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1

Adaptation, extinction and global change  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss three interlinked issues: the natural pace of environmental change and adaptation, the likelihood that a population will adapt to a potentially lethal change, and adaptation to elevated CO2, the prime mover of global change. 1. Environmental variability is governed by power laws showing that ln differ- ence in conditions increases with ln elapsed time at a rate of

Graham Bell; Sinéad Collins

2008-01-01

2

Adaptation, extinction and global change  

PubMed Central

We discuss three interlinked issues: the natural pace of environmental change and adaptation, the likelihood that a population will adapt to a potentially lethal change, and adaptation to elevated CO2, the prime mover of global change. Environmental variability is governed by power laws showing that ln difference in conditions increases with ln elapsed time at a rate of 0.3–0.4. This leads to strong but fluctuating selection in many natural populations. The effect of repeated adverse change on mean fitness depends on its frequency rather than its severity. If the depression of mean fitness leads to population decline, however, severe stress may cause extinction. Evolutionary rescue from extinction requires abundant genetic variation or a high mutation supply rate, and thus a large population size. Although natural populations can sustain quite intense selection, they often fail to adapt to anthropogenic stresses such as pollution and acidification and instead become extinct. Experimental selection lines of algae show no specific adaptation to elevated CO2, but instead lose their carbon-concentrating mechanism through mutational degradation. This is likely to reduce the effectiveness of the oceanic carbon pump. Elevated CO2 is also likely to lead to changes in phytoplankton community composition, although it is not yet clear what these will be. We emphasize the importance of experimental evolution in understanding and predicting the biological response to global change. This will be one of the main tasks of evolutionary biologists in the coming decade. PMID:25567487

Bell, Graham; Collins, Sinéad

2008-01-01

3

Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change  

E-print Network

1 23 Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change An International Journal Devoted Adapt Strateg Glob Change DOI 10.1007/s11027-012-9437-8 Developing biofuels industry in small economies America . Caribbean basin initiative . Trade and investment . Energy security Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob

4

U.S. Global Climate Change Impacts Report, Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation measures improve our ability to cope with or avoid harmful climate impacts and take advantage of beneficial ones, now and as climate varies and changes. Adaptation and mitigation are necessary elements of an effective response to climate change. Adaptation options also have the potential to moderate harmful impacts of current and future climate variability and change. The Global Climate

R. Pulwarty

2009-01-01

5

Global Climate Change Adaptation Priorities for Biodiversity and Food Security  

PubMed Central

International policy is placing increasing emphasis on adaptation to climate change, including the allocation of new funds to assist adaptation efforts. Climate change adaptation funding may be most effective where it meets integrated goals, but global geographic priorities based on multiple development and ecological criteria are not well characterized. Here we show that human and natural adaptation needs related to maintaining agricultural productivity and ecosystem integrity intersect in ten major areas globally, providing a coherent set of international priorities for adaptation funding. An additional seven regional areas are identified as worthy of additional study. The priority areas are locations where changes in crop suitability affecting impoverished farmers intersect with changes in ranges of restricted-range species. Agreement among multiple climate models and emissions scenarios suggests that these priorities are robust. Adaptation funding directed to these areas could simultaneously address multiple international policy goals, including poverty reduction, protecting agricultural production and safeguarding ecosystem services. PMID:23991125

Hannah, Lee; Ikegami, Makihiko; Hole, David G.; Seo, Changwan; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Roehrdanz, Patrick R.

2013-01-01

6

IMPACTS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTION ON SUSTAINABILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation presents the potential impacts that global climate change may have on the quality and quantity of water available to drinking water and wastewater treatment systems and the adaptations these systems might have to employ in order to remain in regulatory complianc...

7

U.S. Global Climate Change Impacts Report, Adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adaptation measures improve our ability to cope with or avoid harmful climate impacts and take advantage of beneficial ones, now and as climate varies and changes. Adaptation and mitigation are necessary elements of an effective response to climate change. Adaptation options also have the potential to moderate harmful impacts of current and future climate variability and change. The Global Climate Change Impacts Report identifies examples of adaptation-related actions currently being pursued in various sectors and regions to address climate change, as well as other environmental problems that could be exacerbated by climate change such as urban air pollution and heat waves. Some adaptation options that are currently being pursued in various regions and sectors to deal with climate change and/or other environmental issues are identified in this report. A range of adaptation responses can be employed to reduce risks through redesign or relocation of infrastructure, sustainability of ecosystem services, increased redundancy of critical social services, and operational improvements. Adapting to climate change is an evolutionary process and requires both analytic and deliberative decision support. Many of the climate change impacts described in the report have economic consequences. A significant part of these consequences flow through public and private insurance markets, which essentially aggregate and distribute society's risk. However, in most cases, there is currently insufficient robust information to evaluate the practicality, efficiency, effectiveness, costs, or benefits of adaptation measures, highlighting a need for research. Adaptation planning efforts such as that being conducted in New York City and the Colorado River will be described. Climate will be continually changing, moving at a relatively rapid rate, outside the range to which society has adapted in the past. The precise amounts and timing of these changes will not be known with certainty. The disaster research and emergency management communities have shown over that early warnings of impending hazards need to be complemented by information on the risks actually posed by the hazards (including those resulting from low levels of preparedness), existing strategies on the ground, and likely pathways to mitigate the loss and damage in the particular context in which they arise. Effective adaptations require information for long-term infrastructural planning and as critically deliberative mechanisms to structure learning and redesign in the face of emergent problems. Adaptation tends to be reactive, unevenly distributed, and focused on coping rather than preventing problems. Reduction in vulnerability will require anticipatory deliberative processes focused on incorporating adaptation into long-term municipal and public service planning, including energy, water, and health services, in the face of changing climate-related risks combined with ongoing changes in population, land use and development patterns.

Pulwarty, R.

2009-12-01

8

Integrated Decision Support for Global Environmental Change Adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental changes are happening now that has caused concern in many parts of the world; particularly vulnerable are the countries and communities with limited resources and with natural environments that are more susceptible to climate change impacts. Global leaders are concerned about the observed phenomena and events such as Amazon deforestation, shifting monsoon patterns affecting agriculture in the mountain slopes of Peru, floods in Pakistan, water shortages in Middle East, droughts impacting water supplies and wildlife migration in Africa, and sea level rise impacts on low lying coastal communities in Bangladesh. These environmental changes are likely to get exacerbated as the temperatures rise, the weather and climate patterns change, and sea level rise continues. Large populations and billions of dollars of infrastructure could be affected. At Northrop Grumman, we have developed an integrated decision support framework for providing necessary information to stakeholders and planners to adapt to the impacts of climate variability and change at the regional and local levels. This integrated approach takes into account assimilation and exploitation of large and disparate weather and climate data sets, regional downscaling (dynamic and statistical), uncertainty quantification and reduction, and a synthesis of scientific data with demographic and economic data to generate actionable information for the stakeholders and decision makers. Utilizing a flexible service oriented architecture and state-of-the-art visualization techniques, this information can be delivered via tailored GIS portals to meet diverse set of user needs and expectations. This integrated approach can be applied to regional and local risk assessments, predictions and decadal projections, and proactive adaptation planning for vulnerable communities. In this paper we will describe this comprehensive decision support approach with selected applications and case studies to illustrate how this system of systems approach could help the local governments and concerned institutions worldwide to adapt to gradually changing environmental conditions as well as manage impacts of extreme events such as droughts, floods, heat waves, wildfires, hurricanes, and storm surges.

Kumar, S.; Cantrell, S.; Higgins, G. J.; Marshall, J.; VanWijngaarden, F.

2011-12-01

9

Transitional states in marine fisheries: adapting to predicted global change  

PubMed Central

Global climate change has the potential to substantially alter the production and community structure of marine fisheries and modify the ongoing impacts of fishing. Fish community composition is already changing in some tropical, temperate and polar ecosystems, where local combinations of warming trends and higher environmental variation anticipate the changes likely to occur more widely over coming decades. Using case studies from the Western Indian Ocean, the North Sea and the Bering Sea, we contextualize the direct and indirect effects of climate change on production and biodiversity and, in turn, on the social and economic aspects of marine fisheries. Climate warming is expected to lead to (i) yield and species losses in tropical reef fisheries, driven primarily by habitat loss; (ii) community turnover in temperate fisheries, owing to the arrival and increasing dominance of warm-water species as well as the reduced dominance and departure of cold-water species; and (iii) increased diversity and yield in Arctic fisheries, arising from invasions of southern species and increased primary production resulting from ice-free summer conditions. How societies deal with such changes will depend largely on their capacity to adapt—to plan and implement effective responses to change—a process heavily influenced by social, economic, political and cultural conditions. PMID:20980322

MacNeil, M. Aaron; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Cinner, Joshua E.; Dulvy, Nicholas K.; Loring, Philip A.; Jennings, Simon; Polunin, Nicholas V. C.; Fisk, Aaron T.; McClanahan, Tim R.

2010-01-01

10

Transitional states in marine fisheries: adapting to predicted global change.  

PubMed

Global climate change has the potential to substantially alter the production and community structure of marine fisheries and modify the ongoing impacts of fishing. Fish community composition is already changing in some tropical, temperate and polar ecosystems, where local combinations of warming trends and higher environmental variation anticipate the changes likely to occur more widely over coming decades. Using case studies from the Western Indian Ocean, the North Sea and the Bering Sea, we contextualize the direct and indirect effects of climate change on production and biodiversity and, in turn, on the social and economic aspects of marine fisheries. Climate warming is expected to lead to (i) yield and species losses in tropical reef fisheries, driven primarily by habitat loss; (ii) community turnover in temperate fisheries, owing to the arrival and increasing dominance of warm-water species as well as the reduced dominance and departure of cold-water species; and (iii) increased diversity and yield in Arctic fisheries, arising from invasions of southern species and increased primary production resulting from ice-free summer conditions. How societies deal with such changes will depend largely on their capacity to adapt--to plan and implement effective responses to change--a process heavily influenced by social, economic, political and cultural conditions. PMID:20980322

MacNeil, M Aaron; Graham, Nicholas A J; Cinner, Joshua E; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Loring, Philip A; Jennings, Simon; Polunin, Nicholas V C; Fisk, Aaron T; McClanahan, Tim R

2010-11-27

11

Global Change adaptation in water resources management: the Water Change project.  

PubMed

In recent years, water resources management has been facing new challenges due to increasing changes and their associated uncertainties, such as changes in climate, water demand or land use, which can be grouped under the term Global Change. The Water Change project (LIFE+ funding) developed a methodology and a tool to assess the Global Change impacts on water resources, thus helping river basin agencies and water companies in their long term planning and in the definition of adaptation measures. The main result of the project was the creation of a step by step methodology to assess Global Change impacts and define strategies of adaptation. This methodology was tested in the Llobregat river basin (Spain) with the objective of being applicable to any water system. It includes several steps such as setting-up the problem with a DPSIR framework, developing Global Change scenarios, running river basin models and performing a cost-benefit analysis to define optimal strategies of adaptation. This methodology was supported by the creation of a flexible modelling system, which can link a wide range of models, such as hydrological, water quality, and water management models. The tool allows users to integrate their own models to the system, which can then exchange information among them automatically. This enables to simulate the interactions among multiple components of the water cycle, and run quickly a large number of Global Change scenarios. The outcomes of this project make possible to define and test different sets of adaptation measures for the basin that can be further evaluated through cost-benefit analysis. The integration of the results contributes to an efficient decision-making on how to adapt to Global Change impacts. PMID:22883209

Pouget, Laurent; Escaler, Isabel; Guiu, Roger; Mc Ennis, Suzy; Versini, Pierre-Antoine

2012-12-01

12

Adapting water resources management to global climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of the impact of global climate change on water resources management. Changes in precipitation and temperature of the scale predicted by General Circulation Models for a doubled CO2 level will significantly affect annual runoff, runoff variability, and seasonal runoff. These in turn will affect water supply, flood protection, hydropower generation, and environmental resources. In addition,

Philip Williams

1989-01-01

13

Reducing Global Warming and Adapting to Climate Change: The Potential of Organic Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change mitigation is urgent, and adaptation to climate change is crucial, particularly in agriculture, where food security is at stake. Agriculture, currently responsible for 20-30% of global greenhouse gas emissions (counting direct and indirect agricultural emissions), can however contribute to both climate change mitigation and adaptation. The main mitigation potential lies in the capacity of agricultural soils to sequester

Adrian Muller; Joergen Olesen; Laurence Smith; Joan Davis; Karolína Dytrtová; Andreas Gattinger; Nic Lampkin; Urs Niggli

2012-01-01

14

Challenges to Adaptation in Northernmost Europe as a Result of Global Climate Change  

E-print Network

(Intergovern- mental Panel on Climate Change 2007). The most pro- nounced changes will occur during winter with most of these changes by This synopsis was not peer reviewed. C. Nilsson (&) Á R. Jansson LandscapeSYNOPSIS Challenges to Adaptation in Northernmost Europe as a Result of Global Climate Change

Wagner, Diane

15

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION: EXAMPLES FROM RUSSIAN BOREAL FORESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Russian Federation contains approximately 20% of the world's timber resources and more than half of all boreal forests. These forests play a prominent role in environmental protection and economic development at global, national, and local levels, as well as, provide commodities for indigenous people and habitat for a variety of plant and animal species. The response and feedbacks of

O. N. Krankina; R. K. Dixon; A. P. Kirilenko; K. I. Kobak

1997-01-01

16

Climate change adaptation: Where does global health fit in the agenda?  

PubMed Central

Human-induced climate change will affect the lives of most populations in the next decade and beyond. It will have greatest, and generally earliest, impact on the poorest and most disadvantaged populations on the planet. Changes in climatic conditions and increases in weather variability affect human wellbeing, safety, health and survival in many ways. Some impacts are direct-acting and immediate, such as impaired food yields and storm surges. Other health effects are less immediate and typically occur via more complex causal pathways that involve a range of underlying social conditions and sectors such as water and sanitation, agriculture and urban planning. Climate change adaptation is receiving much attention given the inevitability of climate change and its effects, particularly in developing contexts, where the effects of climate change will be experienced most strongly and the response mechanisms are weakest. Financial support towards adaptation activities from various actors including the World Bank, the European Union and the United Nations is increasing substantially. With this new global impetus and funding for adaptation action come challenges such as the importance of developing adaptation activities on a sound understanding of baseline community needs and vulnerabilities, and how these may alter with changes in climate. The global health community is paying heed to the strengthening focus on adaptation, albeit in a slow and unstructured manner. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of adaptation and its relevance to global health, and highlight the opportunities to improve health and reduce health inequities via the new and additional funding that is available for climate change adaptation activities. PMID:22632569

2012-01-01

17

Climate change adaptation: where does global health fit in the agenda?  

PubMed

Human-induced climate change will affect the lives of most populations in the next decade and beyond. It will have greatest, and generally earliest, impact on the poorest and most disadvantaged populations on the planet. Changes in climatic conditions and increases in weather variability affect human wellbeing, safety, health and survival in many ways. Some impacts are direct-acting and immediate, such as impaired food yields and storm surges. Other health effects are less immediate and typically occur via more complex causal pathways that involve a range of underlying social conditions and sectors such as water and sanitation, agriculture and urban planning. Climate change adaptation is receiving much attention given the inevitability of climate change and its effects, particularly in developing contexts, where the effects of climate change will be experienced most strongly and the response mechanisms are weakest. Financial support towards adaptation activities from various actors including the World Bank, the European Union and the United Nations is increasing substantially. With this new global impetus and funding for adaptation action come challenges such as the importance of developing adaptation activities on a sound understanding of baseline community needs and vulnerabilities, and how these may alter with changes in climate. The global health community is paying heed to the strengthening focus on adaptation, albeit in a slow and unstructured manner. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of adaptation and its relevance to global health, and highlight the opportunities to improve health and reduce health inequities via the new and additional funding that is available for climate change adaptation activities. PMID:22632569

Bowen, Kathryn J; Friel, Sharon

2012-01-01

18

Local solutions to global problems: the potential of agroforestry for climate change adaptation and mitigation in southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is a global phenomenon that imposes economic, social, and ecological challenges to the global community and, to smallholder farmers particularly in low- income countries. Sustainable land use practices offer opportunities for smallholder farmers to adapt to climate change and related risks, but the challenge is that the adoption of such practices by farmers is low due to policy

Ajayi OC; Akinnifesi FK; Sileshi G; Chakeredza S

19

Effects of Global Change on U.S. Urban Areas: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human settlements, both large and small, are where the vast majority of people on the Earth live. Expansion of cities both in population and areal extent, is a relentless process that will accelerate in the 21st century. As a consequence of urban growth both in the United States and around the globe, it is important to develop an understanding of how urbanization will affect the local and regional environment. Of equal importance, however, is the assessment of how cities will be impacted by the looming prospects of global climate change and climate variability. The potential impacts of climate change and variability has recently been enunciated by the IPCC's "Climate Change 2007" report. Moreover, the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) is preparing a series of "Synthesis and Assessment Products" (SAP) reports to support informed discussion and decision making regarding climate change and variability by policy makers, resource managers, stakeholders, the media, and the general public. We are working on a chapter of SAP 4.6 ("Analysis of the Effects of Global Chance on Human Health and Welfare and Human Systems") wherein we wish to describe the effects of global climate change on human settlements. This paper will present the thoughts and ideas that are being formulated for our SAP report that relate to what vulnerabilities and impacts will occur, what adaptation responses may take place, and what possible effects on settlement patterns and characteristics will potentially arise, on human settlements in the U.S. as a result of climate change and climate variability. We wish to present these ideas and concepts as a "work in progress" that are subject to several rounds of review, and we invite comments from listeners at this session on the rationale and veracity of our thoughts. Additionally, we wish to explore how technology such as remote sensing data coupled with modeling, can be employed as synthesis tools for deriving insight across a spectrum of impacts (e.g. public health, urban planning for mitigation strategies) on how cities can cope and adapt to climate change and variability. This latter point parallels the concepts and ideas presented in the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Decadal Survey report on "Earth Science Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond" wherein the analysis of the impacts of climate change and variability, human health, and land use change are listed as key areas for development of future Earth observing remote sensing systems.

Quattrochi, D. A.; Wilbanks, T. J.; Kirshen, P. H.; Romero-Lankao, P.; Rosenzweig, C. E.; Ruth, M.; Solecki, W.; Tarr, J. A.

2007-05-01

20

Effects of Global Change on U.S. Urban Areas: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Adaptation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human settlements, both large and small, are where the vast majority of people on the Earth live. Expansion of cities both in population and areal extent, is a relentless process that will accelerate in the 21st century. As a consequence of urban growth both in the United States and around the globe, it is important to develop an understanding of how urbanization will affect the local and regional environment. Of equal importance, however, is the assessment of how cities will be impacted by the looming prospects of global climate change and climate variability. The potential impacts of climate change and variability has recently been annunciated by the IPCC's "Climate Change 2007" report. Moreover, the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) is preparing a series of "Synthesis and Assessment Products" (SAPs) reports to support informed discussion and decision making regarding climate change and variability by policy matters, resource managers, stakeholders, the media, and the general public. We are authors on a SAP describing the effects of global climate change on human settlements. This paper will present the elements of our SAP report that relate to what vulnerabilities and impacts will occur, what adaptation responses may take place, and what possible effects on settlement patterns and characteristics will potentially arise, on human settlements in the U.S. as a result of climate change and climate variability. We will also present some recommendations about what should be done to further research on how climate change and variability will impact human settlements in the U.S., as well as how to engage government officials, policy and decision makers, and the general public in understanding the implications of climate change and variability on the local and regional levels. Additionally, we wish to explore how technology such as remote sensing data coupled with modeling, can be employed as synthesis tools for deriving insight across a spectrum of impacts (e.g. public health, urban planning for mitigation strategies) on how cities can cope and adapt to climate change and variability. This latter point parallels the concepts and ideas presented in the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Decadal Survey report on "Earth Science Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond" wherein the analysis of the impacts of climate change and variability, human health, and land use change are listed as key areas for development of future Earth observing remote sensing systems.

Quattrochi, Dale A.; Wilbanks, Thomas J.; Kirshen, Paul; Romero-Lnkao, Patricia; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruth, Matthias; Solecki, William; Tarr, Joel

2007-01-01

21

Effects of Global Change on U.S. Urban Areas: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Adaptation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that global change has on urban areas in the United States and how the growth of urban areas will affect the environment. It presents the elements of our Synthesis and Assessment Report (SAP) report that relate to what vulnerabilities and impacts will occur, what adaptation responses may take place, and what possible effects on settlement patterns and characteristics will potentially arise, on human settlements in the U.S. as a result of climate change and climate variability. We will also present some recommendations about what should be done to further research on how climate change and variability will impact human settlements in the U.S., as well as how to engage government officials, policy and decision makers, and the general public in understanding the implications of climate change and variability on the local and regional levels. Additionally, we wish to explore how technology such as remote sensing data coupled with modeling, can be employed as synthesis tools for deriving insight across a spectrum of impacts (e.g. public health, urban planning for mitigation strategies) on how cities can cope and adapt to climate change and variability. This latter point parallels the concepts and ideas presented in the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Decadal Survey report on "Earth Science Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond" wherein the analysis of the impacts of climate change and variability, human health, and land use change are listed as key areas for development of future Earth observing remote sensing systems.

Quattrochi, Dale A.; Wilbanks, Thomas J.; Kirshen, Paul; Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruth, Mattias; Solecki, William; Tarr, Joel

2008-01-01

22

Adapting water treatment design and operations to the impacts of global climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is anticipated that global climate change will adversely impact source water quality in many areas of the United States and will therefore, potentially, impact the design and operation of current and future water treatment systems. The USEPA has initiated an effort called the Water Resources Adaptation Program (WRAP) which is intended to develop tools and techniques that can assess the impact of global climate change on urban drinking water and wastewater infrastructure. A three step approach for assessing climate change impacts on water treatment operation and design is being persude in this effort. The first step is the stochastic characterization of source water quality, the second step is the application of the USEPA Water Treatment Plant model and the third step is the application of cost algorithms to provide a metric that can be used to assess the coat impact of climate change. A model has been validated using data collected from Cincinnati's Richard Miller Water Treatment Plant for the USEPA Information Collection Rule (ICR) database. An analysis of the water treatment processes in response to assumed perturbations in raw water quality identified TOC, pH, and bromide as the three most important parameters affecting performance of the Miller WTP. The Miller Plant was simulated using the EPA WTP model to examine the impact of these parameters on selected regulated water quality parameters. Uncertainty in influent water quality was analyzed to estimate the risk of violating drinking water maximum contaminant levels (MCLs).Water quality changes in the Ohio River were projected for 2050 using Monte Carlo simulation and the WTP model was used to evaluate the effects of water quality changes on design and operation. Results indicate that the existing Miller WTP might not meet Safe Drinking Water Act MCL requirements for certain extreme future conditions. However, it was found that the risk of MCL violations under future conditions could be controlled by enhancing existing WTP design and operation or by process retrofitting and modification.

Clark, Robert M.; Li, Zhiwei; Buchberger, Steven G.

2011-12-01

23

Global and local concerns: what attitudes and beliefs motivate farmers to mitigate and adapt to climate change?  

PubMed

In response to agriculture's vulnerability and contribution to climate change, many governments are developing initiatives that promote the adoption of mitigation and adaptation practices among farmers. Since most climate policies affecting agriculture rely on voluntary efforts by individual farmers, success requires a sound understanding of the factors that motivate farmers to change practices. Recent evidence suggests that past experience with the effects of climate change and the psychological distance associated with people's concern for global and local impacts can influence environmental behavior. Here we surveyed farmers in a representative rural county in California's Central Valley to examine how their intention to adopt mitigation and adaptation practices is influenced by previous climate experiences and their global and local concerns about climate change. Perceived changes in water availability had significant effects on farmers' intention to adopt mitigation and adaptation strategies, which were mediated through global and local concerns respectively. This suggests that mitigation is largely motivated by psychologically distant concerns and beliefs about climate change, while adaptation is driven by psychologically proximate concerns for local impacts. This match between attitudes and behaviors according to the psychological distance at which they are cognitively construed indicates that policy and outreach initiatives may benefit by framing climate impacts and behavioral goals concordantly; either in a global context for mitigation or a local context for adaptation. PMID:23300805

Haden, Van R; Niles, Meredith T; Lubell, Mark; Perlman, Joshua; Jackson, Louise E

2012-01-01

24

Operationalizing resilience for adaptive coral reef management under global environmental change  

PubMed Central

Cumulative pressures from global climate and ocean change combined with multiple regional and local-scale stressors pose fundamental challenges to coral reef managers worldwide. Understanding how cumulative stressors affect coral reef vulnerability is critical for successful reef conservation now and in the future. In this review, we present the case that strategically managing for increased ecological resilience (capacity for stress resistance and recovery) can reduce coral reef vulnerability (risk of net decline) up to a point. Specifically, we propose an operational framework for identifying effective management levers to enhance resilience and support management decisions that reduce reef vulnerability. Building on a system understanding of biological and ecological processes that drive resilience of coral reefs in different environmental and socio-economic settings, we present an Adaptive Resilience-Based management (ARBM) framework and suggest a set of guidelines for how and where resilience can be enhanced via management interventions. We argue that press-type stressors (pollution, sedimentation, overfishing, ocean warming and acidification) are key threats to coral reef resilience by affecting processes underpinning resistance and recovery, while pulse-type (acute) stressors (e.g. storms, bleaching events, crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks) increase the demand for resilience. We apply the framework to a set of example problems for Caribbean and Indo-Pacific reefs. A combined strategy of active risk reduction and resilience support is needed, informed by key management objectives, knowledge of reef ecosystem processes and consideration of environmental and social drivers. As climate change and ocean acidification erode the resilience and increase the vulnerability of coral reefs globally, successful adaptive management of coral reefs will become increasingly difficult. Given limited resources, on-the-ground solutions are likely to focus increasingly on actions that support resilience at finer spatial scales, and that are tightly linked to ecosystem goods and services. PMID:25196132

Anthony, Kenneth RN; Marshall, Paul A; Abdulla, Ameer; Beeden, Roger; Bergh, Chris; Black, Ryan; Eakin, C Mark; Game, Edward T; Gooch, Margaret; Graham, Nicholas AJ; Green, Alison; Heron, Scott F; van Hooidonk, Ruben; Knowland, Cheryl; Mangubhai, Sangeeta; Marshall, Nadine; Maynard, Jeffrey A; McGinnity, Peter; McLeod, Elizabeth; Mumby, Peter J; Nyström, Magnus; Obura, David; Oliver, Jamie; Possingham, Hugh P; Pressey, Robert L; Rowlands, Gwilym P; Tamelander, Jerker; Wachenfeld, David; Wear, Stephanie

2015-01-01

25

Operationalizing resilience for adaptive coral reef management under global environmental change.  

PubMed

Cumulative pressures from global climate and ocean change combined with multiple regional and local-scale stressors pose fundamental challenges to coral reef managers worldwide. Understanding how cumulative stressors affect coral reef vulnerability is critical for successful reef conservation now and in the future. In this review, we present the case that strategically managing for increased ecological resilience (capacity for stress resistance and recovery) can reduce coral reef vulnerability (risk of net decline) up to a point. Specifically, we propose an operational framework for identifying effective management levers to enhance resilience and support management decisions that reduce reef vulnerability. Building on a system understanding of biological and ecological processes that drive resilience of coral reefs in different environmental and socio-economic settings, we present an Adaptive Resilience-Based management (ARBM) framework and suggest a set of guidelines for how and where resilience can be enhanced via management interventions. We argue that press-type stressors (pollution, sedimentation, overfishing, ocean warming and acidification) are key threats to coral reef resilience by affecting processes underpinning resistance and recovery, while pulse-type (acute) stressors (e.g. storms, bleaching events, crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks) increase the demand for resilience. We apply the framework to a set of example problems for Caribbean and Indo-Pacific reefs. A combined strategy of active risk reduction and resilience support is needed, informed by key management objectives, knowledge of reef ecosystem processes and consideration of environmental and social drivers. As climate change and ocean acidification erode the resilience and increase the vulnerability of coral reefs globally, successful adaptive management of coral reefs will become increasingly difficult. Given limited resources, on-the-ground solutions are likely to focus increasingly on actions that support resilience at finer spatial scales, and that are tightly linked to ecosystem goods and services. PMID:25196132

Anthony, Kenneth R N; Marshall, Paul A; Abdulla, Ameer; Beeden, Roger; Bergh, Chris; Black, Ryan; Eakin, C Mark; Game, Edward T; Gooch, Margaret; Graham, Nicholas A J; Green, Alison; Heron, Scott F; van Hooidonk, Ruben; Knowland, Cheryl; Mangubhai, Sangeeta; Marshall, Nadine; Maynard, Jeffrey A; McGinnity, Peter; McLeod, Elizabeth; Mumby, Peter J; Nyström, Magnus; Obura, David; Oliver, Jamie; Possingham, Hugh P; Pressey, Robert L; Rowlands, Gwilym P; Tamelander, Jerker; Wachenfeld, David; Wear, Stephanie

2015-01-01

26

Water Resources Adaptation to Global Changes: Risk Management through Sustainable Infrastructure Planning and Management - Paper  

EPA Science Inventory

Global changes due to cyclic and long-term climatic variations, demographic changes and economic development, have impacts on the quality and quantity of potable and irrigation source waters. Internal and external climatic forcings, for example, redistribute precipitation season...

27

Water Resources Adaptation to Global Changes: Risk Management through Sustainable Infrastructure Planning and Managements  

EPA Science Inventory

Global changes due to cyclic and long-term climatic variations, demographic changes and economic development, have impacts on the quality and quantity of potable and irrigation source waters. Internal and external climatic forcings, for example, redistribute precipitation season...

28

SAMCO: Society Adaptation for coping with Mountain risks in a global change COntext  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SAMCO project aims to develop a proactive resilience framework enhancing the overall resilience of societies on the impacts of mountain risks. The project aims to elaborate methodological tools to characterize and measure ecosystem and societal resilience from an operative perspective on three mountain representative case studies. To achieve this objective, the methodology is split in several points with (1) the definition of the potential impacts of global environmental changes (climate system, ecosystem e.g. land use, socio-economic system) on landslide hazards, (2) the analysis of these consequences in terms of vulnerability (e.g. changes in the location and characteristics of the impacted areas and level of their perturbation) and (3) the implementation of a methodology for quantitatively investigating and mapping indicators of mountain slope vulnerability exposed to several hazard types, and the development of a GIS-based demonstration platform. The strength and originality of the SAMCO project will be to combine different techniques, methodologies and models (multi-hazard assessment, risk evolution in time, vulnerability functional analysis, and governance strategies) and to gather various interdisciplinary expertises in earth sciences, environmental sciences, and social sciences. The multidisciplinary background of the members could potentially lead to the development of new concepts and emerging strategies for mountain hazard/risk adaptation. Research areas, characterized by a variety of environmental, economical and social settings, are severely affected by landslides, and have experienced significant land use modifications (reforestation, abandonment of traditional agricultural practices) and human interferences (urban expansion, ski resorts construction) over the last century.

Grandjean, Gilles; Bernardie, Severine; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Puissant, Anne; Houet, Thomas; Berger, Frederic; Fort, Monique; Pierre, Daniel

2013-04-01

29

Amazon and the expansion of hydropower in Brazil: Vulnerability, impacts and possibilities for adaptation to global climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims to evaluate the use of hydroelectric potential in Brazil and the expansion of the hydroelectric power stations in Amazon, in the northern region of the country, highlighting the vulnerabilities, the impacts and the adaption possibilities of the hydroelectric energy in face to increasing socio-environmental demands and to global climate change in progress. The analysis indicates the nearly

João Leonardo da Silva Soito; Marcos Aurélio Vasconcelos Freitas

2011-01-01

30

Mitigation/adaptation and health: health policymaking in the global response to climate change and implications for other upstream determinants.  

PubMed

The time is ripe for innovation in global health governance if we are to achieve global health and development objectives in the face of formidable challenges. Integration of global health concerns into the law and governance of other, related disciplines should be given high priority. This article explores opportunities for health policymaking in the global response to climate change. Climate change and environmental degradation will affect weather disasters, food and water security, infectious disease patterns, and air pollution. Although scientific research has pointed to the interdependence of the global environment and human health, policymakers have been slow to integrate their approaches to environmental and health concerns. A robust response to climate change will require improved integration on two fronts: health concerns must be given higher priority in the response to climate change and threats associated with climate change and environmental degradation must be more adequately addressed by global health law and governance. The mitigation/adaptation response paradigm developing within and beyond the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change provides a useful framework for thinking about global health law and governance with respect to climate change, environmental degradation, and possibly other upstream determinants of health as well. PMID:20880245

Wiley, Lindsay F

2010-01-01

31

Food security and climate change: On the potential to adapt global crop production by active selection to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agricultural production is under increasing pressure by global anthropogenic changes, including rising population, diversion of cereals to biofuels, increased protein demands, and climatic extremes. Because of the immediate and dynamic nature of these changes, adaptation measures are urgently need...

32

Global assessment of coral bleaching and required rates of adaptation under climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated ocean temperatures can cause coral bleaching, the loss of colour from reef- building corals because of a breakdown of the symbiosis with the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium. Recent studies have warned that global climate change could increase the frequency of coral bleaching and threaten the long-term viability of coral reefs. These assertions are based on projecting the coarse output from atmosphere-ocean

SIMON D. D ONNER; W ILLIAM J. S KIR; HRISTOPHER M. L ITTLE

2005-01-01

33

Adaptive Multivariate Global Testing  

PubMed Central

We present a methodology for dealing with recent challenges in testing global hypotheses using multivariate observations. The proposed tests target situations, often arising in emerging applications of neuroimaging, where the sample size n is relatively small compared with the observations’ dimension K. We employ adaptive designs allowing for sequential modifications of the test statistics adapting to accumulated data. The adaptations are optimal in the sense of maximizing the predictive power of the test at each interim analysis while still controlling the Type I error. Optimality is obtained by a general result applicable to typical adaptive design settings. Further, we prove that the potentially high-dimensional design space of the tests can be reduced to a low-dimensional projection space enabling us to perform simpler power analysis studies, including comparisons to alternative tests. We illustrate the substantial improvement in efficiency that the proposed tests can make over standard tests, especially in the case of n smaller or slightly larger than K. The methods are also studied empirically using both simulated data and data from an EEG study, where the use of prior knowledge substantially increases the power of the test. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. PMID:25125767

Minas, Giorgos; Aston, John A.D.; Stallard, Nigel

2014-01-01

34

Development of a natural practice to adapt conservation goals to global change.  

PubMed

Conservation goals at the start of the 21st century reflect a combination of contrasting ideas. Ideal nature is something that is historically intact but also futuristically flexible. Ideal nature is independent from humans, but also, because of the pervasiveness of human impacts, only able to reach expression through human management. These tensions emerge in current management rationales because scientists and managers are struggling to accommodate old and new scientific and cultural thinking, while also maintaining legal mandates from the past and commitments to preservation of individual species in particular places under the stresses of global change. Common management goals (such as integrity, wilderness, resilience), whether they are forward looking and focused on sustainability and change, or backward looking and focused on the persistence and restoration of historic states, tend to create essentialisms about how ecosystems should be. These essentialisms limit the options of managers to accommodate the dynamic, and often novel, response of ecosystems to global change. Essentialisms emerge because there is a tight conceptual coupling of place and historical species composition as an indicator of naturalness (e.g., normal, healthy, independent from humans). Given that change is increasingly the norm and ecosystems evolve in response, the focus on idealized ecosystem states is increasingly unwise and unattainable. To provide more open-ended goals, we propose greater attention be paid to the characteristics of management intervention. We suggest that the way we interact with other species in management and the extent to which those interactions reflect the interactions among other biotic organisms, and also reflect our conservation virtues (e.g., humility, respect), influences our ability to cultivate naturalness on the landscape. We call this goal a natural practice (NP) and propose it as a framework for prioritizing and formulating how, when, and where to intervene in this period of rapid change. PMID:24617971

Heller, Nicole E; Hobbs, Richard J

2014-06-01

35

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lsr2 Is a Global Transcriptional Regulator Required for Adaptation to Changing Oxygen Levels and Virulence  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT To survive a dynamic host environment, Mycobacterium tuberculosis must endure a series of challenges, from reactive oxygen and nitrogen stress to drastic shifts in oxygen availability. The mycobacterial Lsr2 protein has been implicated in reactive oxygen defense via direct protection of DNA. To examine the role of Lsr2 in pathogenesis and physiology of M. tuberculosis, we generated a strain deleted for lsr2. Analysis of the M. tuberculosis ?lsr2 strain demonstrated that Lsr2 is not required for DNA protection, as this strain was equally susceptible as the wild type to DNA-damaging agents. The lsr2 mutant did display severe growth defects under normoxic and hyperoxic conditions, but it was not required for growth under low-oxygen conditions. However, it was also required for adaptation to anaerobiosis. The defect in anaerobic adaptation led to a marked decrease in viability during anaerobiosis, as well as a lag in recovery from it. Gene expression profiling of the ?lsr2 mutant under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in conjunction with published DNA binding-site data indicates that Lsr2 is a global transcriptional regulator controlling adaptation to changing oxygen levels. The ?lsr2 strain was capable of establishing an early infection in the BALB/c mouse model; however, it was severely defective in persisting in the lungs and caused no discernible lung pathology. These findings demonstrate M. tuberculosis Lsr2 is a global transcriptional regulator required for control of genes involved in adaptation to extremes in oxygen availability and is required for persistent infection. PMID:24895305

Bartek, I. L.; Woolhiser, L. K.; Baughn, A. D.; Basaraba, R. J.; Jacobs, W. R.; Lenaerts, A. J.

2014-01-01

36

Global change effects on biogeochemical processes of Argentinian estuaries: An overview of vulnerabilities and ecohydrological adaptive outlooks.  

PubMed

The aims of this work are to provide an overview of the current stresses of estuaries in Argentina and to propose adaptation strategies from an ecohydrological approach. Several Argentinian estuaries are impacted by pollutants, derived mainly from sewage discharge and agricultural or industrial activities. Anthropogenic impacts are expected to rise with increasing human population. Climate-driven warmer temperature and hydrological changes will alter stratification, residence time, oxygen content, salinity, pollutant distribution, organism physiology and ecology, and nutrient dynamics. Good water quality is essential in enhancing estuarine ecological resilience to disturbances brought on by global change. The preservation, restoration, and creation of wetlands will help to protect the coast from erosion, increase sediment accretion rates, and improve water quality by removing excess nutrients and pollutants. The capacity of hydrologic basin ecosystems to absorb human and natural impacts can be improved through holistic management, which should consider social vulnerability in complex human-natural systems. PMID:25194878

Kopprio, Germán A; Biancalana, Florencia; Fricke, Anna; Garzón Cardona, John E; Martínez, Ana; Lara, Rubén J

2015-02-28

37

RANGELANDS AND GLOBAL CHANGE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

GLOBAL CHANGE is any change in the global environment that may alter the capacity of the Earth to sustain life. Included are changes in changes in LAND USE and PRODUCTIVITY, ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY, CLIMATE, WATER RESOURCES and ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS (U.S. Global Change Research Act 1990). These changes...

38

Effects of Climate Change\\/Global Warming on Coral Reefs: Adaptation\\/Exaptation in Corals, Evolution in Zooxanthellae, and Biogeographic Shifts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) associated with climate change\\/global warming have caused bleaching in scleractinian corals (the loss of obligate symbiotic zooxanthellae) on a global basis, resulting in mass mortality of corals and decimation of reefs. This symbiotic relationship makes these corals an excellent bioindicator of climate change.It has been hypothesized that bleaching is a mechanism by which corals can adapt

Paul W. Sammarco; Kevin B. Strychar

2009-01-01

39

Edinburgh Research Explorer Partial costs of global climate change adaptation for the supply  

E-print Network

in Edinburgh Research Explorer Document Version: Publisher final version (usually the publisher pdf) Published p.a., with 83­90% in developing countries; the highest costs are in Sub-Saharan Africa. Globall

Schnaufer, Achim

40

Adapting to climate change: is there scope for ecological management in the face of a global threat?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Climate change is recognized as a major threat to the survival of species and integrity of ecosystems world-wide. Although considerable research has focused on climate impacts, relatively little work to date has been conducted on the practical application of strategies for adapting to climate change. Adaptation strategies should aim to increase the flexibility in management of vulnerable ecosystems,

PHILIP E. HULME

2005-01-01

41

Modern global climate change.  

