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Sample records for global daily irradiation

  1. The frequency distribution of daily global irradiation at Kumasi

    SciTech Connect

    Akuffo, F.O.; Brew-Hammond, A. )

    1993-02-01

    Cumulative frequency distribution curves (CDC) for daily global irradiation on the horizontal produced by Liu and Jordan in 1963 have until recently been considered to have universal validity. Results obtained by Saunier et al. in 1987 and Ideriah and Suleman in 1989 for two tropical locations, Ibadan in Nigeria and Bangkok in Thailand, respectively, have thrown into question the universal validity of the Liu and Jordan generalized CDC. Saunier et al., in particular, showed that their results disagreed with the generalized CDC mainly because of differences in the values of the maximum clearness index (Kmax), as well as the underlying probability density functions. Consequently, they proposed two expressions for determining Kmax and probability densities in tropical locations. This paper presents the results of statistical analysis of daily global irradiation for Kumasi, Ghana, also a tropical location. The results show that the expressions of Saunier et al. provide a better description of the observations than the generalized CDC and, in particular, the empirical equation for Kmax may be valid for Kumasi. Furthermore, the results show that the values of the minimum clearness index (Kmin) for Kumasi are much higher than the generally accepted value of 0.05 for overcast sky conditions. A comparison of the results for Kumasi and Ibadan shows that there is satisfactory agreement when the values of Kmax and Kmin are comparable; in cases where there are discrepancies in the Kmax and Kmin values, the CDC also disagree. 13 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Ecological Modelling 143 (2001) 227243 A globally applicable model of daily solar irradiance

    E-print Network

    Hunt Jr., E. Raymond

    2001-01-01

    . At Luquillo, Puerto Rico, the daily atmospheric transmittance for solar radiation was approximately equal for this model that is widely used when solar irradiance data are not available. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. AllEcological Modelling 143 (2001) 227­243 A globally applicable model of daily solar irradiance

  3. Mathematically integrable parameterization of clear-sky beam and global irradiances and its use in daily irradiation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gueymard, C. )

    1993-05-01

    A simple parameterized clear-sky short-wave irradiance model is derived from a detailed two-band physical model presented earlier. The inputs for the parameterized model (called PSIM) are the solar elevation, the amount of precipitable water (w), the Angstrom turbidity coefficient ([Beta]), the station's pressure (or its altitude), and the zonal surface albedo (for which a simple submodel is provided for North America). PSIM is intended to give accurate irradiance estimates in any atmospheric condition whenever w < 5 cm and [Beta] < 0.45. The parameterization uses a function of solar elevation that is integrable with time, so that a parameterized daily irradiation model (called DIM) is also obtained. The seasonal variations of the daily clear-sky beam and global irradiations are presented for different combinations of w, [Beta], and latitude. It is possible to use these irradiation estimates in different applications when dealing with solar energy or climatology. For example, a simple way to derive the mean monthly apparent solar elevation or air mass is given. It is also suggested that the original Angstrom's equation (to derive the average global irradiation from the fraction of possible sunshine) be used more extensively with DIM. Finally, it is demonstrated (using data from Albany, NY) that the monthly average beam irradiation may be obtained with a very simple equation from the fraction of possible sunshine and DIM, yielding more accurate estimates than the existing best-performing method.

  4. Eugene, Or. 1998 Daily Global Irradiance 1 31 61 91 121 151 181 211 241 271 301 331 361

    E-print Network

    Oregon, University of

    Eugene, Or. 1998 Daily Global Irradiance 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 1 31 61 91 121 151 181 211 241 271 301 331 361 Year Day GlobalIrradianceWhr/m2 perDay Eugene, Or. 1998 Daily Beam Day BeamIrradianceWhr/m2 perDay #12;Eugene, Or. 1998 Daily Diffuse Irradiance 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8

  5. Estimation of daily global solar irradiation under different sky conditions in central and southern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didari, Shohreh; Zand-Parsa, Shahrokh

    2015-10-01

    Daily global solar irradiation (R s) is one of the main inputs in environmental modeling. Because of the lack of its measuring facilities, high-quality and long-term data are limited. In this research, R s values were estimated based on measured sunshine duration and cloud cover of our synoptic meteorological stations in central and southern Iran during 2008, 2009, and 2011. Clear sky solar irradiation was estimated from linear regression using extraterrestrial solar irradiation as the independent variable with normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) of 4.69 %. Daily R s was calibrated using measured sunshine duration and cloud cover data under different sky conditions during 2008 and 2009. The 2011 data were used for model validation. According to the results, in the presence of clouds, the R s model using sunshine duration data was more accurate when compared with the model using cloud cover data (NRMSE = 11. 69 %). In both models, with increasing sky cloudiness, the accuracy decreased. In the study region, more than 92 % of sunshine durations were clear or partly cloudy, which received close to 95 % of total solar irradiation. Hence, it was possible to estimate solar irradiation with a good accuracy in most days with the measurements of sunshine duration.

  6. Temporal changes of the global reflectance of a wheat field as a function of daily solar irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franceschini, G. A.

    1981-01-01

    Based on in situ measurements of incident and reflected solar irradiation over a wheat field, daily values of the surface reflectance, a scene signature, were determined for a crop year. Diagnoses of these data reveal the character of the signature, and its changes with time, crop stage, and the magnitude of incident irradiance. The latter varies inversely with cloud cover.

  7. Markov processes and Zipf's law in daily solar irradiation at earth's surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vindel, J. M.; Polo, J.

    2014-01-01

    Sequences of two consecutive days of solar irradiation (global horizontal and direct normal) have been studied here by different approaches. The frequency vs. rank relationships have been analyzed as an attempt to explore whether the Zifp's law is fulfilled, yielding to a partial fulfillment and observing that a good logarithmic fit can be applied to the data in the whole range. In addition, the pdfs of increments in two consecutive daily irradiation values are also studied, showing a relationship between persistence and the coefficients of the logarithmic fit. Finally, it has been shown that a Markov process can represent properly sequences of two consecutive daily irradiation values, for both global horizontal and direct normal components. Thus, synthetic series can be generated by Markov chains for characterizing daily global and direct irradiation.

  8. A comparison between one year of daily global irradiation from ground-based measurements versus meteosat images from seven locations in Tunisia

    SciTech Connect

    Djemaa, A.B.; Delorme, C. )

    1992-01-01

    Three numerical images from METEOSAT B2 per day have been processed over a period of 12 months, from October 1985 to September 1986, to estimate the daily values of available solar radiation in Tunisia. The methodology used, GISTEL, on the images of the visible' channel of METEOSAT, is described. Results are compared with measured radiation values from seven stations of the Institut de la Meteorologie de Tunisie.' Among more than 2,200 measured-estimated daily pairs, a high percentage, 89%, show a relative error of + or {minus}10%. Many figures concerning Sidi-Bou-Said, Kairouan, Thala, and Gafsa are presented to show the capability of GISTEL to map the daily available solar radiation with a sufficient spatial resolution in countries where radiation measurements are too scarce.

  9. Global daily reference evapotranspiration modeling and evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.P.; Lietzow, R.; Melesse, Assefa M.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate and reliable evapotranspiration (ET) datasets are crucial in regional water and energy balance studies. Due to the complex instrumentation requirements, actual ET values are generally estimated from reference ET values by adjustment factors using coefficients for water stress and vegetation conditions, commonly referred to as crop coefficients. Until recently, the modeling of reference ET has been solely based on important weather variables collected from weather stations that are generally located in selected agro-climatic locations. Since 2001, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) has been producing six-hourly climate parameter datasets that are used to calculate daily reference ET for the whole globe at 1-degree spatial resolution. The U.S. Geological Survey Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science has been producing daily reference ET (ETo) since 2001, and it has been used on a variety of operational hydrological models for drought and streamflow monitoring all over the world. With the increasing availability of local station-based reference ET estimates, we evaluated the GDAS-based reference ET estimates using data from the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS). Daily CIMIS reference ET estimates from 85 stations were compared with GDAS-based reference ET at different spatial and temporal scales using five-year daily data from 2002 through 2006. Despite the large difference in spatial scale (point vs. ???100 km grid cell) between the two datasets, the correlations between station-based ET and GDAS-ET were very high, exceeding 0.97 on a daily basis to more than 0.99 on time scales of more than 10 days. Both the temporal and spatial correspondences in trend/pattern and magnitudes between the two datasets were satisfactory, suggesting the reliability of using GDAS parameter-based reference ET for regional water and energy balance studies in many parts of the world. While the study revealed the potential of GDAS ETo for large-scale hydrological applications, site-specific use of GDAS ETo in complex hydro-climatic regions such as coastal areas and rugged terrain may require the application of bias correction and/or disaggregation of the GDAS ETo using downscaling techniques. ?? 2008 American Water Resources Association.

  10. Estimation of monthly mean daily global solar radiation in Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, G. )

    1990-10-01

    By comparing the published values of monthly mean daily global solar radiation on horizontal surfaces in Memphis and Nashville with calculated values using equations from four models for this parameter, it is shown that the best estimates arise from the use of a model that requires sunshine hours, rain days, and relative humidity as the relevant climatological variables. It is suggested that this equation be used to estimate monthly mean daily global solar radiation for all locations in Tennessee.

  11. Influence of lunar phase on daily global temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Balling, R.C. Jr.; Cerveny, R.S.

    1995-03-10

    A newly available data set of daily satellite-derived, lower-tropospheric global temperature anomalies provides an opportunity to assess the influence of lunar phase on planetary temperature. These results reveal a statistically significant 0.02 K modulation between new moon and full moon, with the warmest daily global temperatures over a synodic month coincident with the occurrence of the full moon. Spectral analysis of the daily temperature record confirms the presence of a periodicity that matches the lunar synodic (29-53-day) cycle. The precision of the satellite-based daily temperature record allows verification that the moon exerts a discernible influence on the short-term, global temperature record. 25 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Daily total global solar radiation modeling from several meteorological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgili, Mehmet; Ozgoren, Muammer

    2011-05-01

    This paper investigates the modeling of the daily total global solar radiation in Adana city of Turkey using multi-linear regression (MLR), multi-nonlinear regression (MNLR) and feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) methods. Several daily meteorological data, i.e., measured sunshine duration, air temperature and wind speed and date of the year, i.e., monthly and daily, were used as independent variables to the MLR, MNLR and ANN models. In order to determine the relationship between the total global solar radiation and other meteorological data, and also to obtain the best independent variables, the MLR and MNLR analyses were performed with the "Stepwise" method in the Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program. Thus, various models consisting of the combination of the independent variables were constructed and the best input structure was investigated. The performances of all models in the training and testing data sets were compared with the measured daily global solar radiation values. The obtained results indicated that the ANN method was better than the other methods in modeling daily total global solar radiation. For the ANN model, mean absolute error (MAE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), correlation coefficient ( R) and coefficient of determination ( R 2) for the training/testing data set were found to be 0.89/1.00 MJ/m2 day, 7.88/9.23%, 0.9824/0.9751, and 0.9651/0.9508, respectively.

  13. Hematopoietic tissue repair under chronic low daily dose irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seed, T. M.

    The capacity of the hematopoietic system to repair constantly accruing cellular damage under chronic, low daily dose gamma irradiation is essential for the maintenance of a functional hematopoietic system, and, in turn, long term survival. In certain individuals, however, such continuous cycles of damage and repair provide an essential inductive environment for selected types of hematopathologies, e.g., myeloid leukemia (ML). In our laboratory we have been studying temporal and causal relationships between hematopoietic capacity, associated repair functions, and propensities for hematologic disease in canines under variable levels of chronic radiation stress (0.3-26.3 cGy d^-1). Results indicate that the maximum exposure rate tolerated by the hematopoietic system is highly individual-specific (three major responding subgroups identified) and is based largely on the degree to which repair capacity, and, in turn, hematopoietic restoration, is augmented under chronic exposure. In low-tolerance individuals (prone to aplastic anemia, subgroup 1), the failure to augment basic repair functions seemingly results in a progressive accumulation of genetic and cellular damage within vital progenitorial marrow compartments (particularly marked within erythroid compartments) that results in loss of reproductive capacity and ultimately in collapse of the hematopoietic system. The high-tolerance individuals (radioaccommodated and either prone- or not prone to ML, subgroup 2 & 3) appear to minimize the accumulating damage effect of daily exposures by extending repair functions, which preserves reproductive integrity and fosters regenerative hematopoietic responses. As the strength of the regenerative response manifests the extent of repair augmentation, the relatively strong response of high-tolerance individuals progressing to patent ML suggests an insufficiency of repair quality rather than repair quantity. The kinetics of these repair-mediated, regenerative hematopoietic responses within the major subgroups are under study and should provide useful insights into the nature of hematopoietic accommodation (or its failure) under greatly extended periods of chronic, low-daily-dose ionizing radiation exposure.

  14. Hematopoietic tissue repair under chronic low daily dose irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Seed, T.M.

    1994-12-01

    The capacity of the hematopoietic system to repair constantly accruing cellular damage under chronic, low daily dose gamma irradiation is essential for the maintenance of a functional hematopoietic system, and, in turn, long term survival. In certain individuals, however, such continuous cycles of damage and repair provide an essential inductive environment for selected types of hematopathologies, e.g., myeloid leukemia (ML). We have been studying temporal and causal relationships between hematopoietic capacity, associated repair functions, and propensities for hematologic disease in canines under variable levels of chronic radiation stress (0.3{minus}26.3 cGy d{sup {minus}1}). Results indicate that the maximum exposure rate tolerated by the hematopoietic system is highly individual-specific and is based largely on the degree to which repair capacity, and, in turn, hematopoietic restoration, is augmented under chronic exposure. In low-tolerance individuals (prone to aplastic anemia, subgroup (1), the failure to augment basic m-pair functions seemingly results in a progressive accumulation of genetic and cellular damage within vital progenitorial marrow compartments particularly marked within erythroid compartments. that results in loss of reproductive capacity and ultimately in collapse of the hematopoietic system. The high-tolerance individuals (radioaccomodated and either prone- or not prone to ML, subgroup 2 & 3 appear to minimize the accumulating damage effect of daily exposures by extending repair functions, which preserves reproductive integrity and fosters regenerative hematopoietic responses. As the strength of the regenerative response manifests the extent of repair augmentation, the relatively strong response of high- tolerance individuals progressing to patent ML suggests an insufficiency of repair quality rather than repair quantity.

  15. A daily global mesoscale ocean eddy dataset from satellite altimetry

    PubMed Central

    Faghmous, James H.; Frenger, Ivy; Yao, Yuanshun; Warmka, Robert; Lindell, Aron; Kumar, Vipin

    2015-01-01

    Mesoscale ocean eddies are ubiquitous coherent rotating structures of water with radial scales on the order of 100?kilometers. Eddies play a key role in the transport and mixing of momentum and tracers across the World Ocean. We present a global daily mesoscale ocean eddy dataset that contains ~45 million mesoscale features and 3.3 million eddy trajectories that persist at least two days as identified in the AVISO dataset over a period of 1993–2014. This dataset, along with the open-source eddy identification software, extract eddies with any parameters (minimum size, lifetime, etc.), to study global eddy properties and dynamics, and to empirically estimate the impact eddies have on mass or heat transport. Furthermore, our open-source software may be used to identify mesoscale features in model simulations and compare them to observed features. Finally, this dataset can be used to study the interaction between mesoscale ocean eddies and other components of the Earth System. PMID:26097744

  16. A daily global mesoscale ocean eddy dataset from satellite altimetry.

    PubMed

    Faghmous, James H; Frenger, Ivy; Yao, Yuanshun; Warmka, Robert; Lindell, Aron; Kumar, Vipin

    2015-01-01

    Mesoscale ocean eddies are ubiquitous coherent rotating structures of water with radial scales on the order of 100?kilometers. Eddies play a key role in the transport and mixing of momentum and tracers across the World Ocean. We present a global daily mesoscale ocean eddy dataset that contains ~45 million mesoscale features and 3.3 million eddy trajectories that persist at least two days as identified in the AVISO dataset over a period of 1993-2014. This dataset, along with the open-source eddy identification software, extract eddies with any parameters (minimum size, lifetime, etc.), to study global eddy properties and dynamics, and to empirically estimate the impact eddies have on mass or heat transport. Furthermore, our open-source software may be used to identify mesoscale features in model simulations and compare them to observed features. Finally, this dataset can be used to study the interaction between mesoscale ocean eddies and other components of the Earth System. PMID:26097744

  17. Solar global horizontal and direct normal irradiation maps in Spain derived from geostationary satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polo, J.

    2015-08-01

    Solar radiation derived from satellite imagery is a powerful and highly accurate technique for solar resource assessment due to its maturity and to the long term database of observation images available. This work presents the methodology developed at CIEMAT for mapping solar radiation from geostationary satellite information and it also shows solar irradiation maps of global horizontal and direct normal components elaborated for Spain. The maps presented here have been developed from daily solar irradiation estimated for eleven years of satellite images (2001-2011). An attempt to evaluate the uncertainty of the presented maps is made using ground measurements from 27 meteorological stations available in Spain for global horizontal irradiation obtained from the World Radiation Data Centre. In the case of direct normal irradiation the ground measurement database was scarce, having available only six ground stations with measurements for a period of 4 years. Yearly values of global horizontal irradiation are around 1800 kWh m-2 in most of the country and around 1950-2000 kWh m-2 for annual direct normal irradiation. Root mean square errors in monthly means were of 11% and of 29% for global horizontal and direct normal irradiation, respectively.

  18. Study of the division of global irradiance into direct beam and diffuse irradiance at seven Canadian sites

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, J.; Sahami, K.

    1995-12-31

    Canadian hourly global and diffuse irradiation data and associated daily surface meterological data of humidity, temperature and snow depth for the years 1977-1984 are analyzed. These data have been measured at Edmonton, Goose Bay, Montreal, Port Hardy, Resolute, Toronto and Winnipeg. Hourly values of the clearness index k{sub t} and diffuse index k{sub d} are sorted into bivariate histograms according to their numerical values. Different histograms are established for different ranges of the three variables: solar elevation, atmospheric precipitable water, and snow depth for each station. Properties of the different histograms are compared using standard statistical procedures. It is found that the division of global irradiation into direct beam and diffuse irradiation is correlated with the four variables k{sub t}, precipitable water, solar elevation, and snow depth. It is also found that many, but not all, of the differences between data from the same station at different times and between different stations can be attributed to conditions associated with differences in these four variables. The data show evidence that the division of global irradiation into direct and diffuse irradiation can depend upon the properties of the clouds beyond how these clouds are characterized by the four variables. 37 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Longitudinal Patterns of Daily Affect and Global Mood during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Sally M.; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Hedeker, Donald; Flay, Brian R.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined grade and sex patterns in real-time measures of daily mood using Ecological Momentary Assessments via palmtop computers among 8th (N=296) and 10th graders (N=266) for 1 year using a three-wave longitudinal design. Participants responded to five to seven random prompts/day for 7 consecutive days; when prompted, participants…

  20. Retrieving daily global solar radiation from routine climate variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Isaac; Mueller, Richard; Perez, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Solar radiation is an important variable for studies related to solar energy applications, meteorology, climatology, hydrology, and agricultural meteorology. However, solar radiation is not routinely measured at meteorological stations; therefore, it is often required to estimate it using other techniques such as retrieving from satellite data or estimating using other geophysical variables. Over the years, many models have been developed to estimate solar radiation from other geophysical variables such as temperature, rainfall, and sunshine duration. The aim of this study was to evaluate six of these models using data measured at four independent worldwide networks. The dataset included 13 stations from Australia, 25 stations from Germany, 12 stations from Saudi Arabia, and 48 stations from the USA. The models require either sunshine duration hours (Ångstrom) or daily range of air temperature (Bristow and Campbell, Donatelli and Bellocchi, Donatelli and Campbell, Hargreaves, and Hargreaves and Samani) as input. According to the statistical parameters, Ångstrom and Bristow and Campbell indicated a better performance than the other models. The bias and root mean square error for the Ångstrom model were less than 0.25 MJ m2 day-1 and 2.25 MJ m2 day-1, respectively, and the correlation coefficient was always greater than 95 %. Statistical analysis using Student's t test indicated that the residuals for Ångstrom, Bristow and Campbell, Hargreaves, and Hargreaves and Samani are not statistically significant at the 5 % level. In other words, the estimated values by these models are statistically consistent with the measured data. Overall, given the simplicity and performance, the Ångstrom model is the best choice for estimating solar radiation when sunshine duration measurements are available; otherwise, Bristow and Campbell can be used to estimate solar radiation using daily range of air temperature.

  1. Global Daily Atmospheric State Profiles from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Fetzer, Eric J.; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn H.; Chahine, Moustafa T.

    2008-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a hyperspectral infrared instrument on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft, launched on May 4, 2002. AIRS has 2378 infrared channels ranging from 3.7 (micro)m to 15.4 (micro)m and a 13.5 km footprint. AIRS, in conjunction with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), produces temperature profiles with 1K/km accuracy on a global scale, as well as water vapor profiles, clouds, dust and trace gas amounts for CO2, CO, SO2, O3 and CH4.[1] AIRS data are used for weather forecasting and studies of global climate change. The AIRS is a 'facility' instrument developed by NASA as an experimental demonstration of advanced technology for remote sensing and the benefits of high resolution infrared spectra to science investigations.

  2. Forecasting Plant Productivity and Health Using Diffuse-to-Global Irradiance Ratios Extracted from the OMI Aerosol Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowlton, Kelly; Andrews, Jane C.; Ryan, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are a major contributor to diffuse irradiance. This Candidate Solution suggests using the OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) aerosol product as input into a radiative transfer model, which would calculate the ratio of diffuse to global irradiance at the Earth s surface. This ratio can significantly influence the rate of photosynthesis in plants; increasing the ratio of diffuse to global irradiance can accelerate photosynthesis, resulting in greater plant productivity. Accurate values of this ratio could be useful in predicting crop productivity, thereby improving forecasts of regional food resources. However, disagreements exist between diffuse-to-global irradiance values measured by different satellites and ground sensors. OMI, with its unique combination of spectral bands, high resolution, and daily global coverage, may be able to provide more accurate aerosol measurements than other comparable sensors.

  3. Correlations for direct normal and global horizontal irradiation on a French Mediterranean site

    SciTech Connect

    Louche, A.; Notton, G.; Poggi, P.; Simonnot, G. )

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish some correlations on direct normal and global horizontal irradiation for a Mediterranean site. The correlations have been developed for monthly mean values, daily and hourly values of irradiation data. The authors have used linear or polynomial regressions between energetical ratio and sunshine duration. For the monthly means and the daily values, the ratio I/I{sub M} fits very well the sunshine duration while, for hourly values, they express I{sub h}/I{sub o,h} as a function of H{sub h}/H{sub o,h}. In all cases, these correlations are, for this Mediterranean site, in good accordance with experimental data. Nevertheless, a study for other locations has to be developed.

  4. Global Monthly and Daily Precipitation Analysis for the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP): Global and Regional Variations and Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George; Curtis, Scott; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The 22 year, monthly, globally complete precipitation analysis of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP/GEWEX) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and the four year (1997-present) daily GPCP analysis are described in terms of the data sets and analysis techniques used in their preparation. These analyses are then used to study global and regional variations and trends during the 22 years and the shorter-time scale events that constitute those variations. The GPCP monthly data set shows no significant trend in global precipitation over the twenty years, unlike the positive trend in global surface temperatures over the past century. The global trend analysis must be interpreted carefully, however, because the inhomogeneity of the data set makes detecting a small signal very difficult, especially over this relatively short period. The relation of global (and tropical) total precipitation and ENSO (El Nino and Southern Oscillation) events is quantified with no significant signal when land and ocean are combined. In terms of regional trends 1979 to 2000 the tropics have a distribution of regional rainfall trends that has an ENSO-like pattern with features of both the El Nino and La Nina. This feature is related to a possible trend in the frequency of ENSO events (either El Nino or La Nina) over the past 20 years. Monthly anomalies of precipitation are related to ENSO variations with clear signals extending into middle and high latitudes of both hemispheres. The El Nino and La Nina mean anomalies are near mirror images of each other and when combined produce an ENSO signal with significant spatial continuity over large distances. A number of the features are shown to extend into high latitudes. Positive anomalies extend in the Southern Hemisphere from the Pacific southeastward across Chile and Argentina into the south Atlantic Ocean. In the Northern Hemisphere the counterpart feature extends across the southern U.S. and Atlantic Ocean into Europe. In the Southern Hemisphere an anomaly feature is shown to spiral into the Antarctica land mass. The extremes of ENSO-related anomalies are also examined and indicate that globally, during both El Nino and La Nina, more extremes of precipitation (both wet and dry) occur than during the "neutral" regime, with the El Nino regime showing larger magnitudes. The distribution is different for the globe as a whole and when the area is restricted to just land. The recent (1998-present) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observations are also compared with the GPCP analyses and are evaluated with regard to improving the long-term GPCP data set.

  5. Global Mapping of Underwater UV Irradiances and DNA-Weighted Exposures using TOMS and SeaWiFS Data Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasilkov, Alexander; Krotkov, Nickolay; Herman, Jay; McClain, Charles; Arrigo, Kevin; Robinson, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    The global stratospheric ozone-layer depletion results In an increase in biologically harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the surface and penetrating to ecologically significant depths in natural waters. Such an increase can be estimated on a global scale by combining satellite estimates of UV irradiance at the ocean surface from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite instrument with the SeaWIFS satellite ocean-color measurements in the visible spectral region. In this paper we propose a model of seawater optical properties in the UV spectral region based on the Case I water model in the visible range. The inputs to the model are standard monthly SeaWiFS products: chlorophyll concentration and the diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490nm. Penetration of solar UV radiation to different depths in open ocean waters is calculated using the RT (radiative transfer) quasi-single scattering approximation (QSSA). The accuracy of the QSSA approximation in the water is tested using more accurate codes. The sensitivity study of the underwater UV irradiance to atmospheric and oceanic optical properties have shown that the main environmental parameters controlling the absolute levels of the UVB (280-320nm) and DNA-weighted irradiance underwater are: solar-zenith angle, cloud transmittance, water optical properties, and total ozone. Weekly maps of underwater UV irradiance and DNA-weighted exposure are calculated using monthly-mean SeaWiFS chlorophyll and diffuse attenuation coefficient products, daily SeaWiFS cloud fraction data, and the TOMS-derived surface UV irradiance daily maps. The final products include global maps of weekly-average UVB irradiance and DNA-weighted daily exposures at 3m and 10m, and depths where the UVB irradiance and DNA-weighted dose rate at local noon are equal to 10% of their surface values.

  6. Reducing Noise in the MSU Daily Lower-Tropospheric Global Temperature Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, John R.; Spencer, Roy W.; McNider, Richard T.

    1995-01-01

    The daily global-mean values of the lower-tropospheric temperature determined from microwave emissions measured by satellites are examined in terms of their signal, noise, and signal-to-noise ratio. Daily and 30-day average noise estimates are reduced by, almost 50% and 35%, respectively, by analyzing and adjusting (if necessary) for errors due to (1) missing data, (2) residual harmonics of the annual cycle unique to particular satellites, (3) lack of filtering, and (4) spurious trends. After adjustments, the decadal trend of the lower-tropospheric global temperature from January 1979 through February 1994 becomes -0.058 C, or about 0.03 C per decade cooler than previously calculated.

  7. Estimation of the diffuse fraction of daily and monthly average global radiation for Fudhaliyah, Baghdad (Iraq)

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Hamdani, N.; Al-Riahi, M.; Tahir, K. )

    1989-01-01

    Separating the global solar radiation on a horizontal surface into direct and diffuse components is required in the simulation of solar energy systems. Many models have been developed for this purpose. The aim of this study is to establish, from the data collected over the period 1985-1986 at Fudhaliyah, daily correlations between (i) diffuse fraction of global radiation and clearness index; (ii) diffuse fraction and fractional sunshine duration; (iii) diffuse fraction and clearness index combined with fractional sunshine duration. In addition, the monthly average values of the above-mentioned correlations were established. Comparison with the most commonly used equation, Page's correlation, gives good agreement for monthly average of the relationship between diffuse fraction and clearness index. An equation for daily diffuse transmissivity values that incorporates a single physically based coefficient, which reflects the maximum clear-sky transmissivity at the study site is presented.

  8. Reducing Noise in the MSU Daily Lower-Tropospheric Global Temperature Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, John R.; Spencer, Roy W.; McNider, Richard T.

    1996-01-01

    The daily global-mean values of the lower-tropospheric temperature determined from microwave emissions measured by satellites are examined in terms of their signal, noise, and signal-to-noise ratio. Daily and 30-day average noise estimates are reduced by almost 50% and 35%. respectively, by analyzing and adjusting (if necessary) for errors due to 1) missing data, 2) residual harmonics of the annual cycle unique to particular satellites, 3) lack of filtering, and 4) spurious trends. After adjustments, the decadal trend of the lower-tropospheric global temperature from January 1979 through February 1994 becomes -0.058 C. or about 0.03 C per decade cooler than previously calculated.

  9. Global Precipitation at One-Degree Daily Resolution From Multi-Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Morrissey, Mark M.; Curtis, Scott; Joyce, Robert; McGavock, Brad; Susskind, Joel

    2000-01-01

    The One-Degree Daily (1DD) technique is described for producing globally complete daily estimates of precipitation on a 1 deg x 1 deg lat/long grid from currently available observational data. Where possible (40 deg N-40 deg S), the Threshold-Matched Precipitation Index (TMPI) provides precipitation estimates in which the 3-hourly infrared brightness temperatures (IR T(sub b)) are thresholded and all "cold" pixels are given a single precipitation rate. This approach is an adaptation of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Precipitation Index (GPI), but for the TMPI the IR Tb threshold and conditional rain rate are set locally by month from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I)-based precipitation frequency and the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) satellite-gauge (SG) combined monthly precipitation estimate, respectively. At higher latitudes the 1DD features a rescaled daily Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) precipitation. The frequency of rain days in the TOVS is scaled down to match that in the TMPI at the data boundaries, and the resulting non-zero TOVS values are scaled locally to sum to the SG (which is a globally complete monthly product). The time series of the daily 1DD global images shows good continuity in time and across the data boundaries. Various examples are shown to illustrate uses. Validation for individual grid -box values shows a very high root-mean-square error but, it improves quickly when users perform time/space averaging according to their own requirements.

  10. Global reconstructed daily storm surge levels from the 20th century reanalysis (1871-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cid, Alba; Camus, Paula; Castanedo, Sonia; Mendez, Fernando; Medina, Raul

    2015-04-01

    The study of global patterns of wind and pressure gradients, and more specifically, their effect on the sea level variation (storm surge), is a key issue in the understanding of recent climate changes. The local effect of storm surges on coastal areas (zones particularly vulnerable to climate variability and changes in sea level), is also of great interest in, for instance, flooding risk assessment. Studying the spatial and temporal variability of storm surges from observations is a difficult task to accomplish since observations are not homogeneous in time and scarce in space, and moreover, their temporal coverage is limited. The development of a global storm surge database (DAC, Dynamic Atmospheric Correction by Aviso, Carrère and Lyard, 2003) fulfils the lack of data in terms of spatial coverage, but not regarding time extent since it only includes last couple of decades (1992-2014). In this work, we propose the use of the 20CR ensemble (Compo et al., 2011) which spans from 1871 to 2010 to statistically reconstruct storm surge at a global scale and for a long period of time. Therefore, the temporal and spatial variability of storm surges can be fully studied and with much less effort than performing a dynamical downscaling. The statistical method chosen to carry out the reconstruction is based on multiple linear regression between an atmospheric predictor and the storm surge level at daily scale (Camus et al., 2014). The linear regression model is calibrated and validated using daily mean sea level pressure fields (and gradients) from the ERA-interim reanalysis and daily maxima surges from DAC. The obtained daily database of maximum daily surges has allowed us to estimate global trends at a centennial scale and analyse the effect of the changing climate on storm surges during the 20th century. Hence, this work improves the knowledge on historical storm-surge conditions and provides helpful information to the community concern on marine climate evolution and coastal impacts. Camus, P., Méndez, F.J., Losada, I.J., Menéndez, M., Espejo, A., Pérez, A., Rueda, A., Guanche, Y. (2014). A method for finding the optimal predictor indices for local wave climate conditions. Ocean Dynamics, 64 (7), 1025-1038, doi: 10.1007/s10236-014-0737-2. Carrère, L., Lyard, F. (2003). Modeling the barotropic response of the global ocean atmospheric wind and pressure forcing - comparisons with observations. Geophysical Research Letters, 30 (6), 1275. Compo, G. P., et al. (2011). The Twentieth century reanalysis project, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 137, 1-28, doi:10.1002/qj.776.

  11. Global and diffuse solar irradiances in urban and rural areas in southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codato, G.; Oliveira, A. P.; Soares, J.; Escobedo, J. F.; Gomes, E. N.; Pai, A. D.

    2008-06-01

    The seasonal evolution of daily and hourly values of global and diffuse solar radiation at the surface are compared for the cities of São Paulo and Botucatu, both located in Southeast Brazil and representative of urban and rural areas, respectively. The comparisons are based on measurements of global and diffuse solar irradiance carried out at the surface during a six year simultaneous period in these two cities. Despite the similar latitude and altitude, the seasonal evolution of daily values indicate that São Paulo receives, during clear sky days, 7.8% less global irradiance in August and 5.1% less in June than Botucatu. On the other hand, São Paulo receives, during clear sky days, 3.6% more diffuse irradiance in August and 15.6% more in June than Botucatu. The seasonal variation of the diurnal cycle confirms these differences and indicates that they are more pronounced during the afternoon. The regional differences are related to the distance from the Atlantic Ocean, systematic penetration of the sea breeze and daytime evolution of the particulate matter in São Paulo. An important mechanism controlling the spatial distribution of solar radiation, on a regional scale, is the sea breeze penetration in São Paulo, bringing moisture and maritime aerosol that in turn further increases the solar radiation scattering due to pollution and further reduces the intensity of the direct component of solar radiation at the surface. Surprisingly, under clear sky conditions the atmospheric attenuation of solar radiation in Botucatu during winter the biomass burning period due to the sugar cane harvest is equivalent to that at São Paulo City, indicating that the contamination during sugar cane harvest in Southeast Brazil has a large impact in the solar radiation field at the surface.

  12. Prediction of global solar irradiance based on time series analysis: Application to solar thermal power plants energy production planning

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Luis; Marchante, Ruth; Cony, Marco; Zarzalejo, Luis F.; Polo, Jesus; Navarro, Ana

    2010-10-15

    Due to strong increase of solar power generation, the predictions of incoming solar energy are acquiring more importance. Photovoltaic and solar thermal are the main sources of electricity generation from solar energy. In the case of solar thermal energy plants with storage energy system, its management and operation need reliable predictions of solar irradiance with the same temporal resolution as the temporal capacity of the back-up system. These plants can work like a conventional power plant and compete in the energy stock market avoiding intermittence in electricity production. This work presents a comparisons of statistical models based on time series applied to predict half daily values of global solar irradiance with a temporal horizon of 3 days. Half daily values consist of accumulated hourly global solar irradiance from solar raise to solar noon and from noon until dawn for each day. The dataset of ground solar radiation used belongs to stations of Spanish National Weather Service (AEMet). The models tested are autoregressive, neural networks and fuzzy logic models. Due to the fact that half daily solar irradiance time series is non-stationary, it has been necessary to transform it to two new stationary variables (clearness index and lost component) which are used as input of the predictive models. Improvement in terms of RMSD of the models essayed is compared against the model based on persistence. The validation process shows that all models essayed improve persistence. The best approach to forecast half daily values of solar irradiance is neural network models with lost component as input, except Lerida station where models based on clearness index have less uncertainty because this magnitude has a linear behaviour and it is easier to simulate by models. (author)

  13. Calculation of monthly average global solar radiation on horizontal surfaces using daily hours of bright sunshine

    SciTech Connect

    Halouani, N.; Nguyen, C.T.; Vo-Ngoc, D. )

    1993-03-01

    Several statistical models calculating the monthly average global solar radiation on horizontal surfaces using the daily hours of bright sunshine have been extensively evaluated and compared for Canadian regions. Results show that Gariepy's model provides the best overall performance and Hay's model is rated next best, whereas Rietveld's model has been found to be the least accurate. Local performances of models have also been established throughout Canada that show that both Gariepy's and Hay's models perform quite well. Recommended models have been suggested for the studied regions. 27 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Validation and Development of the GPCP Experimental One-Degree Daily (1DD) Global Precipitation Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Bolvin, David T.; Einaud, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The One-Degree Daily (1DD) precipitation dataset has been developed for the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and is currently in beta test preparatory to release as an official GPCP product. The 1DD provides a globally-complete, observation-only estimate of precipitation on a daily 1 deg. x 1 deg. grid for the period 1997 through early 2000 (by the time of the conference). In the latitude band 40N-40S the 1DD uses the Threshold-Matched Precipitation Index (TMPI), a GPI-like IR product with the pixel-level T(sub b) threshold and (single) conditional rain rate determined locally for each month by the frequency of precipitation in the GPROF SSM/I product and by, the precipitation amount in the GPCP monthly satellite-gauge (SG) combination. Outside 40N-40S the 1DD uses a scaled TOVS precipitation estimate that has month-by-month adjustments based on the TMPI and the SG. Early validation results are encouraging. The 1DD shows relatively large scatter about the daily validation values in individual grid boxes, as expected for a technique that depends on cloud-sensing schemes such as the TMPI and TOVS. On the other hand, the time series of 1DD shows good correlation with validation in individual boxes. For example, the 1997-1998 time series of 1DD and Oklahoma Mesonet values in a grid box in northeastern Oklahoma have the correlation coefficient = 0.73. Looking more carefully at these two time series, the number of raining days for the 1DD is within 7% of the Mesonet value, while the distribution of daily rain values is very similar. Other tests indicate that area- or time-averaging improve the error characteristics, making the data set highly attractive to users interested in stream flow, short-term regional climatology, and model comparisons. The second generation of the 1DD product is currently under development; it is designed to directly incorporate TRMM and other high-quality precipitation estimates. These data are generally sparse because they are observed by low-orbit satellites, so a fair amount of work must be devoted to analyzing the effect of data boundaries. This work is laying, the groundwork for effective use of the NASA Global Precipitation Mission, which will have full Global coverage by low-orbit passive microwave satellites every three hours.

  15. The potential of different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques in daily global solar radiation modeling based on meteorological data

    SciTech Connect

    Behrang, M.A.; Assareh, E.; Ghanbarzadeh, A.; Noghrehabadi, A.R.

    2010-08-15

    The main objective of present study is to predict daily global solar radiation (GSR) on a horizontal surface, based on meteorological variables, using different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques. Daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation, and wind speed values between 2002 and 2006 for Dezful city in Iran (32 16'N, 48 25'E), are used in this study. In order to consider the effect of each meteorological variable on daily GSR prediction, six following combinations of input variables are considered: (I)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature and relative humidity as inputs and daily GSR as output. (II)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature and sunshine hours as inputs and daily GSR as output. (III)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity and sunshine hours as inputs and daily GSR as output. (IV)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and evaporation as inputs and daily GSR as output. (V)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and wind speed as inputs and daily GSR as output. (VI)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation and wind speed as inputs and daily GSR as output. Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) neural networks are applied for daily GSR modeling based on six proposed combinations. The measured data between 2002 and 2005 are used to train the neural networks while the data for 214 days from 2006 are used as testing data. The comparison of obtained results from ANNs and different conventional GSR prediction (CGSRP) models shows very good improvements (i.e. the predicted values of best ANN model (MLP-V) has a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) about 5.21% versus 10.02% for best CGSRP model (CGSRP 5)). (author)

  16. Global daily precipitation analysis for the validation of medium-range climate predictions (DAPACLIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietzsch, Felix; Andersson, Axel; Schröder, Marc; Ziese, Markus; Becker, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The Federal Ministry of Education and Research in Germany funds the research programme "Mittelfristige Klimaprognosen" (MiKlip) with the aim to create a model system that can provide reliable forecasts on climate and weather, including extreme weather events. It is of central importance for the development process of the Miklip system to validate the decadal prediction system based upon data and processes during the development stages. An essential part of the evaluation procedure will be the application of satellite derived datasets to assess the aspired model system with respect to atmospheric water cycle components including precipitation, clouds and related changes in the radiation budget. Within the MiKlip DAPACLIP project new precipitation products suitable for the evaluation of the MiKlip prediction system were developed in close contact with the modelling community. These new datasets are used to evaluate precipitation from global and regional decadal MiKlip hindcasts on a daily time scale, including the statistical analysis of extreme precipitation events. The DAPACLIP dataset covers the time period from 1988 to 2008. It is available in 1° and 2.5° resolution for global coverage as well as in 0.5° resolution for the European domain. The dataset consists of a combination of an in-situ based precipitation analysis of the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) and a new version of the satellite-derived Hamburg Ocean Atmospheric Parameters and fluxes from Satellite Data (HOAPS) precipitation analysis over ocean surfaces. Verification results from comparisons between the DAPACLIP dataset and different precipitation products and datasets over land and ocean will be shown. Here, APHRODITE, PACRAIN and TRMM 3B42 daily have been used as verification datasets. Furthermore we provide first results from the evaluation of MiKlip Decadal Prediction System historical runs and hindcasts. The evaluation focuses on precipitation intensity and frequency, e.g. in terms of drought and wet spells as well as the statistical distribution of precipitation events.

  17. Estimates and Measurements of Photosynthetically Active Radiation and Global Solar Irradiance in Rondonia

    SciTech Connect

    Aguiar, Leonardo J. G.; Costa, Jose M. N. da; Fischer, Graciela R.; Aguiar, Renata G.

    2009-03-11

    Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and global solar irradiance (R{sub s}) were made at a LBA (The Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia) experimental site, at Fazenda Nossa Senhora (10 deg. 45' S; 62 deg. 21' W), in Rondonia, in the years of 2004 and 2005, with the objective of estimating the seasonal variation of the ratio between the photosynthetically active radiation and the global solar irradiance. The relationship between PAR and R{sub s} were made by using linear regressions equations with data from year 2004 and tested with data from the year 2005. The seasonal variation of the ratio PAR/R{sub s} ranged from 0.43 (September) to 0.48 (January). The linear regression equations between PAR and R{sub s} obtained were: a) On an hourly basis: PAR 0.747+0.478*R{sub s},(R{sup 2} = 0.99; wet season) and PAR = -4.578+0.452*R{sub s}(R{sup 2} 0.99; dry season); b) On a daily basis: PAR = 4.956+0.466*R{sub s}(R{sup 2} = 0.99; wet season) and PAR = -6.762+0.457*R{sub s}(R{sup 2} = 0.96; dry season)

  18. A Temperature-Based Model for Estimating Monthly Average Daily Global Solar Radiation in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huashan; Cao, Fei; Wang, Xianlong; Ma, Weibin

    2014-01-01

    Since air temperature records are readily available around the world, the models based on air temperature for estimating solar radiation have been widely accepted. In this paper, a new model based on Hargreaves and Samani (HS) method for estimating monthly average daily global solar radiation is proposed. With statistical error tests, the performance of the new model is validated by comparing with the HS model and its two modifications (Samani model and Chen model) against the measured data at 65 meteorological stations in China. Results show that the new model is more accurate and robust than the HS, Samani, and Chen models in all climatic regions, especially in the humid regions. Hence, the new model can be recommended for estimating solar radiation in areas where only air temperature data are available in China. PMID:24605046

  19. Effect of Estimated Daily Global Solar Radiation Data on the Results of Crop Growth Models

    PubMed Central

    Trnka, Miroslav; Eitzinger, Josef; Kapler, Pavel; Dubrovský, Martin; Semerádová, Daniela; Žalud, Zden ?k; Formayer, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    The results of previous studies have suggested that estimated daily global radiation (RG) values contain an error that could compromise the precision of subsequent crop model applications. The following study presents a detailed site and spatial analysis of the RG error propagation in CERES and WOFOST crop growth models in Central European climate conditions. The research was conducted i) at the eight individual sites in Austria and the Czech Republic where measured daily RG values were available as a reference, with seven methods for RG estimation being tested, and ii) for the agricultural areas of the Czech Republic using daily data from 52 weather stations, with five RG estimation methods. In the latter case the RG values estimated from the hours of sunshine using the Ångström-Prescott formula were used as the standard method because of the lack of measured RG data. At the site level we found that even the use of methods based on hours of sunshine, which showed the lowest bias in RG estimates, led to a significant distortion of the key crop model outputs. When the Ångström-Prescott method was used to estimate RG, for example, deviations greater than ±10 per cent in winter wheat and spring barley yields were noted in 5 to 6 per cent of cases. The precision of the yield estimates and other crop model outputs was lower when RG estimates based on the diurnal temperature range and cloud cover were used (mean bias error 2.0 to 4.1 per cent). The methods for estimating RG from the diurnal temperature range produced a wheat yield bias of more than 25 per cent in 12 to 16 per cent of the seasons. Such uncertainty in the crop model outputs makes the reliability of any seasonal yield forecasts or climate change impact assessments questionable if they are based on this type of data. The spatial assessment of the RG data uncertainty propagation over the winter wheat yields also revealed significant differences within the study area. We found that RG estimates based on diurnal temperature range or its combination with daily total precipitation produced a bias of to 30 per cent in the mean winter wheat grain yields in some regions compared with simulations in which RG values had been estimated using the Ångström-Prescott formula. In contrast to the results at the individual sites, the methods based on the diurnal temperature range in combination with daily precipitation totals showed significantly poorer performance than the methods based on the diurnal temperature range only. This was due to the marked increase in the bias in RG estimates with altitude, longitude or latitude of given region. These findings in our view should act as an incentive for further research to develop more precise and generally applicable methods for estimating daily RG based more on the underlying physical principles and/or the remote sensing approach.

  20. Control of continuous irradiation injury on potatoes with daily temperature cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Bennett, S. M.; Cao, W.

    1990-01-01

    Two controlled-environment experiments were conducted to determine the effects of temperature fluctuations under continuous irradiation on growth and tuberization of two potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars, Kennebec and Superior. These cultivars had exhibited chlorotic and stunted growth under continuous irradiation and constant temperatures. The plants were grown for 4 weeks in the first experiment and for 6 weeks in the second experiment. Each experiment was conducted under continuous irradiation of 400 micromoles per square meter per second of photosynthetic photon flux and included two temperature treatments: constant 18 degrees C and fluctuating 22 degrees C/14 degrees C on a 12-hour cycle. A common vapor pressure deficit of 0.62 kilopascal was maintained at all temperatures. Plants under constant 18 degrees C were stunted and had chlorotic and abscised leaves and essentially no tuber formation. Plants grown under the fluctuating temperature treatment developed normally, were developing tubers, and had a fivefold or greater total dry weight as compared with those under the constant temperature. These results suggest that a thermoperiod can allow normal plant growth and tuberization in potato cultivars that are unable to develop effectively under continuous irradiation.

  1. Assessment and management of interfractional variations in daily diagnostic-quality-CT guided prostate-bed irradiation after prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Feng; Ahunbay, Ergun; Lawton, Colleen; Allen Li, X.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To quantify interfractional anatomic variations and limitations of the current practice of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for prostate-bed patients and to study dosimetric benefits of an online adaptive replanning scheme that addresses the interfractional variations. Methods: Contours for the targets and organs at risk (OARs) from daily diagnostic-quality CTs acquired with in-room CT (CTVision, Siemens) were generated by populating the planning contours using an autosegmentation tool based on deformable registration (ABAS, Elekta) with manual editing for ten prostate-bed patients treated with postoperative daily CT-guided IMRT. Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) obtained by maximizing the overlap of contours for a structure between the daily and plan contours was used to quantify the organ deformation between the plan and daily CTs. Three interfractional-variation-correction schemes, the current standard practice of IGRT repositioning, a previously developed online adaptive RT (ART), and the full reoptimization, were applied to these daily CTs and a number of dose-volume quantities for the targets and organs at risk were compared for their effectiveness to account for the interfractional variations. Results: Large interfractional organ deformations in prostate-bed irradiation were seen. The mean DSCs for CTV, rectum, and bladder were 86.6 ± 5.1% (range from 61% to 97%), 77.3% ± 7.4% (range from 55% to 90%), and 75.4% ± 11.2% (range from 46% to 96%), respectively. The fractional and cumulative dose-volume quantities for CTV and PTV: V100 (volume received at least 100% prescription dose), and rectum and bladder: V{sub 45Gy} and V{sub 60Gy} (volume received at least 45 or 60 Gy), were compared for the repositioning, adaptive, reoptimization, and original plans. The fractional and cumulative dosimetric results were nearly the same. The average cumulative CTV V100 were 88.0%, 98.4%, 99.2%, and 99.3% for the IGRT, ART, reoptimization, and original plans, respectively. The corresponding rectal V{sub 45Gy} (V{sub 60Gy}) were 58.7% (27.3%), 48.1% (20.7%), 43.8% (16.1%), and 44.9% (16.8%). The results for bladder were comparable among three schemes. Paired two-tailed Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were performed and it was found that ART and reoptimization provide better target coverage and better OAR sparing, especially rectum sparing. Conclusions: The interfractional organ motions and deformations during prostate-bed irradiation are significant. The online adaptive replanning scheme is capable of effectively addressing the large organ deformation, resulting in cumulative doses equivalent to those originally planned.

  2. Global horizontal irradiance clear sky models : implementation and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Hansen, Clifford W.; Reno, Matthew J.

    2012-03-01

    Clear sky models estimate the terrestrial solar radiation under a cloudless sky as a function of the solar elevation angle, site altitude, aerosol concentration, water vapor, and various atmospheric conditions. This report provides an overview of a number of global horizontal irradiance (GHI) clear sky models from very simple to complex. Validation of clear-sky models requires comparison of model results to measured irradiance during clear-sky periods. To facilitate validation, we present a new algorithm for automatically identifying clear-sky periods in a time series of GHI measurements. We evaluate the performance of selected clear-sky models using measured data from 30 different sites, totaling about 300 site-years of data. We analyze the variation of these errors across time and location. In terms of error averaged over all locations and times, we found that complex models that correctly account for all the atmospheric parameters are slightly more accurate than other models, but, primarily at low elevations, comparable accuracy can be obtained from some simpler models. However, simpler models often exhibit errors that vary with time of day and season, whereas the errors for complex models vary less over time.

  3. Global daily precipitation analysis for the validation of medium-range climate predictions (DAPACLIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietzsch, Felix; Andersson, Axel; Schamm, Kirstin; Schröder, Marc; Becker, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The Federal Ministry of Education and Research in Germany (BMBF) funds the research programme "Mittelfristige Klimaprognosen" (MiKlip) with the aim to create a model system that can provide reliable decadal forecasts on climate and weather, including extreme weather events. Of central importance for the development process of the MiKlip system is the data and process based validation of the decadal scale prediction system during the development stages of MiKlip. An essential part of the evaluation procedure will be the application of satellite derived data sets to assess the aspired model system with respect to atmospheric water cycle components including clouds and related changes in the radiation budget. Within the MiKlip-DAPACLIP project new precipitation products suitable for the evaluation of the MiKlip prediction system are developed in close contact with the modelling community. These new data sets will be used to evaluate precipitation from global and regional decadal MiKlip hindcasts on a daily time scale, including the statistical analysis of extreme precipitation events. The data products will the time period from 1988-2008 and consists of daily data fields with several grid resolutions (1.0° x 1.0° and 2.5° x 2.5°; over Europe: 0.5°). The data set is based on an optimum combination of a dedicated in situ-based Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) precipitation analyses for land surface areas and a new version of the satellite-derived Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and fluxes from Satellite Data (HOAPS) precipitation analyses for ocean surface areas. An unprecedented feature in comparison to previous efforts is to allow for a traceable estimation of the uncertainty in the aspired data product. Over land the error information is retrieved from an optimized interpolation method that includes a kriging procedure. Over the ocean a 1D-Var retrieval is used to derive the precipitation along with a retrieval uncertainty from passive microwave data. This presentation will show first results of the improved combined precipitation data set as well as the integration of this data in the model evaluation process.

  4. Global, Daily, Near Real-Time Satellite-based Flood Monitoring and Product Dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slayback, D. A.; Policelli, F. S.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Tokay, M. M.; Smith, M. M.; Kettner, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Flooding is the most destructive, frequent, and costly natural disaster faced by modern society, and is expected to increase in frequency and damage with climate change and population growth. Some of 2013's major floods have impacted the New York City region, the Midwest, Alberta, Australia, various parts of China, Thailand, Pakistan, and central Europe. The toll of these events, in financial costs, displacement of individuals, and deaths, is substantial and continues to rise as climate change generates more extreme weather events. When these events do occur, the disaster management community requires frequently updated and easily accessible information to better understand the extent of flooding and better coordinate response efforts. With funding from NASA's Applied Sciences program, we developed and are now operating a near real-time global flood mapping system to help provide critical flood extent information within 24-48 hours of events. The system applies a water detection algorithm to MODIS imagery received from the LANCE (Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS) system at NASA Goddard within a few hours of satellite overpass. Using imagery from both the Terra (10:30 AM local time overpass) and Aqua (1:30 PM) platforms allows an initial daily assessment of flooding extent by late afternoon, and more robust assessments after accumulating cloud-free imagery over several days. Cloud cover is the primary limitation in detecting surface water from MODIS imagery. Other issues include the relatively coarse scale of the MODIS imagery (250 meters), the difficulty of detecting flood waters in areas with continuous canopy cover, confusion of shadow (cloud or terrain) with water, and accurately identifying detected water as flood as opposed to normal water extents. We have made progress on many of these issues, and are working to develop higher resolution flood detection using alternate sensors, including Landsat and various radar sensors. Although these provide better spatial resolution, this typically comes at the cost of being less timely. Since late 2011, this system has been providing daily flood maps of the global non-antarctic land surface. These data products are generated in raster and vector formats, and provided freely on our website. To better serve the disaster response community, we have recently begun providing the products via live OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) services, allowing easy access in a variety of platforms (Google Earth, desktop GIS software, mobile phone apps). We are also working with the Pacific Disaster Center to bring our product into their Disaster Alert system (including a mobile app), which will help simplify product distribution to the disaster management community.

  5. Reconstruction of six decades of daily total solar shortwave irradiation in the Iberian Peninsula using sunshine duration records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Román, Roberto; Bilbao, Julia; de Miguel, Argimiro

    2014-12-01

    Total global solar shortwave (G) irradiation and sunshine duration were recorded at nine Spanish stations located in the Iberian Peninsula. G irradiation under cloudless conditions was simulated by means of a radiative transfer model using satellite data as input. A method based on these cloudless simulations and sunshine duration records was developed to reconstruct G series. This model was validated against experimental data, providing a good agreement for cloudless skies (mean bias error of 0.4% and root mean square error of 5.8%). Monthly averages of modelled and measured G irradiation presented a mean bias error of 0.5% and a root mean square error of 3%. Differences between modelled and measured G irradiation were in agreement within the model uncertainties. The reconstruction model was applied to sunshine duration measurements, giving long-term G series at the nine locations. Monthly, seasonal, and annual G anomalies were calculated and analysed. Averaged series (using the nine locations) showed a statistically significant decrease in annual G from 1950 to the mid 1980s (-1.7%dc-1) together with a significant increase from the mid 1980s to 2011 (1.6%dc-1). The effect of uncertainty in the reconstructed series on statistically significant trends was studied.

  6. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-03-01

    This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer.

  7. Numerical Study of the Global Corona for CR 2055 Driven by Daily Updated Synoptic Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, X.; Yang, L. P.; Xiang, C. Q.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, X.; Wu, S. T.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, a preliminary study of the global corona for Carrington rotation (CR) 2055 is carried out by the 3D Solar-Interplanetary (SIP) adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) space-time conservation element and solution element (CESE) MHD model (SIP-AMR-CESE MHD model) (Feng et al. 2011a), which is driven by the daily-updated magnetic field synoptic data. To incorporate the observations into the model, the lower boundary conditions are specified according to the flux evolution of the observed magnetic field and the normal projected characteristic method. The simulated results are compared with solar observations and in-situ solar wind measurements, which are mapped from both Ulysses and other near-Earth spacecraft to the computation domain. Comparisons show that the MHD results have good overall agreement with coronal and interplanetary structures, including the size and distribution of coronal holes and the transition of the solar wind speeds and magnetic field polarities. The MHD results are also compared with the Potential Field Source Surface (PFSS) and Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) methods.

  8. Daily ozone cycle in the stratosphere: global, regional and seasonal behaviour modelled with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanz, A.; Hocke, K.; Kämpfer, N.

    2014-07-01

    The Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) is utilised to study the daily ozone cycle and underlying photochemical and dynamical processes. The analysis is focused on the daily ozone cycle in the middle stratosphere at 5 hPa where satellite-based trend estimates of stratospheric ozone are most biased by diurnal sampling effects and drifting satellite orbits. The simulated ozone cycle shows a minimum after sunrise and a maximum in the late afternoon. Further, a seasonal variation of the daily ozone cycle in the stratosphere was found. Depending on season and latitude, the peak-to-valley difference of the daily ozone cycle varies mostly between 3 and 5% (0.4 ppmv) with respect to the midnight ozone volume mixing ratio. The maximal variation of 15% (0.8 ppmv) is found at the polar circle in summer. The global pattern of the strength of the daily ozone cycle is mainly governed by the solar zenith angle and the sunshine duration. In addition, we find synoptic-scale variations in the strength of the daily ozone cycle. These variations are often anti-correlated to regional temperature anomalies and are due to the temperature dependence of the rate coefficients k2 and k3 of the Chapman cycle reactions. Further, the NOx catalytic cycle counteracts the accumulation of ozone during daytime and leads to an anti-correlation between anomalies in NOx and the strength of the daily ozone cycle. Similarly, ozone recombines with atomic oxygen which leads to an anti-correlation between anomalies in ozone abundance and the strength of the daily ozone cycle. At higher latitudes, an increase of the westerly (easterly) wind cause a decrease (increase) in the sunshine duration of an air parcel leading to a weaker (stronger) daily ozone cycle.

  9. Daily ozone cycle in the stratosphere: global, regional and seasonal behaviour modelled with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanz, A.; Hocke, K.; Kämpfer, N.

    2014-03-01

    The Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) is utilised to study the daily ozone cycle and underlying photochemical and dynamical processes. The analysis is focused on the daily ozone cycle in the middle stratosphere at 5 hPa where satellite-based trend estimates of stratospheric ozone are most biased by diurnal sampling effects and drifting satellite orbits. The simulated ozone cycle shows a minimum after sunrise and a maximum in the late afternoon. Further, a seasonal variation of the daily ozone cycle in the stratosphere was found. Depending on season and latitude, the peak-to-valley difference of the daily ozone cycle varies mostly between 3-5% (0.4 ppmv) with respect to the midnight ozone volume mixing ratio. The maximal variation of 15% (0.8 ppmv) is found at the polar circle in summer. The global pattern of the strength of the daily ozone cycle is mainly governed by the solar zenith angle and the sunshine duration. In addition, we find synoptic scale variations in the strength of the daily ozone cycle. These variations are often anti-correlated to regional temperature anomalies and are due to the temperature dependence of the rate coefficients k2 and k3 of the Chapman cycle reactions. Further, the NOx catalytic cycle counteracts to the accumulation of ozone during daytime and leads to an anti-correlation between anomalies in NOx and the strength of the daily ozone cycle. Similarly, ozone recombines with atomic oxygen which leads to an anti-correlation between anomalies in ozone abundance and the strength of the daily ozone cycle. At higher latitudes, an increase of the westerly (easterly) wind cause a decrease (increase) in the sunshine duration of an air parcel leading to a weaker (stronger) daily ozone cycle.

  10. Global Horizontal Irradiance Anomalies in Long Term Series Over India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cony, Marco; Liria, Juan; Weisenberg, Ralf; Serrano, Enrique

    2014-05-01

    India has a high potential for solar energy applications due to its geographic position within the Sun Belt and the large number of cloudless days in many regions of the country. However, certain regions of India, particularly those largely populated, can exhibit large aerosol loading in the atmosphere as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions that could have a negative feedback in the solar resource potential. This effect, named as solar dimming, has already been observed in India, and in some other regions in the world, by some authors using ground data from the last two decades. The recent interest in the promotion of solar energy applications in India highlights the need of extending and improving the knowledge of the solar radiation resources in this country, since most of the long term measurements available correspond to global horizontal radiation (GHI) and most of them are also located big cities or highly populated areas. In addition, accurate knowledge on the aerosol column quantification and on its dynamical behavior with high spatial resolution is particularly important in the case of India, due to their impact on direct normal irradiation. Long term studies of solar irradiation over India can be performed using monthly means of GHI measurements from the Indian Meteorological Department. Ground data are available from 1964 till today through the World Radiation Data Centre that publish these values in the web. This work shows a long term analysis of GHI using anomalies techniques over ten different sites over India. Besides, techniques of linear trends have been applied for to show the evolution over this period. The analysis of anomalies has also found two periods of different behavior. From 1964 till 1988 the anomalies observed were positive and the last 20 years seems to be a period of negative anomalies. The results exhibit a decreasing trend and negative anomalies confirming thus the darkening effect already reported by solar dimming studies. This observation is also consequent with solar dimming effect, apparently increased during the last two decades due to the increase of aerosol loading in the atmosphere. These results remark the important of having accurate knowledge of atmospheric aerosol loading and its dynamics over India with high spatial resolution in the framework of solar energy deployment in the country. It is worth to mention that greater anomalies and a noticeable decreasing trend found in Calcutta could be correlated with the highly population rate, and thus the greater the population density of the area the greater the negative anomalies and the decreasing trend of solar irradiation monthly means.

  11. Optimal Normal Tissue Sparing in Craniospinal Axis Irradiation Using IMRT With Daily Intrafractionally Modulated Junction(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Kusters, Johannes M.A.M.; Louwe, Rob J.W.; Kollenburg, Peter G.M. van; Kunze-Busch, Martina C.; Gidding, Corrie E.M.; Lindert, Erik J. van; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Janssens, Geert O.R.J.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To develop a treatment technique for craniospinal irradiation using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with improved dose homogeneity at the field junction(s), increased target volume conformity, and minimized dose to the organs at risk (OARs). Methods and Materials: Five patients with high-risk medulloblastoma underwent CT simulation in supine position. For each patient, an IMRT plan with daily intrafractionally modulated junction(s) was generated, as well as a treatment plan based on conventional three-dimensional planning (3DCRT). A dose of 39.6 Gy in 22 daily fractions of 1.8 Gy was prescribed. Dose-volume parameters for target volumes and OARs were compared for the two techniques. Results: The maximum dose with IMRT was <107% in all patients. V{sub <95} and V{sub >107} were <1 cm{sup 3} for IMRT compared with 3-9 cm{sup 3} for the craniospinal and 26-43 cm{sup 3} for the spinal-spinal junction with 3DCRT. These observations corresponded with a lower homogeneity index and a higher conformity index for the spinal planning target volume with IMRT. IMRT provided considerable sparing of acute and late reacting tissues. V{sub 75} for the esophagus, gastroesophageal junction, and intestine was 81%, 81%, and 22% with 3DCRT versus 5%, 0%, and 1% with IMRT, respectively. V{sub 75} for the heart and thyroid was 42% and 32% vs. 0% with IMRT. Conclusion: IMRT with daily intrafractionally modulated junction results in a superior target coverage and junction homogeneity compared with 3DCRT. A significant dose reduction can be obtained for acute as well as late-reacting tissues.

