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1

Mathematically integrable parameterization of clear-sky beam and global irradiances and its use in daily irradiation applications  

SciTech Connect

A simple parameterized clear-sky short-wave irradiance model is derived from a detailed two-band physical model presented earlier. The inputs for the parameterized model (called PSIM) are the solar elevation, the amount of precipitable water (w), the Angstrom turbidity coefficient ([Beta]), the station's pressure (or its altitude), and the zonal surface albedo (for which a simple submodel is provided for North America). PSIM is intended to give accurate irradiance estimates in any atmospheric condition whenever w < 5 cm and [Beta] < 0.45. The parameterization uses a function of solar elevation that is integrable with time, so that a parameterized daily irradiation model (called DIM) is also obtained. The seasonal variations of the daily clear-sky beam and global irradiations are presented for different combinations of w, [Beta], and latitude. It is possible to use these irradiation estimates in different applications when dealing with solar energy or climatology. For example, a simple way to derive the mean monthly apparent solar elevation or air mass is given. It is also suggested that the original Angstrom's equation (to derive the average global irradiation from the fraction of possible sunshine) be used more extensively with DIM. Finally, it is demonstrated (using data from Albany, NY) that the monthly average beam irradiation may be obtained with a very simple equation from the fraction of possible sunshine and DIM, yielding more accurate estimates than the existing best-performing method.

Gueymard, C. (Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral (United States))

1993-05-01

2

Mathematically integrable parameterization of clear-sky beam and global irradiances and its use in daily irradiation applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple parameterized clear-sky short-wave irradiance model is derived from a detailed two-band physical model presented earlier. The inputs for the parameterized model (called PSIM) are the solar elevation, the amount of precipitable water (w), the Angstrom turbidity coefficient ([Beta]), the station's pressure (or its altitude), and the zonal surface albedo (for which a simple submodel is provided for North

C GUEYMARD

1993-01-01

3

Statistical inter-comparison study of empirical models to estimate the monthly average daily global irradiation on tilted south oriented surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate determinations of the global solar irradiation received by a tilted surface during the average day of each month (HG (s, 0)) are a prerequisite in different solar energy applications, particularly in design methods. Validation of empirical models to estimate such values is of paramount importance, given the limited number of solar radiation observation sites and meteorological stations capable of

A. Ramiro; F. J. Moral; F. J. Masa; A. Sordo

4

Parameterisation of a global daily weather generator for terrestrial ecosystem modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many global ecological models require globally-gridded daily weather data, but such data are not directly available from the current global network of weather stations. A method is described whereby a stochastic daily weather generator is parameterised to operate at the half-degree scale for the earth's terrestrial surface. The weather generator simulates 24 h shortwave irradiance, precipitation, maximum and minimum temperatures,

A. D Friend

1998-01-01

5

Parameterization of Solar Global Uv Irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily doses of solar global UV-B, UV-A, and erythemal irradiation have been param- eterized to be calculated from pyranometer data of global and diffuse irradiation as well as from atmospheric column ozone measured at Potsdam (52 N, 107 m asl). The method has been validated against independent data of measured UV irradiation. A gain of information is provided by use of the parameterization for the three UV compo- nents (UV-B, UV-A and erythemal) referring to average values of UV irradiation. Ap- plying the method to UV irradiation measured at the mountain site Hohenpeissenberg (48 N, 977 m asl) shows that the parameterization even holds under completely differ- ent climatic conditions. On a long-term average (1953 - 2000), parameterized annual UV irradiation values are by 15 % (UV-A) and 21 % (UV-B), respectively, higher at Hohenpeissenberg, than they are at Potsdam. Using measured input data from 27 Ger- man weather stations, the method has been also applied to estimate the spatial distribu- tion of UV irradiation across Germany. Daily global and diffuse irradiation measured at Potsdam (1937 -2000) as well as atmospheric column ozone measured at Potsdam between1964 - 2000 have been used to derive long-term estimates of daily and annual totals of UV irradiation that include the effects of changes in cloudiness, in aerosols and, at least for the period 1964 to 2000, also in atmospheric ozone. It is shown that the extremely low ozone values observed mainly after the volcanic eruptions of Mt. Pinatubo in 1991 have substantially enhanced UV-B irradiation in the first half of the 90ies of the last century. The non-linear long-term changes between 1968 and 2000 amount to +4% ...+5% for annual global and UV-A irradiation mainly due to changing cloudiness, and +14% ... +15% for UV-B and erythemal irradiation due to both chang- ing cloudiness and decreasing column ozone. Estimates of long-term changes in UV irradiation derived from data measured at other German sites are addressed as well.

Feister, U.; Jaekel, E.; Gericke, K.

6

On the diffuse fraction of daily and monthly global radiation for the island of Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six years of hourly global and diffuse irradiation measurements on a horizontal surface performed at Athalassa, Cyprus, are used to establish a relationship between the daily diffuse fraction and the daily clearness index. Two types of correlations—yearly and seasonal—have been developed. These correlations, of first and third order in the clearness index are compared to the various correlations established by

C. P. Jacovides; L. Hadjioannou; S. Pashiardis; L. Stefanou

1996-01-01

7

Mars Daily Global Maps and Animations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) has been taking global map swaths of Mars using its red and blue wide angle cameras every two hours since March 1999. We have processed the global map swaths taken from June to August 1999 which correspond to the end of the northern summer (150 < Ls < 185), and made them

H. Wang; A. P. Ingersoll

2000-01-01

8

Influence of lunar phase on daily global temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly available data set of daily satellite-derived, lower-tropospheric global temperature anomalies provides an opportunity to assess the influence of lunar phase on planetary temperature. These results reveal a statistically significant 0.02 K modulation between new moon and full moon, with the warmest daily global temperatures over a synodic month coincident with the occurrence of the full moon. Spectral analysis

R. C. Jr. Balling; R. S. Cerveny

1995-01-01

9

Influence of Lunar Phase on Daily Global Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly available data set of daily satellite-derived, lower-tropospheric global temperature anomalies provides an opportunity to assess the influence of lunar phase on planetary temperature. These results reveal a statistically significant 0.02 K modulation between new moon and full moon, with the warmest daily global temperatures over a synodic month coincident with the occurrence of the full moon. Spectral analysis

Robert C. Balling Jr.; Randall S. Cerveny

1995-01-01

10

Daily total global solar radiation modeling from several meteorological data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the modeling of the daily total global solar radiation in Adana city of Turkey using multi-linear\\u000a regression (MLR), multi-nonlinear regression (MNLR) and feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) methods. Several daily\\u000a meteorological data, i.e., measured sunshine duration, air temperature and wind speed and date of the year, i.e., monthly\\u000a and daily, were used as independent variables to the

Mehmet Bilgili; Muammer Ozgoren

2011-01-01

11

Reconstruction of daily solar UV irradiation from 1893 to 2002 in Potsdam, Germany.  