PubMed

Modern climate change is dominated by human influences, which are now large enough to exceed the bounds of natural variability. The main source of global climate change is human-induced changes in atmospheric composition. These perturbations primarily result from emissions associated with energy use, but on local and regional scales, urbanization and land use changes are also important. Although there has been progress in monitoring and understanding climate change, there remain many scientific, technical, and institutional impediments to precisely planning for, adapting to, and mitigating the effects of climate change. There is still considerable uncertainty about the rates of change that can be expected, but it is clear that these changes will be increasingly manifested in important and tangible ways, such as changes in extremes of temperature and precipitation, decreases in seasonal and perennial snow and ice extent, and sea level rise. Anthropogenic climate change is now likely to continue for many centuries. We are venturing into the unknown with climate, and its associated impacts could be quite disruptive. PMID:14657489

Karl, Thomas R; Trenberth, Kevin E

2003-12-01

42

Global assessment of coral bleaching and required rates of adaptation under climate change  

E-print Network

scenario suggests that coral reefs in some regions, like Micronesia and western Polynesia, may to be among the most vulnerable ecosystems to future climate change. Sea temperatures of only 1 1C warmer than

Oppenheimer, Michael

43

Climate change, carbon dioxide, and global crop production: Adaptation to uncertainty  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Documented and projected changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide are likely to alter agricultural productivity in two ways: directly, by supplying additional carbon for photosynthesis and growth, and indirectly by altering climate, specifically surface temperatures and precipitation. In this overview...

44

Predicting life-cycle adaptation of migratory birds to global climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of long-term data indicate that human-caused climatic changes are affecting bird phenology in directions consistent with theoretical predictions. Here, we report on recent trends in the timing of spring arrival and egg laying found within a western European Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca population. Mean egg laying date has advanced over the past 20 years in this population. The advancement

TIMOTHY COPPACK; C. Both

2003-01-01

45

Ask Dr. Global Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users of this resource may direct questions about global change to staff members at the U.S. Global Change Research Information Office (GCIRO). An archive of previous questions and answers is provided, along with links to other global change sites.

46

Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how the greenhouse effect is related to global warming and how global warming impacts our planet, including global climate change. Extreme weather events, rising sea levels, and how we react to these changes are the main points of focus of this lesson.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

47

Designing Global Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a time when sensationalism rules the online world, it is best to keep things short. The people of the online world are not passing back and forth lengthy articles, but rather brief glimpses of complex information. This is the target audience we attempt to educate. Our challenge is then to attack not only ignorance, but also apathy toward global climate change, while conforming to popular modes of learning. When communicating our scientific material, it was difficult to determine what level of information was appropriate for our audience, especially with complex subject matter. Our unconventional approach for communicating the carbon crisis as it applies to global climate change caters to these 'recreational learners'. Using story-telling devices acquired from Carolyne's biomedical art background coupled with Peter's extensive knowledge of carbon cycle and ecosystems science, we developed a dynamic series of illustrations that capture the attention of a callous audience. Adapting complex carbon cycle and climate science into comic-book-style animations creates a channel between artist, scientist, and the general public. Brief scenes of information accompanied by text provide a perfect platform for visual learners, as well as fresh portrayals of stale material for the jaded. In this way art transcends the barriers of the cerebral and the abstract, paving the road to understanding.;

Griffith, P. C.; ORyan, C.

2012-12-01

48

Global Climate Change Exploratorium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, funded by NSF, is the home page for the Global Climate Change research explorer. Multicolor tabs at the top of the page link to further information and visualizations (graphs, charts, pictures, etc.) for climate change resources in each of the Earth's spheres, including: atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, biosphere, and global effects of climate change.

The Exploratorium

49

Climate Change: Life history adaptation by a global whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, with rising temperature and carbon dioxide  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction: Climate change can have direct and indirect impacts on living organisms. A rise in ambient temperature and elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations due to global warming may have assorted impacts on arthropods such as altered life cycles, altered reproductive patterns, and change...

50

Hot Topics: Globalization and Climate Change  

E-print Network

denominators. … Here are no Greeks, no Jews; no women, no men: we are all one in Coca-Cola.” Agreeing, Stuart Hall (1997) proclaims that the new globalization is American. The manifestations of globalization are world organization, global environmental problems... to mitigate and to adapt to more fully characterized climate changes, or to lose its hubris and make space for local knowledges and for moral and ethical approaches to the issues raised by global climate change. Climate change, as the limit case...

Malone, Elizabeth L.

2002-04-01

51

Phosphorus and Global Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Phosphorus (P) is both an agent of global change, with P loads increasing in most global environments due to the loss of mined\\u000a phosphate from agricultural, industrial, and urban environments, and is affected by global change processes such as land degradation\\u000a or the need for P in biofuel production. P plays a fundamental role in food security and, because the

Holm Tiessen; Maria Victoria Ballester; Ignacio Salcedo

52

ADAPTATION OF FORESTS AND PEOPLETO CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-print Network

Alexander Buck, GFEP Coordinator Pia Katila, Content Editor This publication has received funding from, Alexander Buck and Pia Katila. (eds.). 2009. Adaptation of Forests and People to Climate Change. A Global

Ayres, Matthew.P.

53

Adaptation of Forests to Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper is based on a World Bank–sponsored effort to develop a global estimate of adaptation costs, considering the implications of global climate change for industrial forestry. It focuses on the anticipated impacts of climate change on forests broadly, on industrial wood production in particular, and on Brazil, South Africa, and China. The aim is to identify likely damages

Roger A. Sedjo

2010-01-01

54

THE CENTRAL ROLE OF PLANT BIOLOGY, FROM MOLECULAR TO ECOPHYSIOLOGICAL RESEARCH, IN UNDERSTANDING AND ADAPTING TO GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC CHANGE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The CO2 concentration of the atmosphere is rising at 0.4 percent per year and tropospheric ozone concentrations are rising even faster. Both have large direct effects on plants that will be further modified by rising temperatures. Although global change research has focused on the impacts of rising...

55

Adaptation strategies to climate change in the Arctic: a global patchwork of reactive community-scale initiatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic regions have experienced and will continue to experience the greatest rates of warming compared to any other region of the world. The people living in the Arctic are considered among most vulnerable to the impacts of environmental change ranging from decline in natural resources to increasing mental health concerns (IPCC 2014 Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)). A meta-analysis study by Ford et al (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 104005) has assessed the volume, scope and geographic distribution of reported in the English language peer-reviewed literature initiatives for adaptation to climate change in the Arctic. Their analysis highlights the reactive nature of the adopted policies with a strong emphasis on local and community-level policies mostly targeting indigenous population in Canada and Alaska. The study raises concerns about the lack of monitoring and evaluation mechanism to track the success rate of the existing policies and the need for long-term strategic planning in adaption policies spanning international boundaries and including all groups of population.

Loboda, Tatiana V.

2014-11-01

56

Adapting to Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the optimal time to adapt to climate change. We take the perspective of a farmer growing a crop in a stochastic environment. The farmer faces stochastic seasonal growth, which makes harvest at the end of any season a random variable. Within a season, crop biomass is assumed to grow according to a continuous- time Itô process. The

Jon M. Conrad; Koji Kotani

57

Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation  

E-print Network

Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation David S. Liebl and Kenneth W. Potter Co Development John Ramsden, Natural Resources Conservation Service Jon Schellpfeffer, Madison Metropolitan changes due to global climate change." ­ WICCI Stormwater Working Group #12;Future Climate Change What

Sheridan, Jennifer

58

Climate Change, Adaptation, and Development  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION . THE COSTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE .INTRODUCTION The earth has entered a new period of significant climate change.introductions to the concepts of adaptation and adaptive capacity, including how the concepts are used in the climate change

Cole, Daniel H.

2008-01-01

59

Global Change 1 Labs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the University of Michigan lists the labs for a course on global change. Because of the complexity of global changes, it is often not enough to read about the workings of these phenomena. Modeling is used extensively in these labs because thinking about the dynamics of a system, extracting critical functioning parts, and attempting to build a model captures its essence by making assumptions to account for external variables. Also included are tips for web project development.

University of Michigan

60

Global Change Primer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This introductory chapter for educators provides background information to support classroom investigations of global climate change. Topics addressed include the structure and composition of the atmosphere, General Circulation Models (GCMs), 2xCO2 scenarios, uncertainty, and human impacts. The primer is part of the Ground Truth Studies Teacher Handbook, which provides more than 20 activities to build student understanding of global change and remote sensing, and includes background chapters for teachers, glossary, and appendices.

2012-08-03

61

Modeling Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding global climate change is challenging, even for adults, yet having an understanding of this topic is consequential for the future. In this activity, middle school students learn about global climate change using models that allow them to make predictions, observations, and then explain mechanisms for climate change. Component ideas include change over time, deep time, and accumulation. Students are asked to act as advisers on how to lower energy use, and refine their understanding of how and why this is important, before testing their ideas and finally revising their advice.

Vanessa Svihla

62

Adaptation to Climate Change in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation to climate change is given increasing international attention as the confidence in climate change projections is\\u000a getting higher. Developing countries have specific needs for adaptation due to high vulnerabilities, and they will in this\\u000a way carry a great part of the global costs of climate change although the rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations\\u000a are mainly the responsibility of industrialized

Ole Mertz; Kirsten Halsnæs; Jørgen E. Olesen; Kjeld Rasmussen

2009-01-01

63

Amazonia and Global Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amazonia and Global Change synthesizes results of the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) for scientists and students of Earth system science and global environmental change. LBA, led by Brazil, asks how Amazonia currently functions in the global climate and biogeochemical systems and how the functioning of Amazonia will respond to the combined pressures of climate and land use change, such as • Wet season and dry season aerosol concentrations and their effects on diffuse radiation and photosynthesis • Increasing greenhouse gas concentration, deforestation, widespread biomass burning and changes in the Amazonian water cycle • Drought effects and simulated drought through rainfall exclusion experiments • The net flux of carbon between Amazonia and the atmosphere • Floodplains as an important regulator of the basin carbon balance including serving as a major source of methane to the troposphere • The impact of the likely increased profitability of cattle ranching. The book will serve a broad community of scientists and policy makers interested in global change and environmental issues with high-quality scientific syntheses accessible to nonspecialists in a wide community of social scientists, ecologists, atmospheric chemists, climatologists, and hydrologists.

Keller, Michael; Bustamante, Mercedes; Gash, John; Silva Dias, Pedro

64

Farmer responses to multiple stresses in the face of global change: Assessing five case studies to enhance adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global challenge of sustaining agricultural livelihoods and yields in the face of growing populations and increasing climate change is the topic of intense research. The role of on-the-ground decision-making by individual farmers actually producing food, fuel, and fiber is often studied in individual cases to determine its environmental, economic, and social effects. However, there are few efforts to link across studies in a way that provides opportunities to better understand empirical farmer behavior, design effective policies, and be able to aggregate from case studies to a broader scale. Here we synthesize existing literature to identify four general factors affecting farmer decision-making: local technical and socio-cultural contexts; actors and institutions involved in decision-making; multiple stressors at broader scales; and the temporal gradient of decision-making. We use these factors to compare five cases that illustrate agricultural decision-making and its impacts: cotton and castor farming in Gujarat, India; swidden cultivation of upland rice in the Philippines; potato cultivation in Andean Colombia; winegrowing in Northern California; and maize production in peri-urban central Mexico. These cases span a geographic and economic range of production systems, but we find that we are able to make valid comparisons and draw lessons common across all cases by using the four factors as an organizing principle. We also find that our understanding of why farmers make the decisions they do changes if we neglect to examine even one of the four general factors guiding decision-making. This suggests that these four factors are important to understanding farmer decision-making, and can be used to guide the design and interpretation of future studies, as well as be the subject of further research in and of themselves to promote an agricultural system that is resilient to climate and other global environmental changes.

Nicholas, K. A.; Feola, G.; Lerner, A. M.; Jain, M.; Montefrio, M.

2013-12-01

65

Global Climate Change: Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explains how climate change affects everything from stratospheric temperatures to the golden toad of Costa Rica. Graphs, articles, and maps monitor humankind's impact on the planet. The site features five thumbnails including two maps showing Global Outgoing Longwave Heat Radiation, and Global Reflected Shortwave Solar Radiation and three graphs entitled Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Records from Mauna Loa, Hawaii (1958 - 2000), Global Average Near-Surface Temperatures - Monthly Anomalies (1961 - 2002), and Global Stratospheric and Tropospheric Temperature Anomalies (1979 - 2001). Each of these provides a link to a larger version of the visual and a detailed explanation. Each section has links to a glossary as well as links to questions about each section and additional references.

66

RANGELANDS AND GLOBAL CHANGE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is an issue paper written under the auspices of the Society for Range Management. This issue paper does not contain an abstract, but for purposes of the ARS 115 the following was written by Robert R. Blank. Global change is affecting rangelands. Land use patterns, invasions by exotic species, ...

67

Global Change 2 Labs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the University of Michigan features the list of labs and activities for the Global Change 2 course. An introduction to ArcView is presented and used in several of the labs. Steps and references for the Web Term Project Development are also included.

University of Michigan

68

Introduction to Global Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the University of Michigan is the homepage for an interdisciplinary three semester introductory course sequence that investigates the causes and potential impacts of global change. The curriculum is tailored to beginning student and includes three course; physical processes, human impacts, and sustainability studies. The site includes lecture notes, syllabi, and lab exercises.

Ben van der Pluijm

69

Global Change 2 Lectures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A list of lectures for the Global Change 2 course at the University of Michigan is featured on this site. Each lecture includes definitions and images that enhance the subject matter. Additionally, a self-test is available at the bottom of the page.

University of Michigan

70

Global Change at Edinburgh  

E-print Network

the atmosphere, climate, ice cover, global biogeochemistry, biodiversity, soils, and even ocean circulation of climate/ chemistry, air quality. Remote sensing of the atmosphere. Climate change monitoring. FRAME and Remediation 12 Corals and Climate 14 The Monsoon and Ocean Oxygen 16 Landscapes Frozen in Time 18 Mars

Greenaway, Alan

71

Funding for adaptation to climate change : the case of Surat  

E-print Network

The need for cities to adapt to climate change is widely acknowledged, yet the question of adaptation finance remains uncertain. Unable to access global climate funds, cities must seek out alternative sources to support ...

Patel, Toral

2014-01-01

72

Global Environmental Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Global Environmental Change (GEC) posts three reports summarizing the findings of an Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) initiative, running from 1991 to 2000 whose original objective "was to bring social science expertise to bear on global environmental research and, at the same time, to take environmental concerns to the heart of the social sciences." The three reports focus on environmental decisionmaking, global governance, and sustainable production and consumption. Together, they constitute an unusually sustained and thoughtful consideration of how to make environmental decisions more thoughtfully and in line with consistent values and criteria. The reports are accessed through individual tables of contents that include a report summary and sidebar features for more detailed background on certain issues. In addition to these three main reports, the site features other documents, workshop and conference information, and research updates related to the GEC project.

73

Global Environmental Change: Deforestation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Washington State's Olympic Peninsula contains some of America's only old-growth forest. Its timber supports local, regional, and even global economies. It also supports many biological species and provides a link in biogeochemical cycling. How can these roles be balanced? Using the Olympic Peninsula as a case study, this book introduces students to basic scientific themes and equips them with tools to increase their understanding of deforestation. Hands-on classroom activities demonstrate how to integrate science with other disciplines to gather information, address problems, and make decisions. NSTA and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency created the Global Environmental Change Series so students can see how science works in today's world. Each volume links a global environmental topic directly to students' own experiences. The series covers topics ranging from biodiversity to population growth to solid waste management.

Environmental Protection Agency

1997-01-01

74

Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this site students can explore scientific data on climate change relating to the atmosphere, the oceans, the areas covered by ice and snow, and the living organisms in all these domains. They will get a sense of how scientists study natural phenomena, how researchers gather evidence, test theories, and come to conclusions. Though climate change is not new, the study of how human activity affects the earth's climate is. Links lead to five major sections: atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, biosphere, and global effects. Each section is a separate lesson consisting of visual thumbnails with supporting text. All sections are supported by a glossary.

75

Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides a brief overview of processes and properties associated with global climate change and its rate of change, which is of current concern to scientists. The carbon cycle is discussed including its sources, sinks, and release agents along with the fact that it is critical to the biosphere and must continue cycling to support life on Earth. The information at this site should lead students to an understanding of carbon dioxide and the other major greenhouse gases, which is necessary to identify the current trends in atmospheric concentrations and climate change. Three other concepts addressed at this site include the profound effects living organisms in an ecosystem can have upon the local atmosphere, profound effects changes in vegetation can have upon wind speed, and the link of human activity to increased greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This section serves as a reference for and includes links to seven classroom activities.

76

Classifying climate change adaptation frameworks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex socio-ecological demographics are factors that must be considered when addressing adaptation to the potential effects of climate change. As such, a suite of deployable climate change adaptation frameworks is necessary. Multiple frameworks that are required to communicate the risks of climate change and facilitate adaptation. Three principal adaptation frameworks have emerged from the literature; Scenario - Led (SL), Vulnerability - Led (VL) and Decision - Centric (DC). This study aims to identify to what extent these adaptation frameworks; either, planned or deployed are used in a neighbourhood vulnerable to climate change. This work presents a criterion that may be used as a tool for identifying the hallmarks of adaptation frameworks and thus enabling categorisation of projects. The study focussed on the coastal zone surrounding the Sizewell nuclear power plant in Suffolk in the UK. An online survey was conducted identifying climate change adaptation projects operating in the study area. This inventory was analysed to identify the hallmarks of each adaptation project; Levels of dependency on climate model information, Metrics/units of analysis utilised, Level of demographic knowledge, Level of stakeholder engagement, Adaptation implementation strategies and Scale of adaptation implementation. The study found that climate change adaptation projects could be categorised, based on the hallmarks identified, in accordance with the published literature. As such, the criterion may be used to establish the matrix of adaptation frameworks present in a given area. A comprehensive summary of the nature of adaptation frameworks in operation in a locality provides a platform for further comparative analysis. Such analysis, enabled by the criterion, may aid the selection of appropriate frameworks enhancing the efficacy of climate change adaptation.

Armstrong, Jennifer

2014-05-01

77

Global Distributions of Vulnerability to Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

Signatories of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have committed themselves to addressing the “specific needs and special circumstances of developing country parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change”.1 The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has since concluded with high confidence that “developing countries will be more vulnerable to climate change than developed countries”.2 In their most recent report, however, the IPCC notes that “current knowledge of adaptation and adaptive capacity is insufficient for reliable prediction of adaptations” 3 because “the capacity to adapt varies considerably among regions, countries and socioeconomic groups and will vary over time”.4 Here, we respond to the apparent contradiction in these two statements by exploring how variation in adaptive capacity and climate impacts combine to influence the global distribution of vulnerability. We find that all countries will be vulnerable to climate change, even if their adaptive capacities are enhanced. Developing nations are most vulnerable to modest climate change. Reducing greenhouse-gas emissions would diminish their vulnerabilities significantly. Developed countries would benefit most from mitigation for moderate climate change. Extreme climate change overwhelms the abilities of all countries to adapt. These findings should inform both ongoing negotiations for the next commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol and emerging plans for implementing UNFCCC-sponsored adaptation funds.

Yohe, Gary; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Brenkert, Antoinette L.; Schlesinger, Michael; Meij, Henk; Xiaoshi, Xing

2006-12-01

78

Global Environmental Change: Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This book uses Costa Rica as a case study because the country's tropical forests contain four percent of Earth's total biological species diversity. Biodiversity's activities and readings help students explore efforts to balance economic expansion with resource conservation. This resource has activities to explore local biodiversity and true-to-life role-playing scenarios, so students can apply what they have learned. Biodiversity is one of four books in NSTA Press's Global Environmental Change series, a joint project of NSTA Press and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The other books in the series are Deforestation, Carrying Capacity, and Introduced Species.

Environmental Protection Agency

1997-01-01

79

Climate Change, Adaptation, and Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the signing the Kyoto Protocol, the international community has focused a great deal of attention on measures designed to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Much less attention has been paid to climate change adaption. This is unfortunate because, even if the Kyoto Protocol is fully implemented, climate change will generate substantial costs requiring substantial adaptation efforts, especially in the

Daniel H. Cole

2007-01-01

80

Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change, and  

E-print Network

1 Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change Changes · Due to ­ Climate Change ­ Land Cover / Land Use Change ­ Interaction of Climate and Land Cover Change · Resolution ­ Space ­ Time Hydro-Climatic Change · Variability vs. Change (Trends) · Point data

81

Global Change Instruction Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series is designed by college professors to fill an urgent need for interdisciplinary materials on global change. The materials are aimed at undergraduate students who are not majoring in science. The modular materials can be integrated into a number of existing courses in, for example, the earth sciences, biology, physics, astronomy, chemistry, meteorology, and the social sciences. The materials have been written to capture the interest of the student who has little grounding in math and the technical aspects of science but whose intellectual curiosity is piqued by a concern for the environment. Modules include biogeochemical cycles, biological consequences of climate change, human energy use, population growth, international environmental law, and stratospheric ozone depletion.

Christine Ennis

82

Beyond global warming: Ecology and global change  

SciTech Connect

While ecologists involved in management or policy often are advised to learn to deal with uncertainty, some components of global environmental change are certainly occurring and are certainly human-caused. All have important ecological consequences. Well-documented global changes include: Increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere; alterations in the biogeochemistry of the global nitrogen cycle; and ongoing land use/land cover change. Human activity - now primarily fossil fuel combustion - has increased carbon dioxide concentrations from [approximately] 280 to 355 [mu]L/L since 1800 and is likely to have climatic consequences and direct effects on biota in all terrestrial ecosystems. The global nitrogen cycle has been altered so that more nitrogen is fixed annually by humanity than by all natural pathways combined. Altering atmospheric chemistry and aquatic ecosystems, contributes to eutrophication of the biosphere, and has substantial regional effects on biological diversity. Finally, human land use/land cover change has transformed one-third to one-half of Earth's ice-free surface, representing the most important component of global change now. Any clear dichotomy between pristine ecosystems and human-altered areas that may have existed in the past has vanished, and ecological research should account for this reality. Certain components of global environmental change are the primary causes of anticipated changes in climate, and of ongoing losses of biological diversity. They are caused by the extraordinary growth in size and resource use of the human population. On a broad scale, there is little uncertainty about any of these components of change or their causes. However, much of the public believes the causes of global change to be uncertain and contentious. By speaking out effectively,the focus of public discussion towards what can and should be done about global environmental change can be shifted. 135 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

Vitousek, P.M. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

1994-10-01

83

Global perceptions of local temperature change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is difficult to detect global warming directly because most people experience changes only in local weather patterns, which are highly variable and may not reflect long-term global climate trends. However, local climate-change experience may play an important role in adaptation and mitigation behaviour and policy support. Previous research indicates that people can perceive and adapt to aspects of climate variability and change based on personal observations. Experience with local weather may also influence global warming beliefs. Here we examine the extent to which respondents in 89 countries detect recent changes in average local temperatures. We demonstrate that public perceptions correspond with patterns of observed temperature change from climate records: individuals who live in places with rising average temperatures are more likely than others to perceive local warming. As global climate change intensifies, changes in local temperatures and weather patterns may be increasingly detected by the global public. These findings also suggest that public opinion of climate change may shift, at least in part, in response to the personal experience of climate change.

Howe, Peter D.; Markowitz, Ezra M.; Lee, Tien Ming; Ko, Chia-Ying; Leiserowitz, Anthony

2013-04-01

84

Adapting agriculture to climate change  

PubMed Central

The strong trends in climate change already evident, the likelihood of further changes occurring, and the increasing scale of potential climate impacts give urgency to addressing agricultural adaptation more coherently. There are many potential adaptation options available for marginal change of existing agricultural systems, often variations of existing climate risk management. We show that implementation of these options is likely to have substantial benefits under moderate climate change for some cropping systems. However, there are limits to their effectiveness under more severe climate changes. Hence, more systemic changes in resource allocation need to be considered, such as targeted diversification of production systems and livelihoods. We argue that achieving increased adaptation action will necessitate integration of climate change-related issues with other risk factors, such as climate variability and market risk, and with other policy domains, such as sustainable development. Dealing with the many barriers to effective adaptation will require a comprehensive and dynamic policy approach covering a range of scales and issues, for example, from the understanding by farmers of change in risk profiles to the establishment of efficient markets that facilitate response strategies. Science, too, has to adapt. Multidisciplinary problems require multidisciplinary solutions, i.e., a focus on integrated rather than disciplinary science and a strengthening of the interface with decision makers. A crucial component of this approach is the implementation of adaptation assessment frameworks that are relevant, robust, and easily operated by all stakeholders, practitioners, policymakers, and scientists. PMID:18077402

Howden, S. Mark; Soussana, Jean-François; Tubiello, Francesco N.; Chhetri, Netra; Dunlop, Michael; Meinke, Holger

2007-01-01

85

perspective: The responses of tropical forest species to global climate change: acclimate, adapt, migrate, or go extinct?  

E-print Network

genetic  changes  (Davis  and  Shaw  2001),  (3)  species  can  shift  their  distri? butions,  or  “migrate”,  to  remain  at  equilibrium equilibrium  with  climate?    Given  the  constraints  of  long?lived  individuals,  long  generation  times,  potentially  low  genetic 

Feeley, Kenneth J; Rehm, Evan M; Machovina, Brian

2012-01-01

86

Global Climate Change Key Indicators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website charts measurement of key indicators of global climate change. Simple explanations and "What Does This Mean?" sections accompany each area of sea level, carbon dioxide concentration, global surface temperature, Arctic sea ice and land ice.

87

Bibliography of global change, 1992  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This bibliography lists 585 reports, articles, and other documents introduced in the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Database in 1992. The areas covered include global change, decision making, earth observation (from space), forecasting, global warming, policies, and trends.

1993-01-01

88

Global Optimization by Adapted Diffusion  

E-print Network

In this paper, we study a diffusion stochastic dynamics with a general diffusion coefficient. The main result is that adapting the diffusion coefficient to the Hamiltonian allows to escape local wide minima and to speed ...

Poliannikov, Oleg V.

89

Gateway to Global Change Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides access to a wide array of global change information and data. The site features up-to-date reports about a variety of global change topics such as greenhouse gas emissions, climate modeling, oceanic currents, and temperature measurements. There is a wealth of raw data available through NASA's Global Change master on-line directory, which provides descriptions of earth science data sets and services relevant to global change research. The News section contains articles from around the world regarding policy initiatives and research results. For the non-scientist, there is a question and answer feature called Ask Dr. Global Change. This service explains in simple terms many of the complicated topics of global change. Users may search the archives of previous questions or pose new ones. This site also offers numerous links to other agencies and sources of information, reports and data.

2002-05-08

90

Sprawl in Taipei’s peri-urban zone: Responses to spatial planning and implications for adapting global environmental change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peri-urban areas are often characterized by valuable natural environment and resource bases to provide essential ecosystem functions for urban residents. Observing land cover change over time can reveal the effects and impacts of urbanization in peri-urban areas. This paper investigates the spatial pattern of land conversion in the Taipei–Taoyuan area by interpreting the 1990 and 2006 SPOT images for comparison

Shu-Li Huang; Szu-Hua Wang; William W. Budd

2009-01-01

91

Mitigation needs adaptation: Tropical forestry and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between tropical forests and global climate change has so far focused on mitigation, while much less emphasis\\u000a has been placed on how management activities may help forest ecosystems adapt to this change. This paper discusses how tropical\\u000a forestry practices can contribute to maintaining or enhancing the adaptive capacity of natural and planted forests to global\\u000a climate change and

Manuel R. Guariguata; Jonathan P. Cornelius; Bruno Locatelli; Claudio Forner; G. Arturo Sánchez-Azofeifa

2008-01-01

92

AAAS - Global Climate Change Video  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video features residents of Shishmaref, Alaska, plus environmental journalist Elizabeth Kolbert and scientist John Holdren, exploring the human impacts of global climate change. The roles of teachers, scientists, policymakers, and concerned citizens in mitigating the changes are highlighted.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)

93

Adapting to Climate Change: Ideals and Practical Challenges  

E-print Network

Adapting to Climate Change: Ideals and Practical Challenges Thursday, October 31, 2013 12:00 - 1 Institute for the Environment, Stanford University What does "successful" adaptation to climate change look like? Answers to this question are a pressing need for the regional, national, and global communities

Zhang, Junshan

94

Global atmospheric changes.  

PubMed Central

Increasing concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can be directly related to global warming. In terms of human health, because a major cause of increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is the increased combustion of fossil fuels, global warming also may result in increases in air pollutants, acid deposition, and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To understand better the impacts of global warming phenomena on human health, this review emphasizes the processes that are responsible for the greenhouse effect, air pollution, acid deposition, and increased exposure to UV radiation. PMID:1820255

Piver, W T

1991-01-01

95

Global Climate Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses recent changes in the Earth's climate. Summarizes reports on changes related to carbon dioxide, temperature, rain, sea level, and glaciers in polar areas. Describes the present effort to measure the changes. Lists 16 references. (YP)

Hall, Dorothy K.

1989-01-01

96

Science priorities for the human dimensions of global change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics covered include the following: defining research needs; understanding land use change; improving policy analysis -- research on the decision-making process; designing policy instruments and institutions to address energy-related environmental problems; assessing impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation to global changes; and understanding population dynamics and global change.

1994-01-01

97

Space Observations for Global Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is now compelling evidence that man's activities are changing both the composition of the atmospheric and the global landscape quite drastically. The consequences of these changes on the global climate of the 21st century is currently a hotly debated subject. Global models of a coupled Earth-ocean-atmosphere system are still very primitive and progress in this area appears largely data limited, specially over the global biosphere. A concerted effort on monitoring biospheric functions on scales from pixels to global and days to decades needs to be coordinated on an international scale in order to address the questions related to global change. An international program of space observations and ground research was described.

Rasool, S. I.

1991-01-01

98

Conservation and Global Climate Change  

E-print Network

V.6 Conservation and Global Climate Change Diane M. Debinski and Molly S. Cross OUTLINE 1. Introduction 2. How climate is changing 3. Environmental responses to climate change 4. Consequences of climate the coming decades will be preserving biodiversity in the face of climate change. It has become increasingly

Landweber, Laura

99

Adaptation of Forests to Climate Change: Some Estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is based on a World Bank–sponsored effort to develop a global estimate of adaptation costs, considering the implications of global climate change for industrial forestry. It focuses on the anticipated impacts of climate change on forests broadly, on industrial wood production in particular, and on Brazil, South Africa, and China. The aim is to identify likely damages and

Roger A. Sedjo

2010-01-01

100

III International Climate Change Adaptation Adaptation Futures 2014  

E-print Network

1 III International Climate Change Adaptation Conference Adaptation Futures 2014 12-16 May 2014, wildfires, and rising sea levels are now inevitable. We must plan for and adapt of Research on Climate Change Vulnerability, Impacts and Adaptation (PROVIA), the Co

101

Solar influences on global change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monitoring of the Sun and the Earth has yielded new knowledge essential to this debate. There is now no doubt that the total radiative energy from the Sun that heats the Earth's surface changes over decadal time scales as a consequence of solar activity. Observations indicate as well that changes in ultraviolet radiation and energetic particles from the Sun, also connected with the solar activity, modulate the layer of ozone that protects the biosphere from the solar ultraviolet radiation. This report reassesses solar influences on global change in the light of this new knowledge of solar and atmospheric variability. Moreover, the report considers climate change to be encompassed within the broader concept of global change; thus the biosphere is recognized to be part of a larger, coupled Earth system. Implementing a program to continuously monitor solar irradiance over the next several decades will provide the opportunity to estimate solar influences on global change, assuming continued maintenance of observations of climate and other potential forcing mechanisms. In the lower atmosphere, an increase in solar radiation is expected to cause global warming. In the stratosphere, however, the two effects produce temperature changes of opposite sign. A monitoring program that would augment long term observations of tropospheric parameters with similar observations of stratospheric parameters could separate these diverse climate perturbations and perhaps isolate a greenhouse footprint of climate change. Monitoring global change in the troposphere is a key element of all facets of the United States Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), not just of the study of solar influences on global change. The need for monitoring the stratosphere is also important for global change research in its own right because of the stratospheric ozone layer.

1994-01-01

102

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation  

E-print Network

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Provincial Report executive summary #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry

Pedersen, Tom

103

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation  

E-print Network

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Provincial Report #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry

Pedersen, Tom

104

GLOBAL CHANGE AND WATER RESOURCES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The influence of global change on future water resources is difficult to predict because various components are likely to be affected in opposing ways. Global warming would tend to increase evapotranspiration (ET) rates and irrigation water requirements, while increasing precipitation would both dec...

105

Global Change Sustainability  

E-print Network

, ecosystems, climate, and climate change impacts. This report highlights some of the research by GCSC and Sustainability Center University of Utah Mailing address: 257 South 1400 East, Room 201, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 are impacted by unprecedented change. Across the planet, human activities are impacting Earth's climate

Tipple, Brett

106

Global Climatic Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the climatic effects of trace gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. It discusses the expected changes from the increases in trace gases and the extent to which the expected changes can be found in the climate record and in the retreat of glaciers. The use of ice cores in correlating atmospheric composition and climate is discussed.

Richard A. Houghton; George M. Woodwell

1989-01-01

107

Climate Change Adaptation for Local Government  

E-print Network

Climate Change Adaptation for Local Government A Resource Guide June 2011 Jenny Fraser, Adaptation to Climate Change Team, Simon Fraser University #12;Page 1 of 26 Climate Change Adaptation for Local: RESOURCES THAT SUPPORT CLIMATE CHANGE ASSESSMENT 3. Past and Future Climate Change and Its Impacts 4

Pedersen, Tom

108

Paleohydrology: Understanding Global Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raymond Bradley's masterful Paleoclimatology, published in 1999, would be a hard act for anyone to follow, so perhaps it was a bit unfair of me to have had such high expectations for Paleohydrology. The book suffers in comparison for two reasons. First, the book is basically a report of the INQUA Commission on Global Continental Paleohydrology (GLOCOPH),and thus largely serves as a vehicle for members of the Commission to describe their activities and findings for the period 1991-2002. As a result, it does not have the clarity of focus and organization, nor breadth of coverage, found in Paleoclimatology.

Gardner, Leonard R.

109

Global climatic change  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the climatic effects of trace gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. It discusses the expected changes from the increases in trace gases and the extent to which the expected changes can be found in the climate record and in the retreat of glaciers. The use of ice cores in correlating atmospheric composition and climate is discussed. The response of terrestrial ecosystems as a biotic feedback is discussed. Possible responses are discussed, including reduction in fossil-fuel use, controls on deforestation, and reforestation. International aspects, such as the implications for developing nations, are addressed.

Houghton, R.A.; Woodwell, G.M.

1989-04-01

110

III International Climate Change Adaptation Adaptation Futures 2014  

E-print Network

1 III International Climate Change Adaptation Conference Adaptation Futures 2014 12-16 Maio 2014, através do Programa PROVIA, a conferência Adaptation Futures 2014 foi realizada em Fortaleza, Ceará regionais de adaptação para tomada de decisão. A conferência Adaptation Futures 2014 buscou atingir o

111

U.S. Global Change Research Information Office  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The US Global Change Research Information Office (GCRIO) provides access to data and information on climate change research, adaptation/mitigation strategies, and technologies, and global change-related educational resources." Users can learn about GCRIOâ??s success in predicting El Niño and La Niña events, reducing the uncertainty of rainfall events in the tropics, creating maps to record the uptake of carbon by the ocean, and more. Researchers, students, and educators can find help locating information and data about global environmental change by visiting Doctor Global Change. The website features upcoming climate-related events hosted across the United States.

112

Perspectives on global change theory  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Human-caused global changes in ecological drivers, such as carbon dioxide concentrations, climate, and nitrogen deposition, as well as direct human impacts (land use change, species movements and extinctions, etc.) are increasingly recognized as key to understanding contemporary ecosystem dynamics, ...

113

Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) is an integrated assessment model that links the world's energy, agriculture and land use systems with a climate model. The model is designed to assess various climate change policies and technology strategies for the globe over long tim...

114

Teaching about Global Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students are exposed to many different media reports about global climate change. Movies such as "The Day After Tomorrow" and "Ice Age" are examples of instances when movie producers have sought to capture the attention of audiences by augmenting the challenges that climate change poses. Students may receive information from a wide range of media…

Heffron, Susan Gallagher; Valmond, Kharra

2011-01-01

115

Local-global splitting for spatiotemporal-adaptive multiscale methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a novel spatiotemporal-adaptive Multiscale Finite Volume (MsFV) method, which is based on the natural idea that the global coarse-scale problem has longer characteristic time than the local fine-scale problems. As a consequence, the global problem can be solved with larger time steps than the local problems. In contrast to the pressure-transport splitting usually employed in the standard MsFV approach, we propose to start directly with a local-global splitting that allows to locally retain the original degree of coupling. This is crucial for highly non-linear systems or in the presence of physical instabilities. To obtain an accurate and efficient algorithm, we devise new adaptive criteria for global update that are based on changes of coarse-scale quantities rather than on fine-scale quantities, as it is routinely done before in the adaptive MsFV method. By means of a complexity analysis we show that the adaptive approach gives a noticeable speed-up with respect to the standard MsFV algorithm. In particular, it is efficient in case of large upscaling factors, which is important for multiphysics problems. Based on the observation that local time stepping acts as a smoother, we devise a self-correcting algorithm which incorporates the information from previous times to improve the quality of the multiscale approximation. We present results of multiphase flow simulations both for Darcy-scale and multiphysics (hybrid) problems, in which a local pore-scale description is combined with a global Darcy-like description. The novel spatiotemporal-adaptive multiscale method based on the local-global splitting is not limited to porous media flow problems, but it can be extended to any system described by a set of conservation equations.

Tomin, Pavel; Lunati, Ivan

2015-01-01

116

COMMUNITY ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE: AN EXPLORATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION PLANNING IN  

E-print Network

COMMUNITY ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE: AN EXPLORATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION PLANNING Columbia must adapt to climate change by preparing for expected and unexpected changes in their communities that planners do not have a high level of knowledge of climate change adaptation. Planners feel that the impacts

Pedersen, Tom

117

U.S. Global Change Research Program  

MedlinePLUS

... citizens with the best-available scientific information about climate change. Read More Browse Education Resources Adapting to Change Find the latest Climate Change Adaptation Plans released by Federal agencies, and browse ...

118

Global Climate Change and Agriculture  

SciTech Connect

The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released in 2007 significantly increased our confidence about the role that humans play in forcing climate change. There is now a high degree of confidence that the (a) current atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) far exceed those of the pre-industrial era, (b) global increases in CO2 arise mainly from fossil fuel use and land use change while those of CH4 and N2O originate primarily from agricultural activities, and (c) the net effect of human activities since 1750 has led to a warming of the lower layers of the atmosphere, with an increased radiative forcing of 1.6 W m-2. Depending on the scenario of human population growth and global development, mean global temperatures could rise between 1.8 and 4.0 °C by the end of the 21st century.

Izaurralde, Roberto C.

2009-01-01

119

Global change: Acronyms and abbreviations  

SciTech Connect

This list of acronyms and abbreviations is compiled to provide the user with a ready reference to dicipher the linguistic initialisms and abridgements for the study of global change. The terms included in this first edition were selected from a wide variety of sources: technical reports, policy documents, global change program announcements, newsletters, and other periodicals. The disciplinary interests covered by this document include agriculture, atmospheric science, ecology, environmental science, oceanography, policy science, and other fields. In addition to its availability in hard copy, the list of acronyms and abbreviations is available in DOS-formatted diskettes and through CDIAC`s anonymous File Transfer Protocol (FTP) area on the Internet.

