and associated environmental consequences. It is of critical importance to climate prediction and adaptation strategies that key processes in the atmospheric water cycle are precisely understood and determined, from evaporation at the surface of the ocean, transport by the atmosphere, condensation as cloud and eventual precipitation, and run-off through rivers following interaction with the land surface, sub-surface, ice, snow and vegetation. The purpose of this special focus issue of Environmental Research Letters on anticipated changes in the global atmospheric water cycle is to consolidate the recent substantial advances in understanding past, present and future changes in the global water cycle through evidence built upon theoretical understanding, backed up by observations and borne out by climate model simulations. Thermodynamic rises in water vapour provide a central constraint, as discussed in a guest editorial by Bengtsson (2010). Theoretical implications of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation are presented by O'Gorman and Muller (2010) and with reference to a simple model (Sherwood 2010) while observed humidity changes confirm these anticipated responses at the land and ocean surface (Willett et al 2008). Rises in low-level moisture are thought to fuel an intensification of precipitation (O'Gorman and Schneider 2009) and analysis of observed and simulated changes in extreme rainfall for Europe (Lenderink and van Mijgaard 2008) and over tropical oceans by Allan et al (2010) appear to corroborate this. Radiative absorption by water vapour (Previdi 2010, Stephens and Ellis 2008) also provides a thermodynamic feedback on the water cycle, and explains why climate model projections of global precipitation and evaporation of around 1-3% K-1 are muted with respect to the expected 7% K-1 increases in low-level moisture. Climate models achieve dynamical responses through reductions in strength of the Walker circulation (Vecchi et al 2006) and small yet systematic changes in the atmospheric boundary layer over the ocean that modify evaporation (Richter and Xie 2008). A further consequence is anticipated sub-tropical drying (Neelin et al 2006, Chou et al 2007); Allan et al (2010) confirm a decline in dry sub-tropical precipitation while the wet regions become wetter both in model simulations and satellite-based observations. Discrepancies between observed and climate model simulated hydrological response to warming (Wentz et al 2007, Yu and Weller 2007) are of immediate concern in understanding and predicting future responses. Over decadal time-scales it is important to establish whether such discrepancies relate to the observing system, climate modeling deficiencies, or are a statistical artifact of the brevity of the satellite records (Liepert and Previdi 2009). Techniques for extracting information on century-scale changes in precipitation are emerging (Smith et al 2009) but are also subject to severe limitations. Past decadal-scale changes in the water cycle may be further influenced by regionally and temporally varying forcings and resulting feedbacks which must be represented realistically by models (Andrews et al 2009). The radiative impact of aerosols and their indirect effects on clouds and precipitation (Liepert et al 2004) provide an important example. Understanding surface solar 'dimming' and 'brightening' trends in th

Allan, Richard P.; Liepert, Beate G.

2010-06-01

284

Standardization Versus Adaptation in Global Markets: Is Channel Strategy Different?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The argument over standardization versus adaptation of marketing strategy in international markets has raged for several decades. This argument has generally taken place at the aggregate level to include all four strategic areas of the marketing mix (product, price, promotion, and place) taken together. This article disaggregates the standardization-versus-adaptation argument by focusing on just one strategic area of the marketing

Boryana Dimitrova; Bert Rosenbloom

2010-01-01

285

Severe Weather in a Changing Climate: Getting to Adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyses of observation records from U.S. weather stations indicate there is an increasing trend over recent decades in certain types of severe weather, especially large precipitation events. Widespread changes in temperature extremes have been observed over the last 50 years. In particular, the number of heat waves globally (and some parts of the U.S.) has increased, and there have been widespread increases in the numbers of warm nights. Also, analyses show that we are now breaking twice as many heat records as cold records in the U.S. Since 1957, there has been an increase in the number of historically top 1% of heavy precipitation events across the U.S. Our new analyses of the repeat or reoccurrence frequencies of large precipitation storms are showing that such events are occurring more often than in the past. The pattern of precipitation change is one of increases generally at higher northern latitudes and drying in the tropics and subtropics over land. It needs to be recognized that every weather event that happens nowadays takes place in the context of the changes in the background climate system. So nothing is entirely "natural" anymore. It's a fallacy to think that individual events are caused entirely by any one thing, either natural variation or human-induced climate change. Every event is influenced by many factors. Human-induced climate change is now a factor in weather events. The changes occurring in precipitation are consistent with the analyses of our changing climate. For extreme precipitation, we know that more precipitation is falling in very heavy events. And we know key reasons why; warmer air holds more water vapor, and so when any given weather system moves through, the extra water dumps can lead to a heavy downpour. As the climate system continues to warm, models of the Earth's climate system indicate severe precipitation events will likely become more commonplace. Water vapor will continue to increase in the atmosphere along with the warming, and large precipitation events will likely increase in intensity and frequency. In the presentation, we will not only discuss the recent trends in severe weather and the projections of the impacts of climate change on severe weather in the future, but also specific examples of how this information is being used in developing and applying adaptation policies.

Wuebbles, D. J.; Janssen, E.; Kunkel, K.

2011-12-01

286

A GIS-based climate change adaptation strategy tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a geographic information system (GIS)-based risk assessment tool for visualising climate change impacts in agricultural industries and evaluating eventual adaptation strategies. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A climate change adaptation strategy tool (CCAST) with built-in GIS capability has been developed for agricultural industries. Development of the GIS functionality within CCAST includes the implementation

De Li Liu; Bertrand Timbal; Jianhua Mo; Helen Fairweather

2011-01-01

287

Adaptation without parameter change: Dynamic gain control in motion detection  

PubMed Central

Many sensory systems adapt their input-output relationship to changes in the statistics of the ambient stimulus. Such adaptive behavior has been measured in a motion detection sensitive neuron of the fly visual system, H1. The rapid adaptation of the velocity response gain has been interpreted as evidence of optimal matching of the H1 response to the dynamic range of the stimulus, thereby maximizing its information transmission. Here, we show that correlation-type motion detectors, which are commonly thought to underlie fly motion vision, intrinsically possess adaptive properties. Increasing the amplitude of the velocity fluctuations leads to a decrease of the effective gain and the time constant of the velocity response without any change in the parameters of these detectors. The seemingly complex property of this adaptation turns out to be a straightforward consequence of the multidimensionality of the stimulus and the nonlinear nature of the system.

Borst, Alexander; Flanagin, Virginia L.; Sompolinsky, Haim

2005-01-01

288

Adaptation to climate change: Legal challenges for protected areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change will cause further loss of biodiversity. As negative effects are already taking place, adaptive measures are required to protect biodiversity from the effects of climate change. The EU policy on climate change and biodiversity aims at improving a coherent ecological network in order to have more resilient ecosystems and to provide for connectivity outside core areas. The existing

An Cliquet; Chris Backes; Jim Harris; Peter Howsam

2009-01-01

289

Climate change and crop production: contributions, impacts, and adaptations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop production and climate change affect each other because crop production (1) produces greenhouse gases (GHGs), (2) is affected by climate change, (3) will have to adapt to changed climatic regimes, and (4) has a potential role in mitigating the production of GHGs. Agriculture is not a major producer of GHGs, at less than 10% of Canada's total. Agriculture is

Donald L. Smith; Juan J. Almaraz

2004-01-01

290

Walking Infants Adapt Locomotion to Changing Body Dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infants acquire independent mobility amidst a flux of body growth. Changes in body dimensions and variations in the ground change the physical constraints on keeping balance. The study examined whether toddlers can adapt to changes in their body dimensions and variations in the terrain by loading them with lead weights and observing how they navigated safe and risky slopes. Experiment

Karen E. Adolph; Anthony M. Avolio

2000-01-01

291

Changing Composition of the Global Stratosphere.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the chemistry of the stratosphere at mid-latitudes, the Antarctic phenomenon, and temporal trends in ozone levels. Includes equations, diagrams of the global distribution of ozone, and halogen growth projections. Concludes that studies of stratospheric ozone demonstrate that the global environment is fragile and is impacted by human…

McElroy, Michael B.; Salawitch, Ross J.

1989-01-01

292

Ozone, Climate, and Global Atmospheric Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an overview of global atmospheric problems relating to ozone depletion and global warming. Provides background information on the composition of the earth's atmosphere and origin of atmospheric ozone. Describes causes, effects, and evidence of ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect. A vignette provides a summary of a 1991 assessment…

Levine, Joel S.

1992-01-01

293

Causes and Consequences of Global Climate Change.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The intent of this paper is to outline the science underlying our understanding of the causes and consequences of global warming research, including: how a global warming might be induced; how sure we can be about both causes and consequences; and what re...

W. T. Hinds

1988-01-01

294

Repositioning the GCC States in the Changing Global Order  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states' changing position within a global order itself in a state of flux following the global financial and economic crisis and a regional order facing the participatory pressures of the Arab Spring. It explores the nature of their engagement in reshaping international institutions and assesses the implications for structures of global governance.

Kristian Coates Ulrichsen

2011-01-01

295

Globalization and Higher Education Organizational Change: A Framework for Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this article is to outline a theoretical framework to address Higher Education organizational change in a globalized and globalizing age. The paper will start with a brief description of trends characterizing the global landscape and their relationships with Higher Education policies and institutions. Although these trends are well…

Vaira, Massimiliano

2004-01-01

296

Global climate change: Implications, challenges, and mitigation measures  

SciTech Connect

This book presents a perspective of the potential problem of global climate change induced by human activity. The editors have presented viewpoints of experts (advocates and skeptics) representing the issues of climate change. Possible results from long-term global change discussed in this book include mass migrations of plants and animals; changes in crop yields; flood and drought; and economic, political, and cultural changes. The text contains 20 chapters on the impact of global climate change and 10 chapters on the mitigation of effects and policy development.

Majumdar, S.K.

1992-01-01

297

Problem free nuclear power and global change  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear fission power reactors represent a solution-in-principle to all aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high- grade heat for electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-driving around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates. However, a substantial number of major issues currently stand between nuclear power implemented with light- water reactors and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems, including long-term fuel supply, adverse public perceptions regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps more seriously - cost. We describe a GW-scale, high-temperature nuclear reactor heat source that can operate with no human intervention for a few decades and that may be widely acceptable, since its safety features are simple, inexpensive and easily understood. We provide first-level details of a reactor system designed to satisfy these requirements. Such a back-solving approach to realizing large-scale nuclear fission power systems potentially leads to an energy source capable of meeting all large-scale stationary demands for high- temperature heat. If widely employed to support such demands, it could, for example, directly reduce present-day world-wide CO{sub 2} emissions by two-fold; by using it to produce non-carbonaceous fuels for small mobile demands, a second two-fold reduction could be attained. Even the first such reduction would permit continued slow power-demand growth in the First World and rapid development of the Third World, both without any governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage.

Teller, E.; Wood, L.; Nuckolls, J.; Ishikawa, M.; Hyde, R.

1997-08-15

298

Global Change Simulations Affect Potential Methane Oxidation in Upland Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric concentrations of methane (CH4) are higher now than they have ever been during the past 420,000 years. However, concentrations have remained stable since 1999. Emissions associated with livestock husbandry are unlikely to have changed, so some combination of reduced production in wetlands, more efficient capture by landfills, or increased consumption by biological CH4 oxidation in upland soils may be responsible. Methane oxidizing bacteria are ubiquitous in upland soils and little is known about how these bacteria respond to anthropogenic global change, and how they will influence - or already are influencing - the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Might ongoing and future global changes increase biological CH4 oxidation? Soils were sampled from two field experiments to assess changes in rates of CH4 oxidation in response to global change simulations. Potential activities of CH4 oxidizing bacterial communities were measured through laboratory incubations under optimal temperature, soil moisture, and atmospheric CH4 concentrations (~18 ppm, or 10x ambient). The ongoing 6-year multifactorial Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment (JRGCE) simulates warming, elevated precipitation, elevated atmospheric CO2, elevated atmospheric N deposition, and increased wildfire frequency in an annual grassland in a Mediterranean-type climate in central California. The ongoing 1-year multifactorial Merriam Climate Change Experiment (MCCE) simulates warming, elevated precipitation, and reduced precipitation in four different types of ecosystems along an elevational gradient in a semi-arid climate in northern Arizona. The high desert grassland, pinyon-juniper woodland, ponderosa pine forest, and mixed conifer forest ecosystems range in annual precipitation from 100 to 1000 mm yr-1, and from productivity being strongly water limited to strongly temperature limited. Among JRGCE soils, elevated atmospheric CO2 increased potential CH4 oxidation rates (p=0.052) and wildfire decreased rates (p=0.014). These responses may be explained by improved soil aggregate stability in the first case, and reduced aggregate stability in the latter case. No effects of warming, elevated precipitation, elevated N deposition, or multifactor interactions were found. Among MCCE soils, similarly, no effects of elevated or reduced precipitation were found. While warming did not affect low elevation ecosystems, it did significantly decrease rates in the highest elevation mixed conifer forest (p=0.004). This suggests a vulnerability of cold-adapted CH4 oxidizing bacteria to elevated temperature. However, bacterial communities in all sampled ecosystems appear to be resistant to drier conditions and unaffected by wetter conditions. If biological oxidation is responsible for the current stability in atmospheric CH4 concentrations, then the improved function of this global CH4 sink is likely driven by indirect plant effects under elevated atmospheric CO2. Improved function, however, may be absent or reversed in future ecosystems that experience increased wildfire frequency and in high altitude and latitude ecosystems that experience rapid warming.

Blankinship, J. C.; Hungate, B. A.

2004-12-01

299

Anthropogenic influence on multi-decadal changes in reconstructed global evapotranspiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global warming is expected to intensify the global hydrological cycle, with an increase of both evapotranspiration (ET) and precipitation. Yet, the regional distribution of this global and annual mean response remains highly uncertain. Better constraining land ET in 21st century climate scenarios is critical for predicting changes in surface climate, including heat waves and droughts, evaluating impacts on ecosystems and water resources, and designing adaptation policies. Continental-scale ET changes may already be under way, but have never been attributed to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols. Here we provide global gridded estimates of annual ET and demonstrate that the latitudinal and decadal differentiation of recent ET variations cannot be understood without invoking both anthropogenic and natural radiative forcings. In the mid-latitudes, the emerging picture of enhanced ET confirms the end of the "dimming" decades and highlights the possible threat posed by increasing drought frequency to managing water resources and achieving food security in a changing climate.

Douville, Hervé; Decharme, Bertrand; Ribes, Aurélien; Alkama, Ramdane

2013-04-01

300

Adaptation to climate change to enhance food security and preserve environmental quality: example for southern Sri Lanka  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation strategies to climate change have been explored using a linked field-scale basin-scale modeling framework for Walawe basin, Sri Lanka. An integrated approach was followed concentrating on enhancement of food security and preservation of environmental quality. Climate change projections were extracted from the Hadley Climate Center (HadCM3) coupled global circulation model (GCM). Impact and adaptation strategies were evaluated with a

Peter Droogers

2004-01-01

301

78 FR 65980 - Notice of Availability for Public Review and Comment: Draft EPA Climate Change Adaptation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review and Comment: Draft EPA Climate Change Adaptation Implementation Plans...society has adapted in the past. Climate change can pose significant challenges...therefore, that the EPA adapt to climate change in order to continue...