PubMed

Long-term records of solar UV radiation reaching the Earth's surface are scarce. Radiative transfer calculations and statistical models are two options used to reconstruct decadal changes in solar UV radiation from long-term records of measured atmospheric parameters that contain information on the effect of clouds, atmospheric aerosols and ground albedo on UV radiation. Based on earlier studies, where the long-term variation of daily solar UV irradiation was derived from measured global and diffuse irradiation as well as atmospheric ozone by a non-linear regression method [Feister et al. (2002) Photochem Photobiol 76:281-293], we present another approach for the reconstruction of time series of solar UV radiation. An artificial neural network (ANN) was trained with measurements of solar UV irradiation taken at the Meteorological Observatory in Potsdam, Germany, as well as measured parameters with long-term records such as global and diffuse radiation, sunshine duration, horizontal visibility and column ozone. This study is focussed on the reconstruction of daily broad-band UV-B (280-315 nm), UV-A (315-400 nm) and erythemal UV irradiation (ER). Due to the rapid changes in cloudiness at mid-latitude sites, solar UV irradiance exhibits appreciable short-term variability. One of the main advantages of the statistical method is that it uses doses of highly variable input parameters calculated from individual spot measurements taken at short time intervals, which thus do represent the short-term variability of solar irradiance. PMID:17318610

Junk, Jürgen; Feister, Uwe; Helbig, Alfred

2007-02-22

12

Daily total global solar radiation modeling from several meteorological data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the modeling of the daily total global solar radiation in Adana city of Turkey using multi-linear regression (MLR), multi-nonlinear regression (MNLR) and feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) methods. Several daily meteorological data, i.e., measured sunshine duration, air temperature and wind speed and date of the year, i.e., monthly and daily, were used as independent variables to the MLR, MNLR and ANN models. In order to determine the relationship between the total global solar radiation and other meteorological data, and also to obtain the best independent variables, the MLR and MNLR analyses were performed with the "Stepwise" method in the Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program. Thus, various models consisting of the combination of the independent variables were constructed and the best input structure was investigated. The performances of all models in the training and testing data sets were compared with the measured daily global solar radiation values. The obtained results indicated that the ANN method was better than the other methods in modeling daily total global solar radiation. For the ANN model, mean absolute error (MAE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), correlation coefficient ( R) and coefficient of determination ( R 2) for the training/testing data set were found to be 0.89/1.00 MJ/m2 day, 7.88/9.23%, 0.9824/0.9751, and 0.9651/0.9508, respectively.

Bilgili, Mehmet; Ozgoren, Muammer

2011-05-01

13

Comparison of Modeled to Observed Global Irradiance.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accuracy of a spectral, clear-sky model to predict hourly global irradiance was investigated using radiation and meteorological observations collected at the Seattle-Tacoma airport between 1 January 1988 and 31 October 1991. The model was first run using the 1976 U.S. standard atmosphere values as inputs, then using the local atmospheric conditions. Clear-sky irradiance values generated by both atmospheres, standard and local, were attenuated using local cloud cover observations for comparison with measured irradiance. Values and trends of the statistical descriptors for the two atmospheres were almost identical. Overall, the model overestimated observed irradiance by less than 6%. Cloud cover was the major source of deviation between the modeled and observed values. The close correspondence between the two model runs suggests that the U.S. standard atmosphere, in conjunction with global cloud datasets, can be used in spectral models to generate irradiance at remote locations.

Davis, Richard F.

1996-02-01

14

Solar irradiance, cosmic rays and cloudiness over daily timescales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although over centennial and greater timescales solar variability may be one of the most influential climate forcing agents, the extent to which solar activity influences climate over shorter time periods is poorly understood. If a link exists between solar activity and climate, it is likely via a mechanism connected to one (or a combination) of the following parameters: total solar irradiance (TSI), ultraviolet (UV) spectral irradiance, or the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) flux. We present an analysis based around a superposed epoch (composite) approach focusing on the largest TSI increases and decreases (the latter occurring in both the presence and absence of appreciable GCR reductions) over daily timescales. Using these composites we test for the presence of a robust link between solar activity and cloud cover over large areas of the globe using rigorous statistical techniques. We find no evidence that widespread variations in cloud cover at any tropospheric level are significantly associated with changes in the TSI, GCR or UV flux, and further conclude that TSI or UV changes occurring during reductions in the GCR flux are not masking a solar-cloud response. However, we note the detectability of any potential links is strongly constrained by cloud variability.

Laken, Benjamin A.; ?alogovi?, Jasa

2011-12-01

15

Hematopoietic tissue repair under chronic low daily dose irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The capacity of the hematopoietic system to repair constantly accruing cellular damage under chronic, low daily dose gamma irradiation is essential for the maintenance of a functional hematopoietic system, and, in turn, long term survival. In certain individuals, however, such continuous cycles of damage and repair provide an essential inductive environment for selected types of hematopathologies, e.g., myeloid leukemia (ML). We have been studying temporal and causal relationships between hematopoietic capacity, associated repair functions, and propensities for hematologic disease in canines under variable levels of chronic radiation stress (0.3{minus}26.3 cGy d{sup {minus}1}). Results indicate that the maximum exposure rate tolerated by the hematopoietic system is highly individual-specific and is based largely on the degree to which repair capacity, and, in turn, hematopoietic restoration, is augmented under chronic exposure. In low-tolerance individuals (prone to aplastic anemia, subgroup (1), the failure to augment basic m-pair functions seemingly results in a progressive accumulation of genetic and cellular damage within vital progenitorial marrow compartments particularly marked within erythroid compartments. that results in loss of reproductive capacity and ultimately in collapse of the hematopoietic system. The high-tolerance individuals (radioaccomodated and either prone- or not prone to ML, subgroup 2 & 3 appear to minimize the accumulating damage effect of daily exposures by extending repair functions, which preserves reproductive integrity and fosters regenerative hematopoietic responses. As the strength of the regenerative response manifests the extent of repair augmentation, the relatively strong response of high- tolerance individuals progressing to patent ML suggests an insufficiency of repair quality rather than repair quantity.

Seed, T.M.

1994-12-01

16

Sensitivity of erythemally effective UV irradiance and daily exposure to uncertainties in measured total ozone.  