Woodard, C.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Stoss, F.W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center

1995-05-01

120

USACE JUNE 2014 Climate Change Adaptation Plan  

E-print Network

of Climate Change 5 2013-2014 Highlights 6 ADAPTATION POLICY STATEMENT 7 MAINSTREAM ADAPTATION 9 GOVERNANCE Science Working Group 19 National Climate Assessment 20 Climate Change and Water Working Group 20USACE JUNE 2014 Climate Change Adaptation Plan #12;2 INTRODUCTIONEXECUTIVE SUMMARY This USACE

US Army Corps of Engineers

121

Adapting California's Water Management to Climate Change  

E-print Network

Adapting California's Water Management to Climate Change Ellen Hanak and Jay Lund Supported. ADAPTATIONS TO CLIMATE CHANGE: OPTIONS AND COSTS 10 Available Adaptation Options 10 Water Supply 10 Flood Water Transfer Mechanisms 20 Changing Reservoir Operation Policy 21 New Policies for the Sacramento

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

122

Our Changing Climate 2012 Vulnerability & Adaptation  

E-print Network

Our Changing Climate 2012 Vulnerability & Adaptation to the Increasing Risks from Climate Change Climate Change Center to lead this effort. The 2009 Adaptation Strategy prepared by the California Natural Resources Agency also called for a statewide vulnerability and adaptation study. This report summarizes

123

Climate change impacts on global food security.  

PubMed

Climate change could potentially interrupt progress toward a world without hunger. A robust and coherent global pattern is discernible of the impacts of climate change on crop productivity that could have consequences for food availability. The stability of whole food systems may be at risk under climate change because of short-term variability in supply. However, the potential impact is less clear at regional scales, but it is likely that climate variability and change will exacerbate food insecurity in areas currently vulnerable to hunger and undernutrition. Likewise, it can be anticipated that food access and utilization will be affected indirectly via collateral effects on household and individual incomes, and food utilization could be impaired by loss of access to drinking water and damage to health. The evidence supports the need for considerable investment in adaptation and mitigation actions toward a "climate-smart food system" that is more resilient to climate change influences on food security. PMID:23908229

Wheeler, Tim; von Braun, Joachim

2013-08-01

124

Transformational adaptation when incremental adaptations to climate change are insufficient.  

PubMed

All human-environment systems adapt to climate and its natural variation. Adaptation to human-induced change in climate has largely been envisioned as increments of these adaptations intended to avoid disruptions of systems at their current locations. In some places, for some systems, however, vulnerabilities and risks may be so sizeable that they require transformational rather than incremental adaptations. Three classes of transformational adaptations are those that are adopted at a much larger scale, that are truly new to a particular region or resource system, and that transform places and shift locations. We illustrate these with examples drawn from Africa, Europe, and North America. Two conditions set the stage for transformational adaptation to climate change: large vulnerability in certain regions, populations, or resource systems; and severe climate change that overwhelms even robust human use systems. However, anticipatory transformational adaptation may be difficult to implement because of uncertainties about climate change risks and adaptation benefits, the high costs of transformational actions, and institutional and behavioral actions that tend to maintain existing resource systems and policies. Implementing transformational adaptation requires effort to initiate it and then to sustain the effort over time. In initiating transformational adaptation focusing events and multiple stresses are important, combined with local leadership. In sustaining transformational adaptation, it seems likely that supportive social contexts and the availability of acceptable options and resources for actions are key enabling factors. Early steps would include incorporating transformation adaptation into risk management and initiating research to expand the menu of innovative transformational adaptations. PMID:22509036

Kates, Robert W; Travis, William R; Wilbanks, Thomas J

2012-05-01

125

Transformational adaptation when incremental adaptations to climate change are insufficient  

PubMed Central

All human–environment systems adapt to climate and its natural variation. Adaptation to human-induced change in climate has largely been envisioned as increments of these adaptations intended to avoid disruptions of systems at their current locations. In some places, for some systems, however, vulnerabilities and risks may be so sizeable that they require transformational rather than incremental adaptations. Three classes of transformational adaptations are those that are adopted at a much larger scale, that are truly new to a particular region or resource system, and that transform places and shift locations. We illustrate these with examples drawn from Africa, Europe, and North America. Two conditions set the stage for transformational adaptation to climate change: large vulnerability in certain regions, populations, or resource systems; and severe climate change that overwhelms even robust human use systems. However, anticipatory transformational adaptation may be difficult to implement because of uncertainties about climate change risks and adaptation benefits, the high costs of transformational actions, and institutional and behavioral actions that tend to maintain existing resource systems and policies. Implementing transformational adaptation requires effort to initiate it and then to sustain the effort over time. In initiating transformational adaptation focusing events and multiple stresses are important, combined with local leadership. In sustaining transformational adaptation, it seems likely that supportive social contexts and the availability of acceptable options and resources for actions are key enabling factors. Early steps would include incorporating transformation adaptation into risk management and initiating research to expand the menu of innovative transformational adaptations. PMID:22509036

Kates, Robert W.; Travis, William R.; Wilbanks, Thomas J.

2012-01-01

126

Climate variability and climate change vulnerability and adaptation. Workshop summary  

SciTech Connect

Representatives from fifteen countries met in Prague, Czech Republic, on September 11-15, 1995, to share results from the analysis of vulnerability and adaptation to global climate change. The workshop focused on the issues of global climate change and its impacts on various sectors of a national economy. The U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which has been signed by more than 150 governments worldwide, calls on signatory parties to develop and communicate measures they are implementing to respond to global climate change. An analysis of a country`s vulnerability to changes in the climate helps it identify suitable adaptation measures. These analyses are designed to determine the extent of the impacts of global climate change on sensitive sectors such as agricultural crops, forests, grasslands and livestock, water resources, and coastal areas. Once it is determined how vulnerable a country may be to climate change, it is possible to identify adaptation measures for ameliorating some or all of the effects.The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: Provide an opportunity for countries to describe their study results; Encourage countries to learn from the experience of the more complete assessments and adjust their studies accordingly; Identify issues and analyses that require further investigation; and Summarize results and experiences for governmental and intergovernmental organizations.

Bhatti, N.; Cirillo, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Dixon, R.K. [U.S. Country Studies Program, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

127

Assessment of global aridity change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing demand for water and the anticipated impacts of climate change necessitate a more reliable assessment of water availability for proper planning and management. Adequate understanding of the past changes in water resources availability can offer crucial information about potential changes in the future. Aridity is a reliable representation of potential water availability, especially at large scales. The present study investigates the changes in global aridity since 1960. The study considers the UNESCO aridity index, with aridity being represented as a function of its two key drivers: precipitation (P) and potential evapotranspiration (PET). First, published literature on changes in trends of P, PET, and aridity across the world is surveyed. This is followed by the analysis of trends in the aridity observations over the period 1960-2009. The nonparametric Mann-Kendall test is performed for trend analysis and outcomes investigated for the presence of clusters of trend across different grid cells the analysis is conducted over. The results suggest that arid zones are becoming slightly more humid and vice versa. They also indicate that the trend in aridity changed, or even reversed, around 1980 in most parts of the world. We speculate that the reason for this was the dramatic change (rise) in global temperature around 1980 as per both published literature and the present analysis, which, in turn, caused similar trends for global PET. We also call for additional research to verify, and possibly confirm, the present results.

Asadi Zarch, Mohammad Amin; Sivakumar, Bellie; Sharma, Ashish

2015-01-01

128

Global climate change: the quantifiable sustainability challenge.  

PubMed

Population growth and the pressures spawned by increasing demands for energy and resource-intensive goods, foods, and services are driving unsustainable growth in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Recent GHG emission trends are consistent with worst-case scenarios of the previous decade. Dramatic and near-term emission reductions likely will be needed to ameliorate the potential deleterious impacts of climate change. To achieve such reductions, fundamental changes are required in the way that energy is generated and used. New technologies must be developed and deployed at a rapid rate. Advances in carbon capture and storage, renewable, nuclear and transportation technologies are particularly important; however, global research and development efforts related to these technologies currently appear to fall short relative to needs. Even with a proactive and international mitigation effort, humanity will need to adapt to climate change, but the adaptation needs and damages will be far greater if mitigation activities are not pursued in earnest. In this review, research is highlighted that indicates increasing global and regional temperatures and ties climate changes to increasing GHG emissions. GHG mitigation targets necessary for limiting future global temperature increases are discussed, including how factors such as population growth and the growing energy intensity of the developing world will make these reduction targets more challenging. Potential technological pathways for meeting emission reduction targets are examined, barriers are discussed, and global and US. modeling results are presented that suggest that the necessary pathways will require radically transformed electric and mobile sectors. While geoengineering options have been proposed to allow more time for serious emission reductions, these measures are at the conceptual stage with many unanswered cost, environmental, and political issues. Implications: This paper lays out the case that mitigating the potential for catastrophic climate change will be a monumental challenge, requiring the global community to transform its energy system in an aggressive, coordinated, and timely manner. If this challenge is to be met, new technologies will have to be developed and deployed at a rapid rate. Advances in carbon capture and storage, renewable, nuclear, and transportation technologies are particularly important. Even with an aggressive international mitigation effort, humanity will still need to adapt to significant climate change. PMID:25282995

Princiotta, Frank T; Loughlin, Daniel H

2014-09-01

129

Global Climate Change: Impact and Remediation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This “clicker case” is a continuation of another case in our collection, “Global Climate Change: Evidence and Causes,” in which students assumed the role of an intern working for a U.S. senator so that they could advise the senator on future policy decisions. In this case, students learn about the impact and effects of global climate change as well as technologies and practices available to remediate the impact of climate effects. The case was designed for use in a one-semester introductory biology course taken primarily by freshmen and sophomores to fulfill a general education requirement, but could be used in any introductory biology course or in an ecology or environmental science course. It consists of a PowerPoint presentation (~2.2MB) presented in class that is punctuated by multiple-choice questions students respond to using personal response systems, or “clickers.”  The case can be adapted for use without these technologies.

Maureen Knabb

2010-01-01

130

Global Climate Change: Evidence and Causes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This “clicker case” begins by assessing students’ impressions of global climate change and the role that human activities play in recent global warming trends. Students assume the role of an intern working for a U.S. senator. They need to understand the scientific evidence for human impact on climate change so that they can advise the senator on future policy decisions. The case was designed for use in a one-semester introductory biology course taken primarily by freshmen and sophomores to fulfill a general education requirement, but could be used in any introductory biology course or in an ecology or environmental science course. It consists of a PowerPoint presentation (~1.6MB) presented in class that is punctuated by multiple-choice questions students respond to using personal response systems (“clickers”). The case can be adapted for use without these technologies.

Maureen Knabb

2010-01-01

131

Global Climate Change: Impact and Remediation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This "clicker case" is a continuation of another case study "Global Climate Change: Evidence and Causes". Students assume the role of an intern working for a U.S. senator to learn about the effects of global climate change as well as technologies and practices available to remediate the impact of climate effects. The case was designed for use in a one-semester introductory biology course taken primarily by freshmen and sophomores to fulfill a general education requirement, but could be used in any introductory biology course or in an ecology or environmental science course. It consists of a PowerPoint presentation (2.2MB) presented in class that is punctuated by multiple-choice questions students respond to using personal responses systems, or "clickers." The case can be adapted for use without these technologies.

Maureen Knabb

132

Global Climate Change Briefing Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents general resources and legislative issues related to global climate change. The site includes greenhouse gas sources, trends and effects on the environment, the text of the Kyoto Protocol, and a glossary with acronyms. Other topics such as legal, economic and energy issues are also covered, and links to the latest updates on climate change from the White House and the National Academy of Sciences are found here.

Congressional Research Service

133

GLOBAL CHANGE MULTI-YEAR PLAN  

EPA Science Inventory

The Global Change Research Act of 1990 establishes the U.S. Global Change Research Program to coordinate a comprehensive research program on global change. This is an inter-Agency effort, with EPA bearing responsibility to assess the consequences of global change on human health,...

134

Postdoc fellows present global change research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multidisciplinary researchers studying various areas of global change met in Santa Fe, New Mexico, last November to exchange ideas. “New Research in the Science of Global Change: A Multidisciplinary View” fostered the interdisciplinary networking that is crucial for integrating global change research and addressing environmental issues. The workshop featured presentations by the Department of Energy's Global Change Distinguished Postdoctoral Fellows.

Engle, Joanna; Holmes, Linda; Olsen, Curtis

135

Global Climate Change Interaction Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students investigate the effects of global climate change on life in the Great Lakes region in this activity. Teams working together construct as many links as possible for such factors as rainfall, lake water, evaporation, skiing, zebra mussels, wetlands, shipping, walleye, toxic chemicals, coastal homes, and population. (PVD)

Fortner, Rosanne W.

1998-01-01

136

Global Change Education Resource Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended as an aid to educators who conduct programs and activities on climate and global change issues for a variety of audiences. The selected set of currently available materials are appropriate for both formal and informal programs in environmental education and can help frame and clarify some of the key issues associated with…

Mortensen, Lynn L., Ed.

137

Rust fungi and global change.  

PubMed

Rust fungi are important components of ecological communities and in ecosystem function. Their unique life strategies as biotrophic pathogens with complicated life cycles could make them vulnerable to global environmental change. While there are gaps in our knowledge, especially in natural plant–rust systems, this review of the exposure of rust fungi to global change parameters revealed that some host–rust relationships would decline under predicted environmental change scenarios, whereas others would either remain unchanged or become more prevalent. Notably, some graminicolous rusts are negatively affected by higher temperatures and increased concentrations of atmospheric CO2. An increase of atmospheric O3 appears to favour rust diseases on trees but not those on grasses. Combined effects of CO2 and O3 are intermediary. The most important global drivers for the geographical and host plant range expansion and prevalence of rusts, however, are global plant trade, host plant genetic homogenization and the regular occurrence of conducive environmental conditions, especially the availability of moisture. However, while rusts thrive in high-humidity environments, they can also survive in desert habitats, and as a group their environmental tolerance is large, with no conclusive change in their overall prevalence predictable to date. PMID:24558651

Helfer, Stephan

2014-02-01

138

Global Climate Change: Why Understanding the Scientific Enterprise Matters  

E-print Network

Global Climate Change: Why Understanding the Scientific Enterprise Matters Ellen MosleyPolar/ByrdPolarhttp://bprc.osu.edu/ Understanding Climate Change Risks and Identifying Opportunities for Mitigation & Adaptation in Ohio Ohio State University, May 15, 2014 #12;Key Points Earth's climate is changing - the world is warming ­ that debate

Howat, Ian M.

139

Fisheries and Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When populations of harvestable fish start to decline, managers look for explanations of the changes throughout the Earth system. In this activity, the impact of global climate change on marine and Great Lakes fish is considered. First, decline in the striped bass population of the North Atlantic, noted in the Downeaster Alexa song by Billy Joel, is examined with spreadsheet analysis and on-line searches of National Marine Fisheries Service databases. In a second investigation, ArcView generates a model of the Lake Erie depths that could be associated with global climate change (shallower water). Students identify fish species that use nearshore shallows for spawning and nursery areas, and speculate on the impact of the lower water. In both activities, the thermal niche of the species is considered as a factor in where fish populations may migrate with new climate regimes.

Rosanne Fortner

2002-07-31

140

Global Environmental Change: Introduced Species  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Human activity has introduced species to ecosystems around the globe. Some species are benign or even beneficial; others, like zebra mussels, fire ants, and water hyacinths, are causing native species extinctions and damage to human systems. Can we balance human systems with natural processes? Seven activities--using pillbugs, the school grounds, species dispersal maps, and introductory genetics--provide students with the skills they need to address this important global question. Introduced Species is one of four books in NSTA Press's Global Environmental Change series, a joint project of NSTA Press and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The other books in the series are Deforestation, Biodiversity, and Carrying Capacity.

Environmental Protection Agency

1998-01-01

141

Global Change in the Holocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many people, even perhaps the occasional Eos reader, associate the term ``global change'' with warming caused by mankind's recent addiction to fossil fuels. Some may also be well aware of enormous global changes in the distant past uninfluenced by humans; for example, Pleistocene ice ages. But was there any ``global change'' between the end of the last ice age and the onset of industrialization? The answer to this question is addressed early-in the title, even-in the new book Global Change in the Holocene. I don't suggest anyone stop reading after the title, though; the rest of the book is both highly informative and a real pleasure to read. The opening chapter tells us that the Holocene is certainly not, as sometimes charged, a ``bland, pastoral coda to the contrasted movements of a stirring Pleistocene symphony.'' Rather, it is a ``period of continuous change.'' Melodious language aside, the combination of sustained and high-amplitude climatic variability and a wealth of well-preserved, precisely datable paleoclimate archives make the Holocene unique. Only by studying the Holocene can we hope to unravel the low-frequency workings of the Earth system and the degree to which humans have changed our world. This book sets out to teach the reader how to obtain the relevant data and how to use it to do much more than showing static analogues of possible future climate states. It challenges researchers to discern in their data the effects of the dynamic processes underlying coupled variability in the Earth's climate and ecosystems. These processes continue to act today, and it is through providing an understanding of these system dynamics in the Holocene that paleo-environmental studies can make the greatest contribution to future-oriented concerns.

Alverson, Keith

2004-05-01

142

Adaptation Policy Frameworks for Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation is a process by which individuals, communities and countries seek to cope with the consequences of climate change. The process of adaptation is not new; the idea of incorporating future climate risk into policy-making is. While our understanding of climate change and its potential impacts has become clearer, the availability of practical guidance on adaptation has not kept pace.

Bo Lim; Erika Spanger-Siegfried; Ian Burton; Eizabeth Malone; Saleemul Huq

2004-01-01

143

Global Change Resources, Projects, and Tools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contains 16 articles that discuss activities relating to global change, including world data centers; the Global Change Master Directory, the Global Change Data and Information System (GCDIS) gopher, Project Earthlink, Government Information Locator Service, Global Land Information System, National Resources Inventory, Earth System Science…

Stoss, Fred; And Others

1995-01-01

144

Adaptation to the new land or effect of global warming? An age-structured model for rapid voltinism change in an alien lepidopteran pest.  

PubMed

1. Hyphantria cunea Drury invaded Japan at Tokyo in 1945 and expanded its distribution gradually into northern and south-western Japan. All populations in Japan were bivoltine until the early 1970s, at which time trivoltine populations appeared in several southern regions. Presently, H. cunea exists as separate bivoltine and trivoltine populations divided around latitude 36 degrees . In the course of this voltinism change, the mean surface temperature in Japan rose by 1.0 degrees C. 2. To determine whether and how this temperature increase might be responsible for the voltinism change, we constructed an age-structured model incorporating growth speed driven by actual daily temperature and detailed mechanisms of diapause induction triggered by both daily photoperiod and temperature. 3. The simulation result suggests that both the acceleration of the growth speed and the prolongation of diapause induction are necessary to cause changes in voltinism, regardless of temperature increase. We concluded that the H. cunea population changed its life-history traits as an adaptation parallel with its invasion into the south-western parts of Japan. 4. Though the temperature increase had little effect on the fitness and heat stress in bivoltine and trivoltine populations, the trivoltine life cycle has become advantageous at least in marginal regions such as Tokyo. PMID:18266693

Yamanaka, Takehiko; Tatsuki, Sadahiro; Shimada, Masakazu

2008-05-01

145

Global Climate Change Policy Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website summarizes the current administration's approach to global climate change, including the President's Program of Domestic and International Initiatives. These include a national goal to reduce emissions growth by 18 percent in the next ten years, substantially improve the emission reduction registry, protect and provide transferable credits for emissions reduction, increase funding for America's commitment to climate change, take action on the Science and Technology Review and a range of international climate initiatives. Descriptions of these programs, as well as their costs, are included.

The White House

146

Do global circulation patterns change?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate is changing. As one of the consequences it is expected that intensity and/or track of stronger cyclones will change. This is because climate change is likely modifying the global circulation pattern which - in turn - significantly drives the cyclones. Consequently, possible variations in the Brewer-Dobson circulation are currently discussed in the scientific community. Even an effect on the circulation in the mesosphere is expected due to changed filter characteristics for the propagation of gravity waves. The global circulation in middle latitudes is mainly characterised by the activity of planetary (Rossby-) waves. In order to investigate possible longer term changes in the planetary wave activity we used total column ozone data since they can be used as a conservative tracer for atmospheric dynamics. We analysed the 25 year TOMS total column ozone data record (1978 - 2005) in the Northern Hemisphere. Longitudinal and latitudinal dependant ozone trends are revealed. Sinusoidal structures in the longitudinal trend behaviour are interpreted in terms of planetary wave activity. This is tentatively interpreted as a trend predominantly in the planetary waves with zonal wave numbers one and two, respectively. It is shown that the meridional structure of the trend is similar to a Hough-function. Consequences for the occurrence of so-called "streamer events", which show up more frequently over Europe, are presented; the impact on regional atmospheric heating/cooling is discussed.

Bittner, M.; Wüst, S.

2010-09-01

147

Earth's Climate and Global Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on the way climate affects our world. Global climate, regional climate, and climate change are all explained. There is an important section on what controls climate change, like the sun, volcanic eruptions, greenhouse gases, snow, and ice. there is a module called Energy Choices and Climate Change that provides a new way to look at issues related to energy and climate change. In the scenarios within this module, you will be able to make decisions about the types and amount of energy used and see what effect your decisions have on the amount of greenhouse gases emitted to the atmosphere. Your goal is to reduce the amount of warming greenhouse gases added to the atmosphere from fossil fuel emissions while keeping costs within reason.

2004-05-11

148

Integrating climate change adaptation into forest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future climate change will affect society's ability to use forest resources. We take account of climate in forest management and this will help us adapt to the effects of climate change on forests. However, society will have to adjust to how forests adapt by changing expectations for the use of forest resources because management can only influence the timing and

David L. Spittlehouse

2005-01-01

149

A Survey of Climate Change Adaptation Planning  

E-print Network

A Survey of Climate Change Adaptation Planning THE H. JOHN HEINZ III CENTER FOR SCIENCE, ECONOMICS, Uncertainty and Decision-Making" "Handbook on Methods for Climate Change Impact Assessment and Adaptation of climate change worldwide. Concerns about causes and effects have moved beyond the realm of scientific

Ford, Andrew

150

Outreach and Adaptive Strategies for Climate Change  

E-print Network

Outreach and Adaptive Strategies for Climate Change: The Role of NOAA Sea Grant Extension years and generations about how to adapt to a changing climate. Effective preparation for possible effects of climate change includes engagement of resource managers, planners, public works officials

151

Adaptation Policy Frameworks for Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adaptation is a process by which individuals, communities and countries seek to cope with the consequences of climate change. The process of adaptation is not new; the idea of incorporating future climate risk into policy-making is. While our understanding of climate change and its potential impacts has become clearer, the availability of practical guidance on adaptation has not kept pace. The development of the Adaptation Policy Framework (APF) is intended to help provide the rapidly evolving process of adaptation policy-making with a much-needed roadmap. Ultimately, the purpose of the APF is to support adaptation processes to protect - and enhance - human well-being in the face of climate change. This volume will be invaluable for everyone working on climate change adaptation and policy-making.

Lim, Bo; Spanger-Siegfried, Erika; Burton, Ian; Malone, Eizabeth; Huq, Saleemul

2004-11-01

152

Climate change adaptation in the ski industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regardless of the success of climate change mitigation efforts, the international community has concluded that societies around\\u000a the world will need to adapt to some magnitude of climate change in the 21st century. While some economic sectors (e.g., agriculture,\\u000a water resources and construction) have been actively engaged in climate change adaptation research for years, adaptation has\\u000a received scant consideration within

Daniel Scott; Geoff McBoyle

2007-01-01

153

Global Environmental Change: Carrying Capacity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Carrying Capacity addresses the ability of the Earth to sustain healthy populations of different species. Earth's human population, now past six billion, is expected to reach 10 billion by 2030. This growth will place an even greater strain on the planet's carrying capacity. With your school as a case study, link small-scale biology, ecology, and Earth science to the big picture. Carrying Capacity is one of four books in NSTA Press's Global Environmental Change series, a joint project of NSTA Press and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The other books in the series are Deforestation, Biodiversity, and Introduced Species.

Environmental Protection Agency

1997-01-01

154

The rate of environmental change drives adaptation to an antibiotic sink  

E-print Network

of antibiotic resistance is a clear example of rapid and sustained adaptation that is of global concern to human B I O L O G Y Keywords: adaptation; antibiotic resistance; bacteria; environmental change; evolutionThe rate of environmental change drives adaptation to an antibiotic sink G. G. PERRON,* A. GONZALEZ

Gonzalez, Andrew

155

Global Climate Change Earth, 1972, Apollo 17,  

E-print Network

climate." December 1995. #12;Human-Induced Global Warming? Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ChangeGlobal Climate Change Earth, 1972, Apollo 17, 29,000 km into space. #12;Natural Variation of the earth. Global Change Impacts 2009. #12;Human Impacts on Climate Greenhouse effect easily tested

Hansen, Andrew J.

156

Adapting to Climate Change in Wisconsin Strategies for Conservation Professionals  

E-print Network

scientific consensus that earth's atmosphere is warming. WICCI is concerned with the impacts of that warming -Governor's Task Force on Global Warming addressed ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Acting Change Impacts Identifying Impacts and Adaptation Strategies Evaluate potential effects on industry

Sheridan, Jennifer

157

RISKS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Adaptation is an important approach for protecting human health, ecosystems, and economic systems from the risks posed by climate variability and change, and to exploit beneficial opportunities provided by a changing climate. This paper presents nine fundamental principles that ...

158

Global climate change and children's health.  

PubMed

There is broad scientific consensus that Earth's climate is warming rapidly and at an accelerating rate. Human activities, primarily the burning of fossil fuels, are very likely (>90% probability) to be the main cause of this warming. Climate-sensitive changes in ecosystems are already being observed, and fundamental, potentially irreversible, ecological changes may occur in the coming decades. Conservative environmental estimates of the impact of climate changes that are already in process indicate that they will result in numerous health effects to children. The nature and extent of these changes will be greatly affected by actions taken or not taken now at the global level. Physicians have written on the projected effects of climate change on public health, but little has been written specifically on anticipated effects of climate change on children's health. Children represent a particularly vulnerable group that is likely to suffer disproportionately from both direct and indirect adverse health effects of climate change. Pediatric health care professionals should understand these threats, anticipate their effects on children's health, and participate as children's advocates for strong mitigation and adaptation strategies now. Any solutions that address climate change must be developed within the context of overall sustainability (the use of resources by the current generation to meet current needs while ensuring that future generations will be able to meet their needs). Pediatric health care professionals can be leaders in a move away from a traditional focus on disease prevention to a broad, integrated focus on sustainability as synonymous with health. This policy statement is supported by a technical report that examines in some depth the nature of the problem of climate change, likely effects on children's health as a result of climate change, and the critical importance of responding promptly and aggressively to reduce activities that are contributing to this change. PMID:17967923

Shea, Katherine M

2007-11-01

159

Adaptation to climate change in the Ontario public health sector  

PubMed Central

Background Climate change is among the major challenges for health this century, and adaptation to manage adverse health outcomes will be unavoidable. The risks in Ontario – Canada’s most populous province – include increasing temperatures, more frequent and intense extreme weather events, and alterations to precipitation regimes. Socio-economic-demographic patterns could magnify the implications climate change has for Ontario, including the presence of rapidly growing vulnerable populations, exacerbation of warming trends by heat-islands in large urban areas, and connectedness to global transportation networks. This study examines climate change adaptation in the public health sector in Ontario using information from interviews with government officials. Methods Fifty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted, four with provincial and federal health officials and 49 with actors in public health and health relevant sectors at the municipal level. We identify adaptation efforts, barriers and opportunities for current and future intervention. Results Results indicate recognition that climate change will affect the health of Ontarians. Health officials are concerned about how a changing climate could exacerbate existing health issues or create new health burdens, specifically extreme heat (71%), severe weather (68%) and poor air-quality (57%). Adaptation is currently taking the form of mainstreaming climate change into existing public health programs. While adaptive progress has relied on local leadership, federal support, political will, and inter-agency efforts, a lack of resources constrains the sustainability of long-term adaptation programs and the acquisition of data necessary to support effective policies. Conclusions This study provides a snapshot of climate change adaptation and needs in the public health sector in Ontario. Public health departments will need to capitalize on opportunities to integrate climate change into policies and programs, while higher levels of government must improve efforts to support local adaptation and provide the capacity through which local adaptation can succeed. PMID:22712716

2012-01-01

160

``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' scientific report ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' Team  

E-print Network

``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' scientific report ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' Team following its creation, the ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' team had to make its proofs in order & Global Change 3 1 INTRODUCTION 4 1.1 Overview of the team activities

161

Frontiers in Global Change Seminar Series  

E-print Network

Frontiers in Global Change Seminar Series Impact of Climate Change on Global Viticulture Presented climate-induced changes to date and those projected in 2050 and 2100 for 24 of the world's major wine by climate change. This presentation will review the various stages of grape phenology, the impact of climate

162

Global Climate Change Earth, 1972, Apollo 17,  

E-print Network

frequent, and longer-lasting heat waves. #12;Projected Future Precipitation · Increase in global average the paleo record of the earth. Global Change Impacts 2009. #12;Has Climate Changed as Predicted? #12;McCarthy 2009. Has Climate Changed as Predicted? #12;Mann et al. 2008 Has Climate Changed as Predicted? #12

Hansen, Andrew J.

163

Numerical Methods for Globally Optimal Adaptive IIR Filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the potential for (i) developing globally optimal adaptive IIR filtering algorithms using numerical global optimization methods and (ii) proving absolute convergence of existing algorithms using analytical results available for these global optimization methods. The primary objective of this work is to overcome the performance losses incurred due to convergence to local minima or to suboptimal equation error

Virginia L. Stonick; S. T. Alexander

1990-01-01

164

Overview-Climate Change and Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change poses a grave threat to sustainability. The first section of Sustainability2009: The Next Horizon, therefore, is devoted to Climate Change and Adaptation. Contributions focus on the historical consequences of climate change for human societies, as well as the effects of current climate change on sea level, lightning intensity, fire, the El Nin~o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and hurricane intensity. Chapters

Richard B. Aronson

2009-01-01

165

Overview—Climate Change and Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change poses a grave threat to sustainability. The first section of Sustainability2009: The Next Horizon, therefore, is devoted to Climate Change and Adaptation. Contributions focus on the historical consequences of climate change for human societies, as well as the effects of current climate change on sea level, lightning intensity, fire, the El Nin˜o—Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and hurricane intensity. Chapters

Richard B. Aronson

2009-01-01

166

GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The production of greenhouse gases due to anthropogenic activities may have begun to change the global climate. he global carbon cycle plays a significant role in projected climate change. owever, considerable uncertainty exists regarding pools and flux in the global cycle. iven ...

167

Climate change and health: impacts, vulnerability, adaptation and mitigation.  

PubMed

Global climate change is progressing and health impacts have been observed in a number of countries, including Australia. The main health impacts will be due to direct heat exposure, extreme weather, air pollution, reduced local food production, food- and vectorborne infectious diseases and mental stress. The issue is one of major public health importance. Adaptation to reduce the effects of climate change involves many different sectors to minimise negative health outcomes. Wide-scale mitigation is also required, in order to reduce the effects of climate change. In addition, future urban design must be modified to mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate change. Strategies for mitigation and adaptation can create co-benefits for both individual and community health, by reducing non-climate-related health hazard exposures and by encouraging health promoting behaviours and lifestyles. PMID:19261209

Kjellstrom, Tord; Weaver, Haylee J

2009-01-01

168

Global Climate Change: The Effects of Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students conduct an experiment to learn about CO2 levels found in four different gases. Through this experiment and a set of multimedia resources, they will learn how atmospheric levels of CO2 relate to climate change and global warming, explore the effects of global warming on the environment (as indicated by the changes in Earth's glacial ice), and consider human contributions to global warming, particularly from the use of automobiles.

2005-01-01

169

CLIMATE CHANGE AND GLOBAL ISOPRENE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Emission of isoprene from vegetation affects tropospheric chemistry at the regional and global scales. rojected global climate change will potentially alter emission rates, with corresponding influences on concentrations of ozone and other radiatively important trace gases. rogre...

170

Adaptation to Global Warming: Do Climate Models Tell Us What We Need to Know? Author(s): Naomi Oreskes, David A. Stainforth, Leonard A. Smith  

E-print Network

Adaptation to Global Warming: Do Climate Models Tell Us What We Need to Know? Author(s): Naomi. All rights reserved. 1012 Adaptation to Global Warming: Do Climate Models Tell Us What We Need to Know) for a synthesis of three Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) working groups. #12;ADAPTATION TO GLOBAL

Stevenson, Paul

171

SCALE, CONTEXT, AND DECISION MAKING IN AGRICULTURAL ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CHANGE  

E-print Network

, agriculture, climate change, decision-making, variability 1. Introduction The global agricultural industrySCALE, CONTEXT, AND DECISION MAKING IN AGRICULTURAL ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CHANGE of climate variability and change in agricultural adaptation, and developed for a case study of Australian

Risbey, James S.

172

Climate change and standing freshwaters: informing adaptation strategies for conservation at  

E-print Network

Climate change and standing freshwaters: informing adaptation strategies for conservation received 26 July 2012 Climate change will have a major impact on freshwater environments globally and producing well-informed climate change adaptation strategies is a priority. Links between climate, hydrology

Hammerton, James

173

U.S. Global Change Research Program National Climate Assessment Global Change Information System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The program: a) Coordinates Federal research to better understand and prepare the nation for global change. b) Priori4zes and supports cutting edge scientific work in global change. c) Assesses the state of scientific knowledge and the Nation s readiness to respond to global change. d) Communicates research findings to inform, educate, and engage the global community.

Tilmes, Curt

2012-01-01

174

SCIENTIFIC LINKAGES IN GLOBAL CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

In the atmosphere, certain trace gases both promote global warming and deplete the ozone layer. he primary radiatively active trace gases, those that affect global warming, are carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, methane, and tropospheric ozone. n the troposphere,...

175

Modelling global multi-conjugated adaptive optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recently proposed concept of Global MCAO (GMCAO) aims to look for Natural Guide Stars in a very wide technical Field of View (FoV), to increase the overall sky coverage, and deals with the consequent depth of focus reduction introducing numerically a quite-high number of Virtual Deformable Mirrors (VDMs), which are then the starting point for an optimization of the real DMs shapes for the correction of the -smaller- scientific FoV. To translate the GMCAO concept into a real system, a number of parameters requires to be analyzed and optimized, like the number of references and VDMs to be used, the technical FoV size, the spatial samplings, the sensing wavelength. These and some other major choices, like the open loop WFSs concept and design, will then drive the requirements and the performance of the system (e.g. limiting magnitude, linear response, and sensitivity). This paper collects some major results of the on-going study on the feasibility of an Adaptive Optics system for the E-ELT, based on GMCAO, with a particular emphasis on the sky coverage issue. Besides the sensitivity analysis of the optimization of the already mentioned parameters, such a topic involves the implementation of an IDL code simulation tool to estimate the system performance in terms of Strehl Ratio in a 2×2 arcmin FoV, when a variable number of NGSs and VDMs are used. Different technical FoV diameters for the references selection and various constellations can be also compared. This study could be the starting point for a dedicated laboratory testing and, in the future, an on-sky experiment at an 8m telescope with a "scaled down" demonstrator.

Viotto, Valentina; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Magrin, Demetrio; Bergomi, Maria; Dima, Marco; Farinato, Jacopo; Marafatto, Luca; Greggio, Davide

2014-08-01

176

Overview—Climate Change and Adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change poses a grave threat to sustainability. The first section of Sustainability2009: The Next Horizon, therefore, is devoted to Climate Change and Adaptation. Contributions focus on the historical consequences of climate change for human societies, as well as the effects of current climate change on sea level, lightning intensity, fire, the El Niño—Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and hurricane intensity. Chapters on fisheries and coral reefs highlight the cascading effects climatic warming, rising sea level, and ocean acidification. Adaptation to climate change and its consequences will be necessary to buy time for mitigation and reversal of the effects of greenhouse-gas emissions.

Aronson, Richard B.

2009-07-01

177

GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #15: WORKSHOP ON ANCILLARY BENEFITS AND COSTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE STRATEGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's Global Change Research Program is co-sponsoring a three-day workshop to examine possible ancillary benefits of climate change adaptation and mitigation policies. The goals of the workshop are: (1)to establish a common basis of understanding about the conceptual and empiric...

178

Adaptation to climate change in forest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation in forestry is sustainable forest management that includes a climate change focus. Climate change over the next 100 years is expected to have significant impacts on forest ecosystems. The forestry community needs to evaluate the long-term effects of climate change on forests and determine what the community might do now and in the future to respond to this threat.

David L. Spittlehouse; Robert B. Stewart

2003-01-01

179

Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation  

E-print Network

Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation David S. Liebl and Kenneth W. Potter Co;Statewide average 1.5°F warmer Change in Annual Average Temperature (°F) 1950 ­ 2006 Serbin and Kucharik 2009 #12;Change in Average Temperature 1950 ­ 2006 (°F) Winter Fall Summer Spring The greatest amount

Sheridan, Jennifer

180

CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATIONS FOR LOCAL WATER MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATIONS FOR LOCAL WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC Climate change will affect both sea level and the temporal and spatial distribution of runoff

181

Climate Change and Agriculture: Effects and Adaptation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This document is a synthesis of science literature on the effects of climate change on agriculture and issues associated with agricultural adaptation to climate change. Information is presented on how long-term changes in air temperatures, precipitation, and atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide wi...

182

Global change research: Science and policy  

SciTech Connect

This report characterizes certain aspects of the Global Change Research Program of the US Government, and its relevance to the short and medium term needs of policy makers in the public and private sectors. It addresses some of the difficulties inherent in the science and policy interface on the issues of global change. Finally, this report offers some proposals for improving the science for policy process in the context of global environmental change.

Rayner, S.

1993-05-01

183

Public Libraries: Adapting to Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a study of changing trends in public libraries. Interviews with public library leaders identified five areas of changing emphasis: information technology, community needs, strategic planning, public relations and marketing, and funding. (seven references) (EA)

Durrance, Joan; Van Fleet, Connie

1992-01-01

184

Impact of climate change on migratory birds: community reassembly versus adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim Species can respond to global climate change by range shifts or by phenotypic adaptation. At the community level, range shifts lead to a turnover of species, i.e. community reassembly. In contrast, phenotypic adaptation allows species to persist in situ , conserving community composition. So far, community reassembly and adaptation have mostly been studied separately. In nature, however, both processes

Hans-Christian Schaefer; Walter Jetz; Katrin Böhning-Gaese

2008-01-01

185

Global Biogeography and Local Adaptation of Streptomyces A DISSERTATION  

E-print Network

Global Biogeography and Local Adaptation of Streptomyces A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY--Resource use of soilborne Streptomyces varies with location, phylogeny, and nitrogen amendment-borne Streptomyces............................................................................34 Chapter 3

Weiblen, George D

186

Global Change and Human Vulnerability to Vector-Borne Diseases  

PubMed Central

Global change includes climate change and climate variability, land use, water storage and irrigation, human population growth and urbanization, trade and travel, and chemical pollution. Impacts on vector-borne diseases, including malaria, dengue fever, infections by other arboviruses, schistosomiasis, trypanosomiasis, onchocerciasis, and leishmaniasis are reviewed. While climate change is global in nature and poses unknown future risks to humans and natural ecosystems, other local changes are occurring more rapidly on a global scale and are having significant effects on vector-borne diseases. History is invaluable as a pointer to future risks, but direct extrapolation is no longer possible because the climate is changing. Researchers are therefore embracing computer simulation models and global change scenarios to explore the risks. Credible ranking of the extent to which different vector-borne diseases will be affected awaits a rigorous analysis. Adaptation to the changes is threatened by the ongoing loss of drugs and pesticides due to the selection of resistant strains of pathogens and vectors. The vulnerability of communities to the changes in impacts depends on their adaptive capacity, which requires both appropriate technology and responsive public health systems. The availability of resources in turn depends on social stability, economic wealth, and priority allocation of resources to public health. PMID:14726459

Sutherst, Robert W.