2013-11-04

302

A self-adaptive global best harmony search algorithm for continuous optimization problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a self-adaptive global best harmony search (SGHS) algorithm for solving continuous optimization problems. In the proposed SGHS algorithm, a new improvisation scheme is developed so that the good information captured in the current global best solution can be well utilized to generate new harmonies. The harmony memory consideration rate (HMCR) and pitch adjustment rate (PAR) are dynamically

Quan-Ke Pan; Ponnuthurai N. Suganthan; Mehmet Fatih Tasgetiren; Jing J. Liang

2010-01-01

303

Assessing coastal vulnerability to climate change: comparing segmentation at global and regional scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent concerns about potential climate-change effects on coastal systems require the application of vulnerability assessment\\u000a tools in order to define suitable adaptation strategies and improve coastal zone management effectiveness. In fact, while\\u000a various research efforts were devoted to evaluate coastal vulnerability to climate change on a national to global level, fewer\\u000a applications were carried out so far to develop more

Silvia Torresan; Andrea Critto; Matteo Dalla Valle; Nick Harvey; Antonio Marcomini

2008-01-01

304

Global Change and Biodiversity Loss: Some Impediments to Response.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Discussed here are the effects of anthropogenic global climate change on biodiversity. The focus is on human responses to the problem. Greenhouse warming-induced climate change may shift agricultural growing belts, reduce forests of the Northern Hemispher...

K. Borza D. Jamieson

1991-01-01

305

Chasing a specter: Risk management for global environmental change.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Global environmental change is both a concept and a process that changes in meaning with scientific discovery, public concern, and political responsiveness. It is the relationship between the problems as perceived and the various institutions that help sh...

T. O'Riordan S. Rayner

1989-01-01

306

Does global change increase the success of biological invaders?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological invasions are gaining attention as a major threat to biodiversity and an important element of global change. Recent research indicates that other components of global change, such as increases in nitrogen deposition and atmospheric CO2 concentration, favor groups of species that share certain physiological or life history traits. New evidence suggests that many invasive species share traits that will

Jeffrey S. Dukes; Harold A. Mooney

1999-01-01

307

Global Climate Change. Selected Annotated Bibliography. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This annotated bibliography on global climate change contains 27 articles designed to expand the breadth and depth of information presented in the Global Change Information Packet. Most articles were chosen from journals likely to be available in most medium-sized public or college libraries. The articles cover a variety of topics related to…

Jones, Douglas E.

308

Impact of Global Change on Biological Processes in Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth is undergoing rapid environmental changes due to human activities. Three components of the ongoing global change, elevated atmospheric CO2, N deposition, and global warming, may significantly impact soil biota directly through modifying the physical and chemical environment, and indirectly through altering aboveground plant growth and community composition. The biomass, community structure, and activities of microbes and animals in

Shuijin Hu; Weijian Zhang

2004-01-01

309

Engaging Undergraduates in Methods of Communicating Global Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global Climate Change has become a politically contentious issue in large part because of the failure of scientists to effectively communicate this complex subject to the general public. In a Global Change class, offered within a science department and therefore focused primarily on the underlying science, we have incorporated a citizen science module into the course to raise awareness among

C. Hall; M. W. Colgan; R. R. Humphreys

2010-01-01

310

The global impact of land-use change  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand global change, natural scientists must consider the social context influencing human impact on the environment. This overview paper discusses three questions central to the issue: How are land-use changes contributing to global environmental changes (land-management practices, growing human populations, regional differences in technology and wealth). What social-economic factors determine land use, and how will they change (understanding human

D. S. Ojima; K. A. Galvin; B. L. II Turner

1994-01-01

311

Adaptation changes stereoscopic depth selectivity in visual cortex.  

PubMed

Exposure to specific visual stimuli causes a reduction in sensitivity to similar subsequent stimulation. This adaptation effect is observed behaviorally and for neurons in the primary visual cortex. Here, we explore the effects of adaptation on neurons that encode binocular depth discrimination in the cat's primary visual cortex. Our results show that neuronal preference for binocular depth is altered selectively with appropriate adaptation. At the preferred depth, adaptation causes substantial suppression of subsequent responses. Near the preferred depth, the same procedure causes a shift in depth preference. At the null depth, adaptation has little effect on binocular depth coding. These results demonstrate that prior exposure can change the depth selectivity of binocular neurons. The findings are relevant to the theoretical treatment of binocular depth processing. Specifically, the prevailing notion of binocular depth encoding based on the energy model requires modification. PMID:21865463

Duong, Thang; Moore, Bartlett D; Freeman, Ralph D

2011-08-24

312

Adaptation Changes Stereoscopic Depth Selectivity in Visual Cortex  

PubMed Central

Exposure to specific visual stimuli causes a reduction in sensitivity to similar subsequent stimulation. This adaptation effect is observed behaviorally and for neurons in the primary visual cortex. Here, we explore the effects of adaptation on neurons that encode binocular depth discrimination in the cat’s primary visual cortex. Our results show that neuronal preference for binocular depth is altered selectively with appropriate adaptation. At the preferred depth, adaptation causes substantial suppression of subsequent responses. Near the preferred depth, the same procedure causes a shift in depth preference. At the null depth, adaptation has little effect on binocular depth coding. These results demonstrate that prior exposure can change the depth selectivity of binocular neurons. The findings are relevant to the theoretical treatment of binocular depth processing. Specifically, the prevailing notion of binocular depth encoding based on the energy model requires modification.

Duong, Thang; Moore, Bartlett D.; Freeman, Ralph D.

2012-01-01

313

Spatial planning for adapting to climate change.  

PubMed

During the past decades human interference in regional hydrologic systems has intensified. These systems act as an integrating medium. They link climate, human activities and ecologic processes through groundwater and surface water interactions. For simulating these linkages an integrated regional hydrologic model has been coupled to an ecologic evaluation model. The simulated ecologic effects of climate change on mesotrophic riverine grasslands are clearly positive. Simulation results also indicate a high sensitivity of the peak discharges to the precipitation. For modelling the long-term development of land use and water management an integrated 'bio-economic' model has been constructed. It includes a model for the development of agriculture. Results for the autonomous development in reaction to climate change indicate a strong increase of field drainage by agriculture. This development would substantially reduce the predicted positive effects of climate change on riverine grasslands. The challenge is to guide regional developments in such a manner that opportunities for improving nature are not lost, but that at the same time the peak discharges are kept under control. Flow retardation in the 'fine arteries' of the upstream areas appear to be a viable option for the latter. The bio-economic model can provide help in anticipating on climate change through spatial planning. PMID:15918358

van Walsum, P E V; Runhaar, J; Helming, J F M

2005-01-01

314

Adapting to a changing highschool population  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the recent changes in the EE Bachelor program at the University of Twente. Recent generations of freshman students exhibited a lack in mathematics skills and the ability to grasp the physics behind the equations. By starting of the curriculum with a new course “Introduction to electronics and electrical engineering (IEEE)?? we have managed to solve the issue

Cora Salm; Jan Eijkel; Heijden van der Ferdi; Mathieu Odijk

2010-01-01

315

Creating a New Model for Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation for Critical Infrastructure: The New York City Climate Change Adaptation Task Force and the NYC Panel on Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The New York City Climate Change Adaptation Task Force, launched in August 2008, aims to secure the city's critical infrastructure against rising seas, higher temperatures and fluctuating water supplies projected to result from climate change. The Climate Change Adaptation Task Force is part of PlaNYC, the city's long- term sustainability plan, and is composed of over 30 city and state

C. Rosenzweig; W. D. Solecki; A. M. Freed

2008-01-01

316

Vulnerability Assessment, Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Measures in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In relation to the priority tasks of the climate change measures, the Republic of Slovenia estimates that special attention needs to be devoted to the following sectors in general: - sectors that currently indicate a strong vulnerability for the current climate variability (for instance, agriculture), - sectors where the vulnerability for climate change is increased by current trends (for instance, urban development, use of space), - sectors where the adaptation time is the longest and the subsequent development changes are connected with the highest costs (for instance, use of space, infrastructural objects, forestry, urban development, building stock). Considering the views of Slovenia to the climate change problem in Europe and Slovenia, priority measures and emphasis on future adaptation to climate change, the Republic of Slovenia has especially exposed the following action areas: - sustainable and integrated management of water sources for water power production, prevention of floods, provision of water for the enrichment of low flow rates, and preservation of environmental function as well as provision of water for other needs; - sustainable management of forest ecosystems, adjusted to changes, for the provision of their environmental function as well as being a source of biomass, wood for products for the conservation of carbon, and carbon sinks; - spatial planning as one of the important preventive instruments for the adaptation to climate change through the processes of integral planning of spatial and urban development; - sustainable use and preservation of natural wealth and the preservation of biodiversity as well as ecosystem services with measures and policies that enable an enhanced resistance of ecosystems to climate change, and the role of biological diversity in integral adaptation measures; - informing and awareness on the consequences of climate change and adaptation possibilities. For years, the most endangered sectors have been agriculture and forestry; therefore, they are also the only sectors for which a national adaptation strategy was adopted.

Cegnar, T.

2010-09-01

317

Adaptive governance and the human dimensions of marine mammal management: Implications for policy in a changing North  

Microsoft Academic Search

As climate change has driven dramatic changes in Northern sea ice regimes, marine mammals have gained iconic status around the world reflecting the perils of global warming. There is a tension between policies that have international support like a ban on seal hunting or whaling, and the adoption of adaptive, flexible rules that are likely to work in Northern places.

Chanda L. Meek; Amy Lauren Lovecraft; Riku Varjopuro; Martha Dowsley; Aaron T. Dale

2011-01-01

318

The Role of Decision Support in Adapting to Climate Change: Findings from Three Place-based Regional Assessments  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the methodologies and findings of three regional assessments and considers the role of decision support in assisting adaptation to climate change. Background. In conjunction with the US Global Change Research Program?s (USGCRP?s) National Assessment of ...

319

Women's role in adapting to climate change and variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given that women are engaged in more climate-related change activities than what is recognized and valued in the community, this article highlights their important role in the adaptation and search for safer communities, which leads them to understand better the causes and consequences of changes in climatic conditions. It is concluded that women have important knowledge and skills for orienting the adaptation processes, a product of their roles in society (productive, reproductive and community); and the importance of gender equity in these processes is recognized. The relationship among climate change, climate variability and the accomplishment of the Millennium Development Goals is considered.

Carvajal-Escobar, Y.; Quintero-Angel, M.; García-Vargas, M.

2008-04-01

320

Adaptive Forest Management: A Prerequisite for Sustainable Forestry in the Face of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Since Europe appears to be more affected by climate change than the global average, novel concepts for the adaptation of forest\\u000a and forestry to future climate and site conditions are urgently needed in order to maintain a sustainable use of forest resources.\\u000a In Central Europe, extreme weather events like heat waves, drought, and storms, which may increase in frequency and

Andreas Bolte; Christian Ammer; Magnus Löf; Gert-Jan Nabuurs; Peter Schall; Peter Spathelf

321

CLIMATE CHANGE AND WATER SUPPLY ADAPTATION IN CALIFORNIA 2050  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cost and ability of California's water supply system to adapt to major changes in climate are assessed using the CALVIN economic-engineering model. A dry climate warming GCM scenario is used to create statewide hydrologic changes, which are combined with 2050 water demands in the model. Results indicate that dry climate warming could have significant economic effects on California's water

Josue Medellin-Azuara; Julien Harou; Marcelo Olivares; Jay R. Lund

322

The Competencies Demonstrated by Farmers while Adapting to Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|World population growth, overconsumption of resources, competition among countries and climate change are putting significant pressure on agriculture. In Canada, changes in precipitation, the appearance of new pests and poor soil quality are threatening the prosperity of small farmers. What human competencies could facilitate citizens' adaptation

Pruneau, Diane; Kerry, Jackie; Mallet, Marie-Andree; Freiman, Viktor; Langis, Joanne; Laroche, Anne-Marie; Evichnevetski, Evgueni; Deguire, Paul; Therrien, Jimmy; Lang, Mathieu; Barbier, Pierre-Yves

2012-01-01

323

Modelling Agricultural Production Risk and the Adaptation to Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model that integrates biophysical simulations in an economic model is used to analyze the impact of climate change on crop production. The biophysical model simulates future plant-management-climate relationships and the economic model simulates farmers’ adaptation actions to climate change using a nonlinear programming approach. Beyond the development of average yields, special attention is devoted to the impact of climate

Robert Finger; Stéphanie Schmid

2007-01-01

324

Modeling agricultural production risk and the adaptation to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model that integrates biophysical simulations in an economic model is used to analyze the impact of climate change on crop production. The biophysical model simulates future plant-management-climate relationships and the economic model simulates farmers' adaptation actions to climate change using a nonlinear programming approach. Beyond the development of average yields, special attention is devoted to the impact of climate

Robert Finger; Stephanie Schmid

2007-01-01

325

Biomimetic design for climate change adaptation and mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines biomimicry, where organisms or ecosystems are mimicked in human design, as a means to either mitigate the causes of climate change that the built environment is responsible for, or adapt to the impacts of climate change. Different biomimetic approaches to design are discussed and categorized, and a series of examples illustrate the benefits and drawbacks of each

Maibritt Pedersen Zari

2010-01-01

326

Canadian initiatives for adapting to climate change and extreme weather  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there are many programs and initiatives to mitigate and slow the accumulation of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere, it is very evident that the climate will continue to change and the world will continue to experience increasingly severe weather conditions. Therefore programs and initiatives for adapting to a changing climate and extreme weather are equally important to mitigation

J. McConnach

2010-01-01

327

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS IMPACTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Outline of talk: A. What causes climate change B. Possible changes in the world's and the Pacific Northwest's climate C. Possible impacts of climate change I. The world and U.S. II. Oregon D. Possible solutions E. Discussion ...

328

Climate Change in Central Taiwan: Impact and Adaptive Capacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to evaluate the spatial vulnerability distribution of water resources and propose the adaptive strategies for centeral Taiwan. The main tasks of this study are future water demand estimation, Rainfall trend analysis, climate change impact analysis and adaptive strategy proposing. Future water demand estimation considers the impact of GDP and temperature on domestic use water demand. MK Test, MWP Test and KW Test are used to analyze the variation trend of precipitation, intensity and drought day. The water allocation simulation model build by Vensim are used to analyze climate change impact. Based on impact analysis result, multi-criteria analysis is used to optimize optimal adaptive strategies combination. For Miaoli and Nantou, the furture demand (2031) can be fulfilled under Tiahuahu reservoir and Niaozueitan artificial lake is finished. It is not necessary to propose adaptive strategy. For Taichung, the optimal adaptive combinations for A1B worse case are Water Saving and Futian Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant. For Changhua, the optimal adaptive strategy for A1B worse case is seawater desalinization. For Yunlin, the optimal adaptive combinations for A1B worse case are Water Saving and tap water pipe replacement.

Ho, Chih-Chao; Chang, Liang-Cheng; Tsai, Chan-Ming

2013-04-01

329

Toward global baselines and monitoring of forest cover for REDD: the Global Forest Cover Change project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring, Reporting, and Verification (MRV) procedures in support of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) require the establishment of historical baselines of forest cover and changes, as well as consistent monitoring of subsequent forest gains and losses over time. Under the NASA MEaSUREs program, the Global Forest Cover Change project is using the USGS Global Land Survey (GLS)

J. O. Sexton; C. Huang; J. G. Masek; M. Feng; R. Narasimhan; E. F. Vermote; M. C. Hansen; R. E. Wolfe; S. Channan; J. R. Townshend

2010-01-01

330

Environmental insurance adapts to changing needs  

SciTech Connect

No longer simply a specialty service niche, environmental insurance has become an increasingly important asset to businesses worldwide. Companies of all sizes are using insurance as a proactive tool for prudent environmental risk management. During the last five years, the environmental insurance industry has matured to meet the ever-changing environmental insurance needs of business. A broad range of policies and programs offers coverage against damages caused by chemical spills, hazardous material and related environmental contaminants. Securing environmental insurance coverage has become as customary for many businesses as acquiring general liability and automobile insurance.