  12. Modeling Biases of Mean Air Temperature Averaged from Daily Maximum and Minimum Temperatures over Global Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhijun; Wang, Kaicun

    2015-04-01

    The true monthly mean temperature is defined as the integral of the continuous temperature measurements in a month(Td0), which is apparently different from the average of the maximum and minimum temperatures(Td1). Unfortunately, Td1 instead of Td0 has been widely used as the monthly mean temperature, which is an indicator of climate change and input parameters of various models. It has already been proved in some researches that the bias between Td0 and Td1 (Tbias=Td1-Td0) can not be ignored, in someplace it could even be very large. It is in great urgent to replace Td1 with the true monthly mean temperature Td0 to eliminate the impacts of the inaccurate monthly mean temperature in related researches. However, Td0 cannot be obtained directly for the lack of the historical observed hourly air temperature. In our study, a Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) based method is created firstly by now to calculate Tbias with the predictor of day length, DTR (Diurnal Temperature Range) and Td1. Then the historical Td0 can be obtained further based on the relationship between Td1 and Td0. The method performs very well with a R-square surpassing 0.57, in arid or semi-arid areas the mean R-square exceeding 0.76. The mean relative importance of day length, Td1 and DTR is 52.8%, 26.3% and 20.9%, respectively. The method can accurately reproduce temporal and spatial variability of the bias of mean air temperature calculated from daily maximum and minimum temperatures (Tmax and Tmin). It can be applied globally to model its long term variability, and provide a new approach to Td0.

  13. Artificial Neural Network models for estimating daily solar global UV, PAR and broadband radiant fluxes in an eastern Mediterranean site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacovides, C. P.; Tymvios, F. S.; Boland, J.; Tsitouri, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, simple Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models for estimating daily solar global broadband as well as solar spectral global UV and PAR radiant fluxes have been established. The data used in this analysis are global ultraviolet UV (GUV), global photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD-QP), broadband global radiant flux (Gh), extraterrestrial radiant flux (G0), air temperature (T), relative humidity (rh), sunshine duration (n), theoretical sunshine duration (N), precipitable water (w) and ozone column density (O3). By using different combinations of the above variables as inputs, numerous ANN-models have been developed. For each model, the output is the daily global GUV, QP and Gh solar radiant fluxes. Firstly, a set of 2 × 365 point (2 years) has been used for training each network-model, whereas a set of 365 point (1 year) has been engaged for testing and validating the ANN-models. It has been found that the ANN-models' accuracy depends on the parameters employed as well as spectral range considered. Comparisons between proposed ANN-models and conventional regression models revealed that the results of both methods are statistically significant. On closer examination of many error measures, though, it is clear that the ANN-models perform better overall. From this point of view, it turned out that the neural network technique is better suited further suggesting that the ANN methodology is a promising and a more accurate tool for estimating both broadband and spectral radiant fluxes.

  14. A general model for estimation of daily global solar radiation using air temperatures and site geographic parameters in Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mao-Fen; Fan, Li; Liu, Hong-Bin; Guo, Peng-Tao; Wu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of daily global solar radiation (Rs) from routinely measured temperature data has been widely developed and used in many different areas of the world. However, many of them are site specific. It is assumed that a general model for estimating daily Rs using temperature variables and geographical parameters could be achieved within a climatic region. This paper made an attempt to develop a general model to estimate daily Rs using routinely measured temperature data (maximum (Tmax, °C) and minimum (Tmin, °C) temperatures) and site geographical parameters (latitude (La, °N), longitude (Ld, °E) and altitude (Alt, m)) for Guizhou and Sichuan basin of southwest China, which was classified into the hot summer and cold winter climate zone. Comparison analysis was carried out through statistics indicators such as root mean squared error of percentage (RMSE%), modeling efficiency (ME), coefficient of residual mass (CRM) and mean bias error (MBE). Site-dependent daily Rs estimating models were calibrated and validated using long-term observed weather data. A general formula was then obtained from site geographical parameters and the better fit site-dependent models with mean RMSE% of 38.68%, mean MBE of 0.381 MJ m-2 d-1, mean CRM of 0.04 and mean ME value of 0.713.

  15. Daily and 3-hourly variability in global fire emissions and consequences for atmospheric model predictions of carbon monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, M.; Randerson, J. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Giglio, L.; Kasibhatla, P.; Morton, D.; Collatz, G. J.; Defries, R. S.; Hyer, E. J.; Prins, E. M.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Wunch, D.; Toon, G. C.; Sherlock, V.; Wennberg, P. O.

    2011-12-01

    Attribution of the causes of atmospheric trace gas and aerosol variability often requires the use of high resolution time series of anthropogenic and natural emissions inventories. Here we developed an approach for representing synoptic- and diurnal-scale temporal variability in fire emissions for the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3). We disaggregated monthly GFED3 emissions during 2003-2009 to a daily time step using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived measurements of active fires from Terra and Aqua satellites. In parallel, mean diurnal cycles were constructed from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) active fire observations. Daily variability in fires varied considerably across different biomes, with short but intense periods of daily emissions in boreal ecosystems and lower intensity (but more continuous) periods of burning in savannas. These patterns were consistent with earlier field and modeling work characterizing fire behavior dynamics in different ecosystems. On diurnal timescales, our analysis of the GOES WF_ABBA active fires indicated that fires in savannas, grasslands, and croplands occurred earlier in the day as compared to fires in nearby forests. Comparison with Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) column CO observations provided evidence that including daily variability in emissions moderately improved atmospheric model simulations, particularly during the fire season and near regions with high levels of biomass burning. The high temporal resolution estimates of fire emissions developed here may ultimately reduce uncertainties related to fire contributions to atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Important future directions include reconciling top-down and bottom up estimates of fire radiative power and integrating burned area and active fire time series from multiple satellite sensors to improve daily emissions estimates.

  16. Daily and Hourly Variability in Global Fire Emissions and Consequences for Atmospheric Model Predictions of Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mu, M.; Randerson, J. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Giglio, L.; Kasibhatla, P.; Morton, D.; Collatz, G. J.; DeFries, R. S.; Hyer, E. J.; Prins, E. M.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Wunch, D.; Toon, G. C.; Sherlock, V.; Wennberg, P. O.

    2011-01-01

    Attribution of the causes of atmospheric trace gas and aerosol variability often requires the use of high resolution time series of anthropogenic and natural emissions inventories. Here we developed an approach for representing synoptic- and diurnal-scale temporal variability in fire emissions for the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3). We distributed monthly GFED3 emissions during 2003-2009 on a daily time step using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived measurements of active fires from Terra and Aqua satellites. In parallel, mean diurnal cycles were constructed from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) active fire observations. We found that patterns of daily variability in fires varied considerably across different biomes, with short but intense periods of daily emissions in boreal ecosystems and lower intensity (but more continuous) periods of bunting in savannas. On diurnal timescales, our analysis of the GOES active fires indicated that fires in savannas, grasslands, and croplands occurred earlier in the day as compared to fires in nearby forests. Comparison with Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) column CO observations provided evidence that including daily variability in emissions moderately improved atmospheric model simulations, particularly during the fire season and near regions with high levels of biomass burning. The high temporal resolution estimates of fire emissions developed here may ultimately reduce uncertainties related to fire contributions to atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Important future directions include reconciling top-down and bottom up estimates of fire radiative power and integrating burned area and active fire time series from multiple satellite sensors to improve daily emissions estimates.

  17. Daily and 3-hourly Variability in Global Fire Emissions and Consequences for Atmospheric Model Predictions of Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mu, M.; Randerson, J. T.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Giglio, L.; Kasibhatla, P.; Morton, D.; Collatz, G. J.; DeFries, R. S.; Hyer, E. J.; Prins, E. M.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Wunch, D.; Toon, G. C.; Sherlock, V.; Wennberg, P. O.

    2011-01-01

    Attribution of the causes of atmospheric trace gas and aerosol variability often requires the use of high resolution time series of anthropogenic and natural emissions inventories. Here we developed an approach for representing synoptic- and diurnal-scale temporal variability in fire emissions for the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3). We disaggregated monthly GFED3 emissions during 2003.2009 to a daily time step using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ]derived measurements of active fires from Terra and Aqua satellites. In parallel, mean diurnal cycles were constructed from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) active fire observations. Daily variability in fires varied considerably across different biomes, with short but intense periods of daily emissions in boreal ecosystems and lower intensity (but more continuous) periods of burning in savannas. These patterns were consistent with earlier field and modeling work characterizing fire behavior dynamics in different ecosystems. On diurnal timescales, our analysis of the GOES WF_ABBA active fires indicated that fires in savannas, grasslands, and croplands occurred earlier in the day as compared to fires in nearby forests. Comparison with Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) column CO observations provided evidence that including daily variability in emissions moderately improved atmospheric model simulations, particularly during the fire season and near regions with high levels of biomass burning. The high temporal resolution estimates of fire emissions developed here may ultimately reduce uncertainties related to fire contributions to atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Important future directions include reconciling top ]down and bottom up estimates of fire radiative power and integrating burned area and active fire time series from multiple satellite sensors to improve daily emissions estimates.

  18. Global surface solar irradiance product derived from SCIAMACHY FRESCO cloud fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Stammes, Piet; Müller, Richard

    The FRESCO cloud retrieval algorithm has been developed as a simple but fast and efficient algorithm for GOME and SCIAMACHY (Koelemeijer et al., 2001; Fournier et al., 2006; Wang et al., 2008). FRESCO employs the O2 A band at 760 nm to retrieve the effective cloud fraction and cloud pressure using a simple Lambertian cloud model. The effective cloud fraction is a combination of geometric cloud fraction and cloud optical thickness, which yield the same reflectance at the top of the atmosphere as the cloud in the scene. It is well-known that clouds reduce the surface solar irradiance. Therefore the all-sky irradiance can be derived from the clear-sky irradiance with a scaling factor related to the cloud index. The cloud index is very similar to the effective cloud fraction by definition. The MAGIC (Mesoscale Atmospheric Global Irradiance Code) software converts the cloud index to the surface solar irradiance using the Heliosat method (Mueller et al. 2009). The MAGIC algorithm is also used by the CM-SAF surface solar irradiance product for clear sky cases. We applied the MAGIC software to FRESCO effective cloud fraction with slight modifications. In this presentation we will show the FRESCO-SSI monthly mean product and the comparison with the BSRN global irradiance data at Cabauw, the Netherlands and surface solar irradiance measurement at Tibetan plateau in China.

  19. Daily Time Step Refinement of Optimized Flood Control Rule Curves for a Global Warming Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Fitzgerald, C.; Hamlet, A. F.; Burges, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    Pacific Northwest temperatures have warmed by 0.8 °C since 1920 and are predicted to further increase in the 21st century. Simulated streamflow timing shifts associated with climate change have been found in past research to degrade water resources system performance in the Columbia River Basin when using existing system operating policies. To adapt to these hydrologic changes, optimized flood control operating rule curves were developed in a previous study using a hybrid optimization-simulation approach which rebalanced flood control and reservoir refill at a monthly time step. For the climate change scenario, use of the optimized flood control curves restored reservoir refill capability without increasing flood risk. Here we extend the earlier studies using a detailed daily time step simulation model applied over a somewhat smaller portion of the domain (encompassing Libby, Duncan, and Corra Linn dams, and Kootenai Lake) to evaluate and refine the optimized flood control curves derived from monthly time step analysis. Moving from a monthly to daily analysis, we found that the timing of flood control evacuation needed adjustment to avoid unintended outcomes affecting Kootenai Lake. We refined the flood rule curves derived from monthly analysis by creating a more gradual evacuation schedule, but kept the timing and magnitude of maximum evacuation the same as in the monthly analysis. After these refinements, the performance at monthly time scales reported in our previous study proved robust at daily time scales. Due to a decrease in July storage deficits, additional benefits such as more revenue from hydropower generation and more July and August outflow for fish augmentation were observed when the optimized flood control curves were used for the climate change scenario.

  20. 33 Years of Near-Global Daily Precipitation from Multisatellite Observations and its Application to Drought Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashouri, H.; Hsu, K.; Sorooshian, S.; Braithwaite, D.; Knapp, K. R.; Cecil, L. D.

    2013-12-01

    PERSIANN Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR) is a new retrospective satellite-based precipitation data set that is constructed for long-term hydrological and climate studies. The PERSIANN-CDR is a near-global (60°S-60°N) long-term (1980-2012), multi-satellite, high-resolution precipitation product that provides rain rate estimates at 0.25° and daily spatiotemporal resolution. PERSIANN-CDR is aimed at addressing the need for a consistent, long-term, high resolution precipitation data set for studying the spatial and temporal variations and changes of precipitation patterns, particularly in a scale relevant to climate extremes at the global scale. PERSIANN-CDR is generated from the PERSIANN algorithm using GridSat-B1 infrared data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). PERSIANN-CDR is adjusted using the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly precipitation to maintain consistency of two data sets at 2.5° monthly scale throughout the entire reconstruction period. PERSIANN-CDR daily precipitation data demonstrates considerable consistency with both GPCP monthly and GPCP 1DD precipitation products. Verification studies over Hurricane Katrina show that PERSIANN-CDR has a good agreement with NCEP Stage IV radar data, noting that PERSIANN-CDR has better spatial coverage. In addition, the Probability Density Function (PDF) of PERSIANN-CDR over the contiguous United States was compared with the PDFs extracted from CPC gauge data and the TMPA precipitation product. The experiment also shows good agreement of the PDF of PERSIANN-CDR with the PDFs of TMPA and CPC gauge data. The application of PERSIANN-CDR in regional and global drought monitoring is investigated. Consisting of more than three decades of high-resolution precipitation data, PERSIANN-CDR makes us capable of long-term assessment of droughts at a higher resolution (0.25°) than previously possible. The results will be presented at the meeting.

  1. Incorporating TRMM and Other High-Quality Estimates into the One-Degree Daily (1DD) Global Precipitation Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Bolvin, David T.

    1999-01-01

    The One-Degree Daily (1DD) precipitation dataset was recently developed for the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). The IDD provides a globally-complete, observation-only estimate of precipitation on a daily 1 deg x 1 deg grid for the period 1997 through late 1999 (by the time of the conference). In the latitude band 40 N - 40 S the IDD uses the Threshold-Matched Precipitation Index (TMPI), a GPI-like IR product with the T(sub b) threshold and (single) conditional rain rate determined locally for each month by the frequency of precipitation in the GPROF SSNU product and by the precipitation amount in the GPCP satellite-gauge (SG) combination. Outside 40 N - 40 S the 1DD uses a scaled TOVS precipitation estimate that has adjustments based on the TMPI and the SG. This first-generation 1DD has been in beta test preparatory to release as an official GPCP product. In this paper we discuss further development of the 1DD framework to allow the direct incorporation of TRMM and other high-quality precipitation estimates. First, these data are generally sparse (typically from low-orbit satellites), so a fair amount of work was devoted to data boundaries. Second, these data are not the same as the original 1DD estimates, so we had to give careful consideration to the best scheme for forcing the 1DD to sum to the SG for the month. Finally, the non-sun-synchronous, low-inclination orbit occupied by TRMM creates interesting variations against the sun-synchronous, high-inclination orbits occupied by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program satellites that carry the SSM/I. Examples will be given of each of the development issues, then comparisons will be made to daily raingauge analyses.

  2. Comparative analysis of CMIP3 and CMIP5 global climate models for simulating the daily mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures and daily precipitation over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiaohong; Miao, Chiyuan; Duan, Qingyun

    2015-05-01

    This study assesses the simulations of the daily mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures and daily precipitation over China during the period 1990-1999, based on phase 3 and phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3 and CMIP5). Fourteen CMIP3 models and 14 CMIP5 models were investigated over eight regions across China. Skill scores quantifying the match between the simulated and observed probability density functions (PDFs) were applied to evaluate the performance of the models. For daily mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures, the results revealed that CMIP3 and CMIP5 models captured the basic pattern of the observed PDFs in all regions. However, the probabilities at lower values were overestimated in most models. In all regions except the west of Northwest China (region 7), all CMIP5 models captured more than 80% of the observed PDFs. Compared with performance at the annual time scale, the models tended to perform relatively worse over the period June to August. The performances of the CMIP5 and CMIP3 models were not as good for daily precipitation as for daily temperature, and the skill scores for precipitation were generally lower than 0.7 in all regions. The amount of drizzle (daily precipitation < 5 mm) was overestimated notably in all regions. The amount of very heavy precipitation (daily precipitation ? 20 mm) tended to be underestimated in humid regions but overestimated in arid regions. Compared with CMIP3, CMIP5 models showed some improvements in the simulation of daily mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures, but there was a lack of apparent improvement for simulation of daily precipitation.

  3. Global surface mass time variations by using a two-step inversion for cumulating daily satellite gravity information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramillien, Guillaume; Frappart, Frappart; Seoane, Lucia

    2015-04-01

    We propose a new method to produce time series of global maps of surface mass variations by progressive integration of daily geopotential variations measured by orbiting satellites. In the case of the GRACE mission (2002 - 2012), these geopotential variations can be determined from very accurate inter-satellite K-Band Range Rate (KBRR) measurements of 5-second daily orbits. In particular, the along-track gravity contribution of hydrology is extracted by removing de-aliasing models for static field, atmosphere, oceans mass variations (including periodical tides), as well as polar movements. Our determination of surface mass sources consists of two successive dependent Kalman filter stages. The first one consists of reducing the satellite-based potential anomalies by adjusting the longest spatial wavelengths (i.e., low-degree spherical harmonics less than 5-6). In the second stage, the residual potential anomalies from the previous stage are used to recover surface mass density changes - in terms of Equivalent-Water Height (EWH) - over a global network of juxtaposed triangular elements. These surface tiles of ~40,000 km x km are imposed to be identical and homogeneously-distributed over the terrestrial sphere, however they can be adapted to the local geometry of the surface mass. Our global approach was tested by inverting simulated hydrology-related geopotential data, and successfully applied to estimate time-varying surface mass densities from real GRACE-based residuals. This strategy of combined Kalman filter-type inversions can also be useful for exploring the possibility of reaching better time and space resolutions for hydrology, that would be hopefully brought by future low altitude geodetic missions.

  4. Estimation of daily global solar radiation as a function of routine meteorological data in Mediterranean areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza, Francisco Javier; Yebra, María Lorenzo

    2015-06-01

    Solar radiation is the main responsible of many processes of the biophysical environment. Temperature changes, snow melt dynamics, carbon sequestration, evaporation from soils, plants, and open water bodies are explained by the amount of radiation received in a surface. Lack of direct observations and insufficient record length limit the ability to use global solar radiation information for resource use management and planning. Based on the general equation of Bristow and Campbell, we propose a modification that allows us to better represent atmospheric transmissivity as a function of routine meteorological variables and improve estimates of global solar radiation in Mediterranean and semi arid areas. The improved Bristow-Campbell model (IBC) is easy to use in any location where measurements of temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity are available, and present a simple solution that can be used as proxy for relative humidity in case that variable is not been measured.

  5. Retrieval and validation of global, direct, and diffuse irradiance derived from SEVIRI satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greuell, W.; Meirink, J. F.; Wang, P.