PubMed

In this study the sensitivity of the erythemally effective radiation to uncertainties in operationally measured total ozone content of the atmosphere (TOC) was estimated. For this, daily operational TOC measurements from different instruments were applied covering the period from 1997 to 1999. Measurements were gained from space by Earth Probe Satellite, Earth Remote Sensing satellite/Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment and Operational Vertical Sounder and from the ground by Dobson and Brewer spectrophotometers for the locations of Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic, 50 degrees N), Nairobi (Kenya, 1 degrees S) and Springbok (Republic of South Africa, 30 degrees S). The values were used as input parameter to model calculations of erythemally effective irradiance and daily radiant exposure. The differences due to the use of TOC from different sources were analyzed with respect to the Ultraviolet Index (UVI). The UVI was introduced as a tool for sun protection and health care. Therefore, it is of special importance to know the restriction of accuracy. As a tool of health care, the maximum uncertainties are of interest and are described in using the 95%-percentile and the maximum differences. This study shows that differences, i.e. uncertainties (95%-percentile) are in the order of 1 UVI. Independently on the location, however, extreme differences may overstep 3 UVI. For the daily dose the 95%-percentile is around 7.5 UVI hours (UVIh) but differences higher than 20 UVIh were also found. PMID:17115799

Schmalwieser, Alois W; Schauberger, Günther; Erbertseder, Thilo; Janouch, Michal; Coetzee, Gerrie J R; Weihs, Philipp

17

On the diffuse fraction of daily and monthly global radiation for the island of Cyprus  

SciTech Connect

Six years of hourly global and diffuse irradiation measurements on a horizontal surface performed at Athalassa, Cyprus, are used to establish a relationship between the daily diffuse fraction and the daily clearness index. Two types of correlations - yearly and seasonal - have been developed. These correlations, of first and third order in the clearness index are compared to the various correlations established by Collares-Pereira and Rabl (1979), Newland (1989), Erbs et al. (1982), Rao et al. (1984), Page (1961), Liu and Jordan (1960) and Lalas et al. (1987). The comparison has been performed in terms of the widely used statistical indicators (MBE) and (RMSE) errors; and additional statistical indicator, the t-statistic, combining the earlier indicators, is introduced. The results indicate that the proposed yearly correlation matches the earlier correlations quite closely and all correlations examined yield results that are statistically significant. For large K{sub t} > 0.60 values, most of the earlier correlations exhibit a slight tendency to systematically overestimate the diffuse fraction. This marginal disagreement between the earlier correlations and the proposed model is probably significantly affected by the clear sky conditions that prevail over Cyprus for most of the time as well as atmospheric humidity content. It is clear that the standard correlations examined in this analysis appear to be location-independent models for diffuse irradiation predictions, at least for the Cyprus case. 13 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Jacovides, C.P. [Univ. of Athens (Greece); Hadjioannou, L.; Pashiardis, S.; Stefanou, L. [Meteorological Service of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus)

1996-06-01

18

Online Evaluation of Satellite-derived Global Daily Precipitation Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precipitation is hard to measure and difficult to predict. Each year droughts and floods cause severe property damages and human casualties around the world. Accurate measurement and forecast are important for mitigation and preparedness efforts. Significant progress has been made over the past decade in satellite precipitation product development. In particular, products' spatial and temporal resolutions as well as timely availability have been improved by blended techniques. Their resulting products are widely used in various research and applications. However biases and uncertainties are common among precipitation products and an obstacle exists in quickly gaining knowledge of product quality, biases and behavior at a local or regional scale, namely user defined areas or points of interest. Current online inter-comparison and validation services have not addressed this issue adequately. To expedite the use of satellite precipitation products, the obstacle needs to be removed. We have developed a prototype to address this issue. Despite its limited functionality and datasets, users can use this tool to generate customized plots within the United States for 2005. In addition, users can download customized data for further analysis, e.g. comparing their gauge data. To meet increasing demands, we have increased the temporal coverage and expanded the spatial coverage from the United States to the globe. More products have been added as well. Examples of using the system will be presented. The future plans include integrating IPWG (International Precipitation Working Group) Validation Algorithms/statistics, allowing users to generate customized plots and data. In addition, we will expand the current daily products to monthly and their climatology products. Whenever the TRMM science team changes their product version number, users would like to know the differences by inter-comparing both versions of TRMM products in their areas of interest. Making this service available to users will help them to better understand associated changes. We plan to implement this inter-comparison in TRMM standard monthly products with the IPWG algorithms. The plans outlined above will complement and accelerate the existing and ongoing validation activities in the community as well as enhance data services for TRMM and the future Global Precipitation Mission (GPM).

Liu, Z.; Yu, G.

2011-12-01

19

Daily, Monthly and Annual Variations in Solar Ultraviolet Irradiance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solar ultraviolet-B (290-320 nm: UV-B), ultraviolet A (320-400 nm: UV-A) and Total (300-3000 nm) irradiances on the ground had been measured at Shonan Campus of Tokai University, Hiratsuka (35 deg N) for two years from October 1990 to September 1992, usin...

S. Takeshita N. Sudo T. Sakata M. Sasaki

1993-01-01

20

Local warming: daily temperature change influences belief in global warming.  

PubMed

Although people are quite aware of global warming, their beliefs about it may be malleable; specifically, their beliefs may be constructed in response to questions about global warming. Beliefs may reflect irrelevant but salient information, such as the current day's temperature. This replacement of a more complex, less easily accessed judgment with a simple, more accessible one is known as attribute substitution. In three studies, we asked residents of the United States and Australia to report their opinions about global warming and whether the temperature on the day of the study was warmer or cooler than usual. Respondents who thought that day was warmer than usual believed more in and had greater concern about global warming than did respondents who thought that day was colder than usual. They also donated more money to a global-warming charity if they thought that day seemed warmer than usual. We used instrumental variable regression to rule out some alternative explanations. PMID:21372325

Li, Ye; Johnson, Eric J; Zaval, Lisa

2011-03-03

21

Retrieving daily global solar radiation from routine climate variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation is an important variable for studies related to solar energy applications, meteorology, climatology, hydrology, and agricultural meteorology. However, solar radiation is not routinely measured at meteorological stations; therefore, it is often required to estimate it using other techniques such as retrieving from satellite data or estimating using other geophysical variables. Over the years, many models have been developed to estimate solar radiation from other geophysical variables such as temperature, rainfall, and sunshine duration. The aim of this study was to evaluate six of these models using data measured at four independent worldwide networks. The dataset included 13 stations from Australia, 25 stations from Germany, 12 stations from Saudi Arabia, and 48 stations from the USA. The models require either sunshine duration hours (Ångstrom) or daily range of air temperature (Bristow and Campbell, Donatelli and Bellocchi, Donatelli and Campbell, Hargreaves, and Hargreaves and Samani) as input. According to the statistical parameters, Ångstrom and Bristow and Campbell indicated a better performance than the other models. The bias and root mean square error for the Ångstrom model were less than 0.25 MJ m2 day-1 and 2.25 MJ m2 day-1, respectively, and the correlation coefficient was always greater than 95 %. Statistical analysis using Student's t test indicated that the residuals for Ångstrom, Bristow and Campbell, Hargreaves, and Hargreaves and Samani are not statistically significant at the 5 % level. In other words, the estimated values by these models are statistically consistent with the measured data. Overall, given the simplicity and performance, the Ångstrom model is the best choice for estimating solar radiation when sunshine duration measurements are available; otherwise, Bristow and Campbell can be used to estimate solar radiation using daily range of air temperature.