Vuono, M. (ECS Underwriting, Inc., Exton, PA (United States))

1995-03-01

331

A Global Information Approach to Computerized Adaptive Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most item selection in computerized adaptive testing is based on Fisher information (or item information). At each stage, an item is selected to maximize the Fisher information at the currently estimated trait level (?). However, this application of Fisher information could be much less efficient than assumed if the estimators are not close to the true ?, especially at early

Hua-Hua Chang; Zhiliang Ying

1996-01-01

332

Global convergence of fractionally spaced Godard (CMA) adaptive equalizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Godard (1980) or constant modulus algorithm (CMA) equalizer is perhaps the best known and the most popular scheme for blind adaptive channel equalization. Most published works on blind equalization convergence analysis are confined to T-spaced equalizers with real-valued inputs. The common belief is that analysis of fractionally spaced equalizers (FSEss) with complex inputs is a straightforward extension with similar

Geoffrey Ye Li; Zhi Ding

1996-01-01

333

Getting used to it: The adaptive global utility model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper expands the standard model of utility maximization to endogenize the ubiquitous phenomenon of adaptation. We assume that total utility is an aggregate function of the utility associated with different domains of life, with relative weights that are optimized according to the effort that the individual expends on producing utility in each domain. Comparative statics from the general maximization

W. David Bradford; Paul Dolan

2010-01-01

334

A global assessment of market accessibility and market influence for global environmental change studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Markets influence the global patterns of urbanization, deforestation, agriculture and other land use systems. Yet market influence is rarely incorporated into spatially explicit global studies of environmental change, largely because consistent global data are lacking below the national level. Here we present the first high spatial resolution gridded data depicting market influence globally. The data jointly represent variations in both market strength and accessibility based on three market influence indices derived from an index of accessibility to market locations and national level gross domestic product (purchasing power parity). These indices show strong correspondence with human population density while also revealing several distinct and useful relationships with other global environmental patterns. As market influence grows, the need for high resolution global data on market influence and its dynamics will become increasingly important to understanding and forecasting global environmental change.

Verburg, Peter H.; Ellis, Erle C.; Letourneau, Aurelien

2011-07-01

335

Global Warming - The Science of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extremely topical over recent years, global warming has been the subject of a huge and growing amount of literature. Current literature however tends to fall into two camps: that which is highly scientific in nature and inaccessible to the average student, and that which is directed to the \\

Frances Drake

2000-01-01

336

Wheat Production Systems and Global Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production and provision of food is central to the survival and well being of humans. Globally, more people are employed in the production, processing and distribution of food than any other socio-economic sector. Agriculture contributes between 2% of GDP in developed western countries to more than 30% of GDP in many African states. From the ample sufficiency of basic

John R. Porter; Pete D. Jamieson; Peter R. Grace

337

Global climate change: The dangers are real  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of carefully reviewed scientific assessments over the past decade have all concluded that substantial global warming is likely to occur in the absence of policies to limit emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. The most recent report of the National Academy of Sciences concluded that [open quotes]despite the great uncertainties, greenhouse warming is a potential threat

Lashof

1994-01-01

338

Digital ghosts, global capitalism and social change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article traces the importance of colonial legacies for theorizing speculative capitalism by thinking from the use of digital media by indigenous social movements in the Andes. Indeed, rather than marginal to global capitalism, I maintain that indigenous peoples and media activists are at the forefront of experimenting with political and economic alternatives to capitalism. I argue that the racialized

Freya Schiwy

2009-01-01

339

THE GLOBAL WATER CYCLE AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uncertainty in global climate sensitivity to a doubling of CO2 is primarily due to cloud feedbacks, and precipitation processes are potentially a major regulator of cloud feedback. A major issue is how convective condensate is partitioned between precipitation-size particles that fall out of updrafts and smaller particles that are carried upward and detrained to form anvil cloud. The \\

Anthony D. Del Genio

340

Adapting to Change: The Value of Change Information and Meaning-Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this 3-wave study is to examine the micro process of how employees adapt to change over time. We combined Conservation of Resources theory with insights from the organizational change literature to study employees in a Dutch police district undergoing reorganization. A model was tested where employee adaptability, operationalized…

van den Heuvel, Machteld; Demerouti, Evangelia; Bakker, Arnold B.; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

2013-01-01

341

The impact of global climate change on the Indonesian economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change influences the economic performance of all countries, and Indonesia is no exception. Under climate change, Indonesia is predicted to experience temperature increases of approximately 0.8°C by 2030. Moreover, rainfall patterns are predicted to change, with the rainy season ending earlier and the length of the rainy season becoming shorter. Climate change affects all economic sectors, but the

Rina Oktaviani; Syarifah Amaliah; Claudia Ringler; Mark W. Rosegrant; Timothy B. Sulser

2011-01-01

342

U.S. Global Climate Change Impacts Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This past year the US Global Change Research Program released a report that summarized the science of climate change and the impacts of climate change on the United States, now and in the future. The report underscores the importance of measures to reduce climate change. In the context of impacts, the report identifies examples of actions currently being pursued in

T. R. Karl

2009-01-01

343

Agrometeorological adaptation strategies to increasing climate variability and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper starts with summarizing the indications for climate change as they are reviewed in the most recent WMO global climate system reviews. There are indications in the paper for increasing climate variability in certain areas. Some of the principal causes of increasing climate variability and climate change (ICV & CC) are a mixture of external and internal factors to

M. J. Salinger; C. J. Stigter; H. P. Das

2000-01-01

344

Coral reefs: corals' adaptive response to climate change.  

PubMed

The long-term response of coral reefs to climate change depends on the ability of reef-building coral symbioses to adapt or acclimatize to warmer temperatures, but there has been no direct evidence that such a response can occur. Here we show that corals containing unusual algal symbionts that are thermally tolerant and commonly associated with high-temperature environments are much more abundant on reefs that have been severely affected by recent climate change. This adaptive shift in symbiont communities indicates that these devastated reefs could be more resistant to future thermal stress, resulting in significantly longer extinction times for surviving corals than had been previously assumed. PMID:15306799

Baker, Andrew C; Starger, Craig J; McClanahan, Tim R; Glynn, Peter W

2004-08-12

345

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: GOVERNMENT OF CANADA  

EPA Science Inventory

The Government of Canada Climate Change Site was developed to inform Canadians about climate change and how it affects our environment. The site explains what the Government of Canada is doing about climate change and how individuals, communities, businesses, industries, and ever...

346

An adaptive MHD method for global space weather simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3D parallel adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) scheme is described for solving the partial-differential equations governing ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows. This new algorithm adopts a cell-centered upwind finite-volume discretization procedure and uses limited solution reconstruction, approximate Riemann solvers, and explicit multi-stage time stepping to solve the MHD equations in divergence form, providing a combination of high solution accuracy and computational

Darren L. De Zeeuw; Tamas I. Gombosi; Clinto P. T. Groth; Kenneth G. Powell; Quentin F. Stout

2000-01-01

347

Thermohaline circulations and global climate change. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses results from the project entitled Thermohaline Circulations and Global Climate Change. Results are discussed in three sections related to the development of the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model (MICOM), surface forcing of the ocean by the atmosphere, and experiments with the MICOM related to the problem of the ocean`s response to global climate change. It will require the use of a global, coupled ocean-atmospheric climate model to quantify the feedbacks between ocean and atmosphere associated with climate changes. The results presented here do provide guidance for such studies in the future.

Hanson, H.P.

1996-10-01

348

One earth, one future. Our changing global environment  

SciTech Connect

This book reports on deforestation, ozone depletion, global warming, and other matters concerning the global environment. From the perspective that humankind is an increasingly powerful agent changing the planet, the volume describes the Earth as a unified system - exploring the interactions between the atmosphere, land, and water and the snowballing impact that human activity is having on the system - and points out the seemingly paradoxical need for economic growth to alleviate such global environmental problems.

Silver, C.S.; Defries, R.S.

1990-12-31

349

European network infrastructures of observatories for terrestrial Global Change research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earth's climate is significantly changing (e.g. IPCC, 2007) and thus directly affecting the terrestrial systems. The number and intensity hydrological extremes, such as floods and droughts, are continually increasing, resulting in major economical and social impacts. Furthermore, the land cover in Europe has been modified fundamentally by conversions for agriculture, forest and for other purposes such as industrialisation and urbanisation. Additionally, water resources are more than ever used for human development, especially as a key resource for agricultural and industrial activities. As a special case, the mountains of the world are of significant importance in terms of water resources supply, biodiversity, economy, agriculture, traffic and recreation but particularly vulnerable to environmental change. The Alps are unique because of the pronounced small scale variability they contain, the high population density they support and their central position in Europe. The Alps build a single coherent physical and natural environment, artificially cut by national borders. The scientific community and governmental bodies have responded to these environmental changes by performing dedicated experiments and by establishing environmental research networks to monitor, analyse and predict the impact of Global Change on different terrestrial systems of the Earths' environment. Several European network infrastructures for terrestrial Global Change research are presently immerging or upgrading, such as ICOS, ANAEE, LifeWatch or LTER-Europe. However, the strongest existing networks are still operating on a regional or national level and the historical growth of such networks resulted in a very heterogeneous landscape of observation networks. We propose therefore the establishment of two complementary networks: The NetwOrk of Hydrological observAtories, NOHA. NOHA aims to promote the sustainable management of water resources in Europe, to support the prediction of hydrological system changes, and to develop and implement tools and technologies for monitoring, prevention and mitigation of environmental risks and pressures. In addition, NOHA will provide long-term statistical series of hydrological state variables and fluxes for the analysis and prognosis of Global Change consequences using integrated model systems. These data will support the development and establishment of efficient prevention, mitigation and adaptation strategies (E.g. EU-Water Framework Directive) and spur the development and validation of hydrological theories and models. The second network, ALPS, - the Alpine Observing System - will create an unique infrastructure for environmental and climate research and observation for the whole Alpine region, providing a common platform for the benefit of the society in Europe as a whole. The initiative will build on existing infrastructure in the participating countries and on new and emerging technology, allowing an unprecedented coverage of observation systems at affordable cost. ALPS will create a new collaboration between scientists, engineers, monitoring agencies, public and decision makers, with the aim to gain an integrated understanding of complex environmental systems. The ALPS effort will be structured along three major axes: (i) harmonize and strengthen the backbone of permanent measurement infrastructures and complement these with dense deployments of intelligent networks, to improve the recording of environmental parameters overcoming disciplinary and national borders, (ii) link the main data centres to create a distributed cyber-infrastructure with the final aim to enable effective data access and retrieval to all science and society users, and (iii) invest in data assimilation and exploitation toward scientific and practical results in particular with respect to dealing with extreme events and natural hazards. In this presentation, we will focus on the motivation, the concept and the scientific and organizational challenges of ALPS and NOHA.

Vereecken, H.; Bogena, H.; Lehning, M.

2009-04-01

350

Visuomotor adaptation changes stereoscopic depth perception and tactile discrimination.  

PubMed

Perceptual judgments of relative depth from binocular disparity are systematically distorted in humans, despite in principle having access to reliable 3D information. Interestingly, these distortions vanish at a natural grasping distance, as if perceived stereo depth is contingent on a specific reference distance for depth-disparity scaling that corresponds to the length of our arm. Here we show that the brain's representation of the arm indeed powerfully modulates depth perception, and that this internal calibration can be quickly updated. We used a classic visuomotor adaptation task in which subjects execute reaching movements with the visual feedback of their reaching finger displaced farther in depth, as if they had a longer arm. After adaptation, 3D perception changed dramatically, and became accurate at the "new" natural grasping distance, the updated disparity scaling reference distance. We further tested whether the rapid adaptive changes were restricted to the visual modality or were characteristic of sensory systems in general. Remarkably, we found an improvement in tactile discrimination consistent with a magnified internal image of the arm. This suggests that the brain integrates sensory signals with information about arm length, and quickly adapts to an artificially updated body structure. These adaptive processes are most likely a relic of the mechanisms needed to optimally correct for changes in size and shape of the body during ontogenesis. PMID:24155312

Volcic, Robert; Fantoni, Carlo; Caudek, Corrado; Assad, John A; Domini, Fulvio

2013-10-23

351

Adaptive parameterized improving hit-and-run for global optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We build on improving hit-and-run's (IHR) prior success as a Monte Carlo random search algorithm for global optimization by generalizing the algorithm's sampling distribution. Specifically, in place of the uniform step-size distribution in IHR, we employ a family of parameterized step-size distributions to sample candidate points. The IHR step-size distribution is a special instance within this family. This parameterization is

Wei Wang; Archis Ghate; Zelda B. Zabinsky

2009-01-01

352

Overview of researching global higher education: challenge, change or crisis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher education is in crisis as it has been changing in response to major challenges, economically, politically and socially, on an international scale. How we now understand and research global higher education is challenging given the expansions in relation to the knowledge economy, economic, social and political developments around equality, diversity and social justice in global labour markets. The social

Miriam E. David

2011-01-01

353

A Paradox of Polar lcemelting Caused by Global Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

A paradox is introduced for what have been found and reported on the bases of the satellite monitoring and of remote sensing of the polar ice melting processes. This ice melting has been taken to be caused by a global clilnate change or by a global warlning. This should be discussed for each case of the Arctic zone and the

S. Nakamura

2009-01-01

354

Balancing Change and Tradition in Global Education Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In Balancing Change and Tradition in Global Education Reform, Rotberg brings together examples of current education reforms in sixteen countries, written by "insiders". This book goes beyond myths and stereotypes and describes the difficult trade-offs countries make as they attempt to implement reforms in the context of societal and global

Rotberg, Iris C., Ed.

2004-01-01

355

Children in Psychodynamic Psychotherapy: Changes in Global Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was part of the Erica Process and Outcome Study. The aim was to investigate if children's global functioning improves after psychodynamic psychotherapy. Variables that may predict changes in global functioning were examined both statistically and qualitatively, for example, the child's age and gender; diagnosis and comorbidity;…

Odhammar, Fredrik; Sundin, Eva C.; Jonson, Mattias; Carlberg, Gunnar

2011-01-01

356

Shrub establishment under experimental global changes in a California grassland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accelerating invasion of grasslands by woody species is a widespread global phenomenon. The native shrub Baccharis pilularis has recently increased in abundance in some California grasslands, with large local community and ecosystem effects. I investigated potential contributions of (1) future global climate and atmospheric changes and (2) variation in moisture and nutrient availability to increased Baccharis germination and early establishment

Erika S. Zavaleta

2006-01-01

357

The Changing Global Environment and World Crop Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a period of a presumed world food crisis, the importance of climate and weather, and the rising level of atmospheric carbon dioxide are highlighted as important changes in the global environment. There is a dual and simultaneous effect of the rising level of atmospheric carbon dioxide on first, global warming and second, on the enhancement of crop productivity as

Sylvan H. Wittwer

1997-01-01

358

Small island developing states: natural disaster vulnerability and global change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper sets out an examination of natural disaster amongst small island developing states (SIDS), and presents a framework for assessing the interaction of global pressures and local dynamics in the production of human vulnerability. Change at the global level is found to be a source of new opportunities as well as constraints on building local resilience to natural disaster.