    2013-03-01

    AbstractThis paper discusses Surface Insolation under Clear and Cloudy skies derived from SEVIRI imagery (SICCS), a physics-based, empirically adjusted algorithm developed for estimation of surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> from satellite data. Its most important input are a cloud mask product and cloud properties derived from Meteosat/Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) observations. These observations set the characteristics of the output, namely, a temporal resolution of 15 min, a nadir spatial resolution of 3 × 3 km2, the period from January 2004 until at least November 2012, and the domain equal to most of the Meteosat disc. SICCS computes <span class="hlt">global</span>, direct, and diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> separately. Direct <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> for cloudy skies is estimated with an empirical method. Hourly means retrieved with SICCS were validated with data from eight Baseline Surface Radiation Network stations for the year 2006. We found median values of the station biases of +6 W/m2 (+5%) for direct <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, +1 W/m2 (+1%) for diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, and +7 W/m2 (+2%) for <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. Replacing the three-hourly aerosol optical thickness input by monthly means introduces considerable additional biases in the clear-sky direct (-6%) and diffuse (+26%) <span class="hlt">irradiances</span>. The performance of SICCS does not degrade when snow covers the surface. Biases do not vary with cloud optical thickness and cloud particle radius. However, the bias in <span class="hlt">global</span> transmissivity tends to decrease with increasing cloud heterogeneity, and the bias in direct transmissivity is a function of the solar zenith angle. We discuss why satellite retrieval of surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> is relatively successful.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010045819&hterms=monsoons&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dmonsoons','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010045819&hterms=monsoons&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dmonsoons"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation Study of Effects of Solar <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> and Sea Surface Temperature on Monsoons and <span class="hlt">Global</span> Circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sud, Y. C.; Walker, G. K.; Mehta, V.; Lau, W. K.-M.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>A recent version of the GEOS 2 GCM was used to isolate the roles of the annual cycles of solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> and/or sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) on the simulated circulation and rainfall. Four 4-year long integrations were generated with the GCM. The first integration, called Control Case, used <span class="hlt">daily</span>-interpolated SSTs from a 30 year monthly SST climatology that was obtained from the analyzed SST-data, while the solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> at the top of the atmosphere was calculated normally at hourly intervals. The next two cases prescribed the SSTs or the incoming solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at the top of the atmosphere at their annual mean values, respectively while everything else was kept the same as in the Control Case. In this way the influence of the annual cycles of both external forcings was isolated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EP%26S...67...80C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EP%26S...67...80C"><span id="translatedtitle">Discrepant responses of the <span class="hlt">global</span> electron content to the solar cycle and solar rotation variations of EUV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Yiding; Liu, Libo; Le, Huijun; Zhang, Hui</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In this paper, the responses of the ionosphere to the solar cycle and solar rotation variations of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> are comparatively investigated using <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">global</span> electron content (GEC) and 0.1-50 nm EUV <span class="hlt">daily</span> flux. GEC is well correlated with EUV on both the solar cycle and solar rotation timescales; however, the responses of GEC to the solar cycle and solar rotation variations of EUV are significantly different in terms of the following two aspects: (1) There is a significant time lag between the solar rotation variations of GEC and EUV; the lag is dominated by a 1-day lag and generally presents a decrease trend with solar activity decreasing. For the solar cycle variations of GEC and EUV, however, there are no evident time lags. (2) The GEC versus EUV slopes are different for the solar cycle and solar rotation variations of GEC and EUV; the solar cycle GEC versus EUV slope is higher than the solar rotation GEC versus EUV slope, and this difference occurs in different seasons and latitudinal bands. The results present an aspect of the difference between ionospheric climatology and weather.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JHyd..480...46S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JHyd..480...46S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> cross-station assessment of neuro-fuzzy models for estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> reference evapotranspiration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shiri, Jalal; Nazemi, Amir Hossein; Sadraddini, Ali Ashraf; Landeras, Gorka; Kisi, Ozgur; Fard, Ahmad Fakheri; Marti, Pau</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>SummaryAccurate estimation of reference evapotranspiration is important for irrigation scheduling, water resources management and planning and other agricultural water management issues. In the present paper, the capabilities of generalized neuro-fuzzy models were evaluated for estimating reference evapotranspiration using two separate sets of weather data from humid and non-humid regions of Spain and Iran. In this way, the data from some weather stations in the Basque Country and Valencia region (Spain) were used for training the neuro-fuzzy models [in humid and non-humid regions, respectively] and subsequently, the data from these regions were pooled to evaluate the generalization capability of a general neuro-fuzzy model in humid and non-humid regions. The developed models were tested in stations of Iran, located in humid and non-humid regions. The obtained results showed the capabilities of generalized neuro-fuzzy model in estimating reference evapotranspiration in different climatic zones. <span class="hlt">Global</span> GNF models calibrated using both non-humid and humid data were found to successfully estimate ET0 in both non-humid and humid regions of Iran (the lowest MAE values are about 0.23 mm for non-humid Iranian regions and 0.12 mm for humid regions). non-humid GNF models calibrated using non-humid data performed much better than the humid GNF models calibrated using humid data in non-humid region while the humid GNF model gave better estimates in humid region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26392078','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26392078"><span id="translatedtitle">The Circadian Clock Modulates <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Cycles of mRNA Ribosome Loading.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Missra, Anamika; Ernest, Ben; Lohoff, Tim; Jia, Qidong; Satterlee, James; Ke, Kenneth; von Arnim, Albrecht G</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Circadian control of gene expression is well characterized at the transcriptional level, but little is known about diel or circadian control of translation. Genome-wide translation state profiling of mRNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings grown in long day was performed to estimate ribosome loading per mRNA. The experiments revealed extensive translational regulation of key biological processes. Notably, translation of mRNAs for ribosomal proteins and mitochondrial respiration peaked at night. Central clock mRNAs are among those subject to fluctuations in ribosome loading. There was no consistent phase relationship between peak translation states and peak transcript levels. The overlay of distinct transcriptional and translational cycles can be expected to alter the waveform of the protein synthesis rate. Plants that constitutively overexpress the clock gene CCA1 showed phase shifts in peak translation, with a 6-h delay from midnight to dawn or from noon to evening being particularly common. Moreover, cycles of ribosome loading that were detected under continuous light in the wild type collapsed in the CCA1 overexpressor. Finally, at the transcript level, the CCA1-ox strain adopted a <span class="hlt">global</span> pattern of transcript abundance that was broadly correlated with the light-dark environment. Altogether, these data demonstrate that gene-specific diel cycles of ribosome loading are controlled in part by the circadian clock. PMID:26392078</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920069854&hterms=1067&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231067','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920069854&hterms=1067&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231067"><span id="translatedtitle">A technique for <span class="hlt">global</span> monitoring of net solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at the ocean surface. II - Validation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chertock, Beth; Frouin, Robert; Gautier, Catherine</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The generation and validation of the first satellite-based long-term record of surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> over the <span class="hlt">global</span> oceans are addressed. The record is generated using Nimbus-7 earth radiation budget (ERB) wide-field-of-view plentary-albedo data as input to a numerical algorithm designed and implemented based on radiative transfer theory. The mean monthly values of net surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> are computed on a 9-deg latitude-longitude spatial grid for November 1978-October 1985. The new data set is validated in comparisons with short-term, regional, high-resolution, satellite-based records. The ERB-based values of net surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> are compared with corresponding values based on radiance measurements taken by the Visible-Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer aboard GOES series satellites. Errors in the new data set are estimated to lie between 10 and 20 W/sq m on monthly time scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HESSD..1211549E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HESSD..1211549E"><span id="translatedtitle">Combining satellite observations to develop a <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> soil moisture product for a wide range of applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Enenkel, M.; Reimer, C.; Dorigo, W.; Wagner, W.; Pfeil, I.; Parinussa, R.; De Jeu, R.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The soil moisture dataset that is generated via the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) of the European Space Agency (ESA) (ESA CCI SM) is a popular research product. It is composed of observations from nine different satellites and aims to exploit the individual strengths of active (radar) and passive (radiometer) sensors, thereby providing surface soil moisture estimates at a spatial resolution of 0.25°. However, the annual updating cycle limits the use of the ESA CCI SM dataset for operational applications. Therefore, this study proposes an adaptation of the ESA CCI processing chain for <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> updates via satellite-derived near real-time (NRT) soil moisture observations. In order to extend the ESA CCI SM dataset from 1978 to present we use NRT observations from the Advanced SCATterometer on-board the MetOp satellites and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 on-board GCOM-W. Since these NRT observations do not incorporate the latest algorithmic updates, parameter databases, and intercalibration efforts, by nature they offer a lower quality than reprocessed offline datasets. Our findings indicate that, despite issues in arid regions, the new "CCI NRT" dataset shows a good correlation with ESA CCI SM. The average <span class="hlt">global</span> correlation coefficient between CCI NRT and ESA CCI SM (Pearson's R) is 0.8. An initial validation with 40 in-situ observations in France, Kenya, Senegal and Kenya yields an average R of 0.58 and 0.49 for ESA CCI SM and CCI NRT respectively. In summary, the CCI NRT dataset is getting ready for operational use, supporting applications such as drought and flood monitoring, weather forecasting or agricultural applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5005147','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5005147"><span id="translatedtitle">Splenic <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> in the treatment of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia or myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia. Results of <span class="hlt">daily</span> and intermittent fractionation with and without concomitant hydroxyurea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wagner, H. Jr.; McKeough, P.G.; Desforges, J.; Madoc-Jones, H.</p> <p>1986-09-15</p> <p>Seventeen patients with either chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) or myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MMM) received 24 courses of splenic <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> at this institution from 1973 to 1982. Eleven of the 17 patients had received prior chemotherapy. Patients were treated with /sup 60/Co gamma rays or 6 MV photons. The fraction size ranged from 15 to 100 rad and the total dose per treatment course from 15 to 650 rad, with the exception of one patient who received 1650 rad. Fourteen of 19 courses (71%) given for splenic pain yielded significant subjective relief while 17 of 26 courses given for splenomegaly obtained at least 50% regression of splenic size. Blood counts were carefully monitored before each treatment to limit hematologic toxicity. From this experience, the authors conclude that splenic <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> effectively palliates splenic pain and reverses splenomegaly in the majority of patients with CML and MMM. Intermittent fractionation (twice or thrice weekly) is more convenient for the patient, appears to be as effective as <span class="hlt">daily</span> treatment, and may be associated with less hematologic toxicity. Preliminary results of concurrent treatment with splenic <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> and oral hydroxyurea show promise and warrant further study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25438991','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25438991"><span id="translatedtitle">Time-course study of different innate immune mediators produced by UV-<span class="hlt">irradiated</span> skin: comparative effects of short and <span class="hlt">daily</span> versus a single harmful UV exposure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cela, Eliana M; Friedrich, Adrian; Paz, Mariela L; Vanzulli, Silvia I; Leoni, Juliana; González Maglio, Daniel H</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The modulatory effects of solar UV radiation on the immune system have been widely studied. As the skin is the main target of UV radiation, our purpose was to compare the impact on skin innate immunity of two contrasting ways to be exposed to sunlight. Hairless mice were UV <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> with a single high UV dose simulating a harmful exposure, or with repetitive low UV doses simulating short occasional <span class="hlt">daily</span> exposures. Skin samples were taken at different times after UV <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> to evaluate skin histology, inflammatory cell recruitment, epidermal T-cell population and the mitochondrial function of epidermal cells. The transcriptional profiles of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, antimicrobial peptides and Toll-like receptors were evaluated by RT-PCR and ELISA in tissue homogenates. Finally, a lymphangiography was performed to assess modification in the lymphatic vessel system. A single high UV dose produces a deep inflammatory state characterized by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that, in turn, induces the recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages into the <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> area. On the other hand, repetitive low UV doses drive the skin to a photo-induced alert state in which there is no sign of inflammation, but the epithelium undergoes changes in thickness, the lymphatic circulation increases, and the transcription of antimicrobial peptides is induced. PMID:25438991</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7931K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7931K"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation extremes in a <span class="hlt">global</span> climate model with super-parameterization under CO2 warming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khairoutdinov, Marat; Zhou, Xin</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Virtually all of the projections for future change of extreme precipitation statistics under CO2 warming have been made using <span class="hlt">global</span> climate models (GCMs) in which clouds and, in particular, convective cloud systems are not explicitly resolved, but rather parameterized. In our study, a different kind of a GCM, a super-parameterized Community Atmosphere Model (SP-CAM), is employed. In SP-CAM, all the conventional cloud parameterizations are replaced with a small-domain cloud resolving model (CRM), called super-parameterization (SP). The SP is embedded in each grid column of the host GCM. The resolution of each embedded CRM is 4 km, which is generally sufficient to explicitly represent deep convection, which is mostly responsible for extreme precipitation events. In this study, we use the SP-CAM to contrast to the present and to conventional climate model, CAM, the sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> extreme precipitation statistics in response to the sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) and CO2 levels as projected for the end of 21st century in response to the IPCC AR5 RCP8.5 emission scenario. Different mechanisms for extreme precipitation changes are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JASTP.134..109S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JASTP.134..109S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation prediction from air temperatures using kernel extreme learning machine: A case study for Iran</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Mohammadi, Kasra; Chen, Hui-Ling; Narayana Samy, Ganthan; Petkovi?, Dalibor; Ma, Chao</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Lately, the kernel extreme learning machine (KELM) has gained considerable importance in the scientific area due to its great efficiency, easy implementation and fast training speed. In this paper, for the first time the potential of KELM to predict the <span class="hlt">daily</span> horizontal <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation from the maximum and minimum air temperatures (Tmax and Tmin) is appraised. The effectiveness of the proposed KELM method is evaluated against the grid search based support vector regression (SVR), as a robust methodology. Three KELM and SVR models are developed using different input attributes including: (1) Tmin and Tmax, (2) Tmin and Tmax-Tmin, and (3) Tmax and Tmax-Tmin. The achieved results reveal that the best predictions precision is achieved by models (3). The achieved results demonstrate that KELM offers favorable predictions and outperforms the SVR. For the KELM (3) model, the obtained statistical parameters of mean absolute bias error, root mean square error, relative root mean square error and correlation coefficient are 1.3445 MJ/m2, 2.0164 MJ/m2, 11.2464% and 0.9057%, respectively for the testing data. As further examination, a month-by-month evaluation is conducted and found that in six months from May to October the KELM (3) model provides further accuracy than overall accuracy. Based upon the relative root mean square error, the KELM (3) model shows excellent capability in the period of April to October while in the remaining months represents good performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdSR...12..147B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdSR...12..147B"><span id="translatedtitle">UV and <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements and analysis during the Marsaxlokk (Malta) campaign</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bilbao, J.; Román, R.; Yousif, C.; Mateos, D.; de Miguel, A.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>A solar radiation measurement campaign was performed in the south-eastern village of Marsaxlokk (35°50' N; 14°33' E; 10 m a.s.l), Malta, between 15 May and 15 October 2012. Erythemal solar radiation data (from a UVB-1 pyranometer), and total horizontal solar radiation (<span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse components) from two CM21 pyranometer were recorded. A comparison of atmospheric compounds from ground measurements and satellites shows that TOC (total ozone column) data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument OMI, TOMS and DOAS algorithms correlate well with ground-based recorded data. The water vapour column and the aerosol optical depth at 550 nm show a significant correlation at the confidence level of 99 %. Parametric models for evaluating the solar UV erythemal (UVER), <span class="hlt">global</span> (G) and diffuse (D) horizontal <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> are calibrated, from which aerosol effects on solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> are evaluated using the Aerosol Modification Factor (AMF). The AMFUVER values are lower than AMFG, indicating a greater aerosol effect on UVER than on <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. In this campaign, several dust event trajectories are identified by means of the HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model and by synoptic conditions for characterizing desert dust events. Hence, changes in the UV index due to atmospheric aerosols are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.2254S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.2254S"><span id="translatedtitle">Error analysis of <span class="hlt">global</span> satellite precipitation products using <span class="hlt">daily</span> gauged observations over the upper central Blue Nile Basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sahlu, Dejene; Moges, Semu; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Hailu, Dereje</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Water resource assessment, planning and management in Africa are often constrained due to lack of reliable spatio-temporal rainfall data. Satellite and <span class="hlt">global</span> reanalysis products are steadily growing and offering useful alternative datasets of rainfall <span class="hlt">globally</span>. Aim of this paper is to examine the error characteristics of the main available <span class="hlt">global</span> satellite precipitation products with the view to improve the reliability of wet season (June to September) rainfall datasets over the upper Blue Nile Basin in Ethiopia. The study utilized six satellite derived precipitation datasets at 0.25-deg spatial grid size and <span class="hlt">daily</span> temporal resolution:1) the near real-time (3B42_RT) and gauge adjusted (3B42_V7) products of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), 2) gauge adjusted and unadjusted Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN) products and 3) the gauge adjusted and un-adjusted product of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Prediction Center Morphing technique (CMORPH) over the period of 2000 to 2013. The historical <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall data sets are chosen for the same period from 64 gauging stations which are within a mountainous area of about 45,000 km2. The elevation of gauges used in this error study ranged from 1800 to 3000 meters above sea level. The error analysis utilized statistical techniques of missed rainfall volume fraction (MRV), falsely detected rainfall volume fraction (FRV), mean relative error (MRE), bias ratio (Bias), coefficient of variation of error (CVE) and the trends of the error metrics with respect to elevation. The three error metrics, MRE, Bias and CVE are further examined for five rainfall thresholds associated with different percentile categories (2nd, 20th, 50th, 80th and 98th) . Results show that CMORPH has relatively lower MRV (~1.5 %) than the TRMM and PERSIANN products (10 -13 %.). Non-gauge adjusted PERSIANN gave slightly higher percentage of FRV (13%) than the other satellite rainfall products (10 to 11 %). Among the six satellite rainfall products only adjusted PERSIANN overestimated gauge precipitation whereas, adjusted CMORPH exhibited relatively better estimation bias (0.92) followed by 3B42_V7 (0.85), 3B42_RT (0.78), non-adjusted CMORPH (0.77) and adjusted-PERSIANN (0.76). Bias showed increase underestimation with increase in rainfall threshold for all rainfall products. The results from coefficient of variation of error statistics also showed higher spreads of error for adjusted PERSIANN (CVE=2.2). The other five products gave CVE between1.25 and 1.39 whereas, the non-adjusted CMORPH gave the lowest error spread (CVE=1.25). The spread of the errors is negative correlated to rainfall magnitude. Generally, no significant relationship is observed between gauge rainfall elevation and the error metrics. We have observed that among the six satellite rainfall products the adjusted CMORPH has relatively better potential to improve rainfall estimate over the region. However, for higher rainfall amounts, particularly above the 50th percentile threshold non-adjusted PERSIANN performed better than the others.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22450998','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22450998"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> effects, stem cell genes and rare transcripts in the planarian transcriptome.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Galloni, Mireille</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Stem cells are the closest relatives of the totipotent primordial cell, which is able to spawn millions of daughter cells and hundreds of cell types in multicellular organisms. Stem cells are involved in tissue homeostasis and regeneration, and may play a major role in cancer development. Among animals, planarians host a model stem cell type, called the neoblast, which essentially confers immortality. Gaining insights into the <span class="hlt">global</span> transcriptional landscape of these exceptional cells takes an unprecedented turn with the advent of Next Generation Sequencing methods. Two Digital Gene Expression transcriptomes of Schmidtea mediterranea planarians, with or without neoblasts lost through <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>, were produced and analyzed. Twenty one bp NlaIII tags were mapped to transcripts in the Schmidtea and Dugesia taxids. Differential representation of tags in normal versus <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> animals reflects differential gene expression. Canonical and non-canonical tags were included in the analysis, and comparative studies with human orthologs were conducted. Transcripts fell into 3 categories: invariant (including housekeeping genes), absent in <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> animals (potential neoblast-specific genes, IRDOWN) and induced in <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> animals (potential cellular stress response, IRUP). Different mRNA variants and gene family members were recovered. In the IR-DOWN class, almost all of the neoblast-specific genes previously described were found. In <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> animals, a larger number of genes were induced rather than lost. A significant fraction of IRUP genes behaved as if transcript versions of different lengths were produced. Several novel potential neoblast-specific genes have been identified that varied in relative abundance, including highly conserved as well as novel proteins without predicted orthologs. Evidence for a large body of antisense transcripts, for example regulated antisense for the Smed-piwil1 gene, and evidence for RNA shortening in <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> animals is presented. Novel neoblast-specific candidates include a peroxiredoxin protein that appears to be preferentially expressed in human embryonic stem cells. PMID:22450998</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010081063','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010081063"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative Assessment of the Integrated Response in <span class="hlt">Global</span> Heat and Moisture Budgets to Changing Solar <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>White, Warren B.; Cayan, Daniel R.; Dettinger, Michael; Sharber, James (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Earlier, we found time sequences of basin- and <span class="hlt">global</span>-average upper ocean temperature (that is, diabatic heat storage above the main pycnocline) for 40 years from 1955-1994 and of sea surface temperature for 95 years from 1900-1994 associated with changes in the Sun's radiative forcing on decadal and interdecadal timescales, lagging by 10 deg.- 30 deg. of phase and confined to the upper 60-120 m. Yet, the observed changes in upper ocean temperature (approx. 0.1 K) were approximately twice those expected from the Stefan-Boltzmann black-body radiation law for the Earth's surface, with phase lags (0 deg. to 30 deg. of phase) much shorter than the 90 deg. phase shift expected as well. Moreover, White et al. (1997, 1998) found the Earth's <span class="hlt">global</span> decadal mode in covarying SST and SLP anomalies phase locked to the decadal signal in the Sun's <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. Yet, Allan (2000) found this decadal signal also characterized by patterns similar to those observed on biennial and interannual time scales; that is, the Troposphere Biennial Oscillation (TBO) and the El Nino and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This suggested that small changes in the Sun's total <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> could excite this <span class="hlt">global</span> decadal mode in the Earth's ocean-atmosphere-terrestrial system similar to those excited internally on biennial and interannual period scales. This is a significant finding, proving that energy budget models (that is, models based on <span class="hlt">globally</span>-averaged radiation balances) yield unrealistic responses. Thus, the true response must include positive and negative feedbacks in the Earth's ocean-atmosphere-terrestrial system as its internal mode (that is, the natural mode of the system) respond in damped resonance to quasi-periodic decadal changes in the Sun's <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. Moreover, these responses are not much different from those occurring internally on biennial and interannual period scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5513457','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5513457"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar total <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variations and the <span class="hlt">global</span> sea surface temperature record</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reid, G.C. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder )</p> <p>1991-02-20</p> <p>The record of <span class="hlt">globally</span> averaged sea surface temperature (SST) over the past 130 years shows a highly significant correlation with the envelope of the 11-year cycle of solar activity over the same period. This correlation could be explained by a variation in the sun's total <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (the solar constant) that is in phase with the solar-cycle envelope, supporting and updating an earlier conclusion by Eddy (1976) that such variations could have played a major role in climate change over the past millennium. Measurements of the total <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> from spacecraft, rockets, and balloons over the past 25 years have provided evidence of long-term variations and have been used to develop a simple linear relationship between <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and the envelope of the sunspot cycle. This relationship has been used to force a one-dimensional model of the thermal structure of the ocean, consisting of a 100-m mixed layer coupled to a deep ocean and including a thermohaline circulation. The model was started in the mid-seventeenth century, at the time of the Maunder Minimum of solar activity, and mixed-layer temperatures were calculated at 6-month intervals up to the present. The total range of <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> values during the period was about 1%, and the total range of SST was about 1C. Cool periods, when temperatures were about 0.5C below present-day values, were found in the early decades of both the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The results can be taken as indicating that solar variability has been an important contributor to <span class="hlt">global</span> climate variations in recent decades. The growing atmospheric burden of greenhouse gases may well have played an important role in the immediate past.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A11H0188E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A11H0188E"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal and geographical variation of Linke turbidity factor and its effect on <span class="hlt">global</span> horizontal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> estimation: UAE case study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eissa, Y. A.; Ghedira, H.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>In a clear-sky condition, solar radiation travelling through the Earth's atmosphere encounters atmospheric attenuation caused by several factors. Scattering of solar radiation is mainly caused by air molecules, water vapor, water droplets and dust. On the other hand, the absorption of solar radiation is usually related to the presence of O3, water vapor and CO2 layers in the upper atmosphere. Linke turbidity factor (TL) is commonly used to model the attenuation of solar radiation in the atmosphere. TL is the key parameter used in the Heliosat model, which is developed to estimate the <span class="hlt">global</span> horizontal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (GHI) at the surface of the earth. TL is calculated by the following equation: T_L=?/?_R where ? is the optical thickness of the whole atmosphere, and ?R is the optical thickness of the Rayleigh atmosphere, i.e. the clear and dry atmosphere. The problem with TL is its dependence on the air mass (m). Therefore, TL is normalized to an air mass of 2 in order to reduce the <span class="hlt">daily</span> variance. In this study, the monthly TL(m=2) is computed over 7 ground-based stations available in the UAE (figure 1). Spatial and temporal analysis was performed to assess the seasonal and the geographical distribution of TL over the UAE. The computed TL(m=2) values are then applied in the Heliosat model to compare between the measured and modeled GHI values. The model treats the atmospheric and cloud transmittances separately. First, clear-sky direct normal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (DNI) and diffused horizontal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (DHI) values are computed using TL(m=2), solar zenith angle, air mass, sun-earth distance correction, solar constant and the Rayleigh optical depth, from that the clear-sky GHI is determined. Next, the cloud index is derived from the HRV channel available from the SEVIRI instrument, and from that the cloud transmission is computed. The product of the cloud transmission and the clear-sky GHI produces the modeled GHI. The comparison between TL calculated over the seven stations show higher turbidity for the 4 inland stations (stations 4-7) in the summer compared to coastal and near-coastal stations (stations 1-3). This difference could be explained by the high dust generation in desert areas surrounding inland stations, in summer dry and hot weather. A preliminary comparison has been performed between the modeled and the measured GHI values over four inland stations (stations 4-7). The obtained results show RMSE and r2 values ranging between 16.7-18% and 0.95-0.96, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711143B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711143B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> and diffuse solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> modelling over north-western Europe using MAR regional climate model : validation and construction of a 30-year climatology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beaumet, Julien; Doutreloup, Sébastien; Fettweis, Xavier; Erpicum, Michel</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> modelling is crucial for solar resource management, photovoltaic production forecasting and for a better integration of solar energy in the electrical grid network. For those reasons, an adapted version of the Modèle Atmospheric Regional (MAR) is being developed at the Laboratory of Climatology of the University of Liège in order to provide high quality modelling of solar radiation, wind and temperature over north-western Europe. In this new model version, the radiation scheme has been calibrated using solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> in-situ measurements and CORINE Land Cover data have been assimilated in order to improve the modelling of 10 m wind speed and near-surface temperature. In this study, MAR is forced at its boundary by ERA-40 reanalysis and its horizontal resolution is 10 kilometres. Diffuse radiation is estimated using <span class="hlt">global</span> radiation from MAR outputs and a calibrated version of Ruiz-Arias et al., (2010) sigmoid model. This study proposes to evaluate the method performance for <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse radiation modelling at both the hourly and <span class="hlt">daily</span> time scale using data from the European Solar Radiation Atlas database for the weather stations of Uccle (Belgium) and Braunschweig (Germany). After that, a 30-year climatology of <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> for the 1981-2010 period over western Europe is built. The created data set is then analysed in order to highlight possible regional or seasonal trends. The validity of the results is then evaluated after comparison with trends found in in-situ data or from different studies from the literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3113959','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3113959"><span id="translatedtitle">Image guidance using 3D-ultrasound (3D-US) for <span class="hlt">daily</span> positioning of lumpectomy cavity for boost <span class="hlt">irradiation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Purpose The goal of this study was to evaluate the use of 3D ultrasound (3DUS) breast IGRT for electron and photon lumpectomy site boost treatments. Materials and methods 20 patients with a prescribed photon or electron boost were enrolled in this study. 3DUS images were acquired both at time of simulation, to form a coregistered CT/3DUS dataset, and at the time of <span class="hlt">daily</span> treatment delivery. Intrafractional motion between treatment and simulation 3DUS datasets were calculated to determine IGRT shifts. Photon shifts were evaluated isocentrically, while electron shifts were evaluated in the beam's-eye-view. Volume differences between simulation and first boost fraction were calculated. Further, to control for the effect of change in seroma/cavity volume due to time lapse between the 2 sets of images, interfraction IGRT shifts using the first boost fraction as reference for all subsequent treatment fractions were also calculated. Results For photon boosts, IGRT shifts were 1.1 ± 0.5 cm and 50% of fractions required a shift >1.0 cm. Volume change between simulation and boost was 49 ± 31%. Shifts when using the first boost fraction as reference were 0.8 ± 0.4 cm and 24% required a shift >1.0 cm. For electron boosts, shifts were 1.0 ± 0.5 cm and 52% fell outside the dosimetric penumbra. Interfraction analysis relative to the first fraction noted the shifts to be 0.8 ± 0.4 cm and 36% fell outside the penumbra. Conclusion The lumpectomy cavity can shift significantly during fractionated radiation therapy. 3DUS can be used to image the cavity and correct for interfractional motion. Further studies to better define the protocol for clinical application of IGRT in breast cancer is needed. PMID:21554697</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JASTP..71..246K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JASTP..71..246K"><span id="translatedtitle">The diffuse-to-<span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse-to-direct-beam spectral <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> ratios as turbidity indexes in an urban environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kaskaoutis, Dimitris G.; Kambezidis, Harry D.</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>Continuous measurements of solar spectral radiation using the Multi-filter Rotating Shadow Band Radiometer (MFRSR) are performed at the Actinometric Station of the National Observatory of Athens (ASNOA). The present study utilizes three clear-sky days of continuous observations, from local sunrise to local sunset, in order to investigate the <span class="hlt">daily</span> variation of the radiation components (diffuse, <span class="hlt">global</span> and direct-beam) as well as their ratios (diffuse-to-<span class="hlt">global</span>, DGR, and diffuse-to-direct-beam, DDR) under different atmospheric conditions. Both ratios have received great scientific interest, especially for investigating solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> modifications under various atmospheric conditions, aerosol load and optical properties. Apart from this, the present study shows that the DDR can constitute a measure of atmospheric turbidity when it is determined at longer wavelengths, while the DGR cannot. The effect of the solar zenith angle (SZA) on both ratios is significant at the shorter wavelengths with varying sensitivities depending on the aerosol field and sun elevation. The present study confirms the results obtained by previous solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements in Athens and also those computed via radiative transfer codes and sheds light on the scientific knowledge of the use of spectral DDR as an atmospheric turbidity index.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=215288','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=215288"><span id="translatedtitle">Measures of <span class="hlt">daily</span> distribution patterns of cow calf pairs using <span class="hlt">global</span> positioning systems on both cows and calves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>GPS collars were used to describe the <span class="hlt">daily</span> distribution patterns of cows and their calves from 18 to 60 days postpartum on pinyon juniper-shortgrass rangeland in central New Mexico. Eighteen, 3 year old cows and their calves were fitted weekly with GPS collars for seven consecutive weeks. Twenty da...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..99..508B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..99..508B"><span id="translatedtitle">Total ozone column, water vapour and aerosol effects on erythemal and <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> in Marsaxlokk, Malta</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bilbao, Julia; Román, Roberto; Yousif, Charles; Mateos, David; de Miguel, Argimiro</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Observations of erythemal (UVER; 280-400 nm) and total solar shortwave <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (SW; 305-2800 nm), total ozone column (TOC), water vapour column (w), aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent (?) were carried out at Marsaxlokk, in south-east Malta. These measurements were recorded during a measurement campaign between May and October 2012, aimed at studying the influence of atmospheric compounds on solar radiation transfer through the atmosphere. The effects of TOC, AOD and w on UVER and SW (<span class="hlt">global</span>, diffuse and direct) <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> were quantified using <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> values under cloud-free conditions at different fixed solar zenith angles (SZA). Results show that UVER (but not SW) <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> correlates well with TOC. UVER variations ranged between -0.24% DU-1 and -0.32% DU-1 with all changes being statistically significant. <span class="hlt">Global</span> SW <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> varies with water vapour column between -2.44% cm-1 and -4.53% cm-1, these results proving statistically significant and diminishing when SZA increases. The <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variations range between 42.15% cm-1 and 20.30% cm-1 for diffuse SW when SZA varies between 20° and 70°. The effect of aerosols on <span class="hlt">global</span> UVER is stronger than on <span class="hlt">global</span> SW. Aerosols cause a UVER reduction of between 28.12% and 52.41% and a <span class="hlt">global</span> SW reduction between 13.46% and 41.41% per AOD550 unit. Empirical results show that solar position plays a determinant role, that there is a negligible effect of ozone on SW radiation, and stronger attenuation by aerosol particles in UVER radiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.B33A0386I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.B33A0386I"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation in Vietnamese Mekong Delta area: A combinational application of statistical downscaling method and Bayesian inference</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Iizumi, T.; Nishimori, M.; Yokozawa, M.; Kotera, A.; Khang, N. D.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Long-term <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation (GSR) data of the same quality in the 20th century has been needed as a baseline to assess the climate change impact on paddy rice production in Vietnamese Mekong Delta area (MKD: 104.5-107.5oE/8.2-11.2oN). However, though sunshine duration data is available, the accessibility of GSR data is quite poor in MKD. This study estimated the <span class="hlt">daily</span> GSR in MKD for 30-yr (1978- 2007) by applying the statistical downscaling method (SDM). The estimates of GSR was obtained from four different sources: (1) the combined equations with the corrected reanalysis data of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum/minimum temperatures, relative humidity, sea level pressure, and precipitable water; (2) the correction equation with the reanalysis data of downward shortwave radiation; (3) the empirical equation with the observed sunshine duration; and (4) the observation at one site for short term. Three reanalysis data, i.e., NCEP-R1, ERA-40, and JRA-25, were used. Also the observed meteorological data, which includes many missing data, were obtained from 11 stations of the Vietnamese Meteorological Agency for 28-yr and five stations of the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Summary of the Day for 30-yr. The observed GSR data for 1-yr was obtained from our station. Considering the use of data with many missing data for analysis, the Bayesian inference was used for this study, which has the powerful capability to optimize multiple parameters in a non-linear and hierarchical model. The Bayesian inference provided the posterior distributions of 306 parameter values relating to the combined equations, the empirical equation, and the correction equation. The preliminary result shows that the amplitude of <span class="hlt">daily</span> fluctuation of modeled GSR was underestimated by the empirical equation and the correction equation. The combination of SDM and Bayesian inference has a potential to estimate the long- term <span class="hlt">daily</span> GSR of the same quality even though in the area where the observed data is quite limited.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22149558','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22149558"><span id="translatedtitle">External Beam Accelerated Partial-Breast <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> Using 32 Gy in 8 Twice-<span class="hlt">Daily</span> Fractions: 5-Year Results of a Prospective Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pashtan, Itai M.; Recht, Abram; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Brachtel, Elena; Abi-Raad, Rita F.; D'Alessandro, Helen A.; Levy, Antonin; Wo, Jennifer Y.; Hirsch, Ariel E.; Kachnic, Lisa A.; Goldberg, Saveli; Specht, Michelle; Gadd, Michelle; Smith, Barbara L.; Powell, Simon N.; Taghian, Alphonse G.</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Purpose: External beam accelerated partial breast <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> (APBI) is an increasingly popular technique for treatment of patients with early stage breast cancer following breast-conserving surgery. Here we present 5-year results of a prospective trial. Methods and Materials: From October 2003 through November 2005, 98 evaluable patients with stage I breast cancer were enrolled in the first dose step (32 Gy delivered in 8 twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> fractions) of a prospective, multi-institutional, dose escalation clinical trial of 3-dimensional conformal external beam APBI (3D-APBI). Median age was 61 years; median tumor size was 0.8 cm; 89% of tumors were estrogen receptor positive; 10% had a triple-negative phenotype; and 1% had a HER-2-positive subtype. Median follow-up was 71 months (range, 2-88 months; interquartile range, 64-75 months). Results: Five patients developed ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), for a 5-year actuarial IBTR rate of 5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1%-10%). Three of these cases occurred in patients with triple-negative disease and 2 in non-triple-negative patients, for 5-year actuarial IBTR rates of 33% (95% CI, 0%-57%) and 2% (95% CI, 0%-6%; P<.0001), respectively. On multivariable analysis, triple-negative phenotype was the only predictor of IBTR, with borderline statistical significance after adjusting for tumor grade (P=.0537). Conclusions: Overall outcomes were excellent, particularly for patients with estrogen receptor-positive disease. Patients in this study with triple-negative breast cancer had a significantly higher IBTR rate than patients with other receptor phenotypes when treated with 3D-APBI. Larger, prospective 3D-APBI clinical trials should continue to evaluate the effect of hormone receptor phenotype on IBTR rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1411.6511.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1411.6511.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Could the Earth's surface Ultraviolet <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> be blamed for the <span class="hlt">global</span> warming? A new effect may exist</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Chen, Jilong; Zhao, Juan; Zheng, Yujun</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Whether natural factors could interpret the rise of the Earth's surface temperature is still controversial. Though numerous recent researches have reported apparent correlations between solar activity and the Earth's climate, solar activity has encountered a big problem when describing the rapid <span class="hlt">global</span> warming after 1970s. Our investigation shows the good positive correlations between the Earth's surface Ultraviolet <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (280-400 nm) and the Earth's surface temperature both in temporal and spatial variations by analyzing the <span class="hlt">global</span> surface Ultraviolet <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (280-400 nm) and <span class="hlt">global</span> surface temperature data from 1980-1999. The rise of CO$_2$ cannot interpret the good positive correlations, and we could even get an opposite result to the good correlations when employing the rise of CO$_2$ to describe the relation between them. Based on the good positive correlations, we suggest a new effect, named "Highly Excited Water Vapor" (HEWV) effect, which can interpret how the Sun influences the Earth's surfac...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMIN31A3706K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMIN31A3706K"><span id="translatedtitle">Improvements and Extension to a <span class="hlt">Global</span> Earth System Data Record of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Landscape Freeze-Thaw Status Determined from Satellite Microwave Remote Sensing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Y.; Kimball, J. S.; Du, J.; Glassy, J. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">global</span> satellite microwave Earth System Data Record of <span class="hlt">daily</span> landscape freeze-thaw status (FT-ESDR) has been commonly used to quantify cold temperature impacts on productivity, phenology, evapotranspiration and the terrestrial carbon cycle. Overlapping 37 GHz, vertically polarized brightness temperature (Tb) measurements from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) were integrated to produce a temporally consistent and continuous <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">daily</span> FT data record from 1979 to 2012 and derived at 25-km pixel resolution. In this study, we develop and evaluate FT-ESDR enhancements, including expanded record length and spatial coverage, alternate algorithm calibrations, and a finer scale FT classification. A larger <span class="hlt">global</span> domain is evaluated that encompasses all land areas affected by seasonally frozen temperatures, including urban, snow-ice dominant, barren, and permafrost landscapes. The FT retrieval is obtained using a seasonal threshold algorithm (STA) that classifies <span class="hlt">daily</span> Tb changes in relation to frozen and non-frozen Tb reference states on a per-pixel basis. STA sensitivity to FT reference states is evaluated and alternative ancillary data are applied for defining Tb reference conditions, including surface temperatures from <span class="hlt">global</span> reanalysis and MODIS land surface temperature (LST) seasonal climatology. The resulting FT record shows mean annual spatial classification accuracies of 92 and 86 percent for PM and AM overpass retrievals relative to in-situ temperature measurements. Despite the larger domain and longer record, the new FT-ESDR showed a 1-3 percent spatial classification accuracy improvement over previous FT-ESDR versions. Areas with enhanced accuracy include the Central USA, Central Asia, and North and Central Europe. Sub-grid land surface spatial heterogeneity effects on the aggregate FT retrievals are also assessed to refine FT-ESDR data quality metrics. The results of this study are being applied for continuing FT-ESDR production and utility enhancements, and to inform development of similar FT algorithms and products from the NASA SMAP mission. This study was funded under the NASA MEaSUREs program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6210691','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6210691"><span id="translatedtitle">An extended comparison between LOWTRAN7 computed and observed broadband thermal <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> - <span class="hlt">Global</span> extreme and intermediate surface conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dutton, E.G. )</p> <p>1993-06-01</p> <p>Differences between observed and LOWTRAN7-computed downward longwave <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> studied at four different locations for an entire year are considered. Data obtained suggest that LOWTRAN7 downward thermal <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> at the surface, DL(S), tend to be greater than the observations at the warmer, moister sites and less than the observations at the cooler, drier sites by about 5-6 W/sq m at each extreme. Over the entire range of <span class="hlt">globally</span> possible clear-sky DL(S) values both the observed and LOWTRAN7 modeled values agree within less than 5 W/sq m, in the mean, at each of four different locations. 20 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4029700','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4029700"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial Estimation of Sub-Hour <span class="hlt">Global</span> Horizontal <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Based on Official Observations and Remote Sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gutierrez-Corea, Federico-Vladimir; Manso-Callejo, Miguel-Angel; Moreno-Regidor, María-Pilar; Velasco-Gómez, Jesús</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This study was motivated by the need to improve densification of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Horizontal <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> (GHI) observations, increasing the number of surface weather stations that observe it, using sensors with a sub-hour periodicity and examining the methods of spatial GHI estimation (by interpolation) with that periodicity in other locations. The aim of the present research project is to analyze the goodness of 15-minute GHI spatial estimations for five methods in the territory of Spain (three geo-statistical interpolation methods, one deterministic method and the HelioSat2 method, which is based on satellite images). The research concludes that, when the work area has adequate station density, the best method for estimating GHI every 15 min is Regression Kriging interpolation using GHI estimated from satellite images as one of the input variables. On the contrary, when station density is low, the best method is estimating GHI directly from satellite images. A comparison between the GHI observed by volunteer stations and the estimation model applied concludes that 67% of the volunteer stations analyzed present values within the margin of error (average of ±2 standard deviations). PMID:24732102</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24732102','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24732102"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial estimation of sub-hour <span class="hlt">Global</span> Horizontal <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> based on official observations and remote sensors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gutierrez-Corea, Federico-Vladimir; Manso-Callejo, Miguel-Angel; Moreno-Regidor, María-Pilar; Velasco-Gómez, Jesús</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This study was motivated by the need to improve densification of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Horizontal <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> (GHI) observations, increasing the number of surface weather stations that observe it, using sensors with a sub-hour periodicity and examining the methods of spatial GHI estimation (by interpolation) with that periodicity in other locations. The aim of the present research project is to analyze the goodness of 15-minute GHI spatial estimations for five methods in the territory of Spain (three geo-statistical interpolation methods, one deterministic method and the HelioSat2 method, which is based on satellite images). The research concludes that, when the work area has adequate station density, the best method for estimating GHI every 15 min is Regression Kriging interpolation using GHI estimated from satellite images as one of the input variables. On the contrary, when station density is low, the best method is estimating GHI directly from satellite images. A comparison between the GHI observed by volunteer stations and the estimation model applied concludes that 67% of the volunteer stations analyzed present values within the margin of error (average of ±2 standard deviations). PMID:24732102</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21350412','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21350412"><span id="translatedtitle">Validation of the NSRDB-SUNY <span class="hlt">global</span> horizontal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> in California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nottrott, Anders; Kleissl, Jan</p> <p>2010-10-15</p> <p>Satellite derived <span class="hlt">global</span> horizontal solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (GHI) from the SUNY modeled dataset in the National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) was compared to measurements from 27 weather stations in California during the years 1998-2005. The statistics of spatial and temporal differences between the two datasets were analyzed and related to meteorological phenomena. Overall mean bias errors (MBE) of the NSRDB-SUNY indicated a GHI overprediction of 5%, which is smaller than the sensor accuracy of ground stations. However, at coastal sites, year-round systematic positive MBEs in the NSRDB-SUNY data up to 18% were observed and monthly MBEs increased up to 54% in the summer months during the morning. These differences were explained by a tendency for the NSRDB-SUNY model to overestimate GHI under cloudy conditions at the coast during summer mornings. A persistent positive evening MBE which was independent of site location and cloudiness occurred at all stations and was explained by an error in the time-shifting method applied in the NSRDB-SUNY. A correction method was derived for these two errors to improve the accuracy of the NSRDB-SUNY data in California. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411706G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411706G"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">globally</span> calibrated aerosol optical depth gridded dataset for improved solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> predictions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gueymard, C. A.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The shortwave direct normal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (DNI), as well as the diffuse and <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, all depend on aerosol optical depth (AOD). Recent investigations have shown that many existing modeled DNI datasets were severely biased over areas with large and variable AOD, due to errors in the latter data. Unbiased historical DNI data are of crucial importance for the siting, design and financing of large solar power projects, particularly those using concentrators. This requires unbiased AOD data at any site where such projects can be potentially built. Until now, only sunphotometer stations could provide such unbiased data, but these stations are scarce and their records are generally short. For <span class="hlt">global</span> coverage, gridded AOD data from satellite observations may be used, but their bias is often significant. Moreover, multiwavelength AOD satellite records only exist since 2000 and are not complete over all areas. In this contribution, a method is developed to optimally combine sources of gridded data from various satellites, calibrate them against ground truth on a regional and seasonal basis, and fill missing data points with an appropriate climatology. The monthly satellite data from MODIS (Terra and Aqua, collection 5.1), generated with or without the Deep Blue retrieval algorithm, and from MISR (version 31), are obtained at 0.5x0.5° resolution using appropriate Digital Elevation Models and scale-height corrections of AOD at 550 nm. The ground-truth data originates from networks such as Aeronet. All monthly ground-truth data points are subjected to a scale-height correction for elevation (so that they can be directly compared to the corresponding satellite data), and to a wavelength correction to obtain AOD at 550 nm. This process is undertaken separately for summer and winter, owing to the varying magnitude of AOD, and possible seasonal variations in aerosol composition. For the same reasons, it is also undertaken on a regional basis. The importance of this is confirmed by the uneven results obtained over adjacent areas. In North America, for instance, the MISR dataset and the various MODIS datasets exhibit relatively low bias over most of the continent, but an extremely high bias over the southwestern USA and northern Mexico, possibly due to higher elevation, lower AOD, and more reflective ground. The satellite data calibration (or "debiasing") is performed by applying appropriate scaling factors on a seasonal and regional basis, after comparison with ground truth. To remove all missing data points during the period 2000-2011, an appropriate climatology is selected from existing sources (including chemical transport models), and is subjected to an identical calibration method. A similar methodology is applied to obtain a complete, gridded dataset of the mean monthly Ångström exponent (AE) over the same period of 144 months. The AOD and AE <span class="hlt">global</span> datasets thus obtained still contain significant random errors, but their regional bias is considerably reduced compared to existing satellite data. Overall, the combination of AOD and AE from these calibrated datasets can significantly improve the derivation of 12-year time series of DNI, which is demonstrated with a few examples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24095968','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24095968"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling the fate of nonylphenolic compounds in the Seine River--part 2: assessing the impact of <span class="hlt">global</span> change on <span class="hlt">daily</span> concentrations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cladière, Mathieu; Bonhomme, Céline; Vilmin, Lauriane; Gasperi, Johnny; Flipo, Nicolas; Habets, Florence; Tassin, Bruno</p> <p>2014-01-15</p> <p>This study aims at modelling the <span class="hlt">daily</span> concentrations of nonylphenolic compounds such as 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO) and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NP1EC) within the Seine River downstream of Paris City for over a year, firstly in the present state (year 2010) and for years 2050 and 2100 in order to assess the consequences of <span class="hlt">global</span> change on the fate of nonylphenolic compounds in the Seine river. Concentrations were first simulated for the year 2010 and compared to monthly measured values downstream of Paris. To achieve this goal, the hydrodynamic and biogeochemical model, ProSe, was updated to simulate the fate of 4-NP, NP1EO and NP1EC. The Seine upstream and Oise River (tributaries of the Seine River) concentrations are estimated according to concentrations-flow relationships. For Seine Aval wastewater treatment plant (SA-WWTP), the concentrations are considered constant and the median values of 11 campaigns are used. The biodegradation kinetics of 4-NP, NP1EO and NP1EC in the Seine River were deduced from the results of the companion paper. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient indicates a good efficiency to simulate the concentrations of 4-NP, NP1EC and NP1EO over an entire year. Eight scenarios were built to forecast the impacts of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming (flow decrease), population growth (SA-WWTP flow increase) and optimisation of wastewater treatment (improvement of the quality of effluents) on annual concentrations of 4-NP, NP1EO and NP1EC at Meulan by 2050 and 2100. As a result, <span class="hlt">global</span> warming and population growth may increase the concentrations of 4-NP, NP1EC and NP1EO, especially during low-flow conditions, while the optimisation of wastewater treatment is an efficient solution to balance the <span class="hlt">global</span> change by reducing WWTP outflows. PMID:24095968</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS31E1776E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS31E1776E"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrating Research on <span class="hlt">Global</span> Climate Change and Human Use of the Oceans: a Geospatial Method for <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Monitoring of Sea Ice and Ship Traffic in the Arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eucker, W.; McGillivary, P. A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>One apparent consequence of <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change has been a decrease in the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice more rapidly than models have predicted, while Arctic ship traffic has likewise increased beyond economic predictions. To ensure representative observations of changing climate conditions and human use of the Arctic Ocean, we concluded a method of tracking <span class="hlt">daily</span> changes in both sea ice and shipping in the Arctic Ocean was needed. Such a process improves the availability of sea ice data for navigational safety and allows future developments to be monitored for understanding of ice and shipping in relation to policy decisions appropriate to optimize sustainable use of a changing Arctic Ocean. The impetus for this work was the 2009 Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment (AMSA) which provided baseline data on Arctic ship traffic. AMSA was based on responses from circumpolar countries, was manpower intensive, and took years to compile. A more timely method of monitoring human use of the Arctic Ocean was needed. To address this, a method of monitoring sea ice on a scale relevant to ship-navigation (<10km) was developed and implemented in conjunction with arctic ship tracking using S-AIS (Satellite Automatic Identification Systems). S-AIS is internationally required on ships over a certain size, which includes most commercial vessels in the Arctic Ocean. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> AIS and sea ice observations were chosen for this study. Results of this method of geospatial analysis of the entire arctic are presented for a year long period from April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2011. This confirmed the dominance of European Arctic ship traffic. Arctic shipping is maximal during August and diminishes in September with a minimum in winter, although some shipping continues year-round in perennially ice-free areas. Data are analyzed for the four principal arctic quadrants around the North Pole by season for number and nationality of vessels. The goal of this study was not merely to monitor ship traffic and ice conditions concurrently, but also to demonstrate a new method of ocean monitoring based on <span class="hlt">daily</span> assimilation, data fusion, and integrated visualization of satellite ice remote sensing data and S-AIS ship data. In the future, as Arctic ship traffic and cryosphere sea ice cover variability are both expected to increase, this method can provide near real-time physical data on <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change and human dimensions of ocean use of to guide policies addressing arctic resource management, Search and Rescue (SAR) operations, oil spill response, and issues such as ship noise impacts on marine mammals, and whale-ship collision avoidance. An internationally agreed implementation of this methodology would benefit ships operating in the Arctic and advance sustainable use of the Arctic Ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3303O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3303O"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of confidence intervals of <span class="hlt">global</span> horizontal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> obtained from a weather prediction model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ohtake, Hideaki; Gari da Silva Fonseca, Joao, Jr.; Takashima, Takumi; Oozeki, Takashi; Yamada, Yoshinori</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Many photovoltaic (PV) systems have been installed in Japan after the introduction of the Feed-in-Tariff. For an energy management of electric power systems included many PV systems, the forecast of the PV power production are useful technology. Recently numerical weather predictions have been applied to forecast the PV power production while the forecasted values invariably have forecast errors for each modeling system. So, we must use the forecast data considering its error. In this study, we attempted to estimate confidence intervals for hourly forecasts of <span class="hlt">global</span> horizontal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (GHI) values obtained from a mesoscale model (MSM) de-veloped by the Japan Meteorological Agency. In the recent study, we found that the forecasted values of the GHI of the MSM have two systematical forecast errors; the first is that forecast values of the GHI are depended on the clearness indices, which are defined as the GHI values divided by the extraterrestrial solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. The second is that forecast errors have the seasonal variations; the overestimation of the GHI forecasts is found in winter while the underestimation of those is found in summer. The information of the errors of the hourly GHI forecasts, that is, confidence intervals of the forecasts, is of great significance for planning the energy management included a lot of PV systems by an electric company. On the PV systems, confidence intervals of the GHI forecasts are required for a pinpoint area or for a relatively large area control-ling the power system. For the relatively large area, a spatial-smoothing method of the GHI values is performed for both the observations and forecasts. The spatial-smoothing method caused the decline of confidence intervals of the hourly GHI forecasts on an extreme event of the GHI forecast (a case of large forecast error) over the relatively large area of the Tokyo electric company (approximately 68 % than for a pinpoint forecast). For more credible estimation of the confidence intervals, it is required to consider the location of the installed PV systems or its capacity over the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.tmp..141C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.tmp..141C"><span id="translatedtitle">Fast calculations of the spectral diffuse-to-<span class="hlt">global</span> ratios for approximating spectral <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at the street canyon level</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carrasco-Hernandez, Roberto; Smedley, Andrew R. D.; Webb, Ann R.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Two radiative transfer models are presented that simplify calculations of street canyon spectral <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> with minimum data input requirements, allowing better assessment of urban exposures than can be provided by standard unobstructed radiation measurements alone. Fast calculations improve the computational performance of radiation models, when numerous repetitions are required in time and location. The core of the models is the calculation of the spectral diffuse-to-<span class="hlt">global</span> ratios (DGR) from an unobstructed <span class="hlt">global</span> spectral measurement. The models are based on, and have been tested against, outcomes of the SMARTS2 algorithm (i.e. Simple Model of the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer of Sunshine). The modelled DGRs can then be used to partition <span class="hlt">global</span> spectral <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> values into their direct and diffuse components for different solar zenith angles. Finally, the effects of canyon obstructions can be evaluated independently on the direct and diffuse components, which are then recombined to give the total canyon <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. The first model allows ozone and aerosol inputs, while the second provides a further simplification, restricted to average ozone and aerosol contents but specifically designed for faster calculations. To assess the effect of obstructions and validate the calculations, a set of experiments with simulated obstructions (simulated canyons) were performed. The greatest source of uncertainty in the simplified calculations is in the treatment of diffuse radiation. The measurement-model agreement is therefore dependent on the region of the sky obscured and ranges from <5 % at all wavelengths to 20-40 % (wavelength dependent) when diffuse sky only is visible from the canyon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://solardat.uoregon.edu/download/Papers/SpectralDistributionsofDiffuseandGlobalIrradianceforClearandCloudyPeriods.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://solardat.uoregon.edu/download/Papers/SpectralDistributionsofDiffuseandGlobalIrradianceforClearandCloudyPeriods.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">SPECTRAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF DIFFUSE AND <span class="hlt">GLOBAL</span> <span class="hlt">IRRADIANCE</span> FOR CLEAR AND CLOUDY PERIODS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Oregon, University of</p> <p></p> <p>power units, the researchers' ability to predict the future cost and efficiency of photovoltaic (PV@uoregon.edu ABSTRACT An LI1800 Portable Spectroradiometer is used to measure solar spectral <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> for solar In the field of solar energy, the characterization of spectral <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> is an important issue. As the field</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GMDD....6.4833K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GMDD....6.4833K"><span id="translatedtitle">Methodological aspects of a pattern-scaling approach to produce <span class="hlt">global</span> fields of monthly means of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kremser, S.; Bodeker, G. E.; Lewis, J.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>A Climate Pattern-Scaling Model (CPSM) that simulates <span class="hlt">global</span> patterns of climate change, for a prescribed emissions scenario, is described. A CPSM works by quantitatively establishing the statistical relationship between a climate variable at a specific location (e.g. <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum surface temperature, Tmax) and one or more predictor time series (e.g. <span class="hlt">global</span> mean surface temperature, Tglobal) - referred to as the "training" of the CPSM. This training uses a regression model to derive fit-coefficients that describe the statistical relationship between the predictor time series and the target climate variable time series. Once that relationship has been determined, and given the predictor time series for any greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, the change in the climate variable of interest can be reconstructed - referred to as the "application" of the CPSM. The advantage of using a CPSM rather than a typical atmosphere-ocean <span class="hlt">global</span> climate model (AOGCM) is that the predictor time series required by the CPSM can usually be generated quickly using a simple climate model (SCM) for any prescribed GHG emissions scenario and then applied to generate <span class="hlt">global</span> fields of the climate variable of interest. The training can be performed either on historical measurements or on output from an AOGCM. Using model output from 21st century simulations has the advantage that the climate change signal is more pronounced than in historical data and therefore a more robust statistical relationship is obtained. The disadvantage of using AOGCM output is that the CPSM training might be compromised by any AOGCM inadequacies. For the purposes of exploring the various methodological aspects of the CPSM approach, AOGCM output was used in this study to train the CPSM. These investigations of the CPSM methodology focus on monthly mean fields of <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature extremes (Tmax and Tmin). Key conclusions are: (1) overall, the CPSM trained on simulations based on the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 emissions scenario is able to reproduce AOGCM simulations of Tmax and Tmin based on predictor time series from an RCP 4.5 emissions scenario; (2) access to hemisphere average land and ocean temperatures as predictors improves the variance that can be explained, particularly over the oceans; (3) regression model fit-coefficients derived from individual simulations based on the RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5 emissions scenarios agree well over most regions of the globe (the Arctic is the exception); (4) training the CPSM on concatenated time series from an ensemble of simulations does not result in fit-coefficients that explain significantly more of the variance than an approach that weights results based on single simulation fits; and (5) the inclusion of a linear time dependence in the regression model fit-coefficients improves the variance explained, primarily over the oceans.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GMD.....7..249K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GMD.....7..249K"><span id="translatedtitle">Methodological aspects of a pattern-scaling approach to produce <span class="hlt">global</span> fields of monthly means of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kremser, S.; Bodeker, G. E.; Lewis, J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A Climate Pattern-Scaling Model (CPSM) that simulates <span class="hlt">global</span> patterns of climate change, for a prescribed emissions scenario, is described. A CPSM works by quantitatively establishing the statistical relationship between a climate variable at a specific location (e.g. <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum surface temperature, Tmax) and one or more predictor time series (e.g. <span class="hlt">global</span> mean surface temperature, Tglobal) - referred to as the "training" of the CPSM. This training uses a regression model to derive fit coefficients that describe the statistical relationship between the predictor time series and the target climate variable time series. Once that relationship has been determined, and given the predictor time series for any greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, the change in the climate variable of interest can be reconstructed - referred to as the "application" of the CPSM. The advantage of using a CPSM rather than a typical atmosphere-ocean <span class="hlt">global</span> climate model (AOGCM) is that the predictor time series required by the CPSM can usually be generated quickly using a simple climate model (SCM) for any prescribed GHG emissions scenario and then applied to generate <span class="hlt">global</span> fields of the climate variable of interest. The training can be performed either on historical measurements or on output from an AOGCM. Using model output from 21st century simulations has the advantage that the climate change signal is more pronounced than in historical data and therefore a more robust statistical relationship is obtained. The disadvantage of using AOGCM output is that the CPSM training might be compromised by any AOGCM inadequacies. For the purposes of exploring the various methodological aspects of the CPSM approach, AOGCM output was used in this study to train the CPSM. These investigations of the CPSM methodology focus on monthly mean fields of <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature extremes (Tmax and Tmin). The methodological aspects of the CPSM explored in this study include (1) investigation of the advantage gained in having five predictor time series over having only one predictor time series, (2) investigation of the time dependence of the fit coefficients and (3) investigation of the dependence of the fit coefficients on GHG emissions scenario. Key conclusions are (1) overall, the CPSM trained on simulations based on the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 emissions scenario is able to reproduce AOGCM simulations of Tmax and Tmin based on predictor time series from an RCP 4.5 emissions scenario; (2) access to hemisphere average land and ocean temperatures as predictors improves the variance that can be explained, particularly over the oceans; (3) regression model fit coefficients derived from individual simulations based on the RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5 emissions scenarios agree well over most regions of the globe (the Arctic is the exception); (4) training the CPSM on concatenated time series from an ensemble of simulations does not result in fit coefficients that explain significantly more of the variance than an approach that weights results based on single simulation fits; and (5) the inclusion of a linear time dependence in the regression model fit coefficients improves the variance explained, primarily over the oceans.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRA..117.8110Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRA..117.8110Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Time-dependent MHD modeling of the <span class="hlt">global</span> solar corona for year 2007: Driven by <span class="hlt">daily</span>-updated magnetic field synoptic data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, L. P.; Feng, X. S.; Xiang, C. Q.; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Xuepu; Wu, S. T.</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>In this paper, we develop a time-dependent MHD model driven by the <span class="hlt">daily</span>-updated synoptic magnetograms (MHD-DUSM) to study the dynamic evolution of the <span class="hlt">global</span> corona with the help of the 3D Solar-Interplanetary (SIP) adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) space-time conservation element and solution element (CESE) MHD model (SIP-AMR-CESE MHD Model). To accommodate the observations, the tangential component of the electric field at the lower boundary is specified to allow the flux evolution to match the observed changes of magnetic field. Meanwhile, the time-dependent solar surface boundary conditions derived from the method of characteristics and the mass flux limit are incorporated to couple the observation and the 3D MHD model. The simulated evolution of the <span class="hlt">global</span> coronal structure during 2007 is compared with solar observations and solar wind measurements from both Ulysses and spacecrafts near the Earth. The MHD-DUSM model is also validated by comparisons with the standard potential field source surface (PFSS) model, the newly improved Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) empirical formula, and the MHD simulation with a monthly synoptic magnetogram (MHD-MSM). Comparisons show that the MHD-DUSM results have good overall agreement with coronal and interplanetary structures, including the sizes and distributions of coronal holes, the positions and shapes of the streamer belts, and the transitions of the solar wind speeds and magnetic field polarities. The MHD-DUSM results also display many features different from those of the PFSS, the WSA, and the MHD-MSM models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JASTP.112...47D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JASTP.112...47D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> and direct UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variation in the Nahuel Huapi National Park (Patagonia, Argentina) after the eruption of Puyehue-Cordon Caulle (Chile)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Diaz, S. B.; Paladini, A. A.; Braile, H. G.; Dieguez, M. C.; Deferrari, G. A.; Vernet, M.; Vrsalovic, J.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>On June 4th, 2011, the Puyehue-Cordon Caulle volcanic complex (40°35?25?S 72°07?02?W, Chile) started eruption, sending ash 45,000 feet into the atmosphere. After the initial period, the eruption continued for several months, with less intensity. Changes in <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> in the UV-B and UV-A, and direct <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and AOD in the UV-A, as consequence of the eruption, were studied. <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> has been permanently measured at the Laboratory of Photobiology (LPh) (41.13S, 71.42W, 804 msl) since 1998. In addition, in the frame of a project to study altitude effect on direct and <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, field campaigns were performed during September 17th to 23rd, 2010 and September 14th to 18th, 2011, in the region of the Nahuel Huapi National Park, near 100 km from the eruption. In those periods, simultaneous measurements of direct and <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and aerosol optical depth (AOD) were carried out at three sites: Laboratory of Photobiology (LPh), Mt Otto (41.15S, 71.38W, 1386 msl) and Mt Catedral (41.17S, 71.48W, 1930 msl). The analysis of aerosols in 2011, three to four month after the eruption started, showed the presence of larger particles and more variability than in 2010, at all sites. <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, at LPh, also exhibited larger variability, compared to 1999, when no eruption or any other event that could have produced major changes in aerosols occurred. The mean decrease, as consequence of the volcano activity, at LPh, was around 20%, at 305 nm and closed to 10%, at 320 nm. At 380 nm, the decrease was very small and not statistically significant, although in particular days, with large aerosol load, a significant decrease was observed. Direct <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, in the UV-A, showed larger decrease than <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. The effect of the eruption was more pronounced at the low altitude site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.uni-oldenburg.de/fileadmin/user_upload/physik/ag/ehf/enmet/publications/solar/conference/2006/solar_irradiance_forecasting_for_the_management_of_solar_energy_systems.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.uni-oldenburg.de/fileadmin/user_upload/physik/ag/ehf/enmet/publications/solar/conference/2006/solar_irradiance_forecasting_for_the_management_of_solar_energy_systems.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">SOLAR <span class="hlt">IRRADIANCE</span> FORECASTING FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Heinemann, Detlev</p> <p></p> <p>SOLAR <span class="hlt">IRRADIANCE</span> FORECASTING FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS Detlev Heinemann Oldenburg <span class="hlt">daily</span> solar radiation forecasts for one to two days in advance have been produced with the Model Output.girodo@uni-oldenburg.de ABSTRACT Solar energy is expected to contribute major shares of the future <span class="hlt">global</span> energy supply. Due to its</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5216155','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5216155"><span id="translatedtitle">Dependence on solar elevation and the <span class="hlt">daily</span> sunshine fraction of the correlation between monthly-average-hourly diffuse and <span class="hlt">global</span> radiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Soler, A. )</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>In the present work the authors study for Uccle, Belgium data (50{degree}48 minutes N, 4{degree}21 minutes E), the dependence on {anti {gamma}} and {sigma} of the correlations between {anti K}{sub d} = {anti I}{sub d}/{anti I}{sub o} and {anti I}{sub t} = {anti I}/{anti I}{sub o}, where {anti I}, {anti I}{sub d}, and {anti I}{sub o} are respectively, the monthly-average-hourly value of <span class="hlt">global</span>, diffuse, and extraterrestrial radiation (all of them on a horizontal surface), {anti {gamma}} is the solar elevation at midhour and {sigma} the <span class="hlt">daily</span> sunshine fraction. The dependence on {sigma} is studied for different ranges of values, from {sigma} = 0 to {sigma} > 0.9. The dependence on {anti {gamma}} is studied for {anti {gamma}} = 5{degree}, 10{degree}, 15{degree}, 25{degree}-30{degree}; 35{degree}-40{degree}; 45{degree}-60{degree} ({delta}{anti {gamma}} = 5{degree}). Relating the dependence on {sigma}, for increasing values of {sigma}({sigma} {>=} 0), there is an increase in {anti K}{sub d} with the increase in {anti K}{sub t}. For 0.42 < {anti K}{sub t} < 0.52 a maximum is obtained for {anti K}{sub d}. After the maximum, as the skies become clearer, {anti K}{sub d} decreases as {anti K}{sub t} increases. Relating the dependence on {anti {gamma}}, for each range of values of {sigma} ({sigma} > 0.2), values of the slope for linear {anti K}{sub d} = f({anti K}{sub t}) correlations show a tendency to decrease as {anti {gamma}} increases. For each value of {anti {gamma}} the slopes of the linear {anti K}{sub d} = f({anti K}{sub t}) correlations tend to decrease when {sigma} increases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1211585S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1211585S"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurements of <span class="hlt">global</span> UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at Terranova Bay, Antactica, by a home made narrow band filter radiometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salvatore, Scaglione; di Sarcina, Ilaria; Flori, Daniele; Menchini, Francesca</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Filter radiometers measure the solar radiation in several channels (typically 4 to 7) with a bandwith from 2 to 10 nm. They require less maintenance than the spectroradiometer and they are able to work in hostile environment as for instance the polar regions. The spectral resolution depends on the width at half maximum (FWHM) of the filters and is generally lower than the spectroradiometer resolution (0.5 nm). Other than the robustness of this instruments, the main advantage of the filter radiometers is the high frequency with which all wavelengths can be measured, making this class of instrument well suited for investigating short term <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variation. In this work is presented the results of UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements performed by a very narrow band (FWHM less than 1 nm) filter radiometer at Antarctica Italia Base, Mario Zucchelli Station, Terranova Bay, lat. 74° 41.6084' south and lon. 164° 05.9224' est. All-dielectric Fabry-Perot filters were manufactured in the laboratories of the Optical Coating Group, ENEA, by the ion beam assistance physical vapor deposition technique. Nine filters select nine different wavelengths in the UV spectral range from 296.5 nm to 377 nm with about 1 minute of measurement period, i.e. each wavelength is measured about 1250 times per day. At the moment the radiometer are permanently located near MZS and the data are <span class="hlt">daily</span> downloaded in ENEA, Rome, by a dedicated satellite channel. During the Antarctica winter the radiometer will be in standby mode, in this season MZS is closed, and it will be start to measure again in the Antarctica spring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100003076','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100003076"><span id="translatedtitle">Solutions Network Formulation Report. Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor Measurements of Diffuse-to-<span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Ratio for Improved Forecasting of Plant Productivity and Health</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Knowlton, Kelly; Andrews, Jane C.; Ryan, Robert E.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Studies have shown that vegetation is directly sensitive to changes in the diffuse-to-<span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> ratio and that increased percentage of diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> can accelerate photosynthesis. Therefore, measurements of diffuse versus <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> could be useful for monitoring crop productivity and overall vegetative health as they relate to the total amount of particulates in the air that result from natural disasters or anthropogenic (manmade) causes. While the components of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> are measured by satellite and surface sensors and calculated with atmospheric models, disagreement exists between the results, creating a need for more accurate and comprehensive retrievals of atmospheric aerosol parameters. Two satellite sensors--APS and VIIRS--show promise for retrieving aerosol properties at an unprecedented level of accuracy. APS is expected to be launched in December 2008. The planned launch date for VIIRS onboard NPP is September 2009. Identified partners include the USDA s ARS, North Carolina State University, Purdue Climate Change Research Center, and the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere at Colorado State University. Although at present no formal DSSs (decision support systems) require accurate values of diffuse-to-<span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, this parameter is sufficiently important that models are being developed that will incorporate these measurements. This candidate solution is aligned with the Agricultural Efficiency and Air Quality National Applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012DSRI...63...52S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012DSRI...63...52S"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of surface <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on the absorption spectrum of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in the <span class="hlt">global</span> ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Swan, Chantal M.; Nelson, Norman B.; Siegel, David A.; Kostadinov, Tihomir S.</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>The cycling pathways of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) within marine systems must be constrained to better assess the impact of CDOM on surface ocean photochemistry and remote sensing of ocean color. Photobleaching, the loss of absorption by CDOM due to light exposure, is the primary sink for marine CDOM. Herein the susceptibility of CDOM to photobleaching by sea surface-level solar radiation was examined in 15 samples collected from wide-ranging open ocean regimes. Samples from the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian and Southern Oceans were <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> over several days with full-spectrum light under a solar simulator at in situ temperature in order to measure photobleaching rate and derive an empirical matrix, ?surf (m-1 ?Ein-1), which quantifies the effect of surface <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on the spectral absorption of CDOM. <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> responses among the ocean samples were similar within the ultraviolet (UV) region of the spectrum spanning 300-360 nm, generally exhibiting a decrease in the CDOM absorption coefficient (m-1) and concomitant increase in the CDOM spectral slope parameter, S (nm-1). However, an unexpected <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>-induced increase in CDOM absorption between approximately 360 and 500 nm was observed for samples from high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) environments. This finding was linked to the presence of dissolved nitrate and may explain discrepancies in action spectra for dimethylsulfide (DMS) photobleaching observed between the Equatorial Pacific and Subtropical North Atlantic Oceans. The nitrate-to-phosphate ratio explained 27-70% of observed variability in ?surf at observation wavelengths of 330-440 nm, while the initial spectral slope of the samples explained up to 52% of variability in ?surf at observation wavelengths of 310-330 nm. These results suggest that the biogeochemical and solar exposure history of the water column, each of which influence the chemical character and thus the spectral quality of CDOM and its photoreactivity, are the main factors regulating the susceptibility of CDOM to photodegradation in the surface ocean. The ?surf parameter reported herein may be applied to remote sensing retrievals of CDOM to estimate photobleaching at the surface on regional to <span class="hlt">global</span> scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1006243','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1006243"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of Direct Normal <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Derived from Silicon and Thermopile <span class="hlt">Global</span> Hemispherical Radiation Detectors: Preprint</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Myers, D. R.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Concentrating solar applications utilize direct normal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (DNI) radiation, a measurement rarely available. The solar concentrator industry has begun to deploy numerous measurement stations to prospect for suitable system deployment sites. Rotating shadowband radiometers (RSR) using silicon photodiodes as detectors are typically deployed. This paper compares direct beam estimates from RSR to a total hemispherical measuring radiometer (SPN1) multiple fast thermopiles. These detectors simultaneously measure total and diffuse radiation from which DNI can be computed. Both the SPN1 and RSR-derived DNI are compared to DNI measured with thermopile pyrheliometers. Our comparison shows that the SPN1 radiometer DNI estimated uncertainty is somewhat greater than, and on the same order as, the RSR DNI estimates for DNI magnitudes useful to concentrator technologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7918V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7918V"><span id="translatedtitle">Inhomogeneities in <span class="hlt">daily</span> data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Venema, Victor; Aguilar, Enric; Auchmann, Renate; Auer, Ingeborg; Brandsma, Theo; Chimani, Barbara; Gilabert, Alba; Mestre, Olivier; Toreti, Andrea; Vertacnik, Gregor</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> datasets have become a focus of climate research because they are essential for studying the variability and extremes in weather and climate. However, long observational climate records are usually affected by changes due to nonclimatic factors, resulting in inhomogeneities in the time series. Looking at the known physical causes of these inhomogeneities, one may expect that the tails of the distribution are especially affected. Although the number of national and regional homogenized <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature datasets is increasing, inhomogeneities affecting the tails of the distribution are often not or insufficiently taken into account. In this literature review we investigate the physical causes of inhomogeneities and how they affect the distribution with respect to its mean and its tails. We review what is known about changes in the distribution from existing historical parallel measurements. We discuss effects of the state-of-the-art homogenization methods on the temperature distribution. Finally, we provide an overview of the quality of available <span class="hlt">daily</span> datasets that are often used for studies on changes in extremes and additionally describe well-homogenized regional datasets. As expected, this review provides evidence that the tails of the distribution are generally more affected by non-climatic changes than the means. This is a problem because the question to which extent <span class="hlt">daily</span> homogenization methods can reduce those effects is insufficiently studied and most available methods are focused on temperature only. More specifically, it is advised to study whether the current deterministic correction methods should be succeeded by stochastic methods. Concerning the large scale available <span class="hlt">daily</span> datasets, many of them are not homogenized (with respect to the distribution), whereas the number of national and regional homogenized datasets is strongly growing. Given the strong interest in studying changes in weather variability and extremes and the existence of often large inhomogeneities in the raw data, the homogenization of <span class="hlt">daily</span> data and the development of better methods should have a high research priority. This research would be much facilitated by a <span class="hlt">global</span> reference database with parallel measurements. The climate community, and especially those involved in homogenization, bias correction and the evaluation of uncertainties, should take an active role to foster the compilation of such a reference database. We have started an initiative collecting parallel datasets, which is an expert team of the International Surface Temperature Initiative. Its aims will be explained and its progress will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.121..211J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.121..211J"><span id="translatedtitle">Inter-<span class="hlt">daily</span> variability of a strong thermally-driven wind system over the Atacama Desert of South America: synoptic forcing and short-term predictability using the GFS <span class="hlt">global</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jacques-Coper, Martín; Falvey, Mark; Muñoz, Ricardo C.