Moradi, Isaac; Mueller, Richard; Perez, Richard

2013-08-01

22

Evaluation of SUNY satellite-to-irradiance model performance using ECMWF GEMS daily aerosol optical depth reanalysis data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current version of the State University of New York (SUNY) radiative transfer model (RTM) uses climatological monthly averages derived from a National Renewable Energy Labs (NREL) gridded dataset to parameterize aerosol optical depth (AOD), water vapor and ozone. This is mostly due to the limited availability of high spatially and temporally resolved observations. Several global chemical transport models are analyzed and compared in depth to determine which daily AOD dataset should be implemented into the SUNY Model. After thorough comparison, the chemical transport model chosen was the Global and regional Earth-system Monitoring using satellite and in-situ data (GEMS) model developed by the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Using daily AOD values instead of monthly climatological values, the SUNY Model better captures events of extreme aerosol loadings, which greatly improves the accuracy in calculations of direct normal irradiance (DNI) and to a lesser extent, global horizontal irradiance (GHI). In clear-sky conditions with the sun directly overhead, a change in AOD from 0.1 to 0.5 is found to cause a 55% (20%) decrease in DNI (GHI) for Desert Rock, Nevada in January. A calibration scheme is applied to the daily GEMS AOD reanalysis data. For each site, the monthly means of the GEMS daily AOD are corrected by a factor to match the currently used monthly climatological AOD in order to avoid large errors caused by changing the magnitude of the monthly average AOD. The performance of the SUNY model improved significantly for many of the stations analyzed in this work after applying the daily-calibrated GEMS AOD. The Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) was the most notable statistical improvement, which measures the model’s precision compared to the observed measurements from a ground station, and many other statistical improvements are also evident. All 7 SURFRAD locations showed improvements in DNI RMSE after using the calibrated GEMS daily AOD compared to the monthly climatological AOD values currently used. On average, the mean bias error decreased significantly for all SURFRAD stations as well.

Itterly, Kyle F.

23

Diagnosing a daily index of tornado variability with global reanalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent record setting tornado outbreaks in April 2011 has spurred a lot of discussion and debate of the causes of this record setting month. Global warming and the decaying La Niña were both common causes suggested as the reason behind such a destructive tornado season. Due to the inhomogeneity of the observed tornado record, there are few published studies that relate climate variability to occurrences of tornados. We employ a method developed by Harold Brooks and co-authors in 2003 that discriminates tornadic and severe weather soundings from everyday convection to circumvent the problems with the observed tornado record. We will show how this index, derived from the CFS-R, realistically reproduces the observed variability in tornadoes, and the relative impacts of different modes of climate variability on tornadoes over the United States. This analysis will provide a baseline that will be expanded to climate model simulations of the 20th Century and future projections.

Pegion, P. J.; Hoerling, M. P.

2011-12-01

24

Some Characteristics of Global Solar Irradiation and Sunshine at Trieste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Monthly data of global solar irradiation (GSI) and sunshine, GSI frequency tables per month and per year and monthly average hourly GSI are presented, in a form suitable for solar energy scientists, engineers and architects. Data refer to the meteorologic...

F. Stravisi P. C. Jain

1984-01-01

25

Fine-resolution satellite-based daily sea surface temperatures over the global ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy and relative merits of two sets of daily global sea surface temperature (SST) analyses are examined and compared. The 1\\/8° Modular Ocean Data Analysis System (MODAS) of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is based only on infrared satellite retrievals. The 1\\/2° Real-Time, Global (RTG) SST analysis of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) supplements infrared satellite observations

A. B. Kara; C. N. Barron

2007-01-01

26

Global cross-station assessment of neuro-fuzzy models for estimating daily reference evapotranspiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used neuro-fuzzy (NF) technique to model daily reference evapotranspiration. A global cross station assessment of NF model was performed. NF model was generalized (GNF) in humid and non-humid regions. Results confirmed the superiority of GNF models to the corresponding equations.

Shiri, Jalal; Nazemi, Amir Hossein; Sadraddini, Ali Ashraf; Landeras, Gorka; Kisi, Ozgur; Fard, Ahmad Fakheri; Marti, Pau

2013-02-01

27

Global observed changes in daily climate extremes of temperature and precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suite of climate change indices derived from daily temperature and precipitation data, with a primary focus on extreme events, were computed and analyzed. By setting an exact formula for each index and using specially designed software, analyses done in different countries have been combined seamlessly. This has enabled the presentation of the most up-to-date and comprehensive global picture of

L. V. Alexander; X. Zhang; T. C. Peterson; J. Caesar; B. Gleason; A. M. G. Klein Tank; M. Haylock; D. Collins; B. Trewin; F. Rahimzadeh; A. Tagipour; K. Rupa Kumar; J. Revadekar; G. Griffiths; L. Vincent; D. B. Stephenson; J. Burn; E. Aguilar; M. Brunet; M. Taylor; M. New; P. Zhai; M. Rusticucci; J. L. Vazquez-Aguirre

2006-01-01

28

Daily estimates of the Earth's pole position with the global positioning system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily estimates of the Earth's pole position have been obtained with measurements from a worldwide network of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, obtained during the three week GIG'91 experiment in January- February, 1991. For this short-term study, the GPS based polar motion series agrees with the other space based geodetic techniques (Very Long Baseline Interferometry and Satellite Laser Ranging) to

Ulf J. Lindqwister; Adam P. Freedman; Geoffrey Blewitt

1992-01-01

29

Automated daily process for global ionospheric total electron content maps and satellite ocean altimeter ionospheric calibration based on Global Positioning System data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy of single-frequency ocean altimeters benefits from calibration of the total electron content (TEC) of the ionosphere below the satellite. Data from a global network of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers provides timely, continuous, and globally well-distributed measurements of ionospheric electron content. For several months we have been running a daily automatic Global Ionospheric Map process which inputs global

B. A. Iijima; I. L. Harris; C. M. Ho; U. J. Lindqwister; A. J. Mannucci; X. Pi; M. J. Reyes; L. C. Sparks; B. D. Wilson

1999-01-01

30

Adaptive radiotherapy based on the daily regression of a tumor in carbon-ion beam irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new application of adaptive radiotherapy using a scanning beam, taking into account the daily regression of a tumor. No patient-specific hardware (such as collimators and compensating filters) is needed for the scanning technique; thus, it allows re-planning immediately before each fractional irradiation using the sophisticated conformations of dose distributions. We retrospectively modeled the tumor volume regression curves as a function of the dose from the CT images which were taken three times during the treatment course. The daily shape of the tumor was mathematically interpolated assuming constant continuity of the tumor deformation. We simulated the adaptive radiotherapy by optimizing the dose distribution on the estimated daily tumor volume for every fraction. The dose-volume histogram (DVH) for the organ at risk in the adaptive radiotherapy was compared with that of the current clinical protocol. We performed analysis using the CT images of cervical cancer patients who received carbon-ion radiotherapy in broad-beam irradiation. The DVH for the rectum and the sigmoid colon was improved by adaptive radiotherapy considering the inter-fractional tumor regression. The result shows that this approach has possible advantages.