Mark Pelling; Juha I. Uitto

2001-01-01

359

Environmental Change, Global Warming and Infectious Diseases in Northern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are increasing our clinical surveillance for new and increasing infectious diseases that may relate to environmental changes occurring in the short term and global warming over the longer term. It is predicted that with global warming the tropical north of Australia will become both hotter and wetter. This is likely to expand the receptive area within Australia for mosquito-borne

Bart J. Currie

2001-01-01

360

Global Climate Change: The USAID Response. A Report to Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

USAID's new Global Climate Change Strategy (GCCS) is designed to support the fundamental objectives of the FCCC as stated above. The goal of the GCCS is: To contribute to global efforts to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations and to assist countries to...

1994-01-01

361

ROLE OF BIOMASS ENERGY IN STABILIZING GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the causes, effects, and options for stabilizing global climate change, with an emphasis on the global use of biomass energy as a feasible stabilization option. he mechanism by which biomass energy reduces emissions of carbon dioxide is discussed along with ch...

362

Global Climate Change: Resources for Environmental Literacy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most scientists believe that Earth's climate is changing and in fact heating up. However, they don't all agree about the rate of change, the extent of the impact on our environment, or what can or should be done about it. This module is based on the premise that understanding what influences Earth's energy balance is necessary (though not sufficient) to make sound decisions about climate change. Among the key concepts: how weather and climate relate to transfer of energy in and out of Earth's atmosphere, and how human activities have changed Earth's land, oceans, and atmosphere.

Council, Environmental L.; National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-05-16

363

Changes of sleep adaptation in hospitalized patients with depression.  

PubMed

Sleep adaptation in an unfamiliar environment, the so-called "first-night effect", is known to occur in healthy individuals. To avoid the confounding effects of the "first-night effect", the first-night sleep data are not used in most of sleep studies. In the present study, we examined changes of sleep adaptation in hospitalized patients with depression. Polysomnographic recordings were obtained for two consecutive nights from 14 patients, and sleep parameters were compared between both nights. Total sleep time, sleep latency, awakening times, movement awakening time, sleep efficiency, sleep architecture, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency, REM intensity, REM density, REM time, REM cycles, and other indicators showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the first and second nights. To conclude, hospitalized patients with depression have relatively less change in sleep adaptation, thus, the data from their first night do not need to be discarded. PMID:23076639

Song, Shasha; Geng, Zhi; Zhai, Shutao; Xu, Jie; Hou, Gang; Zhang, Xinbao

2013-06-01

364

Changes in colour appearance following post-receptoral adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CURRENT models of colour vision assume that colour is represented by activity in three independent post-receptoral channels: two encoding chromatic information and one encoding luminance1. An important feature of these models is that variations in certain directions in colour space modulate the response of only one of the channels. We have tested whether such models can predict how colour appearance is altered by adaptation-induced changes in post-receptoral sensitivity. In contrast to the changes predicted by three independent channels, colour appearance is always distorted away from the direction in colour space to which the observer has adapted. This suggests that at the level at which the adaptation effects occur, there is no colour direction that invariably isolates only a single post-receptoral channel.

Webster, Michael A.; Mollon, J. D.

1991-01-01

365

Global food security under climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the potential impacts of climate change on food security. It is found that of the four main elements of food security, i.e., availability, stability, utilization, and access, only the first is routinely addressed in simulation studies. To this end, published results indicate that the impacts of climate change are significant, however, with a wide projected range (between

Josef Schmidhuber; Francesco N. Tubiello

366

Australia, Climate Change and the Global South  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australia's climate change relationship with developing countries is framed by the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. Under those agreements, Australia has committed to take a lead in cutting greenhouse gas emissions and to provide technological and financial support to developing countries. In practice, Australian governments of both political hues have adopted a

Lorraine Elliott

2011-01-01

367

Latin America in a Changing Global Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latin America's insertion in the world trade system is entering a period of historical change. Driving that change will be the outcome, or failure, of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations; the increasing regionalisation of trade relations; and the profound liberalisation in Latin America of national trade regimes, which is also leading to a strong revival in the region

Winston Fritsch

1992-01-01

368

Counselors as the Foundation of Global Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a qualitative research project based on a needs assessment of counselor training as well as a review of relevant literature. It presents a STAR* Model (*Student Training and Achievement Re-envisioned), four ways to propose changes in a counselor education graduate program that will encompass needed changes while not taking…

Skelton, Doris

369

Global climate change and infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Climate change is occurring as a result of warming of the earth's atmosphere due to human activity generating excess amounts of greenhouse gases. Because of its potential impact on the hydrologic cycle and severe weather events, climate change is expected to have an enormous effect on human health, including on the burden and distribution of many infectious diseases. The infectious diseases that will be most affected by climate change include those that are spread by insect vectors and by contaminated water. The burden of adverse health effects due to these infectious diseases will fall primarily on developing countries, while it is the developed countries that are primarily responsible for climate change. It is up to governments and individuals to take the lead in halting climate change, and we must increase our understanding of the ecology of infectious diseases in order to protect vulnerable populations. PMID:23022814

Shuman, E K

2011-01-01

370

Animal husbandry in Africa: Climate change impacts and adaptations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a cross-sectional approach to analyze the impacts of climate change on animal husbandry and the way farmers adapt. The study is based on surveys of almost 5000 livestock farmers across ten countries in Africa. A traditional Ricardian regression finds that the livestock net revenues of large farms in Africa are more sensitive to temperature than those of

S. Niggol Seo; Robert Mendelsohn

2008-01-01

371

Rural sector adapting to climate change - effects on future production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this presentation we argue that there is growing evidence that Australia's climate will continue to change in the foreseeable future in ways that adversely affect agricultural production, requiring immediate and significant adaptation strategies. Most of the available evidence suggests that agricultural production is likely to be reduced by drier and warmer conditions projected for many of Australia's agricultural regions.

H. Meinke; Mark Howden; Andries Potgieter; Daniel Rodriguez

372

Adapting the Transtheoretical Model of Change to the Bereavement Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Theorists currently believe that bereaved people undergo some transformation of self rather than returning to their original state. To advance our understanding of this process, this article presents an adaptation of Prochaska and DiClemente's transtheoretical model of change as it could be applied to the journey that bereaved individuals…

Calderwood, Kimberly A.

2011-01-01

373

Global data products help assess changes to ocean carbon sink  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Net oceanic uptake of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) reduces global warming but also leads to ocean acidification [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2007]. Understanding and predicting changes in the ocean carbon sink are critical to assessments of future climate change. Surface water CO2 measurements suggest large year-to-year variations in oceanic CO2 uptake for several regions [Doney et al., 2009]. However, there is much debate on whether these changes are cyclical or indicative of long-term trends. Sustained, globally coordinated observations of the surface ocean carbon cycle and systematic handling of such data are essential for assessing variation and trends in regional and global ocean carbon uptake, information necessary for accurate estimates of global and national carbon budgets.

Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Pfeil, Benjamin; Olsen, Are; Sabine, Christopher L.; Metzl, Nicolas; Hankin, Steven; Koyuk, Heather; Kozyr, Alex; Malczyk, Jeremy; Manke, Ansley; Telszewski, Maciej

2012-03-01

374

Ecosystem Change and Public Health: A Global Perspective  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This textbook was published to: 1) raise awareness of changes in human health related to global ecosystem change; and 2) expand the scope of the traditional curriculum in environmental health to include the interactions of major environmental forces and public health on a global scale. The book covers such topics as global climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, water resources management and ecology and infectious disease. Case studies of cholera, malaria, the effects of water resources and global climate change and air pollution illustrate the analysis and methodology. The book also includes a resource center describing places to start searches on the Web, guidelines for finding and evaluating information, suggested study projects and strategies for encouraging communication among course participants.

2001-01-01

375

REGIONAL CLIMATE CHANGE SCENARIOS UNDER GLOBAL WARMING IN KAZAKHSTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to report on the development of regional climate change scenarios for Kazakhstan as the result of increasing of CO2 concentration in the global atmosphere. These scenarios are used in the assessment of climate change impacts on the agricultural, forest and water resources of Kazakhstan. Climate change scenarios for Kazakhstan to assess both long-term (2×

Olga V. Pilifosova; Irina B. Eserkepova; Svetlana A. Dolgih

1997-01-01

376

Global change and the dynamics of ecological systems: Cretaceous through Oligocene naticid gastropods and their prey  

SciTech Connect

Most studies of global change, particularly events that produced mass extinctions, document extinction and survivorship within taxonomic groups or trophic levels. Studies that consider effects of such events on ecological systems are less common. Global events nevertheless affect interaction of species; to predict the consequences of future global change, one must consider interactions within ecological systems. Vermeij has suggested that escalation involving adaptation to enemies has been a major theme of Phanerozoic life, but that such escalation has proceeded at highly variable rates depending on extrinsic events. He has predicted that escalation should be fostered by climatic warming, marine transgression, and high primary productivity. Mass extinctions involving global cooling, regression, or reduction in productivity should temporarily halt escalation, but rapid rebound may occur because post-crisis assemblages provide the raw material for escalation. A comprehensive survey (40,000 specimens) of naticid gastropod predation in the Coastal Plain Cretaceous through Oligocene supports this hypothesis. Drilling frequencies dropped at the K/T and E/O boundaries, which were marked by decreases in productivity and/or cooling. Drilling recovered very rapidly after these events, and in the Paleocene far exceeded Cretaceous drilling, reaching modern levels. This suggests the K/T extinction produced a major reorganization of the ecosystem. Other indicators of escalation (frequency of incomplete and multiple drillholes), however, do not correspond as neatly to global change. Nevertheless, results suggest that global change may be a major determinant of long-term evolutionary patterns, such as escalation.

Kelley, P.H. (Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geological Engineering); Hansen, T.A. (Western Washington Univ., Bellingham, WA (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1993-03-01

377

Effects of Global Climate Change on Nigerian Agriculture: An Empirical Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an empirical analysis of the effects of global warming on Nigerian agriculture and estimation of the determinants of adaptation to climate change. Data used for this study are from both secondary and primary sources. The set of secondary sources of data helped to examine the coverage of the three scenarios (1971-1980; 1981-1990 and 1991-2000). The primary data

Temidayo Gabriel Apata; A. I. Ogunyinka; R. A. Sanusi; S. Ogunwande

2010-01-01

378

Climate change: linking adaptation and mitigation through agroforestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture is the human enterprise that is most vulnerable to climate change. Tropical agriculture, particularly subsistence\\u000a agriculture is particularly vulnerable, as smallholder farmers do not have adequate resources to adapt to climate change.\\u000a While agroforestry may play a significant role in mitigating the atmospheric accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG), it also\\u000a has a role to play in helping smallholder farmers

Louis V. Verchot; Meine Van Noordwijk; Serigne Kandji; Tom Tomich; Chin Ong; Alain Albrecht; Jens Mackensen; Cynthia Bantilan; K. V. Anupama; Cheryl Palm

2007-01-01

379

Forests and climate change adaptation policies in Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, adaptation has become a key focus of the scientific and policy-making communities and is a major area of discussion\\u000a in the multilateral climate change process. As climate change is projected to hit the poorest the hardest, it is especially\\u000a important for developing countries to pay particular attention to the management of natural resources and agricultural activities.\\u000a In most of

Mekou Youssoufa Bele; Olufunso Somorin; Denis Jean Sonwa; Johnson Ndi Nkem; Bruno Locatelli

2011-01-01

380

Potential Biodiversity Change: Global Patterns and Biome Comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The purpose of the exercise reported in this book was to develop biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100. The scenarios focused\\u000a on 10 terrestrial biomes and freshwater ecosystems, and were based on global scenarios of changes in the environment and current\\u000a understanding about the specific biome sensitivity to global change. The first step was to identify the major drivers of

Osvaldo E. Sala; F. Stuart Chapin; Elisabeth Huber-Sannwald

381

Global Climate Change: National Security Implications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Carolyn Pumphrey Triangle Institute for Security Studies The Evolution of a Problem. Until fairly recent times no one thought climate changed, let alone was influenced by human activities. By the 19th century, scientists were theorizing that temperatures ...

C. Pumphrey

2008-01-01

382

Predicting global change impacts on plant species’ distributions: Future challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the rate of projected environmental change for the 21st century, urgent adaptation and mitigation measures are required to slow down the on-going erosion of biodiversity. Even though increasing evidence shows that recent human-induced environmental changes have already triggered species’ range shifts, changes in phenology and species’ extinctions, accurate projections of species’ responses to future environmental changes are more difficult

Wilfried Thuiller; Cécile Albert; Miguel B. Araújo; Pam M. Berry; Mar Cabeza; Antoine Guisan; Thomas Hickler; Guy F. Midgley; James Paterson; Frank M. Schurr; Martin T. Sykes; Niklaus E. Zimmermann

2008-01-01

383

Integrated Earth Systems: Confronting Global Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is the course syllabus for a geography course taught at Ohio State University. The course is designed to provide a basic understanding of both natural and human caused climate change. Lectures explore the issues surrounding recent climate change and the role of human activities in shaping the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the environment that sustains life on Earth. Links to the class homepage, tutorials and quizzes from the textbook, and a list of course topics are also included.

Mosley-Thompson, Ellen; University, Ohio S.

384

International business and global climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approaches to climate change: Technology and institutionsClimate change represents the ultimate trade-off between human wellbeing and the burden placed on the natural environment. The criticality of this trade-off appears in stark relief when the UN's Human Development Index is graphed against the earth's current bio-capacity. The earth's bio-capacity is characterized by the ecological footprint, the ratio of the demand for

Sarianna M Lundan

2011-01-01

385

Climate change adaptation among Tibetan pastoralists: challenges in enhancing local adaptation through policy support.  

PubMed

While researchers are aware that a mix of Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK), community-based resource management institutions, and higher-level institutions and policies can facilitate pastoralists' adaptation to climate change, policy makers have been slow to understand these linkages. Two critical issues are to what extent these factors play a role, and how to enhance local adaptation through government support. We investigated these issues through a case study of two pastoral communities on the Tibetan Plateau in China employing an analytical framework to understand local climate adaptation processes. We concluded that LEK and community-based institutions improve adaptation outcomes for Tibetan pastoralists through shaping and mobilizing resource availability to reduce risks. Higher-level institutions and policies contribute by providing resources from outside communities. There are dynamic interrelationships among these factors that can lead to support, conflict, and fragmentation. Government policy could enhance local adaptation through improvement of supportive relationships among these factors. While central government policies allow only limited room for overt integration of local knowledge/institutions, local governments often have some flexibility to buffer conflicts. In addition, government policies to support market-based economic development have greatly benefited adaptation outcomes for pastoralists. Overall, in China, there are still questions over how to create innovative institutions that blend LEK and community-based institutions with government policy making. PMID:22836921

Fu, Yao; Grumbine, R Edward; Wilkes, Andreas; Wang, Yun; Xu, Jian-Chu; Yang, Yong-Ping

2012-07-27

386

Climate Change Adaptation Among Tibetan Pastoralists: Challenges in Enhancing Local Adaptation Through Policy Support  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While researchers are aware that a mix of Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK), community-based resource management institutions, and higher-level institutions and policies can facilitate pastoralists' adaptation to climate change, policy makers have been slow to understand these linkages. Two critical issues are to what extent these factors play a role, and how to enhance local adaptation through government support. We investigated these issues through a case study of two pastoral communities on the Tibetan Plateau in China employing an analytical framework to understand local climate adaptation processes. We concluded that LEK and community-based institutions improve adaptation outcomes for Tibetan pastoralists through shaping and mobilizing resource availability to reduce risks. Higher-level institutions and policies contribute by providing resources from outside communities. There are dynamic interrelationships among these factors that can lead to support, conflict, and fragmentation. Government policy could enhance local adaptation through improvement of supportive relationships among these factors. While central government policies allow only limited room for overt integration of local knowledge/institutions, local governments often have some flexibility to buffer conflicts. In addition, government policies to support market-based economic development have greatly benefited adaptation outcomes for pastoralists. Overall, in China, there are still questions over how to create innovative institutions that blend LEK and community-based institutions with government policy making.