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Crucial aspects of a strong thermally-driven wind system in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile during the extended austral winter season (May-September) are studied using 2 years of measurement data from the Sierra Gorda 80-m meteorological mast (SGO, 22° 56' 24? S; 69° 7' 58? W, 2,069 m above sea level (a.s.l.)). <span class="hlt">Daily</span> cycles of atmospheric variables reveal a diurnal (nocturnal) regime, with northwesterly (easterly) flow and maximum mean wind speed of 8 m/s (13 m/s) on average. These distinct regimes are caused by pronounced topographic conditions and the diurnal cycle of the local radiative balance. Wind speed extreme events of each regime are negatively correlated at the inter-<span class="hlt">daily</span> time scale: High diurnal wind speed values are usually observed together with low nocturnal wind speed values and vice versa. The associated synoptic conditions indicate that upper-level troughs at the coastline of southwestern South America reinforce the diurnal northwesterly wind, whereas mean undisturbed upper-level conditions favor the development of the nocturnal easterly flow. We analyze the skill of the numerical weather model <span class="hlt">Global</span> Forecast System (GFS) in predicting wind speed at SGO. Although forecasted wind speeds at 800 hPa do show the diurnal and nocturnal phases, observations at 80 m are strongly underestimated by the model. This causes a pronounced <span class="hlt">daily</span> cycle of root-mean-squared error (RMSE) and bias in the forecasts. After applying a simple Model Output Statistics (MOS) post-processing, we achieve a good representation of the wind speed intra-<span class="hlt">daily</span> and inter-<span class="hlt">daily</span> variability, a first step toward reducing the uncertainties related to potential wind energy projects in the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012cosp...39..418D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012cosp...39..418D"><span id="translatedtitle">A reconstruction of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> using a flux transport model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dasi Espuig, Maria; Krivova, Natalie; Solanki, Sami K.; Jiang, Jie</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> is one of the important drivers of the Earth's <span class="hlt">global</span> climate, but it has only been measured for the past 33 years. Its reconstructions are therefore crucial to study longer term variations relevant to climate timescales. Most successful in reproducing the measured <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variations have being the models that are based on the assumption that <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> changes are caused by the evolution of the photospheric magnetic field. Our SATIRE-S model is one of these, which uses solar full-disc magnetograms as an input, and these are available for less than four decades. To reconstruct the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> back to times when no observed magnetograms are available, we combine the SATIRE-S model with synthetic magnetograms, produced using a surface flux transport model. The model is fed with <span class="hlt">daily</span>, observed or modelled statistically, records of sunspot positions, areas, and tilt angles. The concept of overlapping ephemeral region cycles is used to describe the secular change in the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960017623','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960017623"><span id="translatedtitle">White Paper on SBUV/2 Solar <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hilsenrath, Ernest; DeLand, Matthew T.; Cebula, Richard P.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The importance of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements by the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet, Model 2 (SBUV/2) instruments on NOAA's operational satellites is described. These measurements are necessary accurately monitor the long-term changes in the <span class="hlt">global</span> column ozone amount, the altitude distribution of ozone in the upper stratosphere, and the degree to which ozone changes are caused by anthropogenic sources. Needed to accomplish these goals are weekly solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements at the operational ozone wavelengths, <span class="hlt">daily</span> measurements of the Mg II proxy index, instrument-specific Mg II scale factors, and <span class="hlt">daily</span> measurements of the solar spectral <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at photochemically important wavelengths. Two solar measurement schedules are provided: (1) a baseline schedule for all instruments except the NOAA-14 instrument and (2) a modified schedule for the NOAA-14 SBUV/2 instrument. This latter schedule is needed due to the NOAA-14 grating drive problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780031917&hterms=gaseous+pollutants&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dgaseous%2Bpollutants','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780031917&hterms=gaseous+pollutants&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dgaseous%2Bpollutants"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> measurements of gaseous and aerosol trace species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere from <span class="hlt">daily</span> flights of 747 airliners</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Perkins, P. J.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>A description is given of the NASA <span class="hlt">Global</span> Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP), taking into account the onboard system which collects atmospheric data automatically, the extensive atmospheric measurement capability, and the data handling and distribution procedure. GASP was implemented to assess the environmental impact of aircraft exhaust emissions in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. <span class="hlt">Global</span> air quality data are to be obtained for a period of five to ten years. Measurements of pollutants not related to aircraft exhaust emissions, such as chlorofluoromethanes, are now included. GASP systems are operating on a United Airlines 747, two Pan Am 747s, and a Qantas Airways of Australia 747. Real-time, in-situ measurements are conducted of ozone, water vapor, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen. Chlorofluoromethanes are measured by laboratory analysis. Typical GASP data show significant changes in ozone, carbon monoxide, and water vapor related to crossings of the tropopause.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://people.eri.ucsb.edu/~davey/MyPapers/1-s2.0-S0967063712000271-main.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://people.eri.ucsb.edu/~davey/MyPapers/1-s2.0-S0967063712000271-main.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of surface <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on the absorption spectrum of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in the <span class="hlt">global</span> ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Siegel, David A.</p> <p></p> <p>The effect of surface <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on the absorption spectrum of chromophoric dissolved organic. Photobleaching, the loss of absorption by CDOM due to light exposure, is the primary sink for marine CDOM. Herein Oceans were <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> over several days with full-spectrum light under a solar simulator at in situ</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20466163','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20466163"><span id="translatedtitle">The A1chieve study: a 60 000-person, <span class="hlt">global</span>, prospective, observational study of basal, meal-time, and biphasic insulin analogs in <span class="hlt">daily</span> clinical practice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shah, Siddharth N; Litwak, León; Haddad, Jihad; Chakkarwar, Praful N; Hajjaji, Issam</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>While evidenced-based guidelines promote glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) targets <7.0% in order to reduce the long-term risk of diabetic complications, many individuals with type 2 diabetes do not achieve these targets. Fear of hypoglycemia provides a major barrier to improving blood glucose control as a result of delayed insulin initiation and failure to appropriately titrate insulin following initiation. Modern insulin analogs were designed to achieve improved blood glucose control with similar hypoglycemic risk compared with non-analog insulins (or similar blood glucose control with reduced hypoglycemic risk). While this has been demonstrated in randomized controlled trials, there is a need to confirm these findings in an everyday clinical setting. The A(1)chieve study will evaluate adverse events and effectiveness of premix (biphasic insulin aspart 30 [NovoMix 30]), basal (insulin detemir [Levemir]), and meal-time (insulin aspart [NovoRapid]) insulin analogs in people with type 2 diabetes in near-routine clinical practice. A(1)chieve is an international, prospective, multi-center, open-label, non-interventional, 24-week study of people with type 2 diabetes using an insulin analog. The study will recruit 60 000 people from 30 countries across four continents (Asia, Africa, South America, and Europe). The primary aim of the study is to assess the adverse event profile of the study insulins in routine clinical practice, including rates of hypoglycemia. In addition, effectiveness (HbA(1c), fasting plasma glucose, and postprandial plasma glucose) and patient quality of life outcomes will be measured. Comprehensive epidemiological data will be collected at baseline, including recent plasma glucose results and hypoglycemic episodes, prevalence of diabetes-related complications, and measures of current standards of care. Thus, A(1)chieve should provide important information about how insulin analogs perform in <span class="hlt">daily</span> clinical practice. PMID:20466163</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012jsrs.conf..140S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012jsrs.conf..140S"><span id="translatedtitle">The signature of atmospheric tides in sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> variations of Earth rotation as unveiled by <span class="hlt">globally</span>-gridded atmospheric angular momentum functions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schindelegger, M.; Böhm, J.; Salstein, D. A.; Schuh, H.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Thermally-driven atmospheric tides provide a small but distinct contribution to shortperiod variations of Earth rotation parameters (ERP). The effect of diurnal and semi-diurnal tides, commonly denoted as S1 and S2, respectively, is in the range of 2 - 10 uas for polar motion and 2 - 10 uas for changes in length-of-day (LOD). Even though ocean tides represent a much more dominant driving agent for ERP fluctuations at short time scales, high-frequency atmospheric effects are non-negligible, particularly given the prospective measurement accuracy of space geodetic techniques. However, previous studies, such as Brzezinski et al. (2002), de Viron et al. (2005) or Schindelegger et al. (2011), have been noticeably inconclusive on the exact amplitude and phase values of S1 and S2 atmospheric excitation signals. This study aims at shedding light on the origin of these uncertainties with respect to the axial component of Earth's rotation vector by investigating times series of atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) functions that are given on <span class="hlt">global</span> grids and computed from three-hourly meteorological data of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The signature of diurnal and semi-diurnal atmospheric tides is clearly visible in the gridded axial AAM functions, revealing a distinct spatial and temporal phase difference between pressure and wind tidal constituents of about ± ?. It is shown that due to this counterbalance and the explicit axisymmetric spatial structure of S1 and S2, the net effect in sub-diurnal AAM (which is calculated from the <span class="hlt">global</span> sum of gridded AAM functions) is always a small quantity, particularly sensitive to minor differences between the analysis fields of numerical weather models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.parentprojectmd.org/site/PageServer?pagename=Care_elements_daily','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.parentprojectmd.org/site/PageServer?pagename=Care_elements_daily"><span id="translatedtitle">Managing <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Life</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Other Ways to Help About Us Mission Financials History Staff & Board Media Awards Contact Us Home / Care for Duchenne / Managing <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Life Print Email Managing <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Life Environmental accessibility As the person with Duchenne starts to ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930022266','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930022266"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> exercise routines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, Patrick L.; Amoroso, Michael T.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Viewgraphs on <span class="hlt">daily</span> exercise routines are presented. Topics covered include: <span class="hlt">daily</span> exercise and periodic stress testings; exercise equipment; physiological monitors; exercise protocols; physiological levels; equipment control; control systems; and fuzzy logic control.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7075880','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7075880"><span id="translatedtitle">Quick use of WEFAX images from METEOSAT to determine <span class="hlt">daily</span> solar radiation in France</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Delorme, C.; Gallo, A.; Olivieri, J. )</p> <p>1992-09-01</p> <p>The authors present some preliminary results about 74 days: March 15th to June 30th, 1990. Four WEFAX images per day from the visible channel of METEOSAT have been processed. The main elements of the GISTEL methodology are briefly stated again. The estimated <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> on the ground is compared with figures measured at 10 stations in the south of France. In order to analyze the main causes of inaccuracy, this comparison is made on several modes: estimated and measured values, estimated and measured weather indexes for normalization, station per station to detect possible geographic errors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1412.2325.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1412.2325.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Could the Earth's surface Ultraviolet <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> be blamed for the <span class="hlt">global</span> warming? (II) ----Ozone layer depth reconstruction via HEWV effect</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Chen, Jilong; Zheng, Yujun</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>It is suggested by Chen {\\it et al.} that the Earth's surface Ultraviolet <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> ($280-400$ nm) could influence the Earth's surface temperature variation by "Highly Excited Water Vapor" (HEWV) effect. In this manuscript, we reconstruct the developing history of the ozone layer depth variation from 1860 to 2011 based on the HEWV effect. It is shown that the reconstructed ozone layer depth variation correlates with the observational variation from 1958 to 2005 very well ($R=0.8422$, $P>99.9\\%$). From this reconstruction, we may limit the spectra band of the surface Ultraviolet <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> referred in HEWV effect to Ultraviolet B ($280-320$ nm).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080047984','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080047984"><span id="translatedtitle">MRO SOW <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Script</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fisher, Forest E.; Khanampornpan, Teerapat; Gladden, Roy E.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The MRO SOW <span class="hlt">daily</span> script (wherein "MRO" signifies "Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter" and "SOW" signifies "sequence systems engineer of the week") is a computer program that automates portions of the MRO <span class="hlt">daily</span> SOW procedure, which includes checking file-system sizes and automated sequence processor (ASP) log files. The MRO SOW <span class="hlt">daily</span> script effects clear reporting of (1) the status of, and requirements imposed on, the file system and (2) the ASP log files.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110013553','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110013553"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Increase in UV <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> during the Past 30 Years (1979-2008) Estimated from Satellite Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Herman, Jay R.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Zonal average ultraviolet <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (flux ultraviolet, F(sub uv)) reaching the Earth's surface has significantly increased since 1979 at all latitudes except the equatorial zone. Changes are estimated in zonal average F(sub uv) caused by ozone and cloud plus aerosol reflectivity using an approach based on Beer's law for monochromatic and action spectrum weighted <span class="hlt">irradiances</span>. For four different cases, it is shown that Beer's Law leads to a power law form similar to that applied to erythemal action spectrum weighted <span class="hlt">irradiances</span>. Zonal and annual average increases in F(sub uv) were caused by decreases in ozone amount from 1979 to 1998. After 1998, midlatitude annual average ozone amounts and UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> levels have been approximately constant. In the Southern Hemisphere, zonal and annual average UV increase is partially offset by tropospheric cloud and aerosol transmission decreases (hemispherical dimming), and to a lesser extent in the Northern Hemisphere. Ozone and 340 nm reflectivity changes have been obtained from multiple joined satellite time series from 1978 to 2008. The largest zonal average increases in F(sub uv) have occurred in the Southern Hemisphere. For clear-sky conditions at 50 S, zonal average F(sub uv) changes are estimated (305 nm, 23%; erythemal, 8.5%; 310 nm, 10%; vitamin D production, 12%). These are larger than at 50 N (305 nm, 9%; erythemal, 4%; 310 nm, 4%; vitamin D production, 6%). At the latitude of Buenos Aires, Argentina (34.6 S), the clear-sky Fuv increases are comparable to the increases near Washington, D. C. (38.9 N): 305 nm, 9% and 7%; erythemal, 6% and 4%; and vitamin D production, 7% and 5%, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950004646','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950004646"><span id="translatedtitle">UV-B radiation amplification factor determined based on the simultaneous observation of total ozone and <span class="hlt">global</span> spectral <span class="hlt">irradiance</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ito, T.; Sakoda, Y.; Matsubara, K.; Kajihara, R.; Uekubo, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Shitamichi, M.; Ueno, T.; Ito, M.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The Japan Meteorological Agency started the spectral observation of solar ultraviolet (UV) <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on 1 January 1990 at Tateno, Aerological Observatory in Tsukuba (35 deg N, 140 deg E). The observation has been carried out using the Brewer spectrophotometer for the wavelengths from 290 to 325 nm with a 0.5 nm interval every hour from 30 minutes before sunrise to 30 minutes after sunset throughout a year. Because of remarkable similarity within observed spectra, an observed spectrum can be expressed by a simple combination of a reference spectrum and two parameters expressing the deformation of the observed spectrum from the reference. By use of the relation between one of the deformation parameters and the total ozone simultaneously observed with the Dobson spectrophotometer, the possible increase of UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> due to ozone depletion is estimated. For damaging UV, the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> possibly increases about 19 percent with the ozone depletion of 10 percent at noon throughout the year in the northern midlatitudes. DUV at noon on the summer solstice possibly increases about 5.6 percent with the ozone depletion of 10 m atm-cm for all latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7040192','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7040192"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of height-dependent solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> and application to the solar climate of Iran</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Samimi, J. )</p> <p>1994-05-01</p> <p>An explicitly height-dependent model has been used to estimate the solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> over Iran which has a vast range of altitudes. The parameters of the model have been chosen on general grounds and not by parameters best fitting to any of the available measured <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> data in Iran. The estimated <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> on the horizontal surface shows a very good agreement (4.1% deviation) with the 17-year long pyranometric measurements in Tehran, and also, is in good agreement with other, shorter available measured data. The entire data base of the Iranian meteorological stations have been used to establish a simple relation between the sunshine duration records and the cloud cover reports which can be utilized in solar energy estimations for sites with no sunshine duration recorders. Clear sky maps of Iran for direct solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> on tracking, horizontal, and south-facing vertical planes are presented. The <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> map for horizontal surface with cloudiness is zoned into four <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> zones. In about four-fifths of the land in Iran, the annual-mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> on horizontal surface ranges from 4.5 to 5.4 kWh/m[sup 2].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.glaucoma.org/treatment/daily-life.php','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.glaucoma.org/treatment/daily-life.php"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Life with Glaucoma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... cure. Some <span class="hlt">daily</span> activities such as driving or playing certain sports may become more challenging. Loss of contrast sensitivity, problems with glare, and light sensitivity are some of the possible effects of glaucoma that may interfere with your activities. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.strokeassociation.org/STROKEORG/LifeAfterStroke/RegainingIndependence/TipsforDailyLiving/Tips-for-Daily-Living-Volunteer-Powered-Library_UCM_456235_SubHomePage.jsp','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.strokeassociation.org/STROKEORG/LifeAfterStroke/RegainingIndependence/TipsforDailyLiving/Tips-for-Daily-Living-Volunteer-Powered-Library_UCM_456235_SubHomePage.jsp"><span id="translatedtitle">Tips for <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Living</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Modifications Driving Finding Support You Are Not Alone Online Support Recovery and Support after Stroke Local Information: ... Tips and Gadgets for <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Activities Dressing Tips Shopping Tips Modifying the Bathroom Driving After Stroke Going ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=tooth+AND+decay&pg=2&id=EJ471371','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=tooth+AND+decay&pg=2&id=EJ471371"><span id="translatedtitle">Toothbrushing: Do It <span class="hlt">Daily</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Texas Child Care, 1993</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Offers a practical guide for promoting <span class="hlt">daily</span> toothbrushing in young children. Discusses the importance of proper dental care, explains the causes of tooth decay, describes proper dental care for infants and young children, recommends materials and teaching methods, and discusses visits to the dentist and the benefits of fluoride for dental health.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu//handle/1969.1/90726','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu//handle/1969.1/90726"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Predictions </span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Swyden, Courtney</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>stream_source_info <span class="hlt">Global</span> Predictions.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 7503 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name <span class="hlt">Global</span> Predictions.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Every morning... drought index is based on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> water balance, where a drought factor is calculated with precipitation and soil moisture,? Srinivasan said. <span class="hlt">Global</span> Predictions Story by Courtney Swyden <span class="hlt">Global</span> Predictions Lab uses advanced technologies to forecast...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://appliedresearch.cancer.gov/diet/screeners/daily.html','NCI'); return false;" href="http://appliedresearch.cancer.gov/diet/screeners/daily.html"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Food Checklist</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.cancer.gov">Cancer.gov</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">daily</span> food checklist method is a form of food record. The tool is comprised of a list of foods; over the course of a day, a respondent makes a check beside a food each time she or he eats it. The checklist shares an advantage of other record methods in that it does not rely on memory. In addition, it avoids some disadvantages of complete quantitative food records in that it has relatively low respondent and investigator burden.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14..174C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14..174C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Precipitation Concentration across Europe during 1971-2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cortesi, N.; González-Hidalgo, J. C.; Brunetti, M.; Martin-Vide, J.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Precipitation Concentration Index (CI) was used in this paper to investigate the statistical structure of <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation across Europe based on 744 <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall series for the period 1971-2010. Annual CI shows a <span class="hlt">global</span> crosswise gradient, form North-West to South-East of Europe (excluding Turkey and Greece). The same gradient is also observed in winter, spring and autumn, while in summer the gradient is North-South. Highest annual and seasonal <span class="hlt">daily</span> concentration of rainfall were detected primarily to the western Mediterranean basin, along Spanish and French coastlands. Relief seems to be one of the most noticeable factor in the spatial distribution of CI. Mann-Kendall test identifies no <span class="hlt">global</span> significant temporal trend patterns across Europe for 1971-2010 period. French is the only country with increasing annual and seasonal CI values. These results suggest that no significant changes have occurred in <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation distribution across Europe during 1971-2010.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.tmp..187L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.tmp..187L"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of monthly <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> using the Hargreaves-Samani model and an artificial neural network for the state of Alagoas in northeastern Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lyra, Gustavo Bastos; Zanetti, Sidney Sára; Santos, Anderson Amorim Rocha; de Souza, José Leonaldo; Lyra, Guilherme Bastos; Oliveira-Júnior, José Francisco; Lemes, Marco Antônio Maringolo</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The monthly <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> (H g) was estimated using the Hargreaves-Samani model (HS) with three different approaches for determining the k r coefficient and using an artificial neural network (ANN). The data consisted of long-term climate series measured at eight conventional meteorological stations in the state of Alagoas and its borders in northeastern Brazil. The approaches to determine the k r coefficient of the HS model included (i) the method proposed by Hargreaves (1994) (0.190 and 0.162 for coastal and interior regions, respectively), (ii) a method analogous to the previous except with altitude correction, and (iii) k r fitted with local climatic data. A new spatial interpolation method is also proposed to determine k r as a function of geographical coordinates and altitude. The fitted local values of k r (0.168-0.179 and 0.189-0.231 for interior and coastal stations, respectively) exhibited a strong dependence (r 2 = 0.81) on latitude, longitude, and altitude. The estimates of H g obtained with the HS model using fitted local values of k r and those using the ANN were similar (determination coefficient - r 2 = 0.75 and Willmontt agreement coefficient - d = 0.93) and better than those from the HS model using an altitude-corrected k r (r 2 = 0.68 and d = 0.90) or the values proposed by Hargreaves (1994) (r 2 = 0.57 and d = 0.85). The estimates of H g were less accurate and precise for the coastal stations, where cloudiness and humidity are high and the thermal amplitude is small.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AtmRe..70..209O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AtmRe..70..209O"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of the total atmospheric optical depth and cloud cover on solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> components</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ogunjobi, K. O.; Kim, Y. J.; He, Z.</p> <p>2004-06-01</p> <p>Broadband solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> data obtained in the spectral range 400-940 nm at Kwangju, South Korea from 1999-2000 have been analyzed to investigate the effects of cloud cover and atmospheric optical depth on solar radiation components. Results from measurements indicate that the percentage of direct and diffuse horizontal components of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> depend largely on total optical depth (TOD) and cloud cover. During summer and spring, the percentages of diffuse solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> relative to the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> were 5.0% and 4.9% as compared to 2.2% and 3.0% during winter and autumn. The diffuse solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> is higher than the direct in spring and summer by 24.2%, and 40.6%, respectively, which may largely be attributed to the attenuation (scattering) of radiation by heavy dust pollution and large cloud amount. In cloud-free conditions with cloud cover ?2/10, the fraction of the direct and diffuse components were 66.0% and 34.0%, respectively, with a mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> value of 7.92±2.91 MJ m -2 day -1. However, under cloudy conditions (with cloud cover ?8/10), the diffuse and direct fractions were 97.9% and 2.2% of the <span class="hlt">global</span> component, respectively. The annual mean TOD under cloudless conditions (cloud cover?2/10) yields 0.74±0.33 and increased to as much as 3.15±0.67 under cloudy conditions with cloud amount ?8/10. An empirical formula is derived for estimating the diffuse and direct components of horizontal solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> by considering the total atmospheric optical depth (TOD). Results from statistical models are shown for the estimation of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> components as a function of TOD with sufficient accuracy as indicated by low standard error for each solar zenith angle (SZA).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020010913&hterms=physical+activity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dphysical%2Bactivity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020010913&hterms=physical+activity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dphysical%2Bactivity"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantification of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Physical Activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Whalen, Robert; Breit, Greg; Quintana, Jason</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The influence of physical activity on the maintenance and adaptation of musculoskeletal tissue is difficult to assess. Cumulative musculoskeletal loading is hard to quantify and the attributes of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> tissue loading history affecting bone metabolism have not been completely identified. By monitoring the vertical component of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> ground reaction force (GRFz), we have an indirect measure of cumulative <span class="hlt">daily</span> lower limb musculoskeletal loading to correlate with bone density and structure. The objective of this research is to develop instrumentation and methods of analysis to quantify activity level in terms of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> history of ground reaction forces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://treephysiology.uga.edu/pubs/Tree%20Physiol%2019%20761-765,.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://treephysiology.uga.edu/pubs/Tree%20Physiol%2019%20761-765,.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Summary Pinus taeda L. stomata respond slowly to changes in <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. Because incident <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on a leaf varies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Teskey, Robert O.</p> <p></p> <p>on a leaf varies constantly, the rate of change in stomatal conductance to fluc- tuating <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> may have in <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, resulted in overes- timations of <span class="hlt">daily</span> stomatal conductance (13% mean error) and the magnitude- tion often exceeds the period of stable <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. This lag in stomatal conductance with changing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/89420','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/89420"><span id="translatedtitle">Unravelling <span class="hlt">daily</span> human mobility motifs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Schneider, Christian M.</p> <p></p> <p>Human mobility is differentiated by time scales. While the mechanism for long time scales has been studied, the underlying mechanism on the <span class="hlt">daily</span> scale is still unrevealed. Here, we uncover the mechanism responsible for ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.choosemyplate.gov/moms-daily-food-plan','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.choosemyplate.gov/moms-daily-food-plan"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Food Plan for Moms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... a Budget Create a Grocery Game Plan Shop Smart to Fill Your Cart Prepare Healthy Meals Sample 2-Week Menus Resources for ... Food Plan for Moms You are here Home / Audience / Adults / Moms/ Moms-to-Be <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Food ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11720268','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11720268"><span id="translatedtitle">Design of landfill <span class="hlt">daily</span> cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Panagiotakopoulos, D; Dokas, I</p> <p>2001-08-01</p> <p>The objective of this paper is to study the behaviour of the landfill soil-to-refuse (S/R) ratio when size, geometry and operating parameters of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> cell vary over realistic ranges. A simple procedure is presented (1) for calculating the cell parameters values which minimise the S/R ratio and (2) for studying the sensitivity of this minimum S/R ratio to variations in cell size, final refuse density, working face length, lift height and cover thickness. In countries where <span class="hlt">daily</span> soil cover is required, savings in landfill space could be realised following this procedure. The sensitivity of minimum S/R to variations in cell dimensions decreases with cell size. Working face length and lift height affect the S/R ratio significantly. This procedure also offers the engineer an additional tool for comparing one large <span class="hlt">daily</span> cell with two or more smaller ones, at two different working faces within the same landfill. PMID:11720268</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040081066&hterms=chlorophyll&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dchlorophyll','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040081066&hterms=chlorophyll&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dchlorophyll"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent Trends in <span class="hlt">Global</span> Ocean Chlorophyll</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gregg, Watson; Casey, Nancy</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Recent analyses of SeaWiFS data have shown that <span class="hlt">global</span> ocean chlorophyll has increased more than 5% since 1998. The North Pacific ocean basin has increased nearly 19%. To understand the causes of these trends we have applied the newly developed NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Assimilation Model (OBAM), which is driven in mechanistic fashion by surface winds, sea surface temperature, atmospheric iron deposition, sea ice, and surface <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. The mode1 utilizes chlorophyll from SeaWiFS in a <span class="hlt">daily</span> assimilation. The model has in place many of the climatic variables that can be expected to produce the changes observed in SeaWiFS data. Ths enables us to diagnose the model performance, the assimilation performance, and possible causes for the increase in chlorophyll.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910003170','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910003170"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Solar Lyman Alpha <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pap, J.; Hudson, H. S.; Rottman, G. J.; Willson, R. C.; Donnelly, R. F.; London, J.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Solar Lyman alpha <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> is estimated from various solar indices using linear regression analyses. Models developed with multiple linear regression analysis, including <span class="hlt">daily</span> values and 81-day running means of solar indices, predict reasonably well both the short- and long-term variations observed in Lyman alpha. It is shown that the full disk equivalent width of the He line at 1083 nm offers the best proxy for Lyman alpha, and that the total <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> corrected for sunspot effect also has a high correlation with Lyman alpha.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015FrP.....3...73A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015FrP.....3...73A"><span id="translatedtitle">Digital <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Cycles of Individuals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aledavood, Talayeh; Lehmann, Sune; Saramäki, Jari</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Humans, like almost all animals, are phase-locked to the diurnal cycle. Most of us sleep at night and are active through the day. Because we have evolved to function with this cycle, the circadian rhythm is deeply ingrained and even detectable at the biochemical level. However, within the broader day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital <span class="hlt">daily</span> cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We begin at the aggregate level, discuss earlier results, and illustrate differences between population-level <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms in different media. Then we move on to the individual level, and show that there is a strong individual-level variation beyond averages: individuals typically have their distinctive <span class="hlt">daily</span> pattern that persists in time. We conclude by discussing the driving forces behind these signature <span class="hlt">daily</span> patterns, from personal traits (morningness/eveningness) to variation in activity level and external constraints, and outline possibilities for future research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JNuM..463.1087K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JNuM..463.1087K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> gas balance and influence of atomic hydrogen <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> on the wall inventory in steady-state operation of QUEST tokamak</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuzmin, A.; Zushi, H.; Takagi, I.; Sharma, S. K.; Rusinov, A.; Inoue, Y.; Hirooka, Y.; Zhou, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Sakamoto, M.; Hanada, K.; Yoshida, N.; Nakamura, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Matsuoka, K.; Idei, H.; Nagashima, Y.; Hasegawa, M.; Onchi, T.; Banerjee, S.; Mishra, K.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Hydrogen wall pumping is studied in steady state tokamak operation (SSTO) of QUEST with all metal plasma facing materials PFMs at 100 °C. The duration of SSTO is up to 820 s in fully non-inductive plasma. <span class="hlt">Global</span> gas balance analysis shows that wall pumping at the apparent (retention-release) rate of 1-6 × 1018 H/s is dominant and 70-80% of injected H2 can be retained in PFMs. However, immediately after plasma termination the H2 release rate enhances to ?1019 H/s. In order to understand a true retention process the direct measurement of retention flux has been carried out by permeation probes. The comparison between the evaluated wall retention and results from <span class="hlt">global</span> analysis is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230125-wapa-daily-energy-accounting-activities','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230125-wapa-daily-energy-accounting-activities"><span id="translatedtitle">WAPA <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Energy Accounting Activities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/">Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1990-10-01</p> <p>ISA (Interchange, Scheduling, & Accounting) is the interchange scheduling system used by the DOE Western Area Power Administration to perform energy accounting functions associated with the <span class="hlt">daily</span> activities of the Watertown Operations Office (WOO). The system's primary role is to provide accounting functions for scheduled energy which is exchanged with other power companies and power operating organizations. The system has a secondary role of providing a historical record of all scheduled interchange transactions. The followingmore »major functions are performed by ISA: scheduled energy accounting for received and delivered energy; generation scheduling accounting for both fossil and hydro-electric power plants; metered energy accounting for received and delivered totals; energy accounting for Direct Current (D.C.) Ties; regulation accounting; automatic generation control set calculations; accounting summaries for Basin, Heartland Consumers Power District, and the Missouri Basin Municipal Power Agency; calculation of estimated generation for the Laramie River Station plant; <span class="hlt">daily</span> and monthly reports; and dual control areas.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.tmp...26F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.tmp...26F"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of atmospheric turbidity and surface radiative parameters using broadband clear sky solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> models in Rio de Janeiro-Brasil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Flores, José L.; Karam, Hugo A.; Marques Filho, Edson P.; Pereira Filho, Augusto J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The main goal of this paper is to estimate a set of optimal seasonal, <span class="hlt">daily</span>, and hourly values of atmospheric turbidity and surface radiative parameters Ångström's turbidity coefficient (?), Ångström's wavelength exponent (?), aerosol single scattering albedo (? o ), forward scatterance (F c ) and average surface albedo (? g ), using the Brute Force multidimensional minimization method to minimize the difference between measured and simulated solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> components, expressed as cost functions. In order to simulate the components of short-wave solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (direct, diffuse and <span class="hlt">global</span>) for clear sky conditions, incidents on a horizontal surface in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro (MARJ), Brazil (22° 51' 27? S, 43° 13' 58? W), we use two parameterized broadband solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> models, called CPCR2 and Iqbal C, based on synoptic information. The meteorological variables such as precipitable water (u w ) and ozone concentration (u o ) required by the broadband solar models were obtained from moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on Terra and Aqua NASA platforms. For the implementation and validation processes, we use <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> data measured by the radiometric platform of LabMiM, located in the north area of the MARJ. The data were measured between the years 2010 and 2012 at 1-min intervals. The performance of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> models using optimal parameters was evaluated with several quantitative statistical indicators and a subset of measured solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> data. Some <span class="hlt">daily</span> results for Ångström's wavelength exponent ? were compared with Ångström's parameter (440-870 nm) values obtained by aerosol robotic network (AERONET) for 11 days, showing an acceptable level of agreement. Results for Ångström's turbidity coefficient ?, associated with the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere, show a seasonal pattern according with increased precipitation during summer months (December-February) in the MARJ.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=261016','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=261016"><span id="translatedtitle">Emerging issues in food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Ionizing radiation is used on a <span class="hlt">global</span> basis to improve the phytosanitary and microbial safety and shelf-life of foods. In recent years progress has been made in the commercial application of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> to sterilize destructive invasive insects and to <span class="hlt">irradiate</span> produce to improve its microbiologica...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H43I1589F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H43I1589F"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial downscaling and mapping of <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and air temperature using <span class="hlt">daily</span> station data and monthly mean maps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.; Stern, M. A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Accurate maps of <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather variables are an essential component of hydrologic and ecologic modeling. Here we present a four-step method that uses <span class="hlt">daily</span> station data and transient monthly maps of precipitation and air temperature. This method uses the monthly maps to help interpolate between stations for more accurate production of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maps at any spatial resolution. The first step analyzes the quality of the each station's data using a discrepancy analysis that compares statistics derived from a statistical jack-knifing approach with a time-series evaluation of discrepancies generated for each station. Although several methods could be used for the second step of producing initial maps, such as kriging, splines, etc., we used a gradient plus inverse distance squared method that was developed to produce accurate climate maps for sparse data regions with widely separated and few climate stations, far fewer than would be needed for techniques such as kriging. The gradient plus inverse distance squared method uses local gradients in the climate parameters, easting, northing, and elevation, to adjust the inverse distance squared estimates for local gradients such as lapse rates, inversions, or rain shadows at scales of 10's of meters to kilometers. The third step is to downscale World Wide Web (web) based transient monthly data, such as Precipitation-Elevation Regression on Independent Slope Method (PRISM) for the US (4 km or 800 m maps) or Climate Research Unit (CRU 3.1) data sets (40 km for <span class="hlt">global</span> applications) to the scale of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> data's digital elevation model. In the final step the downscaled transient monthly maps are used to adjust the <span class="hlt">daily</span> time-series mapped data (~30 maps/month) for each month. These adjustments are used to scale <span class="hlt">daily</span> maps so that summing them for precipitation or averaging them for temperature would more accurately reproduce the variability in selected monthly maps. This method allows for individual days to have maxima or minima values away from the station locations based on the underlying geographic structure of the monthly maps. We compare our results with the web based 12 km Variable Infiltration Capacity model (VIC) <span class="hlt">daily</span> data and the 1 km DayMet <span class="hlt">daily</span> data as well as make comparisons of the month summation or average of <span class="hlt">daily</span> data sets with the PRISM and CRU data sets. There were mixed results in the comparisons with some good agreement and some bad agreement, even between VIC and DayMet. These <span class="hlt">daily</span> maps are intended to be used as input to <span class="hlt">daily</span> hydrological models. The results will provide more insight into the significance of the differences, at least from a hydrology perspective.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=alcohol+AND+History&pg=7&id=EJ999531','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=alcohol+AND+History&pg=7&id=EJ999531"><span id="translatedtitle">Intent to Quit among <span class="hlt">Daily</span> and Non-<span class="hlt">Daily</span> College Student Smokers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-<span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers (i.e. never <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers), converted non-<span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers (i.e. former <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers) and <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers] and (ii) smoking…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6788037','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6788037"><span id="translatedtitle">Brush border intestinal enzymes after multiple <span class="hlt">daily</span> fractionation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Becciolini, A.; Giache, V.; Balzi, M.; Morrone, A.</p> <p>1987-03-01</p> <p>The modifications in brush border enzyme activity of the epithelial cell of the small intestine were studied after multiple <span class="hlt">daily</span> fractionation (MDF) of 3 Gy X and 3 Gy X 2 X 2 (12 h split). Disaccharase and dipeptidase activities changed in the same way after <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>. The results show that both total doses caused the three known phases of increase, decrease, and a return to normal. With MDF, activity at the end of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> was similar to or greater than that of controls and remained higher longer than a single dose of 8 Gy. However, the return to normal occurred sooner than after a single dose of 8 Gy. After 11 days, circadian oscillations of brush border enzyme activity appeared similar to those of controls in many segments of the intestine, reaching the highest activity during the night and the lowest in the afternoon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1007339','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1007339"><span id="translatedtitle">Measuring Degradation Rates Without <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pulver, S.; Cormode, D.; Cronin, A.; Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Smith, R.</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>A method to report PV system degradation rates without using <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> data is demonstrated. First, a set of relative degradation rates are determined by comparing <span class="hlt">daily</span> AC final yields from a group of PV systems relative to the average final yield of all the PV systems. Then, the difference between relative and absolute degradation rates is found from a statistical analysis. This approach is verified by comparing to methods that utilize <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> data. This approach is significant because PV systems are often deployed without <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> sensors, so the analysis method described here may enable measurements of degradation using data that were previously thought to be unsuitable for degradation studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080012144&hterms=mops&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dmops','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080012144&hterms=mops&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dmops"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release 2 Shortwave <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Data in Native Format (SRB_REL2_SW_<span class="hlt">DAILY</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p></p> <p>This data set contains upward and downward fluxes, photosynthetically active radiative flux, aerosol and cloud optical depth, cloud fraction, and solar zenith angle measured at three hourly intervals for each day for the entire globe between 07/01/1983 and 10/31/1995. These SW surface radiative parameters were derived with the Shortwave algorithm of the NASA World Climate Research Programme/<span class="hlt">Global</span> Energy and Water-Cycle Experiment (WCRP/GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Project. [Location=<span class="hlt">GLOBAL</span>] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1998-07-26] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=Ranges from 1 degree (tropics and subtropics) to 120 degrees (the poles).; Temporal_Resolution=<span class="hlt">daily</span>; Temporal_Resolution_Range=<span class="hlt">daily</span>].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110007072','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110007072"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhancement of the MODIS <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Snow Albedo Product</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hall, Dorothy K.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Wang, Zhuosen; Riggs, George A.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The MODIS <span class="hlt">daily</span> snow albedo product is a data layer in the MOD10A1 snow-cover product that includes snow-covered area and fractional snow cover as well as quality information and other metadata. It was developed to augment the MODIS BRDF/Albedo algorithm (MCD43) that provides 16-day maps of albedo <span class="hlt">globally</span> at 500-m resolution. But many modelers require <span class="hlt">daily</span> snow albedo, especially during the snowmelt season when the snow albedo is changing rapidly. Many models have an unrealistic snow albedo feedback in both estimated albedo and change in albedo over the seasonal cycle context, Rapid changes in snow cover extent or brightness challenge the MCD43 algorithm; over a 16-day period, MCD43 determines whether the majority of clear observations was snow-covered or snow-free then only calculates albedo for the majority condition. Thus changes in snow albedo and snow cover are not portrayed accurately during times of rapid change, therefore the current MCD43 product is not ideal for snow work. The MODIS <span class="hlt">daily</span> snow albedo from the MOD10 product provides more frequent, though less robust maps for pixels defined as "snow" by the MODIS snow-cover algorithm. Though useful, the <span class="hlt">daily</span> snow albedo product can be improved using a <span class="hlt">daily</span> version of the MCD43 product as described in this paper. There are important limitations to the MOD10A1 <span class="hlt">daily</span> snow albedo product, some of which can be mitigated. Utilizing the appropriate per-pixel Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDFs) can be problematic, and correction for anisotropic scattering must be included. The BRDF describes how the reflectance varies with view and illumination geometry. Also, narrow-to-broadband conversion specific for snow on different surfaces must be calculated and this can be difficult. In consideration of these limitations of MOD10A1, we are planning to improve the <span class="hlt">daily</span> snow albedo algorithm by coupling the periodic per-pixel snow albedo from MCD43, with <span class="hlt">daily</span> surface ref|outanoom, In this paper, we compare a <span class="hlt">daily</span> version of MCD43B3 with the <span class="hlt">daily</span> albedo from MOD10A1. and MCD43B3 with a 16-day average of MOD10A1, over Greenland. We also discuss some near-future planned enhancements to MOD10A1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=318809','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=318809"><span id="translatedtitle">Phytosanitary <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> and Fresh Fruit Quality: Cultivar and Maturity Effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> is an effective quarantine treatment for <span class="hlt">global</span> trade of fresh produce. Variation in cultivars and maturity stages can impact the tolerance of fresh fruits to <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> for the purposes of quarantine security. Tolerance thresholds for <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> fruit are lacking for a large number of ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/ResourcesForYou/Consumers/BuyingUsingMedicineSafely/UnderstandingOver-the-CounterMedicines/SafeUseofOver-the-CounterPainRelieversandFeverReducers/ucm233848.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/ResourcesForYou/Consumers/BuyingUsingMedicineSafely/UnderstandingOver-the-CounterMedicines/SafeUseofOver-the-CounterPainRelieversandFeverReducers/ucm233848.htm"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Medicine Record for Your Child</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... the-Counter Pain Relievers and Fever Reducers <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Medicine Record for Your Child (English) Share Tweet Linkedin ... Age: ____ 2 years old___ Weight: ___ 30 pounds ___ <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Medicine Record Child’s name: ___________________ Today’s date: _________________ Age: ____________ Weight: ________________ (pounds) ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013759','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013759"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> cycles in coastal dunes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hunter, R.E.; Richmond, B.M.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> cycles of summer sea breezes produce distinctive cyclic foreset deposits in dune sands of the Texas and Oregon coasts. In both areas the winds are strong enough to transport sand only during part of the day, reach a peak during the afternoon, and vary little in direction during the period of sand transport. Cyclicity in the foreset deposits is made evident by variations in the type of sedimentary structure, the texture, and the heavy-mineral content of the sand. Some of the cyclic deposits are made up entirely of one basic type of structure, in which the character of the structure varies cyclically; for example, the angle of climb in a climbing-wind-ripple structure may vary cyclically. Other cyclic deposits are characterized by alternations of two or more structural types. Variations in the concentration of fine-grained heavy minerals, which account for the most striking cyclicity, arise mainly because of segregation on wind-rippled depositional surfaces: where the ripples climb at low angles, the coarsegrained light minerals, which accumulate preferentially on ripple crests, tend to be excluded from the local deposit. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> cyclic deposits are thickest and best developed on small dunes and are least recognizable near the bases of large dunes. ?? 1988.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/264311','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/264311"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">daily</span> changing pattern of hydrogen peroxide in New Zealand surface waters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Herrmann, R.</p> <p>1996-05-01</p> <p>Concerns are rising about a <span class="hlt">global</span> change of climate, which is based on changes of UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, rainfall, and temperature for example. One possible impact of increased UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on lake ecosystems is increased formation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Studies on the temporal and spatial behavior of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in lake waters may be a precondition for a better understanding of the impact of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} on aquatic ecosystems. Concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) were measured during daytime every 2 h at several depths in a catena of lakes of different trophic states including oligotrophic lakes Selfe and Oxbow, eutrophic Lake Hayes, dystrophic Lake Hochstetter, and a hypertrophic oxidation pond. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> patterns of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} of the various lakes can be explained firstly by the turnover regime of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} which results out of simultaneous biological or chemical decay and formation yield (ratio of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} formed per UV radiation dose) and secondly by internal transport. As in dystrophic, eutrophic, and hypertrophic lakes with high turnover, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is formed near the surface and the decay is rapid over the entire water column, a H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pattern with sharp temporal and vertical gradients develops. In contrast, oligotrophic lakes allow deeper penetration of UV radiation, thus H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is formed over greater depths. Further, the (biological) decay is slower than in lakes of higher trophic state leading to less sharp gradients within the <span class="hlt">daily</span> H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pattern. Input of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by wet deposition can contribute considerably to the increase of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in lakes, whereas dry deposition and groundwater flow do not.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1210.6218.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1210.6218.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A preliminary study of the linear relationship between monthly averaged <span class="hlt">daily</span> solar radiation and <span class="hlt">daily</span> thermal amplitude in the north of Buenos Aires provence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Cionco, R; Rodriguez, R</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Using <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and temperature measurements obtained at the Facultad Regional San Nicol\\'as of UTN, we performed a preliminary study of the linear relationship between monthly averaged <span class="hlt">daily</span> solar radiation and <span class="hlt">daily</span> thermal amplitude. The results show a very satisfactory adjustment (R = 0.848, RMS = 0.066, RMS% = 9.690 %), even taking into account the limited number of months (36). Thus, we have a formula of predictive nature, capable of estimating mean monthly solar radiation for various applications. We expect to have new data sets to expand and improve the statistical significance of these results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002431.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002431.htm"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Irradiated</span> foods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... it reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes, and to control insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A11E3056S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A11E3056S"><span id="translatedtitle">Observed and Modelled Rainfall Distributions on <span class="hlt">Daily</span> and Sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> Timescales Over the Western Maritime Continent</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sahany, S.; Lim, S. Y.; Cheong, W. K. K.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Simulating the distribution of rainfall on <span class="hlt">daily</span> and sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> time-scales has been a daunting task faced by both <span class="hlt">global</span> and regional climate models. Over the maritime continent this problem becomes all the more challenging due to the complex topography and local processes playing a major role in shaping the climate over the region. Using a 24-year (1981-2005) timeseries of hourly in-situ rainfall over Singapore, an island over the western maritime continent with a very dense network of rain-gauges, we first characterize the observed rainfall distribution and compare it with retrievals from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. We find remarkably good agreement between in-situ observations and TRMM retrievals in the entire range of rainfall intensities sampled, as seen from the cumulative distribution diagrams. From TRMM retrievals we also find that on <span class="hlt">daily</span> timescales the rainfall distribution over the Singapore island is very similar to that over the adjoining oceans. Next, we validate the fidelity of the Met Office regional model RegUM in reproducing the observed rainfall statistics using dynamically downscaled model outputs at 12 km horizontal grid spacing for the same time period, and find a good agreement between the model and satellite retrievals over the neighbouring oceans, however over land the model fails to simulate the rainfall distribution with an over-estimation of low-intensity drizzle and significant underestimation of the higher intensities. Finally, we compare the rainfall statistics produced by the regional model with those from the driving <span class="hlt">global</span> model (HadGEM2-ES), and find that although in general the regional model follows the driving model on larger spatial and temporal scales, at finer scales the rainfall distribution from the two models can be quite different. We find that on <span class="hlt">daily</span> timescales, over both land and ocean points the regional model produces the most intense rainfall events on days when the driving <span class="hlt">global</span> model produces very little rainfall.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028194','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028194"><span id="translatedtitle">Cokriging estimation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> suspended sediment loads</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Li, Z.; Zhang, Y.-K.; Schilling, K.; Skopec, M.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> suspended sediment loads (S) were estimated using cokriging (CK) of S with <span class="hlt">daily</span> river discharge based on weekly, biweekly, or monthly sampled sediment data. They were also estimated with ordinary kriging (OK) and a rating curve method. The estimated <span class="hlt">daily</span> loads were compared with the <span class="hlt">daily</span> measured values over a nine-year-period. The results show that the estimated <span class="hlt">daily</span> sediment loads with the CK using the weekly measured data best matched the measured <span class="hlt">daily</span> values. The rating curve method based on the same data provides a fairly good match but it tends to underestimate the peak and overestimate the low values. The CK estimation was better than the rating curve because CK considers the temporal correlation among the data values and honors the measured points whereas the rating curve method does not. For the site studied, weekly sampling may be frequent enough for estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> sediment loads with CK when <span class="hlt">daily</span> discharge data is available. The estimated <span class="hlt">daily</span> loads with CK were less reliable when the sediment samples were taken less frequently, i.e., biweekly or monthly. The OK estimates using the weekly measured data significantly underestimates the <span class="hlt">daily</span> S because unlike CK and the rating curve, OK makes no use of the correlation of sediment loads with frequently measured river discharge. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14706037','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14706037"><span id="translatedtitle">Visual stimuli in <span class="hlt">daily</span> life.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, Dorothée G A; van der Beld, Gerrit; Heynderickx, Ingrid; Groen, Paul</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>People of all ages, but especially children and adolescents, are increasingly exposed to visual stimuli. Typical environmental stimuli that can trigger epileptic seizures in susceptible persons are televisions (TVs), computers, videogames (VGs), discothèque lights, venetian blinds, striped walls, rolling stairs (escalators), striped clothing, and sunlight reflected from snow or the sea or interrupted by trees during a ride in a car or train. Less common stimuli are rotating helicopter blades, disfunctioning fluorescent lighting, welding lights, etc. New potentially provocative devices turn up now and then unexpectedly. During the last decades especially, displays have become increasingly dominant in many of our <span class="hlt">daily</span>-life activities. We therefore focus mainly on the characteristics of artificial light and on current and future developments in video displays and videogames. Because VG playing has been shown also to have positive effects, a rating system might be developed for provocativeness to inform consumers about the content. It is important that patients with epilepsy be informed adequately about their possible visual sensitivity. PMID:14706037</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20850268','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20850268"><span id="translatedtitle">Whole-abdomen radiotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma using twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> fractionation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Liauw, Stanley L.; Yeh, Alexander M.; Morris, Christopher G.; Olivier, Kenneth R.; Mendenhall, Nancy Price . E-mail: mendenan@shands.ufl.edu</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Purpose: To report the tolerability and efficacy of twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> whole-abdomen <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> (WAI) for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Methods and Materials: Of 123 patients treated for NHL with WAI, 37% received previous chemotherapy, 28% received WAI as part of comprehensive lymphatic <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> (CLI), and 32% received WAI for palliation. The median dose to the whole abdomen was 25.0 Gy, followed by a median tumor boost of 9.8 Gy in 58 patients. Fractionation was 1.0 Gy once <span class="hlt">daily</span> (54%) or 0.8 Gy twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> (46%). Blood counts were measured weekly. Results: At a median follow-up of 4.3 years, local control was 72% and overall survival was 55% at 5 years. Median time of WAI was 42 days for once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> treatment and 32 days for twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> treatment. Patients receiving twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> WAI did not have a significantly higher rate of acute side effects (e.g., nausea, diarrhea, platelet or red blood cell toxicity). Overall, acute thrombocytopenia was the most frequent side effect of treatment; 24 of 96 patients (25%) with available hematologic data had Grade 3+ toxicity. There was no acute Grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity and no late small bowel obstruction. Multiple regression indicated that patients with four or less involved sites and disease size {<=}6 cm had improved local control and overall survival. Conclusions: Twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> WAI using 0.8 Gy/fraction does not appear to have any greater toxicity compared with once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> treatment using 1 Gy/fraction. Small doses per fraction (0.8-1 Gy/fx) are effective, tolerated well in the acute setting, and associated with a low rate of late toxicity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=plan+AND+B&pg=2&id=EJ961917','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=plan+AND+B&pg=2&id=EJ961917"><span id="translatedtitle">Mastering Social and Organization Goals: Strategy Use by Two Children with Asperger Syndrome during Cognitive Orientation to <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Occupational Performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rodger, Sylvia; Vishram, Alysha</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Preliminary data supports the effectiveness of Cognitive Orientation to (<span class="hlt">daily</span>) Occupational Performance (CO-OP) for children with Asperger syndrome (AS). Children with AS often experience social and organizational difficulties spanning <span class="hlt">daily</span> occupations. This case study explored the pattern of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Strategies and Domain-Specific Strategies…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.cnr.berkeley.edu/~ahg/pubs/deriving.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.cnr.berkeley.edu/~ahg/pubs/deriving.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Deriving a light use efficiency model from eddy covariance flux data for predicting <span class="hlt">daily</span> gross primary production across biomes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Goldstein, Allen</p> <p></p> <p>Deriving a light use efficiency model from eddy covariance flux data for predicting <span class="hlt">daily</span> gross challenge in quantifying the <span class="hlt">global</span> carbon cycle. We developed a light use efficiency (LUE) <span class="hlt">daily</span> GPP model of absorbed PAR (fPAR) is a linear function of NDVI; Second, that the realized light use efficiency</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23604480','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23604480"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> regulation of hormone profiles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kalsbeek, Andries; Fliers, Eric</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The highly coordinated output of the hypothalamic biological clock does not only govern the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm in sleep/wake (or feeding/fasting) behaviour but also has direct control over many aspects of hormone release. In fact, a significant proportion of our current understanding of the circadian clock has its roots in the study of the intimate connections between the hypothalamic clock and multiple endocrine axes. This chapter will focus on the anatomical connections used by the mammalian biological clock to enforce its endogenous rhythmicity on the rest of the body, using a number of different hormone systems as a representative example. Experimental studies have revealed a highly specialised organisation of the connections between the mammalian circadian clock neurons and neuroendocrine as well as pre-autonomic neurons in the hypothalamus. These complex connections ensure a logical coordination between behavioural, endocrine and metabolic functions that will help the organism adjust to the time of day most efficiently. For example, activation of the orexin system by the hypothalamic biological clock at the start of the active phase not only ensures that we wake up on time but also that our glucose metabolism and cardiovascular system are prepared for this increased activity. Nevertheless, it is very likely that the circadian clock present within the endocrine glands plays a significant role as well, for instance, by altering these glands' sensitivity to specific stimuli throughout the day. In this way the net result of the activity of the hypothalamic and peripheral clocks ensures an optimal endocrine adaptation of the metabolism of the organism to its time-structured environment. PMID:23604480</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080012154&hterms=sunshine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dsunshine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080012154&hterms=sunshine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dsunshine"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release 2.5 QC Shortwave <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Data in Native Format (SRB_REL2.5_QCSW_<span class="hlt">DAILY</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p></p> <p>This data set contains average clear-sky surface insolation, all-sky surface insolation, surface absorbed SW flux, and all-sky surface albedo measured at <span class="hlt">daily</span> intervals for each day for the entire globe between 07/01/1983 and 06/30/2005. These SW surface radiative parameters were derived with the Quality-Check SW (QCSW) algorithm of the NASA World Climate Research Programme/<span class="hlt">Global</span> Energy and Water-Cycle Experiment (WCRP/GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Project. [Location=<span class="hlt">GLOBAL</span>] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=Ranges from 1 degree (tropics and subtropics) to 120 degrees (the poles).; Temporal_Resolution=<span class="hlt">daily</span>; Temporal_Resolution_Range=<span class="hlt">daily</span>].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26695063','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26695063"><span id="translatedtitle">Psychological Therapy in Adolescents with Chronic <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Headache.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chiappedi, Matteo; Mensi, Martina Maria; Termine, Cristiano; Balottin, Umberto</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Chronic <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache is a serious disease, causing significant problems in terms of reduced quality of life and disability, with pain localized to the head (headache) occurring 15 or more days per month for more than 3 months (>180 days per year). Drugs, both used as preventive medications or as pain-killers, are insufficient for the management of these patients; a more <span class="hlt">global</span> approach has been advocated. This paper reviews existing data concerning different psychological approaches, with a focus on adolescence. This leads to evidence still unanswered questions but also the importance to include psychological treatments in the management of this potentially disabling condition. PMID:26695063</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23023622','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23023622"><span id="translatedtitle">[Lipid therapy in <span class="hlt">daily</span> routine].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sonntag, F; Schaefer, J R; Gitt, A K; Weizel, A; Jannowitz, C; Karmann, B; Pittrow, D; Bestehorn, K</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Patients with increased cardiovascular risk profile are frequently seen in general practice. Comprehensive management of modifiable risk factors, in particular dyslipidemia, is mandatory. Many studies in clinical practice have shown a gap between the recommendations in clinical guidelines and the actual situation. Current data on the management situation of patients with high cardiovascular risk is provided by the prospective registry LIMA. Primary care physicians in 2,387 offices throughout Germany documented 13,924 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetes mellitus or peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Treatment with simvastatin 40?mg was an inclusion criterion. Physicians documented drug utilization, laboratory values (lipids, blood glucose), blood pressure and clinical events over one year and received feedback about the target value attainment of their patients after data entry. Mean age of the patients was 65.7 years, and 61.6?% were men. CAD was reported in 70.6?%, diabetes mellitus in 58.2?% and PAD in 14.9?%. Most patients (68?%) received simvastatin as monotherapy also after the inclusion visit; 20.6?% of patients received in addition the cholesterol absorption inhibitor (ezetimibe) in the first 6 months, and 23.3?% in the second 6 months. Patients achieved the LDL-cholesterol target value in 31.8?% at entry and 50.0?% after one year. The blood pressure target <?140?/90?mmHg was reached by 65.8?% after one year. Of patients with diabetes mellitus 40.0?% reached an HbA1c value below 6.5?%. Clinical events (death, hospitalization, (cardio-) vascular events, and dialysis) were reported by 11.7?% of patients between entry and Month 6, and by 12.0?% between Month 7 and 12. In <span class="hlt">daily</span> practice comprehensive management of risk factors in patients at high cardiovascular risk remains a challenge. For normalization of increased LDL cholesterol values addition of ezetimibe to existing statin therapy improves the chances of patients for target level attainment. PMID:23023622</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdSpR..51.1727K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdSpR..51.1727K"><span id="translatedtitle">Prediction of clear-sky biologically effective erythematic radiation (EER) From <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation (250-2800 nm) at Cairo, Egypt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khalil, Samy A.; Shaffie, A. M.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>The hourly and <span class="hlt">daily</span> measured clear-sky <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation (G) and biologically important effective erythematic radiation (EER) incident on a horizontal surface at Cairo, Egypt (latitude 30° 05? N & Longitude 31° 15? E), during the period from January 1995 to December 2005 are used in this paper. The relationship between <span class="hlt">daily</span> integrated totals of EER and the <span class="hlt">daily</span> totals of broadband <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation (250-2800 nm) is established. The temporal variability of the percentage ratio of the total <span class="hlt">daily</span> erythema to total <span class="hlt">daily</span> broadband solar <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> (EER/G) is determined. The monthly and the seasonal averages of the extraterrestrial UVB solar radiation, Mesurad and estímated UVB solar radiation and clearness index KtUVB of UVB radiation are discussed. The average monthly mean variation of slant ozone (Z) and UVB transmission (KtUVB) at the present work are found. The two variables show an opposite seasonal behavior, and the average monthly of slant ozone column and UVB transmission values shows the relationship between them in a clearer way than those of <span class="hlt">daily</span> values. The estimated values of UVB solar radiation a good agreement with the measured values of the UVB solar radiation, the difference between the estimated and measured values of UVB solar radiation varies from 1.2% to 2.8%. The effect of the annual cycles of solar zenith angle (SZA) and total column ozone (TCO) on the ratios (EER/G) are presented and the correction factors are determined for removal of the ozone cycle. The seasonal variability of EER/G is also discussed. The effect of the annual cycles of solar zenith angle (SZA) and total column ozone (TCO) on the ratios (EER/G) is presented and the correction factors are determined for removal of the ozone cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title1-vol1-sec5-6.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title1-vol1-sec5-6.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 5.6 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.6 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title1-vol1-sec5-6.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title1-vol1-sec5-6.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 5.6 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.6 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title1-vol1-sec5-6.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title1-vol1-sec5-6.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 5.6 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.6 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title1-vol1-sec5-6.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title1-vol1-sec5-6.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 5.6 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.6 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title1-vol1-sec5-6.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title1-vol1-sec5-6.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 5.6 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.6 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=meditation&pg=5&id=EJ995012','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=meditation&pg=5&id=EJ995012"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Spiritual Experiences and Prosocial Behavior</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Einolf, Christopher J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This paper examines how the <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES) relates to range of prosocial behaviors, using a large, nationally representative U.S. data set. It finds that <span class="hlt">daily</span> spiritual experiences are a statistically and substantively significant predictor of volunteering, charitable giving, and helping individuals one knows personally.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=change+AND+habit&pg=3&id=EJ805577','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=change+AND+habit&pg=3&id=EJ805577"><span id="translatedtitle">Children's <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Routines during Kindergarten Transition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wildenger, Leah K.; McIntyre, Laura Lee; Fiese, Barbara H.; Eckert, Tanya L.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Routines are an important feature of family life and functioning in families with young children. Common <span class="hlt">daily</span> routines such as dinnertime, bedtime, and waking activities are powerful organizers of family behavior and may be instrumental to children and families during times of transition, such as elementary school entry. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> routines were…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=infantil&id=EJ1051349','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=infantil&id=EJ1051349"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Stressors in Primary Education Students</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Trianes, María V.; Escobar, Milagros; Blanca, María J.; Muñoz, Ángela M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> stress can have a bearing on children's emotional and academic development. This study aimed to assess <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors and to determine their prevalence among primary education students, taking into account their gender, academic year, social adaptation, and the school location. A sample of 7,354 Spanish schoolchildren aged between 6…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011Ap%26SS.334..317P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011Ap%26SS.334..317P"><span id="translatedtitle">Time variation analysis of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> Forbush decrease indices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Patra, Sankar Narayan; Ghosh, Koushik; Panja, Subhash Chandra</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>In the present paper we have analyzed the <span class="hlt">daily</span> Forbush decrease indices from January 1, 1967 to December 31, 2003. First filtering the time series by Simple Exponential Smoothing, we have applied Scargle Method of Periodogram on the processed time series in order to search for its time variation. Study exhibits periodicities around 174, 245, 261, 321, 452, 510, 571, 584, 662, 703, 735, 741, 767, 774, 820, 970, 1062, 1082, 1489, 1715, 2317, 2577, 2768, 3241 and 10630 days with confidence levels higher than 90%. Some of these periods are significantly similar to the observed periodicities of other solar activities, like solar filament activity, solar electron flare occurrence, solar-flare rate, solar proton events, solar neutrino flux, solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, cosmic ray intensity and flare, spectrum of the sunspot, solar wind, southern coronal hole area and solar cycle, which may suggest that the Forbush decrease behaves similarly to these solar activities and these activities may have a common origin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=week&pg=4&id=EJ959374','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=week&pg=4&id=EJ959374"><span id="translatedtitle">Adolescent <span class="hlt">Daily</span> and General Maladjustment: Is There Reactivity to <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Repeated Measures Methodologies?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nishina, Adrienne</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The present study examined whether repeated exposure to <span class="hlt">daily</span> surveys about negative social experiences predicts changes in adolescents' <span class="hlt">daily</span> and general maladjustment, and whether question content moderates these changes. Across a 2-week period, 6th-grade students (N = 215; mode age = 11) completed 5 <span class="hlt">daily</span> reports tapping experienced or…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu//handle/1969.1/87139','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu//handle/1969.1/87139"><span id="translatedtitle">Safer Food with <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> </span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Thompson, Britta; Vestal, Andy; Van Laanen, Peggy</p> <p>2003-01-21</p> <p>This publication answers questions about food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> and how it helps prevent foodborne illnesses. Included are explanations of how <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> works and its benefits. <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> is a safe method of preserving food quality and ensuring its...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A41B3041L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A41B3041L"><span id="translatedtitle">Stochastic Simulation of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Solar Radiation from Sunshine Duration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lockart, N.; Kavetski, D.; Franks, S. W.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Solar radiation is a key component of the energy balance used for estimating evaporation. As solar radiation is not widely measured, many empirical models have been developed to estimate solar radiation using sunshine hours (SSH) data. Most of these models only provide deterministic estimates of monthly solar radiation and do not provide an estimate of the uncertainty in the predictions. This study developed five stochastic models which use <span class="hlt">daily</span> SSH data to produce probabilistic simulations of solar radiation, and can be used to estimate historical <span class="hlt">daily</span> radiation. The predictive uncertainty due to the timing of the SSH during the day (estimated using Monte Carlo simulation), as well as due to external errors (such as the variability in cloud type and atmospheric composition), were considered. The developed models differ in their parameterisation of the direct and diffuse components of the solar radiation, using either no scaling, linear or quadratic scaling of the radiation by the <span class="hlt">daily</span> SSH fraction to account for cloud attenuation. For each model the simulated solar radiation was compared with the observed radiation. The performance of the five models was compared and the models were found to perform similarly well, with an average error of approximately 9% for all locations studied. The results suggest that the uncertainty due to the timing of the SSH does not dominate predictive errors in <span class="hlt">global</span> radiation. Rather the external uncertainty is the dominant source of predictive error in the radiation estimates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17512594','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17512594"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> intake of 4-nonylphenol in Taiwanese.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lu, Yu-Yu; Chen, Mei-Lien; Sung, Fung-Chang; Wang, Paulus Shyi-Gang; Mao, I-Fang</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>Alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEO), alkylphenols combined with ethylene oxide, are a class of nonionic surfactants. APEO have been widely used for industrial, agricultural and household applications, and are biodegraded to more persistent and estrogen-active products, namely, nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), butylphenol (BP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP(1)EO) and nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP(2)EO). This study determined NP levels in commonly consumed foodstuffs to assess <span class="hlt">daily</span> intake of NP in a Taiwanese population. This study analyzes 318 of samples from 25 types of commonly consumed foodstuffs in northern, central, southern and eastern regions of Taiwan and estimates <span class="hlt">daily</span> intake of NP in 466 subjects. Moreover, <span class="hlt">daily</span> NP intake for 3915 additional subjects was estimated by analyzing data from the Nutrition and health survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT). The foodstuff samples were analyzed for five alkylphenol compounds simultaneously by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Additionally, the average compositions of typical foods consumed in Taiwan were investigated. In combination with alkylphenol levels in these foodstuffs, <span class="hlt">daily</span> intake of NP in Taiwanese was calculated. The average <span class="hlt">daily</span> intake of NP for the 466 subjects was 28.04+/-25.32 microg/day. Estimated <span class="hlt">daily</span> intake of NP, based on NP levels in this study as well as the NAHSIT data, was 31.40 microg/day. Rice was the most commonly consumed source of NP, the proportion was 21.46% among <span class="hlt">daily</span> intake of NP and the following were aquatic products and livestock, which percentage were 17.97% and 17.38%, respectively. Additionally, oysters had the highest NP levels (235.8+/-90.7 ng/g) in four regions of Taiwan, followed by salmon (123.8+/-116.2 ng/g). This study suggested that the average <span class="hlt">daily</span> NP intake in Taiwan is 4-fold and 8.5-fold higher than <span class="hlt">daily</span> intake in Germany and New Zealand, respectively and rice was the major source of NP intake. PMID:17512594</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513756V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513756V"><span id="translatedtitle">Parallel measurements to study inhomogeneities in <span class="hlt">daily</span> data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Venema, Victor; Aguilar, Enric; Auchmann, Renate; Auer, Ingebor; Brandsma, Theo; Chimani, Barbara; Gilabert, Alba; Mestre, Olivier; Toreti, Andrea</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> datasets have become a focus of climate research because they are essential for studying the variability and extremes in weather and climate. However, all long observational climate records are usually affected by changes due to nonclimatic factors and looking at the known physical causes of inhomogeneities, one would even expect that many causes especially affect the tails of the distribution. Fortunately, the number of national and regional homogenized <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature datasets is increasing, but still many <span class="hlt">daily</span> datasets are not homogenized or limited to adjustments on the mean of the distribution. In this literature review we investigate the physical causes of inhomogeneities and how they affect the distribution with respect to its mean and its tails. We review what is known about changes in the distribution from parallel measurements with historical measurement setups. We discuss the state of the art in the homogenization of the distribution and provide an overview of the quality of available datasets that are often used for studies on changes in extremes and of well-homogenized dataset. As expected, this review shows that the tails are even more affected by changes in monitoring practices than the means. Given the strong interest in studying changes in variability and extreme weather and the strong inhomogeneity in the raw data, the homogenization of <span class="hlt">daily</span> data and the development of better methods should have a high research priority. This research would be much facilitated by a <span class="hlt">global</span> reference database with parallel measurements. The climate community, and especially those involved in homogenization, bias correction and the evaluation of uncertainties, should take an active role to foster the compilation of such reference database.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4679468','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4679468"><span id="translatedtitle">Factors influencing quit attempts among male <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers in China?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhao, Luhua; Song, Yang; Xiao, Lin; Palipudi, Krishna; Asma, Samira</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background China has the largest population of smokers in the world, yet the quit rate is low. We used data from the 2010 <span class="hlt">Global</span> Adult Tobacco Survey China to identify factors influencing quit attempts among male Chinese <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers. Methods The study sample included 3303 male <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers. To determine the factors that were significantly associated with making a quit attempt, we conducted logistic regression analyses. In addition, mediation anal yses were carried out to investigate how the intermediate association among demographics (age, education, urbanicity) and smoking related variables affected making a quit attempt. Results An estimated 11.0% of male <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers tried to quit smoking in the 12 months prior to the survey. Logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age (15–24 years), being advised to quit by a health care provider (HCP) in the past 12 months, lower cigarette cost per pack, monthly or less frequent exposure to smoking at home, and awareness of the harms of tobacco use were significantly associated with making a quit attempt. Additional mediation analyses showed that having knowledge of the harm of tobacco, exposure to smoking at home, and having been advised to quit by an HCP were mediators of making a quit attempt for other independent variables. Conclusion Evidence-based tobacco control measures such as conducting educational campaigns on the harms of tobacco use, establishing smoke-free policies at home, and integrating tobacco cessation advice into primary health care services can increase quit attempts and reduce smoking among male Chinese <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers. PMID:26441296</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22105962','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22105962"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> thermal predictions of the AGR-1 experiment with gas gaps varying with time</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hawkes, G.; Sterbentz, J.; Maki, J.; Pham, B.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>A new <span class="hlt">daily</span> as-run thermal analysis was performed at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) test experiment number one at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This thermal analysis incorporates gas gaps changing with time during the <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> experiment. The purpose of this analysis was to calculate the <span class="hlt">daily</span> average temperatures of each compact to compare with experimental results. Post <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> examination (PIE) measurements of the graphite holder and fuel compacts showed the gas gaps changed from the beginning of life. The control temperature gas gap and the fuel compact - graphite holder gas gaps were modeled with a linear change from the original fabrication gap dimensions to the end of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> measurements. A steady-state thermal analysis was performed for each <span class="hlt">daily</span> calculation with the commercial finite element heat transfer code ABAQUS. These new thermal predictions more closely match the experimental data taken during the experiment than previous analyses. Results are presented comparing normalized compact average temperatures to normalized log(R/B) Kr-85m. The R/B term is the measured release rate divided by the predicted birth rate for the isotope Kr-85m. Correlations between these two normalized values are presented. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1054296','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1054296"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Thermal Predictions of the AGR-1 Experiment with Gas Gaps Varying with Time</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Grant Hawkes; James Sterbentz; John Maki; Binh Pham</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>A new <span class="hlt">daily</span> as-run thermal analysis was performed at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) test experiment number one at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This thermal analysis incorporates gas gaps changing with time during the <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> experiment. The purpose of this analysis was to calculate the <span class="hlt">daily</span> average temperatures of each compact to compare with experimental results. Post <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> examination (PIE) measurements of the graphite holder and fuel compacts showed the gas gaps varying from the beginning of life. The control temperature gas gap and the fuel compact – graphite holder gas gaps were linearly changed from the original fabrication dimensions, to the end of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> measurements. A steady-state thermal analysis was performed for each <span class="hlt">daily</span> calculation. These new thermal predictions more closely match the experimental data taken during the experiment than previous analyses. Results are presented comparing normalized compact average temperatures to normalized log(R/B) Kr-85m. The R/B term is the measured release rate divided by the predicted birth rate for the isotope Kr-85m. Correlations between these two normalized values are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title27-vol1-sec19-650.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title27-vol1-sec19-650.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">27 CFR 19.650 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> records.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> records. Each manufacturer of vinegar by the vaporizing process must keep accurate...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title27-vol1-sec19-829.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title27-vol1-sec19-829.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">27 CFR 19.829 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> records.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>...DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Records ...<span class="hlt">Daily</span> records. Each manufacturer of vinegar by the vaporizing process shall keep accurate...distilled spirits used in the manufacture of vinegar; (e) The wine gallons of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.alsa.org/als-care/resources/products/','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.alsa.org/als-care/resources/products/"><span id="translatedtitle">Products to Aid in <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Living</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Research In Your Community Advocate Get Involved Donate Products to Aid in <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Living The materials and ... Check back for an update to this message. Product List Product/Services Topics Care Services Information and ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25826030','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25826030"><span id="translatedtitle">[Postexposure prophylaxis in <span class="hlt">daily</span> clinical practice].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Küpper, Marc Fabian; Stellbrink, Hans-Jürgen; Kern, Winfried V; Müller, Matthias C</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Postexposure prophylaxis with antiinfective medication or immunizations are common problems in <span class="hlt">daily</span> care of out- and inpatients in Germany. We discuss the most relevant situations in adult patients, other populations (neonates, children) are not considered. PMID:25826030</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997Sci...277.1963W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997Sci...277.1963W"><span id="translatedtitle">Total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> trend during solar cycles 21 and 22.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Willson, R. C.</p> <p>1997-09-01</p> <p>Results from Active Cavity Radiometer <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Monitor (ACRIM) experiments show an upward trend in total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> of 0.036 percent per decade between the minima of solar cycles 21 and 22. The trend follows the increasing solar activity of recent decades and, if sustained, could raise <span class="hlt">global</span> temperatures. Trends of total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> near this rate have been implicated as causal factors in climate change on century to millennial time scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25505031','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25505031"><span id="translatedtitle">Vestibular loss disrupts <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm in rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martin, T; Mauvieux, B; Bulla, J; Quarck, G; Davenne, D; Denise, P; Philoxène, B; Besnard, S</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Hypergravity disrupts the circadian regulation of temperature (Temp) and locomotor activity (Act) mediated through the vestibular otolithic system in mice. In contrast, we do not know whether the anatomical structures associated with vestibular input are crucial for circadian rhythm regulation at 1 G on Earth. In the present study we observed the effects of bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) on the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of Temp and Act in semipigmented rats. Our model of vestibular lesion allowed for selective peripheral hair cell degeneration without any other damage. Rats with BVL exhibited a disruption in their <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms (Temp and Act), which were replaced by a main ultradian period (? <20 h) for 115.8 ± 68.6 h after vestibular lesion compared with rats in the control group. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> rhythms of Temp and Act in rats with BVL recovered within 1 wk, probably counterbalanced by photic and other nonphotic time cues. No correlation was found between Temp and Act <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms after vestibular lesion in rats with BVL, suggesting a direct influence of vestibular input on the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Our findings support the hypothesis that the vestibular system has an influence on <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm homeostasis in semipigmented rats on Earth, and raise the question of whether <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms might be altered due to vestibular pathology in humans. PMID:25505031</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3660399','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3660399"><span id="translatedtitle">The Correspondence of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> and Retrospective PTSD Reports Among Female Victims of Sexual Assault</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Simpson, Tracy L.; Moore, Sally A.; Varra, Alethea A.; Kaysen, Debra L.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Research addressing the association between <span class="hlt">daily</span> and retrospective symptom reports suggests that retrospective reports are typically inflated. The current study examined the association between <span class="hlt">daily</span> PTSD symptom reports over one month and a corresponding retrospective report (PTSD Checklist [PCL]; Weathers et al., 1993) for both total scores and symptom clusters. We hypothesized that greater PTSD symptom instability and greater depression would be associated with poorer <span class="hlt">daily</span>-retrospective agreement. Data were collected from 132 female college students who were sexually assaulted. Multilevel modeling indicated very strong agreement between mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> and retrospective reports for total scores and symptom clusters, with pseudo-R2 ranging from .55 to .77. Depression symptoms did not moderate this association, but <span class="hlt">daily</span>-retrospective agreement was lowest for the avoidance cluster, which was also the most unstable. Finally, retrospective recall for each symptom cluster showed acceptable specificity to the corresponding <span class="hlt">daily</span> symptom clusters. Overall, these findings suggest that retrospective memories for <span class="hlt">global</span> PTSD symptoms and symptom clusters, as assessed by the PCL, are consistent with <span class="hlt">daily</span> reports over a one month period. Implications for clinical assessment methodology are discussed. PMID:22612649</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850016429&hterms=food+safety&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dfood%2Bsafety','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850016429&hterms=food+safety&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dfood%2Bsafety"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of <span class="hlt">Irradiated</span> Foods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brynjolfsson, A.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The safety of <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> foods is reviewed. Guidelines and regulations for processing <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> foods are considered. The radiolytic products formed in food when it is <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> and its wholesomeness is discussed. It is concluded that food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> processing is not a panacea for all problems in food processing but when properly used will serve the space station well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B41D0423F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B41D0423F"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> albedo estimation and comparison to MCD43 product</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Franch, B.; Vermote, E.; Sobrino, J. A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Land surface broadband albedo is among the main radiative uncertainties in current climate modelling. An accuracy requirement of 5% and a <span class="hlt">daily</span> temporal resolution is suggested by the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Climate Observing System for albedo characterization at spatial and temporal scales compatible with climate studies. Satellite remote sensing provides the only practical way of producing high-quality <span class="hlt">global</span> albedo data sets with high spatial and temporal resolutions. For view-ilumination geometries such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), in order to retrieve the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) parameters and, consequently, the albedo, a period of sequential measurement is needed to accumulate sufficient observations. This is used to derive the MODIS BRDF/Albedo product (MCD43), which consider a composite period of 16 days with a resulting temporal resolution of 8 days. Looking for an improvement in the albedo temporal resolution that mitigated the assumption of a stable target, Vermote et al. (2009) presented the VJB method that assumes that the BRDF shape variations throughout a year are limited and linked to the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). This method retains the highest temporal resolution (<span class="hlt">daily</span>, cloud cover permitting). The purpose of this work is to compare the MCD43 product with the VJB method through the albedo. Additionally, we present and study a method based on the VJB assumption, the 5param Rsqr. In this study we focus our analysis on <span class="hlt">daily</span> MODIS CMG Collection 6 data from both Aqua and Terra satellites over Europe from 2002 until 2011. Figure 1 shows the percentage of the total RMSE of the VJB and the 5param Rsqr method against the MCD43 product. They display that southern latitudes present lower errors while they increase for northern latitudes and mountainous areas. Comparing the methods, the VJB presents errors higher than 15% in 8.2% of total land pixels while they suppose 6.9% of pixels when using the 5param Rsqr. We obtain an overall RMSE of 5% when using the VJB and 5.1% for the 5param Rsqr method. Since both methods meet the absolute requirement of 5% accuracy we conclude that they have an equivalent performance in deriving the albedo to the MODIS product with the advantage of <span class="hlt">daily</span> temporal resolution. We demonstrate then that a simple four (or five) parameter NDVI-scaled model performs as well as a more complex model with many more degrees of freedom. Additionally, we propose the 5param Rsqr method as an alternative to the VJB method due to its decrease data processing time reducing it 44%. Figure 1. Percentage RMSE of the VJB (right) and 5param Rsqr (left) against the MCD43 product.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140002744&hterms=ceres&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dceres','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140002744&hterms=ceres&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dceres"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">Irradiances</span> Consistent With CERES-Derived Top-of-Atmosphere Shortwave and Longwave <span class="hlt">Irradiances</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kato, Seiji; Loeb, Norman G.; Rose, Fred G.; Doelling, David R.; Rutan, David A.; Caldwell, Thomas E.; Yu, Lisan; Weller, Robert A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The estimate of surface <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on a <span class="hlt">global</span> scale is possible through radiative transfer calculations using satellite-retrieved surface, cloud, and aerosol properties as input. Computed top-of-atmosphere (TOA) <span class="hlt">irradiances</span>, however, do not necessarily agree with observation-based values, for example, from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES). This paper presents amethod to determine surface <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> using observational constraints of TOA <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> from CERES. A Lagrange multiplier procedure is used to objectively adjust inputs based on their uncertainties such that the computed TOA <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> is consistent with CERES-derived <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> to within the uncertainty. These input adjustments are then used to determine surface <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> adjustments. Observations by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO), CloudSat, andModerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) that are a part of the NASA A-Train constellation provide the uncertainty estimates. A comparison with surface observations from a number of sites shows that the bias [root-mean-square (RMS) difference] between computed and observed monthlymean <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> calculated with 10 years of data is 4.7 (13.3) W/sq m for downward shortwave and 22.5 (7.1) W/sq m for downward longwave <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> over ocean and 21.7 (7.8) W m22 for downward shortwave and 21.0 (7.6) W/sq m for downward longwave <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> over land. The bias andRMS error for the downward longwave and shortwave <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> over ocean are decreased from those without constraint. Similarly, the bias and RMS error for downward longwave over land improves, although the constraint does not improve downward shortwave over land. This study demonstrates how synergetic use of multiple instruments (CERES,MODIS, CALIPSO, CloudSat, AIRS, and geostationary satellites) improves the accuracy of surface <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> computations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=250326','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=250326"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> canopy interception from satellite observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A new methodology for retrieving rainfall interception rates from multi satellite observations is presented. The approach makes use of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> productof the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) as driving data and applies Gash’s analytical model to derive interception rates at <span class="hlt">global</span> sc...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Urbanization&pg=5&id=EJ839706','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Urbanization&pg=5&id=EJ839706"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> and the Experiences of Aging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fry, Christine L.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> is a product of urbanization and economic intensification which has escalated since the 1970s. <span class="hlt">Globalized</span> markets have created many of the features of modern life including consumerism, increased cultural homogeneity, increased social polarization, erosion of the sovereignty of nation states, and delocalization of <span class="hlt">daily</span> life. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1414243','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1414243"><span id="translatedtitle">Immunosuppression by whole-body <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> and its effect on oedema in experimental cerebral ischaemia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Strachan, R D; Kane, P J; Cook, S; Chambers, I R; Clayton, C B; Mendelow, A D</p> <p>1992-09-01</p> <p>The effect of <span class="hlt">global</span> immunosuppression by sublethal whole body X-<span class="hlt">irradiation</span> on the development of cerebral oedema was assessed 24 h after right middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat. <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> produced a significant leukopenia and thrombocytopaenia, and significantly reduced cortical oedema when compared to non-<span class="hlt">irradiated</span> control animals. PMID:1414243</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080012151&hterms=mops&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dmops','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080012151&hterms=mops&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dmops"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release 2.5 Longwave <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Data in Native Format (SRB_REL2.5_LW_<span class="hlt">DAILY</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p></p> <p>This SRB data set contains average Clear-sky upward and downward flux, surface upward and downward flux, and top of the atmosphere (TOA) upward flux measured at three hourly intervals for each day for the entire globe between 07/01/1983 and 06/30/2005. These LW surface and Top of Atmosphere (TOA) radiative parameters were derived with the Longwave algorithm of the NASA World Climate Research Programme/<span class="hlt">Global</span> Energy and Water-Cycle Experiment (WCRP/GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Project. [Location=<span class="hlt">GLOBAL</span>] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=Ranges from 1 degree (tropics and subtropics) to 120 degrees (the poles).; Temporal_Resolution=<span class="hlt">daily</span>; Temporal_Resolution_Range=<span class="hlt">daily</span>].</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080012147&hterms=mops&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dmops','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080012147&hterms=mops&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dmops"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release 2.5 QC Longwave <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Data in Native Format (SRB_REL2.5_QCLW_<span class="hlt">DAILY</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p></p> <p>The data set contains average surface downward longwave flux, surface net longwave flux, and surface longwave cloud radiative forcing measured at three hourly intervals for each day for the entire globe between 07/01/1983 and 6/30/2005. These LW surface radiative parameters were derived with the Quality-Check LW (QCLW) algorithm of the NASA World Climate Research Programme/<span class="hlt">Global</span> Energy and Water-Cycle Experiment (WCRP/GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Project. [Location=<span class="hlt">GLOBAL</span>] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 Degree; Longitude_Resolution=Ranges from 1 degree (tropics and subtropics) to 120 degrees (the poles).; Temporal_Resolution=<span class="hlt">daily</span>; Temporal_Resolution_Range=<span class="hlt">daily</span>].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513750D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513750D"><span id="translatedtitle">A reconstruction of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> using a flux transport model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dasi Espuig, Maria; Jiang, Jie; Krivova, Natalie; Solanki, Sami</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Reconstructions of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> into the past are of considerable interest for studies of solar influence on climate. Models based on the assumption that <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> changes are caused by the evolution of the photospheric magnetic field have been the most successful in reproducing the measured <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variations. Our SATIRE-S model is one of these. It uses solar full-disc magnetograms as an input, and these are available for less than four decades. Thus, to reconstruct the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> back to times when no observed magnetograms are available, we combine the SATIRE-S model with synthetic magnetograms, produced using a surface flux transport model. The model is fed with <span class="hlt">daily</span>, observed or modelled statistically, records of sunspot positions, areas, and tilt angles. To describe the secular change in the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, we used the concept of overlapping ephemeral region cycles. With this technique TSI can be reconstructed back to 1610.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614023D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614023D"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> using a flux transport model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dasi Espuig, Maria; Jiang, Jie; Krivova, Natalie; Solanki, Sami</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Reconstructions of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> into the past are of considerable interest for studies of solar influence on climate. Models based on the assumption that <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> changes are caused by the evolution of the photospheric magnetic field have been the most successful in reproducing the measured <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variations. Our SATIRE-S model is one of these. It uses solar full-disc magnetograms as an input, and these are available for less than four decades. Thus, to reconstruct the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> back to times when no observed magnetograms are available, we combine the SATIRE-S model with synthetic magnetograms, produced using a surface flux transport model. The model is fed with <span class="hlt">daily</span>, observed or modelled statistically, records of sunspot positions, areas, and tilt angles. To describe the secular change in the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, we used the concept of overlapping ephemeral region cycles. With this technique TSI can be reconstructed back to 1700.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24852873','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24852873"><span id="translatedtitle">Minimizing a tricky situation in breast <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> with helical tomotherapy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Franco, Pierfrancesco; Zeverino, Michele; Migliaccio, Fernanda; Torielli, Paolo; Angelini, Veronica; Sciacero, Piera; Girelli, Giuseppe; Cante, Domenico; Arrichiello, Cecilia; Casanova Borca, Valeria; Numico, Gianmauro; La Porta, Maria Rosa; Tofani, Santi; Ricardi, Umberto</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We report on a patient with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant intensity-modulated whole breast and lymph node <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> with static angle tomotherapy (TomoDirect), who experienced a traumatic ipsilateral humeral fracture and was able to continue radiotherapy with helical tomotherapy and <span class="hlt">daily</span> dosimetric monitoring by means of the Planned Adaptive module. PMID:24852873</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRD..114.0I04K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRD..114.0I04K"><span id="translatedtitle">Reconstruction of solar UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> since 1974</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krivova, N. A.; Solanki, S. K.; Wenzler, T.; Podlipnik, B.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Variations of the solar UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> are an important driver of chemical and physical processes in the Earth's upper atmosphere and may also influence <span class="hlt">global</span> climate. Here we reconstruct solar UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> in the range 115-400 nm over the period 1974-2007 by making use of the recently developed empirical extension of the Spectral And Total <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Reconstruction (SATIRE) models employing Solar Ultraviolet Spectral <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Monitor (SUSIM) data. The evolution of the solar photospheric magnetic flux, which is a central input to the model, is described by the magnetograms and continuum images recorded at the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory between 1974 and 2003 and by the Michelson Doppler Imager instrument on SOHO since 1996. The reconstruction extends the available observational record by 1.5 solar cycles. The reconstructed Ly-? <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> agrees well with the composite time series by Woods et al. (2000). The amplitude of the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variations grows with decreasing wavelength and in the wavelength regions of special interest for studies of the Earth's climate (Ly-? and oxygen absorption continuum and bands between 130 and 350 nm) is 1-2 orders of magnitude stronger than in the visible or if integrated over all wavelengths (total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10154823','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10154823"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> temperature and precipitation data for 223 USSR Stations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Razuvaev, V.N.; Apasova, E.G.; Martuganov, R.A.; Vose, R.S.; Steurer, P.M.</p> <p>1993-11-01</p> <p>On- May 23, 1972, the United States and the USSR established a bilateral initiative known as the Agreement on Protection of the Environment. Given recent interest in possible greenhouse gas-induced climate change, Working Group VIII (Influence of Environmental Changes on Climate) has become particularly useful to the scientific communities of both nations. Among its many achievements, Working Group VIII has been instrumental in the exchange of climatological information between the principal climate data centers of each country [i.e., the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) in Asheville, North Carolina, and the Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information in Obninsk, Russia]. Considering the relative lack of climate records previously available for the USSR, data obtained via this bilateral exchange are particularly valuable to researchers outside the former Soviet Union. To expedite the dissemination of these data, NOAA`s Climate and <span class="hlt">Global</span> Change Program funded the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) and NCDC to distribute one of the more useful archives acquired through this exchange: a 223-station <span class="hlt">daily</span> data set covering the period 1881-1989. This data set contains: (1) <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean, minimum, and maximum temperature data; (2) <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation data; (3) station inventory information (WMO No., name, coordinates, and elevation); (4) station history information (station relocation and rain gauge replacement dates); and (5) quality assurance information (i.e., flag codes that were assigned as a result of various data checks). The data set is available, free of charge, as a Numeric Data Package (NDP) from CDIAC. The NDP consists of 18 data files and a printed document which describes both the data files and the 223-station network in detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920037006&hterms=1083&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231083','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920037006&hterms=1083&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231083"><span id="translatedtitle">Variability of solar ultraviolet <span class="hlt">irradiance</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pap, J. M.; Donnelly, R. F.; Hudson, H. S.; Rottman, G. J.; Willson, R. C.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>A model of solar Lyman alpha <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> developed by multiple linear regression analysis, including the <span class="hlt">daily</span> values and 81-day running means of the full disk equivalent width of the Helium line at 1083 nm, predicts reasonably well both the short- and long-term variations observed in Lyman alpha. In contrast, Lyman alpha models calculated from the 10.7-cm radio flux overestimate the observed variations in the rising portion and maximum period of solar cycle, and underestimates them during solar minimum. Models are shown of Lyman alpha based on the He-line equivalent width and 10.7-cm radio flux for those time intervals when no satellite observations exist, namely back to 1974 and after April 1989, when the measurements of the Solar Mesosphere Satellite were terminated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/61371','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/61371"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> Nationalized</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Mazlish, Bruce</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Globalism</span> and <span class="hlt">globalization</span> have been seen as competitors to other allegiances, namely regionalism and nationalism. A look at recent efforts at reconceptualizing <span class="hlt">global</span> history in China, Korea and the U.S., however, suggests ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5414787','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5414787"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> patterns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Akins, W.E.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>This book covers <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change patterns. The history of climatic change, elements and controls of weather and climate, <span class="hlt">global</span> patterns of vegetation, and <span class="hlt">global</span> distribution of soils are all topics covered in this book.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1210.5416.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1210.5416.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Record occurrence and record values in <span class="hlt">daily</span> and monthly temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Wergen, Gregor; Krug, Joachim</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We analyze the occurrence and the values of record-breaking temperatures in <span class="hlt">daily</span> and monthly temperature observations. Our aim is to better understand and quantify the statistics of temperature records in the context of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. Similar to earlier work we employ a simple mathematical model of independent and identically distributed random variables with a linearly growing expectation value. This model proved to be useful in predicting the increase (decrease) in upper (lower) temperature records in a warming climate. Using both station and re-analysis data from Europe and the United States we further investigate the statistics of temperature records and the validity of this model. The most important new contribution in this article is an analysis of the statistics of record values for our simple model and European reanalysis data. We estimate how much the mean values and the distributions of record temperatures are affected by the large scale warming trend. In this context we consider both the values o...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/380996','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/380996"><span id="translatedtitle">Examining the spring discontinuity in <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature ranges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schwartz, M.D.</p> <p>1996-04-01</p> <p>The atmosphere and biosphere both change rapidly throughout midlatitude spring. Many weather variables are modified during this season, including the diurnal temperature range (DTR). The mean DTR trend displays a discontinuity at the onset of spring characterized by a rapid increase for several weeks, followed by an abrupt leveling off. The trend then remains essentially flat throughout the remainder of the warm season. These DTR changes reflect the interactive role many weather variables play with surface-layer processes. Thus, diagnosing the causes of these variations may provide background information for numerous <span class="hlt">global</span> change analyses, as <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature data become increasingly available worldwide. The results of this study suggest that several factors (snow cover loss, more frequent southerly winds, and increased ceiling heights) are responsible for the initial rapid increase in the DTR. The second half of the discontinuity (subsequent leveling off) is connected with increased atmospheric moisture and coincides with the onset of plant transpiration. 14 refs., 5 figs, 2 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7071585','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7071585"><span id="translatedtitle">Variability in <span class="hlt">daily</span>, zonal mean lower-stratospheric temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Christy, J.R. ); Drouilhet, S.J. Jr. )</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Satellite data from the microwave sounding unit (MSU) channel 4, when carefully merged, provide <span class="hlt">daily</span> zonal anomalies of lower-stratosphere temperature with a level of precision between 0.01[degrees] and 0.08[degrees]C per 2.5[degrees] latitude band. <span class="hlt">Global</span> averages of these <span class="hlt">daily</span> zonal anomalies reveal the prominent warming events due to volcanic aerosol in 1982 (El Chichon) and 1991 (Mt. Pinatubo), which are on the order of 1[degrees]C. The quasibiennel oscillation (QBO) may be extracted from these zonal data by applying a spatial filter between 15[degrees]N and 15[degrees]S latitude, which resembles the meridional curvature. Previously published relationships between the QBO and the north polar stratospheric temperatures during northern winter are examined but were not found to be reproduced in the MSU4 data. Sudden stratospheric warmings in the north polar region are represented in the MSU4 data for latitudes poleward of 70[degrees]N. In the Southern Hemisphere, there appears to be a moderate relationship between total ozone concentration and MSU4 temperatures, though it has been less apparent in 1991 and 1992. In terms of empirical modes of variability revealed significant power in the 15-20 day period band.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994SoPh..152..247A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994SoPh..152..247A"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar noise simulations in <span class="hlt">irradiance</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Andersen, B. N.; Leifsen, T. E.; Toutain, T.</p> <p>1994-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">global</span> signature of granulation, meso- and supergranulation is calculated using values for intensities and lifetimes from spatially resolved observations. These simulations are compared with observations from Active Cavity Radiometer <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Monitor (ACRIM), IPHIR and the Solar Variability, Experiment 1 (SOVA-1) photometers. The results indicate that the overall shape of the background signal in the simulations reproduce the observations at low frequency. However when the granulation lifetimes are about 500 seconds the simulated data do not correspond to the observations between 1 and 2 mHz.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=5&pg=3&id=EJ984125','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=5&pg=3&id=EJ984125"><span id="translatedtitle">Big Ideas behind <span class="hlt">Daily</span> 5 and CAFE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Boushey, Gail; Moser, Joan</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Daily</span> 5 and CAFE were born out of The Sister's research and observations of instructional mentors, their intense desire to be able to deliver highly intentional, focused instruction to small groups and individuals while the rest of the class was engaged in truly authentic reading and writing, and their understanding that a one size fits all…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://fcs.tamu.edu/food_and_nutrition/pdf/dailyactivities3.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://fcs.tamu.edu/food_and_nutrition/pdf/dailyactivities3.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">INVEST IN YOUR BONES <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Activities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>INVEST IN YOUR BONES <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Activities Leaflet 3 Another osteoporosis prevention step to decrease lifestyle. Let's see how you can do that. If you have osteoporosis, follow carefully the activity program. Remember the following about osteoporosis: is largely preventable and treatable is a serious</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=131652','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=131652"><span id="translatedtitle">TRENDS IN ANNUAL AND <span class="hlt">DAILY</span> PRECIPITATION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Annual precipitation in the Great Plains was generally higher during the last two decades of the 20th century. Corresponding changes in <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation amount, number of rainy days, and distribution throughout the year were investigated for Kingfisher in central Oklahoma. The number of rainy da...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1507.08199.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1507.08199.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">On the Digital <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Cycles of Individuals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Aledavood, Talayeh; Saramäki, Jari</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Humans, like almost all animals, are phase-locked to the diurnal cycle. Most of us sleep at night and are active through the day. Because we have evolved to function with this cycle, the circadian rhythm is deeply ingrained and even detectable at the biochemical level. However, within the broader day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital <span class="hlt">daily</span> cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We begin at the aggregate level, discuss earlier results, and illustrate differences between population-level <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms in different media. Then we move on to the individual level, and show that there is a strong individual-level variation beyond averages: individuals typically have their distinctive <span class="hlt">daily</span> pattern that persists in time. We conclude by discussing the driving forces behind these signature <span class="hlt">daily</span> patterns, ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ795566.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ795566.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The Case for <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Physical Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lynn, Susan</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>According to a recent study, only 56 percent of high school students participate in physical education, and the percentage of schools requiring physical education has progressively dropped. The goal of providing <span class="hlt">daily</span> physical education to all K-12 students in the United States presents challenges such as budgetary issues, less time for other…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title27-vol1-sec19-650.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title27-vol1-sec19-650.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">27 CFR 19.650 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> records.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> records. Each manufacturer of vinegar by the vaporizing... proof gallons of distilled spirits used in the manufacture of vinegar; (e) The wine gallons of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title27-vol1-sec19-650.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title27-vol1-sec19-650.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">27 CFR 19.650 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> records.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> records. Each manufacturer of vinegar by the vaporizing... proof gallons of distilled spirits used in the manufacture of vinegar; (e) The wine gallons of...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title27-vol1-sec19-650.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title27-vol1-sec19-650.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">27 CFR 19.650 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> records.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> records. Each manufacturer of vinegar by the vaporizing... proof gallons of distilled spirits used in the manufacture of vinegar; (e) The wine gallons of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title27-vol1-sec19-829.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title27-vol1-sec19-829.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">27 CFR 19.829 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> records.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Records § 19.829 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> records. Each manufacturer of vinegar by the vaporizing process shall keep accurate... spirits used in the manufacture of vinegar; (e) The wine gallons of vinegar produced; and (f) The...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title27-vol1-sec19-650.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title27-vol1-sec19-650.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">27 CFR 19.650 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> records.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> records. Each manufacturer of vinegar by the vaporizing... proof gallons of distilled spirits used in the manufacture of vinegar; (e) The wine gallons of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.stat.psu.edu/~dhunter/100/articles/marijuanaUse.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.stat.psu.edu/~dhunter/100/articles/marijuanaUse.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Centre<span class="hlt">Daily</span>.com Next Story ></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Hunter, David</p> <p></p> <p>Centre<span class="hlt">Daily</span>.com Next Story > Warm Arctic sets record for summer sea ice melt Teen pot use linked M. HACKETT -- AP By MALCOLM RITTER and NICK PERRY -- Associated Press NEW YORK -- Teens who to the developing brain. NEW YORK: Teen pot use linked to later declines in IQ | Healt... http</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=employee+AND+attitudes+AND+security&pg=6&id=ED189399','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=employee+AND+attitudes+AND+security&pg=6&id=ED189399"><span id="translatedtitle">Good Ideas for Teaching <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Adult Living.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Leigh, Robert K.</p> <p></p> <p>Intended for practicing Adult Basic Education teachers, this handbook provides materials for teaching specific coping skills in the area of <span class="hlt">daily</span> adult living. Three areas of study are explored: (1) community, which includes organizations, health, nutrition, safety, money management, and media; (2) government and law, which includes citizenship,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64896&keyword=distribution+AND+panel&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=52692023&CFTOKEN=30619465','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64896&keyword=distribution+AND+panel&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=52692023&CFTOKEN=30619465"><span id="translatedtitle">INTERPOLATING VANCOUVER'S <span class="hlt">DAILY</span> AMBIENT PM 10 FIELD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In this article we develop a spatial predictive distribution for the ambient space- time response field of <span class="hlt">daily</span> ambient PM10 in Vancouver, Canada. Observed responses have a consistent temporal pattern from one monitoring site to the next. We exploit this feature of the field b...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://appliedresearch.cancer.gov/diet/screeners/daily_food_checklist.pdf','NCI'); return false;" href="http://appliedresearch.cancer.gov/diet/screeners/daily_food_checklist.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">National Institutes of Health <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Food List</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.cancer.gov">Cancer.gov</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">DAILY</span> FOOD LIST PARTICIPANT ID HERE NOTIFICATION TO RESPONDENT OF ESTIMATED BURDEN Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 5 minutes per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5362A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5362A"><span id="translatedtitle">Break Correction of Swiss <span class="hlt">Daily</span> and Sub-<span class="hlt">Daily</span> Temperature Series</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Auchmann, Renate; Kuglitsch, Franz; Toreti, Andrea; Brönnimann, Stefan</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Many applications in climate science require high-quality, long-term data at a high temporal resolution. However, such records are often affected by artificial breaks. The challenging task of homogenizing <span class="hlt">daily</span> and sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> data has only been partially addressed in recent years. Therefore, the number of available datasets providing homogeneous <span class="hlt">daily</span> and sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> series is still small compared to the volume of monthly or annual data. In this study, series of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum (Tmax), <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum (Tmin), morning (Tmorn), noon (Tnoon) and evening (Teve), and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean (Tmean) temperatures measured in 61 stations of the Swiss climate observation network were corrected for artificial breaks. The break detection for the above mentioned series was accomplished in a former study by using a combination of three different break detection methods. Here the previously determined breakpoints are corrected by applying the method of higher-order moments for autocorrelated data (HOMAD), which is an improved version of the higher-order moments method (HOM), providing an objective choice of regression parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4104788','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4104788"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Analysis of Physical Activity and Satisfaction with Life in Emerging Adults</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Maher, Jaclyn P.; Doerksen, Shawna E.; Elavsky, Steriani; Hyde, Amanda L.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective Subjective well-being has well-established positive health consequences. During emerging adulthood, from ages 18 to 25 years, people’s <span class="hlt">global</span> evaluations of their well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life [SWL]) appear to worsen more than any other time in the adult lifespan, indicating that this population would benefit from strategies to enhance SWL. In these studies, we investigated top-down (i.e., time-invariant, trait-like) and bottom-up (i.e., time-varying, state-like) influences of physical activity (PA) on <span class="hlt">daily</span> SWL. Methods Two <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary studies lasting 8 days (N = 190) and 14 days (N = 63) were conducted with samples of emerging adults enrolled in college to evaluate relations between <span class="hlt">daily</span> PA and SWL while controlling for established and plausible top-down and bottom-up influences on SWL. Results In both studies, multilevel models indicated that people reported greater SWL on days when they were more active (a within-person, bottom-up effect). Top-down effects of PA were not significant in either study. These findings were robust when we controlled for competing top-down influences (e.g., sex, personality traits, self-esteem, body mass index, mental health symptoms, fatigue) and bottom-up influences (e.g., <span class="hlt">daily</span> self-esteem, <span class="hlt">daily</span> mental health symptoms, <span class="hlt">daily</span> fatigue). Conclusions We concluded that SWL was impacted by people’s <span class="hlt">daily</span> PA rather than their trait level of PA over time. These findings extend evidence that PA is a health behavior with important consequences for <span class="hlt">daily</span> well-being and should be considered when developing national policies to enhance SWL. PMID:23088171</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=family&pg=4&id=EJ967197','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=family&pg=4&id=EJ967197"><span id="translatedtitle">Racial Differences in Exposure and Reactivity to <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Family Stressors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cichy, Kelly E.; Stawski, Robert S.; Almeida, David M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Using data from the National Study of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Experiences, the authors examined racial differences in exposure and reactivity to <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors involving family members. Respondents included African American and European American adults age 34 to 84 (N = 1,931) who participated in 8 days of <span class="hlt">daily</span> interviews during which they reported on <span class="hlt">daily</span>…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750044107&hterms=Global+warming+effects&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DGlobal%2Bwarming%2Beffects','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750044107&hterms=Global+warming+effects&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DGlobal%2Bwarming%2Beffects"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent advances in satellite observations of solar variability and <span class="hlt">global</span> atmospheric ozone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Heath, D. F.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>A description is given of the temporal behavior of the sun as an ultraviolet variable star in relation to <span class="hlt">daily</span> zonal means of atmospheric ozone from the total amount to that above the 10-mb and 4-mb pressure levels. A significant correlation has been observed between enhancements in the ultraviolet solar <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> and terrestrial passages of the solar magnetic field sector boundary structure. However, it has not yet been possible to separate solar from the dynamical effects on the variability in the zonal means of ozone. Attention is given to <span class="hlt">global</span> changes in ozone which have been derived from the satellite observations in terms of season, solar variability, and major stratospheric disturbances such as stratospheric warmings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJBm..tmp...80S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJBm..tmp...80S"><span id="translatedtitle">Nowcasting <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum air and grass temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Savage, M. J.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Site-specific and accurate prediction of <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured <span class="hlt">daily</span> minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient (b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured <span class="hlt">daily</span> minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> grass and grass-surface minima yielded increased RMSEs compared to those for air temperature at 2 m. The sufficiently small RMSEs using the 2-h ahead nowcasts of the air temperature minimum, for the exponential model, demonstrate that the methodology used may be applied operationally but with increased errors for grass minimum temperature and the 4-h nowcasts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu//handle/1969.1/148946','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu//handle/1969.1/148946"><span id="translatedtitle">Inclusion of Building Envelope Thermal Lag Effects in Linear Regression Models of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Basis Building Energy Use Data </span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Masuda, H.; Claridge, D. E.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>?Building?Envelope?Thermal?Lag? Effects?in?Linear?Regression?Models?of?<span class="hlt">Daily</span>? Basis?Building?Energy?Use?Data The?12th International?Conference?for?Enhanced?Building?Operations October?22nd?26th,?2012 Manchester,?UK Hiroko?Masuda?and?Dr.?David?E.?Claridge Energy...?hour?cycle?variations?are?averaged?out?in?<span class="hlt">daily</span>?data. ? The?dominant?driving?terms?of?most?buildings?follow?a?24?h?cycle.?(Rabl,?1992)? solar?<span class="hlt">irradiance</span>,?OA?temperature,?ventilation,?occupancy?level,?lights?and?equipment?loads,? delayed...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10159391','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10159391"><span id="translatedtitle">Welding <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> stainless steel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kanne, W.R. Jr.; Chandler, G.T.; Nelson, D.Z.; Franco-Ferreira, E.A.</p> <p>1993-12-31</p> <p>Conventional welding processes produced severe underbead cracking in <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> stainless steel containing 1 to 33 appm helium from n,a reactions. A shallow penetration overlay technique was successfully demonstrated for welding <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> stainless steel. The technique was applied to <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> 304 stainless steel that contained 10 appm helium. Surface cracking, present in conventional welds made on the same steel at the same and lower helium concentrations, was eliminated. Underbead cracking was minimal compared to conventional welding methods. However, cracking in the <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> material was greater than in tritium charged and aged material at the same helium concentrations. The overlay technique provides a potential method for repair or modification of <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> reactor materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6849205','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6849205"><span id="translatedtitle">Heavy metals in common foodstuff: <span class="hlt">Daily</span> intake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tsoumbaris, P.; Tsoukali-Papadopoulou, H. )</p> <p>1994-07-01</p> <p>Lately, toxic effects of some heavy metals (Pb, Cd) as well as desirable ones of some others (Ni, Mn, Zn) have been a field of thorough investigation. The main way of human body fortification in metals is through foodchain depending on the kind and quantity of the consumed food, according to dietary habits. The purpose of this study is the calculation of metals <span class="hlt">daily</span> intake through common foodstuff of Greek inhabitants. The calculation is based on results from quantitative analysis of Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn, and Zn in common foodstuff from the market of the city of Thessaloniki. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> food consumption data is derived from three sources: (a) answers to a questionnaire distributed to families of the city of Thessaloniki, (b) nutrition data provided by the Agricultural Bank of Greece and (c) nutrition data according to international bibliography.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1502.06866.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1502.06866.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> rhythms in mobile telephone communication</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Aledavood, Talayeh; Roberts, Sam G B; Reed-Tsochas, Felix; Moro, Esteban; Dunbar, Robin I M; Saramäki, Jari</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Circadian rhythms are known to be important drivers of human activity and the recent availability of electronic records of human behaviour has provided fine-grained data of temporal patterns of activity on a large scale. Further, questionnaire studies have identified important individual differences in circadian rhythms, with people broadly categorised into morning-like or evening-like individuals. However, little is known about the social aspects of these circadian rhythms, or how they vary across individuals. In this study we use a unique 18-month dataset that combines mobile phone calls and questionnaire data to examine individual differences in the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of mobile phone activity. We demonstrate clear individual differences in <span class="hlt">daily</span> patterns of phone calls, and show that these individual differences are persistent despite a high degree of turnover in the individuals' social networks. Further, women's calls were longer than men's calls, especially during the evening and at night, and these calls wer...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986WRR....22..845M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986WRR....22..845M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Water Use in Nine Cities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maidment, David R.; Miaou, Shaw-Pin</p> <p>1986-06-01</p> <p>Transfer functions are used to model the short-term response of <span class="hlt">daily</span> municipal water use to rainfall and air temperature variations. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> water use data from nine cities are studied, three cities each from Florida, Pennsylvania, and Texas. The dynamic response of water use to rainfall and air temperature is similar across the cities within each State; in addition the responses of the Texas and Florida cities are very similar to one another while the response of the Pennsylvania cities is more sensitive to air temperature and less to rainfall. There is little impact of city size on the response functions. The response of water use to rainfall depends first on the occurrence of rainfall and second on its magnitude. The occurrence of a rainfall more than 0.05 in./day (0.13 cm/day) causes a drop in the seasonal component of water use one day later that averages 38% for the Texas cities, 42% for the Florida cities, and 7% for the Pennsylvania cities. In Austin, Texas, a spatially averaged rainfall series shows a clearer relationship with water use than does rainfall data from a single gage. There is a nonlinear response of water use to air temperature changes with no response for <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum air temperatures between 40° and 70°F (4-21°C) an increase in water use with air temperature beyond 70°F; above 85°-90°F (29°-32°C) water use increases 3-5 times more per degree than below that limit in Texas and Florida. The model resulting from these studies can be used for <span class="hlt">daily</span> water use forecasting and water conservation analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23918373','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23918373"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding metropolitan patterns of <span class="hlt">daily</span> encounters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W; Lee, Der-Horng; Huang, Xianfeng</p> <p>2013-08-20</p> <p>Understanding of the mechanisms driving our <span class="hlt">daily</span> face-to-face encounters is still limited; the field lacks large-scale datasets describing both individual behaviors and their collective interactions. However, here, with the help of travel smart card data, we uncover such encounter mechanisms and structures by constructing a time-resolved in-vehicle social encounter network on public buses in a city (about 5 million residents). Using a population scale dataset, we find physical encounters display reproducible temporal patterns, indicating that repeated encounters are regular and identical. On an individual scale, we find that collective regularities dominate distinct encounters' bounded nature. An individual's encounter capability is rooted in his/her <span class="hlt">daily</span> behavioral regularity, explaining the emergence of "familiar strangers" in <span class="hlt">daily</span> life. Strikingly, we find individuals with repeated encounters are not grouped into small communities, but become strongly connected over time, resulting in a large, but imperceptible, small-world contact network or "structure of co-presence" across the whole metropolitan area. Revealing the encounter pattern and identifying this large-scale contact network are crucial to understanding the dynamics in patterns of social acquaintances, collective human behaviors, and--particularly--disclosing the impact of human behavior on various diffusion/spreading processes. PMID:23918373</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5317497','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5317497"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> warning, <span class="hlt">global</span> warming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Benarde, M.A. )</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>This book provides insights into the formidable array of issues which, in a warmer world, could impinge upon every facet of readers lives. It examines climatic change and long-term implications of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming for the ecosystem. Topics include the ozone layer and how it works; the greenhouse effect; the dangers of imbalance and its effects on human and animal life; disruptions to the basic ecology of the planet; and the real scientific evidence for and against aberrant climatic shifts. The author also examines workable social and political programs and changes that must be instituted to avoid ecological disaster.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4215556','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4215556"><span id="translatedtitle">A Double-Edged Sword: Race, <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Family Support Exchanges, and <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Well-Being</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cichy, Kelly E.; Stawski, Robert S.; Almeida, David M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This study contributes to research on race and family ties by exploring racial differences in the direct effects of family support exchanges on <span class="hlt">daily</span> well-being and the extent to which family support buffers/exacerbates stressor reactivity. African Americans and European Americans aged 34 to 84 (N = 1,931) from the National Study of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Experiences (NSDE) reported on family support exchanges (i.e., support received/support provided), <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors, and negative affect during 8 days of telephone interviews. On a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis, receiving family support was not associated with well-being, whereas providing family support was associated with compromised well-being among African Americans. As expected, receiving family support buffered reactivity to <span class="hlt">daily</span> tensions for both races, whereas providing emotional support to family exacerbated African Americans’ reactivity to <span class="hlt">daily</span> tensions. Together, our findings suggest that even after considering the benefits of receiving family support, providing family support takes an emotional toll on African Americans. PMID:25368438</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H53G0941A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H53G0941A"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of Sub-<span class="hlt">Daily</span> Intensity Duration Frequency (IDF) Curves for Major Urban Areas in India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ali, H.; Mishra, V.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Extreme precipitation events disrupt urban transportation and cause enormous damage to infrastructure. Urban areas are fast responding catchments due to significant impervious surface. Stormwater designs based on <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall data provide inadequate information. We, therefore, develop intensity-duration-frequency curves using sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> (1 hour to 12 hour) rainfall data for 57 major urban areas in India. While rain gage stations data from urban areas are most suitable, but stations are unevenly distributed and their data have gaps and inconsistencies. Therefore, we used hourly rainfall data from the Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), which provides a long term data (1979 onwards). Since reanalysis products have uncertainty associated with them we need to enhance their accuracy before their application. We compared <span class="hlt">daily</span> rain gage station data obtained from <span class="hlt">Global</span> Surface Summary of Day Data (GSOD) available for 65 stations for the period of 2000-2010 with gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall data provided by Indian Meteorological Department (IMD). 3-hourly data from NOAA/Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH), Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN), and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) were aggregated to <span class="hlt">daily</span> for comparison with GSOD station data . TMPA is found to be best correlated with GSOD data. We used TMPA data to correct MERRA's hourly precipitation, which were applied to develop IDF curves. We compared results with IDF curves from empirical methods and found substantial disparities in the existing stormwater designs in India.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy...42.2691C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy...42.2691C"><span id="translatedtitle">How well are <span class="hlt">daily</span> intense rainfall events captured by current climate models over Africa?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crétat, Julien; Vizy, Edward K.; Cook, Kerry H.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The ability of state-of-the-art climate models to capture the mean spatial and temporal characteristics of <span class="hlt">daily</span> intense rainfall events over Africa is evaluated by analyzing regional climate model (RCM) simulations at 90- and 30-km along with output from four atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) and coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project 5. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> intense rainfall events are extracted at grid point scale using a 95th percentile threshold approach applied to all rainy days (i.e., <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall ?1 mm day-1) over the 1998-2008 period for which two satellite-derived precipitation products are available. Both RCM simulations provide similar results. They accurately capture the spatial and temporal characteristics of intense events, while they tend to overestimate their number and underestimate their intensity. The skill of AGCMs and AOGCMs is generally similar over the African continent and similar to previous <span class="hlt">global</span> climate model generations. The majority of the AGCMs and AOGCMs greatly overestimate the frequency of intense events, particularly in the tropics, generally fail at simulating the observed intensity, and systematically overestimate their spatial coverage. The RCM performs at least as well as the most accurate <span class="hlt">global</span> climate model, demonstrating a clear added value to general circulation model simulations and the usefulness of regional modeling for investigating the physics leading to intense events and their change under <span class="hlt">global</span> warming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy..tmp..193C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy..tmp..193C"><span id="translatedtitle">How well are <span class="hlt">daily</span> intense rainfall events captured by current climate models over Africa?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crétat, Julien; Vizy, Edward K.; Cook, Kerry H.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>The ability of state-of-the-art climate models to capture the mean spatial and temporal characteristics of <span class="hlt">daily</span> intense rainfall events over Africa is evaluated by analyzing regional climate model (RCM) simulations at 90- and 30-km along with output from four atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) and coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project 5. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> intense rainfall events are extracted at grid point scale using a 95th percentile threshold approach applied to all rainy days (i.e., <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall ?1 mm day-1) over the 1998-2008 period for which two satellite-derived precipitation products are available. Both RCM simulations provide similar results. They accurately capture the spatial and temporal characteristics of intense events, while they tend to overestimate their number and underestimate their intensity. The skill of AGCMs and AOGCMs is generally similar over the African continent and similar to previous <span class="hlt">global</span> climate model generations. The majority of the AGCMs and AOGCMs greatly overestimate the frequency of intense events, particularly in the tropics, generally fail at simulating the observed intensity, and systematically overestimate their spatial coverage. The RCM performs at least as well as the most accurate <span class="hlt">global</span> climate model, demonstrating a clear added value to general circulation model simulations and the usefulness of regional modeling for investigating the physics leading to intense events and their change under <span class="hlt">global</span> warming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23092623','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23092623"><span id="translatedtitle">Analyzing UV-B narrowband solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>: comparison with erythemal and vitamin D production <span class="hlt">irradiances</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sola, Yolanda; Lorente, Jerónimo; Ossó, Albert</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The heliotherapy and the phototherapy are mainly focused on taking benefit of the therapeutic effects of the ultraviolet (UV) <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on different skin diseases. The use of UV-B narrowband lamps, with emissions centered at 311 nm, has spread out among the dermatologist community because of its high therapeutic effect in comparison with its low erythema dose. For cloudless sun exposure, the balance of solar erythemal and solar narrowband (NB)-equivalent <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> depends on several factors such as the solar zenith angle (SZA), the total ozone column (TOC) and the altitude. For SZA below 55°, the ratio of solar UV-B narrowband and erythemal <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> increases with the SZA whereas the ratio of vitamin D production and erythemal <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> decreases with the SZA with the maximum around midday. Furthermore, the solar NB ratio also increases with the TOC because the shorter wavelengths of the erythemal action spectrum are more affected by the ozone absorption processes. Considering the <span class="hlt">daily</span> variations of the ratio between narrowband and erythemal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, sun exposures avoiding midday hours are recommended in order to prevent negative side-effects. However to accumulate great NB doses and sufficient vitamin D in winter months is difficult because the time exposures may be longer than the day duration. PMID:23092623</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy...42.1275W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy...42.1275W"><span id="translatedtitle">Record occurrence and record values in <span class="hlt">daily</span> and monthly temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wergen, G.; Hense, A.; Krug, J.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>We analyze the occurrence and the values of record-breaking temperatures in <span class="hlt">daily</span> and monthly temperature observations. Our aim is to better understand and quantify the statistics of temperature records in the context of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. Similar to earlier work we employ a simple mathematical model of independent and identically distributed random variables with a linearly growing expectation value. This model proved to be useful in predicting the increase (decrease) in upper (lower) temperature records in a warming climate. Using both station and re-analysis data from Europe and the United States we further investigate the statistics of temperature records and the validity of this model. The most important new contribution in this article is an analysis of the statistics of record values for our simple model and European reanalysis data. We estimate how much the mean values and the distributions of record temperatures are affected by the large scale warming trend. In this context we consider both the values of records that occur at a certain time and the values of records that have a certain record number in the series of record events. We compare the observational data both to simple analytical computations and numerical simulations. We find that it is more difficult to describe the values of record breaking temperatures within the framework of our linear drift model. Observations from the summer months fit well into the model with Gaussian random variables under the observed linear warming, in the sense that record breaking temperatures are more extreme in the summer. In winter however a significant asymmetry of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature distribution hides the effect of the slow warming trends. Therefore very extreme cold records are still possible in winter. This effect is even more pronounced if one considers only data from subpolar regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010005251','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010005251"><span id="translatedtitle">BOREAS TE-21 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Surface Meteorological Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kimball, John; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-21 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the meteorology of boreal forest areas. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> meteorological data were derived from half-hourly BOREAS tower flux (TF) and Automatic Meteorological Station (AMS) mesonet measurements collected in the Southern and Northern Study Areas (SSA and NSA) for the period of 01 Jan 1994 until 31 Dec 1994. The data were stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4267849','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4267849"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Spiritual Experiences and Adolescent Treatment Response</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>LEE, MATTHEW T.; VETA, PAIGE S.; JOHNSON, BYRON R.; PAGANO, MARIA E.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study is to explore changes in belief orientation during treatment and the impact of increased <span class="hlt">daily</span> spiritual experiences (DSE) on adolescent treatment response. One-hundred ninety-five adolescents court-referred to a 2-month residential treatment program were assessed at intake and discharge. Forty percent of youth who entered treatment as agnostic or atheist identified themselves as spiritual or religious at discharge. Increased DSE was associated with greater likelihood of abstinence, increased prosocial behaviors, and reduced narcissistic behaviors. Results indicate a shift in DSE that improves youth self-care and care for others that may inform intervention approaches for adolescents with addiction. PMID:25525291</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JQSRT.122..194B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JQSRT.122..194B"><span id="translatedtitle">Field measurement of clear-sky solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> in Badain Jaran Desert of Northwestern China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bi, Jianrong; Huang, Jianping; Fu, Qiang; Ge, Jinming; Shi, Jinsen; Zhou, Tian; Zhang, Wu</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>The Semi-Arid Climate and Environment Observatory of Lanzhou University (SACOL) sponsored and conducted an intensive field campaign on dust aerosols in Badain Jaran Desert of Northwestern China from April 20 to June 20, 2010. A set of state-of-the-art broadband radiometers and sun/sky photometers were deployed along with launched radiosonde. In this paper, we compared the simulated solar <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> by using the SBDART radiative transfer model with those from the ground-based measurements for 69 selected cases of 7 days. It was shown that the averaged aerosol optical depth at 500nm (AOD500) is 0.18±0.09 with AOD500 less than 0.5 for all cases. The single-scattering albedo and asymmetry factor at 675nm are 0.928±0.035, 0.712±0.023, respectively. The AODs retrieved from the CIMEL sun photometer at various wavelengths agree well with those from the PREDE sky radiometer, and the columnar water vapor contents from CIMEL also agree well with radiosonde observations. In the radiative closure experiment, we used a collocated thermopile pyrgeometer with a shadow and ventilator to correct the thermal dome offset of diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurement. The mean differences between model and measurements are -9.1Wm-2 (-2.6%) for the direct <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, +3.1Wm-2 (+2.8%) for diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, and -6.0Wm-2 (-1.3%) for <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, which indicates an excellent radiative closure. Aerosol shortwave direct radiative forcing (ARF) and radiative heating rate are also investigated. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean ARF ranges from -4.8 to +0.4Wm-2 at the top of the atmosphere, -5.2 to -15.6Wm-2 at the surface, and 5.2 to 10.8Wm-2 in the atmosphere. The corresponding radiative heating rates for the whole atmosphere due to dust aerosols are 0.07, 0.11, 0.14, 0.11, 0.10, 0.08, and 0.07K/day for the 7 selected cloudless days. These solar radiative forcing can be considered as the representative impact of background dust aerosol in Northwestern China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=HRM+AND+strategy&pg=2&id=ED428216','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=HRM+AND+strategy&pg=2&id=ED428216"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> HRD.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>1997</p> <p></p> <p>This document contains four papers from a symposium on <span class="hlt">global</span> human resource development (HRD). "<span class="hlt">Globalization</span> of Human Resource Management (HRM) in Government: A Cross-Cultural Perspective" (Pan Suk Kim) relates HRM to national cultures and addresses its specific functional aspects with a unique dimension in a <span class="hlt">global</span> organization. "An…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=science+AND+fair+AND+topics&pg=7&id=ED211994','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=science+AND+fair+AND+topics&pg=7&id=ED211994"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Berkley, June, Ed.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The articles in this collection deal with various methods of <span class="hlt">global</span> education--education to prepare students to function as understanding and informed citizens of the world. Topics discussed in the 26 articles include: (1) the necessity of <span class="hlt">global</span> education; (2) <span class="hlt">global</span> education in the elementary school language arts curriculum; (3) science fiction…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22447288','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22447288"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparative study of the bactericidal activity and <span class="hlt">daily</span> disinfection housekeeping surfaces by a new portable pulsed UV radiation device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Umezawa, Kazuo; Asai, Satomi; Inokuchi, Sadaki; Miyachi, Hayato</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> cleaning and disinfecting of non-critical surfaces in the patient-care areas are known to reduce the occurrence of health care-associated infections. However, the conventional means for decontamination of housekeeping surfaces of sites of frequent hand contact such as manual disinfection using ethanol wipes are laborious and time-consuming in <span class="hlt">daily</span> practice. This study evaluated a newly developed portable pulsed ultraviolet (UV) radiation device for its bactericidal activity in comparison with continuous UV-C, and investigated its effect on the labor burden when implemented in a hospital ward. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin-resistant A. baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Bacillus cereus were <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> with pulsed UV or continuous UV-C. Pulsed UV and continuous UV-C required 5 and 30 s of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>, respectively, to attain bactericidal activity with more than 2Log growth inhibition of all the species. The use of pulsed UV in <span class="hlt">daily</span> disinfection of housekeeping surfaces reduced the working hours by half in comparison to manual disinfection using ethanol wipes. The new portable pulsed UV radiation device was proven to have a bactericidal activity against critical nosocomial bacteria, including antimicrobial-resistant bacteria after short <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>, and was thus found to be practical as a method for disinfecting housekeeping surfaces and decreasing the labor burden. PMID:22447288</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title30-vol1-sec77-1906.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title30-vol1-sec77-1906.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 77.1906 - Hoists; <span class="hlt">daily</span> inspection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>...SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1906 Hoists; <span class="hlt">daily</span> inspection. (a) Hoists used to transport persons shall be inspected <span class="hlt">daily</span>....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title30-vol1-sec77-1906.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title30-vol1-sec77-1906.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 77.1906 - Hoists; <span class="hlt">daily</span> inspection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>...SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1906 Hoists; <span class="hlt">daily</span> inspection. (a) Hoists used to transport persons shall be inspected <span class="hlt">daily</span>....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title42-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title42-vol2-sec409-34.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title42-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title42-vol2-sec409-34.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">42 CFR 409.34 - Criteria for “<span class="hlt">daily</span> basis”.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Requirements for Coverage of Posthospital SNF Care § 409.34 Criteria for “<span class="hlt">daily</span> basis”. (a) To meet the <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis requirement specified in §...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title42-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title42-vol2-sec409-34.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title42-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title42-vol2-sec409-34.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">42 CFR 409.34 - Criteria for “<span class="hlt">daily</span> basis”.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Requirements for Coverage of Posthospital SNF Care § 409.34 Criteria for “<span class="hlt">daily</span> basis”. (a) To meet the <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis requirement specified in §...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title42-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title42-vol2-sec409-34.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title42-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title42-vol2-sec409-34.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">42 CFR 409.34 - Criteria for “<span class="hlt">daily</span> basis”.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Requirements for Coverage of Posthospital SNF Care § 409.34 Criteria for “<span class="hlt">daily</span> basis”. (a) To meet the <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis requirement specified in §...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title42-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title42-vol2-sec409-34.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title42-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title42-vol2-sec409-34.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">42 CFR 409.34 - Criteria for “<span class="hlt">daily</span> basis”.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Requirements for Coverage of Posthospital SNF Care § 409.34 Criteria for “<span class="hlt">daily</span> basis”. (a) To meet the <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis requirement specified in §...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title42-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title42-vol2-sec409-34.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title42-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title42-vol2-sec409-34.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">42 CFR 409.34 - Criteria for “<span class="hlt">daily</span> basis”.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Requirements for Coverage of Posthospital SNF Care § 409.34 Criteria for “<span class="hlt">daily</span> basis”. (a) To meet the <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis requirement specified in §...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 890.5050 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 2011-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device. 890.5050 ...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device. (a)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 890.5050 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 2010-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device. 890.5050 ...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device. (a)...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title19-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title19-vol2-sec159-35.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title19-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title19-vol2-sec159-35.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">19 CFR 159.35 - Certified <span class="hlt">daily</span> rate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>...OF DUTIES Conversion of Foreign Currency § 159.35 Certified <span class="hlt">daily</span> rate. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> buying rate of foreign currency which is determined by the Federal...used for the conversion of foreign currency whenever a proclaimed rate...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title19-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title19-vol2-sec159-35.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title19-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title19-vol2-sec159-35.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">19 CFR 159.35 - Certified <span class="hlt">daily</span> rate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>...OF DUTIES Conversion of Foreign Currency § 159.35 Certified <span class="hlt">daily</span> rate. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> buying rate of foreign currency which is determined by the Federal...used for the conversion of foreign currency whenever a proclaimed rate...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4577095','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4577095"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Rhythms in Mobile Telephone Communication</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Aledavood, Talayeh; López, Eduardo; Roberts, Sam G. B.; Reed-Tsochas, Felix; Moro, Esteban; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Saramäki, Jari</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Circadian rhythms are known to be important drivers of human activity and the recent availability of electronic records of human behaviour has provided fine-grained data of temporal patterns of activity on a large scale. Further, questionnaire studies have identified important individual differences in circadian rhythms, with people broadly categorised into morning-like or evening-like individuals. However, little is known about the social aspects of these circadian rhythms, or how they vary across individuals. In this study we use a unique 18-month dataset that combines mobile phone calls and questionnaire data to examine individual differences in the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of mobile phone activity. We demonstrate clear individual differences in <span class="hlt">daily</span> patterns of phone calls, and show that these individual differences are persistent despite a high degree of turnover in the individuals’ social networks. Further, women’s calls were longer than men’s calls, especially during the evening and at night, and these calls were typically focused on a small number of emotionally intense relationships. These results demonstrate that individual differences in circadian rhythms are not just related to broad patterns of morningness and eveningness, but have a strong social component, in directing phone calls to specific individuals at specific times of day. PMID:26390215</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2941882','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2941882"><span id="translatedtitle">Cocaine craving and use during <span class="hlt">daily</span> life</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Preston, Kenzie L.; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Schmittner, John; Lin, Jia-Ling; Gorelick, David A.; Epstein, David H.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Rationale Craving is often assumed to cause ongoing drug use and relapse and is a major focus of addiction research. However, its relationship to drug use has not been adequately documented. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between craving and drug use in real time and in the <span class="hlt">daily</span> living environments of drug users. Methods In a prospective, longitudinal, cohort design (Ecological Momentary Assessment), 112 cocaine-abusing individuals in methadone maintenance treatment rated their craving and mood at random times (two to five times <span class="hlt">daily</span>, prompted by electronic diaries) as they went about their everyday activities. They also initiated an electronic-diary entry each time they used cocaine. Drug use was monitored by thrice-weekly urine testing. Results During periods of urine-verified cocaine use, ratings of cocaine craving increased across the day and were higher than during periods of urine-verified abstinence. During the five hours prior to cocaine use, ratings of craving significantly increased. These patterns were not seen in ratings of heroin craving or mood (e.g., feeling happy or bored). Conclusions Cocaine craving is tightly coupled to cocaine use in users’ normal environments. Our findings provide previously unavailable support for a relationship that has been seriously questioned in some theoretical accounts. We discuss what steps will be needed to determine whether craving causes use. PMID:19777216</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4685462','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4685462"><span id="translatedtitle">Typical noise exposure in <span class="hlt">daily</span> life</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Flamme, Gregory A.; Stephenson, Mark R.; Deiters, Kristy; Tatro, Amanda; VanGessel, Devon; Geda, Kyle; Wyllys, Krista; McGregor, Kara</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objective Identify the distribution of typical noise levels present in <span class="hlt">daily</span> life and identify factors associated with average sound levels. Design This was an observational study. Study sample Participants (N = 286) were 20 to 68 year old men and women, drawn from the general population of Kalamazoo County, Michigan . A total of 73 000 person-hours of noise monitoring were conducted. Results Median overall <span class="hlt">daily</span> average levels were 79 and 77 dBLeqA,8,equiv , with average levels exceeding EPA recommended levels for 70% of participants. Median levels were similar between the hours of 9 a.m. and 9 p.m., and varied little across days of the week. Gender, occupational classification, and history of occupational noise exposure were related to average noise levels, but age, educational attainment, and non-occupational noise exposures were not. Conclusions A large portion of the general population is exposed to noise levels that could result in long-term adverse effects on hearing. Gender and occupation were most strongly related to exposure, though most participants in this study had occupations that are not conventionally considered noisy. PMID:22264061</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title1-vol1-sec6-3.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title1-vol1-sec6-3.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 6.3 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> lists of parts affected.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> lists of parts affected. 6.3 Section 6.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.3 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> lists of parts affected. (a) Each <span class="hlt">daily</span> issue of the Federal Register shall carry...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title1-vol1-sec6-3.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title1-vol1-sec6-3.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 6.3 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> lists of parts affected.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true <span class="hlt">Daily</span> lists of parts affected. 6.3 Section 6.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.3 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> lists of parts affected. (a) Each <span class="hlt">daily</span> issue of the Federal Register shall carry...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title1-vol1-sec6-3.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title1-vol1-sec6-3.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 6.3 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> lists of parts affected.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true <span class="hlt">Daily</span> lists of parts affected. 6.3 Section 6.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.3 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> lists of parts affected. (a) Each <span class="hlt">daily</span> issue of the Federal Register shall carry...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title1-vol1-sec6-3.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title1-vol1-sec6-3.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 6.3 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> lists of parts affected.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> lists of parts affected. 6.3 Section 6.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.3 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> lists of parts affected. (a) Each <span class="hlt">daily</span> issue of the Federal Register shall carry...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title1-vol1-sec6-1.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title1-vol1-sec6-1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 6.1 - Index to <span class="hlt">daily</span> issues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Index to <span class="hlt">daily</span> issues. 6.1 Section 6.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.1 Index to <span class="hlt">daily</span> issues. Each <span class="hlt">daily</span> issue of the Federal Register shall be appropriately indexed....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title1-vol1-sec6-3.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title1-vol1-sec6-3.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 6.3 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> lists of parts affected.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> lists of parts affected. 6.3 Section 6.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.3 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> lists of parts affected. (a) Each <span class="hlt">daily</span> issue of the Federal Register shall carry...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title1-vol1-sec6-1.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title1-vol1-sec6-1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 6.1 - Index to <span class="hlt">daily</span> issues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Index to <span class="hlt">daily</span> issues. 6.1 Section 6.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.1 Index to <span class="hlt">daily</span> issues. Each <span class="hlt">daily</span> issue of the Federal Register shall be appropriately indexed....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title1-vol1-sec6-1.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title1-vol1-sec6-1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 6.1 - Index to <span class="hlt">daily</span> issues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Index to <span class="hlt">daily</span> issues. 6.1 Section 6.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.1 Index to <span class="hlt">daily</span> issues. Each <span class="hlt">daily</span> issue of the Federal Register shall be appropriately indexed....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title1-vol1-sec6-1.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title1-vol1-sec6-1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 6.1 - Index to <span class="hlt">daily</span> issues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Index to <span class="hlt">daily</span> issues. 6.1 Section 6.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.1 Index to <span class="hlt">daily</span> issues. Each <span class="hlt">daily</span> issue of the Federal Register shall be appropriately indexed....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title1-vol1-sec6-1.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title1-vol1-sec6-1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 6.1 - Index to <span class="hlt">daily</span> issues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Index to <span class="hlt">daily</span> issues. 6.1 Section 6.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.1 Index to <span class="hlt">daily</span> issues. Each <span class="hlt">daily</span> issue of the Federal Register shall be appropriately indexed....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.4116T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.4116T"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimizing <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> estimates for coastal and inland water imaging spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thompson, David R.; Seidel, Felix C.; Gao, Bo Cai; Gierach, Michelle M.; Green, Robert O.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Mouroulis, Pantazis</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Next generation orbital imaging spectrometers, with advanced <span class="hlt">global</span> remote sensing capabilities, propose to address outstanding ocean science questions related to coastal and inland water environments. These missions require highly accurate characterization of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> in the critical 380-600 nm spectral range. However, the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> in this spectral region is temporally variable and difficult to measure directly, leading to considerable variance between different models. Here we optimize an <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> estimate using data from the NASA airborne Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM), leveraging spectrally smooth in-scene targets. We demonstrate improved retrievals for both PRISM and the Next Generation Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1134121','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1134121"><span id="translatedtitle">Indoor and Outdoor Spectroradiometer Intercomparison for Spectral <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Measurement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Habte, A.; Andreas, A.; Ottoson, L.; Gueymard, C.; Fedor, G.; Fowler, S.; Peterson, J.; Naranen, R.; Kobashi, T.; Akiyama, A.; Takagi, S.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>This report details the <span class="hlt">global</span> spectral <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> intercomparison using spectroradiometers that was organized by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. The intercomparison was performed both indoors and outdoors on September 17, 2013. Five laboratories participated in the intercomparison using 10 spectroradiometers, and a coordinated measurement setup and a common platform were employed to compare spectral <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> under both indoor and outdoor conditions. The intercomparison aimed to understand the performance of the different spectroradiometers and to share knowledge in making spectral <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements. This intercomparison was the first of its kind in the United States.