2004-01-01

187

Forecasting Agriculturally Driven Global Environmental Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the next 50 years, which is likely to be the final period of rapid agricultural expansion, demand for food by a wealthier and 50% larger global population will be a major driver of global environmental change. Should past dependences of the global environmental impacts of agriculture on human population and consumption continue, 109 hectares of natural ecosystems would be

David Tilman; Joseph Fargione; Brian Wolff; Carla D'Antonio; Andrew Dobson; Robert Howarth; David Schindler; William H. Schlesinger; Daniel Simberloff; Deborah Swackhamer

2001-01-01

188

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR FISHERIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Several government agencies are evaluating policy options for addressing global climate change. hese include planning for anticipated effects and developing mitigation options where feasible if climate does change as predicted. or fisheries resources, policy questions address eff...

189

HOW WILL GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AFFECT PARASITES?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

: Parasites are integral components of complex biotic assemblages that comprise the biosphere. Host switching correlated with episodic climate-change events are common in evolutionary and ecological time. Global climate change produces ecological perturbation, manifested in major geographical/pheno...

190

CLIMATE CHANGE GLOBAL ECONOMY How to decarbonise the global economy  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE · GLOBAL ECONOMY How to decarbonise the global economy Today's report on deep efforts of independent experts from 15 countries to find national pathways to making economies based-zero emissions sometime in the second half of this century. This deep cut should occur in a growing world economy

191

``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' scientific report 1 ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' Team  

E-print Network

``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' scientific report 1 ``Climate Modelling & Global Change of the tropical climate : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 6 2.2 Short­term variability studies : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 8 2.3 Climate drift sensitivity studies

192

Global Change and the Terrestrial Biosphere  

SciTech Connect

Terrestrial ecosystems sustain life on Earth through the production of food, fuel, fiber, clean air, and naturally purified water. But how will agriculture and ecosystems be affected by global change? Rogers describes the impact of projected climate change on the terrestrial biosphere and explains why plants are not just passive respondents to global change, but play an important role in determining the rate of change.

Alistair Rogers

2009-04-22

193

Climate Change Adaptation in the Urban Environment  

SciTech Connect

This overview chapter considers five questions that cut across the four case studies in the section to follow: (1) why are urban environments of particular interest; (2) what does an 'urban environment' mean as a focus for adaptation actions, (3) what do we know about climate change vulnerabilities and adaptation potentials in urban areas; (4) what can we expect in the future with adaptation in urban areas; and (5) what is happening with climate change adaptation in urban areas? After decades of inattention, adaptation to risks and impacts of climate change is now receiving long overdue attention, and it is only natural that a considerable share of this attention is focused on the places where most people live. This section considers climate change adaptation in the urban environment, defined as settings where human populations cluster - generally implying relatively large clusters, but not excluding smaller settlements that operate as coherent geopolitical and economic entities. Consistent with the topic of the book, the emphasis of this overview will be on urban environments in developed countries, but it will also draw on knowledge being developed from urban experiences across the globe.

Wilbanks, Thomas J [ORNL

2011-01-01

194

Terrestrial ecosystem feedbacks to global climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic greenhouse gases are expected to induce changes in global climate that can alter ecosystems in ways that, in turn, may further affect climate. Such climate-ecosystem interactions can generate either positive or negative feedbacks to the climate system, thereby either enhancing or diminishing the magnitude of global climate change. Important terrestrial feedback mechanisms include COâ fertilization (negative feedbacks), carbon storage

Daniel A. Lashof; Benjamin J. DeAngelo; Scott R. Saleska; John Harte

1997-01-01

195

Global Change in the Great Lakes: Scenarios.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ohio Sea Grant Education Program has produced this series of publications designed to help people understand how global change may affect the Great Lakes region. The possible implications of global change for this region of the world are explained in the hope that policymakers and individuals will be more inclined to make responsible decisions…

Garrison, Barbara K., Ed.; Rosser, Arrye R., Ed.

196

RESEARCH STRATEGY: GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Research Strategy of ORD's Global Change Research Program outlines a ten-year plan and a major redirection of the Program towards an emphasis on assessing the consequences of global change and on conducting research to support such assessments. Assessments will be conducted o...

197

Frontiers in Global Change Seminar Series  

E-print Network

Frontiers in Global Change Seminar Series A Life in Climate Science: From Identification Laboratory Abstract: Human-caused climate change is not a hypothetical future event. It is real, and we are experiencing it in our lifetimes. Despite compelling evidence of human effects on global climate

198

VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN  

E-print Network

VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURE A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012031 Commissioner), Chuck Dudley (President of the Yolo County Farm Bureau), John MottSmith (Yolo County Climate

199

Adaptation of agriculture to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparing agriculture for adaptation to climate change requires advance knowledge of how climate will change and when. The direct physical and biological impacts on plants and animals must be understood. The indirect impacts on agriculture's resource base of soils, water and genetic resources must also be known. We lack such information now and will, likely, for some time to come.

Norman J. Rosenberg

1992-01-01

200

Population Growth. Understanding Global Change: Earth Science and Human Impacts. Global Change Instruction Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Global Change Instruction Program was designed by college professors to fill a need for interdisciplinary materials on the emerging science of global change. This instructional module concentrates on interactions between population growth and human activities that produce global change. The materials are designed for undergraduate students…

Jacobsen, Judith E.

201

WHAT'S IN A NAME? GLOBAL WARMING VERSUS CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-print Network

WHAT'S IN A NAME? GLOBAL WARMING VERSUS CLIMATE CHANGE May 2014 #12;What's In A Name? Global Warming vs. Climate Change 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE NATIONAL SURVEY STUDY 2: GLOBAL WARMING VS. CLIMATE CHANGE............................ 10 Is global

Haller, Gary L.

202

Ecological Restoration and Global Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing consensus that global climate change occurs and that potential changes in climate are likely to have important regional consequences for biota and ecosystems. Ecological restoration, including (re)- afforestation and rehabilitation of degraded land, is included in the array of potential human responses to cli- mate change. However, the implications of climate change for the broader practice

James A. Harris; Richard J. Hobbs; Eric Higgs; James Aronson

2006-01-01

203

Frontiers in Global Change Seminar Series  

E-print Network

and Disasters Presented by... Dr. Chris Field Director, Department of Global Ecology Carnegie Institution or not these adaptations to average conditions address the full range of challenges, they tend to manage the risks from. There is a wide range of opportunities for reducing disaster risk and improving disaster response. The most

204

Global Warming and Climate Change Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change has emerged as a major scientific and political issue within a few short decades. Scientific evidence clearly indicates that this change is a result of a complex interplay between a number of human-related and natural earth systems. While the complexity of the earth-ocean-atmosphere system makes the understanding and prediction of global climate change very difficult, improved scientific

Atul Jain

2008-01-01

205

Global Change: Solutions? Combating climate change is local  

E-print Network

Global Change: Solutions? #12;Combating climate change is local · Win-win scenarios: ­ Ride a bike to school (healthy, cheap) ­ Eat fewer hamburgers (healthy) ­ Buy a programmable thermostat (saves

Schweik, Charles M.

206

Adapting agriculture to climate change: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The agricultural sector is highly vulnerable to future climate changes and climate variability, including increases in the incidence of extreme climate events. Changes in temperature and precipitation will result in changes in land and water regimes that will subsequently affect agricultural productivity. Given the gradual change of climate in the past, historically, farmers have adapted in an autonomous manner. However, with large and discrete climate change anticipated by the end of this century, planned and transformational changes will be needed. In light of these, the focus of this review is on farm-level and farmers responses to the challenges of climate change both spatially and over time. In this review of adapting agriculture to climate change, the nature, extent, and causes of climate change are analyzed and assessed. These provide the context for adapting agriculture to climate change. The review identifies the binding constraints to adaptation at the farm level. Four major priority areas are identified to relax these constraints, where new initiatives would be required, i.e., information generation and dissemination to enhance farm-level awareness, research and development (R&D) in agricultural technology, policy formulation that facilitates appropriate adaptation at the farm level, and strengthening partnerships among the relevant stakeholders. Forging partnerships among R&D providers, policy makers, extension agencies, and farmers would be at the heart of transformational adaptation to climate change at the farm level. In effecting this transformational change, sustained efforts would be needed for the attendant requirements of climate and weather forecasting and innovation, farmer's training, and further research to improve the quality of information, invention, and application in agriculture. The investment required for these would be highly significant. The review suggests a sequenced approach through grouping research initiatives into short-term, medium-term, and long-term initiatives, with each initiative in one stage contributing to initiatives in a subsequent stage. The learning by doing inherent in such a process-oriented approach is a requirement owing to the many uncertainties associated with climate change.

Anwar, Muhuddin Rajin; Liu, De Li; Macadam, Ian; Kelly, Georgina

2013-07-01

207

Review of Global Change Research Program plan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The draft 10-year strategic plan for the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), which proposes broadening the scope of the program from climate change only to climate change and climaterelated global changes, “is an important step in the right direction,” according to a 5 January review of the plan by a committee of the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academies. However, the committee also said that the program's legislative mandate is even broader in allowing USGCRP to address many aspects of global change including climate change, the global hydrological cycle, and widespread land use changes. “The Program's legislative mandate is to address all of global change, whether or not related to climate. The Committee concurs that this broader scope is appropriate, but realizes that such an expansion may be constrained by budget realities and by the practical challenge of maintaining clear boundaries for an expanded program,” the report states. “We encourage sustained efforts to expand the Program over time, along with efforts to better define and prioritize what specific topics are included within the bounds of global change research.”

Showstack, Randy

2012-01-01

208

Global River Flood Risk in a Changing World (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding is the most frequent and damaging natural hazard for society globally. Over the last decades, we have seen indications that the impacts of flooding are becoming more severe. The increases in risk may be cause by on the one hand increasing frequency and intensity of flood events under climate change, and on the other, by growing potential impacts due to increases in population and the economic utilization of flood prone areas. In 2012, the global damage from floods was estimated to be about US 29 billion. For the first half of 2013, the global damage was already estimated to be US 45 billion. Almost half of this amount was due to river flooding such as the devastating floods in East Germany in June 2013. In this contribution we give insights into the size and causes of growth of river flood risk in the future and the consequences for adaptation investments. We investigate this by comparing estimates of current and future river flood risk at the global scale, taking into account that risks are likely to grow due to changes in climate change and socio-economic development. The flood risk estimates are based on a validated physical global flood risk model that utilizes current meteorological data, as well as climate scenario data as forcing to estimate hazard, and current as well as future socio-economic conditions as drivers for flood impact. Our study reveals that flood risk changes are very diverse from region to region, as are the drivers of that change. The results emphasize the importance of future investments in flood risk adaptation across the world and show which adaptation strategies should receive most attention.

Winsemius, H.; Ward, P.; Bouwman, A.; Van Beek, L. P.; Jongman, B.; Stehfest, E.; Bierkens, M. F.; Aerts, J.; Ligtvoet, W.; Kwadijk, J.; Sperna Weiland, F.

2013-12-01

209

Mutations in Global Regulators Lead to Metabolic Selection during Adaptation to Complex Environments  

SciTech Connect

Adaptation to ecologically complex environments can provide insights into the evolutionary dynamics and functional constraints encountered by organisms during natural selection. Unlike adaptation to a single limiting resource, adaptation to a new environment with abundant and varied resources can be difficult to achieve by small incremental changes since many mutations are required to achieve even modest gains in fitness. Since changing complex environments are quite common in nature, we investigated how such an epistatic bottleneck can be avoided to allow rapid adaptation. We show that adaptive mutations arise repeatedly in independently evolved populations in the context of greatly increased genetic and phenotypic diversity. We go on to show that weak selection requiring substantial metabolic reprogramming can be readily achieved by mutations in the global response regulator arcA and the stress response regulator rpoS. We identified 46 unique single-nucleotide variants of arcA and 18 mutations in rpoS, nine of which resulted in stop codons or large deletions, suggesting that a subtle modulation of ArcA function and knockouts of rpoS are largely responsible for the metabolic shifts leading to adaptation. These mutations allow a higher order “metabolic selection” that eliminates epistatic bottlenecks, which could occur when many changes would be required. Proteomic and carbohydrate analysis of adapting E. coli populations revealed an up-regulation of enzymes associated with the TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism and an increase in the secretion of putrescine. The overall effect of adaptation across populations is to redirect and efficiently utilize uptake and catabolism of abundant amino acids. Concomitantly, there is a pronounced spread of more ecologically limited strains that results from specialization through metabolic erosion. Remarkably, the global regulators arcA and rpoS can provide a “one-step” mechanism of adaptation to a novel environment, which highlights the importance of global resource management as a powerful strategy to adaptation.

Saxer, Gerda; Krepps, Michael D.; Merkley, Eric D.; Ansong, Charles; Kaiser, Brooke LD; Valovska, Marie-Thrse; Ristic, Nikola; Yeh, Ping T.; Prakash, Vittal; Leiser, Owen P.; Nakhleh, Luay; Gibbons, Henry S.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Shamoo, Yousif

2014-12-11

210

Climate Change Adaptation Challenges and EO Business Opportunities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is one of the defining challenges of the 21st century, but is no longer a matter of just scientific concern. It encompasses economics, sociology, global politics as well as national and local politics, law, health and environmental security, etc. The challenge of facing the impacts of climate change is often framed in terms of two potential paths that civilization might take: mitigation and adaptation. On the one hand, mitigation involves reducing the magnitude of climate change itself and is composed of emissions reductions and geoengineering. On the other hand and by contrast, adaptation involves efforts to limit our vulnerability to climate change impacts through various measures. It refers to our ability to adjust ourselves to climate change -including climate variability and extremes, to moderate potential damage, to take advantage of opportunities, or to cope with the consequences. Therefore, we are now faced with a double challenge: next to deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions, we also need to adapt to the changing climate conditions. The use of satellites to monitor processes and trends at the global scale is essential in the context of climate change. Earth Observation has the potential to improve our predictive vision and to advance climate models. Space sciences and technologies constitute a significant issue in Education and Public Awareness of Science. Space missions face the probably largest scientific and industrial challenges of humanity. It is thus a fact that space drives innovation in the major breakthrough and cutting edge technological advances of mankind (techniques, processes, new products, … as well as in markets and business models). Technology and innovation is the basis of all space activities. Space agencies offer an entire range of space-related activities - from space science and environmental monitoring to industrial competitiveness and end-user services. More specifically, Earth Observation satellites have a unique global view of planet Earth, providing us -with better data- with consistent and frequent information on the state of our environment at the regional and global scale, also in important but remote areas. Climate Knowledge and Innovation Communities (Climate-KIC), a relatively new initiative from the European Institute of Innovation & Technology (EIT), provides the innovations, entrepreneurship, education and expert guidance needed to shape Europe's climate change agenda. This paper shows some initiatives that the University of Valencia Climate-KIC Education Group is carrying out in collaboration with the Climate-KIC Central Education Lead in the field of space education to foster and encourage students and entrepreneurs to endevour in these new space business opportunities offered by this step forward towards climate change adaptation challenges.

Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Bansal, Rahul; Del Rey, Maria; Mohamed, Ebrahim; Ruiz, Paz; Signes, Marcos

211

Global Change Biology (1998) 4, 581590 Terrestrial models and global change: challenges for the  

E-print Network

Global Change Biology (1998) 4, 581­590 Terrestrial models and global change: challenges biological feedbacks on climate and climate change; yet our ability to make precise predictions is severely complement existing approaches. Keywords: biodiversity, climate change, ecosystem models, land use Received

Moorcroft, Paul R.

212

Global Environmental Change: Modelling and Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The second half of the 20th century was a period of unprecedented and rapid change in the global population, the biosphere, the world economy and society. Recent inquiry related to the environmental effects has focused on the complexities of how the Earth behaves as a system, with connectivity linking its oceans, land, atmosphere, living, and non-living components. The search for delineation of natural and human causes and effects of global change has ushered in new mathematical approaches to the pursuit of a global environmental system science. Judging from the reports of several international conferences—for example, The Amsterdam Declaration on Global Change, 2000—a consistent theme has emerged, calling for the development of an effective ethical framework of global stewardship and strategies (modeling and monitoring) for Earth system management.

Kelley, John J.

213

Tolerance adaptation and precipitation changes complicate latitudinal patterns of climate change impacts  

PubMed Central

Global patterns of biodiversity and comparisons between tropical and temperate ecosystems have pervaded ecology from its inception. However, the urgency in understanding these global patterns has been accentuated by the threat of rapid climate change. We apply an adaptive model of environmental tolerance evolution to global climate data and climate change model projections to examine the relative impacts of climate change on different regions of the globe. Our results project more adverse impacts of warming on tropical populations due to environmental tolerance adaptation to conditions of low interannual variability in temperature. When applied to present variability and future forecasts of precipitation data, the tolerance adaptation model found large reductions in fitness predicted for populations in high-latitude northern hemisphere regions, although some tropical regions had comparable reductions in fitness. We formulated an evolutionary regional climate change index (ERCCI) to additionally incorporate the predicted changes in the interannual variability of temperature and precipitation. Based on this index, we suggest that the magnitude of climate change impacts could be much more heterogeneous across latitude than previously thought. Specifically, tropical regions are likely to be just as affected as temperate regions and, in some regions under some circumstances, possibly more so. PMID:20616038

Bonebrake, Timothy C.; Mastrandrea, Michael D.

2010-01-01

214

Migration and Global Environmental Change  

E-print Network

conflict and security, the sustainability of communities, food supply, climate change mitigation studies, climate science, anthropology, economics and international politics.They have all made important

215

International business and global climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change has become an important topic on the business agenda with strong pressure being placed on companies to respond and contribute to finding solutions to this urgent problem. This text provides a comprehensive analysis of international business responses to global climate change and climate change policy. Embedded in relevant management literature, this book gives a concise treatment of developments

J. Pinkse; A. Kolk

2008-01-01

216

Climate Change, Globalization and Water Scarcity  

Microsoft Academic Search

M uch of the world's population is likely to be directly or indirectly affected by climate change-induced water scarcity, which is related to changes in the amount, timing, and distribution of rainfall, in the supply of glacier meltwater, and in the amount, quality and accessibility of surface and groundwater. However, these are not the only global scale changes affecting water

Karen L. O'Brien; Robin M. Leichenko

217

Global climate change: Predictions and observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are only three certainties concerning the current issue of global climate change: (a) trace gases which absorb longwave infrared radiation in the earth's atmosphere are increasing due to anthropogenic activities; (b) increases in absorption of longwave radiation are likely to alter the earth's energy balance, leading to warming of the earth's surface; and (c) global surface air temperature are

Cynthia Rosenzweig

1989-01-01

218

Climate change and the global malaria recession  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current and potential future impact of climate change on malaria is of major public health interest. The proposed effects of rising global temperatures on the future spread and intensification of the disease, and on existing malaria morbidity and mortality rates, substantively influence global health policy. The contemporary spatial limits of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and its endemicity within this range,

Peter W. Gething; David L. Smith; Anand P. Patil; Andrew J. Tatem; Robert W. Snow; Simon I. Hay

2010-01-01

219

Global vegetation changes from satellite data  

SciTech Connect

Long-term climate, soils data along with satellite observations are sued to quantify global land cover changes between pre-agricultural and present conditions. Changes in global land cover expressed as summer, mid-afternoon, radiometric surface temperatures, T{sub r}, ranged from -8 to +16 {degrees}C. Deforestation resulted in an increase in T{sub r}, while irrigated agriculture reduced the T{sub r}. The spatial heterogeneity in land surface fluxes created by the estimated land cover changes, currently not accounted for in Global Circulation Models, could have significant impact on climate. Potential and actual land cover datasets are available for climate modelers at 0.5x0.5{degrees} resolution to study the possible impacts of land cover changes on global temperatures and circulation patterns.

Nemani, R.; Running, S. [Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States)

1995-09-01

220

Potential effects of global climate change  

SciTech Connect

The difficulties of detecting climatic changes do not diminish the need to examine the consequences of a changing global radiative energy balance. In part, detecting global changes is difficult (even though many, though by no means all, theoretical climatic processes are well understood) because the potential effects of changes on the unmanaged ecosystems of the globe, especially forests, which may have great human significance, involve tightly woven ecosystems, inextricably linked to global habitat. Coniferous forests are of particular interest because they dominate high-latitude forest systems, and potential effects of global climate change are likely to be greatest at high latitudes. The degree of projected climate change is a function of many likely scenarios of fossil fuel consumption, and the ratios of manmade effects to natural sources and sinks of CO{sub 2}. Because CO{sub 2}, like water vapor, CH{sub 4}, CFCs, and other gases, absorbs infrared energy, it will alter the radiation balance of the global atmosphere. The consequences of this alteration to the radiation balance cannot simply be translated into changing climate because (1) the existence of large energy reservoirs (the oceans) can introduce a lag in responses, (2) feedback loops between atmosphere, oceans, and biosphere can change the net rate of buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, (3) complex interactions in the atmospheric water balance can change the rate of cloud formation with their persistence, in turn, changing the global albedo and the energy balance, and (4) there is intrusion of other global effects, such as periodic volcanic gas injections to the stratosphere.

Gucinski, H.; Vance, E.; Reiners, W.A.

1995-07-01

221

Water and Food Security Under Global Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter describes the implications of global change for water and food security, focusing on the precarious situation\\u000a of the poor in global change processes. While overall economic growth is reaching an increasing number of poor, and education\\u000a and income opportunities have increased tremendously in many parts of the (urban) developing world, new challenges in the\\u000a water-for-food arena are set

Claudia Ringler; Elizabeth Bryan; Asit Biswas; Sarah A. Cline

222

Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Global Magnetohydrodynamic Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first part of this paper reviews some physics issues representing major computational challenges for global MHD models\\u000a of the space environment. These issues include: (i) mathematical formulation and discretization of the governing equations\\u000a that ensure the proper jump conditions and propagation speeds, (ii) regions of relativistic Alfvén speed, (iii) regions dominated\\u000a by strong intrinsic planetary magnetic field with strong

Tamas I. Gombosi; Darren L. De Zeeuw; Kenneth G. Powell; Aaron J. Ridley; Igor V. Sokolov; Quentin F. Stout; Gábor Tóth

223

Soil processes and global change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contributors to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) generally agree that increases in the atmospheric concentration\\u000a of greenhouse trace gases (i.e., CO2, CH4, N2O, O3) since preindustrial times, about the year 1750, have led to changes in the earth's climate. During the past 250 years the\\u000a atmospheric concentrations of CO2, CH4, and N2O have increased by 30, 145, and

A. R. Mosier

1998-01-01

224

Environment and Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is intended to convey a broad understanding of the nature of climate change and its potential impacts. Students will come to understand the effects of radiation imbalance in the Arctic, fluctuations in albedo, and ecological consequences of decreasing albedo in the Arctic. Upon completion of the module, they will be able to explain: the consequences of decreasing stratospheric ozone, potential hazards of POP's entering Arctic food chains, and the possible impacts of environmental changes on traditional lifestyles in the Arctic.

225

Engineering change in global climate  

SciTech Connect

{open_quotes}With increased public focus on global warming and in the wake of the intense heat waves, drought, fires, and super-hurricanes that occurred in 1988 and 1989, interest in geoengineering has surged,{close_quotes} says Stephen H. Schneider, professor of biological science at Stanford University in Stanford, California. One scheme set forth in a National Research Council report proposes using 16-inch naval guns to fire aerosol shells into the stratosphere in hopes of offsetting {open_quotes}the radiative effects of increasing carbon dioxide,{close_quotes} Schneider says. Schneider, however, would prefer that we {open_quotes}seek measures that can cure our global {open_quote}addiction{close_quote} to polluting practices.{close_quotes} Rather than playing God, he says we should {open_quotes}stick to being human and pursue problem - solving methods currently within our grasp.{close_quotes} Such strategies include efforts to promote energy efficiency and reduce our reliance on automobiles.

Schneider, S.H. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1996-12-31

226

On `global convergence' of Steiglitz-McBride adaptive algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigate the global convergence phenomenon of the Steiglitz-McBride adaptive identification\\/filtering method (SMM) observed previously under reduced order setting. Specifically, they relate the closeness of SMM solutions to minimum mean square error (MSE) points through sharpness of the MSE surface at these minima. They first define the sharpness, and then propose that generally global minima are sharper than local

Hong Fan; M. Doroslovacki

1993-01-01

227

Climate Change Adaptation: A Collective Action Perspective on Federalism Considerations  

E-print Network

adaptation to minimize the adverse effects of climate change. Climate change adaptation is designed to increase the resilience of natural and human ecosystems to the threats posed by a changing environment. Although an extensive literature concerning...

Glicksman, Robert L.; Levy, Richard E.

2010-01-01

228

Mutations in global regulators lead to metabolic selection during adaptation to complex environments.  

PubMed

Adaptation to ecologically complex environments can provide insights into the evolutionary dynamics and functional constraints encountered by organisms during natural selection. Adaptation to a new environment with abundant and varied resources can be difficult to achieve by small incremental changes if many mutations are required to achieve even modest gains in fitness. Since changing complex environments are quite common in nature, we investigated how such an epistatic bottleneck can be avoided to allow rapid adaptation. We show that adaptive mutations arise repeatedly in independently evolved populations in the context of greatly increased genetic and phenotypic diversity. We go on to show that weak selection requiring substantial metabolic reprogramming can be readily achieved by mutations in the global response regulator arcA and the stress response regulator rpoS. We identified 46 unique single-nucleotide variants of arcA and 18 mutations in rpoS, nine of which resulted in stop codons or large deletions, suggesting that subtle modulations of ArcA function and knockouts of rpoS are largely responsible for the metabolic shifts leading to adaptation. These mutations allow a higher order metabolic selection that eliminates epistatic bottlenecks, which could occur when many changes would be required. Proteomic and carbohydrate analysis of adapting E. coli populations revealed an up-regulation of enzymes associated with the TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism, and an increase in the secretion of putrescine. The overall effect of adaptation across populations is to redirect and efficiently utilize uptake and catabolism of abundant amino acids. Concomitantly, there is a pronounced spread of more ecologically limited strains that results from specialization through metabolic erosion. Remarkably, the global regulators arcA and rpoS can provide a "one-step" mechanism of adaptation to a novel environment, which highlights the importance of global resource management as a powerful strategy to adaptation. PMID:25501822

Saxer, Gerda; Krepps, Michael D; Merkley, Eric D; Ansong, Charles; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L; Valovska, Marie-Thérèse; Ristic, Nikola; Yeh, Ping T; Prakash, Vittal P; Leiser, Owen P; Nakhleh, Luay; Gibbons, Henry S; Kreuzer, Helen W; Shamoo, Yousif

2014-12-01

229

Mutations in Global Regulators Lead to Metabolic Selection during Adaptation to Complex Environments  

PubMed Central

Adaptation to ecologically complex environments can provide insights into the evolutionary dynamics and functional constraints encountered by organisms during natural selection. Adaptation to a new environment with abundant and varied resources can be difficult to achieve by small incremental changes if many mutations are required to achieve even modest gains in fitness. Since changing complex environments are quite common in nature, we investigated how such an epistatic bottleneck can be avoided to allow rapid adaptation. We show that adaptive mutations arise repeatedly in independently evolved populations in the context of greatly increased genetic and phenotypic diversity. We go on to show that weak selection requiring substantial metabolic reprogramming can be readily achieved by mutations in the global response regulator arcA and the stress response regulator rpoS. We identified 46 unique single-nucleotide variants of arcA and 18 mutations in rpoS, nine of which resulted in stop codons or large deletions, suggesting that subtle modulations of ArcA function and knockouts of rpoS are largely responsible for the metabolic shifts leading to adaptation. These mutations allow a higher order metabolic selection that eliminates epistatic bottlenecks, which could occur when many changes would be required. Proteomic and carbohydrate analysis of adapting E. coli populations revealed an up-regulation of enzymes associated with the TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism, and an increase in the secretion of putrescine. The overall effect of adaptation across populations is to redirect and efficiently utilize uptake and catabolism of abundant amino acids. Concomitantly, there is a pronounced spread of more ecologically limited strains that results from specialization through metabolic erosion. Remarkably, the global regulators arcA and rpoS can provide a “one-step” mechanism of adaptation to a novel environment, which highlights the importance of global resource management as a powerful strategy to adaptation. PMID:25501822

Saxer, Gerda; Krepps, Michael D.; Merkley, Eric D.; Ansong, Charles; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L.; Valovska, Marie-Thérèse; Ristic, Nikola; Yeh, Ping T.; Prakash, Vittal P.; Leiser, Owen P.; Nakhleh, Luay; Gibbons, Henry S.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Shamoo, Yousif

2014-01-01

230

Dictionary of global climate change  

SciTech Connect

This book represents a revision of the climate change lexicon that was prepared for the Second World Climate Conference in 1990. The conference had 1400 participants and consisted of a scientific component followed by a ministerial meeting. To foster communication among the different constituencies, a lexicon of climate and climate change was prepared for the participants. The dictionary includes definitions and descriptions of most of the scientific terms, organizations, and programs related to the physical aspects of climate change. Nearly 40% of the material describes organized projects, experiments, or programs, mostly international. Some information on biological topics, such as the difference between C3 and C4 plants, is also included. The length of definitions and descriptions ranges from one line to one or more pages, with the longer descriptions usually related to programs.

Maunder, W.J. (ed.)

1992-01-01

231

Uncertainty and global climate change research  

SciTech Connect

The Workshop on Uncertainty and Global Climate Change Research March 22--23, 1994, in Knoxville, Tennessee. This report summarizes the results and recommendations of the workshop. The purpose of the workshop was to examine in-depth the concept of uncertainty. From an analytical point of view, uncertainty is a central feature of global climate science, economics and decision making. The magnitude and complexity of uncertainty surrounding global climate change has made it quite difficult to answer even the most simple and important of questions-whether potentially costly action is required now to ameliorate adverse consequences of global climate change or whether delay is warranted to gain better information to reduce uncertainties. A major conclusion of the workshop is that multidisciplinary integrated assessments using decision analytic techniques as a foundation is key to addressing global change policy concerns. First, uncertainty must be dealt with explicitly and rigorously since it is and will continue to be a key feature of analysis and recommendations on policy questions for years to come. Second, key policy questions and variables need to be explicitly identified, prioritized, and their uncertainty characterized to guide the entire scientific, modeling, and policy analysis process. Multidisciplinary integrated assessment techniques and value of information methodologies are best suited for this task. In terms of timeliness and relevance of developing and applying decision analytic techniques, the global change research and policy communities are moving rapidly toward integrated approaches to research design and policy analysis.

Tonn, B.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Weiher, R. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States)

1994-06-01

232

Illinois task force on global climate change  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to document progress in the areas of national policy development, emissions reduction, research and education, and adaptation, and to identify specific actions that will be undertaken to implement the Illinois state action plan. The task force has been tracking national and international climate change policy, and helping shape national policy agenda. Identification and implementation of cost-effective mitigation measures has been performed for emissions reduction. In the area of research and education, the task force is developing the capacity to measure climate change indicators, maintaining and enhancing Illinois relevant research, and strengthening climate change education. Activities relevant to adaptation to new policy include strengthening water laws and planning for adaptation. 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Griffin, B.S. [Illinois Dept. of Natural Resources, Springfield, IL (United States)

1996-12-31

233

PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND GLOBAL CHANGE CAN CLIMATE DRIVEN CHANGES IN  

E-print Network

PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND GLOBAL CHANGE CAN CLIMATE DRIVEN CHANGES IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS BE USED TO PREDICT in photosynthesis, and thus substrate supply, influence the rate of ecosystem respiration (Re). Further- more in photosynthesis might result in concomitant changes in both the rate, and temperature-sensitivity, of Re. Re

Barron-Gafford, Greg

234

Global Logistics Systems Adapted from an Affiliates seminar  

E-print Network

Global Logistics Systems Adapted from an Affiliates seminar held at MIT on March 14-15, 2001 #12 to be entered more than 10 times #12;Edmund W. Schuster Director, MIT Affiliates Program in Logistics · The New vary from country to country? · Alliances: What are the trends in logistics alliances? · U

Brock, David

235

Global Change: A Biogeochemical Perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A research program that is designed to enhance our understanding of the Earth as the support system for life is described. The program change, both natural and anthropogenic, that might affect the habitability of the planet on a time scale roughly equal to that of a human life is studied. On this time scale the atmosphere, biosphere, and upper ocean are treated as a single coupled system. The need for understanding the processes affecting the distribution of essential nutrients--carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, sulfur, and water--within this coupled system is examined. The importance of subtle interactions among chemical, biological, and physical effects is emphasized. The specific objectives are to define the present state of the planetary life-support system; to ellucidate the underlying physical, chemical, and biological controls; and to provide the body of knowledge required to assess changes that might impact the future habitability of the Earth.

Mcelroy, M.

1983-01-01

236

Global Climate Change and Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the human life style and its impact on the environment has changed from the primitive era to the current,\\u000a modern world. In the primitive era, nature was the enemy to overcome. Human beings were mostly exposed to stress by nature\\u000a including extreme cold, disasters, floods, diseases and the threat of other animals (Fig. 10.1-a). Mostly, the history

Keisuke Hanaki

237

Frontiers in Global Change Seminar Series presents ...  

E-print Network

Frontiers in Global Change Seminar Series presents ... The Frozen Ocean of Snowball Earth Monday Warren as he speaks about climate physics and climate change in polar regions. When Professor Stephen of Washington Just back from the Antarctic -- Join internationally recognized climate scientist Dr. Stephen

238

Global Environmental Change and Human Health  

E-print Network

Global Environmental Change and Human Health Science Plan and Implementation Strategy ESSPReport and Human Health Co-Chairs: Ulisses Confalonieri Anthony McMichael Planning Team: Surinder Aggarwal (India Change and Human Health (2007) Science Plan and Implementation Strategy. Earth System Science Partnership

Lopez-Carr, David

239

The Psychological Impacts of Global Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An appreciation of the psychological impacts of global climate change entails recognizing the complexity and multiple meanings associated with climate change; situating impacts within other social, technological, and ecological transitions; and recognizing mediators and moderators of impacts. This article describes three classes of psychological…

Doherty, Thomas J.; Clayton, Susan

2011-01-01

240

Climate change and global water resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

By 2025, it is estimated that around 5 billion people, out of a total population of around 8 billion, will be living in countries experiencing water stress (using more than 20% of their available resources). Climate change has the potential to impose additional pressures in some regions. This paper describes an assessment of the implications of climate change for global

Nigel W. Arnell

1999-01-01

241

Global climate change and infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward

Shope

1991-01-01

242

Estimating global impacts from climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

We surveyed the literature to assess the state of knowledge with regard to the (presumed) benefits or avoided damages of reducing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases to progressively lower levels. The survey included only published studies addressing global impacts of climate change; studies that only addressed regional impacts were not included. The metric we used for change in climate is

Samuel Hitz; Joel Smith

2004-01-01

243

GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of climate change issues and their related international initiatives to response the challenge of the global warming. It addresses the different technologies for the mitigation of climate changes, including energy efficiency improvement, renewable energy, and greenhouse gas capture and sequestration. It focuses on the technologies of CO2 capture and sequestration and the recent development on

Jinyue Yan

244

Global climate change and international security.  

SciTech Connect

This report originates in a workshop held at Sandia National Laboratories, bringing together a variety of external experts with Sandia personnel to discuss 'The Implications of Global Climate Change for International Security.' Whatever the future of the current global warming trend, paleoclimatic history shows that climate change happens, sometimes abruptly. These changes can severely impact human water supplies, agriculture, migration patterns, infrastructure, financial flows, disease prevalence, and economic activity. Those impacts, in turn, can lead to national or international security problems stemming from aggravation of internal conflicts, increased poverty and inequality, exacerbation of existing international conflicts, diversion of national and international resources from international security programs (military or non-military), contribution to global economic decline or collapse, or international realignments based on climate change mitigation policies. After reviewing these potential problems, the report concludes with a brief listing of some research, technology, and policy measures that might mitigate them.

Karas, Thomas H.

2003-11-01

245

Agricultural Water Use under Global Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irrigation is by far the single largest user of water in the world and is projected to remain so in the foreseeable future. Globally, irrigated agricultural land comprises less than twenty percent of total cropland but produces about forty percent of the world's food. Increasing world population will require more food and this will lead to more irrigation in many areas. As demands increase and water becomes an increasingly scarce resource, agriculture's competition for water with other economic sectors will be intensified. This water picture is expected to become even more complex as climate change will impose substantial impacts on water availability and demand, in particular for agriculture. To better understand future water demand and supply under global change, including changes in demographic, economic and technological dimensions, the water simulation module of IMPACT, a global water and food projection model developed at the International Food Policy Research Institute, is used to analyze future water demand and supply in agricultural and several non-agricultural sectors using downscaled GCM scenarios, based on water availability simulation done with a recently developed semi-distributed global hydrological model. Risk analysis is conducted to identify countries and regions where future water supply reliability for irrigation is low, and food security may be threatened in the presence of climate change. Gridded shadow values of irrigation water are derived for global cropland based on an optimization framework, and they are used to illustrate potential irrigation development by incorporating gridded water availability and existing global map of irrigation areas.

Zhu, T.; Ringler, C.; Rosegrant, M. W.

2008-12-01

246

Visualizing Climate Change Risk and Adaptation Options for California  

E-print Network

Visualizing Climate Change Risk and Adaptation Options for California: CalAdapt ENVIRONMENTAL AREA The impacts of climate change, such as changes in temperature and precipitation patterns, and earlier of the climate change adaptation community is the scarcity of tools and methods to convey to a wider audience

247

Mitigation strategies and unforseen consequences: A systematic assessment of the adaption of upper midwest agriculture to future climate change  

SciTech Connect

Our starting point is the assumption of global climate change that doubles CO{sub 2} in the Upper Midwest by 2050. This work then concentrates on determining agriculture in the Upper Midwest successfully adapts to such a climate change.

Doering, O.; Lowenberg-DeBoer, J.; Habeck, M. [and others

1997-12-31

248

Global climate change and international security  

SciTech Connect

On May 8--10, 1991, the Midwest Consortium of International Security Studies (MCISS) and Argonne National Laboratory cosponsored a conference on Global Climate Change and International Security. The aim was to bring together natural and social scientists to examine the economic, sociopolitical, and security implications of the climate changes predicted by the general circulation models developed by natural scientists. Five themes emerged from the papers and discussions: (1) general circulation models and predicted climate change; (2) the effects of climate change on agriculture, especially in the Third World; (3) economic implications of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; (4) the sociopolitical consequences of climate change; and (5) the effect of climate change on global security.

Rice, M.

1991-01-01

249

Global flood risks under changing climate and socioeconomic conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Worldwide major flood events result in both economic losses and large numbers of casualties. Recent global scale studies indicate that in many regions of the world discharge extremes are likely to increase under changing climate conditions. However, few studies have so far examined how these changes in climate conditions may affect flood risk (defined here as the probability of a flood multiplied by the consequences). In the current study we investigate the impacts of changing climate and socioeconomic conditions on flood extents and depths, and also assess the potential impacts on flood risk. The study is conducted on a global scale, thereby indicating in which regions of the world flood risk is likely to change most. To assess global food risk under changing conditions, we combined socio-economic data from the Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment (IMAGE) framework of the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) with high resolution maps of inundation depth (1 km). To this end, projections from a number of GCMs were bias-corrected and used to force the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB which simulates (amongst other variables) global maps with daily flood volumes on a 0.5 degree resolution. These time series were used to derive flood volume maps for multiple return periods, which were downscaled to inundation depth maps at 1 km resolution using a 1 km resolution DEM. Finally, these high resolution flood maps were combined with spatial datasets on future GDP and population density from the IMAGE model. Results are presented on both the global scale and at the country level. We believe that the obtained flood extend and flood risk maps can assist development agencies in planning climate adaptation investments that aim to reduce flood risks.

Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; Ward, Philip; Bouwman, Arno; Ligtvoet, Willem; van Beek, Rens; Winsemius, Hessel

2013-04-01

250

Information technology and global change science  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this paper is to identify and briefly describe major existing and near term information technologies that cold have a positive impact on the topics being discussed at this conference by helping to manage the data of global change science and helping global change scientists conduct their research. Desktop computer systems have changed dramatically during the past seven years. Faster data processing can be expected in the future through full development of traditional serial computer architectures. Some other proven information technologies may be currently underutilized by global change scientists. Relational database management systems and good organization of data through the use of thoughtful database design would enable the scientific community to better share and maintain quality research data. Custodians of the data should use rigorous data administration to ensure integrity and long term value of the data resource. Still other emerging information technologies that involve the use of artificial intelligence, parallel computer architectures, and new sensors for data collection will be in relatively common use in the near term and should become part of the global science community's technical toolkit. Consideration should also be given to the establishment of Information Analysis Centers to facilitate effective organization and management of interdisciplinary data and the prototype testing and use of advanced information technology to facilitate rapid and cost-effective integration of these tools into global change science. 8 refs.

Baxter, F.P.

1990-01-01

251

Global Climate Change Impacts:Global Climate Change Impacts: Implications for Climate EngineeringImplications for Climate Engineering  

E-print Network

Global Climate Change Impacts:Global Climate Change Impacts: Implications for Climate Engineering Center Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States October 29, 2009 #12;2Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States 2 Response Strategies to ClimateResponse Strategies to Climate ChangeChange

Polz, Martin

252

Adapting to Climate Change at the Local Level: The Spatial Planning Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is a major issue for all levels of government, global, national and local. Local authorities' responses to climate change have tended to concentrate on their role in reducing greenhouse gases. However, the scientific consensus is that we also need to adapt to unavoidable climate change. Spatial planning at a local level has a critical anticipatory role to play

Elizabeth Wilson

2006-01-01

253

Title: Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation Options for Coastal Communities in Timor-Leste  

E-print Network

Title: Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation Options for Coastal Communities in Timor-Leste Summary Climate change is a major global challenge, particularly for world's coastal communities in low 2008, Kelman & West 2009, Veitayaki 2010). Within these regions, climate change impacts are already

254

President Clinton Speaks on Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On October 22, 1997, President Clinton addressed the National Geographic Society on the issue of global climate change and global warming. This site contains the President's speech, along with a speech by Vice President Gore (in RealAudio format). Together, the speeches take a bit over thirty-six minutes. Note that the President's remarks begin at about 10 minutes and 50 seconds into the recording.

1997-01-01

255

Climate change and the global malaria recession.  

PubMed

The current and potential future impact of climate change on malaria is of major public health interest. The proposed effects of rising global temperatures on the future spread and intensification of the disease, and on existing malaria morbidity and mortality rates, substantively influence global health policy. The contemporary spatial limits of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and its endemicity within this range, when compared with comparable historical maps, offer unique insights into the changing global epidemiology of malaria over the last century. It has long been known that the range of malaria has contracted through a century of economic development and disease control. Here, for the first time, we quantify this contraction and the global decreases in malaria endemicity since approximately 1900. We compare the magnitude of these changes to the size of effects on malaria endemicity proposed under future climate scenarios and associated with widely used public health interventions. Our findings have two key and often ignored implications with respect to climate change and malaria. First, widespread claims that rising mean temperatures have already led to increases in worldwide malaria morbidity and mortality are largely at odds with observed decreasing global trends in both its endemicity and geographic extent. Second, the proposed future effects of rising temperatures on endemicity are at least one order of magnitude smaller than changes observed since about 1900 and up to two orders of magnitude smaller than those that can be achieved by the effective scale-up of key control measures. Predictions of an intensification of malaria in a warmer world, based on extrapolated empirical relationships or biological mechanisms, must be set against a context of a century of warming that has seen marked global declines in the disease and a substantial weakening of the global correlation between malaria endemicity and climate. PMID:20485434

Gething, Peter W; Smith, David L; Patil, Anand P; Tatem, Andrew J; Snow, Robert W; Hay, Simon I

2010-05-20

256

Global Asymptotic Stabilization Using Adaptive Fuzzy PD Control.  

PubMed

It is well-known that standard adaptive fuzzy control (AFC) can only guarantee uniformly ultimately bounded stability due to inherent fuzzy approximation errors (FAEs). This paper proves that standard AFC with proportional-derivative (PD) control can guarantee global asymptotic stabilization even in the presence of FAEs for a class of uncertain affine nonlinear systems. Variable-gain PD control is designed to globally stabilize the plant. An optimal FAE is shown to be bounded by the norm of the plant state vector multiplied by a globally invertible and nondecreasing function, which provides a pivotal property for stability analysis. Without discontinuous control compensation, the closed-loop system achieves global and partially asymptotic stability in the sense that all plant states converge to zero. Compared with previous adaptive approximation-based global/asymptotic stabilization approaches, the major advantage of our approach is that global stability and asymptotic stabilization are achieved concurrently by a much simpler control law. Illustrative examples have further verified the theoretical results. PMID:25122847

Pan, Yongping; Yu, Haoyong; Sun, Tairen

2015-03-01

257

Natural disaster reduction and global change  

SciTech Connect

There are three types of global change that affect human and economic losses due to natural disasters. The three kinds of changes are: (1) increasing economic development, especially along coastlines, in flood plains, and other hazard-prone areas; (2) changes in land surfaces and vegetation; and (3) variability and change in frequency and severity of natural hazards. Any program for reduction of disaster losses must take these factors into account, and trends in losses are due to these changes. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

Bruce, J.P.

1994-10-01

258

Geographic Landscape Visualisation in Planning Adaptation to Climate Change in Victoria, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is a global challenge for all scientists the 21st century with a certain amount of ‘global warming’ already\\u000a inevitable. The magnitude and risks of climate change are now being more widely appreciated and the need for adaptation, including\\u000a land use, is becoming a social imperative. Profound changes to ecosystems and biodiversity are predicted, and climate induced\\u000a migration of

Ian Mansergh; Alex Lau; Rod Anderson

259

Climate Change Adaptation: Putting Principles into Practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carrying out wildlife conservation in a changing climate requires planning on long timescales at both a site and network level, while also having the flexibility to adapt actions at sites over short timescales in response to changing conditions and new information. The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB), a land-owning wildlife conservation charity in the UK, achieves this on its nature reserves through its system of management planning. This involves setting network-wide objectives which inform the 25-year vision and 5-year conservation objectives for each site. Progress toward achieving each site's conservation objectives is reviewed annually, to identify any adjustments which might be needed to the site's management. The conservation objectives and 25-year vision of each site are reviewed every 5 years. Significant long-term impacts of climate change most frequently identified at RSPB reserves are: loss of intertidal habitat through coastal squeeze, loss of low-lying islands due to higher sea levels and coastal erosion, loss of coastal freshwater and brackish wetlands due to increased coastal flooding, and changes in the hydrology of wetlands. The main types of adaptation measures in place on RSPB reserves to address climate change-related impacts are: re-creation of intertidal habitat, re-creation and restoration of freshwater wetlands away from vulnerable coastal areas, blocking artificial drainage on peatlands, and addressing pressures on freshwater supply for lowland wet grasslands in eastern and southeastern England. Developing partnerships between organizations has been crucial in delivering large-scale adaptation projects.

Ausden, Malcolm

2014-10-01

260

Climate change adaptation: putting principles into practice.  

PubMed

Carrying out wildlife conservation in a changing climate requires planning on long timescales at both a site and network level, while also having the flexibility to adapt actions at sites over short timescales in response to changing conditions and new information. The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB), a land-owning wildlife conservation charity in the UK, achieves this on its nature reserves through its system of management planning. This involves setting network-wide objectives which inform the 25-year vision and 5-year conservation objectives for each site. Progress toward achieving each site's conservation objectives is reviewed annually, to identify any adjustments which might be needed to the site's management. The conservation objectives and 25-year vision of each site are reviewed every 5 years.Significant predicted [corrected] long-term impacts of climate change most frequently identified at RSPB reserves are: loss of intertidal habitat through coastal squeeze, loss of low-lying islands due to higher sea levels and coastal erosion, loss of coastal freshwater and brackish wetlands due to increased coastal flooding, and changes in the hydrology of wetlands. The main types of adaptation measures in place on RSPB reserves to address climate change-related impacts are: re-creation of intertidal habitat, re-creation and restoration of freshwater wetlands away from vulnerable coastal areas, blocking artificial drainage on peatlands, and addressing pressures on freshwater supply for lowland wet grasslands in eastern and southeastern England. Developing partnerships between organizations has been crucial in delivering large-scale adaptation projects. PMID:24363138

Ausden, Malcolm

2014-10-01

261

Global change integrating factors: Tropical tropopause trends  

SciTech Connect

This research proposes new criteria, shifts in the height and temperature of the tropical tropopause, as measures of global climate change. The search for signs of global warming in the temperature signal near the earth`s surface is extremely difficult, largely because numerous factors contribute to surface temperature forcing with only a small signal-to-noise ratio relative to long-term effects. In the long term, no part of the atmosphere can be considered individually because the evolution will be a function of all states of all portions. A large surface greenhouse signal might ultimately be expected, but the analysis of surface temperature may not be particularly useful for early detection. What is suggested here is not an analysis of trends in the surface temperature field or any of its spatial averages, but rather an integrating factor or integrator, a single measure of global change that could be considered a test of significant change for the entire global system. Preferably, this global change integrator would vary slowly and would take into account many of the causes of climate change, with a relatively large signal-to-noise ratio. Such an integrator could be monitored, and abrupt or accelerated changes could serve as an early warning signal for policy makers and the public. Earlier work has suggested that temperature has much less short-term and small-scale noise in the lower stratosphere, and thus the global warming signal at that level might be more easily deconvoluted, because the cooling rate near the 200-mb level is almost constant with latitude. A study of the temperature signal at this pressure level might show a clearer trend due to increased levels of greenhouse gases, but it would yield information about the troposphere only by inference.

Reck, R.A.

1994-10-01

262

Adaptation to Climate Change: How does Heterogeneity in Adaptation Costs Affect Climate Coalitions?  

E-print Network

Adaptation to Climate Change: How does Heterogeneity in Adaptation Costs Affect Climate Coalitions? Itziar Lazkano Walid Marrouch Bruno Nkuiya§ Abstract We examine how adaptation to climate change affects of two aspects of adaptation on the incentives to join a coalition. First, we analyze cross

Spino, Claude

263

WATERSHED BOUNDARY CONDITIONS FOR GLOBAL CHANGE IMPACT ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) studies (among other issues) the impact of global change on water quality. This field study evaluates the impact of global changes (land-use change and climate change) on source water quality. Changes in source water quality change...

264

Role of polar regions in global change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Definition and summary of the state of knowledge of the role the polar regions play in global change was the aim of the International Conference on the Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change held at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, June 11-15, 1990. Cosponsors included AGU, American Meteorological Society, Arctic Institute of North America, Arctic Research Commission of the U.S., Arctic Research Consortium of the United States, International Glaciological Society, Oceanography Society, and Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research of the International Council of Scientific Unions.

Weller, Gunter

265

Global change technology architecture trade study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Described here is an architecture trade study conducted by the Langley Research Center to develop a representative mix of advanced space science instrumentation, spacecraft, and mission orbits to assist in the technology selection processes. The analyses concentrated on the highest priority classes of global change measurements which are the global climate changes. Issues addressed in the tradeoffs includes assessments of the economics of scale of large platforms with multiple instruments relative to smaller spacecraft; the influences of current and possible future launch vehicles on payload sizes, and on-orbit assembly decisions; and the respective roles of low-Earth versus geostationary Earth orbiting systems.

Garrett, L. Bernard (editor); Hypes, Warren D. (editor); Wright, Robert L. (editor)

1991-01-01

266

Deep solar minimum and global climate changes  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the deep minimum of solar cycle 23 and its potential impact on climate change. In addition, a source region of the solar winds at solar activity minimum, especially in the solar cycle 23, the deepest during the last 500 years, has been studied. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary solar activity are so weak and hence expected to cause global cooling. Prevalent global warming, caused by building-up of green-house gases in the troposphere, seems to exceed this solar effect. This paper discusses this issue. PMID:25685420

Hady, Ahmed A.

2013-01-01

267

Open access: changing global science publishing  

PubMed Central

The article reflects on open access as a strategy of changing the quality of science communication globally. Successful examples of open-access journals are presented to highlight implications of archiving in open digital repositories for the quality and citability of research output. Advantages and downsides of gold, green, and hybrid models of open access operating in diverse scientific environments are described. It is assumed that open access is a global trend which influences the workflow in scholarly journals, changing their quality, credibility, and indexability. PMID:23986284

Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Kitas, George D.

2013-01-01

268

Global models of human decision-making for land-based mitigation and adaptation assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the links between land-use change (LUC) and climate change is vital in developing effective land-based climate mitigation policies and adaptation measures. Although mitigation and adaptation are human-mediated processes, current global-scale modelling tools do not account for societal learning and other human responses to environmental change. We propose the agent functional type (AFT) method to advance the representation of these processes, by combining socio-economics (agent-based modelling) with natural sciences (dynamic global vegetation models). Initial AFT-based simulations show the emergence of realistic LUC patterns that reflect known LUC processes, demonstrating the potential of the method to enhance our understanding of the role of people in the Earth system.

Arneth, A.; Brown, C.; Rounsevell, M. D. A.

2014-07-01

269

Adaptation options in agriculture to climate change: a typology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation in agriculture to climate change is important for impact and vulnerability assessment and for the development of climate change policy. A wide variety of adaptation options has been proposed as having the potential to reduce vulnerability of agricultural systems to risks related to climate change, often in an ad hoc fashion. This paper develops a typology of adaptation to

Barry Smit; MARK W. SKINNER

2002-01-01

270

America's Climate Choices: Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the request of Congress, the National Academy of Sciences convened a series of coordinated activities to provide advice on actions and strategies that the nation can take to respond to climate change. As part of this suite of activities, this study assessed, this study assessed how the nation can begin to adapt to the impacts of climate change. Much of the nation’s experience to date in managing and protecting its people, resources, and infrastructure is based on the historic record of climate variability during a period of relatively stable climate. Adaptation to climate change calls for a new paradigm - one that considers a range of possible future climate conditions and associated impacts. The Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change report calls for action at all levels of government, NGOs, and the private sector to assess vulnerabilities to the impacts of climate change and identify options for adaptation. Current adaptation efforts are hampered by a lack of solid information about the benefits, costs, and effectiveness of various adaptation options, by uncertainty about future climate change impacts at a scale necessary for decision-making, and by a lack of coordination. The report outlines a risk management framework that can be applied to assess vulnerabilities, compare and evaluate potential adaptation options, recognizing that decision makers across the country are likely to pursue a diverse set of adaptation measures. A major research effort is needed to improve knowledge about current and future vulnerabilities, explore new adaptation options, and better inform adaptation decisions. Therefore, the report also emphasizes the need to continually re-assess adaptation decisions as the experience and knowledge regarding effective adaptation evolves. A national adaptation strategy is needed in which the federal government would support and enhance adaptation activities undertaken by state, local, tribal, and private entities; identify and modify policies that might provide incentives for maladaptive behavior; bolster scientific research regarding adaptation; and encourage adaptation on a global scale through national programs with international components.

Wilbanks, T.; Yohe, G.; Mengelt, C.; Casola, J.

2010-12-01

271

Global climate change and infectious diseases  

SciTech Connect

The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. These mosquitoes transmit dengue virus, and Aedes aegypti transmits yellow fever virus. The faster metamorphosis and a shorter extrinsic incubation of dengue and yellow fever viruses could lead to epidemics in North America. Vibrio cholera is harbored persistently in the estuaries of the U.S. Gulf Coast. Over the past 200 years, cholera has become pandemic seven times with spread from Asia to Europe, Africa, and North America. Global warming may lead to changes in water ecology that could enhance similar spread of cholera in North America. Some other infectious diseases such as LaCrosse encephalitis and Lyme disease are caused by agents closely dependent on the integrity of their environment. These diseases may become less prominent with global warming because of anticipated modification of their habitats. Ecological studies will help as to understand more fully the possible consequences of global warming. New and more effective methods for control of vectors will be needed. 12 refs., 1 tab.

Shope, R. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States))

1991-12-01

272

Global change: Geographical approaches (A Review)*  

PubMed Central

The International Geosphere Biosphere Program sponsored by the International Council of Scientific Unions is directing attention to geophysical and biological change as influenced by human modifications in global energy and mass exchanges. Geographers in the Soviet Union and the United States have joined in critical appraisal of their experience in studying environmental change. This initial report is on some promising approaches, such as the reconstruction of earlier landscape processes, modeling of the dynamics of present-day landscapes, analysis of causes and consequences of anthropogenic changes in specified regions, appraisal of social response to change, and enhanced geographic information systems supported by detailed site studies. PMID:16593971

Kotlyakov, V. M.; Mather, J. R.; Sdasyuk, G. V.; White, G. F.

1988-01-01

273

Connecting Global Climate Change with Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-paced tutorial explores the importance of engineering solutions to the management of climate change by brainstorming ways to remove CO² from the atmosphere and store it in a form that does not promote global warming. The module also provides resources for students to learn about engineering careers related to climate change. Learners compare the design process used in engineering projects with the scientific process, and explore elements of the engineering design process through global climate change. Multimedia educational resources including video clips are included. This is the ninth of 10 self-paced professional development modules providing opportunities for teachers to learn about climate change through first-hand data exploration.

274

Adaptation of Intelligent Characters to Changes of Game Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper addresses how intelligent characters, having learning capability based on the neural network technology, automatically\\u000a adapt to environmental changes in computer games. Our adaptation solution includes an autonomous adaptation scheme and a cooperative\\u000a adaptation scheme. With the autonomous adaptation scheme, each intelligent character steadily assesses changes of its game\\u000a environment while taking into consideration recently earned scores, and initiates

Byeong Heon Cho; Sung Hoon Jung; Kwang-hyun Shim; Yeong Rak Seong; Ha Ryoung Oh

2005-01-01

275

Forecasting agriculturally driven global environmental change.  

PubMed

During the next 50 years, which is likely to be the final period of rapid agricultural expansion, demand for food by a wealthier and 50% larger global population will be a major driver of global environmental change. Should past dependences of the global environmental impacts of agriculture on human population and consumption continue, 10(9) hectares of natural ecosystems would be converted to agriculture by 2050. This would be accompanied by 2.4- to 2.7-fold increases in nitrogen- and phosphorus-driven eutrophication of terrestrial, freshwater, and near-shore marine ecosystems, and comparable increases in pesticide use. This eutrophication and habitat destruction would cause unprecedented ecosystem simplification, loss of ecosystem services, and species extinctions. Significant scientific advances and regulatory, technological, and policy changes are needed to control the environmental impacts of agricultural expansion. PMID:11303102

Tilman, D; Fargione, J; Wolff, B; D'Antonio, C; Dobson, A; Howarth, R; Schindler, D; Schlesinger, W H; Simberloff, D; Swackhamer, D

2001-04-13

276

Global Change: A View from Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this talk, I will discuss the fundamental science and society problems associated with global change, with an emphasis on the view from space. I will provide an overview of the vision and activities of the World Climate Research Program in the next two decades. Then I will show regional climate changes and environmental problems in the East Asian region, such as biomass burning, urban pollutions, yellow sand, and their possible interaction with the Asian monsoon, particularly over Southern China.

Lau, William K. M.

2003-01-01

277

Global climate change and US agriculture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Agricultural productivity is expected to be sensitive to global climate change. Models from atmospheric science, plant science, and agricultural economics are linked to explore this sensitivity. Although the results depend on the severity of climate change and the compensating effects of carbon dioxide on crop yields, the simulation suggests that irrigated acreage will expand and regional patterns of U.S. agriculture will shift. The impact of the U.S. economy strongly depends on which climate model is used.

Adams, Richard M.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Peart, Robert M.; Ritchie, Joe T.; Mccarl, Bruce A.

1990-01-01

278

3. Potential Impacts of Global Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. AIM\\/Impact model, an integrated assessment model of climate change impacts, has been developed in order to evaluate future climate change impacts and to support decision making on the global\\/Asia scale. AIM\\/Impact model con- sists of sub-models for evaluating impacts on major vulnerable sectors (water, ag- riculture, ecosystem, human health) and linkages among them. In this chapter, the general framework

Hideo Harasawa; Yuzuru Matsuoka; Kiyoshi Takahashi; Yasuaki Hijioka; Yoko Shimada; Yosuke Munesue; Murari Lal

279

Distribution costs of global climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of global climate change links the issues of energy utilization, economic development, environmental degradation, and equity on a planetary scale. Questions concerning the scale and timing of the impact of continuously increasing emissions of greenhouse gases remain. A set of approaches has emerged which claim to objectively demonstrate that nothing or very little should be done to address

J. Byrne; C. Hadjilambrinos; S. Wagle

1994-01-01

280

INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT MODELS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We review recent work in the integrated assessment modeling of global climate change. This field has grown rapidly since 1990. Integrated assessment models seek to combine knowledge from multiple disciplines in formal integrated representations; inform policy-making, structure knowledge, and prioritize key uncertainties; and advance knowledge of broad system linkages and feedbacks, particularly between socioeconomic and biophysical processes. They may

Edward A. Parson; Karen Fisher-Vanden

1997-01-01

281

Heterogeneous Preferences Regarding Global Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the structure of preferences for mitigating impacts of global climate change that will not occur during the lifetimes of most who are alive today. Because no market data exist for such distant markets, a statedpreference approach is used. The analysis is based on the random-parameters logit model, and the results indicate substantial heterogeneity in respondent preferences, that mean

David F. Layton; Gardner Brown

2000-01-01

282

GLOBAL CHANGE AND TIDAL FRESHWATER WETLANDS  

E-print Network

Chapter 23 GLOBAL CHANGE AND TIDAL FRESHWATER WETLANDS: SCENARIOS AND IMPACTS Scott C. Neubauer Tidal Freshwater Wetlands, edited by Aat Barendregt, Dennis Whigham & Andrew Baldwin 2009, viii + 320pp Publishers GmbH This chapter was originally published in the book ,,Tidal Freshwater Wetlands". The copy

Neubauer, Scott C.

283

Uncertainty, Climate Change and the Global Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper illustrates how one may assess our comprehensive uncertainty about the various relations in the entire chain from human activity to climate change. Using a modified version of the RICE model of the global economy and climate, we perform Monte Carlo simulations, where full sets of parameters in the model's most important equations are drawn randomly from pre-specified distributions,

Torsten Persson

2008-01-01

284

Climate change, biofuels, and global food security  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a new urgency to improve the accuracy of predicting climate change impact on crop yields because the balance between food supply and demand is shifting abruptly from surplus to deficit. This reversal is being driven by a rapid rise in petroleum prices and, in response, a massive global expansion of biofuel production from maize, oilseed, and sugar crops.

Kenneth G Cassman

2007-01-01

285

Global Atmospheric Change and Animal Populations  

E-print Network

in the atmosphere (i.e., the "greenhouse effect"; IPCC 2007; Figure 1). The greenhouse effect is a natural of this century (IPCC 2007). #12;Figure 1: The "greenhouse" effect When radiative energy becomes absorbedGlobal Atmospheric Change and Animal Populations By: Edward B. Mondor (Department of Biology

286

Global Climate Change and Sea Level Rise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will practice the steps involved in a scientific investigation as they learn why ice formations on land (and not those on water) will cause a rise in sea level upon melting. This is a discovery lesson in ice and water density and displacement of water by ice floating on the surface as it relates to global climate change.

California Academy of Sciences

287

Capturing provenance of global change information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global change information demands access to data sources and well-documented provenance to provide the evidence needed to build confidence in scientific conclusions and decision making. A new generation of web technology, the Semantic Web, provides tools for that purpose.

Ma, Xiaogang; Fox, Peter; Tilmes, Curt; Jacobs, Katharine; Waple, Anne

2014-06-01

288

GLOBAL CHANGE EFFECTS ON CORAL REEF CONDITION  

EPA Science Inventory

Fisher, W., W. Davis, J. Campbell, L. Courtney, P. Harris, B. Hemmer, M. Parsons, B. Quarles and D. Santavy. In press. Global Change Effects on Coral Reef Condition (Abstract). To be presented at the EPA Science Forum: Healthy Communities and Ecosystems, 1-3 June 2004, Washington...

289

Towards the global monitoring of biodiversity change  

E-print Network

and of ecosystems' [12]. This is a broad concept with many dimensions. For the purposes of biodiversity monitoring of biodiversity have particular implications at each scale for the delivery of ecosystem services (Box 1). CurrentTowards the global monitoring of biodiversity change Henrique M. Pereira1,2,* and H. David Cooper3

Pereira, Henrique Miguel

290

Gender and REDD+ Global instruments and changing  

E-print Network

Gender and REDD+ Global instruments and changing forest governanceforest governance Seema Arora The aim of the current project is to study howThe aim of the current project is to study how gender of development and gender equality?of development and gender equality? #12;The gendered impacts of REDD+ policy

291

Climate Kids: What is Global Climate Change?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A question and answer format is used to differentiate between weather and climate, and to provide a brief overview of global warming. This lesson is part of the Climate Kids website, a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

2013-11-07

292

Climate Adaptation Futures: Second International Climate Change Adaptation Conference 2012  

E-print Network

into the challenges and opportunities that adaptation presents. It will showcase cutting-edge research from around pays, and for what, where, and how? · Tools for adaptation: what approaches, tools, and methods are available? How do we judge their effectiveness? · Measuring and evaluating adaptation: how do we know

Matthews, Adrian

293

Adaptive robot path planning in changing environments  

SciTech Connect

Path planning needs to be fast to facilitate real-time robot programming. Unfortunately, current planning techniques are still too slow to be effective, as they often require several minutes, if not hours of computation. To overcome this difficulty, we present an adaptive algorithm that uses past experience to speed up future performance. It is a learning algorithm suitable for incrementally-changing environments such as those encountered in manufacturing of evolving products and waste-site remediation. The algorithm allows the robot to adapt to its environment by having two experience manipulation schemes: For minor environmental change, we use an object-attached experience abstraction scheme to increase the flexibility of the learned experience; for major environmental change, we use an on-demand experience repair scheme to retain those experiences that remain valid and useful. Using this algorithm, we can effectively reduce the overall robot planning time by re-using the computation result for one task to plan a path for another.

Chen, P.C.

1994-08-01

294

Effects of global climate change on geographic distributions of vertebrates in North Queensland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses potential changes in the distributions of 12 endemic rainforest vertebrates of the Wet Tropics of Northeastern Australia in response to global warming predictions. It is based on projecting models of current geographic distribution to modelled future conditions taken from regional climate models. In comparing vertebrate species with different mobility, adaptation potential and distribution, consequences of global warming

Jan-Olaf Meynecke

2004-01-01

295

An Adaptive Unified Differential Evolution Algorithm for Global Optimization  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we propose a new adaptive unified differential evolution algorithm for single-objective global optimization. Instead of the multiple mutation strate- gies proposed in conventional differential evolution algorithms, this algorithm employs a single equation unifying multiple strategies into one expression. It has the virtue of mathematical simplicity and also provides users the flexibility for broader exploration of the space of mutation operators. By making all control parameters in the proposed algorithm self-adaptively evolve during the process of optimization, it frees the application users from the burden of choosing appro- priate control parameters and also improves the performance of the algorithm. In numerical tests using thirteen basic unimodal and multimodal functions, the proposed adaptive unified algorithm shows promising performance in compari- son to several conventional differential evolution algorithms.

Qiang, Ji; Mitchell, Chad

2014-11-03

296

Linking population, fertility, and family planning with adaptation to climate change: perspectives from Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Global climate change is felt disproportionately in the world's most economically disadvantaged countries. As adaption to an evolving climate becomes increasingly salient on national and global scales, it is important to assess how people at the local-level are already coping with changes. Understanding local responses to climate change is essential for helping countries to construct strategies to bolster resilience to current and future effects. This qualitative research investigated responses to climate change in Ethiopia; specifically, how communities react to and cope with climate variation, which groups are most vulnerable, and the role of family planning in increasing resilience. Participants were highly aware of changing climate effects, impacts of rapid population growth, and the need for increased access to voluntary family planning. Identification of family planning as an important adaptation strategy supports the inclusion of rights-based voluntary family planning and reproductive health into local and national climate change adaptation plans. PMID:24069764

Rovin, Kimberly; Hardee, Karen; Kidanu, Aklilu

2013-09-01

297

Satellite Contributions to Global Change Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By providing a global view with a level playing field (no region missed because of unfavorable surface conditions or political boundaries), satellites have made major contributions to improved monitoring and understanding of our constantly changing planet. The global view has allowed surprising realizations like the relative sparsity of lightning strikes over oceans and the large-scale undulations on the massive Antarctic ice sheet. It has allowed the tracking of all sorts of phenomena, including aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, as they move with the atmospheric circulation and impact weather and human health. But probably nothing that the global view allows is more important in the long term than its provision. of unbiased data sets to address the issue of global change, considered by many to be among the most important issues facing humankind today. With satellites we can monitor atmospheric temperatures at all latitudes and longitudes, and obtain a global average that lessens the likelihood of becoming endlessly mired in the confusions brought about by the certainty of regional differences. With satellites we can monitor greenhouse gases such as CO2 not just above individual research stations but around the globe. With satellites we can monitor the polar sea ice covers, as we have done since the late 1970s, determining and quantifying the significant reduction in Arctic sea ice and the slight growth in Antarctic sea ice over that period, With satellites we can map the full extent and changes in the Antarctic stratospheric ozone depletions that were first identified from using a single ground station; and through satellite data we have witnessed from afar land surface changes brought about by humans both intentionally, as with wide-scale deforestation, and unintentionally, as with the decay of the Aral Sea. The satellite data are far from sufficient for all that we need in order to understand the global system and forecast its changes, as we also need sophisticated climate models, in situ process studies, and data sets that extend back well before the introduction of satellite technology. Nonetheless, the repetitive, global view provided by satellites is contributing in a major way to our improved recognition of how the Earth im changing, a recognition that is none too soon in view of the magnitude of the impacts that humans can now have.

Parkinson, Claire L.

2009-01-01

298

Adaptation to climate change in the developing world  

E-print Network

Adaptation to climate change in the developing world W. Neil Adger,a,b,* Saleemul Huq,c Katrina and review the evidence on present-day adaptation in developing countries and on coordinated international action on future adaptation. We argue that all societies are fundamentally adaptive and there are many

Hulme, Mike

299

Aspen Global Change Institute Summer Science Sessions  

SciTech Connect

The Aspen Global Change Institute (AGCI) successfully organized and convened six interdisciplinary meetings over the course of award NNG04GA21G. The topics of the meetings were consistent with a range of issues, goals and objectives as described within the NASA Earth Science Enterprise Strategic Plan and more broadly by the US Global Change Research Program/Our Changing Planet, the more recent Climate Change Program Strategic Plan and the NSF Pathways report. The meetings were chaired by two or more leaders from within the disciplinary focus of each session. 222 scholars for a total of 1097 participants-days were convened under the auspices of this award. The overall goal of each AGCI session is to further the understanding of Earth system science and global environmental change through interdisciplinary dialog. The format and structure of the meetings allows for presentation by each participant, in-depth discussion by the whole group, and smaller working group and synthesis activities. The size of the group is important in terms of the group dynamics and interaction, and the ability for each participant's work to be adequately presented and discussed within the duration of the meeting, while still allowing time for synthesis

Katzenberger, John; Kaye, Jack A

2006-10-01

300

Global Change: Logs of Straw; Dendrochronology  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Geological Survey has produced a teacher`s packet targeted for grades 4 through 6 entitled Global Change. Each Global Change packet contains the following inserts: (1) A color poster depicting the earth as a fragile planet on one side, and examples of visible global change on the reverse. (2) Three activities addressing {open_quotes}Time and Cycles,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}Change and Cycles,{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Earth as Home{close_quotes} (3) A teacher guide (4) An evaluation questionnaire. Trees are some of nature`s most accurate time-keepers. Their growth layers, appearing as rings in the cross section of the tree trunk, record evidence of floods, droughts, insect attacks, lightning strikes, and even earthquakes. Tree growth depends on local conditions, which include the availability of water. Because the water cycle, or hydrologic cycle, is uneven-that is, the amount of water in the environment varies from year to year-scientist use tree-ring patterns to reconstruct regional patterns of drought and climatic change. This field of study, known as dendrochronology, was begun in the early 1900s by an American astronomer named Andrew Ellicott Douglass.

NONE

1994-09-01

301

Thermohaline circulations and global climate change  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses research activities conducted during the period 15 January 1992--14 December 1992. Thermohaline Circulations and Global Climate Change is concerned with investigating the hypothesis that changes in surface thermal and hydrological forcing of the North Atlantic, changes that might be expected to accompany C0[sub 2]-induced global warming, could result in ocean-atmosphere interactions' exerting a positive feedback on the climate system. Because the North Atlantic is the source of much of the global ocean's reservoir of deep water, and because this deep water could sequester large amounts of anthropogenically produced C0[sub 2], changes in the rate of deep-water production are important to future climates. Since deep-water Production is controlled, in part, by the annual cycle of the atmospheric forcing of the North Atlantic, and since this forcing depends strongly on both hydrological and thermal processes as well as the windstress, there is the potential for feedback between the relatively short-term response of the atmosphere to changing radiative forcing and the longer-term processes in the oceans. Work over the past 11 months has proceeded according to the continuation discussion of last January and several new results have arisen.

Hanson, H.P.

1992-01-01

302

Avian migration phenology and global climate change  

PubMed Central

There is mounting evidence that global climate change has extended growing seasons, changed distribution patterns, and altered the phenology of flowering, breeding, and migration. For migratory birds, the timing of arrival on breeding territories and over-wintering grounds is a key determinant of reproductive success, survivorship, and fitness. But we know little of the factors controlling earlier passage in long-distance migrants. Over the past 30 years in Oxfordshire, U.K., the average arrival and departure dates of 20 migrant bird species have both advanced by 8 days; consequently, the overall residence time in Oxfordshire has remained unchanged. The timing of arrival has advanced in relation to increasing winter temperatures in sub-Saharan Africa, whereas the timing of departure has advanced after elevated summer temperatures in Oxfordshire. This finding demonstrates that migratory phenology is quite likely to be affected by global climate change and links events in tropical winter quarters with those in temperate breeding areas. PMID:14519854

Cotton, Peter A.

2003-01-01

303

Biomass burning a driver for global change  

SciTech Connect

Recent research has identified another biospheric process that has instantaneous and longer term effects on the production of atmospheric gases: biomass burning. Biomass burning includes the burning of the world`s vegetation-forests, savannas. and agricultural lands, to clear the land and change its use. Only in the past decade have researchers realized the important contributions of biomass burning to the global budgets of many radiatively and chemically active gases - carbon dioxide, methane, nitric oxide, tropospheric ozone, methyl chloride - and elemental carbon particulates. International field experiments and satellite data are yielding a clearer understanding of this important global source of atmospheric gases and particulates. It is seen that in addition to being a significant instantaneous global source of atmospheric gases and particulates, burning enhances the biogenic emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide from the world`s soils. Biomass burning affects the reflectivity and emissivity of the Earth`s surface as well as the hydrological cycle by changing rates of land evaporation and water runoff. For these reasons, it appears that biomass burning is a significant driver of global change. 20 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Levine, J.S.; Cofer, W.R. III; Cahoon, D.R. Jr. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Winstead, E.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Hampton, VA (United States)

1995-03-01

304

Forest management for mitigation and adaptation to climate change: Insights from long-term silviculture experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing management strategies for addressing global climate change has become an increasingly important issue influencing forest management around the globe. Currently, management approaches are being proposed that intend to (1) mitigate climate change by enhancing forest carbon stores and (2) foster adaptation by maintaining compositionally and structurally complex forests. However, little is known about the compatibility of these two objectives

Anthony W. D’Amato; John B. Bradford; Shawn Fraver; Brian J. Palik

2011-01-01

305

Emerging Landscapes: Using Ecological Theory to Guide Urban Planting Design: An adaptation strategy for climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change threatens the structure and function of ecological communities in urban areas, including public and private gardens. An adaptation strategy was developed to accommodate the challenges of urban greenspace design under a changing climate. The strategy offers a protocol for planting design that focuses on adding resilience to plantings rather than matching specific plant species to specific predictions

MaryCarol Hunter

2011-01-01

306

UEA Water Security Research Centre Climate Change and Variability Adaptation and Vulnerability  

E-print Network

UEA Water Security Research Centre Climate Change and Variability · Adaptation and Vulnerability to critical global policy concerns: climate change, food trade and food security, energy security · Transboundary Cooperation ­ Conflict · Irrigation Performance and Policy · River Basin Management · Water

Everest, Graham R

307

Adapting to and Coping with the Threat and Impacts of Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the nature and challenge of adaptation in the context of global climate change. The complexity of "climate change" as threat, environmental stressor, risk domain, and impacting process with dramatic environmental and human consequences requires a synthesis of perspectives and models from diverse areas of psychology to…

Reser, Joseph P.; Swim, Janet K.

2011-01-01

308

Adaptation without parameter change: Dynamic gain control in motion detection  

E-print Network

Adaptation without parameter change: Dynamic gain control in motion detection Alexander Borst systems adapt their input-output relationship to changes in the statistics of the ambient stimulus. Such adaptive behavior has been measured in a motion detection sensitive neuron of the fly visual system, H1

309

Fatigue and Structural Change: Two Consequences of Visual Pattern Adaptation  

E-print Network

Fatigue and Structural Change: Two Consequences of Visual Pattern Adaptation Jeremy M. Wolfe-term fatigue, produced very quickly and (2) long-term structural change, requiring more extended adaptation reductions in the sensitivity of the mechanisms detecting the stimulus. Adaptation fatigues the mechanism

310

Lessons for climate change adaptation from better management of rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous adaptation in the water sector is assessed to derive lessons for more successful climate change adaptation from six empirical, consistently designed river management case studies based on projects of WWF. They show that when adaptation measures are considered in the context of common problems in water management, many practical ways of building resilience to climate change through mainstream programs

JAMIE PITTOCK

2009-01-01

311

Towards the global monitoring of biodiversity change.  

PubMed

Governments have set the ambitious target of reducing biodiversity loss by the year 2010. The scientific community now faces the challenge of assessing the progress made towards this target and beyond. Here, we review current monitoring efforts and propose a global biodiversity monitoring network to complement and enhance these efforts. The network would develop a global sampling programme for indicator taxa (we suggest birds and vascular plants) and would integrate regional sampling programmes for taxa that are locally relevant to the monitoring of biodiversity change. The network would also promote the development of comparable maps of global land cover at regular time intervals. The extent and condition of specific habitat types, such as wetlands and coral reefs, would be monitored based on regional programmes. The data would then be integrated with other environmental and socioeconomic indicators to design responses to reduce biodiversity loss. PMID:16701487

Pereira, Henrique M; David Cooper, H

2006-03-01

312

NOAA's Office of Global Programs Climate Change Data and Detection  

E-print Network

NOAA's Office of Global Programs Climate Change Data and Detection Applied Research Center (ARC) 12 Climate and Global Change 1990- 1995 2 #12; variability, and it is widely applied in studies of climate change and in international assessment activities

313

Response of Earth's Ecosystem to Global Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth is in the midst of rapid and unprecedented change, much of it caused by the enormous reproductive and resource acquisition success of the human population. For the first time in Earth's history, the actions of one species-humans-are altering the atmospheric, climatic, biospheric, and edaphic processes on a scale that rivals natural processes. How will ecosystems, involving those manipulated and managed by humans largely for human use, respond to these changes? Clearly ecosystems have been adjusting to change throughout Earth's history and evolving in ways to adapt and to maintain self-organizing behavior. And in this process, the metabolic activity of the biosphere has altered the environmental conditions it experiences. I am going to confine this presentation to a few thoughts on the present state of terrestrial ecosystems and the urgency that changes in it is bringing to all of us.