Fu, Yao; Grumbine, R. Edward; Wilkes, Andreas; Wang, Yun; Xu, Jian-Chu; Yang, Yong-Ping

2012-10-01

387

Gardening and urban landscaping: significant players in global change.  

PubMed

Global warming leads to shifts in vegetation types in given temperate environments. The fastest species movement is due to the globalized supply and use of exotic plants in gardening and urban landscaping. These standard practices circumvent dispersal limitations and biological and environmental stresses; they have three major global impacts: (i) the enhancement of biological invasions, (ii) the elevation of volatile organic compound emissions and the resulting increase in photochemical smog formation, and (iii) the enhancement of CO(2) fixation and water use by gardened plants. These global effects, none of which are currently considered in global-change scenarios, are increasingly amplified with further warming and urbanization. We urge for quantitative assessment of the global effects of gardening and urban landscaping. PMID:18262823

Niinemets, Ulo; Peñuelas, Josep

2008-02-11

388

Is This Global Warming? Communicating the Intangibles of Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unlike weather, which is immediate, tangible, and relevant on a daily basis, climate change is long-term, slow to evolve, and often difficult to relate to the public's daily concerns. By explaining global-change research to wide and diverse audiences through a variety of vehicles, including publications, exhibits, Web sites, and television B-roll, UCAR has gained experience and perspective on the challenges involved. This talk will explore some of the lessons learned and some of the key difficulties that face global-change communicators, including: --The lack of definitive findings on regional effects of global change -- The long time frame in which global change plays out, versus the short attention span of media, the public, and policy makers --The use of weather events as news pegs (they pique interest, but they may not be good exemplars of global change and are difficult to relate directly to changes in greenhouse-gas emissions) --The perils of the traditional journalistic technique of point-counterpoint in discussing climate change --The presence of strong personal/political convictions among various interest groups and how these affect the message(s) conveyed

Warner, L.; Henson, R.

2004-05-01

389

Global water resources: vulnerability from climate change and population growth.  

PubMed

The future adequacy of freshwater resources is difficult to assess, owing to a complex and rapidly changing geography of water supply and use. Numerical experiments combining climate model outputs, water budgets, and socioeconomic information along digitized river networks demonstrate that (i) a large proportion of the world's population is currently experiencing water stress and (ii) rising water demands greatly outweigh greenhouse warming in defining the state of global water systems to 2025. Consideration of direct human impacts on global water supply remains a poorly articulated but potentially important facet of the larger global change question. PMID:10894773

Vörösmarty, C J; Green, P; Salisbury, J; Lammers, R B

2000-07-14

390

Global Water Resources: Vulnerability from Climate Change and Population Growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The future adequacy of freshwater resources is difficult to assess, owing to a complex and rapidly changing geography of water supply and use. Numerical experiments combining climate model outputs, water budgets, and socioeconomic information along digitized river networks demonstrate that (i) a large proportion of the world's population is currently experiencing water stress and (ii) rising water demands greatly outweigh greenhouse warming in defining the state of global water systems to 2025. Consideration of direct human impacts on global water supply remains a poorly articulated but potentially important facet of the larger global change question.

Vörösmarty, Charles J.; Green, Pamela; Salisbury, Joseph; Lammers, Richard B.

2000-07-01

391

How climate change will exacerbate global water scarcity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water scarcity, in particular the dearth of renewable water resources for agricultural, industrial and domestic purposes, severely impairs food security and economic prosperity in many countries today. Ex- pected future population changes will, in most countries as well as globally, increase water scarcity through increased demand. On the supply side, renewable water resources will be affected by projected changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, and other climate variables. The magnitude and pattern of hydrological changes however depend on complex interactions between climate, biosphere, and surface properties. Here we use a large ensemble of global hydrological models (GHMs) driven by five global climate models (GCMs) in the framework of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP) to show that climate change is very likely to exacerbate the global water scarcity problem significantly. In particular, the simulation ensemble average projects that beyond a global warming of 1°C above 1980-2010 levels (approx. 1.5°C above pre-industrial), each additional degree of warming confronts an additional 7-10% of global population with a severe (>20%) decrease in water resources. A warming of 3°C is projected to enhance the global increase in absolute water scarcity, expected from population changes alone, by about 25%, together amounting to more 13% (5-30%) of the world population living at less than 500m3 annual runoff per capita by the end of this century. The projected impacts at different levels of global warming are similar across different climate change scenarios, indicating that dependence on the rate of climate change is low. At the same time, the study highlights significant uncertainties associated with these projections, resulting both from the spread among climate projections and from the GHMs.

Schewe, Jacob; Heinke, Jens; Gerten, Dieter; Haddeland, Ingjerd; Arnell, Nigel; Clark, Douglas; Dankers, Rutger; Eisner, Stephanie; Fekete, Balázs; Kim, Hyungjun; Liu, Xingcai; Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Portmann, Felix; Satoh, Yusuke; Stacke, Tobias; Tang, Qiuhong; Wada, Yoshihide; Wisser, Dominik; Albrecht, Torsten

2013-04-01

392

Limited evolutionary rescue of locally adapted populations facing climate change.  

PubMed

Dispersal is a key determinant of a population's evolutionary potential. It facilitates the propagation of beneficial alleles throughout the distributional range of spatially outspread populations and increases the speed of adaptation. However, when habitat is heterogeneous and individuals are locally adapted, dispersal may, at the same time, reduce fitness through increasing maladaptation. Here, we use a spatially explicit, allelic simulation model to quantify how these equivocal effects of dispersal affect a population's evolutionary response to changing climate. Individuals carry a diploid set of chromosomes, with alleles coding for adaptation to non-climatic environmental conditions and climatic conditions, respectively. Our model results demonstrate that the interplay between gene flow and habitat heterogeneity may decrease effective dispersal and population size to such an extent that substantially reduces the likelihood of evolutionary rescue. Importantly, even when evolutionary rescue saves a population from extinction, its spatial range following climate change may be strongly narrowed, that is, the rescue is only partial. These findings emphasize that neglecting the impact of non-climatic, local adaptation might lead to a considerable overestimation of a population's evolvability under rapid environmental change. PMID:23209165

Schiffers, Katja; Bourne, Elizabeth C; Lavergne, Sébastien; Thuiller, Wilfried; Travis, Justin M J

2013-01-19

393

Global Ups and Downs, Changing Sea Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unitfocuses on the concept that changes in sea level have occurred in the past, are occurring now, and will continue to occur. The unit provides an inquiry-based exploration of the lines of evidence for periodic melting of ice and resulting sea level rise: glacial evidence, geologic evidence, fossil evidence, and isotopic evidence. Students learn about the worldwide effects of sea level changes in the past and then use a study on topography and sea level to demonstrate their understanding of impact of sea level change on flora, fauna, and human society. Details about the supported concepts and standards, lessons with activities organized into teachable units, and a section describing the online resources used in the unit are provided for ready reference.

2005-01-01

394

Global food security under climate change  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the potential impacts of climate change on food security. It is found that of the four main elements of food security, i.e., availability, stability, utilization, and access, only the first is routinely addressed in simulation studies. To this end, published results indicate that the impacts of climate change are significant, however, with a wide projected range (between 5 million and 170 million additional people at risk of hunger by 2080) strongly depending on assumed socio-economic development. The likely impacts of climate change on the other important dimensions of food security are discussed qualitatively, indicating the potential for further negative impacts beyond those currently assessed with models. Finally, strengths and weaknesses of current assessment studies are discussed, suggesting improvements and proposing avenues for new analyses.

Schmidhuber, Josef; Tubiello, Francesco N.

2007-01-01

395

Changes in corticospinal excitability following adaptive modification to human walking.  

PubMed

Locomotor adaptations to a novel environment can be measured through changes in muscle activity patterns and lower limb kinematics. The location and mechanisms underlying these adaptive changes are unknown. The purposes of the current study were (1) to determine whether corticospinal tract (CST) excitability is altered by resisted walking and (2) to ascertain whether changes in cortical excitability are muscle specific. Forty healthy participants walked with a robotic gait device (Lokomat) that applied a velocity-dependent resistance against hip and knee movements during walking. CST excitability was assessed by quantifying motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation immediately before and after baseline and resisted walking. MEPs were measured in either the biceps femoris (BF) or the rectus femoris (RF). Recruitment curves were collected by stimulating in 5 % increments from 105 to 145 % of active motor threshold. Results demonstrated a significant increase in MEP amplitude in the BF following baseline walking in the Lokomat. The RF did not demonstrate these changes. There was no further change in MEP size following resisted walking in either muscle group. These results suggest that locomotion increases CST excitability in a muscle-specific fashion. As such, it may be important for determining how to enhance the central nervous system's ability to integrate adaptive strategies during walking. PMID:23494384

Zabukovec, J R; Boyd, L A; Linsdell, M A; Lam, T

2013-03-15

396

Extensive Adaptive Changes Occur in the Transcriptome of Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus) in Response to Incubation with Human Blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

To enhance understanding of how Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus, GBS) adapts during invasive infection, we performed a whole-genome transcriptome analysis after incubation with whole human blood. Global changes occurred in the GBS transcriptome rapidly in response to blood contact following shift from growth in a rich laboratory medium. Most (83%) of the significantly altered transcripts were down-regulated after 30

Laurent Mereghetti; Izabela Sitkiewicz; Nicole M. Green; James M. Musser; Niyaz Ahmed

2008-01-01

397

On The Relation Between Enso and Global Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two lines of research into climate change and El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) converge on the conclusion that changes in ENSO statistics occur as a response to global climate (temperature) fluctuations. One approach focuses on the statistics of temperature fluctuations interpreted within the framework of random walk theory. The second is based on the discovery of correlation between the recurrence frequency of El Niño and temperature change, while developing physical arguments to explain sev- eral phenomena associated with changes in El Niño frequency. Consideration of both perspectives leads to greater confidence in, and guidance for, the physical interpreta- tion of the relationship between ENSO and global climate change. Topics considered include global dynamics of ENSO, ENSO triggering, and climate prediction and pre- dictability.

Tsonis, A. A.; Hunt, A. G.

398

The physiology of global change: linking patterns to mechanisms.  

PubMed

Global change includes alterations in ocean temperature, oxygen availability, salinity, and pH, abiotic variables with strong and interacting influences on the physiology of all taxa. Physiological stresses resulting from changes in these four variables may cause broad biogeographic shifts as well as localized changes in distribution in mosaic habitats. To elucidate these causal linkages, I address the following questions: What types of physiological limitations can alter species' distributions and, in cases of extreme stress, cause extinctions? Which species are most threatened by these physiological challenges--and why? How do contents of genomes establish capacities to respond to global change, notably in the case of species that have evolved in highly stable habitats? How fully can phenotypic acclimatization offset abiotic stress? Can physiological measurements, including new molecular ("-omic") approaches, provide indices of the degree of sublethal stress an organism experiences? And can physiological evolution keep pace with global change? PMID:22457968

Somero, George N

2012-01-01

399

The Physiology of Global Change: Linking Patterns to Mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global change includes alterations in ocean temperature, oxygen availability, salinity, and pH, abiotic variables with strong and interacting influences on the physiology of all taxa. Physiological stresses resulting from changes in these four variables may cause broad biogeographic shifts as well as localized changes in distribution in mosaic habitats. To elucidate these causal linkages, I address the following questions: What types of physiological limitations can alter species' distributions and, in cases of extreme stress, cause extinctions? Which species are most threatened by these physiological challenges - and why? How do contents of genomes establish capacities to respond to global change, notably in the case of species that have evolved in highly stable habitats? How fully can phenotypic acclimatization offset abiotic stress? Can physiological measurements, including new molecular ("-omic") approaches, provide indices of the degree of sublethal stress an organism experiences? And can physiological evolution keep pace with global change?

Somero, George N.

2012-01-01

400

A Student's Guide to Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency website provides an overview of climate change for students. It includes the sections Learn the Basics, See the Impact, Think like a Scientist, and Be Part of the Solution. Text and colorful illustrations and graphs present the ideas.

2013-05-01

401

Climate Change and the Global Financial Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change and globalisation are weaving to- gether the fates of households, communities, and people across all regions of the globe. Both processes are creating growing risks and uncertainties about the future. Both are also enhancing connections across space and time, such that actions taken in one locale have increasingly visible effects on other locales, often in ways that are

Robin Leichenko; Karen O'Brien; William Solecki

2009-01-01

402

Global Warming, Uncertainty and Endogenous Technical Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

What impact does ecological uncertainty have on agents' decisions concerning domestic emissions abatement, physical investments, and R&D expenditures? How sensitive are the answers to these questions when we move from exogenous to endogenous technical change? To investigate these issues we modify the ETC-RICE model described in Buonanno et al. (2001) by embedding in it a hazard rate function as in

Efrem Castelnuovo; Michele Moretto; Sergio Vergalli

2003-01-01

403

CONNECTING CAMPUS LIFE TO GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A greenhouse gas emissions inventory seemed a new way to encourage people to be conscious of their energy use. Tulane did not have any energy efficiency education programs in place when we began, and the facilities staff was skeptical of getting people on campus to change their energy habits. By doing a greenhouse gas inventory and energy efficiency education programs

Elizabeth Davey; Maureen Devery; Jennifer Karam; Shelley Kahler; Alana Paul

404

Exploring Local Approaches to Communicating Global Climate Change Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Expected future climate changes are often presented as a global problem, requiring a global solution. Although this statement is accurate, communicating climate change science and prospective solutions must begin at local levels, each with its own subset of complexities to be addressed. Scientific evaluation of local changes can be complicated by large variability occurring over small spatial scales; this variability hinders efforts both to analyze past local changes and to project future ones. The situation is further encumbered by challenges associated with scientific literacy in the U.S., as well as by pressing economic difficulties. For people facing real-life financial and other uncertainties, a projected ``1.4 to 5.8 degrees Celsius'' rise in global temperature is likely to remain only an abstract concept. Despite this lack of concreteness, recent surveys have found that most U.S. residents believe current global warming science, and an even greater number view the prospect of increased warming as at least a ``somewhat serious'' problem. People will often be able to speak of long-term climate changes in their area, whether observed changes in the amount of snow cover in winter, or in the duration of extreme heat periods in summer. This work will explore the benefits and difficulties of communicating climate change from a local, rather than global, perspective, and seek out possible strategies for making less abstract, more concrete, and most importantly, more understandable information available to the public.