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014LatJP..51...44B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014LatJP..51...44B"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> covering material for biocells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bendere, R.; Smigins, R.; Medne, O.; Berzina-Cimdina, L.; Rugele, K.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Bioreactor landfilling, with the acceptance of landfill Directive 1999/31/EC has lost its actuality in European Union; at the same time, this method can still be used for acceleration of biowaste degradation and biogas production. One of the possibilities to reduce the disposal of biowaste is to use biocells for its anaerobic pre-treatment before landfilling. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> filling up of such a cell requires isolation of the main volume to limit gas emissions, reduce smells, etc. Bioprocesses that are of the utmost importance for biocell treatment are often not taken into account in selection of materials to be used as <span class="hlt">daily</span> landfill covers. Based on physical, chemical and biological methods the investigations have been carried out into different covering materials offered in the market, with identification of parameters that are the most important for <span class="hlt">daily</span> covering the biocells. It is found that the materials fitted best this purpose should be of biological origin and consist of small bio-particles with large surface, without the inhibitors of anaerobic processes such as sulphuric compounds. Bioreaktoru pielietošana atkritumu uzglab?šanas sf?r?, sakar? ar Direkt?vas 1999/31/EC pie?emšanu, ir zaud?jusi savu aktualit?ti, ta?u š? metode v?l joproj?m var tikt izmantota bioatkritumu no?rd?šanai un biog?zes ražošanai. Viena no iesp?j?m k? samazin?t bioatkritumu izvietošanu ir bioš?nu izmantošana bioatkritumu anaerobai pirmsapstr?dei pirms to noglab?šanas. Š?nas piepild?šana ikdien? prasa nepieciešam?bu izol?t liel?ko t?s da?u, lai samazin?tu g?zes emisiju, smakas, utt. Materi?li, kas ikdien? tiek izmantoti atkritumu p?rkl?šanai, nepietiekami ietekm? bioprocesus, kas pamat? ir galvenais bioš?nas izmantošanas m?r?is. Šaj? sakar? ir veikta daž?du tirdzniec?b? pieejamu p?rkl?juma materi?lu izp?te, pielietojot virkni fizik?lo, ??misko un biolo?isko metožu, un nosakot svar?g?kos parametrus, kas ir b?tiski šo materi?lu izmantošanai ikdien? k? bioš?nas p?rkl?jumu. P?t?jumu rezult?t? noteikts, ka visatbilstoš?kie ir materi?li ar biolo?isko izcelsmi, sast?voši no maz?m bio da?i??m ar lielu laukumu bez anaerobo procesu inhibitoriem, piem?ram, s?ra komponent?m.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6613683','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6613683"><span id="translatedtitle">Perspective on food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1987-02-01</p> <p>Recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> treatment for fruit, vegetables and pork has stimulated considerable discussion in the popular press on the safety and efficacy of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> processing of food. This perspective is designed to summarize the current scientific information available on this issue.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/865384','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/865384"><span id="translatedtitle">Comminuting <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> ferritic steel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Bauer, Roger E. (Kennewick, WA); Straalsund, Jerry L. (Kennewick, WA); Chin, Bryan A. (Auburn, AL)</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Disclosed is a method of comminuting <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> components.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110023008','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110023008"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional Model Nesting Within GFS <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Forecasts Over West Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Druyan, Leonard M.; Fulakeza, Matthew; Lonergan, Patrick; Worrell, Ruben</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The study uses the RM3, the regional climate model at the Center for Climate Systems Research of Columbia University and the NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies (CCSR/GISS). The paper evaluates 30 48-hour RM3 weather forecasts over West Africa during September 2006 made on a 0.5 grid nested within 1 <span class="hlt">Global</span> Forecast System (GFS) <span class="hlt">global</span> forecasts. September 2006 was the Special Observing Period #3 of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA). Archived GFS initial conditions and lateral boundary conditions for the simulations from the US National Weather Service, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration were interpolated four times <span class="hlt">daily</span>. Results for precipitation forecasts are validated against Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite estimates and data from the Famine Early Warning System (FEWS), which includes rain gauge measurements, and forecasts of circulation are compared to reanalysis 2. Performance statistics for the precipitation forecasts include bias, root-mean-square errors and spatial correlation coefficients. The nested regional model forecasts are compared to GFS forecasts to gauge whether nesting provides additional realistic information. They are also compared to RM3 simulations driven by reanalysis 2, representing high potential skill forecasts, to gauge the sensitivity of results to lateral boundary conditions. Nested RM3/GFS forecasts generate excessive moisture advection toward West Africa, which in turn causes prodigious amounts of model precipitation. This problem is corrected by empirical adjustments in the preparation of lateral boundary conditions and initial conditions. The resulting modified simulations improve on the GFS precipitation forecasts, achieving time-space correlations with TRMM of 0.77 on the first day and 0.63 on the second day. One realtime RM3/GFS precipitation forecast made at and posted by the African Centre of Meteorological Application for Development (ACMAD) in Niamey, Niger is shown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986JGR....91.8672H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986JGR....91.8672H"><span id="translatedtitle">The Mg 280-nm doublet as a monitor of changes in solar ultraviolet <span class="hlt">irradiance</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heath, D. F.; Schlesinger, B. M.</p> <p>1986-07-01</p> <p>Solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> data gathered with the Nimbus 7 spacecraft from 1978-1985 are compared with atmospheric MG 289-nm doublet emission line data to evaluate the possibility of using the rotational line data to calculate the total solar UV input. The satellite instrumentation is described, including the calibration equipment and procedures. The spacecraft records solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> once per day and the remainder of the time records <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> scattered by the atmosphere. The measured <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> are converted to equivalent brightness temperatures, which can be interpolated for specific layers of the atmosphere. Sample <span class="hlt">daily</span> data are provided to illustrate the correlation between variations in the Mg-II core radiation and the soalr UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. Techniques are defined for correcting for periodic variations in instrument performance to quantify long-term solar UV radiance variations. Using the atmospheric Mg-II doublet radiation for measuring soalr UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> is concluded of value for characterizing the effects of solar radiation on the atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870023306&hterms=soalr&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dsoalr','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870023306&hterms=soalr&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dsoalr"><span id="translatedtitle">The Mg 280-nm doublet as a monitor of changes in solar ultraviolet <span class="hlt">irradiance</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Heath, D. F.; Schlesinger, B. M.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> data gathered with the Nimbus 7 spacecraft from 1978-1985 are compared with atmospheric MG 289-nm doublet emission line data to evaluate the possibility of using the rotational line data to calculate the total solar UV input. The satellite instrumentation is described, including the calibration equipment and procedures. The spacecraft records solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> once per day and the remainder of the time records <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> scattered by the atmosphere. The measured <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> are converted to equivalent brightness temperatures, which can be interpolated for specific layers of the atmosphere. Sample <span class="hlt">daily</span> data are provided to illustrate the correlation between variations in the Mg-II core radiation and the soalr UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. Techniques are defined for correcting for periodic variations in instrument performance to quantify long-term solar UV radiance variations. Using the atmospheric Mg-II doublet radiation for measuring soalr UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> is concluded of value for characterizing the effects of solar radiation on the atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://islab.kaist.ac.kr/chungcw/InterConfPapers/fp84-park.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://islab.kaist.ac.kr/chungcw/InterConfPapers/fp84-park.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">When <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Deal Services Meet Twitter: Understanding Twitter as a <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Deal Marketing Platform</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Chung, Chin-Wan</p> <p></p> <p>Factors, Measurement Keywords Twitter, <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Deal Service, Social Media Marketing, Electronic Commerce contents, or tweets, act as an important source of advertising and brand managing. Groupon and LivingSocial which enables users to build social networks and share information, has been recognized as a potentially</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1128528','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1128528"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> Creep in Graphite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William</p> <p>2014-03-13</p> <p>An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4233117','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4233117"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> oral iron supplementation during pregnancy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Dowswell, Therese; Viteri, Fernando E</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Iron and folic acid supplementation has been the preferred intervention to improve iron stores and prevent anaemia among pregnant women, and it may also improve other maternal and birth outcomes. Objectives To assess the effects of <span class="hlt">daily</span> oral iron supplements for pregnant women, either alone or in conjunction with folic acid, or with other vitamins and minerals as a public health intervention. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (2 July 2012). We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (2 July 2012) and contacted relevant organisations for the identification of ongoing and unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised trials evaluating the effects of oral preventive supplementation with <span class="hlt">daily</span> iron, iron + folic acid or iron + other vitamins and minerals during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis We assessed the methodological quality of trials using standard Cochrane criteria. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data and conducted checks for accuracy. Main results We included 60 trials. Forty-three trials, involving more than 27,402 women, contributed data and compared the effects of <span class="hlt">daily</span> oral supplements containing iron versus no iron or placebo. Overall, women taking iron supplements were less likely to have low birthweight newborns (below 2500 g) compared with controls (8.4% versus 10.2%, average risk ratio (RR) 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68 to 0.97, 11 trials, 8480 women) and mean birthweight was 30.81 g greater for those infants whose mothers received iron during pregnancy (average mean difference (MD) 30.81; 95% CI 5.94 to 55.68, 14 trials, 9385 women). Preventive iron supplementation reduced the risk of maternal anaemia at term by 70% (RR 0.30; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.46, 14 trials, 2199 women) and iron deficiency at term by 57% (RR 0.43; 95% CI 0.27 to 0.66, seven trials, 1256 women). Although the difference between groups did not reach statistical significance, women who received iron supplements were more likely than controls to report side effects (25.3% versus 9.91%) (RR 2.36; 95% CI 0.96 to 5.82, 11 trials, 4418 women), particularly at doses 60 mg of elemental iron or higher. Women receiving iron were on average more likely to have higher haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations at term and in the postpartum period, but were at increased risk of Hb concentrations greater than 130g/L during pregnancy and at term. Twenty-three studies were conducted in countries that in 2011 had some malaria risk in parts of the country. In some of these countries/territories, malaria is present only in certain areas or up to a particular altitude. Only two of these reported malaria outcomes. There is no evidence that iron supplementation increases placental malaria. For some outcomes heterogeneity was higher than 50%. Authors’ conclusions Prenatal supplementation with <span class="hlt">daily</span> iron are effective to reduce the risk of low birthweight, and to prevent maternal anaemia and iron deficiency in pregnancy. Associated maternal side effects and particularly high Hb concentrations during pregnancy at currently used doses suggest the need to update recommendations on doses and regimens for routine iron supplementation. PMID:23235616</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16608665','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16608665"><span id="translatedtitle">Once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> therapies for the treatment of HIV infection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tashima, Karen T; Mitty, Jennifer Adelson</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>For patients initiating antiretroviral therapy, there are several well-tolerated once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> regimens from which to choose. Once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> antiretroviral therapy may be ideal for patient adherence and convenience. However, results of a few recent clinical trials exploring new once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> regimens have shown that one cannot assume that any three-drug combination will be successful. Once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> therapy options for treatment-experienced patients are more limited but may be successful depending on prior antiretroviral treatment exposure and resistance mutations. Current approaches to once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> therapy include simplifying successful regimens and investigating novel antiretroviral agents with long half-lives. PMID:16608665</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A34C..01K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A34C..01K"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of CERES surface <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kato, S.; Loeb, N. G.; Rose, F. G.; Rutan, D. A.; Doelling, D.; Radkevich, A.; Ham, S. H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Understanding the surface radiation budget is important for several reasons. At the <span class="hlt">global</span> and large temporal scales, it should balance with the sum of surface latent and sensible heat fluxes and ocean heating. At regional scales, it is an indispensable boundary condition for ocean or snow models or any other models that need energy input to the surface. NASA's Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project provides surface <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> data products for a range of temporal and spatial scales computed using a radiative transfer model initialized using satellite-derived cloud and aerosol properties. Other inputs to the radiative transfer model include temperature and humidity profiles from NASA <span class="hlt">Global</span> Modeling and Assimilation Office's (GMAO) reanalysis. The CERES team uses more than 80 surface observation sites located over land and ocean to evaluate computed <span class="hlt">irradiances</span>. When computed monthly 1° by 1° gridded mean downward <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> are compared with 10 years of observed <span class="hlt">irradiances</span>, the bias averaged over all land and ocean sites are, respectively, -1.7 Wm-2 and 4.7 Wm-2 for shortwave and -1.0 Wm-2 and -2.0 Wm-2 for longwave. The shortwave agreement is significantly better than other satellite-based surface <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> products. One of reasons for the better agreement is careful treatment of diurnal cycle of clouds by merging 3-hourly geostationary satellite-derived cloud properties. In addition, computed surface <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variability shows a remarkable agreement with observed variability. However, these data sets have their shortcomings. The uncertainty in nighttime surface longwave <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> over polar regions is larger than that of other regions primarily due to the difficulty of cloud detection and large uncertainties in skin temperature and near-surface temperature and humidity. The large uncertainty in polar region surface <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> hampers, for example, investigation of surface radiation budget changes in response to changes in sea ice extent. In this presentation, we present an evaluation of the current CERES products and discuss ways these products can be improved in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26414538','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26414538"><span id="translatedtitle">"Productive and counterproductive job crafting: A <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary study": Correction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Reports an error in "Productive and Counterproductive Job Crafting: A <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Diary Study" by Evangelia Demerouti, Arnold B. Bakker and Jonathon R. B. Halbesleben (Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Mar 23, 2015, np). There was an error in the results. In the Results section, under the subheading Testing Hypotheses, the parenthetical text referring to "lower bound and upper bound" for reducing demands to work engagement through workload in the second paragraph and for reducing demands on task performance through day-level workload and work engagement in the sixth paragraph respectively should have read as follows: (lower bound = -.040 to upper bound = -.002) (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-12645-001.) The present study aims to uncover the way <span class="hlt">daily</span> job crafting influences <span class="hlt">daily</span> job performance (i.e., task performance, altruism, and counterproductive work behavior). Job crafting was conceptualized as "seeking resources," "seeking challenges," and "reducing demands" and viewed as strategies individuals use to optimize their job characteristics. We hypothesized that <span class="hlt">daily</span> job crafting relates to <span class="hlt">daily</span> job demands and resources (work pressure and autonomy), which consequently relate to <span class="hlt">daily</span> work engagement and exhaustion and ultimately to job performance. A sample of 95 employees filled in a quantitative diary for 5 consecutive working days (n occasions = 475). We predicted and found that <span class="hlt">daily</span> seeking resources was positively associated with <span class="hlt">daily</span> task performance because <span class="hlt">daily</span> autonomy and work engagement increased. In contrast, <span class="hlt">daily</span> reducing demands was detrimental for <span class="hlt">daily</span> task performance and altruism, because employees lower their <span class="hlt">daily</span> workload and consequently their engagement and exhaustion, respectively. Only <span class="hlt">daily</span> seeking challenges was positively (rather than negatively) associated with <span class="hlt">daily</span> counterproductive behavior. We conclude that employee job crafting can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on job performance. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26414538</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/9713','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/9713"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Irradiation</span>-Induced Nanostructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Birtcher, R.C.; Ewing, R.C.; Matzke, Hj.; Meldrum, A.; Newcomer, P.P.; Wang, L.M.; Wang, S.X.; Weber, W.J.</p> <p>1999-08-09</p> <p>This paper summarizes the results of the studies of the <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>-induced formation of nanostructures, where the injected interstitials from the source of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> are not major components of the nanophase. This phenomena has been observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in a number of intermetallic compounds and ceramics during high-energy electron or ion <span class="hlt">irradiations</span> when the ions completely penetrate through the specimen. Beginning with single crystals, electron or ion <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> in a certain temperature range may result in nanostructures composed of amorphous domains and nanocrystals with either the original composition and crystal structure or new nanophases formed by decomposition of the target material. The phenomenon has also been observed in natural materials which have suffered <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> from the decay of constituent radioactive elements and in nuclear reactor fuels which have been <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> by fission neutrons and other fission products. The mechanisms involved in the process of this nanophase formation are discussed in terms of the evolution of displacement cascades, radiation-induced defect accumulation, radiation-induced segregation and phase decomposition, as well as the competition between <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>-induced amorphization and recrystallization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Ge%26Ae..54..248B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Ge%26Ae..54..248B"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal changes in <span class="hlt">daily</span> variations of ELF-VLF atmospherics detected at auroral latitudes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beloglazov, M. I.; Kirillov, V. I.; Pchelkin, V. V.; Galakhov, A. A.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> variations in the intensities of atmospherics at 600 Hz and 6 kHz detected at the Lovozero observatory from June to December 2012 were studied. Under quiet geomagnetic conditions, <span class="hlt">daily</span> variations of atmospherics are shown to be determined by both the waveguide parameters of the Earth's ionosphere and the activity of storm centers. In summer, a broad daytime maximum of atmospherics flow N hr (the number of atmospherics per hour) is detected most likely due to the lightning activity in mid-latitude regions that are nearer to the observatory than the <span class="hlt">global</span> storm centers. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> variations in atmospherics mean amplitudes per hour A hr differ appreciably from the <span class="hlt">daily</span> variations N hr, reflecting largely the changes in lighting conditions along signal propagation paths. The distribution function of the levels of atmospherics can be approximated by the following formula taken from publications: P( X) = [1 + ( X/ X 50) k ]-1, where k is a parameter that changes from 2.2 to 3.2 at f = 600 Hz and from 1.5 to 2 at f = 6 kHz under quiet geomagnetic conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4121248','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4121248"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Converting Tacrolimus Formulation from Twice-<span class="hlt">Daily</span> to Once-<span class="hlt">Daily</span> in Liver Transplantation Recipients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Thorat, Ashok; Chou, Hong-Shiue; Lee, Chen-Fang; Soong, Ruey-Shyang; Wu, Ting-Jung; Lee, Wei-Chen</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Typically, tacrolimus is administrated twice <span class="hlt">daily</span>. Prolonged-release tacrolimus is the once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> formulation and may be more convenient for patients. Experience with the administration of the once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> formulation is still limited. This study enrolled 210 liver transplant recipients who had stable liver function and converted tacrolimus from a twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> to once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> formulation on a 1?mg to 1?mg basis. Among 210 patients, seven patients (3.3%) were withdrawn from the once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> formulation due to allergy and fatigue. For the other patients, the trough concentration after converting to the once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> formulation was lower than that of the twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> formulation. Liver enzymes were mildly elevated in 3 months after formulation conversion and serum creatinine and uric acid were mildly decreased. Seven patients (3.4%) had clinical suspicion of acute rejection after the formulation conversion and three of them were caused by nonadherence. 155 patients (76.4%) experienced a more convenient life with an increase of social activity. Forty-seven patients (23.2%) experienced the convenience of once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> formulation during overseas trips. In conclusion, tacrolimus can be safely converted from the twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> to the once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> formulation for most stable liver recipients. Acute rejection may occur in a minority of patients during formulation conversion and should be carefully monitored. PMID:25121091</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5514160','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5514160"><span id="translatedtitle">Alaskan Commodities <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zarling, J.P.; Swanson, R.B.; Logan, R.R.; Das, D.K.; Lewis, C.E.; Workman, W.G.; Tumeo, M.A.; Hok, C.I.; Birklid, C.A.; Bennett, F.L.</p> <p>1988-12-01</p> <p>The ninety-ninth US Congress commissioned a six-state food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> research and development program to evaluate the commercial potential of this technology. Hawaii, Washington, Iowa, Oklahoma and Florida as well as Alaska have participated in the national program; various food products including fishery products, red meats, tropical and citrus fruits and vegetables have been studied. The purpose of the Alaskan study was to review and evaluate those factors related to the technical and economic feasibility of an <span class="hlt">irradiator</span> in Alaska. This options analysis study will serve as a basis for determining the state's further involvement in the development of food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> technology. 40 refs., 50 figs., 53 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/844967','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/844967"><span id="translatedtitle">Thyroid cancer after <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chang-Chien, Y; Liaw, K Y; Wang, D J; Chen, F W</p> <p>1977-02-01</p> <p>Nine patients with thyroid cancer who had received <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> on the thyroid region (four for breast cancer with deep x-ray or Co60, one for a skin lesion with deep x-ray and four for hyperthyroidism with I131) have been discussed. These cases might be within the range of statistical coicidence, but the potential carcinogenic effect of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> could not be ruled out completely. The need for detailed examination of the thyroid gland before and for many years after <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> and early removal of thyroid gland nodules which develop after I131 treatment are emphasized. PMID:844967</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25798721','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25798721"><span id="translatedtitle">Productive and counterproductive job crafting: A <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Demerouti, Evangelia; Bakker, Arnold B; Halbesleben, Jonathon R B</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 20(4) of Journal of Occupational Health Psychology (see record 2015-44183-001). There was an error in the results. In the Results section, under the subheading Testing Hypotheses, the parenthetical text referring to "lower bound and upper bound" for reducing demands to work engagement through workload in the second paragraph and for reducing demands on task performance through day-level workload and work engagement in the sixth paragraph respectively should have read as follows: (lower bound = -.040 to upper bound = -.002)] The present study aims to uncover the way <span class="hlt">daily</span> job crafting influences <span class="hlt">daily</span> job performance (i.e., task performance, altruism, and counterproductive work behavior). Job crafting was conceptualized as "seeking resources," "seeking challenges," and "reducing demands" and viewed as strategies individuals use to optimize their job characteristics. We hypothesized that <span class="hlt">daily</span> job crafting relates to <span class="hlt">daily</span> job demands and resources (work pressure and autonomy), which consequently relate to <span class="hlt">daily</span> work engagement and exhaustion and ultimately to job performance. A sample of 95 employees filled in a quantitative diary for 5 consecutive working days (n occasions = 475). We predicted and found that <span class="hlt">daily</span> seeking resources was positively associated with <span class="hlt">daily</span> task performance because <span class="hlt">daily</span> autonomy and work engagement increased. In contrast, <span class="hlt">daily</span> reducing demands was detrimental for <span class="hlt">daily</span> task performance and altruism, because employees lower their <span class="hlt">daily</span> workload and consequently their engagement and exhaustion, respectively. Only <span class="hlt">daily</span> seeking challenges was positively (rather than negatively) associated with <span class="hlt">daily</span> counterproductive behavior. We conclude that employee job crafting can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on job performance. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25798721</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=light+AND+india&id=EJ1009637','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=light+AND+india&id=EJ1009637"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> and the "Identity Remix" among Urban Adolescents in India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rao, Mrinalini A.; Berry, Ruhi; Gonsalves, Ayesha; Hastak, Yogita; Shah, Mukti; Roeser, Robert W.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This study examined adolescents' perceptions of cultural change and identity development during an age of <span class="hlt">globalization</span> in India. Analyses of data from 1497 Indian, urban, middle-class 12-15-year-olds (46% girls) revealed that these youth were aware of changes in their <span class="hlt">daily</span> lives due to <span class="hlt">globalization</span> and evaluated such changes in a pragmatic…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=developing+AND+listening+AND+skills&pg=4&id=EJ1022674','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=developing+AND+listening+AND+skills&pg=4&id=EJ1022674"><span id="translatedtitle">Children as <span class="hlt">Global</span> Citizens: A Socratic Approach to Teaching Character</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Helterbran, Valeri R.; Strahler, Brianna R.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Educators around the world are being challenged to promote positive <span class="hlt">global</span> citizenship skills in the face of <span class="hlt">daily</span> news concerning widespread discord, dissonance, injustice, and corruption. This article describes a Socratic approach to developing <span class="hlt">global</span> citizenship. Recognizing the central role of teachers in educating future generations of a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/923436','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/923436"><span id="translatedtitle">TRENDS IN ESTIMATED MIXING DEPTH <span class="hlt">DAILY</span> MAXIMUMS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M</p> <p>2007-11-12</p> <p>Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential temperature and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SoPh..290.2709S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SoPh..290.2709S"><span id="translatedtitle">When <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Sunspot Births Become Positively Correlated</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shapoval, Alexander; Le Mouël, Jean-Louis; Shnirman, Mikhail; Courtillot, Vincent</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>We study the first differences w(t) of the International Sunspot Number (ISSN) <span class="hlt">daily</span> series for the time span 1850 - 2013. The one-day correlations ?1 between w(t) and w(t+1) are computed within four-year sliding windows and are found to shift from negative to positive values near the end of Cycle 17 ({˜} 1945). They remain positive during the last Grand Maximum and until {˜} 2009, when they fall to zero. We also identify a prominent regime change in {˜} 1915, strengthening previous evidence of major anomalies in solar activity at this date. We test an autoregressive process of order 1 (AR(1)) as a model that can reproduce the high-frequency component of ISSN: we compute ?1 for this AR(1) process and find that it is negative. Positive values of ?1 are found only if the process involves positive correlation: this leads us to suggest that the births of successive spots are positively correlated during the last Grand Maximum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1002.0076v2','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1002.0076v2"><span id="translatedtitle">Chaos and scaling in <span class="hlt">daily</span> river flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>M. De Domenico; M. Ali Ghorbani</p> <p>2011-04-07</p> <p>Adequate knowledge of the nature of river flow process is crucial for proper planning and management of our water resources and environment. This study attempts to detect the salient characteristics of flow dynamics of the Karoon River in Iran. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> discharge series observed over a period of six years (1999-2004) is analyzed to examine the chaotic and scaling characteristics of the flow dynamics. The presence of chaos is investigated through the correlation dimension and Lyapunov exponent methods, while the Hurst exponent and R\\'enyi dimension analyses are performed to explore the scaling characteristics. The low correlation dimension ($2.60 \\pm 0.07$) and the positive largest Lyapunov exponent ($0.014 \\pm 0.001$) suggest the presence of low-dimensional chaos; they also imply that the flow dynamics are dominantly governed by three variables and can be reliably predicted up to 48 days (i.e. prediction horizon). Results from the Hurst exponent and R\\'enyi dimension analyses reveal the multifractal character of the flow dynamics, with persistent and anti-persistent behaviors observed at different time scales.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23746068','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23746068"><span id="translatedtitle">Kiwifruit: our <span class="hlt">daily</span> prescription for health.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stonehouse, Welma; Gammon, Cheryl S; Beck, Kathryn L; Conlon, Cathryn A; von Hurst, Pamela R; Kruger, Rozanne</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Kiwifruit are unequalled, compared with other commonly consumed fruit, for their nutrient density, health benefits, and consumer appeal. Research into their health benefits has focussed on the cultivars Actinidia deliciosa 'Hayward' (green kiwifruit) and Actinidia chinensis 'Hort 16A', ZESPRI(®) (gold kiwifruit). Compared with other commonly consumed fruit, both green and gold kiwifruit are exceptionally high in vitamins C, E, K, folate, carotenoids, potassium, fibre, and phytochemicals acting in synergy to achieve multiple health benefits. Kiwifruit, as part of a healthy diet, may increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and decrease triglycerides, platelet aggregation, and elevated blood pressure. Consuming gold kiwifruit with iron-rich meals improves poor iron status, and green kiwifruit aids digestion and laxation. As a rich source of antioxidants, they may protect the body from endogenous oxidative damage. Kiwifruit may support immune function and reduce the incidence and severity of cold or flu-like illness in at-risk groups such as older adults and children. However, kiwifruit are allergenic, and although symptoms in most susceptible individuals are mild, severe reactions have been reported. While many research gaps remain, kiwifruit with their multiple health benefits have the potential to become part of our "<span class="hlt">daily</span> prescription for health." PMID:23746068</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SoPh..tmp..137S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SoPh..tmp..137S"><span id="translatedtitle">When <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Sunspot Births Become Positively Correlated</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shapoval, Alexander; Le Mouël, Jean-Louis; Shnirman, Mikhail; Courtillot, Vincent</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>We study the first differences w(t) of the International Sunspot Number (ISSN) <span class="hlt">daily</span> series for the time span 1850 - 2013. The one-day correlations ?1 between w(t) and w(t+1) are computed within four-year sliding windows and are found to shift from negative to positive values near the end of Cycle 17 ( ˜ 1945). They remain positive during the last Grand Maximum and until ˜ 2009, when they fall to zero. We also identify a prominent regime change in ˜ 1915, strengthening previous evidence of major anomalies in solar activity at this date. We test an autoregressive process of order 1 (AR(1)) as a model that can reproduce the high-frequency component of ISSN: we compute ?1 for this AR(1) process and find that it is negative. Positive values of ?1 are found only if the process involves positive correlation: this leads us to suggest that the births of successive spots are positively correlated during the last Grand Maximum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26067371','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26067371"><span id="translatedtitle">Egocentric <span class="hlt">daily</span> activity recognition via multitask clustering.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yan, Yan; Ricci, Elisa; Liu, Gaowen; Sebe, Nicu</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Recognizing human activities from videos is a fundamental research problem in computer vision. Recently, there has been a growing interest in analyzing human behavior from data collected with wearable cameras. First-person cameras continuously record several hours of their wearers' life. To cope with this vast amount of unlabeled and heterogeneous data, novel algorithmic solutions are required. In this paper, we propose a multitask clustering framework for activity of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living analysis from visual data gathered from wearable cameras. Our intuition is that, even if the data are not annotated, it is possible to exploit the fact that the tasks of recognizing everyday activities of multiple individuals are related, since typically people perform the same actions in similar environments, e.g., people working in an office often read and write documents). In our framework, rather than clustering data from different users separately, we propose to look for clustering partitions which are coherent among related tasks. In particular, two novel multitask clustering algorithms, derived from a common optimization problem, are introduced. Our experimental evaluation, conducted both on synthetic data and on publicly available first-person vision data sets, shows that the proposed approach outperforms several single-task and multitask learning methods. PMID:26067371</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4214611','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4214611"><span id="translatedtitle">Adolescent Reactions to Maternal Responsiveness and Internalizing Symptomatology: A <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Diary Investigation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jobe-Shields, Lisa; Parra, Gilbert R.; Buckholdt, Kelly E.; Tillery, Rachel N.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary methodology was employed to gather teens’ perceptions of maternal responsiveness to <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressful events and teens’ reactions to maternal responsiveness in a diverse sample (792 entries from 104 teens; 81% African American, mean age 13.7 years). Additionally, parents and teens completed baseline reports of internalizing symptoms. Diary findings were congruent with prior studies employing self-report measures of <span class="hlt">global</span> maternal responses to emotion (e.g., higher probability of Accepting reactions to supportive responses, higher probabilities of Attack, Avoid-Withdraw reactions to non-supportive responses). Elevated baseline internalizing symptoms were related to perception of elevated Punish and Magnify responses during the week, and more Avoidant (Avoid-Withdraw and Avoid-Protect) reactions to responsiveness. Results are discussed in the context of reciprocal emotion socialization processes. PMID:25364293</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24158691','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24158691"><span id="translatedtitle">Olodaterol: first <span class="hlt">global</span> approval.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gibb, Andrew; Yang, Lily P H</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Olodaterol (Striverdi(®) Respimat(®)) is a novel, long-acting, ?2-adrenergic receptor agonist developed by Boehringer Ingelheim for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The drug is delivered via the Respimat(®) Soft Mist™ inhaler. Olodaterol received its first <span class="hlt">global</span> approval for the once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> maintenance treatment of COPD in Canada and Russia, and submissions for regulatory approval have also been made in the USA, the EU and elsewhere. Phase II trials have been conducted in patients with asthma. The company is also developing a fixed-dose combination of olodaterol with tiotropium bromide, a long-acting anti-muscarinic agent, for the treatment of COPD. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of olodaterol leading to this first approval for COPD. PMID:24158691</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4511964','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4511964"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Interpersonal and Affective Dynamics in Personality Disorder</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wright, Aidan G.C.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Simms, Leonard J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this naturalistic study we adopt the lens of interpersonal theory to examine between-and within-person differences in dynamic processes of <span class="hlt">daily</span> affect and interpersonal behaviors among individuals (N = 101) previously diagnosed with personality disorders who completed <span class="hlt">daily</span> diaries over the course of 100 days. Dispositional ratings of interpersonal problems and measures of <span class="hlt">daily</span> stress were used as predictors of <span class="hlt">daily</span> shifts in interpersonal behavior and affect in multilevel models. Results indicate that ~40%–50% of the variance in interpersonal behavior and affect is due to <span class="hlt">daily</span> fluctuations, which are modestly related to dispositional measures of interpersonal problems but strongly related to <span class="hlt">daily</span> stress. The findings support conceptions of personality disorders as a dynamic form of psychopathology involving the individuals interacting with and regulating in response to the contextual features of their environment. PMID:26200849</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16274445','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16274445"><span id="translatedtitle">Distinguishing affective and non-affective reactions to <span class="hlt">daily</span> events.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nezlek, John B</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>The study of <span class="hlt">daily</span> events has been dominated by a focus on affective reactions to <span class="hlt">daily</span> events. Although informative, this research needs to be complemented by research on non-affective and cognitive reactions to events. Although <span class="hlt">daily</span> events are certainly related to how people feel, they are also related to how people think, particularly about themselves. The present article presents the results of a series of studies examining relationships between <span class="hlt">daily</span> events and both affective and non-affective states. These results suggest that although affective and non-affective reactions to <span class="hlt">daily</span> events may covary (e.g., when people feel badly, they may think more poorly about themselves and vice versa), this covariation is not perfect. Non-affective states covary with <span class="hlt">daily</span> events above and beyond the covariation between events and affect, and affective states covary with events above and beyond the covariation between events and non-affective states. PMID:16274445</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24107710','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24107710"><span id="translatedtitle">The role of locus of control in <span class="hlt">daily</span> life.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ryon, Holly S; Gleason, Marci E J</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Conceived of as a stable trait, locus of control has been linked with psychological and physical health outcomes. We investigated whether locus of control operates as a state variable, whether variation in <span class="hlt">daily</span> locus of control is associated with anxiety and stressful events, and whether it predicts <span class="hlt">daily</span> health behaviors and symptoms. Using a <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary study of pregnant couples, we found <span class="hlt">daily</span> variation in locus of control was predicted by <span class="hlt">daily</span> hassles and anxiety such that high same-day and previous-day anxiety and hassles were associated with reports of lower levels of control. Furthermore, <span class="hlt">daily</span> locus of control was positively associated with positive health behaviors and predicted negative health symptoms. These results provide evidence for a social learning perspective on the development and maintenance of individuals' sense of control and suggest that locus of control should be considered both a state- and trait-level construct in future research. PMID:24107710</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5126171','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5126171"><span id="translatedtitle">Total lymphoid <span class="hlt">irradiation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.</p> <p>1983-05-01</p> <p>Total lymphoid <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.4975Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.4975Q"><span id="translatedtitle">An efficient physically based parameterization to derive surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> based on satellite atmospheric products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qin, Jun; Tang, Wenjun; Yang, Kun; Lu, Ning; Niu, Xiaolei; Liang, Shunlin</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (SSI) is required in a wide range of scientific researches and practical applications. Many parameterization schemes are developed to estimate it using routinely measured meteorological variables, since SSI is directly measured at a very limited number of stations. Even so, meteorological stations are still sparse, especially in remote areas. Remote sensing can be used to map spatiotemporally continuous SSI. Considering the huge amount of satellite data, coarse-resolution SSI has been estimated for reducing the computational burden when the estimation is based on a complex radiative transfer model. On the other hand, many empirical relationships are used to enhance the retrieval efficiency, but the accuracy cannot be guaranteed out of regions where they are locally calibrated. In this study, an efficient physically based parameterization is proposed to balance computational efficiency and retrieval accuracy for SSI estimation. In this parameterization, the transmittances for gases, aerosols, and clouds are all handled in full band form and the multiple reflections between the atmosphere and surface are explicitly taken into account. The newly proposed parameterization is applied to estimate SSI with both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) atmospheric and land products as inputs. These retrievals are validated against in situ measurements at the Surface Radiation Budget Network and at the North China Plain on an instantaneous basis, and moreover, they are validated and compared with <span class="hlt">Global</span> Energy and Water Exchanges-Surface Radiation Budget and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project-flux data SSI estimates at radiation stations of China Meteorological Administration on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean basis. The estimation results indicates that the newly proposed SSI estimation scheme can effectively retrieve SSI based on MODIS products with mean root-mean-square errors of about 100 Wm- 1 and 35 Wm- 1 on an instantaneous and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean basis, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7086876','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7086876"><span id="translatedtitle">Distribution of <span class="hlt">global</span> insolation over Pakistan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Raja, I.A.; Twidell, J.W. )</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>There are only five observatories measuring <span class="hlt">global</span> insolation in Pakistan, which cannot represent the solar climate of the country. However 37 observatories, distributed fairly well over the entire country, record sunshine. Therefore insolation-sunshine empirical equations are developed to estimate <span class="hlt">global</span> insolation over Pakistan. Three neighboring observatories for which the insolation-sunshine records are available are also included in the study. Monthly and yearly maps are constructed, for <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> insolation, based on data for 40 locations. The isolines are compared with the results obtained in India and with world solar insolation maps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JASTP.137...58S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JASTP.137...58S"><span id="translatedtitle">Mathematical links between optimum solar collector tilts in isotropic sky for intercepting maximum solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stanciu, Dorin; Stanciu, Camelia; Paraschiv, Ioana</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The paper presents a mathematical modeling of the optimum tilt for solar collectors for intercepting maximum solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (power density), at different geographical locations, periods of time and different base-ground types. The solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> received by the collector is estimated based on isotropic sky analysis models, namely Hottel & Woertz model and Liu & Jordan model. The optimum value for the tilt is considered for maximum hourly and respectively <span class="hlt">daily</span> noon incident solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. This paper emphasizes the mathematical link between the optima computed under the two considered models assumptions. Also the ground reflectance factor influence on the optimum tilt difference between considered models is presented related to latitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/61773','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/61773"><span id="translatedtitle">A Method for Calculating Reference Evapotranspiration on <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Time Scales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Farmer, William</p> <p></p> <p>Measures of reference evapotranspiration are essential for applications of agricultural management and water resources engineering. Using numerous esoteric variables, one can calculate <span class="hlt">daily</span> reference evapotranspiration ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2013-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2013-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 890.5050 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device. (a) Identification....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2014-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2014-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 890.5050 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device. (a) Identification....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2012-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2012-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 890.5050 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device. (a) Identification....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.4825W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.4825W"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean land surface albedo from MODIS data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Dongdong; Liang, Shunlin; He, Tao; Yu, Yunyue; Schaaf, Crystal; Wang, Zhuosen</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Land surface albedo (LSA) is an important component of the surface radiation budget. For calculation of the surface shortwave net radiation budget, temporal mean albedo is more important than instantaneous albedo. Although Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) albedo products have been extensively validated, little effort has been made to evaluate the accuracy of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean albedo from MODIS. In this study, we calculate <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean albedo from MODIS data using a direct method and a look-up table (LUT) method. Comparison with in situ albedo measured at 27 field stations shows that both methods can estimate <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean albedo with high accuracy. The root-mean-square error (RMSE) of snow-free <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean albedo retrieved by the LUT method and the direct method is 0.033 and 0.034, respectively. Over the 12 spatially representative stations, RMSE of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean albedo is 0.022 and 0.023 by the LUT and direct approach, respectively. Simply using the local noon albedo value as a surrogate of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean albedo leads to overestimation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> shortwave net radiation. By using the data of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean albedo, the bias in estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> shortwave net radiation can be reduced by 2.8 W/m2 with the direct method and 2.6 W/m2 with the LUT method, compared to the use of local noon albedo.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25899711','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25899711"><span id="translatedtitle">Memantine extended release (28 mg once <span class="hlt">daily</span>): a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Plosker, Greg L</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Memantine is an uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that is a well-established treatment option for moderate to severe dementia of the Alzheimer's type, either alone or in combination with cholinesterase inhibitors. The immediate-release (IR) formulations of memantine (tablets and oral solution) have been available in numerous countries, including the USA, for more than a decade and are administered orally twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> at a maximum recommended total <span class="hlt">daily</span> dosage of 20 mg/day. The memantine extended-release (ER) (Namenda XR(®)) 28 mg once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> capsule formulation was approved in the USA in 2010 and became available more recently. The potential advantages of memantine ER over the IR formulation include a more convenient dosage regimen and lower pill burden that may improve adherence to therapy; also, memantine ER capsules may be opened and the contents sprinkled on applesauce for patients who have difficulty swallowing. Memantine ER provides a higher total <span class="hlt">daily</span> dosage than the recommended memantine IR regimen and pharmacokinetic data indicate greater exposure with the ER formulation, but the clinical implications of this are unclear, as the two formulations have not been assessed in a comparative clinical trial. The efficacy of memantine ER 28 mg once <span class="hlt">daily</span> was demonstrated in a large, multinational, phase III trial, which showed that the addition of memantine ER to ongoing oral cholinesterase inhibitors improved key outcomes compared with cholinesterase inhibitor monotherapy, including measures of cognition and <span class="hlt">global</span> status, which were the co-primary endpoints of the study. The most common adverse events were headache, diarrhoea and dizziness. PMID:25899711</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11644631','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11644631"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> bioethics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jameton, Andrew</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Because there is a large agenda of work that needs to be done to help ethicists to be better able to address ethical questions in healthcare from an environmentally conscious and <span class="hlt">globally</span> coherent point of view, Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics is initiating this occasional column on <span class="hlt">global</span> bioethics to provide a space to publish and discuss environmental issues in healthcare. We are initiating this section with a paper of my own outlining some broad concerns about healthcare ethics in a <span class="hlt">global</span> context ["Casuist or Cassandra? Two conceptions of the bioethicist's role," p. 451-466] and are inviting readers to submit philosophical and multidisciplinary papers taking a <span class="hlt">global</span> perspective on ethical issues in healthcare.... PMID:11644631</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060034891&hterms=ipcc&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dipcc','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060034891&hterms=ipcc&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dipcc"><span id="translatedtitle">Models of Solar <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Variability and the Instrumental Temperature Record</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Marcus, S. L.; Ghil, M.; Ide, K.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The effects of decade-to-century (Dec-Cen) variations in total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (TSI) on <span class="hlt">global</span> mean surface temperature Ts during the pre-Pinatubo instrumental era (1854-1991) are studied by using two different proxies for TSI and a simplified version of the IPCC climate model.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4208812','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4208812"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of Personality on <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Life Emotional Processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Komulainen, Emma; Meskanen, Katarina; Lipsanen, Jari; Lahti, Jari Marko; Jylhä, Pekka; Melartin, Tarja; Wichers, Marieke; Isometsä, Erkki; Ekelund, Jesper</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Personality features are associated with individual differences in <span class="hlt">daily</span> emotional life, such as negative and positive affectivity, affect variability and affect reactivity. The existing literature is somewhat mixed and inconclusive about the nature of these associations. The aim of this study was to shed light on what personality features represent in <span class="hlt">daily</span> life by investigating the effect of the Five Factor traits on different <span class="hlt">daily</span> emotional processes using an ecologically valid method. The Experience Sampling Method was used to collect repeated reports of <span class="hlt">daily</span> affect and experiences from 104 healthy university students during one week of their normal lives. Personality traits of the Five Factor model were assessed using NEO Five Factor Inventory. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze the effect of the personality traits on <span class="hlt">daily</span> emotional processes. Neuroticism predicted higher negative and lower positive affect, higher affect variability, more negative subjective evaluations of <span class="hlt">daily</span> incidents, and higher reactivity to stressors. Conscientiousness, by contrast, predicted lower average level, variability, and reactivity of negative affect. Agreeableness was associated with higher positive and lower negative affect, lower variability of sadness, and more positive subjective evaluations of <span class="hlt">daily</span> incidents. Extraversion predicted higher positive affect and more positive subjective evaluations of <span class="hlt">daily</span> activities. Openness had no effect on average level of affect, but predicted higher reactivity to <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors. The results show that the personality features independently predict different aspects of <span class="hlt">daily</span> emotional processes. Neuroticism was associated with all of the processes. Identifying these processes can help us to better understand individual differences in <span class="hlt">daily</span> emotional life. PMID:25343494</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010018486','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010018486"><span id="translatedtitle">Extending the Precipitation Map Offshore Using <span class="hlt">Daily</span> and 3-Hourly Combined Precipitation Estimates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Bolvin, David T.; Curtis, Scott; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>One of the difficulties in studying landfalling extratropical cyclones along the Pacific Coast is the lack of antecedent data over the ocean, including precipitation. Recent research on combining various satellite-based precipitation estimates opens the possibility of realistic precipitation estimates on a <span class="hlt">global</span> 1 deg. x 1 deg. latitude-longitude grid at the <span class="hlt">daily</span> or even 3-hourly interval. The goal in this work is to provide quantitative precipitation estimates that correctly represent the precipitation- related variables in the hydrological cycle: surface accumulations (fresh-water flux into oceans), frequency and duration statistics, net latent heating, etc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=51430&keyword=Sheep&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=44242374&CFTOKEN=87271877','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=51430&keyword=Sheep&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=44242374&CFTOKEN=87271877"><span id="translatedtitle">ASSESSMENT OF IMMUNE FUNCTION DEVELOPMENT IN MICE <span class="hlt">IRRADIATED</span> IN UTERO WITH 2450-MHZ MICROWAVES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Groups of time-bred pregnant mice were <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> with 2450-MHz microwaves at an incident power density of 28 mW/sq. cm. for 100 min <span class="hlt">daily</span> from day 6 to day 18 of pregnancy. The average specific absorption rate (SAR) was 16.5 W/kg. Two experiments were performed under these condi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=49855&keyword=body+AND+brain&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=43420347&CFTOKEN=10925076','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=49855&keyword=body+AND+brain&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=43420347&CFTOKEN=10925076"><span id="translatedtitle">GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF MICE OFFSPRING AFTER <span class="hlt">IRRADIATION</span> IN UTERO WITH 2,450-MHZ MICROWAVES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Mice offspring <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> in utero with 2,450-MHz radio-frequency (RF) radiation at 0 or 28 mW/cm. sq. (whole-body averaged specific absorption rate = 0 or 16.5 W/kg) for 100 minutes <span class="hlt">daily</span> on days 6 through 17 of gestation were evaluated for maturation and development on days 1, ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMGC21A..08B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMGC21A..08B"><span id="translatedtitle">How do GCMs represent <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum temperatures in La Plata Basin?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bettolli, M. L.; Penalba, O. C.; Krieger, P. A.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>This work focuses on southern La Plata Basin region which is one of the most important agriculture and hydropower producing regions worldwide. Extreme climate events such as cold and heat waves and frost events have a significant socio-economic impact. It is a big challenge for <span class="hlt">global</span> climate models (GCMs) to simulate regional patterns, temporal variations and distribution of temperature in a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis. Taking into account the present and future relevance of the region for the economy of the countries involved, it is very important to analyze maximum and minimum temperatures for model evaluation and development. This kind of study is aslo the basis for a great deal of the statistical downscaling methods in a climate change context. The aim of this study is to analyze the ability of the GCMs to reproduce the observed <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum temperatures in the southern La Plata Basin region. To this end, <span class="hlt">daily</span> fields of maximum and minimum temperatures from a set of 15 GCMs were used. The outputs corresponding to the historical experiment for the reference period 1979-1999 were obtained from the WCRP CMIP5 (World Climate Research Programme Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5). In order to compare <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature values in the southern La Plata Basin region as generated by GCMs to those derived from observations, <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum temperatures were used from the gridded dataset generated by the Claris LPB Project ("A Europe-South America Network for Climate Change Assessment and Impact Studies in La Plata Basin"). Additionally, reference station data was included in the study. The analysis was focused on austral winter (June, July, August) and summer (December, January, February). The study was carried out by analyzing the performance of the 15 GCMs , as well as their ensemble mean, in simulating the probability distribution function (pdf) of maximum and minimum temperatures which include mean values, variability, skewness, et c, and regional patterns. The results indicate that models are able to reproduce the full range of summer and winter maximum and minimum temperature values, although the inter-model dispersion is high. Most models reproduce fairly well the differences between <span class="hlt">daily</span> summer and <span class="hlt">daily</span> winter temperature distributions, however GCMs tend to smooth the extreme values. The largest differences are found for winter minimum temperature values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040081225&hterms=chlorophyll&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dchlorophyll','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040081225&hterms=chlorophyll&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dchlorophyll"><span id="translatedtitle">Patterns and Variability in <span class="hlt">Global</span> Ocean Chlorophyll: Satellite Observations and Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gregg, Watson</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Recent analyses of SeaWiFS data have shown that <span class="hlt">global</span> ocean chlorophyll has increased more than 4% since 1998. The North Pacific ocean basin has increased nearly 19%. These trend analyses follow earlier results showing decadal declines in <span class="hlt">global</span> ocean chlorophyll and primary production. To understand the causes of these changes and trends we have applied the newly developed NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Assimilation Model (OBAM), which is driven in mechanistic fashion by surface winds, sea surface temperature, atmospheric iron deposition, sea ice, and surface <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. The model utilizes chlorophyll from SeaWiFS in a <span class="hlt">daily</span> assimilation. The model has in place many of the climatic variables that can be expected to produce the changes observed in SeaWiFS data. This enables us to diagnose the model performance, the assimilation performance, and possible causes for the increase in chlorophyll. A full discussion of the changes and trends, possible causes, modeling approaches, and data assimilation will be the focus of the seminar.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/index.php/cfn/article/view/675','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/index.php/cfn/article/view/675"><span id="translatedtitle">Long <span class="hlt">daily</span> movements of wolves (Canis lupus) during pup raising</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Mech, L. David; Cluff, H. Dean</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Wolves, Canis lupus, on Ellesmere Island traveled a <span class="hlt">daily</span> round-trip distance of 40.2 km from their den to a landfill during July 2008, plus an undetermined distance hunting after leaving the landfill. Although long travels by Wolves are well known, this appears to be the first documentation of long <span class="hlt">daily</span> movements by Wolves rearing pups.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=prosthetic&pg=6&id=ED143189','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=prosthetic&pg=6&id=ED143189"><span id="translatedtitle">Manual of Alternative Procedures: Activities of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Living.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McCormack, James E.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>Intended for teachers and others providing services for moderately and severely physically and/or mentally handicapped children and young adults, the manual presents strategies, procedures, and task analyses for training in <span class="hlt">daily</span> living skills. Section I provides an overview of tactics for teaching activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living (ADL) skills,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://static.cs.ucr.edu/store/techreports/UCR-CS-2012-09260.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://static.cs.ucr.edu/store/techreports/UCR-CS-2012-09260.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Energy Expenditure from Video for Assistive Monitoring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Chrobak, Marek</p> <p></p> <p>problems, and ascertain adherence to regimens. Figure 1 shows the <span class="hlt">daily</span> energy expenditure dashboard at the dashboard and decide whether the three low activity days indicate a problem requiring intervention. Most: <span class="hlt">Daily</span> energy expenditure dashboard for 5 days. The graphs show the activity level across e</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://climate.arm.ac.uk/calibrated/soil/soil11.ps','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://climate.arm.ac.uk/calibrated/soil/soil11.ps"><span id="translatedtitle">Meteorological Data recorded at Armagh Observatory: Volume 4 -<span class="hlt">Daily</span>, Monthly</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Meteorological Data recorded at Armagh Observatory: Volume 4 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span>, Monthly and Annual Soil access is possible to over 7,000 pages of raw, <span class="hlt">daily</span>, meteorological data stretching back to 1795, as well as calibrated and standard- ised meteorological series for scienti#12;c and educational use</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=+%22significant+organizational+change%22+OR+%22enhanced+culture%22++OR+%22new+values%22++OR+%22better+customer%22++OR+%22employee+experience%22+&pg=4&id=EJ642896','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=+%22significant+organizational+change%22+OR+%22enhanced+culture%22++OR+%22new+values%22++OR+%22better+customer%22++OR+%22employee+experience%22+&pg=4&id=EJ642896"><span id="translatedtitle">News Values and Country Non-<span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reporting.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Vines, Josie</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Suggests Australia's country, non-<span class="hlt">daily</span> newspapers present journalism graduates with excellent opportunities to experience a wide range of journalistic responsibilities and compile an impressive portfolio. Argues the need for the news values of these newspapers to be integrated into pedagogical models. Documents the country non-<span class="hlt">daily</span>'s news…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=muscle+AND+building&pg=2&id=ED164212','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=muscle+AND+building&pg=2&id=ED164212"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Curriculum Guide, Year II, Weeks 1-10.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.</p> <p></p> <p>Spanning two years, the program set forth in the <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Curriculum Guide for preschool Spanish-speaking children is essentially a language maintenance model in which Spanish is used as a means to develop basic concepts, skills and attitudes. This guide gives <span class="hlt">daily</span> lesson plans for the first ten weeks of the second year. Each lesson, written in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol3-sec59-301.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol3-sec59-301.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 59.301 - Mandatory <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reporting for Lambs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mandatory <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reporting for Lambs. 59.301 Section 59... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Lamb Reporting § 59.301 Mandatory <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reporting for Lambs. (a) In... prices for lambs (per hundredweight) established on that day as F.O.B. feedlot or delivered at the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol3-sec59-301.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol3-sec59-301.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 59.301 - Mandatory <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reporting for Lambs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mandatory <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reporting for Lambs. 59.301 Section 59... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Lamb Reporting § 59.301 Mandatory <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reporting for Lambs. (a) In... prices for lambs (per hundredweight) established on that day as F.O.B. feedlot or delivered at the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol3-sec59-301.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol3-sec59-301.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 59.301 - Mandatory <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reporting for Lambs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mandatory <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reporting for Lambs. 59.301 Section 59... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Lamb Reporting § 59.301 Mandatory <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reporting for Lambs. (a) In... prices for lambs (per hundredweight) established on that day as F.O.B. feedlot or delivered at the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol3-sec59-301.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol3-sec59-301.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 59.301 - Mandatory <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reporting for Lambs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reporting for Lambs. 59.301 Section 59... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Lamb Reporting § 59.301 Mandatory <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reporting for Lambs. (a) In... prices for lambs (per hundredweight) established on that day as F.O.B. feedlot or delivered at the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol3-sec59-301.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol3-sec59-301.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 59.301 - Mandatory <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reporting for Lambs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mandatory <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reporting for Lambs. 59.301 Section 59... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Lamb Reporting § 59.301 Mandatory <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reporting for Lambs. (a) In... prices for lambs (per hundredweight) established on that day as F.O.B. feedlot or delivered at the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://fishbull.noaa.gov/74-1/brothers.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://fishbull.noaa.gov/74-1/brothers.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">DAILY</span> GROWTH INCREMENTS IN OTOLITHS FROM LARVAL AND ADULT FISHES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">DAILY</span> GROWTH INCREMENTS IN OTOLITHS FROM LARVAL AND ADULT FISHES EDWARD B. BROTHERS! CHRISTOPHER P. MATHEWS," AND REUBEN LASKER3 ABSTRACT <span class="hlt">Daily</span> growth increments have been found in otoliths of fish larvae. A simple technique for observing these marks is described and can be used on otoliths from larvae</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=135049','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=135049"><span id="translatedtitle">GENERATING REPRESENTATIVE SEQUENCES OF <span class="hlt">DAILY</span> PRECIPITATION FOR AGRICULTURAL SIMULATIONS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Uniform random numbers are often used in chain-dependent <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation models to simulate the stochastic component of <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation. This study shows that relatively short sequences of uniform random numbers, often involved in practical water resources and agricultural applications, are...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.nwcouncil.org/media/20300/App22_FHLk_TMDL.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.nwcouncil.org/media/20300/App22_FHLk_TMDL.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Appendix 22 Draft Nutrient Management Plan and Total Maximum <span class="hlt">Daily</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Appendix 22 Draft Nutrient Management Plan and Total Maximum <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Load for Flathead Lake, Montana. #12;11/01/01 DRAFT i October 30, 2001 Draft Nutrient Management Plan and Total Maximum <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Load for Flathead Lake, Montana #12;SECTION 1.0 INTRODUCTION</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2013-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2013-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 890.5050 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 <span class="hlt">Daily</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 890.5050 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 <span class="hlt">Daily</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 890.5050 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 <span class="hlt">Daily</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2014-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2014-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 890.5050 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 <span class="hlt">Daily</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2012-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2012-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 890.5050 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 <span class="hlt">Daily</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24800802','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24800802"><span id="translatedtitle">Experiential avoidance and well-being: a <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Machell, Kyla A; Goodman, Fallon R; Kashdan, Todd B</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Experiential avoidance (EA) is a regulatory strategy characterised by efforts to control or avoid unpleasant thoughts, feelings and bodily sensations. Most studies of EA have used trait measures without considering the effects of EA on psychological functioning in naturalistic settings. To address this gap, we used <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary methodology to examine the influence of EA of anxiety on everyday well-being. For two weeks, 89 participants provided <span class="hlt">daily</span> reports of EA, positive and negative affect, enjoyment of <span class="hlt">daily</span> events and meaning in life (MIL). <span class="hlt">Daily</span> EA predicted higher negative affect, lower positive affect, less enjoyment of <span class="hlt">daily</span> events (exercising, eating food and listening to music) and less MIL. The effect of EA on positive affect was not accounted for by the amount of negative affect experienced. Our <span class="hlt">daily</span> measure of EA was a stronger predictor of <span class="hlt">daily</span> well-being than a traditional trait measure (The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire). Taken together, results offer insights into the adverse effects of EA on <span class="hlt">daily</span> well-being and suggest that EA is a context-specific regulatory strategy that might be best captured using a state-dependent measure. PMID:24800802</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=environmental+AND+accounting&pg=3&id=EJ908341','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=environmental+AND+accounting&pg=3&id=EJ908341"><span id="translatedtitle">The Determinants of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tseng, Mei-Hui; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Lu, Lu; Huang, Chien-Yu</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to identify determinants of <span class="hlt">daily</span> function in a population-based sample of children with cerebral palsy (CP). The study took into consideration factors from the entire scope of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). Furthermore, the determinants of <span class="hlt">daily</span> function were examined from…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AMT.....4..875W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AMT.....4..875W"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> from SCIAMACHY measurements: algorithm and validation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, P.; Stammes, P.; Mueller, R.</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>Broadband surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> (SSI) are, for the first time, derived from SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY) satellite measurements. The retrieval algorithm, called FRESCO (Fast REtrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A band) SSI, is similar to the Heliosat method. In contrast to the standard Heliosat method, the cloud index is replaced by the effective cloud fraction derived from the FRESCO cloud algorithm. The MAGIC (Mesoscale Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Code) algorithm is used to calculate clear-sky SSI. The SCIAMACHY SSI product is validated against <span class="hlt">globally</span> distributed BSRN (Baseline Surface Radiation Network) measurements and compared with ISCCP-FD (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project Flux Dataset) surface shortwave downwelling fluxes (SDF). For one year of data in 2008, the mean difference between the instantaneous SCIAMACHY SSI and the hourly mean BSRN <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> is -4 W m-2 (-1 %) with a standard deviation of 101 W m-2 (20 %). The mean difference between the <span class="hlt">globally</span> monthly mean SCIAMACHY SSI and ISCCP-FD SDF is less than -12 W m-2 (-2 %) for every month in 2006 and the standard deviation is 62 W m-2 (12 %). The correlation coefficient is 0.93 between SCIAMACHY SSI and BSRN <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> and is greater than 0.96 between SCIAMACHY SSI and ISCCP-FD SDF. The evaluation results suggest that the SCIAMACHY SSI product achieves similar mean bias error and root mean square error as the surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> derived from polar orbiting satellites with higher spatial resolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AMTD....4..873W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AMTD....4..873W"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> from SCIAMACHY measurements: algorithm and validation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, P.; Stammes, P.; Mueller, R.</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>Broadband surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> (SSI) are, for the first time, derived from SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY) satellite measurements. The retrieval algorithm, called FRESCO (Fast REtrieval Scheme for Clouds from Oxygen A band) SSI, is similar to the Heliosat method. In contrast to the standard Heliosat method, the cloud index is replaced by the effective cloud fraction derived from the FRESCO cloud algorithm. The MAGIC (Mesoscale Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Code) algorithm is used to calculate clear-sky SSI. The SCIAMACHY SSI product is validated against the <span class="hlt">globally</span> distributed BSRN (Baseline Surface Radiation Network) measurements and compared with the ISCCP-FD (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project Flux Dataset) surface shortwave downwelling fluxes (SDF). For one year of data in 2008, the mean difference between the instantaneous SCIAMACHY SSI and the hourly mean BSRN <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> is -4 W m-2(-1%) with a standard deviation of 101 W m-2 (20%). The mean difference between the <span class="hlt">globally</span> monthly mean SCIAMACHY SSI and ISCCP-FD SDF is less than -12 W m-2 (-2%) for every month in 2006 and the standard deviation is 62 W m-2 (12%). The correlation coefficient is 0.93 between SCIAMACHY SSI and BSRN <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> and is greater than 0.96 between SCIAMACHY SSI and ISCCP-FD SDF. The evaluation results suggest that the SCIAMACHY SSI product achieves similar mean bias error and root mean square error as the surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> derived from polar orbiting satellites with higher spatial resolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26494423','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26494423"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> burden of COPD.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>López-Campos, José Luis; Tan, Wan; Soriano, Joan B</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>It is estimated that the world population will reach a record 7.3 billion in 2015, and the high burden of chronic conditions associated with ageing and smoking will increase further. Respiratory diseases in general receive little attention and funding in comparison with other major causes of <span class="hlt">global</span> morbidity and mortality. In particular, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been a major public health problem and will remain a challenge for clinicians within the 21st century. Worldwide, COPD is in the spotlight, since its high prevalence, morbidity and mortality create formidable challenges for health-care systems. This review emphasizes the magnitude of the COPD problem from a clinician's standpoint by drawing extensively from the new findings of the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Burden of Disease study. Updated, distilled information on the population distribution of COPD is useful for the clinician to help provide an appreciation of the relative impact of COPD in <span class="hlt">daily</span> practice compared with other chronic conditions, and to allocate minimum resources in anticipation of future needs in care. Despite recent trends in reduction of COPD standardized mortality rates and some recent successes in anti-smoking efforts in a number of Western countries, the overarching demographic impact of ageing in an ever-expanding world population, joined with other factors such as high rates of smoking and air pollution in Asia, will ensure that COPD will continue to pose an ever-increasing problem well into the 21st century. PMID:26494423</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23449713','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23449713"><span id="translatedtitle">Considerations on the new nevirapine: switching patients from twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> to once-<span class="hlt">daily</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ward, Douglas; Slim, Jihad</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Nevirapine (NVP) was the first nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) approved for the treatment of HIV infection. NVP can provide safe and efficacious viral suppression for treatment-naive patients and for virologically controlled patients "switching" from other NNRTI or protease inhibitor-based regimens. Formulations allowing once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> dosing of antiretrovirals can significantly improve regimen adherence, which is important for maintaining virologic control, especially for NNRTI-based regimens with low barriers for genetic resistance. Randomized and controlled clinical trials have established the clinical non inferiority of a new, extended-release formulation (XR) of NVP, in both treatment-naive (VERxVE) and treatment-experienced patients (TRANxITION), where patients already stable on the immediate-release formulation of NVP were safely transitioned directly to NVP XR. As a potentially more convenient once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> option, NVP XR may improve adherence and reduce the risk of mutant viruses, attendant virologic failure, and the spread of drug resistance. PMID:23449713</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.2658D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.2658D"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of different models to estimate the <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation on inclined surface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Demain, C.; Journée, M.; Bertrand, C.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Global</span> and diffuse solar radiation intensities are, in general, measured on horizontal surfaces, whereas stationary solar conversion systems (both flat plate solar collector and solar photovoltaic) are mounted on inclined surface to maximize the amount of solar radiation incident on the collector surface. Consequently, the solar radiation incident measured on a tilted surface has to be determined by converting solar radiation from horizontal surface to tilted surface of interest. This study evaluates the performance of 14 models transposing 10 minutes, hourly and <span class="hlt">daily</span> diffuse solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> from horizontal to inclined surface. Solar radiation data from 8 months (April to November 2011) which include diverse atmospheric conditions and solar altitudes, measured on the roof of the radiation tower of the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium in Uccle (Longitude 4.35°, Latitude 50.79°) were used for validation purposes. The individual model performance is assessed by an inter-comparison between the calculated and measured solar <span class="hlt">global</span> radiation on the south-oriented surface tilted at 50.79° using statistical methods. The relative performance of the different models under different sky conditions has been studied. Comparison of the statistical errors between the different radiation models in function of the clearness index shows that some models perform better under one type of sky condition. Putting together different models acting under different sky conditions can lead to a diminution of the statistical error between <span class="hlt">global</span> measured solar radiation and <span class="hlt">global</span> estimated solar radiation. As models described in this paper have been developed for hourly data inputs, statistical error indexes are minimum for hourly data and increase for 10 minutes and one day frequency data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NIMPA.730..101D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NIMPA.730..101D"><span id="translatedtitle">The Birmingham <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> Facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dervan, P.; French, R.; Hodgson, P.; Marin-Reyes, H.; Wilson, J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>At the end of 2012 the proton <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> facility at the CERN PS [1] will shut down for two years. With this in mind, we have been developing a new ATLAS scanning facility at the University of Birmingham Medical Physics cyclotron. With proton beams of energy approximately 30 MeV, fluences corresponding to those of the upgraded Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) can be reached conveniently. The facility can be used to <span class="hlt">irradiate</span> silicon sensors, optical components and mechanical structures (e.g. carbon fibre sandwiches) for the LHC upgrade programme. <span class="hlt">Irradiations</span> of silicon sensors can be carried out in a temperature controlled cold box that can be scanned through the beam. The facility is described in detail along with the first tests carried out with mini (1×1 cm2) silicon sensors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SGeo...35.1251Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SGeo...35.1251Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> GRACE Gravity Field and Numerical Water Storage Models for De-aliasing of Satellite Gravimetry Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zenner, L.; Bergmann-Wolf, I.; Dobslaw, H.; Gruber, T.; Güntner, A.; Wattenbach, M.; Esselborn, S.; Dill, R.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Reducing aliasing effects of insufficiently modelled high-frequent, non-tidal mass variations of the atmosphere, the oceans and the hydrosphere in gravity field models derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission is the topic of this study. The signal content of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> GRACE gravity field model series (ITG-Kalman) is compared to high-frequency bottom pressure variability and terrestrially stored water variations obtained from recent numerical simulations from an ocean circulation model (OMCT) and two hydrological models (WaterGAP <span class="hlt">Global</span> Hydrology Model, Land Surface Discharge Model). Our results show that <span class="hlt">daily</span> estimates of ocean bottom pressure from the most recent OMCT simulations and the <span class="hlt">daily</span> ITG-Kalman solutions are able to explain up to 40 % of extra-tropical sea-level variability in the Southern Ocean. In contrast to this, the <span class="hlt">daily</span> ITG-Kalman series and simulated continental total water storage variability largely disagree at periods below 30 days. Therefore, as long as no adequate hydrological model will become available, the <span class="hlt">daily</span> ITG-Kalman series can be regarded as a good initial proxy for high-frequency mass variations at a <span class="hlt">global</span> scale. As a second result of this study, based on monthly solutions as well as <span class="hlt">daily</span> observation residuals, it is shown that applying this GRACE-derived de-aliasing model supports the determination of the time-variable gravity field from GRACE data and the subsequent geophysical interpretation. This leads us to the recommendation that future satellite concepts for determining mass variations in the Earth system should be capable of observing higher frequeny signals with sufficient spatial resolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..65...69W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..65...69W"><span id="translatedtitle">Short-term effects of <span class="hlt">daily</span> air pollution on mortality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Sahani, Mazrura; Aripin, Rasimah; Latif, Mohd Talib; Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Wong, Chit-Ming</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">daily</span> variations of air pollutants in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, which includes Kuala Lumpur were investigated for its association with mortality counts using time series analysis. This study located in the tropic with much less seasonal variation than typically seen in more temperate climates. Data on <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality for the Klang Valley (2000-2006), <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean concentrations of air pollutants of PM10, SO2, CO, NO2, O3, <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum O3 and meteorological conditions were obtained from Malaysian Department of Environment. We examined the association between pollutants and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality using Poisson regression while controlling for time trends and meteorological factors. Effects of the pollutants (Relative Risk, RR) on current-day (lag 0) mortality to seven previous days (lag 7) and the effects of the pollutants from the first two days (lag 01) to the first eight days (lag 07) were determined. We found significant associations in the single-pollutant model for PM10 and the <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean O3 with natural mortality. For the <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean O3, the highest association was at lag 05 (RR = 1.0215, 95% CI = 1.0013-1.0202). CO was found not significantly associated with natural mortality, however the RR's of CO were found to be consistently higher than PM10. In spite of significant results of PM10, the magnitude of RR's of PM10 was not important for natural mortality in comparison with either <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean O3 or CO. There is an association between <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean O3 and natural mortality in a two-pollutants model after adjusting for PM10. Most pollutants except SO2, were significantly associated with respiratory mortality in a single pollutant model. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> mean O3 is also important for respiratory mortality, with over 10% of mortality associated with every IQR increased. These findings are noteworthy because seasonal confounding is unlikely in this relatively stable climate, by contrast with more temperate regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-07-21/pdf/2010-17744.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-07-21/pdf/2010-17744.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 42399 - Orders Finding That the PJM WH Real Time Peak <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Contract, PJM WH Real Time Off-Peak <span class="hlt">Daily</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-21</p> <p>...COMMISSION Orders Finding That the PJM WH Real Time Peak <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Contract, PJM WH Real Time Off-Peak <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Contract and PJM WH Day Ahead...determination whether the PJM \\2\\ WH \\3\\ Real Time Peak <span class="hlt">Daily</span> [[Page 42400</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5298582','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5298582"><span id="translatedtitle">Half body <span class="hlt">irradiation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bartelink, H.; Battermann, J.; Hart, G.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Twenty-one patients with complaints of severe pain from disseminated breast cancer were treated with half body <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> with a single dose of 600 to 800 rad. All of them had a relief of pain for periods ranging from 14 to 280 days, with a median duration of 101 days. The objective effects of a single radiation dose was studied in 15 patients with lung metastases. The growth delay observed in these patients was of the same order as the period of pain relief observed in breast cancer patients after half body <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>. In general a longer lasting palliation was obtained in patients with slowly growing tumors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993RaPC...42..259K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993RaPC...42..259K"><span id="translatedtitle">Economics of food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kunstadt, Peter; Eng, P.; Steeves, Colyn; Beaulieu, Daniel; Eng, P.