Nagano, Ai; Minohara, Shinichi; Kato, Shingo; Kiyohara, Hiroki; Ando, Ken

2012-12-01

31

Diffuse and global solar spectral irradiance under cloudless skies  

SciTech Connect

A simple empirical model to calculate solar spectral diffuse and global irradiance under cloudless skies was investigated. This formulation takes into account absorption of radiation by molecules such as O/sub 3/, H/sub 2/O and the uniformly-mixed absorbing gases CO/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/. Attenuation by Rayleigh-scattering and aerosol extinction are included. Aerosol attenuation is calculated through Angstroem's turbidity parameters ..cap alpha.. and ..beta... The diffuse radiation is assumed to be composed of three parts: (1) Rayleigh-scattered diffuse irradiance; (2) aerosol-scattered diffuse irradiance; and (3) irradiance arising out of multiple reflections between the atmosphere and the ground. The global irradiance is the sum of these three components of diffuse irradiance plus the direct irradiance. The input parameters include an extraterrestrial spectrum, zenith angle theta, turbidity coefficient ..beta.., wavelength exponent ..cap alpha.., ground albedo rho/sub g/, water vapor content and ozone content. The model is shown to yield very good results up to air mass two when compared to accurate theoretical calculations. No comparisons with measured spectra are presented because of a lack of accurate specifications of the input parameters. Results are presented to show the effect of variation of certain of the input parameters.

Brine, D.T.; Iqbal, M.

1982-01-01

32

Employed Women’s Well-Being: The Global and Daily Impact of Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although women derive satisfaction and self-efficacy from work, the potential for stress and the need for balance of multiple\\u000a roles are of great concern. Utilizing a sample of women from the National Longitudinal Survey cohort Young Women in 1997,\\u000a this study develops a model which delineates global well-being, measured as life satisfaction and daily well-being, measured\\u000a as depression, and tests

Wendy Campione; James Morgan

2008-01-01

33

Prediction of monthly mean daily global solar radiation using Artificial Neural Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a multilayer feed forward (MLFF) neural network based on back propagation algorithm was developed, trained, and tested to predict monthly mean daily global radiation in Tamil Nadu, India. Various geographical, solar and meteorological parameters of three different locations with diverse climatic conditions were used as input parameters. Out of 565 available data, 530 were used for training and the rest were used for testing the artificial neural network (ANN). A 3-layer and a 4-layer MLFF networks were developed and the performance of the developed models was evaluated based on mean bias error, mean absolute percentage error, root mean squared error and Student's t-test. The 3-layer MLFF network developed in this study did not give uniform results for the three chosen locations. Hence, a 4-layer MLFF network was developed and the average value of the mean absolute percentage error was found to be 5.47%. Values of global radiation obtained using the model were in excellent agreement with measured values. Results of this study show that the designed ANN model can be used to estimate monthly mean daily global radiation of any place in Tamil Nadu where measured global radiation data are not available.

Sivamadhavi, V.; Selvaraj, R. Samuel

2012-12-01

34

Fine-resolution satellite-based daily sea surface temperatures over the global ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accuracy and relative merits of two sets of daily global sea surface temperature (SST) analyses are examined and compared. The 1/8° Modular Ocean Data Analysis System (MODAS) of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is based only on infrared satellite retrievals. The 1/2° Real-Time, Global (RTG) SST analysis of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) supplements infrared satellite observations with ship and buoy data. The accuracy of both products is reported, providing potential users of either data set a common basis to assess the strengths and weaknesses of either product. Differences between the two show the impact of horizontal resolution, inclusion of source data streams, and different assumptions regarding error covariances. The global average of the root-mean-square (RMS) SST difference between MODAS and RTG is found to be 0.51°C, with almost no mean bias. A global set of yearlong daily SST time series from moored buoys during 2002-2005 provides extensive validation data for this study. Comparisons at the locations of these 420 yearlong time series give a median RMS SST difference of 0.40°C between MODAS and RTG. RMS error relative to the buoy observations is comparable, 0.38°C for MODAS and 0.36°C for RTG. The seasonal cycle of SST is well produced by both products with respect to the buoys with a median correlation coefficient of 0.94 for both products. Overall, higher resolution is an advantage for MODAS in improving pattern of daily SSTs, while including in situ SSTs is an advantage for RTG.

Kara, A. B.; Barron, C. N.

2007-05-01

35

A global survey on the distribution of annual maxima of daily rainfall: Gumbel or Fréchet?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretically, if the distribution of daily rainfall is known, or, assumed with confidence, then one could argue, based on extreme value theory, that the distribution of the daily annual maxima would resemble one of the three limiting types: (a) type I, known as Gumbel, type II, known as Fréchet and, type III, known as reversed Weibull. Yet, the parent distribution usually is not known and many times only records of annual maxima are available. So, the question that naturally arises is which one of the three types better describes the annual maxima of daily rainfall. The question is of great importance as the naive adoption of a particular type may lead to serious underestimation or overestimation of the rainfall amount assigned to specific return period. To answer this equation, we analyse 15137 records of annual maxima of daily rainfall, from all over the world, with lengths varying for 40 to 163 years. We fit the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution, as it comprises the three limiting types as particular cases for specific values of its shape parameter, and we analyse the results focusing on the estimated shape parameter values. Finally, we investigate the relationship of the GEV shape parameter with record length and we construct a global map form its values to reveal possible geographical patterns.

Papalexiou, S. M.; Koutsoyiannis, D.

2012-04-01

36

Sensitivity of erythemally effective UV irradiance and daily exposure to temporal variability in total ozone.  

PubMed

The provision of information to the public about current levels of the erythemally effective UV radiation is an important issue in health care. The quality of promoted values is therefore of special importance. The atmospheric parameter which affects the erythemally effective UV radiation under clear sky most is the total ozone content of the atmosphere. In this paper we examined the sensitivity of the erythemally effective irradiance and daily radiant exposure to the temporal variability of total ozone on time scales from 1 to 15 days. The results show that the sensitivity is highest for the first 24 h. Larger time scales do not exhibit a similar influence. Total ozone measurements of the previous day may already cause uncertainties higher than 0.5 UV index (UVI) independent of the geolocation. For comparison, a temporal persistence of 15 days may cause uncertainties of 1.2 UVI at 50 degrees N, 1 UVI at 30 degrees S and less than 1 UVI at the equator. The results of this study allow finding the necessary temporal resolution of total ozone values when a certain accuracy for the UVI or for the purpose of sun protection is required. The results are compared with those of two preceding studies where we quantified the influence of measurement uncertainties and spatial total ozone variability to the erythemally effective irradiance at noon and to the daily dose. We conclude that temporal variability of total ozone is the most critical issue, but also measurement uncertainties do have a noticeable influence on the erythemally effective radiation. PMID:18764894

Schmalwieser, Alois W; Erbertseder, Thilo; Schauberger, Günther; Weihs, Philipp

2008-08-27

37

Modeling daylight availability and irradiance components from direct and global irradiance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the latest versions of several models developed by the authors to predict short time-step solar energy and daylight availability quantities needed by energy system modelers or building designers. The modeled quantities are global, direct and diffuse daylight illuminance, diffuse irradiance and illuminance impinging on tilted surfaces of arbitrary orientation, sky zenith luminance and sky luminance angular distribution.