Stevermer, A. J.

2002-12-01

405

Katalysis: helping Andean farmers adapt to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies of global climate change paint a bleak picture for the Andes. Researchers have proposed expert-led solutions, such as improved climatic modelling and forecasting, and the breeding of drought-tolerant crop varieties. In this article, the authors argue that farmers need to shape the research agenda according to local priorities, and that smallholders and researchers should learn together. The Katalysis

S. G. Sherwood; J. Bentley

2009-01-01

406

Adapt or disperse: understanding species persistence in a changing world  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of studies on environmental change focus on the response of single species and neglect fundamental biotic interactions, such as mutualism, competition, predation, and parasitism, which complicate patterns of species persistence. Under global warming, disruption of community interactions can arise when species differ in their sensitivity to rising temperature, leading to mismatched phenologies and\\/or dispersal patterns. To study species

T TY P. B ERG; G ERARD D RIESSEN; M A R C E L VA; BOB W. K OOI; F RANS K UENEN; M AARTJE L IEFTING; JACINTHA E LLERS

2010-01-01

407

Global climate change and the mitigation challenge  

SciTech Connect

Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), have led to increasing atmospheric concentrations, very likely the primary cause of the 0.8{sup o}C warming the Earth has experienced since the Industrial Revolution. With industrial activity and population expected to increase for the rest of the century, large increases in greenhouse gas emissions are projected, with substantial global additional warming predicted. This paper examines forces driving CO{sub 2} emissions, a concise sector-by-sector summary of mitigation options, and research and development (R&D) priorities. To constrain warming to below approximately 2.5{sup o}C in 2100, the recent annual 3% CO{sub 2} emission growth rate needs to transform rapidly to an annual decrease rate of from 1 to 3% for decades. Furthermore, the current generation of energy generation and end-use technologies are capable of achieving less than half of the emission reduction needed for such a major mitigation program. New technologies will have to be developed and deployed at a rapid rate, especially for the key power generation and transportation sectors. Current energy technology research, development, demonstration, and deployment (RDD&D) programs fall far short of what is required. 20 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

Frank Princiotta [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division

2009-10-15

408

Global climate change and the mitigation challenge.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO2), have led to increasing atmospheric concentrations, very likely the primary cause of the 0.8 degrees C warming the Earth has experienced since the Industrial Revolution. With industrial activity and population expected to increase for the rest of the century, large increases in greenhouse gas emissions are projected, with substantial global additional warming predicted. This paper examines forces driving CO2 emissions, a concise sector-by-sector summary of mitigation options, and research and development (R&D) priorities. To constrain warming to below approximately 2.5 degrees C in 2100, the recent annual 3% CO2 emission growth rate needs to transform rapidly to an annual decrease rate of from 1 to 3% for decades. Furthermore, the current generation of energy generation and end-use technologies are capable of achieving less than half of the emission reduction needed for such a major mitigation program. New technologies will have to be developed and deployed at a rapid rate, especially for the key power generation and transportation sectors. Current energy technology research, development, demonstration, and deployment (RDD&D) programs fall far short of what is required. PMID:19842327

Princiotta, Frank

2009-10-01

409

Ecosystem Service Supply and Vulnerability to Global Change in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global change will alter the supply of ecosystem services that are vital for human well-being. To investigate ecosystem service supply during the 21st century, we used a range of ecosystem models and scenarios of climate and land-use change to conduct a Europe-wide assessment. Large changes in climate and land use typically resulted in large changes in ecosystem service supply. Some

Dagmar Schröter; Wolfgang Cramer; Rik Leemans; I. Colin Prentice; Miguel B. Araújo; Nigel W. Arnell; Alberte Bondeau; Harald Bugmann; Timothy R. Carter; Carlos A. Gracia; Anne C. de la Vega-Leinert; Markus Erhard; Frank Ewert; Margaret Glendining; Joanna I. House; Susanna Kankaanpää; Sandra Lavorel; Marcus Lindner; Marc J. Metzger; Jeannette Meyer; Timothy D. Mitchell; Isabelle Reginster; Mark Rounsevell; Santi Sabaté; Stephen Sitch; Ben Smith; Jo Smith; Pete Smith; Martin T. Sykes; Kirsten Thonicke; Wilfried Thuiller; Gill Tuck; Sönke Zaehle; Bärbel Zierl

2005-01-01

410

Adaptation of land-use demands to the impact of climate change on the hydrological processes of an urbanized watershed.  

PubMed

The adaptation of land-use patterns is an essential aspect of minimizing the inevitable impact of climate change at regional and local scales; for example, adapting watershed land-use patterns to mitigate the impact of climate change on a region's hydrology. The objective of this study is to simulate and assess a region's ability to adapt to hydrological changes by modifying land-use patterns in the Wu-Du watershed in northern Taiwan. A hydrological GWLF (Generalized Watershed Loading Functions) model is used to simulate three hydrological components, namely, runoff, groundwater and streamflow, based on various land-use scenarios under six global climate models. The land-use allocations are simulated by the CLUE-s model for the various development scenarios. The simulation results show that runoff and streamflow are strongly related to the precipitation levels predicted by different global climate models for the wet and dry seasons, but groundwater cycles are more related to land-use. The effects of climate change on groundwater and runoff can be mitigated by modifying current land-use patterns; and slowing the rate of urbanization would also reduce the impact of climate change on hydrological components. Thus, land-use adaptation on a local/regional scale provides an alternative way to reduce the impacts of global climate change on local hydrology. PMID:23202833

Lin, Yu-Pin; Hong, Nien-Ming; Chiang, Li-Chi; Liu, Yen-Lan; Chu, Hone-Jay

2012-11-12

411

French space programmes related to global change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The guidelines of the national and cooperative environmental programmes conducted by CNES are complementarity with third agencies' programmes, synergism between scientific and application projects, and promotion of innovative concepts likely to meet the requirements of the World Climate Research and International Geosphere-Biosphere Programmes. While the on-going SPOT series is to provide imagery of land surfaces until 2000, the TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetric mission is being developed by NASA and CNES for launch in mid-1992 in phase with the WOCE intensive field experiments. The design study of the AVISO ocean data system, and the development on behalf of ESA of the ERS-1-dedicated CERSAT facility are consolidating the French effort in space oceanography. Two other research space missions are studied by CNES and French laboratories. BEST, whose phase A study is nearing completion, is a low-altitude, low-inclination, GEWEX-dedicated mission for the investigation of the water and energy cycle in the tropics, with a target launch date in the late 1990's. The phase A study of GLOBSAT, a more IGBP-oriented mission concept, has just been initiated. The first objective of this mission in polar orbit considered for launch around 1997, is to collect comprehensive data sets needed to document key processes related to cloud/radiation interaction, stratospheric/tropospheric chemistry and dynamics of continental and marine ecosystems. The second objective is to start monitoring long-term trends of parameters required to close global budgets of carbon and ozone. The analysis of this space mission concept is conducted in parallel with the development of instruments of opportunity to be flown onboard foreign satellites, and of airborne sensors, either precursor to space instruments or designed for process studies and validation of space data.

Fellous, J. L.; Ratier, A.

412

Global adaptive output feedback control of induction motors with uncertain rotor resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We design for the first time a global adaptive output feedback control for induction motors, which guarantees asymptotic tracking of smooth speed references only on the basis of speed and stator current measurements, for any initial condition and for any unknown constant value of torque load and rotor resistance. These two parameters are the only ones which largely vary during

R. Marino; S. Peresada; P. Tomei

1996-01-01

413

Global adaptive output feedback control of induction motors with uncertain rotor resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors design a global adaptive output feedback control for a fifth-order model of induction motors, which guarantees asymptotic tracking of smooth speed references on the basis of speed and stator current measurements, for any initial condition and for any unknown constant value of torque load and rotor resistance. The proposed seventh-order nonlinear compensator generates estimates both for the unknown

Riccardo Marino; Sergei Peresada; Patrizio Tomei

1999-01-01

414

Effects of Global Information Feedback on DiversityExtensions to Axelrod's Adaptive Culture Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on Axelrod's adaptive culture model, the effects of the distribution of global information feedback are examined in two simulations. The first model is the generalized other model, where the most preferred features are hypothesized to represent the mental model of the most ordinary person and have the same influential power as real neighbors. The second model is the filter

Yasufumi Shibanai; Satoko Yasuno; Itaru Ishiguro

2001-01-01

415

Creating a New Model for Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation for Critical Infrastructure: The New York City Climate Change Adaptation Task Force and the NYC Panel on Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The New York City Climate Change Adaptation Task Force, launched in August 2008, aims to secure the city's critical infrastructure against rising seas, higher temperatures and fluctuating water supplies projected to result from climate change. The Climate Change Adaptation Task Force is part of PlaNYC, the city's long- term sustainability plan, and is composed of over 30 city and state agencies, public authorities and companies that operate the region's roads, bridges, tunnels, mass transit, and water, sewer, energy and telecommunications systems - all with critical infrastructure identified as vulnerable. It is one of the most comprehensive adaptation efforts yet launched by an urban region. To guide the effort, Mayor Michael Bloomberg has formed the New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC), modeled on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Experts on the panel include climatologists, sea-level rise specialists, adaptation experts, and engineers, as well as representatives from the insurance and legal sectors. The NPCC is developing planning tools for use by the Task Force members that provide information about climate risks, adaptation and risk assessment, prioritization frameworks, and climate protection levels. The advisory panel is supplying climate change projections, helping to identify at- risk infrastructure, and assisting the Task Force in developing adaptation strategies and guidelines for design of new structures. The NPCC will also publish an assessment report in 2009 that will serve as the foundation for climate change adaptation in the New York City region, similar to the IPCC reports. Issues that the Climate Change Adaptation Task Force and the NPCC are addressing include decision- making under climate change uncertainty, effective ways for expert knowledge to be incorporated into public actions, and strategies for maintaining consistent and effective attention to long-term climate change even as municipal governments cycle through their administrations.

Rosenzweig, C.; Solecki, W. D.; Freed, A. M.

2008-12-01

416

Defining Health Diplomacy: Changing Demands in the Era of Globalization  

PubMed Central

Context: Accelerated globalization has produced obvious changes in diplomatic purposes and practices. Health issues have become increasingly preeminent in the evolving global diplomacy agenda. More leaders in academia and policy are thinking about how to structure and utilize diplomacy in pursuit of global health goals. Methods: In this article, we describe the context, practice, and components of global health diplomacy, as applied operationally. We examine the foundations of various approaches to global health diplomacy, along with their implications for the policies shaping the international public health and foreign policy environments. Based on these observations, we propose a taxonomy for the subdiscipline. Findings: Expanding demands on global health diplomacy require a delicate combination of technical expertise, legal knowledge, and diplomatic skills that have not been systematically cultivated among either foreign service or global health professionals. Nonetheless, high expectations that global health initiatives will achieve development and diplomatic goals beyond the immediate technical objectives may be thwarted by this gap. Conclusions: The deepening links between health and foreign policy require both the diplomatic and global health communities to reexamine the skills, comprehension, and resources necessary to achieve their mutual objectives.

Katz, Rebecca; Kornblet, Sarah; Arnold, Grace; Lief, Eric; Fischer, Julie E

2011-01-01

417

Trend survey of the global environment adaptation type industry technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A global CO2 recycling system which combines utilization of natural energy and CO2 recovered from combustion of fossil fuel is studied. In the model, CO2 recovered at the place of energy demand is transported to the place where energy is produced, and from the CO2 fuels are synthesized by use of solar energy and transported to the place of energy demand. Facilities worth a large amount of money are required to transmit electric power generated by the photovoltaic power generation in the desert to the fuel synthesizing plant. Therefore, production of electrolytic hydrogen by the on-site power generation and transport by pipe may be considered. As a synthetic fuel being sent back by ocean transport, methanol is considered, and synthetic methane (LNG) can also be a candidate. CO2 is recovered as liquid carbon dioxide. Possibility of CO2 recycling is dependent on development of the desert solar base, as well as depletion of fossil fuel and price increase, CO2 penalty. It has still been difficult to say which of the fuel synthesis, CO2 tanker or securing of the solar base becomes a bottleneck. Entry of recycling fuels to the market will be possible in proportion to restrictions on fossil fuels, and evaluation of the system depends almost on the rate of energy arriving from the energy-producing region.

1992-03-01

418

Sensorimotor adaptation changes the neural coding of somatosensory stimuli.  

PubMed

Motor learning is reflected in changes to the brain's functional organization as a result of experience. We show here that these changes are not limited to motor areas of the brain and indeed that motor learning also changes sensory systems. We test for plasticity in sensory systems using somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs). A robotic device is used to elicit somatosensory inputs by displacing the arm in the direction of applied force during learning. We observe that following learning there are short latency changes to the response in somatosensory areas of the brain that are reliably correlated with the magnitude of motor learning: subjects who learn more show greater changes in SEP magnitude. The effects we observe are tied to motor learning. When the limb is displaced passively, such that subjects experience similar movements but without experiencing learning, no changes in the evoked response are observed. Sensorimotor adaptation thus alters the neural coding of somatosensory stimuli. PMID:23343897

Nasir, Sazzad M; Darainy, Mohammad; Ostry, David J

2013-01-23

419

Crops and climate change: progress, trends, and challenges in simulating impacts and informing adaptation.  

PubMed

Assessments of the relationships between crop productivity and climate change rely upon a combination of modelling and measurement. As part of this review, this relationship is discussed in the context of crop and climate simulation. Methods for linking these two types of models are reviewed, with a primary focus on large-area crop modelling techniques. Recent progress in simulating the impacts of climate change on crops is presented, and the application of these methods to the exploration of adaptation options is discussed. Specific advances include ensemble simulations and improved understanding of biophysical processes. Finally, the challenges associated with impacts and adaptation research are discussed. It is argued that the generation of knowledge for policy and adaptation should be based not only on syntheses of published studies, but also on a more synergistic and holistic research framework that includes: (i) reliable quantification of uncertainty; (ii) techniques for combining diverse modelling approaches and observations that focus on fundamental processes; and (iii) judicious choice and calibration of models, including simulation at appropriate levels of complexity that accounts for the principal drivers of crop productivity, which may well include both biophysical and socio-economic factors. It is argued that such a framework will lead to reliable methods for linking simulation to real-world adaptation options, thus making practical use of the huge global effort to understand and predict climate change. PMID:19289578

Challinor, Andrew J; Ewert, Frank; Arnold, Steve; Simelton, Elisabeth; Fraser, Evan

2009-03-16

420

Health Professions Education for Adapting to Change and for Participating in Managing Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines a case for a new approach to the education of future professionals. The magnitude and potential seriousness of changes to be anticipated in the érst half of the new century challenge institutions of higher education to prepare their students to become able to adapt themselves to change and to participate in the management of change - not

C. E. Engel

2000-01-01

421

Adaptive strategies to climate change in Southern Malawi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change poses a big challenge to rural livelihoods in the Shire Valley area of Southern Malawi, where communities have depended almost entirely on rain-fed agriculture for generations. The Shire Valley area comprises of low-altitude dambo areas and uplands which have been the main agricultural areas. Since early to mid 1980s, the uplands have experienced prolonged droughts and poor rainfall distribution, while the dambos have experienced recurrent seasonal floods. This study assessed some of the adaptive strategies exercised by small-scale rural farmers in response to climate change in the Shire Valley. The methodology used in collecting information includes group discussions, household surveys in the area, secondary data, and field observations. The results show that small-scale rural farmers exercise a number of adaptive strategies in response to climate change. These adaptive strategies include: increased use of water resources for small-scale irrigation or wetland farming, mostly using simple delivery techniques; increased management of residual moisture; and increased alternative sources of income such as fishing and crop diversity. It was also observed that government promoted the use of portable motorized pumps for small-scale irrigation in order to mitigate the effects of climate change. However, these external interventions were not fully adopted; instead the farmers preferred local interventions which mostly had indigenous elements.