Peterson, David L.

1996-01-01

314

Aiding cities in their work on climate change adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban areas around the world are at the frontlines of climate change because of their enormous aggregate populations and because of their vulnerability to multiple climate change stressors. Half of our planet's 7.1 billion inhabitants currently reside in cities with six billion people projected to call cities home by 2050. In the U.S. and much of the rest of the world, cities are warming at twice the rate of the planet. Superimposed on urban climate changes driven by global warming are the regional effects of urban heat domes driven by large differences in land use, building materials, and vegetation between cities and their rural surroundings. In megacities - those with populations exceeding 10 million people - such as Tokyo - urban heat domes can contribute to daytime temperatures that soar to more than 11°C higher than their rural surroundings. In addition, the localized warming can alter patterns of precipitation in metropolitan regions and perhaps even influence the frequency and severity of severe weather. Municipal officials need to accelerate their efforts to prepare and implement climate change adaptation strategies but what are the institutions that can help enable this work? Informal science education centers can play vital roles because they are overwhelmingly in urban settings and because they can act as ';competent outsiders.' They are neither responsible for conducting climate change research nor accountable for implementing public policies to address climate change. They instead can play an essential role of ensuring that solid science informs the formulation of good practices and policies. It is incumbent, therefore, for informal science education centers to accelerate and enhance their abilities to help translate scientific insights into on-the-ground actions. This session will explore the potential roles of informal science education centers to advance climate change adaptation through a review of the urban climate change education initiatives for municipal officials that the Science Museum of Minnesota has implemented over the past two years.

Hamilton, P.

2013-12-01

315

COMMUNICATING GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: INVESTIGATING MESSAGE STRATEGIES FOR COMMUNICATING THE IMPACT OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE.  

EPA Science Inventory

The research program is designed to generate findings that provide specific guidance to science communicators and government officials on how to best communicate knowledge about global climate change and other environmental issues to diverse lay audiences. Beyond providing gui...

316

Stellar activity: Astrophysics relevant to global change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

FRESIP will obtain a great deal of data on stellar activity and flares on F, G and K dwarfs. Rotation periods, flare distributions and possibly stellar cycles will emerge. This apparently curiosity-driven research actually has implications for our understanding of global climate change. Significant climate change during the seventeenth-century Maunder Minimum is thought to be related to a change in the solar condition. Recently acquired data from the Greenland Ice-core Project suggest that far greater climate changes on decade time scales may have occurred during the previous interglacial. It is possible that a yet more drastic change in state of the Sun was responsible. We have no relevant solar data, but can begin to explore this possibility by observing an ensemble of solar-like stars.

Haisch, Bernhard M.

1994-01-01

317

Changing Conceptions of Globalization: Changing Conceptions of Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines changing conceptions of globalization in education, highlighting new electronic information technologies that, rather than promoting homogeneity, are producing a stimulus for a politics of difference. Cyborgs and cyberspace are emerging as discourses of disunity and difference. The essay recommends a form of critical localism to challenge…

Fitzsimons, Patrick

2000-01-01

318

Preparing for Change: Challenges and Opportunities in a Global World  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our world is becoming increasingly global. This may sound like a clich'e, yet it is true nonetheless, and poses unprecedented challenges for graduate education. For the new generation of researchers, teachers and professionals to be successful they must be prepared in more than the content area of their chosen field. They must also acquire proficiency in global awareness, cultural literacy, multicultural teamwork and language facility. These global skill sets form the basis for effective multicultural collaboration and will become increasingly important even for those who do not intend to study or work abroad. Knowledge has become more portable in the internet age; large data bases and reports can be accessed in real time from various locations around the globe; information is exchanged in multifaceted knowledge networks; collaborative research takes place within and outside of the traditional venue of the research university in the private sector, research institutes, and associations; research networks span multiple disciplines as progress invariably occurs at the intersection of previously discrete fields of inquiry. Global collaboration thus is no longer dependent on the physical proximity of collaborators but can take place anywhere any time. This then requires yet another set of skills, namely the ability to adapt to change, exhibit flexibility and transfer skills to a range of contexts and applications. Effective graduate education must address these realities and expose students to learning opportunities that will enable them to acquire these much needed global skills sets.

O'Hara, Sabine

2009-03-01

319

National Institute for Global Environmental Change (NIGEC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established by the US Congress in the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act of 1990, the primary goal of NIGEC is "to pursue excellent research in the field of global climate change." Additionally, NIGEC aims to serve as "a virtual institute that crosses regional boundaries to integrate and synthesize information for decision makers." To these ends, the NIGEC homepage provides detailed information on the Institute's research projects (organized by year and region), including a Global Change News Highlights section (includes abstracts and citations for cutting-edge scientific articles), a Publications section (organized by year and Region), and a Cross-Cutting Initiatives section (on specific NIGEC focal areas). Contact information for regional centers and links to related sites round out this research-oriented site.

320

The gender perspective in climate change and global health  

PubMed Central

Background Population health is a primary goal of sustainable development. United Nations international conferences like the Beijing Platform for Action have highlighted the key role of women in ensuring sustainable development. In the context of climate change, women are affected the most while they display knowledge and skills to orient themselves toward climate adaptation activities within their societies. Objective To investigate how the gender perspective is addressed as an issue in research and policy-making concerning climate change and global health. Methods A broad literature search was undertaken using the databases Pubmed and Web of Science to explore the terms ‘climate change,’ ‘health,’ ‘gender,’ and ‘policy.’ Climate change and health-related policy documents of the World Health Organization (WHO) and National Communications and National Adaptation Programs of Action reports submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change of selected countries were studied. Assessment guidelines to review these reports were developed from this study's viewpoint. Results The database search results showed almost no articles when the four terms were searched together. The WHO documents lacked a gender perspective in their approach and future recommendations on climate policies. The reviewed UN reports were also neutral to gender perspective except one of the studied documents. Conclusion Despite recognizing the differential effects of climate change on health of women and men as a consequence of complex social contexts and adaptive capacities, the study finds gender to be an underrepresented or non-existing variable both in research and studied policy documents in the field of climate change and health. PMID:21160554

Preet, Raman; Nilsson, Maria; Schumann, Barbara; Evengård, Birgitta

2010-01-01

321

National Institute for Global Environmental Change  

SciTech Connect

This document is the Semi-Annual Report of the National Institute for Global Environmental Change for the reporting period July 1 to December 31, 1991. The report is in two parts. Part I presents the mission of the Institute, examples of progress toward that mission, a brief description of the revised management plan, and the financial report. Part II presents the statements of the Regional Center Directors along with progress reports of the projects written by the researchers themselves.

Werth, G.C.

1992-04-01

322

A DBMS architecture for global change research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this research is the design and development of an integrated system for the management of very large scientific databases, cartographic/geographic information processing, and exploratory scientific data analysis for global change research. The system will represent both spatial and temporal knowledge about natural and man-made entities on the eath's surface, following an object-oriented paradigm. A user will be able to derive, modify, and apply, procedures to perform operations on the data, including comparison, derivation, prediction, validation, and visualization. This work represents an effort to extend the database technology with an intrinsic class of operators, which is extensible and responds to the growing needs of scientific research. Of significance is the integration of many diverse forms of data into the database, including cartography, geography, hydrography, hypsography, images, and urban planning data. Equally important is the maintenance of metadata, that is, data about the data, such as coordinate transformation parameters, map scales, and audit trails of previous processing operations. This project will impact the fields of geographical information systems and global change research as well as the database community. It will provide an integrated database management testbed for scientific research, and a testbed for the development of analysis tools to understand and predict global change.

Hachem, Nabil I.; Gennert, Michael A.; Ward, Matthew O.

1993-08-01

323

Climate change refugia as a tool for climate adaptation  

EPA Science Inventory

Climate change refugia, areas relatively buffered from contemporary climate change so as to increase persistence of valued physical, ecological, and cultural resources, are considered as potential adaptation options in the face of anthropogenic climate change. In a collaboration ...

324

Global Change Impacts on Mangrove Ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mangroves are tropical/subtropical communities of primarily tree species that grow in the intertidal zone. These tidal forests are important coastal ecosystems that are valued for a variety of ecological and societal goods and services. Major local threats to mangrove ecosystems worldwide include clearcutting and trimming of forests for urban, agricultural, or industrial expansion; hydrological alterations; toxic chemical spills; and eutrophication. In many countries with mangroves, much of the human population resides in the coastal zone, and their activities often negatively impact the integrity of mangrove forests. In addition, eutrophication, which is the process whereby nutrients build up to higher than normal levels in a natural system, is possibly one of the most serious threats to mangroves and associated ecosystems such as coral reefs. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at the National Wetlands Research Center are working to more fully understand global impacts on these significant ecosystems. Changes in climate and other factors may also affect mangroves, but in complex ways. Global warming may promote expansion of mangrove forests to higher latitudes and accelerate sea-level rise through melting of polar ice or steric expansion of oceans. Changes in sea level would alter flooding patterns and the structure and areal extent of mangroves. Climate change may also alter rainfall patterns, which would in turn change local salinity regimes and competitive interactions of mangroves with other wetland species. Increases in frequency or intensity of tropical storms and hurricanes in combination with sea-level rise may alter erosion and sedimentation rates in mangrove forests. Another global change factor that may directly affect mangrove growth is increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), caused by burning of fossil fuels and other factors. Elevated CO2 concentration may increase mangrove growth by stimulating photosynthesis or improving water use efficiency, but the consequences of this growth enhancement for the ecosystem are unknown.

McKee, Karen L.

2004-01-01

325

Evaluating Global Climate Change Education Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Climate Change Education initiative (GCCE) is a multi-site effort funded by the National Science Foundation to develop web resources. The objective of curricular modules is to improve content knowledge and change attitudes about climate change among undergraduate science students. The two-year evaluation of the project was conducted by Tim Weston from the University of Colorado. The small-scale evaluation first developed measures for attitude and content about climate change, and then administered the measures online. Analysis of results is ongoing. The evaluator wanted to know the attitudes and content knowledge of students after completing the modules, and if attitudes and content knowledge shifted from pre to post. An additional component of the evaluation focused on student understanding of specific global warming topics after completing the modules. Developing the test and survey involved reviewing existing measures, soliciting content from stakeholders in the grant, and then establishing a content framework that covered the important topics in climate change linked to project curricula. The pilot attitude measure contained fourteen agree/disagree items (I believe people should change their lifestyles to help minimize climate change), five self-assessment questions (How informed are you about the different causes of climate change? ), and wo previous experience questions about previous science courses taken, and actions related to climate change. The content measure contained 10 multiple-choice items asking about changes in global average temperature, the scientific methods of climate change, and the primary countries and human activities responsible for climate change. Questions were designed to reflect a mixture of general science literacy about climate change and more specific content related knowledge taught in the curricula. Both content and attitude measures were piloted with students, who answered questions using a think-aloud" interview protocol meant to clarify any ambiguous wording or over-specialized vocabulary in the items. Corrected versions of the measures were then given to small groups of students to check for instrument and sub-scale reliability and to learn if any items had ceiling or floor effects. Results from administration of the post attitude survey showed a majority of students in multiple courses agreed with attitude items across the range of topics. For instance, 72 - 90% or students in 8 courses using the modules agreed or strongly agreed with the statement "I believe people should change their lifestyles to help minimize climate change." A majority of students also agreed with statements such as "Human actions are causing climate change, " and "there is sufficient scientific evidence that climate change is taking place." Where pre/post data was available, average scores across items increased after students used the curricula by an average of .5 on a scale of 1 - 5. Students also scored high on the climate change content measure. Average percentage correct scores per item ranged from 32% to 90%. Average scores also gained by 2 -4 points depending on course.

Weston, T. J.

2011-12-01

326

Global fish production and climate change  

SciTech Connect

Current global fisheries production of {approx}160 million tons is rising as a result of increases in aquaculture production. A number of climate-related threats to both capture fisheries and aquaculture are identified, but there is low confidence in predictions of future fisheries production because of uncertainty over future global aquatic net primary production and the transfer of this production through the food chain to human consumption. Recent changes in the distribution and productivity of a number of fish species can be ascribed with high confidence to regional climate variability, such as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. Future production may increase in some high-latitude regions because of warming and decreased ice cover, but the dynamics in low-latitude regions are giverned by different processes, and production may decline as a result of reduced vertical mixing of the water column and, hence, reduced recycling of nutrients. There are strong interactions between the effects of fishing and the effects of climate because fishing reduces the age, size, and geographic diversity of populations and the biodiversity of marine ecosystems, making both more sensitive to additional stresses such as climate change. Inland fisheries are additionally threatened by changes in precipiation and water management. The frequency and intensity of extreme climate events is likely to have a major impact on future fisheries production in both inland and marine systems. Reducing fishing mortality in the majority of fisheries, which are currently fully exploited or overexploited, is the pricipal feasible means of reducing the impacts of climate change.

Brander, K.M. [International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Copenhagen (Denmark)

2007-12-11

327

Biological diversity, ecology, and global climate change.  

PubMed Central

Worldwide climate change and loss of biodiversity are issues of global scope and importance that have recently become subjects of considerable public concern. Unlike classical public health issues and many environmental issues, their perceived threat lies in their potential to disrupt ecological functioning and stability rather than from any direct threat that may pose to human health. Over the last 5 years, the international scientific community and the general public have become aware of the implications that atmospheric warming might have for world climate patterns and the resulting changes in the persistence, location, and composition of ecosystems worldwide. At the same time, awareness of the magnitude of current and impending losses of the world's biological diversity has increased. Human activities are currently responsible for a species loss rate that is the most extreme in millions of years, and an alarmingly increasing rate of transformation and fragmentation of natural landscapes. We are just beginning to grasp the meaning of this loss in terms of opportunity costs to human society and the less quantifiable losses associated with simplification of natural ecosystems. In the case of both global warming and reduction of biological diversity, man is affecting nature in an unprecedented fashion, on a global scale, and with unpredictable and frequently irreversible results. PMID:1820260

Jutro, P R

1991-01-01

328

Developing a framework for regional destination adaptation to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tourism sector is particularly vulnerable to changes in climate, as it is often the weather that sets the parameters for various forms of tourism. Despite this, little research has been done to assist tourism destinations in adapting to climate change. Adaptation aims to moderate, cope with, and benefit from the consequences of climate change in order to manage risk

Ryan Jopp; Terry DeLacy; Judith Mair

2010-01-01

329

Beyond Reduction: Climate Change Adaptation Planning for Universities and Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to outline a unique six-step process for the inclusion of climate change adaption goals and strategies in a University Climate Change Plan. Design/methodology/approach: A mixed-method approach was used to gather data on campus climate change vulnerabilities and adaption strategies. A literature review…

Owen, Rochelle; Fisher, Erica; McKenzie, Kyle

2013-01-01

330

Climate change induced adaptation by paddy farmers in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The climatic factors are changing very rapidly in Malaysia. For the farmers to adapt with the changes, government and other\\u000a external agencies are providing several supports. But still there is a gap between farmers’ adaptability with climate change\\u000a and current level of supports. This study uses descriptive statistics, ordinal regression, and percentile analysis to measure\\u000a the level of farmers’ adaptability

Chamhuri Siwar; Mohd Ekhwan bin Toriman; Rafiqul Islam Molla; Basri Talib

2012-01-01

331

Global warming and changes in drought  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several recently published studies have produced apparently conflicting results of how drought is changing under climate change. The reason is thought to lie in the formulation of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the data sets used to determine the evapotranspiration component. Here, we make an assessment of the issues with the PDSI in which several other sources of discrepancy emerge, not least how precipitation has changed and is analysed. As well as an improvement in the precipitation data available, accurate attribution of the causes of drought requires accounting for natural variability, especially El Niño/Southern Oscillation effects, owing to the predilection for wetter land during La Niña events. Increased heating from global warming may not cause droughts but it is expected that when droughts occur they are likely to set in quicker and be more intense.

Trenberth, Kevin E.; Dai, Aiguo; van der Schrier, Gerard; Jones, Philip D.; Barichivich, Jonathan; Briffa, Keith R.; Sheffield, Justin

2014-01-01

332

Marine ecosystem responses to Cenozoic global change.  

PubMed

The future impacts of anthropogenic global change on marine ecosystems are highly uncertain, but insights can be gained from past intervals of high atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure. The long-term geological record reveals an early Cenozoic warm climate that supported smaller polar ecosystems, few coral-algal reefs, expanded shallow-water platforms, longer food chains with less energy for top predators, and a less oxygenated ocean than today. The closest analogs for our likely future are climate transients, 10,000 to 200,000 years in duration, that occurred during the long early Cenozoic interval of elevated warmth. Although the future ocean will begin to resemble the past greenhouse world, it will retain elements of the present "icehouse" world long into the future. Changing temperatures and ocean acidification, together with rising sea level and shifts in ocean productivity, will keep marine ecosystems in a state of continuous change for 100,000 years. PMID:23908226

Norris, R D; Turner, S Kirtland; Hull, P M; Ridgwell, A

2013-08-01

333

Global Climate Change: Understanding the Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about ways in which scientists study past climate change. These studies involve investigations of ice cores taken from the vast ice sheet that covers Greenland and fossil evidence that parts of the Sahara Desert were once lush and filled with animal species more often associated with the African savanna far to the south. With the help of multimedia interactives and video, they will understand what global climate change is and that it has fluctuated many times during the history of the planet. They will also understand how changing climate affects our lives, learn about greenhouse gases, and consider the events that are causing an increase in the amount of these gases in the atmosphere.

2005-01-01

334

Global change and human susceptibility to disease  

SciTech Connect

Although the loss of good health is inherently unpredictable, human behavior at the individual and societal levels profoundly influences the incidence and evolution of disease. In this review, the authors define the human epidemiological environment and describe key biophysical, economic, sociocultural, and political factors that shape it. The potential impact upon the epidemiological environment of biophysical aspects of global change--changes in the size; mobility, and geographic distribution of the human population; land conversion; agricultural intensification; and climate change--is then examined. Human vulnerability to disease is strongly and deleteriously influenced by many of these ongoing, intensifying alterations. The authors then examine threats to human defenses against disease, including immune suppression, loss of biodiversity and indigenous knowledge, and the evolution of antibiotic resistance. Effective responses will require greatly enhanced attention by and collaboration among experts in diverse academic disciplines, in the private sector, and in government worldwide. 157 refs.

Daily, G.C.; Ehrlich, P.R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)] [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1996-12-31

335

The impacts of climate change on global irrigation water requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change tends to affect the irrigation water requirement of current irrigated agricultural land, and also changes the water availability for current rain-fed land by the end of this century. We use the most up-to-date climatic and crop datasets (e.g., global irrigated/rain-fed crop areas and grid level crop growing calendar (Portmann, Siebert and Döll, 2010, Global Biogeochemical Cycles 24)) to evaluate the requirements of currently irrigated land and the water deficit for rain-fed land for all major crops under current and projected climate. Six general circulation models (GCMs) under two emission scenarios, A1B & B1, are assembled using two methods, the Simple Average Method (SAM) and Root Mean Square Error Ensemble Method (RMSEMM), to deal with the GCM regional variability. It is found that the global irrigation requirement and the water deficit are both going to increase significantly under all scenarios, particularly under the A1B emission scenario. For example, the projected irrigation requirement is expected to increase by about 2500 million m3 for wheat, 3200 million m3 for maize and another 3300 million m3 for rice. At the same time, the water deficit for current rain-fed cropland will be widened by around 3000, 4000, 2100 million m3 for wheat, maize and rice respectively. Regional analysis is conducted for Africa, China, Europe, India, South America and the United States. It is found that the U.S. may expect the greatest rise in irrigation requirements for wheat and maize, while the South America may suffer the greatest increase for rice. In addition, Africa and the U.S. may face a larger water deficit for both wheat and maize on rain-fed land, and South America just for rice. In summary, climate change is likely to bring severe challenges for irrigation systems and make global water shortage even worse by the end of this century. These pressures will call for extensive adaptation measures. The change in crop water requirements and availability will lead to changes in regional food production, demand and trade, and will affect global food markets. It is also likely that the network and paths of the so-called global virtual water flow will be altered due to the impact of climate change on food production at the regional level.

Zhang, X.; Cai, X.

2011-12-01

336

Global Climate Change: Economics, Science, and Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How will various institutions respond to global warming? It's a multifaceted question, and one that forms the basis of this thoughtful course offered by MIT's Sloan School of Management. Materials for the course are offered as part of MIT's OpenCourseWare initiative, and they include a syllabus, reading suggestions, lecture notes, and several assignments. The course was originally taught in the spring of 2007 by Professors Henry Jacoby and Ronald Prinn, and it also draws on research from the university's Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change. Visitors can get a sense of the course's basic objectives by looking over the readings and the lecture notes, and interested parties may even want to take on some of the homework assignments offered here.

Jacoby, Henry D.

337

Global atmospheric methane: budget, changes and dangers.  

PubMed

A factor of 2.5 increase in the global abundance of atmospheric methane (CH(4)) since 1750 contributes 0.5 Wm(-2) to total direct radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases (2.77 Wm(-2) in 2009), while its role in atmospheric chemistry adds another approximately 0.2 Wm(-2) of indirect forcing. Since CH(4) has a relatively short lifetime and it is very close to a steady state, reductions in its emissions would quickly benefit climate. Sensible emission mitigation strategies require quantitative understanding of CH(4)'s budget of emissions and sinks. Atmospheric observations of CH(4) abundance and its rate of increase, combined with an estimate of the CH(4) lifetime, constrain total global CH(4) emissions to between 500 and 600 Tg CH(4) yr(-1). While total global emissions are constrained reasonably well, estimates of emissions by source sector vary by up to a factor of 2. Current observation networks are suitable to constrain emissions at large scales (e.g. global) but not at the regional to national scales necessary to verify emission reductions under emissions trading schemes. Improved constraints on the global CH(4) budget and its break down of emissions by source sector and country will come from an enhanced observation network for CH(4) abundance and its isotopic composition (?(13)C, ?D(D=(2)H) and ?(14)C). Isotopic measurements are a valuable tool in distinguishing among various sources that contribute emissions to an air parcel, once fractionation by loss processes is accounted for. Isotopic measurements are especially useful at regional scales where signals are larger. Reducing emissions from many anthropogenic source sectors is cost-effective, but these gains may be cancelled, in part, by increasing emissions related to economic development in many parts of the world. An observation network that can quantitatively assess these changing emissions, both positive and negative, is required, especially in the context of emissions trading schemes. PMID:21502176

Dlugokencky, Edward J; Nisbet, Euan G; Fisher, Rebecca; Lowry, David

2011-05-28

338

Adapting Urban Infrastructure to Climate Change: A Drainage Case Study  

E-print Network

) climate change scenario analysis including climate surprises to handle the uncertainty of the future scenario analysis can be effectively used to generate and evaluate alternative adaptation strategies

Vogel, Richard M.

339

Characterizing Uncertainty for Regional Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Decisions  

SciTech Connect

This white paper describes the results of new research to develop an uncertainty characterization process to help address the challenges of regional climate change mitigation and adaptation decisions.

Unwin, Stephen D.; Moss, Richard H.; Rice, Jennie S.; Scott, Michael J.

2011-09-30

340

Global Changes of the Water Cycle Intensity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study, we evaluate numerical simulations of the twentieth century climate, focusing on the changes in the intensity of the global water cycle. A new diagnostic of atmospheric water vapor cycling rate is developed and employed, that relies on constituent tracers predicted at the model time step. This diagnostic is compared to a simplified traditional calculation of cycling rate, based on monthly averages of precipitation and total water content. The mean sensitivity of both diagnostics to variations in climate forcing is comparable. However, the new diagnostic produces systematically larger values and more variability than the traditional average approach. Climate simulations were performed using SSTs of the early (1902-1921) and late (1979- 1998) twentieth century along with the appropriate C02 forcing. In general, the increase of global precipitation with the increases in SST that occurred between the early and late twentieth century is small. However, an increase of atmospheric temperature leads to a systematic increase in total precipitable water. As a result, the residence time of water in the atmosphere increased, indicating a reduction of the global cycling rate. This result was explored further using a number of 50-year climate simulations from different models forced with observed SST. The anomalies and trends in the cycling rate and hydrologic variables of different GCMs are remarkably similar. The global annual anomalies of precipitation show a significant upward trend related to the upward trend of surface temperature, during the latter half of the twentieth century. While this implies an increase in the hydrologic cycle intensity, a concomitant increase of total precipitable water again leads to a decrease in the calculated global cycling rate. An analysis of the land/sea differences shows that the simulated precipitation over land has a decreasing trend while the oceanic precipitation has an upward trend consistent with previous studies and the available observations. The decreasing continental trend in precipitation is located primarily over tropical land regions, with some other regions, such as North America experiencing an increasing trend. Precipitation trends are diagnosed further using the water tracers to delineate the precipitation that occurs because of continental evaporation, as opposed to oceanic evaporation. These diagnostics show that over global land areas, the recycling of continental moisture is decreasing in time. However, the recycling changes are not spatially uniform so that some regions, most notably over the United States, experience continental recycling of water that increases in time.

Bosilovich, Michael G.; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Walker, Gregory K.

2003-01-01

341

Agricultural adaptation to climate change in the news  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canadian researchers and policy makers dealing with climate change adaptation in the agriculture field frequently point to an apparent lack of interest from producers when the topic is raised. This attitude may be the result of several conditions, including the fact that adaptation, as a term, is poorly understood and rarely recognised and that adaptation strategies are not separable in

Ellen Wall; Barry Smit

2006-01-01

342

Support for feedback and change in self-adaptive systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-adaptive systems modify their own behaviour in response to stimuli from their operating environments. The major policy considerations for such systems are determining what, when and how adaptations should be carried out. This paper presents mechanisms for feedback and change that support policy decisions for self-adaptation within a computationally complete architecture description language based on the ?-calculus. Our contribution is

Dharini Balasubramaniam; Ronald Morrison; Kath Mickan; Graham N. C. Kirby; Brian Warboys; Ian Robertson; Bob Snowdon; R. Mark Greenwood; Wykeen Seet

2004-01-01

343

Towards Change Propagating Test Models in Autonomic and Adaptive Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomic and adaptive computing systems can add, remove, and replace their own components in response to a changing environment. Self-adaptation facilitates the perfor- mance of automated maintenance and configuration tasks, but makes it possible for faults to be introduced into the software at runtime. To address this issue, researchers have developed approaches for integrating runtime testing into autonomic and adaptive

Mohammed Akour; Akanksha Jaidev; Tariq M. King

2011-01-01

344

The science of climate change in Africa: impacts and adaptation  

E-print Network

The science of climate change in Africa: impacts and adaptation Gordon Conway, Professor .........7 the impacts ...............9 the processes of adaptation ...............14 conclusions consequences at local levels on the other. · We need to design adaptation measures to cope with high levels

345

Antarctic Benthic Fauna in the Global Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last 50 years a significant climatic shift has been observed along the Antarctic Peninsula (air and seawater temperature rise, glacial retreat, localized instances of lowered shallow waters salinities). Many Antarctic marine benthic invertebrates are adapted to specific environmental conditions (e.g. low stable temperatures, high salinity and oxygen content). Changes caused by global climate changes and subsequent glacial melting can be expected to have significant impacts on species physiology and distribution. The rise of sea water temperature coupled with such additional stress factors as melt water run-off, increased ice disturbance, disruption of food webs or invasion of alien species can be a serious problem for their long-term survival.

Kidawa, Anna; Janecki, Tomasz

2011-01-01

346

Global climate change: Policy implications for fisheries  

SciTech Connect

Several government agencies are evaluating policy options for addressing global climate change. These include planning for anticipated effects and developing mitigation options where feasible if climate does change as predicted. For fisheries resources, policy questions address effects on international, national, and regional scales. Climate change variables expected to affect inland and offshore fisheries include temperature rise, changes in the hydrologic cycle, alterations in nutrient fluxes, and reduction and relocation of spawning and nursery habitat. These variables will affect resources at all levels of biological organization, including the genetic, organism, population, and ecosystem levels. In this context, changes in primary productivity, species composition in the food-web, migration, invasions, synchrony in biological cycles, shifts in utilization of niches, and problems of larvae entrainment in estuaries have been identified. Maintaining ecosystem robustness (i.e., high biodiversity) is another component of the problem. Action requires establishing priorities for information needs, determining appropriate temporal and spatial scales at which to model effects, and accounting for interactive changes in physical and biological cycles. A policy response can be derived when these results are integrated with social needs and human population constraints.

Gucinski, H.; Lackey, R.T.; Spence, B.C.

1990-01-01

347

Institutional constraints to adaptive capacity: adaptability to climate change in the Norwegian electricity sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article contributes to the understanding of adaptive capacity within national sectors by utilising two perspectives from institutional theory. Resting on data from 21 interviews the paper analyses the Norwegian electricity sector and the influence on adaptive capacity to climate change from changes in formal structure and institutional culture. The sector underwent transformational change between the beginning of the 1980s

Tor Håkon Inderberg

2011-01-01

348

Recommendation for funding the 1992 Global Change Summer Institute: Industrial ecology and global change  

SciTech Connect

A summer institute on Industrial Ecology and Global Change was held at Snow Mass, Colorado, July 20--31, 1992. Topics of discussion included the following: the patterns and prospects of global industrialization; the vulnerability of the global environment to human activity; how industrial activity might be reconfigured in response to a deeper understanding of the major biogeochemical cycles in which this activity is embedded; how industrial activity might be reconfigured in response to a deeper understanding of associated exotic disturbances of the environment; interactions of human activity with basic environmental cycles; human activity in the form of exotic disturbance of the environment; and the dynamics of industrial development and the environmental implications.

Fein, J.S.

1992-12-31

349

The environmental impact of climate change adaptation on land use and water quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Encouraging adaptation is an essential aspect of the policy response to climate change. Adaptation seeks to reduce the harmful consequences and harness any beneficial opportunities arising from the changing climate. However, given that human activities are the main cause of environmental transformations worldwide, it follows that adaptation itself also has the potential to generate further pressures, creating new threats for both local and global ecosystems. From this perspective, policies designed to encourage adaptation may conflict with regulation aimed at preserving or enhancing environmental quality. This aspect of adaptation has received relatively little consideration in either policy design or academic debate. To highlight this issue, we analyse the trade-offs between two fundamental ecosystem services that will be impacted by climate change: provisioning services derived from agriculture and regulating services in the form of freshwater quality. Results indicate that climate adaptation in the farming sector will generate fundamental changes in river water quality. In some areas, policies that encourage adaptation are expected to be in conflict with existing regulations aimed at improving freshwater ecosystems. These findings illustrate the importance of anticipating the wider impacts of human adaptation to climate change when designing environmental policies.

Fezzi, Carlo; Harwood, Amii R.; Lovett, Andrew A.; Bateman, Ian J.

2015-03-01

350

Adapting global influenza management strategies to address emerging viruses.  

PubMed

Death by respiratory complications from influenza infections continues to be a major global health concern. Antiviral drugs are widely available for therapy and prophylaxis, but viral mutations have resulted in resistance that threatens to reduce the long-term utility of approved antivirals. Vaccination is the best method for controlling influenza, but vaccine strategies are blunted by virus antigenic drift and shift. Genetic shift in particular has led to four pandemics in the last century, which have prompted the development of efficient global surveillance and vaccination programs. Although the influenza pandemic of 2009 emphasized the need for the rapid standardization of global surveillance methods and the preparation and dissemination of global assay standards for improved reporting and diagnostic tools, outbreaks of novel influenza strains continue to occur, and current efforts must be enhanced by aggressive public education programs to promote increased vaccination rates in the global population. Recently, a novel H7N9 avian influenza virus with potential to become a pandemic strain emerged in China and was transmitted from animals to humans with a demonstrated >20% mortality rate. Sporadic outbreaks of highly lethal avian virus strains have already increased public awareness and altered annual vaccine production strategies to prevent the natural adaption of this virus to human-to-human transmission. Additional strategies for combating influenza include advancement of new antivirals for unexploited viral or host cellular targets; novel adjuvants and alternate vaccine delivery systems; and development of universal protein, DNA, or multivalent vaccines designed to increase immune responsiveness and enhance public health response times. PMID:23709619

Noah, Diana L; Noah, James W

2013-07-15

351

AWI Conference on Global Climate Change Conference Program  

E-print Network

AWI Conference on Global Climate Change Conference Program APRU World Institute Workshop on Climate:30 » Reception 1/4 AWI Conference on Global Climate Change 2007/04/10http://iaep.ucsd.edu/awi/program.php #12 DROBNICK, Managing Director, APRU World Institute; 2/4 AWI Conference on Global Climate Change 2007

Yamamoto, Hirosuke

352

CERFACS: Scientific Report ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' Project  

E-print Network

CERFACS: Scientific Report ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' Project 1991 ­ 1992 November 1992 #12; 1 INTRODUCTION (O. Thual) The goals of the Climate Modelling & Global Change project is to produce high level research contributions to the modelling of the earth climate and the global change

353

Multiple Roles for GIS in US Global Change Research  

E-print Network

the Forest- Tundra Ecotone in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, for Global Change ResearchMultiple Roles for GIS in US Global Change Research: Annotated Bibliography Compiled by Ashton: Multiple Roles for GIS in US Global Change Research. The bibliography consists of an annotated collection

California at Santa Barbara, University of

354

Stormy Weather: 101 Solutions to Global Climate Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents 101 solutions to global climate change. These solutions are actions that are well suited to every level of society. This book creates awareness about global climate change. The history of Earth and the greenhouse effect are discussed, and explanations and solutions to global climate change are provided including traveling…

Dauncey, Guy

355

Postdoc fellows present research at global change workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) held its first global change postdoctoral fellowship workshop, ``New Research in the Science of Global Change: A Multidisciplinary View,'' from September 19-23, 1993, in Oakland, Calif. The workshop featured presentations by researchers in the DOE Global Change Distinguished Postdoctoral Fellowship Program and provided a forum for the interdisciplinary networking necessary for integrating and assessing

Joanna Engle; Linda Holmes; Curtis Olsen

1994-01-01

356

From global change science to action with social sciences  

SciTech Connect

US efforts to integrate social and biophysical sciences to address the issue of global change exist within a wider movement to understand global change as a societal challenge and to inform policy. Insights from the social sciences can help transform global change research into action.

Weaver, C. P.; Mooney, Sian; Allen, D.; Beller-Simms, Nancy; Fish, T.; Grambsch, A.; Hohenstein, W.; Jacobs, Kathy; Kenney, Melissa A.; Lane, Meredith A.; Langner, L.; Larson, E.; McGinnis, D. L.; Moss, Richard H.; Nichols, L. G.; Nierenberg, Claudia; Seyller, E. A.; Stern, Paul; Winthrop, R.

2014-08-01

357

Adaptation of a globally important coccolithophore to ocean warming and acidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although ocean warming and acidification are recognized as two major anthropogenic perturbations of today's oceans we know very little about how marine phytoplankton may respond via evolutionary change. We tested for adaptation to ocean warming in combination with ocean acidification in the globally important phytoplankton species Emiliania huxleyi. Temperature adaptation occurred independently of ocean acidification levels. Growth rates were up to 16% higher in populations adapted for one year to warming when assayed at their upper thermal tolerance limit. Particulate inorganic (PIC) and organic (POC) carbon production was restored to values under present-day ocean conditions, owing to adaptive evolution, and were 101% and 55% higher under combined warming and acidification, respectively, than in non-adapted controls. Cells also evolved to a smaller size while they recovered their initial PIC:POC ratio even under elevated CO2. The observed changes in coccolithophore growth, calcite and biomass production, cell size and elemental composition demonstrate the importance of evolutionary processes for phytoplankton performance in a future ocean.

Schlüter, Lothar; Lohbeck, Kai T.; Gutowska, Magdalena A.; Gröger, Joachim P.; Riebesell, Ulf; Reusch, Thorsten B. H.

2014-11-01

358

Dawn of astronomy and global climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author proposes that the birth of astronomy in ancient civilizations, which took place nearly simultaneously (4000 - 5000 years ago) around the Nile, Tigris and Euphrates, Indus, and the Yellow River, was caused by the global climate change (cooling and drying) that started about 5000 years ago after the hypsithermal (high-temperature) period. It is also pointed out that a few names of Twenty-Four Qi's appearing in old Chinese calendars are remnants of the calm climate in the hypsithermal period. It is discussed that numerous meteorological records seen in divination inscriptions on bones and tortoise-shells excavated at the capital of the ancient Yin (Shang) dynasty suggest occurrence of the climatic cooling and drying at that time and this change triggered spawning the early Chinese astronomy.

Nakamura, Tsuko

2007-12-01

359

Adaptation potential of European agriculture in response to climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Projecting the impacts of climate change on agriculture requires knowing or assuming how farmers will adapt. However, empirical estimates of the effectiveness of this private adaptation are scarce and the sensitivity of impact assessments to adaptation assumptions is not well understood. Here we assess the potential effectiveness of private farmer adaptation in Europe by jointly estimating both short-run and long-run response functions using time-series and cross-sectional variation in subnational yield and profit data. The difference between the impacts of climate change projected using the short-run (limited adaptation) and long-run (substantial adaptation) response curves can be interpreted as the private adaptation potential. We find high adaptation potential for maize to future warming but large negative effects and only limited adaptation potential for wheat and barley. Overall, agricultural profits could increase slightly under climate change if farmers adapt but could decrease in many areas if there is no adaptation. Decomposing the variance in 2040 projected yields and farm profits using an ensemble of 13 climate model runs, we find that the rate at which farmers will adapt to rising temperatures is an important source of uncertainty.

Moore, Frances C.; Lobell, David B.

2014-07-01

360

Adaptation responses of crops to climate change  

SciTech Connect

Appreciable global climatic responses to increasing levels of atmospheric CO{sub 2} and other trace gases are expected to take place over the next 50 to 80 years. Increasing atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases are producing or will produce changes in the climate of the Earth. In particular, numerous efforts of climate modeling project very substantial increase of surface air temperature. In addition to a general warming of the atmosphere, the possibility of increased summer dryness in the continental mid-latitudes has been suggested on the basis of both historical analogues and some General Circulation Model (GCM) studies. There are three types of effect of climatic change on agriculture: (1) the physiological (direct) effect of elevated levels of atmospheric CO{sub 2} on crop plants and weeds, (2) the effect of changes in parameters of climate (e.g., temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation) on plants and animals, and (3) the effects of climate-related rises in sea-level on land use. The direct effects of elevated CO{sub 2} are on photosynthesis and respiration and thereby on growth, and there are additional effects of increased CO{sub 2} on development, yield quality and stomatal aperture and water use. A doubling of CO{sub 2} increases the instantaneous photosynthetic rate by 30% to 100%, depending on the other environmental conditions, and reduce water requirements of plants by reducing transpiration (per unit leaf area) through reductions in stomatal aperture. A doubling of CO{sub 2} causes partial stomatal closure on both C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} plants (approximately a 40% decrease in aperture). In many experiments this results in reductions of transpiration of about 23% to 46%. However. there is considerable uncertainty over the magnitude of this in natural conditions.

Seino, Hiroshi [National Inst. of Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

1993-12-31

361

Global fish production and climate change  

PubMed Central

Current global fisheries production of ?160 million tons is rising as a result of increases in aquaculture production. A number of climate-related threats to both capture fisheries and aquaculture are identified, but we have low confidence in predictions of future fisheries production because of uncertainty over future global aquatic net primary production and the transfer of this production through the food chain to human consumption. Recent changes in the distribution and productivity of a number of fish species can be ascribed with high confidence to regional climate variability, such as the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. Future production may increase in some high-latitude regions because of warming and decreased ice cover, but the dynamics in low-latitude regions are governed by different processes, and production may decline as a result of reduced vertical mixing of the water column and, hence, reduced recycling of nutrients. There are strong interactions between the effects of fishing and the effects of climate because fishing reduces the age, size, and geographic diversity of populations and the biodiversity of marine ecosystems, making both more sensitive to additional stresses such as climate change. Inland fisheries are additionally threatened by changes in precipitation and water management. The frequency and intensity of extreme climate events is likely to have a major impact on future fisheries production in both inland and marine systems. Reducing fishing mortality in the majority of fisheries, which are currently fully exploited or overexploited, is the principal feasible means of reducing the impacts of climate change. PMID:18077405

Brander, K. M.