R. Perez; P. Ineichen; R. Seals; J. Michalsky; R. Stewart

1990-01-01

38

The Full Seasonal/Global Variation of Mars Ozone from MARCI 2006-2013 Daily Global Mapping Retrievals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mars Color Imager (MARCI) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) employs ultraviolet imaging bands within (260nm) and longward (320 nm) of Hartley band ozone absorption, in support of daily global mapping retrievals for Mars atmospheric ozone columns. We present the first release of this unique global atmospheric mapping data set, consisting of 1010 ozone column retrievals spanning MY29-31 on a daily global grid of 8x8 km spatial resolution. Coincident 320nm cloud optical depth retrievals are obtained in conjunction with the MARCI ozone columns (Wolff et al, 2011). The MARCI ozone column detection limit 1 ?m-atm) is appropriate to mapping elevated ozone abundances at low latitudes around Mars aphelion, and over mid-to-high latitudes during fall/winter/spring seasons. MARCI ozone maps for these regions reveal the detailed spatial and temporal behaviors of water vapor saturation conditions that force large variations in water vapor photolysis products (HOx) responsible for the catalytic destruction of ozone in the Mars atmosphere. In the context of full temporal/spatial resolution, we present aphelion increases in low latitude ozone and potential cloud and topographic correlations, high latitude ozone maxima associated with planetary waves and weather fronts during northern early spring, and surprising (yet to be explained) winter season ozone variations within the Hellas basin. Comparisons are provided for MARCI ozone measurements to ozone simulations from the Laboratory of Meteorology and Dynamics General Circulation Model (LMDGCM; Lefevre et al., 2006) and ozone measurements by the SPICAM ultraviolet spectrometer on Mars Express (Perrier et al, 2006).

Clancy, R. T.; Wolff, M. J.; Lefevre, F.; Malin, M. C.

2013-10-01

39

Analysis of a long-term dataset of global and diffuse horizontal irradiance at northeastern Spain for energy applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An accurate knowledge of the global, diffuse and direct beam irradiance at specific geographical locations in high temporal and spatial resolutions is a must requirement for the development of solar energy applications. Most available datasets comprise global irradiance, but it is not the case for diffuse or direct beam components. These two latter are of great importance when converting the data into declined impinging irradiance or specific components like for example daylight or available energy, utilized to assess the feasibility of solar energy systems. The surface irradiance presents a high temporal variability, and analysis of high frequency sampling datasets provides very valuable information for energy applications. In this contribution, we present an analysis of a long-term dataset of ground measurements of global and diffuse irradiance over a period of 22 years (1986-2007) at northeastern Spain. Ten Irradiance stations of the Catalan Energy Institute (ICAEN) solar network are analyzed to assess the temporal and spatial fluctuations and trends of the ground solar irradiance. The stations provide 5-minutes global and diffuse irradiance over a period of 22 years. In a first step, a quality control testing is applied over our datasets based on QCRad methodology (Long and Shi, 2006; Long and Dutton, 2002). The total amount of valid data from sunrise to sunset is over 6 Million data for global irradiance (87%) and over 4.5 Million data for diffuse irradiance (62%). Then, a comparison and validation of global-to-beam irradiance conversion models is performed to estimate beam irradiance and daily sunshine duration through the clearness index (Kt) and diffuse fraction (Kd). The results allow us to provide a representative solar radiation year which sums up all the climatic information characterizing an annual radiation cycle. REFERENCES Long CN. and Shi Y., 2006. "The QCRad Value Added Product: Surface Radiation Measurement Quality Control Testing, Including Climatology Configurable Limits". Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Technical Report, DOE/SC-ARM/TR-074, available via http://www.arm.gov/publications/vaps.stm Long CN. and Dutton EG., 2002. "BSRN Global Network recommended QC tests, V2.0." BSRN Technical Report, available via http://ezksun3.ethz.ch/bsrn/admin/dokus/qualitycheck.pdf

Rincón, A.; Jorba, O.; Baldasano, J. M.

2009-04-01

40

A model for diffuse and global irradiation on horizontal surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The intensity of the direct radiation and the diffuse radiation at any time on a horizontal surface are each expressed as fractions of the intensity of the extraterrestrial radiation. Using these and assuming a random distribution of the bright sunshine hours and not too wide variations in the values of the transmission coefficients, a number of relations for estimating the global and the diffuse irradiation are derived. Two of the relations derived, including the Angstroem correlation for estimating the global irradiation, are already known empirically while several new correlations have been derived. The relations derived in this paper are: (i) H{sub d}/H{sub o} = a{sub 1} + b{sub 1} (S/S{sub o}); (ii) H/H{sub o} = A{sub 2} + b{sub 2} (S/S{sub o}); (iii) H{sub D}/H{sub o} = a{sub 3} + b{sub 3} (H/H{sub o}); (iv) H{sub D}/H = a{sub 4} + b{sub 4} (h{sub o}/) (v) H/(H{minus}H{sub D}) = a{sub 5} + b{sub 5} (S{sub o}/S); (vi) H{sub D}/(H{minus}H{sub D}) = A{sub 6} + b{sub 6} (S{sub o}/S); (vii) H/H{sub D} = a{sub 7} + b{sub 7} (S/S{sub o}); (viii) H/H{sub D} = A{sub 1} + A{sub 2} (S/S{sub o}) + A{sub 3} (S/S{sub o}){sup 2}. The study identifies three independent basic parameters and the constants appearing in the various equations as simple functions of these three basic parameters. This provides unification and inter-relationships between the various constants. Experimental data for the diffuse irradiation, the global irradiation and the bright sunshine duration for Macerata (Italy), Salisbury and Bulawayo (Zimbabwe) is found to show good correlation for the linear eqns (i) to (vii), and the nature and the interrelationships of the constants is found to be as predicted by theory.