Chidanti-Malunga, J.

422

Global climate change and tropical cyclones  

SciTech Connect

This paper offers an overview of the authors's studies during a specialized international symposium where they aimed at making an objective assessment of whether climate changes, consequent on an expected doubling of atmospheric CO[sub 2] in the next six or seven decades, are likely to increase significantly the frequency or intensity of tropical cyclones (TC). Out of three methodologies available for addressing the question they employ two, discarding the third for reasons set out in the appendix. In the first methodology, the authors enumerate reasons why, in tropical oceans, the increase in sea surface temperature (SST) suggested by climate change models might be expected to affect either (i) TC frequency, because a well-established set of six conditions for TC formation include a condition that SST should exceed 26[degrees]C, or (ii) TC intensity, because this is indicated by thermodynamic analysis to depend critically on the temperature at which energy transfer to air near the sea surface takes place. But careful study of both suggestions indicates that the expected effects of increased SST would be largely self-limiting (i) because the other five conditions strictly control how far the band of latitudes for TC formation can be further widened, and (ii) because intense winds at the sea surface may receive their energy input at a temperature significantly depressed by evaporation of spray, and possibly through sea surface cooling. In the second methodology, the authors study available historical records that have very large year-to-year variability in TC statistics. They find practically no consistent statistical relationships with temperature anomalies; also, a thorough analysis of how the El Nino-Southern Oscillation cycle influences the frequency and distribution of TCs shows any direct effects of local SST changes to be negligible. 28 refs., 4 figs.

Lighthill, J. (Univ. College London (United Kingdom)); Holland, G. (Bureau of Meteorology Research Center, Melbourne (Australia)); Gray, W.; Landsea, C. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)); Craig, G. (Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom)); Evans, J. (Pennsylvania State Univ., College Park, PA (United States)); Kurihara, Yoshio (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)); Guard, C. (Univ. of Guam, Mangilao (Guam))

1994-11-01

423

Mission to Planet Earth: A program to understand global environmental change  

SciTech Connect

A description of Mission to Planet Earth, a program to understand global environmental change, is presented. Topics discussed include: changes in the environment; global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; and NASA's role in global change research.

Not Available

1994-02-01

424

Utilization of Remote Sensing Data for Global Climate Change Research in Malaysia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The global climate change research utilizing remote sensing data in Malaysia is presented. The following aspects of global climate change are outlined: (1) greenhouse effect gases and climate change; (2) global warming and its impact on the regional clima...

S. Moten

1992-01-01

425

Global robust and adaptive output feedback dynamic positioning of surface ships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A constructive method was presented to design a global robust and adaptive output feedback controller for dynamic positioning of surface ships under environmental disturbances induced by waves, wind, and ocean currents. The ship's parameters were not required to be known. An adaptive observer was first designed to estimate the ship's velocities and parameters. The ship position measurements were also passed through the adaptive observer to reduce high frequency measurement noise from entering the control system. Using these estimate signals, the control was then designed based on Lyapunov's direct method to force the ship's position and orientation to globally asymptotically converge to desired values. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control system. In conclusion, the paper presented a new method to design an effective control system for dynamic positioning of surface ships.

Do, Khac Duc

2011-09-01

426

Global Climate Change : The Ross Ice Shelf  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video lecture explores the effects of climate change on the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica. Slides depict how a large iceberg fell off the Ross Ice Shelf in March 2000. The lecturer describes his expedition to the ice shelf shortly after this event. He describes dives conducted to observe the underwater ecosystems containing krill and jellyfish, and the ocean currents around the icebergs. Facts about the icebergs in Antarctica are presented, and the sensitivity of polar regions to climate is explained. The video is 14 minutes in length.

2007-12-12

427

Global Climate Change: The Ross Ice Shelf  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video lecture explores the effects of climate change on the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica. Slides depict how a large iceberg fell off the Ross Ice Shelf in March 2000. The lecturer describes his expedition to the ice shelf shortly after this event. He describes dives conducted to observe the underwater ecosystems containing krill and jellyfish, and the ocean currents around the icebergs. Facts about the icebergs in Antarctica are presented, and the sensitivity of polar regions to climate is explained. The video is 14 minutes in length.

Stone, Greg

428

Global Climate Change Research Explorer: Biosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Take a first-hand look at how climate change affects the biosphere at this Web site from San Francisco's Exploratorium. Visitors can access long-term, short-term, and even near real time data from a number of research projects conducted by various institutions. All data are presented graphically, with straightforward explanations of phenomena in question. Science educators may find this Web site useful in that it conveys the sense of "how researchers gather evidence, test theories, and come to conclusions." A helpful glossary and a number of useful related links are included.

2002-01-01

429

Global Change: Effects on the Northern Forest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lecture, an expert on complex systems provides an overview of climate change and air pollution issues in the northeastern United States, highlighting several important environmental factors in the context of forest health and productivity. In the past, each of these environmental factors has been studied individually through the use of controlled experiments, though the fate of real forests depends upon their combined effect. The lecturer explores this interplay, discussing the value of computer modeling in understanding the complex interrelationships between climate, air pollution, human activities, and forest health. The audio segment is 1 hour and 17 minutes in length.

Ollinger, Scott

430

Remote sensing and global climate change  

SciTech Connect

This book, based on lectures from the Dundee Summer Schools in Remote Sensing in 1992, focuses on aspects of remote sensing related to climatic change. The organization of the book focuses on particular parts of the climate system and then discusses the different satellite systems relevant to their measurement. The following subject areas are included in the book: background information about the climate system and remote sensing; atmospheric applications in both lower and upper atmosphere; land surface including snow and ice, altimetry in Antarctica, land surface energy budget and albedo; marine science; ecological monitoring in St. Petersburg, Russia.

Vaughan, A.; Cracknell, A.P. [eds.

1994-12-31

431

Improved data for integrated modeling of global environmental change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of global environmental changes, their impact on human societies, and possible management options requires large-scale, integrated modeling efforts. These models have to link biophysical with socio-economic processes, and they have to take spatial heterogeneity of environmental conditions into account. Land use change and freshwater use are two key research areas where spatial aggregation and the use of regional

Hermann Lotze-Campen

2011-01-01

432

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND AGRICULTURE: AN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE  

EPA Science Inventory

Climate change and related global concerns dominate the current environmental agenda as evidenced by the recent wave of articles, symposia workshops, and other scientific and lay forms dealing with this issue. hile most atmospheric scientists agree that a climate change "signal" ...

433

Andean Uplift in the Context of Global Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two primary causes of South American climate change over the last 40 million years are global climate change and the uplift of the Andes Mountains. Quantifying spatial and temporal variations in climate over the duration of Andean surface uplift is necessary for interpreting palaeoclimate, erosion and palaeoelevation records from the region. This study utilises an atmospheric general circulation model

Louise Jeffery; Chris Poulsen; Todd Ehlers; Nadja Insel

2010-01-01

434

Marine alien species as an aspect of global change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transport of organisms across oceans is an anthropogenic agent of global change that has profoundly affected the natural distribution of littoral biota and altered the makeup of biogeographic regions. The homogenization of marine biotas is a phenomenon especially affecting coastal regions and is spearheaded by a suite of opportunistic species at the expense of native species. Climate change may

Anna Occhipinti-Ambrogi; Bella Galil

2010-01-01

435

Sulfur dioxide initiates global climate change in four ways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change, prior to the 20th century, appears to have been initiated primarily by major changes in volcanic activity. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is the most voluminous chemically active gas emitted by volcanoes and is readily oxidized to sulfuric acid normally within weeks. But trace amounts of SO2 exert significant influence on climate. All major historic volcanic eruptions have formed

Peter L. Ward

2009-01-01

436

Understanding change in global health policy: Ideas, discourse and networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

How is radical change in global health policy possible? Material factors such as economics or human resources are important, but ideational factors such as ideas and discourse play an important role as well. In this paper, I apply a theoretical framework to show how discourse made it possible for public and private actors to fundamentally change their way of working

Andrew Harmer

2010-01-01

437

Understanding change in global health policy: Ideas, discourse and networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

How is radical change in global health policy possible? Material factors such as economics or human resources are important, but ideational factors such as ideas and discourse play an important role as well. In this paper, I apply a theoretical framework to show how discourse made it possible for public and private actors to fundamentally change their way of working

Andrew Harmer

2011-01-01

438

Global climate change: Social and economic research issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This workshop was designed to bring together a group of scholars, primarily from the social sciences, to explore research that might help in dealing with global climate change. To illustrate the state of present understanding, it seemed useful to focus this workshop on three broad questions that are involved in coping with climate change. These are: (1) How can the

M. Rice; J. Snow; H. Jacobson

1992-01-01

439

Preventing disasters: public health vulnerability reduction as a sustainable adaptation to climate change.  

PubMed

Global warming could increase the number and severity of extreme weather events. These events are often known to result in public health disasters, but we can lessen the effects of these disasters. By addressing the factors that cause changes in climate, we can mitigate the effects of climate change. By addressing the factors that make society vulnerable to the effects of climate, we can adapt to climate change. To adapt to climate change, a comprehensive approach to disaster risk reduction has been proposed. By reducing human vulnerability to disasters, we can lessen--and at times even prevent--their impact. Human vulnerability is a complex phenomenon that comprises social, economic, health, and cultural factors. Because public health is uniquely placed at the community level, it has the opportunity to lessen human vulnerability to climate-related disasters. At the national and international level, a supportive policy environment can enable local adaptation to disaster events. The purpose of this article is to introduce the basic concept of disaster risk reduction so that it can be applied to preventing and mitigating the negative effects of climate change and to examine the role of community-focused public health as a means for lessening human vulnerability and, as a result, the overall risk of climate-related disasters. PMID:21402799

Keim, Mark E

2011-03-14

440

A review of climate-change adaptation strategies for wildlife management and biodiversity conservation.  

PubMed

The scientific literature contains numerous descriptions of observed and potential effects of global climate change on species and ecosystems. In response to anticipated effects of climate change, conservation organizations and government agencies are developing "adaptation strategies" to facilitate the adjustment of human society and ecological systems to altered climate regimes. We reviewed the literature and climate-change adaptation plans that have been developed in United States, Canada, England, México, and South Africa and found 16 general adaptation strategies that relate directly to the conservation of biological diversity. These strategies can be grouped into four broad categories: land and water protection and management; direct species management; monitoring and planning; and law and policy. Tools for implementing these strategies are similar or identical to those already in use by conservationists worldwide (land and water conservation, ecological restoration, agrienvironment schemes, species translocation, captive propagation, monitoring, natural resource planning, and legislation/regulation). Although our review indicates natural resource managers already have many tools that can be used to address climate-change effects, managers will likely need to apply these tools in novel and innovative ways to meet the unprecedented challenges posed by climate change. PMID:19549219

Mawdsley, Jonathan R; O'Malley, Robin; Ojima, Dennis S

2009-06-22

441

Global adaptation in networks of selfish components: emergent associative memory at the system scale.  

PubMed

In some circumstances complex adaptive systems composed of numerous self-interested agents can self-organize into structures that enhance global adaptation, efficiency, or function. However, the general conditions for such an outcome are poorly understood and present a fundamental open question for domains as varied as ecology, sociology, economics, organismic biology, and technological infrastructure design. In contrast, sufficient conditions for artificial neural networks to form structures that perform collective computational processes such as associative memory/recall, classification, generalization, and optimization are well understood. Such global functions within a single agent or organism are not wholly surprising, since the mechanisms (e.g., Hebbian learning) that create these neural organizations may be selected for this purpose; but agents in a multi-agent system have no obvious reason to adhere to such a structuring protocol or produce such global behaviors when acting from individual self-interest. However, Hebbian learning is actually a very simple and fully distributed habituation or positive feedback principle. Here we show that when self-interested agents can modify how they are affected by other agents (e.g., when they can influence which other agents they interact with), then, in adapting these inter-agent relationships to maximize their own utility, they will necessarily alter them in a manner homologous with Hebbian learning. Multi-agent systems with adaptable relationships will thereby exhibit the same system-level behaviors as neural networks under Hebbian learning. For example, improved global efficiency in multi-agent systems can be explained by the inherent ability of associative memory to generalize by idealizing stored patterns and/or creating new combinations of subpatterns. Thus distributed multi-agent systems can spontaneously exhibit adaptive global behaviors in the same sense, and by the same mechanism, as with the organizational principles familiar in connectionist models of organismic learning. PMID:21554114

Watson, Richard A; Mills, Rob; Buckley, C L

2011-05-09

442

A Terrestrial Surface Climate Data Record for Global Change Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall objective of this project is to produce, validate and distribute a global land surface climate data record (CDR) using a combination of mature and tested algorithms and the best available polar orbiting satellite data from the past to the present (1981-2009), and which will be extendable into the NPOESS era. The data record will consist of one fundamental climate data record (FCDR), the surface reflectance product. Three Thematic CDR’s (TCDRs) will also be derived from the FCDR, the normalized difference vegetation index (VI), LAI and fAPAR. These products are used extensively for climate change research and LAI and fAPAR are listed as Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) by GCOS. In addition these products are used in a number of applications of long-term societal benefit. The three TCDRs will be used to assess the performance of the FCDR through a rigorous validation program and will provide feedback on requirement for the Surface Reflectance FCDR. The record will use the best available data, addressing the dynamic data continuity of the input observations, which will be primarily from the AVHRR and MODIS with differing spatial resolutions 4km GAC (1981-present), 1km HRPT and LAC (1992-1998), 250m to 1km MODIS (2000-present). A gap in the data record from these two instruments for the 1999-2000 will be filled using SPOT VEGETATION surface reflectance product (1km) generated by European GEOLAND2 project. The resulting product will be a consistent climate data record of the Land surface from 1981 to present. The project will use previous experiences (REASON project) in using the mechanisms for adaptation of peer-reviewed algorithms, the product generation, distribution, validation and quality control of the Climate Data Record.

Vermote, E.; Justice, C. O.; Csiszar, I. A.; Eidenshink, J.; Myneni, R. B.; Baret, F.; Masuoka, E.; Wolfe, R. E.

2009-12-01

443

Solar Activity and Global Climate Changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomagnetic storms have a good correlation with solar activity and solar radiation variability. Many proton events and Geomagnetic storms have occurred during solar cycles21, 22, and 23. The solar activities during the last three cycles, gave us a good indication of the climatic change and its behavior during the 21st century. High energetic eruptive flares were recorded during the decline phase of the last three solar cycles. The appearances of the second peak on the decline phase of solar cycles have been detected. Halloween storms during Nov. 2003 and its effects on the geomagnetic storms have been studied analytically. The data of amplitude and phase of most common indicators of geomagnetic activities during solar cycle 23, have been analyzed.