2007-01-01

362

Adapting wheat in Europe for climate change.  

PubMed

Increasing cereal yield is needed to meet the projected increased demand for world food supply of about 70% by 2050. Sirius, a process-based model for wheat, was used to estimate yield potential for wheat ideotypes optimized for future climatic projections for ten wheat growing areas of Europe. It was predicted that the detrimental effect of drought stress on yield would be decreased due to enhanced tailoring of phenology to future weather patterns, and due to genetic improvements in the response of photosynthesis and green leaf duration to water shortage. Yield advances could be made through extending maturation and thereby improve resource capture and partitioning. However the model predicted an increase in frequency of heat stress at meiosis and anthesis. Controlled environment experiments quantify the effects of heat and drought at booting and flowering on grain numbers and potential grain size. A current adaptation of wheat to areas of Europe with hotter and drier summers is a quicker maturation which helps to escape from excessive stress, but results in lower yields. To increase yield potential and to respond to climate change, increased tolerance to heat and drought stress should remain priorities for the genetic improvement of wheat. PMID:24882934

Semenov, M A; Stratonovitch, P; Alghabari, F; Gooding, M J

2014-05-01

363

Mitigation and adaptation within a climate change policy portfolio: A research program  

EPA Science Inventory

It is now recognized that optimal global climate policy is a portfolio of the two key responses for reducing the risks of climate change: mitigation and adaptation. Significant differences between the two responses have inhibited understanding of how to appropriately view these...

364

A digital information ecosystem structure for regional climate change assessment and adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming is one of the most important and challenging problems being faced this century, capable of triggering a series of events that will have serious consequences on the different ecosystems on planet Earth. In order to manage such consequences, we need dedicated actions for resilience. In such a scenario, the process of adaptation to climate change plays an important

Omar Hussain; Antuaned Perdomo; Tharam Dillon; Elizabeth Chang

2009-01-01

365

Changing Planet: Adaptation of Species (Birds and Butterflies)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video addresses the impact of climate change on several butterfly populations. Warming temperatures lead to shifts in location of populations of butterflies or die-offs of populations unable to adapt to changing conditions or shift to new locations.

National Earth Science Teachers Association

366

ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE  

PubMed Central

Changes to sources, stressors, habitats, and geographic ranges; toxicological effects; end points; and uncertainty estimation require significant changes in the implementation of ecological risk assessment (ERA). Because of the lack of analog systems and circumstances in historically studied sites, there is a likelihood of type III error. As a first step, the authors propose a decision key to aid managers and risk assessors in determining when and to what extent climate change should be incorporated. Next, when global climate change is an important factor, the authors recommend seven critical changes to ERA. First, develop conceptual cause–effect diagrams that consider relevant management decisions as well as appropriate spatial and temporal scales to include both direct and indirect effects of climate change and the stressor of management interest. Second, develop assessment end points that are expressed as ecosystem services. Third, evaluate multiple stressors and nonlinear responses—include the chemicals and the stressors related to climate change. Fourth, estimate how climate change will affect or modify management options as the impacts become manifest. Fifth, consider the direction and rate of change relative to management objectives, recognizing that both positive and negative outcomes can occur. Sixth, determine the major drivers of uncertainty, estimating and bounding stochastic uncertainty spatially, temporally, and progressively. Seventh, plan for adaptive management to account for changing environmental conditions and consequent changes to ecosystem services. Good communication is essential for making risk-related information understandable and useful for managers and stakeholders to implement a successful risk-assessment and decision-making process. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2013;32:79–92. © 2012 SETAC PMID:23161373

Landis, Wayne G; Durda, Judi L; Brooks, Marjorie L; Chapman, Peter M; Menzie, Charles A; Stahl, Ralph G; Stauber, Jennifer L

2013-01-01

367

European information on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerability to natural and technological disasters is increasing due to a combination of intensifying land use, increasing industrial development, further urban expansion and expanding infrastructure and also climate change. At EU level the European Commission's White Paper on adaptation to climate change (published in 2009) highlights that adaptation actions should be focused on the most vulnerable areas and communities in

A. Jol; S. Isoard

2010-01-01

368

Effects of local adaptation and interspecific competition on species' responses to climate change.  

PubMed

Local adaptation and species interactions have been shown to affect geographic ranges; therefore, we need models of climate impact that include both factors. To identify possible dynamics of species when including these factors, we ran simulations of two competing species using an individual-based, coupled map-lattice model using a linear climatic gradient that varies across latitude and is warmed over time. Reproductive success is governed by an individual's adaptation to local climate as well as its location relative to global constraints. In exploratory experiments varying the strength of adaptation and competition, competition reduces genetic diversity and slows range change, although the two species can coexist in the absence of climate change and shift in the absence of competitors. We also found that one species can drive the other to extinction, sometimes long after climate change ends. Weak selection on local adaptation and poor dispersal ability also caused surfing of cooler-adapted phenotypes from the expanding margin backwards, causing loss of warmer-adapted phenotypes. Finally, geographic ranges can become disjointed, losing centrally-adapted genotypes. These initial results suggest that the interplay between local adaptation and interspecific competition can significantly influence species' responses to climate change, in a way that demands future research. PMID:23905876

Bocedi, Greta; Atkins, Katherine E; Liao, Jishan; Henry, Roslyn C; Travis, Justin M J; Hellmann, Jessica J

2013-09-01

369

Spatial modeling of agricultural land use change at global scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term modeling of agricultural land use is central in global scale assessments of climate change, food security, biodiversity, and climate adaptation and mitigation policies. We present a global-scale dynamic land use allocation model and show that it can reproduce the broad spatial features of the past 100 years of evolution of cropland and pastureland patterns. The modeling approach integrates economic theory, observed land use history, and data on both socioeconomic and biophysical determinants of land use change, and estimates relationships using long-term historical data, thereby making it suitable for long-term projections. The underlying economic motivation is maximization of expected profits by hypothesized landowners within each grid cell. The model predicts fractional land use for cropland and pastureland within each grid cell based on socioeconomic and biophysical driving factors that change with time. The model explicitly incorporates the following key features: (1) land use competition, (2) spatial heterogeneity in the nature of driving factors across geographic regions, (3) spatial heterogeneity in the relative importance of driving factors and previous land use patterns in determining land use allocation, and (4) spatial and temporal autocorrelation in land use patterns. We show that land use allocation approaches based solely on previous land use history (but disregarding the impact of driving factors), or those accounting for both land use history and driving factors by mechanistically fitting models for the spatial processes of land use change do not reproduce well long-term historical land use patterns. With an example application to the terrestrial carbon cycle, we show that such inaccuracies in land use allocation can translate into significant implications for global environmental assessments. The modeling approach and its evaluation provide an example that can be useful to the land use, Integrated Assessment, and the Earth system modeling communities.

Meiyappan, P.; Dalton, M.; O'Neill, B. C.; Jain, A. K.

2014-11-01

370

Engaging Undergraduates in Methods of Communicating Global Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global Climate Change has become a politically contentious issue in large part because of the failure of scientists to effectively communicate this complex subject to the general public. In a Global Change class, offered within a science department and therefore focused primarily on the underlying science, we have incorporated a citizen science module into the course to raise awareness among future scientists to the importance of communicating information to a broad and diverse audience. The citizen science component of this course focuses on how the predicted climate changes will alter the ecologic and economic landscape of the southeastern region. Helping potential scientists to learn to effectively communicate with the general public is particularly poignant for this predominate southern student body. A Pew Research Center for the People and the Press study found that less than 50% of Southerners surveyed felt that global warming is a very serious problem and over 30% of Southerners did not believe that there was any credible evidence that the Earth is warming. This interdisciplinary and topical nature of the course attracts student from a variety of disciplines, which provides the class with a cross section of students not typically found in most geology classes. This mixture provides a diversity of skills and interest that leads to success of the Citizen Science component. This learning approach was adapted from an education module developed through the Earth System Science Education Alliance and a newly developed component to that program on citizen science. Student teams developed several citizen science-related public service announcements concerning projected global change effects on Charleston and the South Carolina area. The scenario concerned the development of an information campaign for the City of Charleston, culminating with the student presentations on their findings to City officials. Through this real-life process, the students developed new strategies that inform their own means of communicating science, whether to the general public, to peers, or to other scientists. This course with the citizen science component serves as a model for other programs. Incorporating a communication aspect into science courses that revolve around complex but socially important topics, such as global climate change, is necessary in building the confidence in our science students to communicate effectively, imaginatively, and memorably. In addition, the students gain a deeper understanding and appreciation of the necessity to communicate to public audiences and the value of outreach to the community.

Hall, C.; Colgan, M. W.; Humphreys, R. R.

2010-12-01

371

Global Environmental Change 9 (1999) S1}S2 The global impact of climate change: a new assessment  

E-print Network

Global Environmental Change 9 (1999) S1}S2 Viewpoint The global impact of climate change: a new on Climate Change (UNFCCC) signatories agree to take action to avoid dangerous levels of climate change is hampered by, amongst other things, uncertainty about the e!ects of climate change. In part this has been

White, Andrew

1999-01-01

372

Public Health Adaptation to Climate Change in Canadian Jurisdictions  

PubMed Central

Climate change poses numerous risks to the health of Canadians. Extreme weather events, poor air quality, and food insecurity in northern regions are likely to increase along with the increasing incidence and range of infectious diseases. In this study we identify and characterize Canadian federal, provincial, territorial and municipal adaptation to these health risks based on publically available information. Federal health adaptation initiatives emphasize capacity building and gathering information to address general health, infectious disease and heat-related risks. Provincial and territorial adaptation is varied. Quebec is a leader in climate change adaptation, having a notably higher number of adaptation initiatives reported, addressing almost all risks posed by climate change in the province, and having implemented various adaptation types. Meanwhile, all other Canadian provinces and territories are in the early stages of health adaptation. Based on publically available information, reported adaptation also varies greatly by municipality. The six sampled Canadian regional health authorities (or equivalent) are not reporting any adaptation initiatives. We also find little relationship between the number of initiatives reported in the six sampled municipalities and their provinces, suggesting that municipalities are adapting (or not adapting) autonomously. PMID:25588156

Austin, Stephanie E.; Ford, James D.; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Araos, Malcolm; Parker, Stephen; Fleury, Manon D.

2015-01-01

373

A need for planned adaptation to climate change in the wine industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diversity of wine production depends on subtle differences in microclimate and is therefore especially sensitive to climate change. A warmer climate will impact directly on wine-grapes through over-ripening, drying out, rising acidity levels, and greater vulnerability to pests and disease, resulting in changes in wine quality (e.g. complexity, balance and structure) or potentially the style of wine that can be produced. The growing scientific evidence for significant climate change in the coming decades means that adaptation will be of critical importance to the multi-billion dollar global wine-industry in general, and to quality wine producers in particular (White et al 2006, 2009; Hertsgaard 2011). Adaptation is understood as an adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected environmental change, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities (IPCC 2007). Autonomous adaptation has been an integral part of the 20th century wine industry. Technological advances, changes in consumer demand, and global competition have meant that growers and producers have had to adapt to stay in business. The gradual temperature rise in the 20th Century (0.7 °C globally) has been accommodated successfully by gradual changes in vine management, technological measures, production control, and marketing (White et al 2009), although this has in many cases resulted in the production of bolder, more alcoholic wines (Hertsgaard 2011). In spite of this success, the wine industry is surprisingly conservative when it comes to considering longer term planned adaptation for substantial climate change impacts. A few producers are expanding to new locations at higher altitudes or cooler climates (e.g. Torres is developing new vineyards high in the Pyrenees, and Mouton Rothschild is setting up new vineyards in South America), and the legal and cultural restrictions of Appelation d'Origine C?ntrollée (AOC) systems are being discussed (White et al 2009). Changes in the AOC regulations would, for example, be imperative if different grape varieties were to be cultivated in response to climate change. Thus far, however, there has been little coordinated action to plan ahead. The third Climate Change and Wine conference organised by the wine industry (April 2011 in Marbella, Spain; www.climatechangeandwine.com), exemplifies this situation since it focused on observed impacts and sustainable production (mitigation), rather than on adaptation to cope with projected change. Awareness and understanding of potential change is crucial in raising adaptive capacity (Metzger et al 2008). Diffenbaugh et al (2011) have recently developed a novel method for communicating potential climate change impacts for the wine industry using climate adaptation wedges. These diagrams summarise projected climate change impacts over time and distinguish the net gain or loss in wine production under a range of adaptation strategies. The climate adaptation wedges form a strong synthesis, illustrating how some losses can be negated with continued autonomous adaptation, but that even with effective planned adaptation the quality of premium wine-grapes is likely to alter. Although the study focused on the western US, the adaptation wedges can be compiled fairly easily for other wine regions, or even individual producers. As such, they can form an important communication tool, but can also help guide longer term strategic planning. Adaptation wedges require careful interpretation and it is probably this interpretation process that will provide the most valuable insights. The climate change impacts in the diagrams are based on observed relationships between climate and wine production, which is assumed to stay unchanged in the future. However, rapid climate change will be a great stimulus for a complex and unprecedented transformation of the industry. Similarly, the potential contributions of the alternative adaptation strategies to cope with climate change are best-estimates given current knowledge, but are open to discussion among experts. As

Metzger, Marc J.; Rounsevell, Mark D. A.

2011-09-01

374

GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #26: NEW WEBSITE FOR EPA'S GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

I am pleased to announce that the new website for EPA's Global ChangeResearch Program is now publicly accessible. The website address is: www.epa.gov/globalresearch. This website is designed to provide a portal through which scientists, resource managers, and the public can acc...

375

GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #18: SYMPOSIUM SESSION ON "GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC CHANGE"  

EPA Science Inventory

A session on "Understanding and Managing Effects of Global Atmospheric Change" will be held at the Fifth Symposium of the U.S. EPA National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory. The Symposium topic is "Indicators in Health and Ecological Risk Assessment." The s...

376

Global Change. Teaching Activities on Global Change for Grades 4-6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet contains a series of teaching guides on global change. The series includes lessons on dendrochronology; land, air, and water; and island living. Included is information such as : laws of straws; where land, air, and water meet; and Earth as home. Each section provides an introductory description of the activity, the purpose of the…

Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

377

Hurricanes and Climate Change: Global Systems and Local Impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With funding from NOAA, the Miami Science Museum has been working with exhibit software developer Ideum to create an interactive exhibit exploring the global dimensions and local impacts of climate change. A particular focus is on climate-related impacts on coastal communities, including the potential effects on South Florida of ocean acidification, rising sea level, and the possibility of more intense hurricanes. The exhibit is using a 4-foot spherical display system in conjunction with a series of touchscreen kiosks and accompanying flat screens to create a user-controlled, multi-user interface that lets visitors control the sphere and choose from a range of global and local content they wish to explore. The exhibit has been designed to promote engagement of diverse, multigenerational audiences through development of a fully bilingual user interface that promotes social interaction and conversation among visitors as they trade off control of global content on the sphere and related local content on the flat screens. The open-source learning module will be adaptable by other museums, to explore climate impacts specific to their region.

Santer, J.

2011-12-01

378

Global change and marine communities: alien species and climate change.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic influences on the biosphere since the advent of the industrial age are increasingly causing global changes. Climatic change and the rising concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are ranking high in scientific and public agendas, and other components of global change are also frequently addressed, among which are the introductions of non indigenous species (NIS) in biogeographic regions well separated from the donor region, often followed by spectacular invasions. In the marine environment, both climatic change and spread of alien species have been studied extensively; this review is aimed at examining the main responses of ecosystems to climatic change, taking into account the increasing importance of biological invasions. Some general principles on NIS introductions in the marine environment are recalled, such as the importance of propagule pressure and of development stages during the time course of an invasion. Climatic change is known to affect many ecological properties; it interacts also with NIS in many possible ways. Direct (proximate) effects on individuals and populations of altered physical-chemical conditions are distinguished from indirect effects on emergent properties (species distribution, diversity, and production). Climatically driven changes may affect both local dispersal mechanisms, due to the alteration of current patterns, and competitive interactions between NIS and native species, due to the onset of new thermal optima and/or different carbonate chemistry. As well as latitudinal range expansions of species correlated with changing temperature conditions, and effects on species richness and the correlated extinction of native species, some invasions may provoke multiple effects which involve overall ecosystem functioning (material flow between trophic groups, primary production, relative extent of organic material decomposition, extent of benthic-pelagic coupling). Some examples are given, including a special mention of the situation of the Mediterranean Sea, where so many species have been introduced recently, and where some have spread in very large quantities. An increasing effort by marine scientists is required, not only to monitor the state of the environment, but also to help predicting future changes and finding ways to mitigate or manage them. PMID:17239404

Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna

2007-01-01

379

Observed adaptation to climate change: UK evidence of transition to a well-adapting society  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates whether and to what extent a wide range of actors in the UK are adapting to climate change, and whether this is evidence of a social transition. We document evidence of over 300 examples of early adopters of adaptation practice to climate change in the UK. These examples span a range of activities from small adjustments (or

Emma L. Tompkins; W. Neil Adger; Emily Boyd; Sophie Nicholson-Cole; Keith Weatherhead; Nigel Arnell

2010-01-01

380

Planning for Adaptation to Climate Change in the City of Chicago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under Mayor Richard M. Daley's leadership, the City of Chicago initiated the Chicago Climate Action Plan (CCAP) to better understand local implications of global climate change in both higher and lower emissions scenarios, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and implement programs to build future climate change resilience. The City approached this work not only as a way to make Chicago more adaptable in the future, but also to improve Chicago's quality of life today. The Chicago Climate Action Plan adopted stresses the importance of both reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Chicago and preparing for climate changes that may be unavoidable. Building off of the City's significant environmental programs and projects, and based on our analyses of the climate effects and impacts that improved the scientific understanding of future climate change impacts on Chicago, the City then developed a set of climate change adaptation strategies, resulting in the City of Chicago Climate Change Adaptation Summary. This document includes prioritization of climate change adaptations based on relative risk as well as framework strategies for those tactics categorized as "must do/early action." In early 2008, The Mayor's Office asked five Commissioners from its Green Steering Committee to chair adaptation work groups including: extreme heat; extreme precipitation; buildings, infrastructure and equipment; ecosystems; and leadership, planning and communications. Working with staff from relevant departments, sister agencies and other stakeholders, these work groups developed 39 basic adaptation work plans, including plans for enhancing the City's existing projects and programs that relate to climate change adaptation. Climate change adaptation work will be on-going in City Departments under the Mayor's Office leadership. The City intends to continually monitor and improve its response to climate change, resulting in an improved quality of life for Chicago residents.

Wuebbles, D. J.; Hayhoe, K.; Coffee, J.; McGraw, J.; Parzen, J.

2008-12-01

381

A NEW ADAPTIVE METHODOLGY OF GLOBAL-TO-DIRECT IRRADIANCE BASED ON CLUSTERING AND  

E-print Network

registers in a concrete emplacement, into beam irradiance data. In front of classical global to directA NEW ADAPTIVE METHODOLGY OF GLOBAL-TO-DIRECT IRRADIANCE BASED ON CLUSTERING AND KERNEL MACHINES, or data from well known data bases of global solar radiation. In both cases global-to-beam irradiance

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

382

White House Conference on Global Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

President Clinton has directed the White House office on Environmental Policy to coordinate an interagency process to develop a plan to fulfill the commitment he made in his Earth Day address on April 21, 1993. This plan will become the cornerstone of the Climate Change Plan that will be completed shortly after the Rio Accord enters into force. The Office on Environmental Policy established the Interagency Climate Change Mitigation Group to draw on the expertise of federal agencies including the National Economic Council; the Council of Economic Advisors; the Office of Science and Technology Policy; the Office of Management and Budget; the National Security Council; the Domestic Policy Council; the Environmental Protection Agency; and the Departments of Energy, Transportation, Agriculture, Interior, Treasury, Commerce, and State. Working groups have been established to examine six key policy areas: energy demand, energy supply, joint implementation, methane and other gases, sinks, and transportation. The purpose of the White House Conference on Global Climate Change was to ``tap the real-world experiences`` of diverse participants and seek ideas and information for meeting the President`s goals. During the opening session, senior administration officials defined the challenge ahead and encouraged open and frank conversation about the best possible ways to meet it.

Not Available

1993-11-01

383

The effects of global climate change on seagrasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing rate of global climate change seen in this century, and predicted to accelerate into the next, will significantly impact the Earth's oceans. In this review, we examine previously published seagrass research through a lens of global climate change in order to consider the potential effects on the world's seagrasses. A primary effect of increased global temperature on seagrasses

Frederick T. Short; Hilary A. Neckles

1999-01-01

384

Simulating land use change in China from a global perspective  

E-print Network

markets and turbulence in global energy markets can affect food prices and supply costs. Therefore1 Simulating land use change in China from a global perspective Xuefeng Cui1,2,3,* , MarkSciences, University of Edinburgh, UK 2 School of Global Change and Earth System Research, Beijing Normal University

Palmer, Paul

385

Global climate change and carbon management in multifunctional forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil-fuel burning and deforestation have emerged as principal anthropogenic sources of rising atmospheric CO2 and consequential global warming. Variability in temperature, precipitation, snow cover, sea level and extreme weather events provide collateral evi- dence of global climate change. I review recent advances on causes and consequences of global climate change and its impact on nature and society. I also examine

Deep Narayan Pandey

386

Global Change and Sustainability Center Spring Seminar Series  

E-print Network

Warming: The Science is Settled (for most of us) but Climate ChangeGlobal Change and Sustainability Center Spring Seminar Series " Global suggest a global average increase of 1.2 o C since the industrial revolution, with polar regions warming

Tipple, Brett

387

A roadmap for climate change adaptation in Sweden's forests: addressing wicked problems using adaptive management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is expected to have significant direct and indirect effects on forest ecosystems. Forests will have to adapt not only to changes in mean climate variables but also to increased climatic variability and altered disturbance regimes. Rates of change will likely exceed many forests capabilities to naturally adapt and many of today's trees will be exposed to the climates of 2090. In Sweden the effects are already being seen and more severe impacts are expected in the future. Exacerbating the challenge posed by climate change, a large proportion of Sweden's forests are, as a consequence of dominant production goals, greatly simplified and thus potentially more vulnerable to the uncertainties and risks associated with climate change. This simplification also confers reduced adaptive capacity to respond to potential impacts. Furthermore, many adaptation measures themselves carry uncertainties and risks. Future changes and effects are thus uncertain, yet forest managers, policymakers, scientists and other stakeholders must act. Strategies that build social and ecological resilience in the face of multiple interacting unknowns and surprises are needed. Adaptive management aims to collect and integrate knowledge about how a managed system is likely to respond to alternative management schemes and changing environmental conditions within a continuous decision process. There have been suggestions that adaptive management is not well suited to the large complex uncertainties associated with climate change and associated adaptation measures. However, more recently it has been suggested that adaptive management can handle such wicked problems, given adequate resources and a suitable breakdown of the targeted uncertainties. Here we test this hypothesis by evaluating how an adaptive management process could be used to manage the uncertainties and risks associated with securing resilient, biodiverse and productive forests in Sweden in the face of climate change. We illustrate how, along with the engagement of other stakeholders, scientific research and management agency actions can interact to develop and implement measures to assist climate change adaptation in Sweden's forests.

Rist, L.; Felton, A.; Samuelsson, L.; Marald, E.; Karlsson, B.; Johansson, U.; Rosvall, O.

2013-12-01

388

Feedbacks and Acceleration of Global Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The burning of fossil fuels since the beginning of the Industrial revolution has increased the level of atmospheric CO2 by about 45 % over that of earlier times. The increasing greenhouse effect is augmented by a series of feedbacks; most have been positive, but a few are negative. The most important are 1) Slowing of the thermohaline circulation system; 2) Decreasing Atlantic to Pacific vapor transport; 3) Increasing Arctic river runoff; 4) Melting of Arctic sea ice; 5) Periodic replacement of the Arctic atmospheric high by a cyclonic low pressure system; 6) Increased exchange of waters between the Arctic and North Atlantic; 7) Lessening of the Northern Hemisphere ice-albedo feedback effect; 8) Addition of methane from melting permafrost; 9) Overall changes in the rate of ocean mixing; 10) Overall changes in vegetation cover of land; 11) Increase in the area covered by C4 vegetation; 12) Addition of nitrous oxide from agricultural practices; 13) Changes in insect populations and their effect on vegetation; 14) Wildfires; 15) Soot accumulation on snow and ice; 16) Accelerated melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet; 17) Changes in the East Antarctic Ice Sheet; 18) Closing of the ozone hole over Antarctica; 19) Decay of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet; 20) Expansion of Southern Ocean sea ice; 21) Slowing of the rate of organic matter sinking into the deep ocean; 22) Decrease in insolation reaching the surface of the Earth as a result of introduction of aerosols into the atmosphere; 23) Depletion of stratospheric ozone by nitrous oxide. The global and regional effects and relative importance of many of these feedbacks are uncertain, and they may change both in magnitude and sign with time. New and unexpected mechanisms are constantly being discovered. The uncertainties and complexity associated with climate system feedbacks are responsible for the acceleration of climate change beyond the rates predicted by numerical modeling. To add to the difficulties inherent in predictions of future climate change, the increasingly chaotic weather is an indication that the Earth's climate system is becoming unstable in response to the ongoing perturbations.

Hay, William

2014-05-01

389

A framework for explaining the links between capacity and action in response to global climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although great strides have been made towards a more nuanced understanding of the impacts and causes of global climate change, the ability to design and implement policy responses that engender effective action has remained insufficient. Recent framings of adaptive capacity and mitigative capacity are built upon in this article, and response capacity is introduced as a useful way to integrate

Sarah Burch; John Robinson

2007-01-01

390

Climate change: impacts and adaptation in England's woodlands  

E-print Network

Climate change: impacts and adaptation in England's woodlands The changing climate presents associated with climate change, and the likely impact on trees, silviculture and forest operations that increase resilience whatever climate change brings, or that are likely to reap the greatest rewards

391

CHANGES IN SHADE, COLOR, AND PATTERN IN FISHES, AND THEIR BEARING ON THE PROBLEMS OF ADAPTATION  

E-print Network

CHANGES IN SHADE, COLOR, AND PATTERN IN FISHES, AND THEIR BEARING ON THE PROBLEMS OF ADAPTATION Behavior ' 182 Adaptive changes in shade, color, and pattern. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .., '. . . . . . 198 Rate of adaptation to background " . . . 198 Factors involved in the process of adaptation

392

Climate change and climate variability: personal motivation for adaptation and mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Global climate change impacts on human and natural systems are predicted to be severe, far reaching, and to affect the most\\u000a physically and economically vulnerable disproportionately. Society can respond to these threats through two strategies: mitigation\\u000a and adaptation. Industry, commerce, and government play indispensable roles in these actions but so do individuals, if they\\u000a are receptive to behavior change. We

Jan C Semenza; George B Ploubidis; Linda A George

2011-01-01

393

The state of climate change vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation research: strengthening knowledge base and community  

SciTech Connect

It has taken about 35 years for scientists to bring the global climate change issue to the attention of the world s people and their leaders. With the Copenhagen Climate Change Conference of December 2009, it was hoped that the issue identification phase would segue at last into the solution phase. However, the outcome of COP15 shows that interdisciplinary work on impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability is still critically needed to advance the development of the solution phase.

Wilbanks, Thomas J [ORNL; Rosenzweig, Dr. Cynthia [NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS)

2010-01-01

394

Implications of simultaneously mitigating and adapting to climate change: Initial experiments using GCAM  

SciTech Connect

Historically climate impacts research and climate mitigation research have been two separate and independent domains of inquiry. Climate mitigation research has investigated greenhouse gas emissions assuming that climate is unchanging. At the same time climate mitigation research has investigated the implications of climate change on the assumption that climate mitigation will proceed without affecting the degree of climate impacts or the ability of human and natural systems to adapt. The Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) has largely been employed to study climate mitigation. Here we explore the development of capabilities to assess climate change impacts and adaptation within the GCAM model. These capabilities are being developed so as to be able to simultaneously reconcile the joint implications of climate change mitigation, impacts and adaptive potential. This is an important step forward in that it enables direct comparison between climate mitigation activities and climate impacts and the opportunity to understand interactions between the two.

Calvin, Katherine V.; Wise, Marshall A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Kyle, G. Page; Luckow, Patrick W.; Thomson, Allison M.

2013-04-01

395

Are there social limits to adaptation to climate change?  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there is a recognised need to adapt to changing climatic conditions, there is an emerging discourse of limits to such\\u000a adaptation. Limits are traditionally analysed as a set of immutable thresholds in biological, economic or technological parameters.\\u000a This paper contends that limits to adaptation are endogenous to society and hence contingent on ethics, knowledge, attitudes\\u000a to risk and culture.

W. Neil Adger; Suraje Dessai; Marisa Goulden; Mike Hulme; Irene Lorenzoni; Donald R. Nelson; Lars Otto Naess; Johanna Wolf; Anita Wreford

2009-01-01

396

Adapting to the Effects of Climate Change on Inuit Health  

PubMed Central

Climate change will have far-reaching implications for Inuit health. Focusing on adaptation offers a proactive approach for managing climate-related health risks—one that views Inuit populations as active agents in planning and responding at household, community, and regional levels. Adaptation can direct attention to the root causes of climate vulnerability and emphasize the importance of traditional knowledge regarding environmental change and adaptive strategies. An evidence base on adaptation options and processes for Inuit regions is currently lacking, however, thus constraining climate policy development. In this article, we tackled this deficit, drawing upon our understanding of the determinants of health vulnerability to climate change in Canada to propose key considerations for adaptation decision-making in an Inuit context. PMID:24754615

Ford, James D.; Willox, Ashlee Cunsolo; Chatwood, Susan; Furgal, Christopher; Harper, Sherilee; Mauro, Ian; Pearce, Tristan

2014-01-01

397

Adapting to the effects of climate change on Inuit health.  

PubMed

Climate change will have far-reaching implications for Inuit health. Focusing on adaptation offers a proactive approach for managing climate-related health risks-one that views Inuit populations as active agents in planning and responding at household, community, and regional levels. Adaptation can direct attention to the root causes of climate vulnerability and emphasize the importance of traditional knowledge regarding environmental change and adaptive strategies. An evidence base on adaptation options and processes for Inuit regions is currently lacking, however, thus constraining climate policy development. In this article, we tackled this deficit, drawing upon our understanding of the determinants of health vulnerability to climate change in Canada to propose key considerations for adaptation decision-making in an Inuit context. PMID:24754615

Ford, James D; Willox, Ashlee Cunsolo; Chatwood, Susan; Furgal, Christopher; Harper, Sherilee; Mauro, Ian; Pearce, Tristan

2014-06-01

398

UWM Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development Initiative CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT  

E-print Network

UWM Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development Initiative CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Sponsored By UWM Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development Initiative Co Conference Description This conference will discuss the global issue of climate change in the regional

Saldin, Dilano

399

STEM417: NASA Resources for Teaching Global Climate Change in High School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online, facilitated course is designed for high-school educators wishing to teach global climate change using an inquiry/problem-based approach. The course focusses on evidence that supports global climate change and how to use NASA data and resources to help high-school students discover mitigations or adaptations to climate change. The course is part of PBS Education's outreach and offerings to educators across the country; it is a 45-hour experience over six weeks and eligible for three graduate credits.

2012-08-26

400

Climate Change and Agricultural Sustainability - A Global Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study provides a spatially explicit estimate of climate change impact on world-wide agricultural sustainability, considering uncertainty in climate change projections. The potential changes in agricultural land and crop water requirement and availability are assessed by region in the world. Uncertainty in General Circulation Model (GCM) projections is addressed using data assembled from a number of GCMs and representative emission scenarios. Erroneous data and the uncertain nature of land classifications based on multiple indices (i.e., soil properties, land slope, temperature, and humidity) are handled with fuzzy logic modeling. It is found that global arable land area is likely to be affected by emission scenarios, for example, it may decrease by 0.8% ~ 1.7% under scenario A1B (CO2-equivalent GHG concentrations of 850 ppmv) but increase by 2.0% ~ 4.4% under scenario B1 (CO2-equivalent GHG concentrations of 600 ppmv, which represents a greener economy than A1B). However, at the regional scale, although the magnitudes of the projected changes vary by scenario, the increasing or decreasing trends in arable land area are consistent: Regions with relative high latitudes - Russia, China and the U.S. - could see a significant increase in arable land in coming years, but South America, Africa, Europe and India could lose land area. For agricultural water use, the following questions are addressed: Where will there be a need for irrigation expansion and by how much? Where and how much of current irrigation pressures or water deficits for rainfed crops can be mitigated or aggravated? And finally, what is the overall situation for the entire world? It is found that despite the universally rising mean temperature, the global irrigation requirements are likely to decrease. This is probably due to the declining diurnal temperature range, which plays a key role in the evapotranspiration control, as well as the increasing precipitation in many areas contributing to the global balance-out of irrigation requirement. Regional impacts vary by direction and magnitude over the GCM and emission scenarios. In particular, the statistics of changes in the wetness index, referring to the ratio of effective rainfall over crop evapotranspiration, are investigated for different regions, showing the possible regional change trends in the future. Agricultural adaptations to climate change are necessary measures to sustain the world's agriculture, which are addressed considering the possible changes of both land and water. The adverse impacts of climate change require new irrigated areas or higher irrigation demands for some regions; while climate change can reduce irrigation while remaining suitable for cultivation in other regions; new agricultural land may emerge in some areas with reasonable productivity for rainfed crops. These situations will be discussed with regard to appropriate agricultural adaptations in different regions considering the robustness and uncertainty of the assessments under the various scenarios.

Cai, X.; Zhang, X.

2012-12-01

401

Acute adaptative changes to unilateral nephrectomy in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute adaptative changes to unilateral nephrectomy in humans. Renal function was monitored in 20, living–related kidney donors before and after uninephrectomy. Urinary protein excretion and retinoid metabolism respectively were studied in 10 and 6 of these donors. The functional adaptation was characterized by an increase in glomerular filtration rate and tubular function, which began in the first two days after

Angel Argiles; Georges Mourad; Nicole Basset; Jacques Haiech; Charles Mion; Jean Claude Cavadore; Jacques G Demaille

1987-01-01

402

Modeling Two Types of Adaptation to Climate Change  

EPA Science Inventory

Mitigation and adaptation are the two key responses available to policymakers to reduce the risks of climate change. We model these two policies together in a new DICE-based integrated assessment model that characterizes adaptation as either short-lived flow spending or long-live...

403

INTRODUCTION: Anticipated changes in the global atmospheric water cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmospheric branch of the water cycle, although containing just a tiny fraction of the Earth's total water reserves, presents a crucial interface between the physical climate (such as large-scale rainfall patterns) and the ecosystems upon which human societies ultimately depend. Because of the central importance of water in the Earth system, the question of how the water cycle is changing, and how it may alter in future as a result of anthropogenic changes, present one of the greatest challenges of this century. The recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report on Climate Change and Water (Bates et al 2008) highlighted the increasingly strong evidence of change in the global water cycle and associated environmental consequences. It is of critical importance to climate prediction and adaptation strategies that key processes in the atmospheric water cycle are precisely understood and determined, from evaporation at the surface of the ocean, transport by the atmosphere, condensation as cloud and eventual precipitation, and run-off through rivers following interaction with the land surface, sub-surface, ice, snow and vegetation. The purpose of this special focus issue of Environmental Research Letters on anticipated changes in the global atmospheric water cycle is to consolidate the recent substantial advances in understanding past, present and future changes in the global water cycle through evidence built upon theoretical understanding, backed up by observations and borne out by climate model simulations. Thermodynamic rises in water vapour provide a central constraint, as discussed in a guest editorial by Bengtsson (2010). Theoretical implications of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation are presented by O'Gorman and Muller (2010) and with reference to a simple model (Sherwood 2010) while observed humidity changes confirm these anticipated responses at the land and ocean surface (Willett et al 2008). Rises in low-level moisture are thought to fuel an intensification of precipitation (O'Gorman and Schneider 2009) and analysis of observed and simulated changes in extreme rainfall for Europe (Lenderink and van Mijgaard 2008) and over tropical oceans by Allan et al (2010) appear to corroborate this. Radiative absorption by water vapour (Previdi 2010, Stephens and Ellis 2008) also provides a thermodynamic feedback on the water cycle, and explains why climate model projections of global precipitation and evaporation of around 1-3% K-1 are muted with respect to the expected 7% K-1 increases in low-level moisture. Climate models achieve dynamical responses through reductions in strength of the Walker circulation (Vecchi et al 2006) and small yet systematic changes in the atmospheric boundary layer over the ocean that modify evaporation (Richter and Xie 2008). A further consequence is anticipated sub-tropical drying (Neelin et al 2006, Chou et al 2007); Allan et al (2010) confirm a decline in dry sub-tropical precipitation while the wet regions become wetter both in model simulations and satellite-based observations. Discrepancies between observed and climate model simulated hydrological response to warming (Wentz et al 2007, Yu and Weller 2007) are of immediate concern in understanding and predicting future responses. Over decadal time-scales it is important to establish whether such discrepancies relate to the observing system, climate modeling deficiencies, or are a statistical artifact of the brevity of the satellite records (Liepert and Previdi 2009). Techniques for extracting information on century-scale changes in precipitation are emerging (Smith et al 2009) but are also subject to severe limitations. Past decadal-scale changes in the water cycle may be further influenced by regionally and temporally varying forcings and resulting feedbacks which must be represented realistically by models (Andrews et al 2009). The radiative impact of aerosols and their indirect effects on clouds and precipitation (Liepert et al 2004) provide an important example. Understanding surface solar 'dimming' and 'brightening' trends in th

Allan, Richard P.; Liepert, Beate G.

2010-06-01

404

Climate change impacts on global rainfed agricultural land availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global rainfed agricultural land availability can be subject to significant changes in both magnitude and spatial distribution due to climate change. We assess the possible changes using current and projected climate data from thirteen general circulation models (GCMs) under two emission scenarios, A1B & B1, together with global databases on land, including soil properties and slope. Two ensemble methods with

X. Zhang; X. Cai

2010-01-01

405

Projecting global marine biodiversity impacts under climate change scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change can impact the pattern of marine biodiversity through changes in species' distributions. However, global studies on climate change impacts on ocean biodiversity have not been performed so far. Our paper aims to investigate the global patterns of such impacts by projecting the distributional ranges of a sample of 1066 exploited marine fish and invertebrates for 2050 using a

William W. L. Cheung; Vicky W. Y. Lam; Jorge L. Sarmiento; Kelly Kearney; Reg Watson; Daniel Pauly

2009-01-01

406

Global impacts of abrupt climate change: an initial assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Executive summary This report describes the potential global-scale implications of three types of abrupt climate - collapse of the thermohaline circulation, leading to lower temperatures across Europe and parts of North America, and precipitation changes globally (but with effects depending on the degree of warming at the time of collapse), accelerated climate change, leading to very high rates of change

Nigel W. Arnell

2006-01-01

407

Delivering Global Environmental Change Science Through Documentary Film  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communicating authentic science to society presents a significant challenge to researchers. This challenge stems from unfortunate misrepresentation and misunderstanding in the mainstream media, particularly in relation to science on global environmental change. This has resulted in a lower level of confidence and interest amongst audiences in regards to global environmental change and anthropogenic climate change discussions. This project describes a

K. Dodgson; J. M. Byrne; J. R. Graham

2010-01-01

408

Global Climate Change: Opinions and Perceptions of Rural Nebraskans  

E-print Network

Global Climate Change: Opinions and Perceptions of Rural Nebraskans 2008 Nebraska Rural Poll that they understand the issue of global climate change either fairly or very well. #12;Most rural Nebraskans believe climate change is already happening. #12;Most rural Nebraskans believe that our actions contribute

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

409

POLICY FRAMEWORK AND SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-print Network

1.4.7.0. POLICY FRAMEWORK AND SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE Ha-Duong, M: Climate Change, Public Policy, Decision under Controversy, Global Commons, History, Negotiations, Kyoto quantitative targets 5. Concluding remarks Summary Climate change is representative of a general class

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

410

GLOBAL WARMING, CLIMATE CHANGE AND HUMAN PSYCHOLOGY 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter considers psychological aspects of global warming and climate change. It begins with a brief consideration of the public and political recognition of global warming and climate change as significant environmental issues. The chapter then turns to a review of the scientific evidence of the causes and consequences of climate change, and some of the issues in psychology that

Taciano L. Milfont

411

Regional Implications of Global Climate Change for the Great  

E-print Network

reliable are they? Future projections of climate change due to global warming What about regional climateRegional Implications of Global Climate Change for the Great Plains Robert J. Oglesby Department between climate variability and climate change? What is a climate model, and how are they used? How

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

412

Adapting Institutional Structure and Culture to Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights the importance of management in a community college's success. Suggests that adaptive institutions, which identify challenges and create programs through cooperation with their staff and faculty, have a mechanism for continuous quality improvement. Describes Montgomery College's (Maryland) transition from a bureaucratic management…

Parilla, Robert E.