Jain, P.C. (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy))

1990-01-01

41

SYNOPTIC GLOBAL REMOTE SENSING OF LAND SURFACE VEGETATION: OVERVIEW OF DAILY DATA QUALITY, CHALLENGES, AND OPPORTUNITIES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous acquisition of global satellite imagery over the years has contributed to the creation of a long data record from AVHRR, MODIS, TM, SPOT VGT, and other sensors. These records account now for 30+ years, and as the archive grows, it becomes an invaluable source of data for many environmental related studies dealing with trends and changes from local to global scale. Synoptic global remote sensing provides a multitude of land surface state variables and serves as a major foundation for global change research. However, these records are inhibited with problems that need to be accounted for in order to understand the limits and improve the science results derived from these records. The presence of clouds, aerosols, spatial gaps, variable viewing geometry, inconsistent atmosphere corrections, multiple reprocessing, and different sensors characteristics, makes it difficult to obtain frequently high quality data everywhere and every time. Moreover, these issues are location and season dependent making it even more difficult to construct the consistent time series required to study change over time. To evaluate these records, we analyzed 30+ years (1981 to 1999 and 2000 to 2009) of daily global land surface measurements (CMG resolution) from AVHRR (N07, N09, N11 and N14) and MODIS (AQUA and TERRA, Collection 5, C5). We stratified the data based on land cover, latitudinal zone, and season and we examined the daily data quality, including cloud persistence, aerosol loads, data gaps, and an index of reliability that measures how likely an observation is acceptable for research. The aim was to generate aggregate maps of cloud distribution, aerosol levels distribution, and data reliability distribution in both time and space. This information was then converted into an uncertainty measure at the pixel level that indicates how suspect or significant a result could potentially be, depending on its location and season and consequently what geographic locations and times of year require additional post-processing to reduce the uncertainty of the results. Establishing the overall data quality should be the first step for a meaningful, accurate and successful change analysis. In general we observe that due to the sun angle and persistent snow and cloud cover that obscures the land surface, high latitude regions tend to have the poorest data quality throughout the year. Similarly, the tropics with their almost perpetual cloud cover and extensive thick aerosols during the burn season show a high percentage of poor data during most of the year. These two major biomes, rainforest and boreal forest, that are subject to intense anthropogenic and climate change pressure are the most challenging to study. New data processing and analysis techniques are then needed to lessen the impact of these problems, fill the spatial and temporal gaps in order to reduce the uncertainty of these results.

Barreto-Munoz, A.; Didan, K.

2009-12-01

42

Estimates and Measurements of Photosynthetically Active Radiation and Global Solar Irradiance in Rondonia  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and global solar irradiance (R{sub s}) were made at a LBA (The Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia) experimental site, at Fazenda Nossa Senhora (10 deg. 45' S; 62 deg. 21' W), in Rondonia, in the years of 2004 and 2005, with the objective of estimating the seasonal variation of the ratio between the photosynthetically active radiation and the global solar irradiance. The relationship between PAR and R{sub s} were made by using linear regressions equations with data from year 2004 and tested with data from the year 2005. The seasonal variation of the ratio PAR/R{sub s} ranged from 0.43 (September) to 0.48 (January). The linear regression equations between PAR and R{sub s} obtained were: a) On an hourly basis: PAR 0.747+0.478*R{sub s},(R{sup 2} = 0.99; wet season) and PAR = -4.578+0.452*R{sub s}(R{sup 2} 0.99; dry season); b) On a daily basis: PAR = 4.956+0.466*R{sub s}(R{sup 2} = 0.99; wet season) and PAR = -6.762+0.457*R{sub s}(R{sup 2} = 0.96; dry season)

Aguiar, Leonardo J. G.; Costa, Jose M. N. da; Fischer, Graciela R. [Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Vicosa, CEP 36570000, Vicosa-MG (Brazil); Aguiar, Renata G. [Department of Ambiental Engineering, Federal University of Rondonia, CEP 78960000, Ji-Parana-RO (Brazil)

2009-03-11

43

Hourly and daily global photometric illuminance and luminous efficacy at a tropical station, Ile-Ife, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diurnal and seasonal patterns of hourly and daily global photometric illuminance and luminous efficacy at Ile-Ife (7.5°N, 4.57°E), Nigeria, were investigated with respect to the prevailing atmospheric conditions over the station. The daylight availability at the station is characterised in terms of the global luminous efficacies. During the cloudy months of July–September and Harmattan (dust haze) months of December–January, when

E. C. Okogbue; J. A. Adedokun; B. Holmgren

2008-01-01

44

A new perspective on recent global warming: Asymmetric trends of daily maximum and minimum temperature  

SciTech Connect

In this work, it was concluded that monthly mean maximum and minimum temperatures for over 50% (10%) of the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere landmass, accounting for 37% of the global landmass, indicate that the rise of the minimum temperature has occurred at a rate three times that of the maximum temperature during the period 1951-90 (0.84[degrees]C versus 0.28[degrees]C). The decrease of the diurnal temperature range is approximately equal to the increase of mean temperature. The asymmetry is detectable in all seasons and in most of the regions studied. The decrease in the daily temperature range is partially related to increases in cloud cover. Furthermore, a large number of atmospheric and surface boundary conditions are shown to differentially affect the maximum and minimum temperature. Linkages of the observed changes in the diurnal temperature range to large-scale climate forcings, such as anthropogenic increases in sulfate aerosols, greenhouse gases, or biomass burning (smoke), remain tentative. Nonetheless, the observed decrease of the diurnal temperature range is clearly important, both scientifically and practically. 36 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

Karl, T.R.; Knight, R.W.; Gallo, K.P.; Peterson, T.C. (National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC (United States)); Jones, P.D. (Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich, Norfolk (United Kingdom)); Kukla, G. (Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States)); Plummer, N. (Bureau of Meterology, Melbourne (Australia)); Razuvayev, V. (Research Institute of Hydrometerological Information, Obninsk, Kalugu (Russian Federation)); Lindseay, J. (Univ. of Wirswatersrand (South Africa)); Charlson, R.J. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States))

1993-06-01

45

Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer.

Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.

2009-03-01

46

Climatic evaluation of models that predict hourly direct irradiance from hourly global irradiance: Prospects for performance improvements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comprehensive evaluation of recent models designed to predict direct from global irradiance on a short time step basis. Three models are selected for the present evaluation. Model validation is performed against a large array of experimental data: A total of over 60 000 global and direct data points from 14 sites in Europe and the United