</p> <p>1993-07-01</p> <p>The number of products being radiation processed worldwide is constantly increasing and today includes such diverse items as medical disposables, fruits and vegetables, spices, meats, seafoods and waste products. This range of products to be processed has resulted in a wide range of <span class="hlt">irradiator</span> designs and capital and operating cost requirements. This paper discusses the economics of low dose food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> applications and the effects of various parameters on unit processing costs. It provides a model for calculating specific unit processing costs by correlating known capital costs with annual operating costs and annual throughputs. It is intended to provide the reader with a general knowledge of how unit processing costs are derived.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4659009','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4659009"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> iron supplementation on cognitive performance in primary-school-aged children with and without anemia: a meta-analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Guo, Xiu-min; Liu, Hui; Qian, Jing</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Anemia is an important public health and clinical problem. Observational studies have linked iron deficiency and anemia in children with many poor outcomes, including impaired cognitive development. In this study, we summarize the evidence for the effect of <span class="hlt">daily</span> iron supplementation on cognitive performance in primary-school-aged children. We searched electronic databases (including MEDLINE and Wangfang database) and other sources (August 2015) for randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials involving <span class="hlt">daily</span> iron supplementation on cognitive performance in children aged 5-12 years. We combined the data using random effects meta-analysis. We identified 3219 studies; of these, we evaluated 5 full-text papers including 1825 children. Iron supplementation cannot improve <span class="hlt">global</span> cognitive scores (Mean difference 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] -2.69 to 4.79, P<0.01). Our analysis suggests that iron supplementation improves <span class="hlt">global</span> cognitive c outcomes among primary-school-aged children is still unclear. PMID:26629120</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=stress+AND+wellbeing&pg=7&id=EJ936186','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=stress+AND+wellbeing&pg=7&id=EJ936186"><span id="translatedtitle">Adaptation to <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Stress among Mothers of Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Positive Affect</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ekas, Naomi V.; Whitman, Thomas L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Raising a child with an autism spectrum disorder is a challenging experience that can impact maternal well-being. Using a <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary methodology, this study investigates (1) the relationship between stress and negative affect, and (2) the role of <span class="hlt">daily</span> positive affect as a protective factor in the stress and negative affect relationship. Results…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://as.vanderbilt.edu/vuit/media_services/downloads/Equipment%20Available%20for%20Rental.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://as.vanderbilt.edu/vuit/media_services/downloads/Equipment%20Available%20for%20Rental.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A. EQUIPMENT AVAILABLE FOR RENTAL All prices are <span class="hlt">daily</span> rate. Weekly rental is three times the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>sponsored by an Arts and Science department are eligible for a 25% discount on equipment rental. CA. EQUIPMENT AVAILABLE FOR RENTAL All prices are <span class="hlt">daily</span> rate. Weekly rental is three times the <span class="hlt">daily</span>. EQUIPMENT USE AT TSS/Media Center Some equipment may be used at TSS for a fee of $10.00 per hour. D</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/files/docs/resources/heart/visuals.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/files/docs/resources/heart/visuals.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">*Percent <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Your <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Values may be higher</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Shen, Jun</p> <p></p> <p>Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Your <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Values may be higher or lower depending on your caloric need. Serving Size _ cup (64g) Servings Per Container 5 Amount Per Serving Calories 30 Calories on a 2,000 calorie diet. Your <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Values may be higher or lower depending on your caloric need. Serving</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950005971','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950005971"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar influences on <span class="hlt">global</span> change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Monitoring of the Sun and the Earth has yielded new knowledge essential to this debate. There is now no doubt that the total radiative energy from the Sun that heats the Earth's surface changes over decadal time scales as a consequence of solar activity. Observations indicate as well that changes in ultraviolet radiation and energetic particles from the Sun, also connected with the solar activity, modulate the layer of ozone that protects the biosphere from the solar ultraviolet radiation. This report reassesses solar influences on <span class="hlt">global</span> change in the light of this new knowledge of solar and atmospheric variability. Moreover, the report considers climate change to be encompassed within the broader concept of <span class="hlt">global</span> change; thus the biosphere is recognized to be part of a larger, coupled Earth system. Implementing a program to continuously monitor solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> over the next several decades will provide the opportunity to estimate solar influences on <span class="hlt">global</span> change, assuming continued maintenance of observations of climate and other potential forcing mechanisms. In the lower atmosphere, an increase in solar radiation is expected to cause <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. In the stratosphere, however, the two effects produce temperature changes of opposite sign. A monitoring program that would augment long term observations of tropospheric parameters with similar observations of stratospheric parameters could separate these diverse climate perturbations and perhaps isolate a greenhouse footprint of climate change. Monitoring <span class="hlt">global</span> change in the troposphere is a key element of all facets of the United States <span class="hlt">Global</span> Change Research Program (USGCRP), not just of the study of solar influences on <span class="hlt">global</span> change. The need for monitoring the stratosphere is also important for <span class="hlt">global</span> change research in its own right because of the stratospheric ozone layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGeod..89..259R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGeod..89..259R"><span id="translatedtitle">Sequential estimation of surface water mass changes from <span class="hlt">daily</span> satellite gravimetry data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramillien, G. L.; Frappart, F.; Gratton, S.; Vasseur, X.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>We propose a recursive Kalman filtering approach to map regional spatio-temporal variations of terrestrial water mass over large continental areas, such as South America. Instead of correcting hydrology model outputs by the GRACE observations using a Kalman filter estimation strategy, regional 2-by-2 degree water mass solutions are constructed by integration of <span class="hlt">daily</span> potential differences deduced from GRACE K-band range rate (KBRR) measurements. Recovery of regional water mass anomaly averages obtained by accumulation of information of <span class="hlt">daily</span> noise-free simulated GRACE data shows that convergence is relatively fast and yields accurate solutions. In the case of cumulating real GRACE KBRR data contaminated by observational noise, the sequential method of step-by-step integration provides estimates of water mass variation for the period 2004-2011 by considering a set of suitable a priori error uncertainty parameters to stabilize the inversion. Spatial and temporal averages of the Kalman filter solutions over river basin surfaces are consistent with the ones computed using <span class="hlt">global</span> monthly/10-day GRACE solutions from official providers CSR, GFZ and JPL. They are also highly correlated to in situ records of river discharges (70-95 %), especially for the Obidos station where the total outflow of the Amazon River is measured. The sparse <span class="hlt">daily</span> coverage of the GRACE satellite tracks limits the time resolution of the regional Kalman filter solutions, and thus the detection of short-term hydrological events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu//handle/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2009-08-3251','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu//handle/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2009-08-3251"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> Stability of Carbon Nanotubes </span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Aitkaliyeva, Assel</p> <p>2010-01-14</p> <p>Ion <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> of carbon nanotubes is a tool that can be used to achieve modification of the structure. <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> stability of carbon nanotubes was studied by ion and electron bombardment of the samples. Different ion species at various energies...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=257647','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=257647"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Evapotranspiration at Field to <span class="hlt">Global</span> Scales using Geostationary and Polar Orbiting Satellite Imagery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing of land-surface temperature (LST) provides valuable information about the sub-surface moisture status required for estimating evapotranspiration (ET) and detecting the onset and severity of drought. While empirical indices measuring anomalies in LST and vegetati...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer/servlets/purl/1130373','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer/servlets/purl/1130373"><span id="translatedtitle">GSOD Based <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">Global</span> Mean Surface Temperature and Mean Sea Level Air Pressure (1982-2011)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p>Xuan Shi, Dali Wang</p> <p>2014-05-05</p> <p>This data product contains all the gridded data set at 1/4 degree resolution in ASCII format. Both mean temperature and mean sea level air pressure data are available. It also contains the GSOD data (1982-2011) from NOAA site, contains station number, location, temperature and pressures (sea level and station level). The data package also contains information related to the data processing methods</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3282675','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3282675"><span id="translatedtitle">Fluticasone furoate: once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> evening treatment versus twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> treatment in moderate asthma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background Inhaled corticosteroids are the recommended first-line treatment for asthma but adherence to therapy is suboptimal. The objectives of this study were to compare the efficacy and safety of once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> (OD) evening and twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> (BD) regimens of the novel inhaled corticosteroid fluticasone furoate (FF) in asthma patients. Methods Patients with moderate asthma (age ? 12 years; pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) 40-85% predicted; FEV1 reversibility of ? 12% and ? 200 ml) were randomized to FF or fluticasone propionate (FP) regimens in a double-blind, crossover study. Patients were not permitted to have used any ICS for ? 8 weeks prior to enrolment and subsequently received doses of FF or FP 200 ?g OD, FF or FP 100 ?g BD and matching placebo by inhalation for 28 days each. Primary endpoint was Day 28 evening pre-dose (trough) FEV1; non-inferiority of FF 200 ?g OD and FF 100 ?g BD was assessed, as was superiority of all active treatment relative to placebo. Adverse events (AEs) and 24-hour urinary cortisol excretion were assessed. Results The intent-to-treat population comprised 147 (FF) and 43 (FP) patients. On Day 28, pre-dose FEV1 showed FF 200 ?g OD to be non-inferior (pre-defined limit -110 ml) to FF 100 ?g BD (mean treatment difference 11 ml; 95% CI: -35 to +56 ml); all FF and FP regimens were significantly superior to placebo (p ? 0.02). AEs were similar to placebo; no serious AEs were reported. Urinary cortisol excretion at Day 28 for FF was lower than placebo (ratios: 200 ?g OD, 0.75; 100 ?g BD, 0.84; p ? 0.02). Conclusions FF 200 ?g OD in the evening is an efficacious and well tolerated treatment for asthma patients and is not inferior to the same total BD dose. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00766090. PMID:22188590</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming+AND+data&pg=4&id=EJ484206','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming+AND+data&pg=4&id=EJ484206"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Eichman, Julia Christensen; Brown, Jeff A.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Presents information and data on an experiment designed to test whether different atmosphere compositions are affected by light and temperature during both cooling and heating. Although flawed, the experiment should help students appreciate the difficulties that researchers face when trying to find evidence of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. (PR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/global_composite','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/global_composite"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Composite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-19</p> <p>... data from the red, green and blue spectral bands to create a natural color image. The central view combines near-infrared, red, and green ... from MISR's newly-released <span class="hlt">Global</span> Georectified Radiance Product. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Climate+AND+change+AND+effects+AND+earth&pg=2&id=EJ391198','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Climate+AND+change+AND+effects+AND+earth&pg=2&id=EJ391198"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hileman, Bette</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>States the foundations of the theory of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. Describes methodologies used to measure the changes in the atmosphere. Discusses steps currently being taken in the United States and the world to slow the warming trend. Recognizes many sources for the warming and the possible effects on the earth. (MVL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7012939','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7012939"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> militarization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wallensteen, P.; Galtung, J.; Portales, C.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the titles are: Military Formations and Social Formations: A Structural Analysis; <span class="hlt">Global</span> Conflict Formations: Present Developments and Future Directions; War and the Power of Warmakers in Western Europe and Elsewhere, 1600-1980; and The Urban Type of Society and International War.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=317494','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=317494"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Irradiating</span> insect pests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This is a non-technical article focusing on phytosanitary uses of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>. In a series of interview questions, I present information on the scope of the invasive species problem and the contribution of international trade in agricultural products to the movement of invasive insects. This is foll...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=276557','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=276557"><span id="translatedtitle">Generic phytosanitary <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> treatments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The history of the development of generic phytosanitary <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zeala...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/552697','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/552697"><span id="translatedtitle">Update on meat <span class="hlt">irradiation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Olson, D.G.</p> <p>1997-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> of meat and poultry in the United States is intended to eliminate pathogenic bacteria from raw product, preferably after packaging to prevent recontamination. <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> will also increase the shelf life of raw meat and poultry products approximately two to three times the normal shelf life. Current clearances in the United States are for poultry (fresh or frozen) at doses from 1.5 to 3.0 kGy and for fresh pork at doses from 0.3 to 1.0 kGy. A petition for the clearance of all red meat was submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in July 1994. The petition is for clearances of fresh meat at doses from 1.5 to 4.5 kGy and for frozen meat at {approximately}2.5 to 7.5 kGy. Clearance for red meat is expected before the end of 1997. There are 28 countries that have food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> clearances, of which 18 countries have clearances for meat or poultry. However, there are no uniform categories or approved doses for meat and poultry among the countries that could hamper international trade of <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> meat and poultry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=261458','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=261458"><span id="translatedtitle">Phytosanitary applications of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Phytosanitary treatments are used to disinfest agricultural commodities of quarantine pests so the commodities can be shipped across quarantine barriers to trade. Ionizing <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> is a promising treatment that is increasing in use. Almost 19,000 tons of sweet potatoes and several fruits, plus ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUGA..2237766T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUGA..2237766T"><span id="translatedtitle">Total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> reconstruction using artificial neural networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tebabal Yirdaw, Ambelu; Damtie, Baylie; Nigussie, Melessew; Bires, Abiyot; Yizengaw, Endawoke</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>A feed-forward neural network which can account for nonlinear relationships was used to reconstruct total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (TSI). A single layer feed forward neural network with back-propagation algorithm have been implemented for reconstructing <span class="hlt">daily</span> total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> from <span class="hlt">daily</span> photometric sunspot index, and core to wing ratio of Mg II index data. The data year from 1978 to 2013 was used for the training, validation and testing purpose. In order to obtain the optimum neural network for TSI reconstruction, the root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and regression coefficient have been taken into account. We have carried out the analysis is made by comparing the reconstructed TSI from neural networks (NNs ) and TSI measurement from satellite. We have found out that the reconstructed TSI and the PMOD composite have the correlation coefficient of about R=0.9307 over the span of the recorded, 1978 to 2013. The NNs model output indicates that reconstructed TSI from solar proxies (photometric index and MgII ) can explain 86.6% of the variance of TSI. Neural network is able to recreate TSI observations on a time scale of a day. This reconstructed TSI using NNs further strengthens the view that surface magnetism indeed plays a dominant role in modulating solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21337923','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21337923"><span id="translatedtitle">A method for estimating direct normal solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> from satellite data for a tropical environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Janjai, Serm</p> <p>2010-09-15</p> <p>In order to investigate a potential use of concentrating solar power technologies and select an optimum site for these technologies, it is necessary to obtain information on the geographical distribution of direct normal solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> over an area of interest. In this work, we have developed a method for estimating direct normal <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> from satellite data for a tropical environment. The method starts with the estimation of <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> on a horizontal surface from MTSAT-1R satellite data and other ground-based ancillary data. Then a satellite-based diffuse fraction model was developed and used to estimate the diffuse component of the satellite-derived <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>. Based on this estimated <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> and the solar radiation incident angle, the direct normal <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> was finally calculated. To evaluate its performance, the method was used to estimate the monthly average hourly direct normal <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> at seven pyrheliometer stations in Thailand. It was found that values of monthly average hourly direct normal <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> from the measurements and those estimated from the proposed method are in reasonable agreement, with a root mean square difference of 16% and a mean bias of -1.6%, with respect to mean measured values. After the validation, this method was used to estimate the monthly average hourly direct normal <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> over Thailand by using MTSAT-1R satellite data for the period from June 2005 to December 2008. Results from the calculation were displayed as hourly and yearly <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> maps. These maps reveal that the direct normal <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> in Thailand was strongly affected by the tropical monsoons and local topography of the country. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJBm...59..377K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJBm...59..377K"><span id="translatedtitle">Contribution of <span class="hlt">daily</span> and seasonal biorhythms to obesity in humans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Witowski, Janusz</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>While the significance of obesity as a serious health problem is well recognized, little is known about whether and how biometerological factors and biorhythms causally contribute to obesity. Obesity is often associated with altered seasonal and <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythmicity in food intake, metabolism and adipose tissue function. Environmental stimuli affect both seasonal and <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms, and the latter are under additional control of internal molecular oscillators, or body clocks. Modifications of clock genes in animals and changes to normal <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms in humans (as in shift work and sleep deprivation) result in metabolic dysregulation that favours weight gain. Here, we briefly review the potential links between biorhythms and obesity in humans.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1643..283A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1643..283A"><span id="translatedtitle">Time series ARIMA models for <span class="hlt">daily</span> price of palm oil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ariff, Noratiqah Mohd; Zamhawari, Nor Hashimah; Bakar, Mohd Aftar Abu</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Palm oil is deemed as one of the most important commodity that forms the economic backbone of Malaysia. Modeling and forecasting the <span class="hlt">daily</span> price of palm oil is of great interest for Malaysia's economic growth. In this study, time series ARIMA models are used to fit the <span class="hlt">daily</span> price of palm oil. The Akaike Infromation Criterion (AIC), Akaike Infromation Criterion with a correction for finite sample sizes (AICc) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) are used to compare between different ARIMA models being considered. It is found that ARIMA(1,2,1) model is suitable for <span class="hlt">daily</span> price of crude palm oil in Malaysia for the year 2010 to 2012.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985RaPC...26..607D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985RaPC...26..607D"><span id="translatedtitle">Food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>: Activities and potentialities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Doellstaedt, R.; Huebner, G.</p> <p></p> <p>After the acceptance of food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> up to an overall average dose of 10 kGy recommended by the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of <span class="hlt">Irradiated</span> Food in October 1980, the G.D.R. started a programme for the development of techniques for food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>. A special onion <span class="hlt">irradiator</span> was designed and built as a pilot plant for studying technological and economic parameters of the <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> of onions. The new principle of bulk-cargo <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> allows the integration of this technology into the usual harvest technology for onions on the way from field to storage. Scientific and applied research work has been carried out in the past 3 yr on the <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> of spices, potatoes, eviscerated chicken, animal feeds, fodder yeast, drugs and vaccines. In connection with the <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> of eviscerated chicken, fodder yeast and animal feeds the basis of an antisalmonella programme has been discussed. Germ-count-reduced spices were employed for the production of test charges of preserves and tinned products. The results have led to the decision to design and build a new multipurpose <span class="hlt">irradiator</span> for food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>. In order to cover the legal aspects of food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> the Ministry of Health issued regulations concerning the recommendation of <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> food in the G.D.R.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/501994','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/501994"><span id="translatedtitle">Spectral solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> before and during a Harmattan dust spell</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Adeyefa, Z.D.; Holmgren, B.</p> <p>1996-09-01</p> <p>Measurements of the ground-level spectral distributions of the direct, diffuse and <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> between 300 and 1100 nm were made at Akure (7.15{degree}N, 5.5{degree}E), Nigeria, in December 1991 before and during a Harmattan dust spell employing a spectroradiometer (LICOR LI-1800) with 6 nm resolution. The direct spectral solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> which was initially reduced before the dust storm was further attenuated by about 50% after the spell. Estimated values of the Angstrom turbidity coefficient {beta} indicated an increase of about 146% of this parameter while the Angstrom wavelength-exponent {alpha} decreased by about 65% within the 2-day study period. The spectral diffuse-to-direct and diffuse-to-<span class="hlt">global</span> ratios suggest that the main cause of the significant reduction in solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at the surface was the scattering by the aerosol which led to an increase in the diffuse component. The <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> though reduced, was less sensitive to changing Harmattan conditions. It is recommended that solar energy devices that use radiation from Sun and sky be used under fluctuating Harmattan conditions. There are some deviations from the Angstrom formula under very turbid Harmattan conditions which could be explained by the relative increase of the particle sizes. 31 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8125E..0WT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8125E..0WT"><span id="translatedtitle">Automated semi-spherical <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> meter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tecpoyotl-Torres, M.; Vera-Dimas, J. G.; Escobedo-Alatorre, J.; Cabello-Ruiz, R.; Varona, J.</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>In this semi-spherical meter, a single detector is used to realize all measurements, which is located on the extreme of a rectangular ring (assumed as joined two mobile branches in order to compensate the weights), describing half-meridians from 0° up to 170°. The illumination source under test is located at the center of the mobile support, which can rotate 360° horizontally. The two combined movements allow us to obtain a semi-spherical geometry. The number of measurement points is determined by the two step-motors located under the mobile support of the luminary and on one of the two fixed arms, which support the mobile rectangular ring, respectively. The mechanical arrangement has the enough rigidity to support the precision required for the acquisition stage, based on a dsPIC. The main advantages of this arrange are: Its low costs (using recyclable materials only such as "electronic waste"), a reliable detection based on a single photo-detector, with an integrated amplification stage, and the mechanical design. The received power by the detector is useful to obtain the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> profile of the lighting sources under test. The semi-spherical geometry of the meter makes it useful for the analysis of directive and non directive sources, in accordance with the angle described by the mobile ring. In this work, special attention is given to LED lamps due to its impact in several sceneries of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> life. A comparison between the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> patterns of two LED lamps is also given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmRe.153....1A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmRe.153....1A"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of <span class="hlt">daily</span> total ultraviolet-B in a subtropical region (Upper Egypt): An empirical approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Adam, Mahmoud El-Nouby</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Given the fundamental role played by ultraviolet-B (UVB) and due to the lack of long-term measurements of its magnitude, the present work has established an empirical approach to estimate <span class="hlt">daily</span> total UVB in all sky conditions (UVBd). Data from eight years (2000-2007) of UVBd and <span class="hlt">daily</span> total <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation (Gd) have been used. For both variables, the dataset used was examined, and a relationship between these two quantities was developed. In addition, the variation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> clearness indices of UVB and <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation, G (KtUVB and Kt respectively) was determined. Kt was introduced to determine UVBd. This variable can be considered as an atmospheric modulator of the maximum values of UVBd (under clear-sky conditions, UVB0d). The relationship between UVBd and the product of UVB0d and Kt (UVB0d*Kt) was parameterized. The significance and performance of this empirical approach have been evaluated with the aid of several statistical analysis procedures. The results show that the modeling index (d) and the coefficient of modeling efficiency (ME) were 0.99 and 1 respectively. In addition, the root mean square error (RMSE), the mean bias error (MBE), and the mean absolute error (MAE) were 8%, - 0.3%, and 6%, respectively. Datasets for a new time period from Qena and another location (Aswan) were used to validate the proposed approach. The results of this empirical approach were satisfactory, with a correlation coefficient of 0.98 between measured and estimated values of UVBd for both sites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3613750','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3613750"><span id="translatedtitle">Conversion From Twice-<span class="hlt">Daily</span> Tacrolimus to Once-<span class="hlt">Daily</span> Extended Release Tacrolimus (LCPT): The Phase III Randomized MELT Trial</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bunnapradist, S; Ciechanowski, K; West-Thielke, P; Mulgaonkar, S; Rostaing, L; Vasudev, B; Budde, K</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Phase III noninferiority trial examining efficacy and safety of converting stable renal transplant recipients from twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> tacrolimus to a novel extended-release once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> tacrolimus formulation (LCPT) with a controlled agglomeration technology. Controls maintained tacrolimus twice <span class="hlt">daily</span>. The primary efficacy endpoint was proportion of patients with efficacy failures (death, graft failure, locally read biopsy-proven acute rejection [BPAR], or loss to follow-up) within 12 months. Starting LCPT dose was 30% lower (15% for blacks) than preconversion tacrolimus dose; target trough levels were 4–15 ng/mL. A total of 326 patients were randomized; the mITT population (n = 162 each group) was similar demographically in the two groups. Mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> dose of LCPT was significantly (p < 0.0001) lower than preconversion tacrolimus dose at each visit; mean trough levels between groups were similar. There were four efficacy failures in each group; safety outcomes were similar between groups. Frequency of premature study drug discontinuation was LCPT: 12% versus tacrolimus twice <span class="hlt">daily</span>: 5% (p = 0.028). LCPT demonstrated noninferiority to tacrolimus twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> in efficacy failure rates. LCPT may offer a safe and effective alternative for converting patients to a once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> formulation. Compared to currently available tacrolimus formulation, LCPT requires lower doses to achieve target trough levels. PMID:23279614</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMIN13C3648L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMIN13C3648L"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of VIIRS <span class="hlt">daily</span> BRDF/Albedo product using in situ measurement of SURFRAD sites and MODIS V006 <span class="hlt">daily</span> BRDF/Albedo product</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Y.; Wang, Z.; Sun, Q.; Schaaf, C.; Roman, M. O.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Surface albedo is defined as the ratio of upwelling to downwelling radiative flux. It's important for understanding the <span class="hlt">global</span> energy budget. Remote sensing albedo products provide <span class="hlt">global</span> time continuous coverage to help capture <span class="hlt">global</span> energy variability and change. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi-NPP satellite, launched on October 28, 2011, is aiming to provide continues data record with the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), which has been providing Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF)/Albedo product since 2000. By utilizing the same approach that was used for the most recently V006 <span class="hlt">daily</span> MODIS BRDF/Albedo product, VIIRS has the ability to keep providing products for research and operational users. Validating albedo product of VIIRS using in situmeasured albedo can assure the quality for land surface climate and biosphere models, and comparing with MODIS product can assure time continues of BRDF/albedo product. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> BRDF/Albedo product still uses 16-day period multispectral, cloud-cleared, atmospherically-corrected surface reflectances to fit the Ross-Thick/Li-Sparse-Reciprocal semi-empirical BRDF model. But the multiday observations are also weighted based on proximity to the production date in order to emphasis on that individual day. Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD) was established in 1993 through the support of NOAA's Office of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Programs. In situ albedo was driven from downwelling and upwelling radiative flux measured from the towers. Fraction of diffuse sky light was calculated using the direct and diffuse solar recorded in the data. It was further used to translate VIIRS, MODIS black sky and white sky albedos into actual albedo at local solar noon. Results show that VIIRS, MODIS and in situ albedo agree well at SURFARD spatially representative sites. While the VIIRS surface reflectance, snow, and cloud algorithms are still undergoing revision, the result shows that VIIRS can provide comparable albedo products with MODIS. The accuracy of both products can meet the requirement for climate and biosphere models. In situ albedo also can be gained from Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN), FLUXNET and Long Term Ecological Research network (LTER) etc., which will be used in future validation work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/37257','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/37257"><span id="translatedtitle">Moral purpose, economic incentive and <span class="hlt">global</span> trade : why new business models are needed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Samel, Hiram M</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> has occurred in various forms over the past century, yet only recently has it become <span class="hlt">daily</span> news. This evolving process has created numerous underlying tensions that are not well understood. While western ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14722822','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14722822"><span id="translatedtitle">Chronic <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache: a rational approach to a challenging problem.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gladstone, Jonathan; Eross, Eric; Dodick, David</p> <p>2003-09-01</p> <p>Chronic <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache (CDH) is a significant public health problem with 3 to 5% of the population worldwide experiencing <span class="hlt">daily</span> or near-<span class="hlt">daily</span> headaches. Patients with CDH can be particularly challenging, and clinicians require a systematic approach to help guide investigations and management. The revised 2004 International Headache Society Classification Criteria introduces formalized criteria for several CDH disorders including chronic migraine and medication overuse headache as well as new <span class="hlt">daily</span> persistent headache, hemicrania continua, hypnic headache, and SUNCT syndrome. Medication overuse is common in patients with CDH who present to physicians. Familiarity and comfort with drug-withdrawal and detoxification strategies is therefore essential. Patients with chronic migraine and chronic cluster experience significant disability and diminished quality of life. The ability to manage these patients effectively is a rewarding clinical experience. PMID:14722822</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk/handle/1842/9753','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk/handle/1842/9753"><span id="translatedtitle">Stock trading and <span class="hlt">daily</span> life : lay stock investors in Taiwan </span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Chen, Yu-Hsiang</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Drawing on recent discussions of relational embeddedness and socio-technical agencement, this thesis analyses the relationship between stock trading and lay investors’ <span class="hlt">daily</span> lives, including their social relations, ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.scs.uiuc.edu/suslick/pressclippings/sciencedaily_100802.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.scs.uiuc.edu/suslick/pressclippings/sciencedaily_100802.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Search Science<span class="hlt">Daily</span>: For advanced search options, click here.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Suslick, Kenneth S.</p> <p></p> <p>Search Science<span class="hlt">Daily</span>: Find in For advanced search options, click here. keyword(s) News Go Subscribe." The National Institutes of Health funded this work. Email this story Printer-friendly version Previous story</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://web.csulb.edu/labs/sharklab/publications/documents/Papastamatiou%20et%20al%20-%20hunt%20warm,%20rest%20warmer.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://web.csulb.edu/labs/sharklab/publications/documents/Papastamatiou%20et%20al%20-%20hunt%20warm,%20rest%20warmer.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">RESEARCH ARTICLE Drivers of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Routines in an Ectothermic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Sorin, Eric J.</p> <p></p> <p>RESEARCH ARTICLE Drivers of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Routines in an Ectothermic Marine Predator: Hunt Warm, Rest physiological performance, while minimizing the risk of predation. For ectothermic predators, ambient explain the early evening activity seen in other ectothermic predators. Introduction Animals must make</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=rocky+AND+mountains&pg=5&id=EJ319779','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=rocky+AND+mountains&pg=5&id=EJ319779"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Newspaper Photojournalism in the Rocky Mountain West.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pasternack, Steve; Martin, Don R.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Explores several aspects of photojournalism at <span class="hlt">daily</span> newspapers in the Rocky Mountain states and provides photojournalism educators with insights into what characteristics photo editors look for in photographers. (FL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.cff.org/PDF-Archive/CFRD-Daily-Management-Slides/','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.cff.org/PDF-Archive/CFRD-Daily-Management-Slides/"><span id="translatedtitle">Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes (CFRD): <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes (CFRD): <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Management September 20, 2011 This Web cast is supported by an unrestricted educational grant from Genentech, Inc. Antoinette, Moran, MD Professor, Pediatric Endocrinology ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e4cA0QY-DIE','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e4cA0QY-DIE"><span id="translatedtitle">AMSR2 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Arctic Sea Ice - 2014 - Duration: 33 seconds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In this animation, the <span class="hlt">daily</span> Arctic sea ice and seasonal land cover change progress through time, from March 21, 2014 through the 3rd of August, 2014. Over the water, Arctic sea ice changes from da...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=wire+AND+industry&id=EJ370083','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=wire+AND+industry&id=EJ370083"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effects of Intracity Competition on <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Newspaper Content.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lacy, Stephen</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Compares the content of competitive newspapers and monopoly newspapers, stating that competition has an impact on <span class="hlt">daily</span> newspaper content. Notes that competitive newspapers have more reporters and buy more wire services than comparable newspapers without competition. (MM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=3+AND+Pb&pg=6&id=EJ834679','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=3+AND+Pb&pg=6&id=EJ834679"><span id="translatedtitle">Panwapa: <span class="hlt">Global</span> Kids, <span class="hlt">Global</span> Connections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Berson, Ilene R.; Berson, Michael J.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Panwapa, created by the Sesame Street Workshop of PBS, is an example of an initiative on the Internet designed to enhance students' learning by exposing them to <span class="hlt">global</span> communities. Panwapa means "Here on Earth" in Tshiluba, a Bantu language spoken in the Democratic Republic of Congo. At the Panwapa website, www.panwapa.org, children aged four to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JASTP..62.1233T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JASTP..62.1233T"><span id="translatedtitle">The SOLAR2000 empirical solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> model and forecast tool</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tobiska, W. K.; Woods, T.; Eparvier, F.; Viereck, R.; Floyd, L.; Bouwer, D.; Rottman, G.; White, O. R.</p> <p>2000-09-01</p> <p>SOLAR2000 is a collaborative project for accurately characterizing solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variability across the spectrum. A new image- and full-disk proxy empirical solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> model, SOLAR2000, is being developed that is valid in the spectral range of 1-1,000,000 nm for historical modeling and forecasting throughout the solar system. The overarching scientific goal behind SOLAR2000 is to understand how the Sun varies spectrally and through time from X-ray through infrared wavelengths. This will contribute to answering key scientific questions and will aid national programmatic goals related to solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> specification. SOLAR2000 is designed to be a fundamental energy input into planetary atmosphere models, a comparative model with numerical//first principles solar models, and a tool to model or predict the solar radiation component of the space environment. It is compliant with the developing International Standards Organization (ISO) solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> standard. SOLAR2000 captures the essence of historically measured solar <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> and this expands our knowledge about the quiet and variable Sun including its historical envelope of variability. The implementation of the SOLAR2000 is described, including the development of a new EUV proxy, E10.7, which has the same units as the commonly used F10.7. SOLAR2000 also provides an operational forecasting and <span class="hlt">global</span> specification capability for solar <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> and information can be accessed at the website address of http:///www.spacenvironment.net.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=contentment&pg=2&id=EJ786986','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=contentment&pg=2&id=EJ786986"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of the Contentment with Life Assessment Scale (CLAS): Using <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Life Experiences to Verify Levels of Self-Reported Life Satisfaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lavallee, Loraine F.; Hatch, P. Maurine; Michalos, Alex C.; McKinley, Tara</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>On average, Anglo-Americans report that they are satisfied with their lives, but their <span class="hlt">global</span> evaluations tend to deviate from their <span class="hlt">daily</span> experiences (e.g., Oishi [2002, "Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin" 28(10), 1398-1406]). We explored the hypothesis that the average life satisfaction of Anglo-Americans is better characterized as…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230974-global-arrays','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230974-global-arrays"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Arrays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/">Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-02-23</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Global</span> Arrays (GA) toolkit provides an efficient and portable ?shared-memory? programming interface for distributed-memory computers. Each process in a MIMD parallel program can asynchronously access logical blocks of physically distributed dense multi-dimensional arrays, without need for explicit cooperation by other processes. Unlike other shared-memory environments, the GA model exposes to the programmer the non-uniform memory access (NUMA) characteristics of the high performance computers and acknowledges that access to a remote portion of the sharedmore »data is slower than to the local portion. The locality information for the shared data is available, and a direct access to the local portions of shared data is provided. <span class="hlt">Global</span> Arrays have been designed to complement rather than substitute for the message-passing programming model. The programmer is free to use both the shared-memory and message-passing paradigms in the same program, and to take advantage of existing message-passing software libraries. <span class="hlt">Global</span> Arrays are compatible with the Message Passing Interface (MPI).« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10921765','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10921765"><span id="translatedtitle">Development and validation of a standardized measure of activity of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living in patients with severe COPD: the London Chest Activity of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Living scale (LCADL).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Garrod, R; Bestall, J C; Paul, E A; Wedzicha, J A; Jones, P W</p> <p>2000-06-01</p> <p>Activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living (ADL) may be severely restricted in patients with COPD and assessment requires evaluation of the impact of disability and handicap on <span class="hlt">daily</span> life. This study is concerned with the development and validation of a standardized 15-item questionnaire to assess routine ADL. Sixty (33 male, 27 female) patients with severe COPD, mean (SD) FEV1 0.91 (0.43) l, median (range) age 70 (50-82) years, completed a 59-item ADL list previously generated by open-ended interview and by literature review. Patients also performed the Shuttle Walk Test (SWT), and completed the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), the Nottingham Extended Activity of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Living Questionnaire (EADL) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression score (HAD). Criteria for item reduction in the development of The London Chest ADL scale (LCADL) consisted of removal of items where the majority of respondents showed no limitation in the activity (n = 19), where there was no association with perception of <span class="hlt">global</span> health (n = 9), where an association with age or gender was detected (n = 4), or where items showed poor reliability on test re-test (n = 9). Fifteen items were identified as core activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living. The LCADL was then compared with other measures of health status in these patients. There were good correlations with the SGRQ activity and impact components (p=0.70; P<0.0001) and (p=0.58; P<0.0001), respectively, and EADL (p=0.45; P<0.001), and a moderate correlation with HAD anxiety (p=0.28; P<0.03). There was a significant relationship between the SWT and LCADL (p=0.58; P<0.0001), suggesting a relationship between impaired exercise performance and lower ADL scores. There was evidence of high internal consistency of the questionnaire with Chronbach's alpha of 0.98. These findings suggest that the LCADL scale is a valid tool for the assessment of ADL in patients with severe COPD. PMID:10921765</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.G21A0436B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.G21A0436B"><span id="translatedtitle">Twenty-Two Years of Combined GPS <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Coordinate Time Series and Derived Parameters: Implications for ITRF</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bock, Y.; Kedar, S.; Moore, A. W.; Fang, P.; Liu, Z.; Owen, S. E.; Squibb, M. B.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The NASA-funded "Solid Earth Science ESDR System (SESES)" MEaSUREs project publishes long-term Earth Science Data Records (ESDRs), the result of a combined solution of independent <span class="hlt">daily</span> JPL (GIPSY-OASIS software) and SIO (GAMIT software) GPS analyses, using a common source of metadata from the SOPAC database. The project has now produced up to twenty-two years of consistent, calibrated and validated ESDR products for over 3200 GPS stations from Western North America, other plate boundaries, and <span class="hlt">global</span> networks made available through the GPS Explorer data portal and NASA's CDDIS archive. The combined solution of <span class="hlt">daily</span> coordinate time series uses SOPAC h-files and JPL STACOV files as input to the st_filter software. The combined time series are then fit with the analyze_tseri software for <span class="hlt">daily</span> positions/displacements, secular velocities, coseismic and postseismic displacements, as well as annual and semi-annual signatures and non-coseismic offsets due primarily to equipment (antenna) changes. Published uncertainties for the estimated parameters take into account temporal noise in the <span class="hlt">daily</span> coordinate time series. The resulting residual coordinate time series with typical <span class="hlt">daily</span> RMS values of 1.5-4.0 mm in the horizontal and 4.0-8.0 mm in the vertical can then can be mined for other signals such as transient deformation associated with earthquake tremor and slip (ETS) and hydrological effects. As part of this process we have catalogued and characterized coseismic displacements due to more than 80 earthquakes affecting over hundreds of regional and <span class="hlt">global</span> stations, as well as significant postseismic deformation for the larger events. The larger events can affect stations 1000's of km from the earthquake epicenters and thus significantly affect the positions of stations used in defining the reference frame. We discuss the implications and contributions of our ongoing analysis to the long-term maintenance of the international terrestrial reference frame.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6445393','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6445393"><span id="translatedtitle">Variations of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Willson, R.C.; Hudson, H.S.</p> <p>1981-03-15</p> <p>The Active Cavity Radiometer experiment on the Solar Maximum Mission is providing sensitive measurements of time variations of the total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> with greater accuracy and precision than previously achieved. The mean 1 AU <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> for the first 45 days' operation is 1368.64 W m/sup -2/ with an abolute uncertainty of less than +- 0.5%. Variations about this mean have been observed on time scales of hours to days with amplitudes up to +- 0.04%, resolved with a statistical uncertainty as low as 0.001%. Variations with a single orbit with amplitudes as large as +- 0.05% have been resolved with 0.005% or smaller statistical uncertainty. Although these variations do not display a systematic relationship to conventional solar activity indices over the period, correlative behavior cannot be ruled out on the basis of the present limited data set.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25123049','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25123049"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> torpor and hibernation in birds and mammals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ruf, Thomas; Geiser, Fritz</p> <p>2014-08-15</p> <p>Many birds and mammals drastically reduce their energy expenditure during times of cold exposure, food shortage, or drought, by temporarily abandoning euthermia, i.e. the maintenance of high body temperatures. Traditionally, two different types of heterothermy, i.e. hypometabolic states associated with low body temperature (torpor), have been distinguished: <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor, which lasts less than 24 h and is accompanied by continued foraging, versus hibernation, with torpor bouts lasting consecutive days to several weeks in animals that usually do not forage but rely on energy stores, either food caches or body energy reserves. This classification of torpor types has been challenged, suggesting that these phenotypes may merely represent extremes in a continuum of traits. Here, we investigate whether variables of torpor in 214 species (43 birds and 171 mammals) form a continuum or a bimodal distribution. We use Gaussian-mixture cluster analysis as well as phylogenetically informed regressions to quantitatively assess the distinction between hibernation and <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor and to evaluate the impact of body mass and geographical distribution of species on torpor traits. Cluster analysis clearly confirmed the classical distinction between <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor and hibernation. Overall, heterothermic endotherms tend to be small; hibernators are significantly heavier than <span class="hlt">daily</span> heterotherms and also are distributed at higher average latitudes (?35°) than <span class="hlt">daily</span> heterotherms (?25°). Variables of torpor for an average 30 g heterotherm differed significantly between <span class="hlt">daily</span> heterotherms and hibernators. Average maximum torpor bout duration was >30-fold longer, and mean torpor bout duration >25-fold longer in hibernators. Mean minimum body temperature differed by ?13°C, and the mean minimum torpor metabolic rate was ?35% of the basal metabolic rate (BMR) in <span class="hlt">daily</span> heterotherms but only 6% of BMR in hibernators. Consequently, our analysis strongly supports the view that hibernators and <span class="hlt">daily</span> heterotherms are functionally distinct groups that probably have been subject to disruptive selection. Arguably, the primary physiological difference between <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor and hibernation, which leads to a variety of derived further distinct characteristics, is the temporal control of entry into and arousal from torpor, which is governed by the circadian clock in <span class="hlt">daily</span> heterotherms, but apparently not in hibernators. PMID:25123049</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6566158','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6566158"><span id="translatedtitle">Immunosuppression and organ transplantation tolerance using total lymphoid <span class="hlt">irradiation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Slavin, S.; Strober, S.; Fuks, Z.; Kaplan, H.S.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Total lymphoid <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> (TLI) is a method which delivers <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> <span class="hlt">daily</span> in fractionated doses (200 rads) to lymphoid organs while shielding bones, lungs, and the majority of the gastrointestinal tract. TLI is lymphocytopenic in mice, rats, dogs, and humans, and both T cells and B cells are eliminated from the circulation. TLI permits establishment of specific and long-lasting tolerance to alloantigens. Permanent acceptance of allogeneic bone marrow cells without graft-versus-host disease was achieved in rats and dogs across major histocompatibility barriers. Recipients were tolerant to allografts of skin, hearts, and kidney from animals syngeneic to marrow donors or to organs from the marrow donor. This approach may be suitable for pancreas transplantation in diabetes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22056170','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22056170"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnitude of Interfractional Vaginal Cuff Movement: Implications for External <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ma, Daniel J.; Michaletz-Lorenz, Martha; Goddu, S. Murty; Grigsby, Perry W.</p> <p>2012-03-15</p> <p>Purpose: To quantify the extent of interfractional vaginal cuff movement in patients receiving postoperative <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> for cervical or endometrial cancer in the absence of bowel/bladder instruction. Methods and Materials: Eleven consecutive patients with cervical or endometrial cancer underwent placement of three gold seed fiducial markers in the vaginal cuff apex as part of standard of care before simulation. Patients subsequently underwent external <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> and brachytherapy treatment based on institutional guidelines. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> megavoltage CT imaging was performed during each external radiation treatment fraction. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> positions of the vaginal apex fiducial markers were subsequently compared with the original position of the fiducial markers on the simulation CT. Composite dose-volume histograms were also created by summing <span class="hlt">daily</span> target positions. Results: The average ({+-} standard deviation) vaginal cuff movement throughout <span class="hlt">daily</span> pelvic external radiotherapy when referenced to the simulation position was 16.2 {+-} 8.3 mm. The maximum vaginal cuff movement for any patient during treatment was 34.5 mm. In the axial plane the mean vaginal cuff movement was 12.9 {+-} 6.7 mm. The maximum vaginal cuff axial movement was 30.7 mm. In the craniocaudal axis the mean movement was 10.3 {+-} 7.6 mm, with a maximum movement of 27.0 mm. Probability of cuff excursion outside of the clinical target volume steadily dropped as margin size increased (53%, 26%, 4.2%, and 1.4% for 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 cm, respectively.) However, rectal and bladder doses steadily increased with larger margin sizes. Conclusions: The magnitude of vaginal cuff movement is highly patient specific and can impact target coverage in patients without bowel/bladder instructions at simulation. The use of vaginal cuff fiducials can help identify patients at risk for target volume excursion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4229132','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4229132"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Self-Disclosure and Sleep in Couples</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kane, Heidi S.; Slatcher, Richard B.; Reynolds, Bridget M.; Repetti, Rena L.; Robles, Theodore F.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective An emerging literature provides evidence for the association between romantic relationship quality and sleep, an important factor in health and well-being. However, we still know very little about the specific relationship processes that affect sleep behavior. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine how self-disclosure, an important relational process linked to intimacy, relationship satisfaction and health, is associated with sleep behavior. Method As part of a larger study of family processes, wives (n=46) and husbands (n=38) from 46 cohabiting families completed 56 days of <span class="hlt">daily</span> diaries. Spouses completed evening diaries assessing <span class="hlt">daily</span> self-disclosure, relationship satisfaction, and mood and morning diaries assessing the prior night's sleep. Multilevel modeling was used to explore the effects of both <span class="hlt">daily</span> variation in and average levels across the 56 days of self-disclosure on sleep. Results <span class="hlt">Daily</span> variation in self-disclosure predicted sleep outcomes for wives, but not for husbands. On days when wives self-disclosed more to their spouses than their average level, their subjective sleep quality and sleep efficiency that night improved. Furthermore, <span class="hlt">daily</span> self-disclosure buffered the negative effect of <span class="hlt">daily</span> negative mood on sleep latency for wives, but not husbands. In contrast, higher average levels of self-disclosure predicted less waking during the night for husbands, but not for wives. Conclusion The association between self-disclosure and sleep is one mechanism by which <span class="hlt">daily</span> relationship functioning may influence health and well-being. Gender may play a role in how self-disclosure is associated with sleep. PMID:25068453</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8314E..4DN','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8314E..4DN"><span id="translatedtitle">MITK <span class="hlt">global</span> tractography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Neher, Peter F.; Stieltjes, Bram; Reisert, Marco; Reicht, Ignaz; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Fritzsche, Klaus H.</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Fiber tracking algorithms yield valuable information for neurosurgery as well as automated diagnostic approaches. However, they have not yet arrived in the <span class="hlt">daily</span> clinical practice. In this paper we present an open source integration of the <span class="hlt">global</span> tractography algorithm proposed by Reisert et.al.1 into the open source Medical Imaging Interaction Toolkit (MITK) developed and maintained by the Division of Medical and Biological Informatics at the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ). The integration of this algorithm into a standardized and open development environment like MITK enriches accessibility of tractography algorithms for the science community and is an important step towards bringing neuronal tractography closer to a clinical application. The MITK diffusion imaging application, downloadable from www.mitk.org, combines all the steps necessary for a successful tractography: preprocessing, reconstruction of the images, the actual tracking, live monitoring of intermediate results, postprocessing and visualization of the final tracking results. This paper presents typical tracking results and demonstrates the steps for pre- and post-processing of the images.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.sci.utah.edu/~wald/Publications/2009/SHIGI/shigi.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.sci.utah.edu/~wald/Publications/2009/SHIGI/shigi.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Screen Space Spherical Harmonics Filters for Instant <span class="hlt">Global</span> Illumination Benjamin Segovia Ingo Wald</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Wald, Ingo</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. Abstract We present a general technique that allows for appling the instant <span class="hlt">global</span> illumination as well as indirect lighting; · preserve details for both direct and indirect "hard" shadows; · preserve</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22259161','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22259161"><span id="translatedtitle">The effects of conscientiousness on the appraisals of <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gartland, Nicola; O'Connor, Daryl B; Lawton, Rebecca</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Conscientiousness (C) is positively associated with health and longevity although the mechanisms underlying this relationship are not fully understood. Stress may play a role in explaining the C-longevity relationship. This study investigated whether C predicted the cognitive appraisals of <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors/hassles. Participants (N=102) completed measures of C and cognitive appraisal in relation to the most stressful hassle they had experienced in the last 7 days. Correlational analysis revealed that Total C, Order and Industriousness were positively correlated with primary appraisals, and Responsibility was positively correlated with secondary appraisals. The facets of C were then entered into hierarchical regression models, controlling for age and gender. This demonstrated that Order (?=0.27, p<0.05) and Industriousness (?=0.28, p<0.05) significantly predicted primary appraisals, accounting for 15.8% of the variance. Responsibility significantly predicted secondary appraisals (?=0.44, p<0.01), accounting for 16.3% of the variance. These findings indicate that higher Order and Industriousness are related to having a greater stake in <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors, whereas higher Responsibility is related to greater confidence in one's ability to deal with <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors. These results are the first demonstration that C is related to the appraisals of <span class="hlt">daily</span> hassles and suggest that C may moderate the experience of stress in <span class="hlt">daily</span> life. PMID:22259161</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NHESS..12.2799C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NHESS..12.2799C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> precipitation concentration across Europe 1971-2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cortesi, N.; Gonzalez-Hidalgo, J. C.; Brunetti, M.; Martin-Vide, J.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Precipitation Concentration Index (CI) was used in this paper to investigate the statistical structure of <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation across Europe based on 530 <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall series for the period 1971-2010. Annual CI shows a North-West to South-East gradient (excluding Turkey and Greece). The same gradient is also observed in winter, spring and autumn, while in summer the gradient is North-South. Highest annual and seasonal <span class="hlt">daily</span> concentrations of rainfall were detected in the western Mediterranean basin, mainly along Spanish and French coastlands. Latitude and distance from the sea seems to play a major role on spatial CI distribution; at subregional scale also relief plays an important role. The Mann-Kendall test did not identify uniform significant pattern in temporal trend across Europe for 1971-2010 period. The only broad areas with increasing annual and seasonal CI values are located in northern and south-western France and northern coastlands of the Iberian Peninsula. This findings suggest that <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation distribution has not significantly changed during the 1971-2010 over Europe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-08-09/pdf/2011-20113.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-08-09/pdf/2011-20113.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 48796 - Plan for Estimating <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Livestock Slaughter Under Federal Inspection; Request for Extension of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-08-09</p> <p>... Agricultural Marketing Service Plan for Estimating <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Livestock Slaughter Under Federal Inspection; Request... information collection used to compile and generate the Federally Inspected Estimated <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Slaughter Report....Porter@ams.usda.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Plan for Estimating <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Livestock...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title25-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title25-vol1-sec36-96.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title25-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title25-vol1-sec36-96.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">25 CFR 36.96 - May students be required to assist with <span class="hlt">daily</span> or weekly cleaning?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>...required to assist with <span class="hlt">daily</span> or weekly cleaning? 36.96 Section 36.96 Indians...required to assist with <span class="hlt">daily</span> or weekly cleaning? Yes, students can be required to assist with <span class="hlt">daily</span> or weekly cleaning. However, the ultimate...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title25-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title25-vol1-sec36-96.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title25-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title25-vol1-sec36-96.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">25 CFR 36.96 - May students be required to assist with <span class="hlt">daily</span> or weekly cleaning?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>...required to assist with <span class="hlt">daily</span> or weekly cleaning? 36.96 Section 36.96 Indians...required to assist with <span class="hlt">daily</span> or weekly cleaning? Yes, students can be required to assist with <span class="hlt">daily</span> or weekly cleaning. However, the ultimate...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title25-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title25-vol1-sec36-96.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title25-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title25-vol1-sec36-96.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">25 CFR 36.96 - May students be required to assist with <span class="hlt">daily</span> or weekly cleaning?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>...required to assist with <span class="hlt">daily</span> or weekly cleaning? 36.96 Section 36.96 Indians...required to assist with <span class="hlt">daily</span> or weekly cleaning? Yes, students can be required to assist with <span class="hlt">daily</span> or weekly cleaning. However, the ultimate...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title25-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title25-vol1-sec36-96.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title25-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title25-vol1-sec36-96.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">25 CFR 36.96 - May students be required to assist with <span class="hlt">daily</span> or weekly cleaning?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>...required to assist with <span class="hlt">daily</span> or weekly cleaning? 36.96 Section 36.96 Indians...required to assist with <span class="hlt">daily</span> or weekly cleaning? Yes, students can be required to assist with <span class="hlt">daily</span> or weekly cleaning. However, the ultimate...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title25-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title25-vol1-sec36-96.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title25-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title25-vol1-sec36-96.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">25 CFR 36.96 - May students be required to assist with <span class="hlt">daily</span> or weekly cleaning?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>...required to assist with <span class="hlt">daily</span> or weekly cleaning? 36.96 Section 36.96 Indians...required to assist with <span class="hlt">daily</span> or weekly cleaning? Yes, students can be required to assist with <span class="hlt">daily</span> or weekly cleaning. However, the ultimate...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ebd06.ebd.csic.es/pdfs/Herrera.1990.Oikos.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://ebd06.ebd.csic.es/pdfs/Herrera.1990.Oikos.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">OIKOS 58: 277-288. Copenhagen 1990 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> patterns of pollinator activity, differential pollinating</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Herrera, Carlos M.</p> <p></p> <p>OIKOS 58: 277-288. Copenhagen 1990 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> patterns of pollinator activity, differential pollinating Herrera, C . M. 1990. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> patterns of pollinator activity, differential pollinating effectiveness examined the <span class="hlt">daily</span> activity patterns of the pollinators of Lavandula latifolia (Labiatae), a summer</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5585732','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5585732"><span id="translatedtitle">Facilitation of allogeneic bone marrow engraftment in mice by total lymphoid <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> combined with total-body <span class="hlt">irradiation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ang, K.K.; Waer, M.; van der Schueren, E.; Vandeputte, M.</p> <p>1983-07-01</p> <p>Different groups of C57BL/Ka mice received <span class="hlt">daily</span> fractions of 2 Gy total lymphoid <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> (TLI) in a total dose of 34, 24, or 14 Gy. On the day after the last <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>, 30 X 10(6) allogeneic (BALB/c) nucleated bone marrow cells were infused into the <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> animals. When the last one or two fractions of the radiation schedule were given to the whole body (combined total lymphoid-total-body <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>, TLBI): (1) stable bone marrow chimerism with a higher number of donor-type cells in the peripheral blood was induced in a higher percentage of mice that had received 34 Gy TLBI compared with mice that received 34 Gy TLI. (2) bone marrow chimerism could also be induced after 24 Gy or 14 Gy TLBI, whereas 24 and 14 Gy TLI alone were ineffective. The tolerance to the TLBI schedules was excellent and no clinical signs of graft-versus-host disease were noticed. It is concluded that the addition of TBI can facilitate bone marrow engraftment after TLI and drastically reduce the number of radiation fractions needed to obtain successful chimerism after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in mice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6918891','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6918891"><span id="translatedtitle">Observations of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Willson, R.C.; Janssen, M..; Hudson, H.S.; Chapman, G.A.; Bulkis, S.</p> <p>1981-02-13</p> <p>High-precision measurements of total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, made by the active cavity radiometer <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> monitor on the Solar Maximum Mission satellite, show the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> to have been variable throughout the first 153 days of observations. The corrected data resolve orbit-to-orbit variations with uncertainties as small as 0.001 percent. <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> fluctuations are typical of a band-limited noise spectrum with high-frequency cutoff near 0.15 day/sup -1/; their amplitudes about the mean value of 1368.31 watts per square meter approach +- 0.05 percent. Two large decreases in <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> of up to 0.2 percent lasting about 1 week are highly correlated with the development of sunspot groups. The magnitude and time scale of the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variability suggest that considerable energy storage occurs within the convection zone in solar active regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.andes.ucmerced.edu/papers/Liu14b.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.andes.ucmerced.edu/papers/Liu14b.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">SDI: Solar Dome Instrument for Solar <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Monitoring Tao Liu1, Ankur U. Kamthe1, Varick L. Erickson1, Carlos F. M. Coimbra2 and Alberto E. Cerpa1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Cerpa, Alberto E.</p> <p></p> <p>) weather systems can succeed in es- timating real-time and/or forecasting solar power availabil- itySDI: Solar Dome Instrument for Solar <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Monitoring Tao Liu1, Ankur U. Kamthe1, Varick L data for ground solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (direct normal and <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>) is a major obstacle for the de</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1612975F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1612975F"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">daily</span>, near-real-time analysis of lake surface temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fiedler, Emma; Martin, Matthew; McLaren, Alison; Roberts-Jones, Jonah</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Lake Surface Water Temperature (LSWT) for 248 lakes larger than 500 km2 in area is included as part of the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) field in the UK Met Office <span class="hlt">daily</span> Operational SST and Sea Ice Analysis product, OSTIA. This dataset is freely available. The OSTIA analysis procedure for SSTs, which has been optimised for oceans, is also used for the lakes. Infra-red satellite observations of lakes and in situ measurements are assimilated. The satellite observations are based on retrievals optimised for SST which can introduce inaccuracies into the LSWT analysis but are currently the only near-real-time satellite information available. However, this method does produce results of useful accuracy. It is demonstrated using independent data from the ESA ARC-Lake project at the University of Edinburgh that the OSTIA LSWT analysis has a <span class="hlt">global</span> RMS error of 1.31 K and a bias of 0.45 K. It is also shown that the OSTIA LSWT is an improvement over the use of climatology to capture the day-to-day variation in <span class="hlt">global</span> lake surface temperatures. Recent improvements to this product include a lake ice concentration field as part of the OSTIA <span class="hlt">global</span> ice concentration field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRD..11619209K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRD..11619209K"><span id="translatedtitle">Improvements of top-of-atmosphere and surface <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> computations with CALIPSO-, CloudSat-, and MODIS-derived cloud and aerosol properties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Miller, Walter F.; Chen, Yan; Rutan, David A.; Stephens, Graeme L.; Loeb, Norman G.; Minnis, Patrick; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Winker, David M.; Charlock, Thomas P.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Xu, Kuan-Man; Collins, William D.</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>One year of instantaneous top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface shortwave and longwave <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> are computed using cloud and aerosol properties derived from instruments on the A-Train Constellation: the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) on the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite, the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), and the Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS). When modeled <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> are compared with those computed with cloud properties derived from MODIS radiances by a Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) cloud algorithm, the <span class="hlt">global</span> and annual mean of modeled instantaneous TOA <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> decreases by 12.5 W m-2 (5.0%) for reflected shortwave and 2.5 W m-2 (1.1%) for longwave <span class="hlt">irradiances</span>. As a result, the <span class="hlt">global</span> annual mean of instantaneous TOA <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> agrees better with CERES-derived <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> to within 0.5W m-2 (out of 237.8 W m-2) for reflected shortwave and 2.6W m-2 (out of 240.1 W m-2) for longwave <span class="hlt">irradiances</span>. In addition, the <span class="hlt">global</span> annual mean of instantaneous surface downward longwave <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> increases by 3.6 W m-2 (1.0%) when CALIOP- and CPR-derived cloud properties are used. The <span class="hlt">global</span> annual mean of instantaneous surface downward shortwave <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> also increases by 8.6 W m-2 (1.6%), indicating that the net surface <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> increases when CALIOP- and CPR-derived cloud properties are used. Increasing the surface downward longwave <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> is caused by larger cloud fractions (the <span class="hlt">global</span> annual mean by 0.11, 0.04 excluding clouds with optical thickness less than 0.3) and lower cloud base heights (the <span class="hlt">global</span> annual mean by 1.6 km). The increase of the surface downward longwave <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> in the Arctic exceeds 10 W m-2 (˜4%) in winter because CALIOP and CPR detect more clouds in comparison with the cloud detection by the CERES cloud algorithm during polar night. The <span class="hlt">global</span> annual mean surface downward longwave <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> of 345.4 W m-2 is estimated by combining the modeled instantaneous surface longwave <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> computed with CALIOP and CPR cloud profiles with the <span class="hlt">global</span> annual mean longwave <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> from the CERES product (AVG), which includes the diurnal variation of the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. The estimated bias error is -1.5 W m-2 and the uncertainty is 6.9 W m-2. The uncertainty is predominately caused by the near-surface temperature and column water vapor amount uncertainties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17914482','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17914482"><span id="translatedtitle">Ship-borne measurements of erythemal UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and ozone content in various climate zones.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wuttke, Sigrid; El Naggar, Saad; Bluszcz, Thaddäus; Schrems, Otto</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>Ship-borne measurements of spectral as well as biologically effective UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> have been performed on the German research vessel Polarstern during the Atlantic transect from Bremerhaven, Germany (53.5 degrees N, 8.5 degrees E), to Cape Town, South Africa (33.6 degrees S, 18.3 degrees E), from 13 October to 17 November 2005. Such measurements are required to study UV effects on marine organisms. They are also necessary to validate satellite-derived surface UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. Cloud free radiative transfer calculations support the investigation of this latitudinal dependence. Input parameters, such as total ozone column and aerosol optical depth have been measured on board as well. Using these measured parameters, the modelled cloudless noontime UVA <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (320-400 nm) shows the expected dependence on varying minimum solar zenith angles (SZA) at different latitudes. The modelled cloudless noontime UVB <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (290-320 nm) does not show this clear dependence on SZA due to the strong influence of ozone absorption in this spectral range. The maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> dose of erythemal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> of 5420 J m(-1) was observed on 14 November 2005, when the ship was in the tropical Atlantic south of the equator. The expected UV maximum should have been observed with the sun in the zenith during local noon (11 November). Stratiform clouds reduced the dose to 3835 J m(-1). In comparison, the <span class="hlt">daily</span> erythemal doses in the mid-latitudinal Bay of Biscay only reached values between 410 and 980 J m(-1) depending on cloud conditions. The deviation in <span class="hlt">daily</span> erythemal dose derived from different instruments is around 5%. The feasibility to perform ship-borne measurements of spectral UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> is demonstrated. PMID:17914482</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMED42A..03S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMED42A..03S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> teaching of <span class="hlt">global</span> seismology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stein, S.; Wysession, M.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Our recent textbook, Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes, & Earth Structure (Blackwell, 2003) is used in many countries. Part of the reason for this may be our deliberate attempt to write the book for an international audience. This effort appears in several ways. We stress seismology's long tradition of <span class="hlt">global</span> data interchange. Our brief discussions of the science's history illustrate the contributions of scientists around the world. Perhaps most importantly, our discussions of earthquakes, tectonics, and seismic hazards take a <span class="hlt">global</span> view. Many examples are from North America, whereas others are from other areas. Our view is that non-North American students should be exposed to North American examples that are type examples, and that North American students should be similarly exposed to examples elsewhere. For example, we illustrate how the Euler vector geometry changes a plate boundary from spreading, to strike-slip, to convergence using both the Pacific-North America boundary from the Gulf of California to Alaska and the Eurasia-Africa boundary from the Azores to the Mediterranean. We illustrate diffuse plate boundary zones using western North America, the Andes, the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and the East Africa Rift. The subduction zone discussions examine Japan, Tonga, and Chile. We discuss significant earthquakes both in the U.S. and elsewhere, and explore hazard mitigation issues in different contexts. Both comments from foreign colleagues and our experience lecturing overseas indicate that this approach works well. Beyond the specifics of our text, we believe that such a <span class="hlt">global</span> approach is facilitated by the international traditions of the earth sciences and the world youth culture that gives students worldwide common culture. For example, a video of the scene in New Madrid, Missouri that arose from a nonsensical earthquake prediction in 1990 elicits similar responses from American and European students.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=46409&keyword=study+AND+cucumber&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=48165078&CFTOKEN=62091219','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=46409&keyword=study+AND+cucumber&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=48165078&CFTOKEN=62091219"><span id="translatedtitle">EFFECTS OF ULTRAVIOLET-B <span class="hlt">IRRADIATION</span> ON PLANTS DURING MILD WATER STRESS. 1. EFFECTS ON DIURNAL STOMATAL RESISTANCE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Delikatess) and radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Saxa Treib) were grown in a factorial design under two ultraviolet-B (UV-B) <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> and three levels of water stress. On a weighted, <span class="hlt">daily</span> dose basis the UV-B radiation treatments were equivalent...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900033104&hterms=Evapotranspiration&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DEvapotranspiration','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900033104&hterms=Evapotranspiration&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DEvapotranspiration"><span id="translatedtitle">On estimating total <span class="hlt">daily</span> evapotranspiration from remote surface temperature measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Carlson, Toby N.; Buffum, Martha J.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A method for calculating <span class="hlt">daily</span> evapotranspiration from the <span class="hlt">daily</span> surface energy budget using remotely sensed surface temperature and several meteorological variables is presented. Vaules of the coefficients are determined from simulations with a one-dimensional boundary layer model with vegetation cover. Model constants are obtained for vegetation and bare soil at two air temperature and wind speed levels over a range of surface roughness and wind speeds. A different means of estimating the <span class="hlt">daily</span> evapotranspiration based on the time rate of increase of surface temperature during the morning is also considered. Both the equations using our model-derived constants and field measurements are evaluated, and a discussion of sources of error in the use of the formulation is given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NHESS..15..617B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NHESS..15..617B"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial distribution of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation concentration index in Algeria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Benhamrouche, A.; Boucherf, D.; Hamadache, R.; Bendahmane, L.; Martin-Vide, J.; Teixeira Nery, J.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>In this paper, the spatial and temporal distribution of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation concentration index (CI) in Algeria (south Mediterranean Sea) has been assessed. CI is an index related to the rainfall intensity and erosive capacity; therefore, this index is of great interest for studies on torrential rainfall and floods. Forty-two <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall series based on high-quality and fairly regular rainfall records for the period from 1970 to 2008 were used. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation CI results allowed the identification of three climate zones: the northern country, characterized by coastal regions with CI values between 0.59 and 0.63; the highlands, with values between 0.57 and 0.62, except for the region of Biskra (CI = 0.70); and the southern region of the country, with high rainfall concentrations with values between 0.62 and 0.69.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3960294','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3960294"><span id="translatedtitle">Associations of Subjective Social Status with Nondaily and <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Smoking</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Buchanan, Taneisha S.; Nguyen, Nga; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Objectives To explore associations between subjective social status (SSS) and smoking level among 2274 adult current smokers. Methods Associations were investigated using a covariate-adjusted proportional odds cumulative logit model. Moderation (via race/ethnicity or sex) and mediation (via depressive symptoms, social/emotional support, or life satisfaction) were explored in additional models. Results Higher SSS was associated with greater likelihood of nondaily versus light <span class="hlt">daily</span> or moderate/ heavy <span class="hlt">daily</span> smoking (p = .017). Life satisfaction partially mediated the association of SSS and smoking level (p = .003). Conclusions Higher SSS was associated with greater likelihood of nondaily relative to light <span class="hlt">daily</span> or moderate to heavy smoking, potentially via greater life satisfaction. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24629553</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985wama.conf.....E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985wama.conf.....E"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> of northwest agricultural products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eakin, D. E.; Tingey, G. I.</p> <p>1985-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect ocntrol procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>, this program was conducted to evaluate the benefits of using <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> on Northwest agricultural products. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027139','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027139"><span id="translatedtitle">Statistical procedures for evaluating <span class="hlt">daily</span> and monthly hydrologic model predictions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Coffey, M.E.; Workman, S.R.; Taraba, J.L.; Fogle, A.W.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The overall study objective was to evaluate the applicability of different qualitative and quantitative methods for comparing <span class="hlt">daily</span> and monthly SWAT computer model hydrologic streamflow predictions to observed data, and to recommend statistical methods for use in future model evaluations. Statistical methods were tested using <span class="hlt">daily</span> streamflows and monthly equivalent runoff depths. The statistical techniques included linear regression, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, nonparametric tests, t-test, objective functions, autocorrelation, and cross-correlation. None of the methods specifically applied to the non-normal distribution and dependence between data points for the <span class="hlt">daily</span> predicted and observed data. Of the tested methods, median objective functions, sign test, autocorrelation, and cross-correlation were most applicable for the <span class="hlt">daily</span> data. The robust coefficient of determination (CD*) and robust modeling efficiency (EF*) objective functions were the preferred methods for <span class="hlt">daily</span> model results due to the ease of comparing these values with a fixed ideal reference value of one. Predicted and observed monthly totals were more normally distributed, and there was less dependence between individual monthly totals than was observed for the corresponding predicted and observed <span class="hlt">daily</span> values. More statistical methods were available for comparing SWAT model-predicted and observed monthly totals. The 1995 monthly SWAT model predictions and observed data had a regression Rr2 of 0.70, a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.41, and the t-test failed to reject the equal data means hypothesis. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient and the R r2 coefficient were the preferred methods for monthly results due to the ability to compare these coefficients to a set ideal value of one.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10782937','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10782937"><span id="translatedtitle">Cooling suit for multiple sclerosis: functional improvement in <span class="hlt">daily</span> living?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kinnman, J; Andersson, U; Wetterquist, L; Kinnman, Y; Andersson, U</p> <p>2000-03-01</p> <p>Eight cryopositive patients with multiple sclerosis used cooling suits for 40 minutes regularly one or more times <span class="hlt">daily</span> for a six-week period. The patients were given repeated motor and mental tests by a physiotherapist in order to determine whether they had a continuous beneficial effect of cooling during this period. Additionally, selected activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living performed in the patient's homes were evaluated and registered according to Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS). Six out of eight patients improved in at least one motor test and all patients improved according to AMPS. For one of the patients, who was profoundly handicapped, the effect of cooling was evaluated differently. PMID:10782937</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.7591P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.7591P"><span id="translatedtitle">Providing <span class="hlt">daily</span> updated weather data for online risk assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petritsch, R.; Hasenauer, H.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> weather data are an important constraint for diverse applications in ecosystem research. In particular, temperature and precipitation are the main drivers for forest ecosystem productivity. Mechanistic modeling theory heavily relies on <span class="hlt">daily</span> values for minimum and maximum temperatures, precipitation, incident solar radiation and vapor pressure. These data are usually provided by interpolation techniques using measured values from surrounding stations or weather generators based on monthly mean values. One well-known and frequently used software packages is DAYMET which was adapted and validated for Austrian purposes. The calculation includes the interpolation of maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation based on near-by measurements and the subsequent extrapolation of incident solar radiation and vapor pressure deficit based on the temperature and precipitation values. The Austrian version of DAYMET uses <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather data from more than 400 measuring stations all over Austria from 1960 to 2005. Due to internal procedures of DAYMET <span class="hlt">daily</span> values for a whole year are estimated together; thus, the update of the database may only be done with full year records. Whether this approach convenient for retrospective modeling studies risk assessment (e.g. drought stress, forest fire, insect outbreaks) needs a higher update frequency than a full year. At best the measurements would be available immediately after they are taken. In practice the update frequency is limited by the operational provision of <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather data. The aim of this study is to implement a concept for providing <span class="hlt">daily</span> updated weather data as it could be used for continuous risk assessment. First we built a new climate database containing all available <span class="hlt">daily</span> measurements. It is based on a well-established Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) and may be accessed and extended using the Standard Query Language (SQL). Secondly, we re-implemented the interpolation logic for temperature and precipitation. Incident solar radiation and vapor pressure deficit were calculated with the same procedure as used in DAYMET adjusted to the new data handling. Cross validation is used to obtain optimal parameters but also for rough accuracy estimation of the generated <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather data. A validation including detailed residual analyses is done using a set of 23 independent climate stations. The results are comparable with the original procedure and allow an online calculation of the needed parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12747163','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12747163"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> gamesmanship.