1993-01-01

413

European information on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vulnerability to natural and technological disasters is increasing due to a combination of intensifying land use, increasing industrial development, further urban expansion and expanding infrastructure and also climate change. At EU level the European Commission's White Paper on adaptation to climate change (published in 2009) highlights that adaptation actions should be focused on the most vulnerable areas and communities in Europe (e.g. mountains, coastal areas, river flood prone areas, Mediterranean, Arctic). Mainstreaming of climate change into existing EU policies will be a key policy, including within the Water Framework Directive, Marine Strategy Framework Directive, Nature protection and biodiversity policies, integrated coastal zone management, other (sectoral) policies (agriculture, forestry, energy, transport, health) and disaster risk prevention. 2010 is the international year on biodiversity and the Conference of Parties of the biodiversity convention will meet in autumn 2010 (Japan) to discuss amongst other post-2010 strategies, objectives and indicators. Both within the Biodiversity Convention (CBD) and the Climate Change Convention (UNFCCC) there is increasing recognition of the need for integration of biodiversity conservation into climate change mitigation and adaptation activities. Furthermore a number of European countries and also some regions have started to prepare and/or have adopted national adaptation plans or frameworks. Sharing of good practices on climate change vulnerability methods and adaptation actions is so far limited, but is essential to improve such plans, at national, sub national and local level where much of the adaptation action is already taking place and will be expanding in future, also involving increasingly the business community. The EU Clearinghouse on CC impacts, vulnerability and adaptation should address these needs and it is planned to be operational end of 2011. The EEA is expected to have a role in its development in 2010 and is likely to manage the system after 2011. The European Commission in its Communication in 2009 on disaster risk prevention also calls for improving and better sharing of data on disasters, disaster risk mapping and disaster risk management, in the context of the EU civil protection mechanism. Such information might also be linked to the planned EU Clearinghouse on climate change adaptation. The activities of EEA on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation (including disaster risk reduction) include indicators of the impacts of climate change; a regularly updated overview of national assessments and adaptation plans on the EEA web site and specific focused reports, e.g. on adaptation to the challenges of changing water resources in the Alps (2009) and on analysis of past trends in natural disasters (due in 2010) and regular expert meetings and workshops with EEA member countries. The ECAC presentation will include the latest developments in the EU Clearinghouse on adaptation and progress in relevant EEA activities.

Jol, A.; Isoard, S.

2010-09-01

414

Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into Public Health Practice: Using Adaptive Management to Increase Adaptive Capacity and Build Resilience  

PubMed Central

Background: Climate change is expected to have a range of health impacts, some of which are already apparent. Public health adaptation is imperative, but there has been little discussion of how to increase adaptive capacity and resilience in public health systems. Objectives: We explored possible explanations for the lack of work on adaptive capacity, outline climate–health challenges that may lie outside public health’s coping range, and consider changes in practice that could increase public health’s adaptive capacity. Methods: We conducted a substantive, interdisciplinary literature review focused on climate change adaptation in public health, social learning, and management of socioeconomic systems exhibiting dynamic complexity. Discussion: There are two competing views of how public health should engage climate change adaptation. Perspectives differ on whether climate change will primarily amplify existing hazards, requiring enhancement of existing public health functions, or present categorically distinct threats requiring innovative management strategies. In some contexts, distinctly climate-sensitive health threats may overwhelm public health’s adaptive capacity. Addressing these threats will require increased emphasis on institutional learning, innovative management strategies, and new and improved tools. Adaptive management, an iterative framework that embraces uncertainty, uses modeling, and integrates learning, may be a useful approach. We illustrate its application to extreme heat in an urban setting. Conclusions: Increasing public health capacity will be necessary for certain climate–health threats. Focusing efforts to increase adaptive capacity in specific areas, promoting institutional learning, embracing adaptive management, and developing tools to facilitate these processes are important priorities and can improve the resilience of local public health systems to climate change. PMID:21997387

McDowell, Julia Z.; Luber, George

2011-01-01

415

Implications of Global Climatic Change on Water and Food Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Water availability, access, and use has ensured food and livelihood security for millions. In the future, food and livelihood\\u000a security may be challenged due to global environmental changes, particularly global climatic changes, that evidence has gradually\\u000a shown to be appearing. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has projected that the global mean surface temperature\\u000a will rise by 1.4–5.8°C by

P. K. Aggarwal; A. K. Singh

416

Human-experienced temperature changes exceed global average climate changes for all income groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change alters local climates everywhere. Many climate change impacts, such as those affecting health, agriculture and labor productivity, depend on these local climatic changes, not global mean change. Traditional, spatially averaged climate change estimates are strongly influenced by the response of icecaps and oceans, providing limited information on human-experienced climatic changes. If used improperly by decision-makers, these estimates

S. M. Hsiang; L. Parshall

2009-01-01

417

Coping, governance, and development: The climate change adaptation triad  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need to tackle climate change and development efforts together is widely acknowledged. However, even just the possibility of alternative visions of development is seldom contemplated. In fact, adaptation research usually assumes as \\

David Manuel-Navarrete; Mark Pelling; Michael Redclift

418

Assessing institutional capacities to adapt to climate change - integrating psychological dimensions in the Adaptive Capacity Wheel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several case studies show that "soft social factors" (e.g. institutions, perceptions, social capital) strongly affect social capacities to adapt to climate change. Many soft social factors can probably be changed faster than "hard social factors" (e.g. economic and technological development) and are therefore particularly important for building social capacities. However, there are almost no methodologies for the systematic assessment of soft social factors. Gupta et al. (2010) have developed the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) for assessing the adaptive capacity of institutions. The ACW differentiates 22 criteria to assess six dimensions: variety, learning capacity, room for autonomous change, leadership, availability of resources, fair governance. To include important psychological factors we extended the ACW by two dimensions: "adaptation motivation" refers to actors' motivation to realise, support and/or promote adaptation to climate. "Adaptation belief" refers to actors' perceptions of realisability and effectiveness of adaptation measures. We applied the extended ACW to assess adaptive capacities of four sectors - water management, flood/coastal protection, civil protection and regional planning - in North Western Germany. The assessments of adaptation motivation and belief provided a clear added value. The results also revealed some methodological problems in applying the ACW (e.g. overlap of dimensions), for which we propose methodological solutions.

Grothmann, T.; Grecksch, K.; Winges, M.; Siebenhüner, B.

2013-03-01

419

Collaborative Supercomputing for Global Change Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is increasing pressure on the science community not only to understand how recent and projected changes in climate will affect Earth's global environment and the natural resources on which society depends but also to design solutions to mitigate or cope with the likely impacts. Responding to this multidimensional challenge requires new tools and research frameworks that assist scientists in collaborating to rapidly investigate complex interdisciplinary science questions of critical societal importance. One such collaborative research framework, within the NASA Earth sciences program, is the NASA Earth Exchange (NEX). NEX combines state-of-the-art supercomputing, Earth system modeling, remote sensing data from NASA and other agencies, and a scientific social networking platform to deliver a complete work environment. In this platform, users can explore and analyze large Earth science data sets, run modeling codes, collaborate on new or existing projects, and share results within or among communities (see Figure S1 in the online supplement to this Eos issue (http://www.agu.org/eos_elec)).

Nemani, R.; Votava, P.; Michaelis, A.; Melton, F.; Milesi, C.

2011-03-01

420

Development Futures in the light of climate change: creating new insights into the past, the present and global futures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Current development planning and practice relating to climate change focus pragmatically on actions within a fairly narrow range of mitigation and adaptation options and opportunities. Climate change is one component of a complex of factors affecting global futures and ideas of 'development'. Futures studies project enormous changes in technology, wealth, population and inequality over the next 50 years, which

Nick Brooks; Natasha Grist

2008-01-01

421

Forest Management Adaptation to Gradual Climate Change and Extreme Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extend existing stand-level decision models of forest managers in the presence of two aspects of climate change: Gradual climate change and extreme event risk. The forest managers adapt to the climate change by choosing optimal planting density and rotation age to maximize their net benefit. The possibility of species switch is also considered. Based on simulation results, we find

Jin Huang; Robert C. Abt

422

An adaptability limit to climate change due to heat stress  

E-print Network

of the costs of unmitigated climate change are too low unless the range of possible warming can somehowAn adaptability limit to climate change due to heat stress Steven C. Sherwooda,1 and Matthew Huberb a Climate Change Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia

Sherwood, Steven

423

Adapting North American agriculture to climate change in review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adaptability of North American agriculture to climate change is assessed through a review of current literature. A baseline of North American agriculture without climate change suggests that farming faces serious challenges in the future (e.g. declining domestic demand, loss of comparative advantage, rising environmental costs). Climate change adjustments at the farm-level and in government policy, including international trade policy,

William E Easterling

1996-01-01

424

Modeling Climate Change Adaptation: Challenges, Recent Developments and Future Directions  

E-print Network

Modeling Climate Change Adaptation: Challenges, Recent Developments and Future Directions Karen of modeling practice in the field of integrated assessment of climate change and ways forward. Past efforts assessments of climate change have concentrated on developing baseline emissions scenarios and analyzing

Wing, Ian Sue

425

FAU CLIMATE CHANGE INITIATIVE PRIORITY THEME: RESEARCH, ENGINEERING, AND ADAPTATION TO A CHANGING CLIMATE  

E-print Network

.S. Secretary of Energy Dr. Steven Chu "Ocean acidification, along with thermal heating of the oceans fromFAU CLIMATE CHANGE INITIATIVE PRIORITY THEME: RESEARCH, ENGINEERING, AND ADAPTATION TO A CHANGING. Alvarez, J. Jolley, A. Edwards #12;RESEARCH, ENGINEERING, AND ADAPTATION TO A CHANGING CLIMATE TABLE

Fernandez, Eduardo

426

Using a Regional Tourism Adaptation Framework to Determine Climate Change Adaptation Options for Victoria's Surf Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports research into adaptation to climate change for regional tourism destinations. It explains the application of a regional tourism adaptation framework model to the Surf Coast destination, within the state of Victoria, Australia. It then examines the usefulness of the framework model in guiding a vulnerability resilience assessment of the destination and developing strategies to increase the destinations

Ryan Jopp; Terry DeLacy; Judith Mair; Martin Fluker

2012-01-01

427

The state of climate change adaptation in the Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic climate is rapidly changing, with wide ranging impacts on natural and social systems. A variety of adaptation policies, programs and practices have been adopted to this end, yet our understanding of if, how, and where adaptation is occurring is limited. In response, this paper develops a systematic approach to characterize the current state of adaptation in the Arctic. Using reported adaptations in the English language peer reviewed literature as our data source, we document 157 discrete adaptation initiatives between 2003 and 2013. Results indicate large variations in adaptation by region and sector, dominated by reporting from North America, particularly with regards to subsistence harvesting by Inuit communities. Few adaptations were documented in the European and Russian Arctic, or have a focus on the business and economy, or infrastructure sectors. Adaptations are being motivated primarily by the combination of climatic and non-climatic factors, have a strong emphasis on reducing current vulnerability involving incremental changes to existing risk management processes, and are primarily initiated and led at the individual/community level. There is limited evidence of trans-boundary adaptations or initiatives considering potential cross-scale/sector impacts.

Ford, James D.; McDowell, Graham; Jones, Julie

2014-10-01

428

Migration and climate change: examining thresholds of change to guide effective adaptation decision-making  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implications of environmental change for migration are little understood. Migration as a response to climate change could\\u000a be seen as a failure of in situ adaptation methods, or migration could be alternatively perceived as a rational component\\u000a of creative adaptation to environmental risk. This paper frames migration as part of an adaptation response to climate change\\u000a impacts to natural

Douglas K. Bardsley; Graeme J. Hugo

2010-01-01

429

76 FR 12945 - Instructions for Implementing Climate Change Adaptation Planning in Accordance With Executive...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Instructions for Implementing Climate Change Adaptation Planning in Accordance...ACTION: Notice of Availability of Climate Change Adaptation Planning Implementing...Federal agencies for integrating climate change adaptation into agency...

2011-03-09

430

78 FR 65980 - Notice of Availability for Public Review and Comment: Draft EPA Climate Change Adaptation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Review and Comment: Draft EPA Climate Change Adaptation Implementation Plans...society has adapted in the past. Climate change can pose significant challenges...therefore, that the EPA adapt to climate change in order to continue...

2013-11-04

431

Climate Change Education for Mitigation and Adaptation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article makes the case for the education sector an untapped opportunity to combat climate change. It sets forth a definition of Climate Change Education for Sustainable Development that is comprehensive and multidisciplinary and asserts that it must not only include relevant content knowledge on climate change, environmental and social…

Anderson, Allison

2012-01-01

432

Explaining and overcoming barriers to climate change adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of barriers is increasingly used to describe the obstacles that hinder the planning and implementation of climate change adaptation. The growing literature on barriers to adaptation reveals not only commonly reported barriers, but also conflicting evidence, and few explanations of why barriers exist and change. There is thus a need for research that focuses on the interdependencies between barriers and considers the dynamic ways in which barriers develop and persist. Such research, which would be actor-centred and comparative, would help to explain barriers to adaptation and provide insights into how to overcome them.

Eisenack, Klaus; Moser, Susanne C.; Hoffmann, Esther; Klein, Richard J. T.; Oberlack, Christoph; Pechan, Anna; Rotter, Maja; Termeer, Catrien J. A. M.

2014-10-01

433

Global Change The IGBP Series Michael J. R. Fasham (Ed.)  

E-print Network

#12;123 Michael J. R. Fasham (Ed.) Ocean Biogeochemistry The Role of the Ocean Carbon Cycle in Global of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) / Michael J.R. Fasham (ed.). p.cm. -- (Global change--the IGBP Planning Office. RVIB Nathaniel B. Palmer docks at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, at start of final U

Murray, James W.

434

MSC 220: Climate and Global Change SPRING Semester 2014  

E-print Network

MSC 220: Climate and Global Change SPRING Semester 2014 Tuesday and Thursday Time: 11:00-12:15 Room millennium (1 lecture) Global warming: Present and future: Climate Impacts on Human Evolution and the Rise (www.galuzzi.it) Confused about the global warming debate? This course will help you to make sense

Miami, University of

435

Botany and a changing world: introduction to the special issue on global biological change.  

PubMed

The impacts of global change have heightened the need to understand how organisms respond to and influence these changes. Can we forecast how change at the global scale may lead to biological change? Can we identify systems, processes, and organisms that are most vulnerable to global changes? Can we use this understanding to enhance resilience to global changes? This special issue on global biological change emphasizes the integration of botanical information at different biological levels to gain perspective on the direct and indirect effects of global change. Contributions span a range of spatial scales and include both ecological and evolutionary timescales and highlight work across levels of organization, including cellular and physiological processes, individuals, populations, and ecosystems. Integrative botanical approaches to global change are critical for the ecological and evolutionary insights they provide and for the implications these studies have for species conservation and ecosystem management. PMID:23825138

Weller, Stephen G; Suding, Katharine; Sakai, Ann K

2013-07-01

436

Changing Composition of the Global Stratosphere.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the chemistry of the stratosphere at mid-latitudes, the Antarctic phenomenon, and temporal trends in ozone levels. Includes equations, diagrams of the global distribution of ozone, and halogen growth projections. Concludes that studies of stratospheric ozone demonstrate that the global environment is fragile and is impacted by human…

McElroy, Michael B.; Salawitch, Ross J.

1989-01-01

437

Ozone, Climate, and Global Atmospheric Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of global atmospheric problems relating to ozone depletion and global warming. Provides background information on the composition of the earth's atmosphere and origin of atmospheric ozone. Describes causes, effects, and evidence of ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect. A vignette provides a summary of a 1991 assessment of…

Levine, Joel S.

1992-01-01

438

Future Arctic climate changes: Adaptation and mitigation time scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The climate in the Arctic is changing faster than in midlatitudes. This is shown by increased temperatures, loss of summer sea ice, earlier snow melt, impacts on ecosystems, and increased economic access. Arctic sea ice volume has decreased by 75% since the 1980s. Long-lasting global anthropogenic forcing from carbon dioxide has increased over the previous decades and is anticipated to increase over the next decades. Temperature increases in response to greenhouse gases are amplified in the Arctic through feedback processes associated with shifts in albedo, ocean and land heat storage, and near-surface longwave radiation fluxes. Thus, for the next few decades out to 2040, continuing environmental changes in the Arctic are very likely, and the appropriate response is to plan for adaptation to these changes. For example, it is very likely that the Arctic Ocean will become seasonally nearly sea ice free before 2050 and possibly within a decade or two, which in turn will further increase Arctic temperatures, economic access, and ecological shifts. Mitigation becomes an important option to reduce potential Arctic impacts in the second half of the 21st century. Using the most recent set of climate model projections (CMIP5), multimodel mean temperature projections show an Arctic-wide end of century increase of +13°C in late fall and +5°C in late spring for a business-as-usual emission scenario (RCP8.5) in contrast to +7°C in late fall and +3°C in late spring if civilization follows a mitigation scenario (RCP4.5). Such temperature increases demonstrate the heightened sensitivity of the Arctic to greenhouse gas forcing.

Overland, James E.; Wang, Muyin; Walsh, John E.; Stroeve, Julienne C.

2014-02-01

439

Separating the nature and nurture of the allocation of energy in response to global change.  

PubMed

Understanding and predicting biological stability and change in the face of rapid anthropogenic modifications of ecosystems and geosystems are grand challenges facing environmental and life scientists. Physiologically, organisms withstand environmental stress through changes in biochemical regulation that maintain homeostasis, which necessarily demands tradeoffs in the use of metabolic energy. Evolutionarily, in response to environmentally forced energetic tradeoffs, populations adapt based on standing genetic variation in the ability of individual organisms to reallocate metabolic energy. Combined study of physiology and genetics, separating "Nature and Nurture," is, thus, the key to understanding the potential for evolutionary adaptation to future global change. To understand biological responses to global change, we need experimentally tractable model species that have the well-developed physiological, genetic, and genomic resources necessary for partitioning variance in the allocation of metabolic energy into its causal components. Model species allow for discovery and for experimental manipulation of relevant phenotypic contrasts and enable a systems-biology approach that integrates multiple levels of analyses to map genotypic-to-phenotypic variation. Here, we illustrate how combined physiological and genetic studies that focus on energy metabolism in developmental stages of a model marine organism contribute to an understanding of the potential to adapt to environmental change. This integrative research program provides insights that can be readily incorporated into individual-based ecological models of population persistence under global change. PMID:24907199

Applebaum, Scott L; Pan, T-C Francis; Hedgecock, Dennis; Manahan, Donal T

2014-07-01

440

Assessing institutional capacities to adapt to climate change: integrating psychological dimensions in the Adaptive Capacity Wheel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several case studies show that social factors like institutions, perceptions and social capital strongly affect social capacities to adapt to climate change. Together with economic and technological development they are important for building social capacities. However, there are almost no methodologies for the systematic assessment of social factors. After reviewing existing methodologies we identify the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) by Gupta et al. (2010), developed for assessing the adaptive capacity of institutions, as the most comprehensive and operationalised framework to assess social factors. The ACW differentiates 22 criteria to assess 6 dimensions: variety, learning capacity, room for autonomous change, leadership, availability of resources, fair governance. To include important psychological factors we extended the ACW by two dimensions: "adaptation motivation" refers to actors' motivation to realise, support and/or promote adaptation to climate; "adaptation belief" refers to actors' perceptions of realisability and effectiveness of adaptation measures. We applied the extended ACW to assess adaptive capacities of four sectors - water management, flood/coastal protection, civil protection and regional planning - in northwestern Germany. The assessments of adaptation motivation and belief provided a clear added value. The results also revealed some methodological problems in applying the ACW (e.g. overlap of dimensions), for which we propose methodological solutions.

Grothmann, T.; Grecksch, K.; Winges, M.; Siebenhüner, B.

2013-12-01

441

1. FISHERIES MANAGEMENT AND GOVERNANCE CHALLENGES IN A CLIMATE CHANGE 31 THE ECONOMICS OF ADAPTING FISHERIES TO CLIMATE CHANGE OECD 2010  

E-print Network

Most (84%) of the warming due anthropogenic climate change has been transferred to the oceans of global warming relevant to fisheries Climate change causes, observations and projections We briefly1. FISHERIES MANAGEMENT AND GOVERNANCE CHALLENGES IN A CLIMATE CHANGE­ 31 THE ECONOMICS OF ADAPTING

Reynolds, John D.

442

The impact of global change on terrestrial Vertebrates.  

PubMed

Examples of the impact of human activities on Vertebrate populations abound, with famous cases of extinction. This article reviews how and why Vertebrates are affected by the various components of global change. The effect of direct exploitation, while strong, is currently superseded by changes in use of all sorts, while climate change has started having significant effects on some Vertebrate populations. The low maximum growth rate of Vertebrate populations makes them particularly sensitive to global change, while they contribute relatively modestly to major ecosystem services. One may conclude that unless they are considered as sentinels of the biological consequences of global changes, their situation will go on strongly deteriorating, in particular under the influence of interactions of different components of global change such as changes in use and climate change. PMID:21640944

Lebreton, Jean-Dominique

2011-05-01

443

Problem free nuclear power and global change  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear fission power reactors represent a solution-in-principle to all aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high- grade heat for electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-driving around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates. However, a substantial number of major issues currently stand between nuclear power implemented with light- water reactors and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems, including long-term fuel supply, adverse public perceptions regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps more seriously - cost. We describe a GW-scale, high-temperature nuclear reactor heat source that can operate with no human intervention for a few decades and that may be widely acceptable, since its safety features are simple, inexpensive and easily understood. We provide first-level details of a reactor system designed to satisfy these requirements. Such a back-solving approach to realizing large-scale nuclear fission power systems potentially leads to an energy source capable of meeting all large-scale stationary demands for high- temperature heat. If widely employed to support such demands, it could, for example, directly reduce present-day world-wide CO{sub 2} emissions by two-fold; by using it to produce non-carbonaceous fuels for small mobile demands, a second two-fold reduction could be attained. Even the first such reduction would permit continued slow power-demand growth in the First World and rapid development of the Third World, both without any governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage.

Teller, E.; Wood, L.; Nuckolls, J.; Ishikawa, M.; Hyde, R.

1997-08-15

444

Optimizing Reservoir Operation to Adapt to the Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change and upcoming variation in flood timing necessitates the adaptation of current rule curves developed for operation of water reservoirs as to reduce the potential damage from either flood or draught events. This study attempts to optimize the current rule curves of Cougar Dam on McKenzie River in Oregon addressing some possible climate conditions in 21th century. The objective is to minimize the failure of operation to meet either designated demands or flood limit at a downstream checkpoint. A simulation/optimization model including the standard operation policy and a global optimization method, tunes the current rule curve upon 8 GCMs and 2 greenhouse gases emission scenarios. The Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) is used as the hydrology model to project the streamflow for the period of 2000-2100 using downscaled precipitation and temperature forcing from 8 GCMs and two emission scenarios. An ensemble of rule curves, each associated with an individual scenario, is obtained by optimizing the reservoir operation. The simulation of reservoir operation, for all the scenarios and the expected value of the ensemble, is conducted and performance assessment using statistical indices including reliability, resilience, vulnerability and sustainability is made.

Madadgar, S.; Jung, I.; Moradkhani, H.

2010-12-01

445

The U.S. Global Change Research Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the U.S. Global Research Program (USGCRP), an initiative to support research on the interactions of natural and human-induced changes in the global environment and their implications for society. Visitors can study overviews of the topics of greatest interest to the USGCRP, which include atmospheric composition, climatic variability and change, global cycles for carbon and water, ecosystems, land use/land cover, and human contributions and responses to global change. Links are also provided to news articles, participating government agencies, and international research cooperative efforts.

446

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPLICATIONS AND ADAPTION STRATEGIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper considers both the key component of climate change - increasing greenhouse gas levels in the atmosphere, and also the regional impact of Atmospheric Brown Clouds (ABC). ABCs affect the regional climate of half the world's population and have been the focus of a five year study called 'Project Brown Cloud'. The ocean warming changes are reinforcing themselves and

P. Vere Cooper

447

The Role of Decision Support in Adapting to Climate Change: Findings from Three Place-based Regional Assessments  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the methodologies and findings of three regional assessments and considers the role of decision support in assisting adaptation to climate change. Background. In conjunction with the US Global Change Research Program?s (USGCRP?s) National Assessment of ...

448

Forest climate change Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment in Himalayas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forests offer an important basis for creating and safeguarding more climate-resilient communities over Hindu Kush Himalayan region. The forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment to climate change and developing knowledge base to identify and support relevant adaptation strategies is realized as an urgent need. The multi scale adaptation strategies portray increasing complexity with the increasing levels in terms of data requirements, vulnerability understanding and decision making to choose a particular adaptation strategy. We present here how such complexities could be addressed and adaptation decisions could be either directly supported by open source remote sensing based forestry products or geospatial analysis and modelled products. The forest vulnerability assessment under climate change scenario coupled with increasing forest social dependence was studied using IPCC Landscape scale Vulnerability framework in Chitwan-Annapurna Landscape (CHAL) situated in Nepal. Around twenty layers of geospatial information on climate, forest biophysical and forest social dependence data was used to assess forest vulnerability and associated adaptation needs using self-learning decision tree based approaches. The increase in forest fires, evapotranspiration and reduction in productivity over changing climate scenario was observed. The adaptation measures on enhancing productivity, improving resilience, reducing or avoiding pressure with spatial specificity are identified to support suitable decision making. The study provides spatial analytical framework to evaluate multitude of parameters to understand vulnerabilities and assess scope for alternative adaptation strategies with spatial explicitness.

Chitale, V. S.; Shrestha, H. L.; Agarwal, N. K.; Choudhurya, D.; Gilani, H.; Dhonju, H. K.; Murthy, M. S. R.

2014-11-01

449

Prismatic adaptation changes visuospatial representation in the inferior parietal lobule.  

PubMed

Prismatic adaptation has been shown to induce a realignment of visuoproprioceptive representations and to involve parietocerebellar networks. We have investigated in humans how far other types of functions known to involve the parietal cortex are influenced by a brief exposure to prismatic adaptation. Normal subjects underwent an fMRI evaluation before and after a brief session of prismatic adaptation using rightward deviating prisms for one group or after an equivalent session using plain glasses for the other group. Activation patterns to three tasks were analyzed: (1) visual detection; (2) visuospatial short-term memory; and (3) verbal short-term memory. The prismatic adaptation-related changes were found bilaterally in the inferior parietal lobule when prisms, but not plain glasses, were used. This effect was driven by selective changes during the visual detection task: an increase in neural activity was induced on the left and a decrease on the right parietal side after prismatic adaptation. Comparison of activation patterns after prismatic adaptation on the visual detection task demonstrated a significant increase of the ipsilateral field representation in the left inferior parietal lobule and a significant decrease in the right inferior parietal lobule. In conclusion, a brief exposure to prismatic adaptation modulates differently left and right parietal activation during visual detection but not during short-term memory. Furthermore, the visuospatial representation within the inferior parietal lobule changes, with a decrease of the ipsilateral hemifield representation on the right and increase on the left side, suggesting thus a left hemispheric dominance. PMID:25164675

Crottaz-Herbette, Sonia; Fornari, Eleonora; Clarke, Stephanie

2014-08-27

450

Climate change adaptation and Integrated Water Resource Management in the water sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) was introduced in 1980s to better optimise water uses between different water demanding sectors. However, since it was introduced water systems have become more complicated due to changes in the global water cycle as a result of climate change. The realization that climate change will have a significant impact on water availability and flood risks has driven research and policy making on adaptation. This paper discusses the main similarities and differences between climate change adaptation and IWRM. The main difference between the two is the focus on current and historic issues of IWRM compared to the (long-term) future focus of adaptation. One of the main problems of implementing climate change adaptation is the large uncertainties in future projections. Two completely different approaches to adaptation have been developed in response to these large uncertainties. A top-down approach based on large scale biophysical impacts analyses focussing on quantifying and minimizing uncertainty by using a large range of scenarios and different climate and impact models. The main problem with this approach is the propagation of uncertainties within the modelling chain. The opposite is the bottom up approach which basically ignores uncertainty. It focusses on reducing vulnerabilities, often at local scale, by developing resilient water systems. Both these approaches however are unsuitable for integrating into water management. The bottom up approach focuses too much on socio-economic vulnerability and too little on developing (technical) solutions. The top-down approach often results in an “explosion” of uncertainty and therefore complicates decision making. A more promising direction of adaptation would be a risk based approach. Future research should further develop and test an approach which starts with developing adaptation strategies based on current and future risks. These strategies should then be evaluated using a range of future scenarios in order to develop robust adaptation measures and strategies.

Ludwig, Fulco; van Slobbe, Erik; Cofino, Wim

2014-10-01

451

The Changing Global Distribution of Malaria: A Review  

E-print Network

The Changing Global Distribution of Malaria: A Review Amar Hamoudi and Jeffrey D. Sachs CID Working Paper no. 2 The Changing Global Distribution of Malaria: A Review Amar Hamoudi and Jeffrey D. Sachs Abstract Organized efforts to reduce the burden of malaria are as old as human societies. Understanding

452

GEOGRAPHY 288: FOOD SECURITY, FOOD SYSTEMS and GLOBAL CHANGE  

E-print Network

GEOGRAPHY 288: FOOD SECURITY, FOOD SYSTEMS and GLOBAL CHANGE Winter 2008 Class: W 4:00PM-7:00PM food production, food security and global economic and environmental change. Food production and food and environmental outcomes of agriculture? Part 2 of the seminar (Geog 288 HE) will address: What is food security

Lopez-Carr, David

453

Conceptualizing food systems for global environmental change research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines a framework for studying the multiple interactions of broadly defined food systems with global environmental change and evaluating the major societal outcomes affected by these interactions: food security, ecosystem services and social welfare. In building the framework the paper explores and synthesizes disparate literature on food systems food security and global environmental change, bridging social science and

Polly J. Ericksen

2008-01-01

454

Global Climate Change. Selected Annotated Bibliography. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography on global climate change contains 27 articles designed to expand the breadth and depth of information presented in the Global Change Information Packet. Most articles were chosen from journals likely to be available in most medium-sized public or college libraries. The articles cover a variety of topics related to…

Jones, Douglas E.

455

Balancing Change and Tradition in Global Education Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Balancing Change and Tradition in Global Education Reform, Rotberg brings together examples of current education reforms in sixteen countries, written by "insiders". This book goes beyond myths and stereotypes and describes the difficult trade-offs countries make as they attempt to implement reforms in the context of societal and global change

Rotberg, Iris C., Ed.

2004-01-01

456

Global Responses to Potential Climate Change: A Simulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This interdisciplinary five-day unit provides students with an understanding of the issues in the debate on global climate change. Introductory lessons enhance understanding of the "greenhouse gases" and their sources with possible global effects of climate change. Students then roleplay negotiators from 10 nations in a simulation of the…

Williams, Mary Louise; Mowry, George

457

Global Climate Change: What is science is telling us?  

E-print Network

Change? ·Global warming ­ increased temperature resulting from greenhouse effect. ·Global Climate Change, precipitation and wind patterns. How does the Greenhouse Effect work?How does the Greenhouse Effect work? #12;In In the EarthIn the Earth''s Atmosphere:s Atmosphere: #12;What are Greenhouse Gasses? · Greenhouse Gasses

458

Global Biodiversity Change: The Bad, the Good, and  

E-print Network

, and highlight gaps in biodiversity monitoring and models. Finally, we discuss how the ecosystem servicesGlobal Biodiversity Change: The Bad, the Good, and the Unknown Henrique Miguel Pereira, Laetitia Abstract Global biodiversity change is one of the most pressing environmental is- sues of our time. Here

Pereira, Henrique Miguel

459

Regional news portrayals of global warming and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we utilize content analysis techniques to examine how the issue of global warming and climate change has been characterized during the period of 1992 through 2005 by the Houston Chronicle—the largest regional newspaper in the Texas coastal region. A total of 795 global warming and climate change news articles from the Houston Chronicle are collected, coded and

Xinsheng Liu; Arnold Vedlitz; Letitia Alston

2008-01-01

460

Developing Countries & Global Climate Change: Electric Power Options in Korea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pew Center on Global Climate Change has recently placed online the October 1999 report entitled "Developing Countries & Global Climate Change: Electric Power Options in Korea." Written by Jin-Gyu Oh and others, the report (.pdf format) discusses the implications of Korea's energy choices -- coal, gas, nuclear, or renewable energy -- and how the chosen "mix of policy, growth, and technology will affect investment costs and the local and global environment."

Chandler, William.

1999-01-01

461

GLOBAL ECOSYSTEMS DATABASE PROJECT: AN EXPERIMENT IN DATA INTEGRATION FOR GLOBAL CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The Global Ecosystems Database Project (GEDP) is developing an integrated global database to support global change characterization and modeling. ne CD ROM of integrated data was published in 1992 (NOAA-EPA, 1992) with supporting documents, and another is in development. his pape...

462

GlobalWarminclJ A global change scientist explains the connection.  

E-print Network

change scientist, I have been asked over and over if the Katrina disaster was caused by global warming is really not a controversial issue. Global warming is real. It is already happen- ing.We can see its academy of science in the world), global warming is here, it is primarily caused by people, and the only

463

A meta-analysis of crop yield under climate change and adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feeding a growing global population in a changing climate presents a significant challenge to society. The projected yields of crops under a range of agricultural and climatic scenarios are needed to assess food security prospects. Previous meta-analyses have summarized climate change impacts and adaptive potential as a function of temperature, but have not examined uncertainty, the timing of impacts, or the quantitative effectiveness of adaptation. Here we develop a new data set of more than 1,700 published simulations to evaluate yield impacts of climate change and adaptation. Without adaptation, losses in aggregate production are expected for wheat, rice and maize in both temperate and tropical regions by 2 °C of local warming. Crop-level adaptations increase simulated yields by an average of 7-15%, with adaptations more effective for wheat and rice than maize. Yield losses are greater in magnitude for the second half of the century than for the first. Consensus on yield decreases in the second half of the century is stronger in tropical than temperate regions, yet even moderate warming may reduce temperate crop yields in many locations. Although less is known about interannual variability than mean yields, the available data indicate that increases in yield variability are likely.

Challinor, A. J.; Watson, J.; Lobell, D. B.; Howden, S. M.; Smith, D. R.; Chhetri, N.

2014-04-01

464

Using the Global Electric Circuit to monitor global climate change (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global atmospheric electric circuit describes the global link between fair weather electric fields and currents measured at the Earth's surface, and the generator of these fields and currents in regions of stormy weather. Ever since the 1920s we have known about the global nature of these electric parameters, which appear to vary as a function of universal time (UT) and not local time (LT). It was also shown in the late 1920s that the "batteries" of the GEC are related to thunderstorm activity around the globe, that produce a clear global diurnal cycle due to the longitudinal distribution of the tropical landmasses. Due to the global nature of these electric fields and currents, the GEC supplies perhaps the only global geophysical index that can be measured at a single location on the Earth's surface, representing global electrical activity on the planet. The GEC can be broken down into a DC (direct current) part, and an AC (alternating current) part. Due to the global nature of the electric circuit it has been proposed by some to use geo-electric indices as proxies for changes in the global climate. If global warming results in changes in thunderstorm distribution, number and/or intensity, the GEC may allow us to monitor these changes from only a few ground stations. The advantages and disadvantages of using the GEC to monitor climate change will be presented together with some examples of how the global electric circuit has already been used to monitor changes in the Earth's climate.

Price, C. G.

2013-12-01

465

Change in agricultural land use constrains adaptation of national wildlife refuges to climate change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Land-use change around protected areas limits their ability to conserve biodiversity by altering ecological processes such as natural hydrologic and disturbance regimes, facilitating species invasions, and interfering with dispersal of organisms. This paper informs USA National Wildlife Refuge System conservation planning by predicting future land-use change on lands within 25 km distance of 461 refuges in the USA using an econometric model. The model contained two differing policy scenarios, namely a ‘business-as-usual’ scenario and a ‘pro-agriculture’ scenario. Regardless of scenario, by 2051, forest cover and urban land use were predicted to increase around refuges, while the extent of range and pasture was predicted to decrease; cropland use decreased under the business-as-usual scenario, but increased under the pro-agriculture scenario. Increasing agricultural land value under the pro-agriculture scenario slowed an expected increase in forest around refuges, and doubled the rate of range and pasture loss. Intensity of land-use change on lands surrounding refuges differed by regions. Regional differences among scenarios revealed that an understanding of regional and local land-use dynamics and management options was an essential requirement to effectively manage these conserved lands. Such knowledge is particularly important given the predicted need to adapt to a changing global climate.

Hamilton, Christopher M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Martinuzzi, Sebastian; Pidgeon, Anna M.

2015-01-01

466

Postdoc fellows present research at global change workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) held its first global change postdoctoral fellowship workshop, “New Research in the Science of Global Change: A Multidisciplinary View,” from September 19-23, 1993, in Oakland, Calif. The workshop featured presentations by researchers in the DOE Global Change Distinguished Postdoctoral Fellowship Program and provided a forum for the interdisciplinary networking necessary for integrating and assessing global change research for policy decisions in times of scientific uncertainty. Established in 1991 as a U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) effort to strengthen the human resource base in science and technology, the fellowship program is sponsored by the Environmental Sciences Division of DOE's Office of Health and Environmental Research and is administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education.

Engle, Joanna; Holmes, Linda; Olsen, Curtis

467

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS IMPACTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Outline of talk: A. What causes climate change B. Possible changes in the world's and the Pacific Northwest's climate C. Possible impacts of climate change I. The world and U.S. II. Oregon D. Possible solutions E. Discussion ...

468

Extracting the Globally and Locally Adaptive Backbone of Complex Networks  

PubMed Central

A complex network is a useful tool for representing and analyzing complex systems, such as the world-wide web and transportation systems. However, the growing size of complex networks is becoming an obstacle to the understanding of the topological structure and their characteristics. In this study, a globally and locally adaptive network backbone (GLANB) extraction method is proposed. The GLANB method uses the involvement of links in shortest paths and a statistical hypothesis to evaluate the statistical importance of the links; then it extracts the backbone, based on the statistical importance, from the network by filtering the less important links and preserving the more important links; the result is an extracted subnetwork with fewer links and nodes. The GLANB determines the importance of the links by synthetically considering the topological structure, the weights of the links and the degrees of the nodes. The links that have a small weight but are important from the view of topological structure are not belittled. The GLANB method can be applied to all types of networks regardless of whether they are weighted or unweighted and regardless of whether they are directed or undirected. The experiments on four real networks show that the link importance distribution given by the GLANB method has a bimodal shape, which gives a robust classification of the