Hady, Ahmed

2010-01-01

444

Our Changing Planet: The U.S. Global Change Research Program for Fiscal Year (FY) 2013.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Global change is happening now. Increases in population, industrialization, and human activities have altered the world's climate, oceans, land, ice cover, and ecosystems. In the United States, climate change has already resulted in more frequent heat wav...

2013-01-01

445

Fatigue-induced adaptive changes of anticipatory postural adjustments  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the fatigue-induced adaptive changes (e.g., timing) of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs), APAs of 30 research\\u000a participants were recorded before (baseline) and after (post-test) conditions of either rest (control group, n = 15) or fatigue (fatigue group, n = 15). Muscle fatigue was generated using a dead-lift exercise performed to exhaustion. Self-initiated postural perturbations\\u000a were induced using a rapid unilateral arm-raising maneuver (focal

Adam J. Strang; William P. Berg

2007-01-01

446

The role of interactions in a world implementing adaptation and mitigation solutions to climate change.  

PubMed

The papers in this volume discuss projections of climate change impacts upon humans and ecosystems under a global mean temperature rise of 4°C above preindustrial levels. Like most studies, they are mainly single-sector or single-region-based assessments. Even the multi-sector or multi-region approaches generally consider impacts in sectors and regions independently, ignoring interactions. Extreme weather and adaptation processes are often poorly represented and losses of ecosystem services induced by climate change or human adaptation are generally omitted. This paper addresses this gap by reviewing some potential interactions in a 4°C world, and also makes a comparison with a 2°C world. In a 4°C world, major shifts in agricultural land use and increased drought are projected, and an increased human population might increasingly be concentrated in areas remaining wet enough for economic prosperity. Ecosystem services that enable prosperity would be declining, with carbon cycle feedbacks and fire causing forest losses. There is an urgent need for integrated assessments considering the synergy of impacts and limits to adaptation in multiple sectors and regions in a 4°C world. By contrast, a 2°C world is projected to experience about one-half of the climate change impacts, with concomitantly smaller challenges for adaptation. Ecosystem services, including the carbon sink provided by the Earth's forests, would be expected to be largely preserved, with much less potential for interaction processes to increase challenges to adaptation. However, demands for land and water for biofuel cropping could reduce the availability of these resources for agricultural and natural systems. Hence, a whole system approach to mitigation and adaptation, considering interactions, potential human and species migration, allocation of land and water resources and ecosystem services, will be important in either a 2°C or a 4°C world. PMID:21115521

Warren, Rachel

2011-01-13

447

Examining Long-Term Global Climate Change on the Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes an activity in which students use web-based resources to investigate global climate change. The investigation takes the form of a computer activity in which they collect data from the internet on temperature, concentrations of various gases, oxygen isotopes, and others. The activity begins by posing the question: 'Should the U.S. and other countries limit emissions of greenhouse gases to reduce global warming?' The students then construct graphs, look for trends, and report their findings.

Huntoon, Jacqueline; Ridky, Robert

448

A Parallel Ocean Model With Adaptive Mesh Refinement Capability For Global Ocean Prediction  

SciTech Connect

An ocean model with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) capability is presented for simulating ocean circulation on decade time scales. The model closely resembles the LLNL ocean general circulation model with some components incorporated from other well known ocean models when appropriate. Spatial components are discretized using finite differences on a staggered grid where tracer and pressure variables are defined at cell centers and velocities at cell vertices (B-grid). Horizontal motion is modeled explicitly with leapfrog and Euler forward-backward time integration, and vertical motion is modeled semi-implicitly. New AMR strategies are presented for horizontal refinement on a B-grid, leapfrog time integration, and time integration of coupled systems with unequal time steps. These AMR capabilities are added to the LLNL software package SAMRAI (Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement Application Infrastructure) and validated with standard benchmark tests. The ocean model is built on top of the amended SAMRAI library. The resulting model has the capability to dynamically increase resolution in localized areas of the domain. Limited basin tests are conducted using various refinement criteria and produce convergence trends in the model solution as refinement is increased. Carbon sequestration simulations are performed on decade time scales in domains the size of the North Atlantic and the global ocean. A suggestion is given for refinement criteria in such simulations. AMR predicts maximum pH changes and increases in CO{sub 2} concentration near the injection sites that are virtually unattainable with a uniform high resolution due to extremely long run times. Fine scale details near the injection sites are achieved by AMR with shorter run times than the finest uniform resolution tested despite the need for enhanced parallel performance. The North Atlantic simulations show a reduction in passive tracer errors when AMR is applied instead of a uniform coarse resolution. No dramatic or persistent signs of error growth in the passive tracer outgassing or the ocean circulation are observed to result from AMR.

Herrnstein, A

2005-09-08

449

Our Changing Planet. The FY 2002 U.S. Global Change Research Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document, which is produced annually, describes the activities and plans of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), which was established in 1989 and authorized by Congress in the Global Change Research Act of 1990. Strong bipartisan suppor...

2002-01-01

450

Recent intense hurricane response to global climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Anthropogenic Climate Change Index (ACCI) is developed and used to investigate the potential global warming contribution to current tropical cyclone activity. The ACCI is defined as the difference between the means of ensembles of climate simulations with and without anthropogenic gases and aerosols. This index indicates that the bulk of the current anthropogenic warming has occurred in the past four decades, which enables improved confidence in assessing hurricane changes as it removes many of the data issues from previous eras. We find no anthropogenic signal in annual global tropical cyclone or hurricane frequencies. But a strong signal is found in proportions of both weaker and stronger hurricanes: the proportion of Category 4 and 5 hurricanes has increased at a rate of ~25-30 % per °C of global warming after accounting for analysis and observing system changes. This has been balanced by a similar decrease in Category 1 and 2 hurricane proportions, leading to development of a distinctly bimodal intensity distribution, with the secondary maximum at Category 4 hurricanes. This global signal is reproduced in all ocean basins. The observed increase in Category 4-5 hurricanes may not continue at the same rate with future global warming. The analysis suggests that following an initial climate increase in intense hurricane proportions a saturation level will be reached beyond which any further global warming will have little effect.

Holland, Greg; Bruyère, Cindy L.

2013-03-01

451

Global Farm Animal Production and Global Warming: Impacting and Mitigating Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The farm animal sector is the single largest anthropogenic user of land, contributing to many environmental problems, including global warming and climate change. Objectives: The aim of this study was to synthesize and expand upon existing data on the contribution of farm animal production to climate change. Methods: We analyzed the scientific literature on farm animal production and documented

Gowri Koneswaran; Danielle Nierenberg

2008-01-01

452

Assessing Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for Transportation Infrastructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transportation infrastructure, with long design life of 50 years and more, is susceptible to climate change. This paper describes an approach for assessing climate change adaptation strategies for transportation infrastructure, principally roadways and bridges. It is acknowledged that the affects and timing of climate changes are difficult to anticipate and that planning and design has its own inherent risks that must be considered on top of the uncertainty of climate change. Those conditions notwithstanding, climatologists, planners, and engineers are working on ways to reduce uncertainty and deal with risks in ways that can result in facilities that can provide reasonable levels of service, appropriate to their requirements in ways that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. This paper first identifies the potential changes in climate and local environmental conditions and impacts that will be of interest to the transportation designer; then discusses the status of climate forecasting, one of the great uncertainties in climate adaptation planning; and finally addresses climate and design risk and suggests approaches to dealing with expected changes. The adaptation strategy must be responsive to future conditions that can be very different than those of the past. Therefore, the paper describes approaches that include allowing for flexibility in designs, developing alternative scenarios and responses, performing sensitivity analysis, incorporating risk assessment / management techniques integrated with climate forecasting and infrastructure design. By utilizing these approaches, transportation facilities can be designed so that they can be expected to meet their requirements without being over designed. Such an approach will also minimize the total life-cycle cost.

Armstrong, A.; Keller, J.; Meyer, M. D.; Flood, M.

2011-12-01

453

Pattern scaled climate change scenarios: are these useful for adaptation?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pattern scaling methods are being widely applied to generate scenarios of climate change for quantification of their impacts on different systems. While generic limitations of this approach are well documented, the implications of the use of pattern scaling to inform adaptation decisions are not always made clear. In this paper the range of errors that are expected a priori are discussed and illustrated. Particular examples are used to demonstrate the extent to which pattern scaling is likely to be an unreliable tool for the quantification of the likely impacts of climate change. It is suggested that internal consistency tests are considered in any attempt to apply pattern scaling in practice.

Lopez, A.; Suckling, E.; Smith, L. A.

2012-04-01

454

No easy answers for global climate change research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First the word was that not only car emissions but cow burps may play a significant role in global warming. Then, the story turned to rice paddies and cockroaches as likely sources of greenhouse gases. Sound confusing? It should.Now even experts readily admit global warming research is chock-full of uncertainties. And these issues offer only a freeze-frame of the broader climate change motion picture. Everything from whether sea levels will rise to whether hurricanes will be come more frequent to whether solar forcing plays a role in all of this is now in question. This means that making and implementing effective international climate change policies remains a tenuous process—even at a time when the overall funding for global change research is at an all-time high in the United States.

Wakefield, J.

455

Central Africa: Global climate change and development. Synopsis  

SciTech Connect

Central Africa contains the largest remaining contiguous expanse of moist tropical forest on the African continent and the second largest in the world. However, deforestation rates are rising as the result of rapid population growth, inappropriate economic policies, economic downturns, and weak management capacities. If clearing rates continue to rise, a substantial amount of carbon dioxide will be released into the atmosphere, thus contributing to global climate change. The report summarizes a study designed as a first step in understanding the complex dynamics of the causes and effects of global climate change in Central Africa. The current state of the region's forests, greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and biomass burning, and the potential impacts of global climate change are discussed.

Not Available

1992-01-01

456

Data and information system requirements for Global Change Research  

SciTech Connect

Efforts to develop local information systems for supporting interdisciplinary Global Change Research are described. A prototype system, the Interdisciplinary Science Data and Information System (IDS-DIS), designed to interface the larger archives centers of EOS-DIS is presented. Particular attention is given to a data query information management system (IMS), which has been used to tabulate information of Landsat data worldwide. The use of these data in a modeling analysis of deforestation and carbon dioxide emissions is demonstrated. The development of distributed local information systems is considered to be complementary to the development of central data archives. Global Change Research under the EOS program is likely to result in proliferation of data centers. It is concluded that a distributed system is a feasible and natural way to manage data and information for global change research. 18 refs.

Skole, D.L.; Chomentowski, W.H.; Ding, B.; Moore, B., III (New Hampshire, University, Durham (United States))

1992-01-01

457

Climate Change, Globalization and Geopolitics in the New Maritime Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early in the 21st century a confluence of climate change, globalization and geopolitics is shaping the future of the maritime Arctic. This nexus is also fostering greater linkage of the Arctic to the rest of the planet. Arctic sea ice is undergoing a historic transformation of thinning, extent reduction in all seasons, and reduction in the area of multiyear ice in the central Arctic Ocean. Global Climate Model simulations of Arctic sea ice indicate multiyear ice could disappear by 2030 for a short period of time each summer. These physical changes invite greater marine access, longer seasons of navigation, and potential, summer trans-Arctic voyages. As a result, enhanced marine safety, environmental protection, and maritime security measures are under development. Coupled with climate change as a key driver of regional change is the current and future integration of the Arctic's natural wealth with global markets (oil, gas and hard minerals). Abundant freshwater in the Arctic could also be a future commodity of value. Recent events such as drilling for hydrocarbons off Greenland's west coast and the summer marine transport of natural resources from the Russian Arctic to China across the top of Eurasia are indicators of greater global economic ties to the Arctic. Plausible Arctic futures indicate continued integration with global issues and increased complexity of a range of regional economic, security and environmental challenges.

Brigham, L. W.

2011-12-01

458

The Scales of Coccolithophores: Adaptation to Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rising ocean temperatures and lowering of ocean pH may disrupt marine productivity and calcification by coccolithophores, affecting natural biosphere-climate feedbacks. A better understanding of both the mechanisms and the rates of climatic adaptation by coccolithophores is critical for predicting future impacts of climate change. We will discuss how contrasts in the physiology and biogeography of modern coccolithophores could relate to different climatic adaptation strategies of their Cenozoic ancestors. On short time scales, experimental results highlight species-specific sensitivities to changing ocean carbonate chemistry, which is consistent with differences in cell size of the investigated taxa and likely related to intracellular pH control. On geological time-scales, coccolithophores appear to have adapted to a long- term decrease in atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO2) and cooling ocean temperatures by decreasing their coccolith and cell size. We employed a novel, information-theoretic approach to quantify the relative influence of different environmental variables on coccolith size. This analysis suggests that the macroevolutionary size decrease primarily reflects a physiological adaptation to CO2 limitation, rather than decreased nutrient availability caused by large-scale changes in ocean stratification. The recent dominance of Emiliania huxleyi is likely due to its fast growing, small cells and light calcification. This allowed it to outcompete larger and heavily calcified coccolithophores under low pCO2 conditions of the Pleistocene. However, as the ocean carbonate system is rapidly reversing to more acidic pre-Pleistocene conditions, the fate of E. huxleyi and other modern prolific bloomers is uncertain. The potential expansion of the larger, pH-resistant species Coccolithus braarudii away from its restricted high- pCO2 niches remains untested.

Henderiks, J.; Hannisdal, B.; Rickaby, R. E.; Zondervan, I.; Winter, A.; Pagani, M.

2008-12-01

459

Global Climate Change — the Latest Assessment: Does Global Warming Warrant a Health Warning?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change is a qualitatively distinct, and very significant, addition to the spectrum of environmental health\\u000a hazards encountered by humankind. Historically, environmental health concerns have focused on toxicological or microbiological\\u000a risks to health from local exposures. However, the scale of environmental health hazards is today increasing; indeed, the\\u000a burgeoning human impact on the environment has begun to alter global

RT Watson; AJ McMichael

2001-01-01

460

Climate change adaptation for the US National Wildlife Refuge System.  

PubMed

Since its establishment in 1903, the National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) has grown to 635 units and 37 Wetland Management Districts in the United States and its territories. These units provide the seasonal habitats necessary for migratory waterfowl and other species to complete their annual life cycles. Habitat conversion and fragmentation, invasive species, pollution, and competition for water have stressed refuges for decades, but the interaction of climate change with these stressors presents the most recent, pervasive, and complex conservation challenge to the NWRS. Geographic isolation and small unit size compound the challenges of climate change, but a combined emphasis on species that refuges were established to conserve and on maintaining biological integrity, diversity, and environmental health provides the NWRS with substantial latitude to respond. Individual symptoms of climate change can be addressed at the refuge level, but the strategic response requires system-wide planning. A dynamic vision of the NWRS in a changing climate, an explicit national strategic plan to implement that vision, and an assessment of representation, redundancy, size, and total number of units in relation to conservation targets are the first steps toward adaptation. This adaptation must begin immediately and be built on more closely integrated research and management. Rigorous projections of possible futures are required to facilitate adaptation to change. Furthermore, the effective conservation footprint of the NWRS must be increased through land acquisition, creative partnerships, and educational programs in order for the NWRS to meet its legal mandate to maintain the biological integrity, diversity, and environmental health of the system and the species and ecosystems that it supports. PMID:19548023

Griffith, Brad; Scott, J Michael; Adamcik, Robert; Ashe, Daniel; Czech, Brian; Fischman, Robert; Gonzalez, Patrick; Lawler, Joshua; McGuire, A David; Pidgorna, Anna

2009-12-01