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>MacMillan, Ian C; van Putten, Alexander B; McGrath, Rita Gunther</p> <p>2003-05-01</p> <p>Competition among multinationals these days is likely to be a three-dimensional game of <span class="hlt">global</span> chess: The moves an organization makes in one market are designed to achieve goals in another in ways that aren't immediately apparent to its rivals. The authors--all management professors-call this approach "competing under strategic interdependence," or CSI. And where this interdependence exists, the complexity of the situation can quickly overwhelm ordinary analysis. Indeed, most business strategists are terrible at anticipating the consequences of interdependent choices, and they're even worse at using interdependency to their advantage. In this article, the authors offer a process for mapping the competitive landscape and anticipating how your company's moves in one market can influence its competitive interactions in others. They outline the six types of CSI campaigns--onslaughts, contests, guerrilla campaigns, feints, gambits, and harvesting--available to any multiproduct or multimarket corporation that wants to compete skillfully. They cite real-world examples such as the U.S. pricing battle Philip Morris waged with R.J. Reynolds--not to gain market share in the domestic cigarette market but to divert R.J. Reynolds's resources and attention from the opportunities Philip Morris was pursuing in Eastern Europe. And, using data they collected from their studies of consumer-products companies Procter & Gamble and Unilever, the authors describe how to create CSI tables and bubble charts that present a graphical look at the competitive landscape and that may uncover previously hidden opportunities. The CSI mapping process isn't just for <span class="hlt">global</span> corporations, the authors explain. Smaller organizations that compete with a portfolio of products in just one national or regional market may find it just as useful for planning their next business moves. PMID:12747163</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840039900&hterms=Bjarnason&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DBjarnason','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840039900&hterms=Bjarnason&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DBjarnason"><span id="translatedtitle">18-months of UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> observations from the Solar Mesosphere Explorer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>London, J.; Bjarnason, G. G.; Rottman, G. J.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>An instrument on the Solar Mesosphere Explorer has been making <span class="hlt">daily</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements in the 120-305 nm (UV) spectral interval since October 6, 1981. Calculations of the highest to lowest value of the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> within each solar rotation yield percent range values indicative of variations that are useful as input data for model calculations of stratosphere/mesosphere responses to short period solar variability, since solar radiation in the UV is largely responsible for the photochemical interactions and radiative heating of the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6087506','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6087506"><span id="translatedtitle">Prolonged heart xenograft survival using combined total lymphoid <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> and cyclosporine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Knechtle, S.J.; Halperin, E.C.; Saad, T.; Bollinger, R.R.</p> <p>1986-05-01</p> <p>Total lymphoid <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> and cyclosporine have profound immunosuppressive properties and permit successful heart allotransplantation. Cyclosporine used alone has not permitted consistently successful transplantation between species in all cases. Total lymphoid <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> has not been applied to xenotransplantation. The efficacy of total lymphoid <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> alone and in combination with cyclosporine was examined using an animal model of heart xenotransplantation. Heterotopic heart transplants were performed using inbred Syrian hamsters as donors and Lewis rats as recipients. Total lymphoid <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> was administered preoperatively over 3 weeks for a total dose of 15 gray. Cyclosporine was started on the day of surgery and was given as a <span class="hlt">daily</span> intramuscular injection of 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day until rejection was complete. Neither total lymphoid <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> nor cyclosporine alone markedly prolonged graft survival. However, combined total lymphoid <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> and cyclosporine, 5 or 10 mg/kg/day, dramatically prolonged graft survival to greater than 100 days in most recipients. There were no treatment-related deaths. In conclusion, combined total lymphoid <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> and cyclosporine permit successful long-term survival of heart xenotransplants in this hamster-to-rat model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18167073','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18167073"><span id="translatedtitle">Prestorage ultraviolet-white light <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> alters apple peel metabolome.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rudell, David R; Mattheis, James P; Curry, Eric A</p> <p>2008-02-13</p> <p><span class="hlt">Global</span> metabolic profiling of 'Granny Smith' apple peel was employed for evaluating metabolomic alterations resulting from prestorage UV-white light <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>. Apples were bagged midseason to restrict sunlight, harvested at the preclimacteric stage prior to bag removal, treated with fluorescent UV-white light for 0-48.5 h, and stored for 6 months at 0 degrees C. Trimethylsilyl (oxime) derivatized or underivatized aliquots of methanolic extracts from peel samples collected immediately after <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> or following cold storage were evaluated using GC-MS and LC-UV/vis-MS, respectively. The profile, including more than 200 components, 78 of which were identified, revealed changes in the metabolome provoked by UV-white light <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> and cold storage. Analyses of individual components selected using principal component analysis (PCA) models showed distinct temporal changes, before and after cold storage, related to prestorage <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> in a diverse set of primary and secondary metabolic pathways. The results demonstrate metabolic pathways associated with ethylene synthesis, acid metabolism, flavonoid pigment synthesis, and fruit texture, are altered by prestorage <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>, and many of the alterations are detectable after 6 months of cold storage in air. PMID:18167073</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960014420&hterms=CNRS&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DCNRS','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960014420&hterms=CNRS&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DCNRS"><span id="translatedtitle">VIRGO: Experiment for helioseismology and solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> monitoring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Froehlich, Claus; Andersen, Bo N.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The scientific objectives of the variability of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and gravity oscillations (VIRGO) experiment are as follows: to determine the characteristics of pressure and internal gravity oscillations by observing <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and radiance variations; to measure the solar total and spectral <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, and to quantify their variability. Helioseismological methods can be applied to these data in order to probe the solar interior. Certain convection characteristics and their interaction with magnetic fields will be studied from the results of the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> monitoring and from the comparison of the amplitudes and phases of the oscillations as observed from the brightness by VIRGO and from velocity by the <span class="hlt">global</span> oscillations at low frequency (GOLF) experiment. The VIRGO experiment contains two active-cavity radiometers that monitor the solar constant, two three-channel sunphotometers that measure the spectral <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, and a low resolution imager with 12 pixels that measures the radiance distribution over the solar disk at 500 nm. The scientific objectives of VIRGO are presented, the instruments and the data acquisition and control system are described, and their measured performances are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7479506','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7479506"><span id="translatedtitle">Consumer acceptance of <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> poultry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hashim, I B; Resurreccion, A V; McWatters, K H</p> <p>1995-08-01</p> <p>A simulated supermarket setting (SSS) test was conducted to determine whether consumers (n = 126) would purchase <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> poultry products, and the effects of marketing strategies on consumer purchase of <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> poultry products. Consumer preference for <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> poultry was likewise determined using a home-use test. A slide program was the most effective educational strategy in changing consumers' purchase behavior. The number of participants who purchased <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> boneless, skinless breasts and <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> thighs after the educational program increased significantly from 59.5 and 61.9% to 83.3 and 85.7% for the breasts and thighs, respectively. Using a label or poster did not increase the number of participants who bought <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> poultry products. About 84% of the participants consider it either "somewhat necessary" or "very necessary" to <span class="hlt">irradiate</span> raw chicken and would like all chicken that was served in restaurants or fast food places to be <span class="hlt">irradiated</span>. Fifty-eight percent of the participants would always buy <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> chicken if available, and an additional 27% would buy it sometimes. About 44% of the participants were willing to pay the same price for <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> chicken as for nonirradiated. About 42% of participants were willing to pay 5% or more than what they were currently paying for nonirradiated chicken. Seventy-three percent or more of consumers who participated in the home-use test (n = 74) gave the color, appearance, and aroma of the raw poultry products a minimum rating of 7 (= like moderately). After consumers participated in a home-use test, 84 and 88% selected <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> thighs and breasts, respectively, over nonirradiated in a second SSS test. PMID:7479506</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981RaPC...18..223J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981RaPC...18..223J"><span id="translatedtitle">Food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> and sterilization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Josephson, Edward S.</p> <p></p> <p>Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4160209','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4160209"><span id="translatedtitle">Coping with <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Thermal Variability: Behavioural Performance of an Ectotherm Model in a Warming World</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rojas, José M.; Castillo, Simón B.; Folguera, Guillermo; Abades, Sebastián; Bozinovic, Francisco</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Global</span> climate change poses one of the greatest threats to species persistence. Most analyses of the potential biological impacts have focused on changes in mean temperature, but changes in thermal variance will also impact organisms and populations. We assessed the effects of acclimation to <span class="hlt">daily</span> variance of temperature on dispersal and exploratory behavior in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio laevis in an open field. Acclimation treatments were 24±0, 24±4 and 24±8°C. Because the performance of ectotherms relates nonlinearly to temperature, we predicted that animals acclimated to a higher <span class="hlt">daily</span> thermal variation should minimize the time exposed in the centre of open field, – i.e. increase the linearity of displacements. Consistent with our prediction, isopods acclimated to a thermally variable environment reduce their exploratory behaviour, hypothetically to minimize their exposure to adverse environmental conditions. This scenario as well as the long latency of animals after releases acclimated to variable environments is consistent with this idea. We suggested that to develop more realistic predictions about the biological impacts of climate change, one must consider the interactions between the mean and variance of environmental temperature on animals' performance. PMID:25207653</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25207653','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25207653"><span id="translatedtitle">Coping with <span class="hlt">daily</span> thermal variability: behavioural performance of an ectotherm model in a warming world.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rojas, José M; Castillo, Simón B; Folguera, Guillermo; Abades, Sebastián; Bozinovic, Francisco</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Global</span> climate change poses one of the greatest threats to species persistence. Most analyses of the potential biological impacts have focused on changes in mean temperature, but changes in thermal variance will also impact organisms and populations. We assessed the effects of acclimation to <span class="hlt">daily</span> variance of temperature on dispersal and exploratory behavior in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio laevis in an open field. Acclimation treatments were 24 ± 0, 24 ± 4 and 24 ± 8 °C. Because the performance of ectotherms relates nonlinearly to temperature, we predicted that animals acclimated to a higher <span class="hlt">daily</span> thermal variation should minimize the time exposed in the centre of open field, --i.e. increase the linearity of displacements. Consistent with our prediction, isopods acclimated to a thermally variable environment reduce their exploratory behaviour, hypothetically to minimize their exposure to adverse environmental conditions. This scenario as well as the long latency of animals after releases acclimated to variable environments is consistent with this idea. We suggested that to develop more realistic predictions about the biological impacts of climate change, one must consider the interactions between the mean and variance of environmental temperature on animals' performance. PMID:25207653</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51..639M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51..639M"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-term oscillations in rainfall extremes in a 268 year <span class="hlt">daily</span> time series</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marani, Marco; Zanetti, Stefano</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We analyze long-term fluctuations of rainfall extremes in 268 years of <span class="hlt">daily</span> observations (Padova, Italy, 1725-2006), to our knowledge, the longest existing instrumental time series of its kind. We identify multidecadal oscillations in extremes estimated by fitting the GEV distribution, with approximate periodicities of about 17-21, 30-38, 49-68, 85-94, and 145-172 years. The amplitudes of these oscillations exceed the changes associated with the observed trend in intensity. This finding implies that even if climatic trends are absent or negligible, rainfall and its extremes exhibit an apparent nonstationarity if analyzed over time intervals shorter than the longest periodicity in the data (about 170 years for the case analyzed here). These results suggest that because long-term periodicities may likely be present elsewhere, in the absence of observational time series with length comparable to such periodicities (possibly exceeding one century), past observations cannot be considered to be representative of future extremes. We also find that observed fluctuations in extreme events in Padova are linked to the North Atlantic Oscillation: increases in the NAO Index are on average associated with an intensification of <span class="hlt">daily</span> extreme rainfall events. This link with the NAO <span class="hlt">global</span> pattern is highly suggestive of implications of general relevance: long-term fluctuations in rainfall extremes connected with large-scale oscillating atmospheric patterns are likely to be widely present and undermine the very basic idea of using a single stationary distribution to infer future extremes from past observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1018269.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1018269.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">cMOOCs and <span class="hlt">Global</span> Learning: An Authentic Alternative</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yeager, Carol; Hurley-Dasgupta, Betty; Bliss, Catherine A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Massive open online courses (MOOCs) continue to attract press coverage as they change almost <span class="hlt">daily</span> in their format, number of registrations, and potential for credentialing. An enticing aspect of the MOOC is its <span class="hlt">global</span> reach. In this paper, we will focus on a type of MOOC called a cMOOC because it is based on the theory of connectivism and fits…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930068156&hterms=Greenhouse+effect+Atmospheric&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2528%2528Greenhouse%2Beffect%2529%2BAtmospheric%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930068156&hterms=Greenhouse+effect+Atmospheric&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2528%2528Greenhouse%2Beffect%2529%2BAtmospheric%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">Implications of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variability upon long-term changes in the Earth's atmospheric temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Robert B., III</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>From 1979 through 1987, it is believed that variability in the incoming solar energy played a significant role in changing the Earth's climate. Using high-precision spacecraft radiometric measurements, the incoming total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (total amount of solar power per unit area) and the Earth's mean, <span class="hlt">global</span> atmospheric temperatures were found to vary in phase with each other. The observed <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and temperature changes appeared to be correlated with the 11-year cycle of solar magnetic activity. During the period from 1979 through 1985, both the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and temperature decreased. From 1985 to 1987, they increased. The <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> changed approximately 0.1 percent, while the temperature varied as much as 0.6 C. During the 1979-1987 period, the temperatures were forecasted to rise linearly because of the anthropogenic build-up of carbon dioxide and the hypothesized '<span class="hlt">global</span> warming', 'greenhouse effect', scenarios. Contrary to these scenarios, the temperatures were found to vary in a periodic manner in phase with the solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> changes. The observed correlations between <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and temperature variabilily suggest that the mean, <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature of the Earth may decline between 1990 and 1997 as solar magnetic activity decreases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100003608&hterms=terra&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dterra','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100003608&hterms=terra&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dterra"><span id="translatedtitle">Trends in Ocean <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> using a Radiative Model Forced with Terra Aerosols and Clouds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gregg, Watson; Casey, Nancy; Romanou, Anastasia</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Aerosol and cloud information from MODIS on Terra provide enhanced capability to understand surface <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> over the oceans and its variability. These relationships can be important for ocean biology and carbon cycles. An established radiative transfer model, the Ocean-Atmosphere Spectral <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Model (OASIM) is used to describe ocean <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variability on seasonal to decadal time scales. The model is forced with information on aerosols and clouds from the MODIS sensor on Terra and Aqua. A 7-year record (2000-2006) showed no trends in <span class="hlt">global</span> ocean surface <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> or photosynthetic available <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (PAR). There were significant (P<0.05) negative trends in the Mediterranean Sea, tropical Pacific) and tropical Indian Oceans, of -7.0, -5.0 and -2.7 W/sq m respectively. <span class="hlt">Global</span> interannual variability was also modest. Regional interannual variability was quite large in some ocean basins, where monthly excursions from climatology were often >20 W/sq m. The trends using MODIS data contrast with results from OASIM using liquid water path estimates from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). Here, a <span class="hlt">global</span> trend of -2 W/sq m was observed, largely dues to a large negative trend in the Antarctic -12 W/sq m. These results suggest the importance of the choice of liquid water path data sets in assessments of medium-length trends in ocean surface <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. The choices also impact the evaluation of changes in ocean biogeochemistry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21372287','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21372287"><span id="translatedtitle">Phase I Study of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Irinotecan as a Radiation Sensitizer for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fouchardiere, Christelle de la; Negrier, Sylvie; Labrosse, Hugues; Martel Lafay, Isabelle; Desseigne, Francoise; Meeus, Pierre; Tavan, David; Petit-Laurent, Fabien; Rivoire, Michel; Perol, David; Carrie, Christian</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Purpose: The study aimed to determine the maximum tolerated dose of <span class="hlt">daily</span> irinotecan given with concomitant radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Methods and Materials: Between September 2000 and March 2008, 36 patients with histologically proven unresectable pancreas adenocarcinoma were studied prospectively. Irinotecan was administered <span class="hlt">daily</span>, 1 to 2 h before <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>. Doses were started at 6 mg/m{sup 2} per day and then escalated by increments of 2 mg/m{sup 2} every 3 patients. Radiotherapy was administered in 2-Gy fractions, 5 fractions per week, up to a total dose of 50 Gy to the tumor volume. Inoperability was confirmed by a surgeon involved in a multidisciplinary team. All images and responses were centrally reviewed by radiologists. Results: Thirty-six patients were enrolled over a period of 8 years through eight dose levels (6 mg/m{sup 2} to 20 mg/m{sup 2} per day). The maximum tolerated dose was determined to be 18 mg/m{sup 2} per day. The dose-limiting toxicities were nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, dehydration, and hypokalemia. The median survival time was 12.6 months with a median follow-up of 53.8 months. The median progression-free survival time was 6.5 months, and 4 patients (11.4%) with very good responses could undergo surgery. Conclusions: The maximum tolerated dose of irinotecan is 18 mg/m{sup 2} per day for 5 weeks. Dose-limiting toxicities are mainly gastrointestinal. Even though efficacy was not the aim of this study, the results are very promising, with a median survival time of 12.6 months.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4222040','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4222040"><span id="translatedtitle">Improvement of therapeutic index for brain tumors with <span class="hlt">daily</span> image guidance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Image-guidance maximizes the therapeutic index of brain <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> by decreasing setup uncertainty. As dose-volume data emerge defining the tolerance of critical normal structures responsible for neuroendocrine function and neurocognition, minimizing clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) expansion of targets near these structures potentially lessens long-term toxicity. Methods We reviewed the treatment records of 29 patients with brain tumors, with a total of 517 fractions analyzed. The CTV was uniformly expanded by 3 mm to create the PTV for all cases. We determined the effect of patient specific factors (prescribed medications, weight gain, tumor location) and image-guidance technique on setup uncertainty and plotted the mean +/- standard deviation for each factor. ANOVA was used to determine significance between these factors on setup uncertainty. We determined the impact of applying the initial three fraction variation as custom PTV-expansion on dose to normal structures. Results The initial 3 mm margin encompassed 88% of all measured shifts from <span class="hlt">daily</span> imaging for all fractions. There was no difference (p?=?n.s.) in average setup uncertainty between CBCT or kV imaging for all patients. Vertical, lateral, longitudinal, and 3D shifts were similar (p?=?n.s.) between days 1, 2, and 3 imaging and later fractions. Patients prescribed sedatives experienced increased setup uncertainty (p?<?0.05), while weight gain, corticosteroid administration, and anti-seizure medication did not associate with increased setup uncertainty. Patients with targets near OAR with individualized margins led to decreased OAR dose. No reductions to targets occurred with individualized PTVs. Conclusions <span class="hlt">Daily</span> imaging allows application of individualized CTV expansion to reduce dose to OAR responsible for neurocognition, learning, and neuroendocrine function below doses shown to correlate with long-term morbidity. The demonstrated reduction in dose to OAR in this study has implications for quality of life and provides the motivation to pursue custom PTV expansion. PMID:24295338</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=202566','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=202566"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Weather from Monthly Averages -- Hocus Pocus, or Useful Tool?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Just how much can you legitimately extract from monthly statistics of <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather parameters? In this paper we present the utility and limitations of a simple weather generator (CLIGEN) which has over 750 registered users, most of whom are international. CLIGEN's 4,000-plus station files of mont...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=plan+AND+B&pg=5&id=EJ1014350','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=plan+AND+B&pg=5&id=EJ1014350"><span id="translatedtitle">Supporting Classroom Transitions between <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Routines: Strategies and Tips</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Banerjee, Rashida; Horn, Eva</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this article is to provide tools for preschool professionals to plan for transitions between <span class="hlt">daily</span> routines, to identify challenging transitions during the day, and to offer strategies to support transitions in classrooms to prevent challenging behaviors from occurring due to frequent changes. Specifically, the authors answer three…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=tracker&pg=5&id=ED507458','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=tracker&pg=5&id=ED507458"><span id="translatedtitle">Improving Your <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Practice: A Guide for Effective School Leadership</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Berkey, Timothy B.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This book will show principals how they can change <span class="hlt">daily</span> practices to invest more time in the improvement of teaching and learning. It redirects leadership to effective practices in instructional leadership. Contents include an Introduction and the following chapters: (1) Why Change the Way I Lead?; (2) The Path to Effective School Leadership; (3)…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036301','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036301"><span id="translatedtitle">An empirical model of the quiet <span class="hlt">daily</span> geomagnetic field variation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Yamazaki, Y.; Yumoto, K.; Cardinal, M.G.; Fraser, B.J.; Hattori, P.; Kakinami, Y.; Liu, J.Y.; Lynn, K.J.W.; Marshall, R.; McNamara, D.; Nagatsuma, T.; Nikiforov, V.M.; Otadoy, R.E.; Ruhimat, M.; Shevtsov, B.M.; Shiokawa, K.; Abe, S.; Uozumi, T.; Yoshikawa, A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>An empirical model of the quiet <span class="hlt">daily</span> geomagnetic field variation has been constructed based on geomagnetic data obtained from 21 stations along the 210 Magnetic Meridian of the Circum-pan Pacific Magnetometer Network (CPMN) from 1996 to 2007. Using the least squares fitting method for geomagnetically quiet days (Kp ??? 2+), the quiet <span class="hlt">daily</span> geomagnetic field variation at each station was described as a function of solar activity SA, day of year DOY, lunar age LA, and local time LT. After interpolation in latitude, the model can describe solar-activity dependence and seasonal dependence of solar quiet <span class="hlt">daily</span> variations (S) and lunar quiet <span class="hlt">daily</span> variations (L). We performed a spherical harmonic analysis (SHA) on these S and L variations to examine average characteristics of the equivalent external current systems. We found three particularly noteworthy results. First, the total current intensity of the S current system is largely controlled by solar activity while its focus position is not significantly affected by solar activity. Second, we found that seasonal variations of the S current intensity exhibit north-south asymmetry; the current intensity of the northern vortex shows a prominent annual variation while the southern vortex shows a clear semi-annual variation as well as annual variation. Thirdly, we found that the total intensity of the L current system changes depending on solar activity and season; seasonal variations of the L current intensity show an enhancement during the December solstice, independent of the level of solar activity. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26707496','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26707496"><span id="translatedtitle">Update of Inpatient Treatment for Refractory Chronic <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Headache.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lai, Tzu-Hsien; Wang, Shuu-Jiun</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Chronic <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache (CDH) is a group of headache disorders, in which headaches occur <span class="hlt">daily</span> or near-<span class="hlt">daily</span> (>15 days per month) and last for more than 3 months. Important CDH subtypes include chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, hemicrania continua, and new <span class="hlt">daily</span> persistent headache. Other headaches with shorter durations (<4 h/day) are usually not included in CDH. Common comorbidities of CDH are medication overuse headache and various psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Indications of inpatient treatment for CDH patients include poor responses to outpatient management, need for detoxification for overuse of specific medications (particularly opioids and barbiturates), and severe psychiatric comorbidities. Inpatient treatment usually involves stopping acute pain, preventing future attacks, and detoxifying medication overuse if present. Multidisciplinary integrated care that includes medical staff from different disciplines (e.g., psychiatry, clinical psychology, and physical therapy) has been recommended. The outcomes of inpatient treatment are satisfactory in terms of decreasing headache intensity or frequency, withdrawal from medication overuse, reducing disability, and improving life quality, although long-term relapse is not uncommon. In conclusion, inpatient treatment may be useful for select patients with refractory CDH and should be incorporated in a holistic headache care program. PMID:26707496</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=57302&keyword=%28diesel+AND+engine%29&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=55108019&CFTOKEN=24128895','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=57302&keyword=%28diesel+AND+engine%29&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=55108019&CFTOKEN=24128895"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">DAILY</span> MORTALITY AND FINE AND ULTRAFINE PARTICLES IN ERFURT, GERMANY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Dr H-Erich Wichmann and colleagues at the National Research Center for Environment and Health (GSF) in Neuherberg, Germany, prospec-tively studied the association of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality data with the number and mass concentrations of ultra-fine and fine particles in Erfurt, Ger...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Sports+OR+watching&pg=2&id=EJ833758','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Sports+OR+watching&pg=2&id=EJ833758"><span id="translatedtitle">Cultural Orientations, <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Activities, and Adjustment in Mexican American Youth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McHale, Susan M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Cansler, Emily</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The links between youth's <span class="hlt">daily</span> activities and adjustment and the role of cultural practices and values in these links were studied in 469 youth from 237 Mexican American families. In home interviews, data on mothers', fathers', and two adolescent-age siblings' cultural practices (language use, social contacts) and values (for familism, for…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=CFO&pg=3&id=ED524520','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=CFO&pg=3&id=ED524520"><span id="translatedtitle">The Strategic Attitude: Integrating Strategic Planning into <span class="hlt">Daily</span> University Worklife</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dickmeyer, Nathan</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Chief financial officers in today's universities are so busy with the challenges of day-to-day management that strategic thinking often takes a back seat. Planning for strategic change can go a long way toward streamlining the very <span class="hlt">daily</span> tasks that obscure the "big picture." Learning how to integrate strategic thinking into day-to-day management…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23885246','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23885246"><span id="translatedtitle">Physical activity and affect in elementary school children's <span class="hlt">daily</span> lives.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kühnhausen, Jan; Leonhardt, Anja; Dirk, Judith; Schmiedek, Florian</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A positive influence of physical activity (PA) on affect has been shown in numerous studies. However, this relationship has not yet been studied in the <span class="hlt">daily</span> life of children. We present a part of the FLUX study that attempts to contribute to filling that gap. To this end, a proper way to measure PA and affect in the <span class="hlt">daily</span> life of children is needed. In pre-studies of the FLUX study, we were able to show that affect can be measured in children with self-report items that are answered using smartphones. In the current article, we show that it is feasible to objectively measure children's PA with accelerometers for a period of several weeks and report descriptive information on the amount of activity of 51 children from 3rd and 4th grade. Additionally, we investigate the influence of <span class="hlt">daily</span> PA on <span class="hlt">daily</span> affect in children. Mixed effects models show no effect of PA on any of the four measured dimensions of affect. We discuss that this might be due to effects taking place at shorter time intervals, which can be investigated in future analyses. PMID:23885246</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.3652R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.3652R"><span id="translatedtitle">Maximum <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Discharge Prediction using Multi Layer Perceptron Network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rezaeian Zadeh, M.; Abghari, H.; van de Giesen, N.; Nikian, A.; Niknia, N.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Prediction of maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> flow is essential for planning of water resources systems. This study presents the use of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> flow prediction in the Khosrow Shirin watershed, in north-west Fars province in Iran. Precipitation from four meteorological stations was used to develop a Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) optimized with the Levenberg-Marquardt (MLP_LM) training algorithm and using a tangent sigmoid activation function. Different methods to construct the input vectors were considered during models development. In the first method the precipitation signal is imported separately as input vectors for training. In the second method area-weighted precipitation and related Hydrographs were used in MLP development. In addition to precipitation, in the last model three inputs were used that were base on antecedent flows with one and two days time lag. The performance of each of these models was investigated with the root mean square errors (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (R2). The results show that the second method with weighted precipitation has higher prediction efficiency. R2 and RMSE of training and validation phase for third the model with weighted precipitation were 0.98 and 0.96, respectively Addition of antecedent flow as input vector and use of weighted precipitation provide better results in maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> flow prediction. Keywords: Multi Layer Perceptron, Maximum <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Flow Prediction, Weighted Precipitation, Antecedent flow, Levenberg-Marquardt Algorithm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=James+AND+Stewart&id=EJ817081','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=James+AND+Stewart&id=EJ817081"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Show with Jon Stewart: Part 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Trier, James</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>"The <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Show With Jon Stewart" is one of the best critical literacy programs on television, and in this Media Literacy column the author suggests ways that teachers can use video clips from the show in their classrooms. (For Part 1, see EJ784683.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=James+AND+Stewart&id=EJ784683','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=James+AND+Stewart&id=EJ784683"><span id="translatedtitle">"The <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Show with Jon Stewart": Part 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Trier, James</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Comedy Central's popular program "The <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Show With Jon Stewart" is the best critical media literacy program on television, and it can be used in valuable ways in the classroom as part of a media literacy pedagogy. This Media Literacy column provides an overview of the show and its accompanying website and considers ways it might be used in the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=James+AND+Stewart&id=EJ1003181','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=James+AND+Stewart&id=EJ1003181"><span id="translatedtitle">Using "The <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Show" to Promote Media Literacy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Garrett, H. James; Schmeichel, Mardi</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Social studies teachers are tasked with aiding their students' abilities to engage in public debate and make politically sound decisions. One way the authors have found to help facilitate this is to draw connections between content knowledge and current political conversations through the use of clips from "The <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Show with Jon Stewart." While…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24599495','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24599495"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> weather variables and affective disorder admissions to psychiatric hospitals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McWilliams, Stephen; Kinsella, Anthony; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Numerous studies have reported that admission rates in patients with affective disorders are subject to seasonal variation. Notwithstanding, there has been limited evaluation of the degree to which changeable <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological patterns influence affective disorder admission rates. A handful of small studies have alluded to a potential link between psychiatric admission rates and meteorological variables such as environmental temperature (heat waves in particular), wind direction and sunshine. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test, ARIMA and time-series regression analyses to examine whether <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological variables--namely wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, rainfall, hours of sunshine, sunlight radiation and temperature--influence admission rates for mania and depression across 12 regions in Ireland over a 31-year period. Although we found some very weak but interesting trends for barometric pressure in relation to mania admissions, <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological patterns did not appear to affect hospital admissions overall for mania or depression. Our results do not support the small number of papers to date that suggest a link between <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological variables and affective disorder admissions. Further study is needed. PMID:24599495</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=depression+AND+effects+AND+body&pg=6&id=EJ772012','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=depression+AND+effects+AND+body&pg=6&id=EJ772012"><span id="translatedtitle">"STOP Regain": Are There Negative Effects of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Weighing?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wing, Rena R.; Tate, Deborah F.; Gorin, Amy A.; Raynor, Hollie A.; Fava, Joseph L.; Machan, Jason</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Several recent studies suggest that <span class="hlt">daily</span> weighing is important for long-term weight control, but concerns have been raised about possible adverse psychological effects. The "STOP Regain" clinical trial provides a unique opportunity to examine this issue both cross-sectionally and prospectively. Successful weight losers (N = 314) were randomly…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ambients&pg=2&id=EJ743310','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ambients&pg=2&id=EJ743310"><span id="translatedtitle">The Lay Assessment of Subclinical Depression in <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Life</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mehl, Matthias R.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This study examined how laypersons assess subclinical depression in others on the basis of information about their <span class="hlt">daily</span> lives. For 2 days, 96 participants were tracked with the Electronically Activated Recorder, a naturalistic observation method that samples ambient sounds from participants' momentary environments. Judges rated participants'…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=144320','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=144320"><span id="translatedtitle">PREDICTING <span class="hlt">DAILY</span> NET RADIATION USING MINIMUM CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Net radiation (Rn) is a key variable for computing reference evapotranspiration and is a driving force in many other physical and biological processes. The procedures outlined in the Food and Agriculture Organization Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 56 for predicting <span class="hlt">daily</span> Rn have been widely used....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155983.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155983.html"><span id="translatedtitle">HIV Prevention Pill May Not Need to Be Taken <span class="hlt">Daily</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... as PrEP, which has become popular in the gay male community. "Our study provides an alternative choice for gay men. They can use PrEP either <span class="hlt">daily</span> or ... to take a placebo. All the participants were gay and bisexual men at high risk of HIV ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Marten&pg=6&id=EJ780732','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Marten&pg=6&id=EJ780732"><span id="translatedtitle">Mood in <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Contexts: Relationship with Risk in Early Adolescence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schneiders, Josien; Nicolson, Nancy A.; Berkhof, Johannes; Feron, Frans J.; deVries, Marten W.; van Os, Jim</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Disturbances in affect have been linked to problem behavior in adolescence and future psychopathology, but little is known about how such disturbances manifest themselves in everyday contexts. This study investigated <span class="hlt">daily</span> mood in Dutch 7th graders, aged 11-14. Cluster analysis of problem measures distinguished high-risk (n=25) and low-risk…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=13223&keyword=cubic+AND+feet&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=40434702&CFTOKEN=78075811','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=13223&keyword=cubic+AND+feet&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=40434702&CFTOKEN=78075811"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">DAILY</span> STREAMFLOW - VIRGINIA PORTION OF THE ALBEMARLE-PAMLICO ESTUARY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> mean discharge data from the U.S. Geological Survey (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis-w/VA) for gaging stations within the Virginia portion of the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuary watershed. Record dates vary by gaging station. Data for each station are located in a text file named ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=diabetes&pg=2&id=EJ981212','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=diabetes&pg=2&id=EJ981212"><span id="translatedtitle">Predictors of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Blood Glucose Monitoring in Appalachian Ohio</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Raffle, Holly; Ware, Lezlee J.; Ruhil, Anirudh V. S.; Hamel-Lambert, Jane; Denham, Sharon A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Objective: To determine factors contributing to successful diabetes self-management in Appalachia, as evidenced by <span class="hlt">daily</span> blood glucose monitoring. Methods: A telephone survey (N = 3841) was conducted to assess health status and health care access. The current investigation is limited to the subset of this sample who report having diabetes (N =…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1059828.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1059828.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Tracking the PhD Students' <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Computer Use</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sim, Kwong Nui; van der Meer, Jacques</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This study investigated PhD students' computer activities in their <span class="hlt">daily</span> research practice. Software that tracks computer usage (Manic Time) was installed on the computers of nine PhD students, who were at their early, mid and final stage in doing their doctoral research in four different discipline areas (Commerce, Humanities, Health Sciences and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1736656','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1736656"><span id="translatedtitle">Particulate air pollution and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality in Steubenville, Ohio.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schwartz, J; Dockery, D W</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Particulate air pollution has been associated with <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality in London, England, both in the smog episodes of the 1950s and at the lower pollution levels of the late 1960s and early 1970s. Replicating these findings in the United States has been difficult, because particulates are usually sampled every sixth day. Replication, particularly with a gravimetric measure of particulates, is important in assessing the causality of the relation. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> measurements of total suspended particulates by high volume gravimetric sampler are available for the Steubenville, Ohio, metropolitan area. These were matched to <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality counts from the detail mortality tapes of the National Center for Health Statistics. Deaths of residents which occurred outside the Steubenville Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area were excluded. Because of the much smaller population, the average total number of deaths per day in the Steubenville Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area over the 11-year period 1974-1984 was about 1% of the deaths in a typical London winter. Despite this reduced statistical power, total suspended particulate count was significantly associated with increased <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality in Poisson regression analyses controlling for season and temperature. An increase in particulates of 100 micrograms/m3 was associated with a 4% increase in mortality on the succeeding day. Associations with sulfur dioxide were not significant after adjustment for particulates. The relation appeared to continue at levels well below the current National Ambient Air Quality Standard. PMID:1736656</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/healthprofessions/School%20of%20Health%20and%20Human%20Performance/HAHP_Surviving%20racism.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.dal.ca/content/dam/dalhousie/pdf/healthprofessions/School%20of%20Health%20and%20Human%20Performance/HAHP_Surviving%20racism.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Surviving racism: African Nova Scotian women talk about the <span class="hlt">daily</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Brownstone, Rob</p> <p></p> <p>Surviving racism: African Nova Scotian women talk about the <span class="hlt">daily</span> racism they've experienced has been in Nova Scotia for eight generations. Yet what for many people would provide a feeling on Health and Well-Being," the seminar centered on the experiences of women of African descent in Nova</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJBm...58.2045M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJBm...58.2045M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> weather variables and affective disorder admissions to psychiatric hospitals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McWilliams, Stephen; Kinsella, Anthony; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Numerous studies have reported that admission rates in patients with affective disorders are subject to seasonal variation. Notwithstanding, there has been limited evaluation of the degree to which changeable <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological patterns influence affective disorder admission rates. A handful of small studies have alluded to a potential link between psychiatric admission rates and meteorological variables such as environmental temperature (heat waves in particular), wind direction and sunshine. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test, ARIMA and time-series regression analyses to examine whether <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological variables—namely wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, rainfall, hours of sunshine, sunlight radiation and temperature—influence admission rates for mania and depression across 12 regions in Ireland over a 31-year period. Although we found some very weak but interesting trends for barometric pressure in relation to mania admissions, <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological patterns did not appear to affect hospital admissions overall for mania or depression. Our results do not support the small number of papers to date that suggest a link between <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological variables and affective disorder admissions. Further study is needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020069150&hterms=spinal+cord&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3D%2528spinal%2Bcord%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020069150&hterms=spinal+cord&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3D%2528spinal%2Bcord%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">Skeletal Adaptation to <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Activity: A Biochemical Perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Whalen, Robert T.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Musculoskeletal forces generated by normal <span class="hlt">daily</span> activity on Earth maintain the functional and structural properties of muscle and bone throughout most of one's adult life. A reduction in the level of cumulative <span class="hlt">daily</span> loading caused by space flight, bed rest or spinal cord injury induces rapid muscle atrophy, functional changes in muscle, and bone resorption in regions subjected to the reduced loading. Bone cells in culture and bone tissue reportedly respond to a wide variety of non-mechanical and mechanical stimuli ranging, from electromagnetic fields, and hormones to small amplitude, high frequency vibrations, fluid flow, strain rate, and stress/strain magnitude. However, neither the transduction mechanism that transforms the mechanical input into a muscle or bone metabolic response nor the characteristics, of the loading history that directly or indirectly stimulates the cell is known. Identifying the factors contributing to the input stimulus will have a major impact on the design of effective countermeasures for long duration space flight. This talk will present a brief overview of current theories of bone remodeling and functional adaptation to mechanical loading. Work from our lab will be presented from the perspective of <span class="hlt">daily</span> cumulative loading on Earth and its relationship to bone density and structure. Our objective is to use the tibia and calcaneus as model bone sites of cortical and cancellous bone adaptation, loaded <span class="hlt">daily</span> by musculoskeletal forces in equilibrium with the ground reaction force. All materials that will be discussed are in the open scientific literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=269160&keyword=respiration&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=43055950&CFTOKEN=36370758','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=269160&keyword=respiration&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=43055950&CFTOKEN=36370758"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating autotrophic respiration in streams using <span class="hlt">daily</span> metabolism data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Knowing the fraction of gross primary production (GPP) that is immediately respired by autotrophs and their closely associated heterotrophs (ARf) is necessary to understand the trophic base and carbon spiraling in streams. We show a means to estimate ARf from <span class="hlt">daily</span> metabolism da...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.swansea.ac.uk/media/Ancient%20Greece%20Technologies%20of%20Daily%20Life%20YR6.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.swansea.ac.uk/media/Ancient%20Greece%20Technologies%20of%20Daily%20Life%20YR6.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Ancient Greece Technologies of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Life (ID: 377)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Martin, Ralph R.</p> <p></p> <p>Ancient Greece Technologies of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Life (ID: 377) Outline Students will learn: 1. The basic elements of ancient Greek (and modern) technology 2. The basic elements of ancient Greek cooking 3. A basic diadem or seal ring based on ancient techniques! There will also be short talks about ancient Greek</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5535873','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5535873"><span id="translatedtitle">Particulate air pollution and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality in Steubenville, Ohio</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schwartz, J.; Dockery, D.W. )</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Particulate air pollution has been associated with <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality in London, England, both in the smog episodes of the 1950s and at the lower pollution levels of the late 1960s and early 1970s. Replicating these findings in the United States has been difficult, because particulates are usually sampled every sixth day. Replication, particularly with a gravimetric measure of particulates, is important in assessing the causality of the relation. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> measurements of total suspended particulates by high volume gravimetric sampler are available for the Steubenville, Ohio, metropolitan area. These were matched to <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality counts from the detail mortality tapes of the National Center for Health Statistics. Deaths of residents which occurred outside the Steubenville Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area were excluded. Because of the much smaller population, the average total number of deaths per day in the Steubenville Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area over the 11-year period 1974-1984 was about 1% of the deaths in a typical London winter. Despite this reduced statistical power, total suspended particulate count was significantly associated with increased <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality in Poisson regression analyses controlling for season and temperature. An increase in particulates of 100 micrograms/m3 was associated with a 4% increase in mortality on the succeeding day. Associations with sulfur dioxide were not significant after adjustment for particulates. The relation appeared to continue at levels well below the current National Ambient Air Quality Standard.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=219658','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=219658"><span id="translatedtitle">Food <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> for Produce Safety</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A research priority for the produce industry is the development of an effective, safe and commercially applicable kill step. <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> is a nonthermal process that has been shown to inactivate human pathogens from fruits and vegetables. <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> treatment at 1.0 kGy can reduce the surface popul...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=260770','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=260770"><span id="translatedtitle">Phytosanitary <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> in south Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> has the potential to solve phytosanitary problems related to trade in south Asia. In general, it is the phytosanitary treatment most tolerated by fresh agricultural commodities. <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> technology is available in some countries of the region but is only used for phytosanitary purpos...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1070K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1070K"><span id="translatedtitle">Exogenous model of <span class="hlt">global</span> tectonics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kalenda, Pavel; Wandrol, Ivo; Kopf, Tomáš; Frydrýšek, Karel; Neumann, Libor; Procházka, Václav; Ost?ihanský, Lubor</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>We present a new model of lithosphere-plates movement based on three pillars: 1) The thermoelastic wave, which was described first of all by Berger (1975), 2) The ratcheting mechanism, which was described for asphalt buckling and/or lithosphere evolution by J. Croll (2006, 2007), and 3) the solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> energy, as quantified by IPCC (2007). The thermal wave, which is generated by solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on the surface, penetrates into depth, and subsurface rocks are expanded. The deformation spreads to the surrounding of expanded rocks and to the depths. Such elastic wave is called thermoelastic wave and has dominant periods of one day, one year, (short) climate periods (AMO, PDO and other oscillations), Milankovich periods (14000 - 120000 years) and longer climate periods. This deformation concerns prevalently the continental lithosphere and not lithosphere covered by ocean or thick layers of unconsolidated sediments. This non-uniform deformation of continental and/or oceanic plates leads to opening of the cracks, faults and/or rifts during the period of continental contraction. The ratchets can fulfil such free spaces and openings. During the next period of continental expansion, such faults, cracks or rifts cannot reach the same positions as before, which leads to increasing stress, which accumulates on the discontinuities especially between continental and oceanic crust (Kalenda et al. 2012). Such process can accumulate a portion of the solar energy reaching the solid surface rocks. Then we can explain the whole energy budget of seismic and volcanic activity (1022 J/year) only by solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. Only 4 % of total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> of the Earth's surface (1024 J/year) is enough to cover all budget of lithosphere plate movement. No other resources are necessary. Because this new model of the lithosphere plate movement is not accepted at that moment by the mainstream, it is necessary to publish it in the section Geoethics, as a one of the examples of the behaviour of the Science as a whole. References Berger, J. (1975): A Note on Thermoelastic Strains and Tilts, 1975, J. Geophys.Res., 80, pp. 274-277. Croll, J.G.A. (2006): From asphalt to the Arctic: new insights into thermo-mechanical ratcheting processes. III Int. Conf. On Computational Mechanics. Lisbon, Portugal, 5-8 June. Croll, J.G.A. (2007): A new hypothesis for Earth lithosphere evolution. New Concepts in <span class="hlt">Global</span> Tectonics Newsletter, no. 45, December, 2007, 34-51. IPCC (2007): IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007 (AR4). http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_and_data_reports.shtml Kalenda P. et al. (2012): Tilts, <span class="hlt">global</span> tectonics and earthquake prediction. SWB, London, 247pp.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED464863.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED464863.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Going <span class="hlt">Global</span> Activity Guide: A Project To Educate and Involve American Students in <span class="hlt">Global</span> Hunger Issues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>White, Gene; Balakshin, Maria</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Global</span> hunger is one of the most urgent health and social problems the world faces at the beginning of the new millennium. In a world that produces enough food to feed every human being on the planet, there are still some 830 million people who do not get enough food on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis. About 24,000 people die each day from the effects of hunger;…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H53C0644V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H53C0644V"><span id="translatedtitle">Medium range flood forecasts at <span class="hlt">global</span> scale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Voisin, N.; Wood, A. W.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Wood, E. F.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>While weather and climate forecast methods have advanced greatly over the last two decades, this capability has yet to be evidenced in mitigation of water-related natural hazards (primarily floods and droughts), especially in the developing world. Examples abound of extreme property damage and loss of life due to floods in the underdeveloped world. For instance, more than 4.5 million people were affected by the July 2000 flooding of the Mekong River and its tributaries in Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos and Thailand. The February- March 2000 floods in the Limpopo River of Mozambique caused extreme disruption to that country's fledgling economy. Mitigation of these events through advance warning has typically been modest at best. Despite the above noted improvement in weather and climate forecasts, there is at present no system for forecasting of floods <span class="hlt">globally</span>, notwithstanding that the potential clearly exists. We describe a methodology that is eventually intended to generate <span class="hlt">global</span> flood predictions routinely. It draws heavily from the experimental North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and the companion <span class="hlt">Global</span> Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) for development of nowcasts, and the University of Washington Experimental Hydrologic Prediction System to develop ensemble hydrologic forecasts based on Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models which serve both as nowcasts (and hence reduce the need for in situ precipitation and other observations in parts of the world where surface networks are critically deficient) and provide forecasts for lead times as long as fifteen days. The heart of the hydrologic modeling system is the University of Washington/Princeton University Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrology model. In the prototype (tested using retrospective data), VIC is driven <span class="hlt">globally</span> up to the time of forecast with <span class="hlt">daily</span> ERA40 precipitation (rescaled on a monthly basis to a station-based <span class="hlt">global</span> climatology), ERA40 wind, and ERA40 average surface air temperature (with temperature ranges adjusted to a station-based climatology). In the retrospective forecasting mode, VIC is driven by <span class="hlt">global</span> NCEP ensemble 15-day reforecasts provided by Tom Hamill (NOAA/ERL), bias corrected with respect to the adjusted ERA40 data and further downscaled spatially using higher spatial resolution <span class="hlt">Global</span> Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) 1dd <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation. Downward solar and longwave radiation, surface relative humidity, and other model forcings are derived from relationships with the <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature range during both the retrospective (spinup) and forecast period. The initial system is implemented <span class="hlt">globally</span> at one-half degree spatial resolution. We evaluate model performance retrospectively for predictions of major floods for the Oder River in 1997, the Mekong River in 2000 and the Limpopo River in 2000.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5719M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5719M"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison between satellite and instrumental solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> data at the city of Athens, Greece</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Markonis, Yannis; Dimoulas, Thanos; Atalioti, Athina; Konstantinou, Charalampos; Kontini, Anna; Pipini, Magdalini-Io; Skarlatou, Eleni; Sarantopoulos, Vasilis; Tzouka, Katerina; Papalexiou, Simon; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In this study, we examine and compare the statistical properties of satellite and instrumental solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> data at the capital of Greece, Athens. Our aim is to determine whether satellite data are sufficient for the requirements of solar energy modelling applications. To this end we estimate the corresponding probability density functions, the auto-correlation functions and the parameters of some fitted simple stochastic models. We also investigate the effect of sample size to the variance in the temporal interpolation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> time series. Finally, as an alternative, we examine if temperature can be used as a better predictor for the <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> non-seasonal component instead of the satellite data. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985RaPC...25..215W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985RaPC...25..215W"><span id="translatedtitle">Commercial implementation of food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Welt, M. A.</p> <p></p> <p>In July 1981, the first specifically designed multi-purpose <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> facility for food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> was put into service by the Radiation Technology, Inc. subsidiary Process Technology, Inc. in West Memphis, Arkansas. The operational experience gained, resulted in an enhanced design which was put into commercial service in Haw River, North Carolina, by another subsidiary, Process Technology (N.C.), Inc. in October 1983. These facilities have enabled the food industry to assess the commercial viability of food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>. Further impetus towards commercialization of food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> was gained in March 1981 with the filing in the Federal Register, by the FDA, of an Advanced Proposed Notice of Rulemaking for Food <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span>. Two years later in July 1983, the FDA approved the first food additive regulation involving food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> in nineteen years, when they approved the Radiation Technology, Inc. petition calling for the sanitization of spices, onion powder and garlic powder at a maximum dosage of 10 kGy. Since obtaining the spice <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> approval, the FDA has accepted four additional petitions for filing in the Federal Register. One of the petitions which extended spice <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> to include insect disinfestation has issued into a regulation while the remaining petitions covering the sanitization of herbs, spice blends, vegetable seasonings and dry powdery enzymes as well as the petition to <span class="hlt">irradiate</span> hog carcasses and pork products for trichinae control at 1 kGy, are expected to issue either before the end of 1984 or early in 1985. More recently, food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> advocates in the United States received another vote of confidence by the announcement that a joint venture food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> facility to be constructed in Hawaii by Radiation Technology, is backed by a contractual committment for the processing of 40 million pounds of produce per year. Another step was taken when the Port of Salem, New Jersey announced that the Radiation Technology Model RT-4104-4048(TM) <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> facility was chosen to interface with the only East Coast grain elevator in the United States. These factors, along with concern over the ban of EDB as a post harvest fumigant, coupled with the expected FDA action to approve the use of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> for the insect disinfestation of fruit and vegetables, should finally permit the commercial implementation of food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> to take hold in the United States.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17776650','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17776650"><span id="translatedtitle">Observations of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Willson, R C; Gulkis, S; Janssen, M; Hudson, H S; Chapman, G A</p> <p>1981-02-13</p> <p>High-precision measurements of total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, made by the active cavity radiometer <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> monitor on the Solar Maximum Mission satellite, show the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> to have been variable throughout the first 153 days of observations. The corrected data resolve orbit-to-orbit variations with uncertainties as small as 0.001 percent. <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> fluctuations are typical of a band-limited noise spectrum with high-frequency cutoff near 0.15 day(-1) their amplitudes about the mean value of 1368.31 watts per square meter approach +/- 0.05 percent. Two large decreases in irrradiance of up to 0.2 percent lasting about 1 week are highly correlated with the development of sunspot groups. The magnitude and time scale of the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variability suggest that considerable energy storage occurs within the convection zone in solar active regions. PMID:17776650</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3331720','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3331720"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> burdens of recipients and family caregivers after lung transplant</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>XU, Jiayun; Adeboyejo, Oluwatobi; Wagley, Erin; Aubrecht, Jill; Song, Mi-Kyung; Thiry, Lori; Dabbs, Annette DeVito</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Context Lung transplant recipients are prescribed a complex medical regimen that is thought to be-burdensome and to interfere with <span class="hlt">daily</span> activities of recipients and family caregivers. Yet empirical studies describing the activities that lung transplant recipients and their family caregivers perform on a typical day and the emotions associated with performing these activities are lacking. Objective To identify the <span class="hlt">daily</span> activities and burdens after lung transplant. Design The Day Reconstruction Method and content analysis were used to reconstruct a typical day for lung transplant recipients and their family caregivers. Setting The adult cardiothoracic transplant program of The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. Participants Twenty-one dyads of lung transplant recipients and their family caregivers. Main Outcome Measures Variables of interest included lung transplant recipients’ and family caregivers’ <span class="hlt">daily</span> activities and associated emotions, sociodemographics, clinical characteristics, and patient-reported outcomes of quality of life, symptoms of depression and anxiety, and functional performance. Results Participants reported 286 <span class="hlt">daily</span> activities and 138 associated positive and negative emotions. No activities or emotions were uniquely reported by lung transplant recipients or caregivers, providing evidence of the shared responsibility for caregiving and health maintenance. Most activities reported by caregivers and lung transplant recipients were health-related. Compared with lung transplant recipients, caregivers reported positive emotions more often, yet reported lower overall <span class="hlt">daily</span> mood. This finding is consistent with results of previous studies indicating that specific caregiving tasks were typically rewarding for caregivers, but overall, care giving takes its toll. Conclusion Findings enhance our understanding of the burdens lung transplant recipients and caregivers face and point to the need for further support for dyads after lung transplant. PMID:22489442</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22420386','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22420386"><span id="translatedtitle">Once-<span class="hlt">Daily</span> Radiation Therapy for Inflammatory Breast Cancer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brown, Lindsay; Harmsen, William; Blanchard, Miran; Goetz, Matthew; Jakub, James; Mutter, Robert; Petersen, Ivy; Rooney, Jessica; Stauder, Michael; Yan, Elizabeth; Laack, Nadia</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Purpose: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare and aggressive breast cancer variant treated with multimodality therapy. A variety of approaches intended to escalate the intensity and efficacy of radiation therapy have been reported, including twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> radiation therapy, dose escalation, and aggressive use of bolus. Herein, we examine our outcomes for patients treated with once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> radiation therapy with aggressive bolus utilization, focusing on treatment technique. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of patients with nonmetastatic IBC treated from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2010, was performed. Locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and predictors thereof were assessed. Results: Fifty-two women with IBC were identified, 49 (94%) of whom were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. All underwent mastectomy followed by adjuvant radiation therapy. Radiation was delivered in once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> fractions of 1.8 to 2.25 Gy (median, 2 Gy). Patients were typically treated with <span class="hlt">daily</span> 1-cm bolus throughout treatment, and 33 (63%) received a subsequent boost to the mastectomy scar. Five-year Kaplan Meier survival estimates for LRC, DFS, and OS were 81%, 56%, and 64%, respectively. Locoregional recurrence was associated with poorer OS (P<.001; hazard ratio [HR], 4.1). Extracapsular extension was associated with worse LRC (P=.02), DFS (P=.007), and OS (P=.002). Age greater than 50 years was associated with better DFS (P=.03). Pathologic complete response was associated with a trend toward improved LRC (P=.06). Conclusions: Once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> radiation therapy with aggressive use of bolus for IBC results in outcomes consistent with previous reports using various intensified radiation therapy regimens. LRC remains a challenge despite modern systemic therapy. Extracapsular extension, age ?50 years, and lack of complete response to chemotherapy appear to be associated with worse outcomes. Novel strategies are needed in IBC, particularly among these subsets of patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H34D..08A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H34D..08A"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Evapotranspiration in California Vineyards Using Landsat 8</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, M. C.; Semmens, K. A.; Kustas, W. P.; Gao, F.; Alfieri, J. G.; McKee, L.; Prueger, J. H.; Hain, C.; Cammalleri, C.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>In California's Central Valley, due to competing demands for limited water resources, it is critical to monitor evaporative water loss and crop conditions at both individual field scales and over larger areas in support of water management decisions. This is particularly important for viticulture because grape vines must be maintained under highly controlled conditions in order to maximize production of quality fruit. Thus, regular high resolution temporal monitoring of hundreds of acres is required, a task only efficiently achieved with satellite remote sensing, combining multiple earth observations. In this research, we evaluate the utility of a multi-scale system for monitoring evapotranspiration (ET) and crop water stress applied over two vineyard sites near Lodi, California during the 2013 growing season. The system employs a data fusion methodology (STARFM: Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflective Fusion Model) combined with multi-scale ET modeling (ALEXI: Atmosphere Land Exchange Inverse Model) to compute <span class="hlt">daily</span> 30 m resolution ET. ALEXI ET fluxes (4 km resolution, <span class="hlt">daily</span>) are integrated with ET fluxes from Landsat 8 thermal data (30 m resolution, ~16 day) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data (1 km resolution, <span class="hlt">daily</span>). The high spatial resolution Landsat retrievals are then fused with high temporal frequency MODIS data using STARFM to produce <span class="hlt">daily</span> estimates of crop water use that resolve within field variation in ET for individual vineyards. Estimates of <span class="hlt">daily</span> ET generated in two fields of Pinot Noir vines of different maturity agreed well with ground-based flux measurements collected within each field with relative errors of about 15%. Spatial patterns of cumulative ET correspond to yield estimates and indicate areas of variable crop moisture, condition, and yield within the vineyards that could require additional management strategies due to variation in soil type/texture, nutrient conditions and other environmental factors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=263313','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=263313"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnitude and variability of land evaporation and its components at the <span class="hlt">global</span> scale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A physics-based methodology is applied to estimate <span class="hlt">global</span> land-surface evaporation from multi-satellite observations. GLEAM (<span class="hlt">Global</span> Land-surface Evaporation: the Amsterdam Methodology) combines a wide range of remotely sensed observations within a Priestley and Taylor-based framework. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> actual e...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JGR...10019851S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JGR...10019851S"><span id="translatedtitle">Microwave proxies for sunspot blocking and total <span class="hlt">irradiance</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmahl, E. J.; Kundu, M. R.</p> <p>1995-10-01</p> <p>The microwave flux of the Sun is responsive to the same conditions that produce magnetically structured radiation at visible and X ray wavelengths, and so the solar flux at high radio frequencies such as 2800 MHz (10.7 cm) has been used as a proxy for solar optical variations. We have previously found that the microwave flux time series show spectral variations that provide useful proxy information for total <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, and we have extended our analysis of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> solar fluxes from Toyokawa Observatory at 1000, 2000, 3750, and 9400 MHz, in addition to the Ottawa 2800-MHz flux, for the years 1980-1989. An essential ingredient in our analysis is the extraction of the rotationally-modulated microwave component, which differs from the ``S component'' as recently defined in the literature. The rotationally-modulated fraction of the emission contains a significant, often dominant, contribution from gyroresonance emission, whereas the S component, as defined by the excess above the cycle minimum level, usually does not. This allows us to distinguish plage-associated emission from spot-associated emission in the time series of microwave flux. We show that in combination, the microwave fluxes for 1000-9400 MHz, which span the spectral peak of spot-associated emission, provide a very good proxy both the active cavity radiometer <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> monitor (ACRIM) total <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and the sunspot-blocked component of the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, even without optical sunspot observations. Over the 1984-1989 period, this proxy has a weighted correlation with ACRIM of 95%, and an RMS deviation from the total <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> of 0.27 w/m2, slightly better than the deviation (0.35 w/m2) found using optical data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920006214','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920006214"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> trends</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Megie, G.; Chanin, M.-L.; Ehhalt, D.; Fraser, P.; Frederick, J. F.; Gille, J. C.; Mccormick, M. P.; Schoebert, M.; Bishop, L.; Bojkov, R. D.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Measuring trends in ozone, and most other geophysical variables, requires that a small systematic change with time be determined from signals that have large periodic and aperiodic variations. Their time scales range from the day-to-day changes due to atmospheric motions through seasonal and annual variations to 11 year cycles resulting from changes in the sun UV output. Because of the magnitude of all of these variations is not well known and highly variable, it is necessary to measure over more than one period of the variations to remove their effects. This means that at least 2 or more times the 11 year sunspot cycle. Thus, the first requirement is for a long term data record. The second related requirement is that the record be consistent. A third requirement is for reasonable <span class="hlt">global</span> sampling, to ensure that the effects are representative of the entire Earth. The various observational methods relevant to trend detection are reviewed to characterize their quality and time and space coverage. Available data are then examined for long term trends or recent changes in ozone total content and vertical distribution, as well as related parameters such as stratospheric temperature, source gases and aerosols.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/621390','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/621390"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent changes in solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> in Antarctica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stanhill, G.; Cohen, S.</p> <p>1997-08-01</p> <p>A significant decrease in the annual sums of <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> reaching the surface in Antarctica, averaging -0.28 W m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}, was derived from an analysis of all complete years of measurement available from 12 pyranometer stations, 10 of which were on the coast. The decrease was greater than could be attributed to the nonhomogeneous nature of the database, the estimated errors of measurement, or changes in the amount of cloud cover. The smaller database of radiation balance measurements available showed no statistically significant change. Possible causes of these results are discussed, as is the implication that the recent surface warming in Antarctica is not due to radiative forcing. 49 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5527818','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5527818"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Irradiated</span> mandibular autografts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hamaker, R.C.; Singer, M.I.; Shockley, W.W.; Pugh, N.; Shidnia, H.</p> <p>1983-09-15</p> <p>The cosmetic and functional disability associated with mandibular resection has been a major problem to the patient with direct invasion of the mandible by oral cancer. Marginal resections with combined postoperative radiation therapy have frequently been substituted for the more preferred segmental resections and resultant deformities. Presented are 15 cases of oral cavity cancer involving resection of the mandible, immediate radiation to 10,000 rad, and primary reconstruction as <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> mandibular autografts. The longest following is 4 years and 3 months, with a success rate of 66%. Morbidity is minimal as compared to autogenous bone grafting. Tumor size, previous radiation, or use of regional flaps have not been a factor in the success of this method in reconstruction of the mandible primarily.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.nerc-essc.ac.uk/~rpa/PAPERS/egspaper.ps.gz','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.nerc-essc.ac.uk/~rpa/PAPERS/egspaper.ps.gz"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulated Longwave Clearsky <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> over the Ocean: Spatial and Temporal Variability 19791993</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Allan, Richard P.</p> <p></p> <p>­1993 R. P. Allan 1 and A. Slingo 2 Camera­ready Copy for Physics and Chemistry of the Earth Manuscript, London Road, Bracknell, RG12 2SY, United Kingdom #12; Journal: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth MS NoT s in the seasonal cycle (July­January) for 1985 is 5.3 Wm \\Gamma2 K \\Gamma1 . <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> variation on <span class="hlt">daily</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080047962','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080047962"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of GPCP Monthly and <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Precipitation Estimates with High-Latitude Gauge Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bolvin, David T.; Adler, Robert G.; Nelkin, Eric J.; Poutiainen, Jani</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>It is very important to know how much rain and snow falls around the world for uses that range from crop forecasting to disaster response, drought monitoring to flood forecasting, and weather analysis to climate research. Precipitation is usually measured with rain gauges, but rain gauges don t exist in areas that are sparsely populated, which tends to be a good portion of the globe. To overcome this, meteorologists use satellite data to estimate <span class="hlt">global</span> precipitation. However, it is difficult to estimate rain and especially snow in cold climates using most current satellites. The satellite sensors are often "confused" by a snowy or frozen surface and therefore cannot distinguish precipitation. One commonly used satellite-based precipitation data set, the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) data, overcomes this frozen-surface problem through the innovative use of two sources of satellite data, the Television Infrared Observation Satellite Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Though the GPCP estimates are generally considered a very reliable source of precipitation, it has been difficult to assess the quality of these estimates in cold climates due to the lack of gauges. Recently, the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) has provided a 12-year span of high-quality <span class="hlt">daily</span> rain gauge observations, covering all of Finland, that can be used to compare with the GPCP data to determine how well the satellites estimate cold-climate precipitation. Comparison of the monthly GPCP satellite-based estimates and the FMI gauge observations shows remarkably good agreement, with the GPCP estimates being 6% lower in the amount of precipitation than the FMI observations. Furthermore, the month-to-month correlation between the GPCP and FMI is very high at 0.95 (1.0 is perfect). The <span class="hlt">daily</span> GPCP estimates replicate the FMI <span class="hlt">daily</span> occurrences of precipitation with a correlation of 0.55 in the summer and 0.45 in the winter. The winter result indicates the GPCP estimates have skill in "seeing" snowfall, which is the most challenging situation. Thus, the GPCP data set successfully overcomes a current limitation in satellite meteorology, namely the estimation of cold-climate precipitation. The success of the GPCP data set bodes well for future missions, whose instrumentation is specifically designed to give even more information for addressing cold-climate precipitation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Status&pg=5&id=EJ998042','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Status&pg=5&id=EJ998042"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effects of Employment Status and <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Stressors on Time Spent on <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Household Chores in Middle-Aged and Older Adults</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wong, Jen D.; Almeida, David M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Purpose of the study: This study examines how employment status (worker vs. retiree) and life course influences (age, gender, and marital status) are associated with time spent on <span class="hlt">daily</span> household chores. Second, this study assesses whether the associations between <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors and time spent on <span class="hlt">daily</span> household chores differ as a function of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUSM...A21B06K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUSM...A21B06K"><span id="translatedtitle">Calibration of the Total <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Monitor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kopp, G.; Lawrence, G.; Rottman, G.</p> <p>2001-05-01</p> <p>We present an overview of the calibrations of the Total <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Monitor (TIM), a total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (TSI) instrument designed to achieve a relative standard uncertainty (1 ? accuracy) of 100 parts per million (ppm) and a precision and long-term uncertainty of 10 ppm/year. This instrument is one of four on the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE, http://lasp.colorado.edu/sorce), a satellite mission scheduled for launch in July of 2002. The TIM will report four TSI measurements <span class="hlt">daily</span>, continuing a 22-year record of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> through SORCE's goal 5-year mission life. Precision detection of TSI by the TIM follows the basic concepts of electrical substitution radiometry, but employs state-of-the-art electronics and materials. The instrument uses four electrical substitution radiometers (ESRs), each behind a precision aperture, to measure TSI while providing instrument redundancy and sensor degradation detection. The absorptive cavities are used in pairs, one as the active sensor and the other providing a thermal reference. The black absorbing surfaces of diffuse nickel phosphorous (NiP) provide good thermal conductivity, robustness against hard radiation, and low intrinsic outgassing. A shutter modulates incident sunlight to the active ESR, while electrical heater power maintains constant cavity temperature despite the fluctuations in absorbed sunlight. Phase-sensitive detection of the electrical power supplied to the active cavity at the shutter frequency determines cavity absorption and hence TSI. Additionally, this DSP-controlled phase-sensitive detection and thermal control reduces sensitivity to thermal drifts and noise, enabling the instrument's high precision. The TIM's ability to achieve the desired relative standard uncertainty results from component-level calibrations and characterizations to better than 100 ppm. NIST measured the precision apertures to stated accuracies of 25 ppm. LASP measured the ESR reflectances at several wavelengths spanning the visible and near infrared, and selected the flight ESRs based on their low ( ~100 ppm) and stable reflectances. We have recorded the resistances of all ESR electrical leads to the needed 2 ppm uncertainty level. Additionally, we report on system-level measurements indicating instrument reproducibility and relative accuracy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6414215','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6414215"><span id="translatedtitle">Prediction of long-term performance of active solar heating systems using <span class="hlt">daily</span> hours of bright sunshine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nguyen, C.T.; Galanis, N.</p> <p>1984-08-01</p> <p>An algorithm based on <span class="hlt">daily</span> hours of bright sunshine has been developed and used to evaluate the performance of active solar heating systems for different values of system parameters (collector area and efficiency curves; orientation and inclination; storage capacity; heating load). Comparisons of monthly and annual results with those obtained by other methods using measured values of <span class="hlt">global</span> horizontal radiation show good results. The results were used to construct charts (for southern Quebec in this case) which do not require values of solar radiation for the prediction of the system's performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E.634D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E.634D"><span id="translatedtitle">Total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> reconstruction since 1700 using a flux transport model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dasi Espuig, Maria; Krivova, Natalie; Solanki, Sami K.; Jiang, Jie</p> <p></p> <p>Reconstructions of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> into the past are crucial for studies of solar influence on climate. Models based on the assumption that <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> changes are caused by the evolution of the photospheric magnetic fields have been most successful in reproducing the measured <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variations. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> magnetograms, such as those from MDI and HMI, provide the most detailed information on the changing distribution of the photospheric magnetic fields. Since such magnetograms are only available from 1974, we used a surface flux transport model to describe the evolution of the magnetic fields on the solar surface due to the effects of differential rotation, meridional circulation, and turbulent diffusivity, before 1974. In this model, the sources of magnetic flux are the active regions, which are introduced based on sunspot group areas, positions, and tilt angles. The RGO record is, however, only available since 1874. Here we present a model of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> since 1700, which is based on a semi-synthetic sunspot record. The semi-synthetic record was obtained using statistical relationships between sunspot group properties (areas, positions, tilt angles) derived from the RGO record on one hand, and the cycle strength and phase derived from the sunspot group number (Rg) on the other. These relationships were employed to produce <span class="hlt">daily</span> records of sunspot group positions, areas, and tilt angles before 1874. The semi-synthetic records were fed into the surface flux transport model to simulate <span class="hlt">daily</span> magnetograms since 1700. By combining the simulated magnetograms with a SATIRE-type model, we then reconstructed total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> since 1700.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950058979&hterms=modeling+extreme+value+data&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmodeling%2Bextreme%2Bvalue%2Bdata','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950058979&hterms=modeling+extreme+value+data&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmodeling%2Bextreme%2Bvalue%2Bdata"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent solar extreme ultraviolet <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> observations and modeling: A review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tobiska, W. Kent</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>For more than 90 years, solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> modeling has progressed from empirical blackbody radiation formulations, through fudge factors, to typically measured <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> and reference spectra was well as time-dependent empirical models representing continua and line emissions. A summary of recent EUV measurements by five rockets and three satellites during the 1980s is presented along with the major modeling efforts. The most significant reference spectra are reviewed and threee independently derived empirical models are described. These include Hinteregger's 1981 SERF1, Nusinov's 1984 two-component, and Tobiska's 1990/1991/SERF2/EUV91 flux models. They each provide <span class="hlt">daily</span> full-disk broad spectrum flux values from 2 to 105 nm at 1 AU. All the models depend to one degree or another on the long time series of the Atmosphere Explorer E (AE-E) EUV database. Each model uses ground- and/or space-based proxies to create emissions from solar atmospheric regions. Future challenges in EUV modeling are summarized including the basic requirements of models, the task of incorporating new observations and theory into the models, the task of comparing models with solar-terrestrial data sets, and long-term goals and modeling objectives. By the late 1990s, empirical models will potentially be improved through the use of proposed solar EUV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements and images at selected wavelengths that will greatly enhance modeling and predictive capabilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1056039','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1056039"><span id="translatedtitle">AFIP-4 <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> Summary Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Danielle M Perez; Misti A Lillo; Gray S. Chang; Glenn A Roth; Nicolas Woolstenhulme; Daniel M Wachs</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-4 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) fuels at a scale prototypic of research reactor fuel plates. The AFIP-4 test further examine the fuel/clad interface and its behavior under extreme conditions. After <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>, fission gas retention measurements will be performed during post <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> (PIE)1,2. The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-4 experiment through end of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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