R. Perez; R. Seals; A. Zelenka; P. Ineichen

1990-01-01

47

A Global Record of Daily Landscape Freeze-Thaw Status from Satellite Microwave Remote Sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The freeze-thaw (FT) parameter from satellite microwave remote sensing quantifies the predominant landscape frozen or thawed state and is closely linked to surface energy budget and hydrologic activity, seasonal vegetation growth dynamics and terrestrial carbon budgets. A global Earth System Data Record (ESDR) of daily landscape FT status (FT-ESDR) was developed using a temporal change classification of 37 GHz brightness temperature (Tb) series from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), and encompassing land areas where seasonal frozen temperatures influence ecosystem processes. A consistent, long-term (>30 yr) FT record was created by ensuring cross-sensor consistency through pixel-wise adjustment of the SMMR Tb record based on empirical analyses of overlapping SMMR and SSM/I measurements. The product is designed to determine the FT status of the composite landscape vegetation-snow-soil medium with sufficient accuracy to characterize frozen temperature constraints to surface water mobility, vegetation productivity and land-atmosphere CO2 fluxes. A multi-tier product validation is applied using in situ temperature and tower carbon flux measurements, and other satellite FT retrievals. The FT-ESDR record shows mean annual spatial classification accuracies of 91 (+/-8.6) and 84 (+/-9.3) percent for PM and AM overpass retrievals relative to surface air temperature measurements from global weather stations. Other comparisons against spatially dense temperature observations from an Alaska ecological transect reveal satellite sensor frequency dependence and variable FT sensitivity to surface air, vegetation, soil and snow properties. Other satellite sensor retrievals, including AMSR-E and SMOS show similar FT classification accuracies, but variable sensitivity to different landscape elements. Sensor FT classification differences reflect differences in microwave frequency, footprint resolution and satellite overpass timing. Herein we discuss FT-ESDR uncertainty issues, including satellite retrieval gaps, and coarse spatial and temporal sampling relative to landscape FT heterogeneity. We discuss plans for analyzing error sources related to FT-ESDR assembly, including uncertainties associated with remote sensing data, algorithms and cross-product harmonization. We also discuss plans for enhanced FT retrievals and uncertainty analyses, including data assimilation methods for merging synergistic data from multiple sensors and frequencies for improved FT classification accuracy and uncertainty assessment. The FT-ESDR documentation will include a detailed algorithm error budget and descriptions of associated product uncertainties, including detailed data quality flags for every grid cell. These activities support the proposed NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, which will provide operational FT products with L-band sensitivity and improved resolution of FT patterns and temporal dynamics. Portions of this work were conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Kimball, J. S.; Kim, Y.; Colliander, A.; McDonald, K. C.

2011-12-01

48

Relative Accuracy of 1Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global

D. R. Myers; S. M. Wilcox

2009-01-01

49

Comparison between measurements and models for daily solar irradiation on tilted surfaces in Athens, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comparison of several models against measurements of daily total solar radiation on surfaces of various tilts and azimuths in Athens. Such measurements are carried out at the Institute of Meteorology and Physics of the Atmospheric Environment, National Observatory of Athens and are the first of this kind in Greece. The models encounter a constant surface albedo

B. M. Synodinou

1997-01-01

50

Daylight availability and models for global and diffuse horizontal illuminance and irradiance for Bangkok  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results of a study on measurement of illuminance of daylight and solar irradiance from a station in the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) campus, which is situated in a tropical region. Availability of daylight illuminance and solar irradiance on the horizontal and on vertical planes in cardinal directions is first presented. Mathematical models of global and horizontal daylight

Surapong Chirarattananon; Pipat Chaiwiwatworakul; Singthong Pattanasethanon

2002-01-01

51

A general model for estimation of daily global solar radiation using air temperatures and site geographic parameters in Southwest China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimation of daily global solar radiation (Rs) from routinely measured temperature data has been widely developed and used in many different areas of the world. However, many of them are site specific. It is assumed that a general model for estimating daily Rs using temperature variables and geographical parameters could be achieved within a climatic region. This paper made an attempt to develop a general model to estimate daily Rs using routinely measured temperature data (maximum (Tmax, °C) and minimum (Tmin, °C) temperatures) and site geographical parameters (latitude (La, °N), longitude (Ld, °E) and altitude (Alt, m)) for Guizhou and Sichuan basin of southwest China, which was classified into the hot summer and cold winter climate zone. Comparison analysis was carried out through statistics indicators such as root mean squared error of percentage (RMSE%), modeling efficiency (ME), coefficient of residual mass (CRM) and mean bias error (MBE). Site-dependent daily Rs estimating models were calibrated and validated using long-term observed weather data. A general formula was then obtained from site geographical parameters and the better fit site-dependent models with mean RMSE% of 38.68%, mean MBE of 0.381 MJ m-2 d-1, mean CRM of 0.04 and mean ME value of 0.713.

Li, Mao-Fen; Fan, Li; Liu, Hong-Bin; Guo, Peng-Tao; Wu, Wei

2013-01-01

52

ARIMA representation for daily solar irradiance and surface air temperature time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models are used to compare long-range temporal variability of the total solar irradiance (TSI) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and surface air temperature series. The comparison shows that one and the same type of the model is applicable to represent the TSI and air temperature series. In terms of the model type surface air temperature imitates closely that for the TSI. This may mean that currently no other forcing to the climate system is capable to change the random walk type variability established by the varying activity of the rotating Sun. The result should inspire more detailed examination of the dependence of various climate series on short-range fluctuations of TSI.

Kärner, Olavi

2009-06-01

53

Daily and 3-hourly variability in global fire emissions and consequences for atmospheric model predictions of carbon monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attribution of the causes of atmospheric trace gas and aerosol variability often requires the use of high resolution time series of anthropogenic and natural emissions inventories. Here we developed an approach for representing synoptic- and diurnal-scale temporal variability in fire emissions for the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3). We disaggregated monthly GFED3 emissions during 2003-2009 to a daily time step using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived measurements of active fires from Terra and Aqua satellites. In parallel, mean diurnal cycles were constructed from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) active fire observations. Daily variability in fires varied considerably across different biomes, with short but intense periods of daily emissions in boreal ecosystems and lower intensity (but more continuous) periods of burning in savannas. These patterns were consistent with earlier field and modeling work characterizing fire behavior dynamics in different ecosystems. On diurnal timescales, our analysis of the GOES WF_ABBA active fires indicated that fires in savannas, grasslands, and croplands occurred earlier in the day as compared to fires in nearby forests. Comparison with Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) column CO observations provided evidence that including daily variability in emissions moderately improved atmospheric model simulations, particularly during the fire season and near regions with high levels of biomass burning. The high temporal resolution estimates of fire emissions developed here may ultimately reduce uncertainties related to fire contributions to atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Important future directions include reconciling top-down and bottom up estimates of fire radiative power and integrating burned area and active fire time series from multiple satellite sensors to improve daily emissions estimates.

Mu, M.; Randerson, J. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Giglio, L.; Kasibhatla, P.; Morton, D.; Collatz, G. J.; Defries, R. S.; Hyer, E. J.; Prins, E. M.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Wunch, D.; Toon, G. C.; Sherlock, V.; Wennberg, P. O.

2011-12-01

54

Analysis of daily, monthly, and annual burned area using the fourth-generation global fire emissions database (GFED4)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract We describe the fourth generation of the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Fire Emissions Database (GFED4) burned area data set, which provides <span class="hlt">global</span> monthly burned area at 0.25° spatial resolution from mid-1995 through the present and <span class="hlt">daily</span> burned area for the time series extending back to August 2000. We produced the full data set by combining 500 m MODIS burned area maps with active fire data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) family of sensors. We found that the <span class="hlt">global</span> annual area burned for the years 1997 through 2011 varied from 301 to 377Mha, with an average of 348Mha. We assessed the interannual variability and trends in burned area on the basis of a region-specific definition of fire years. With respect to trends, we found a gradual decrease of 1.7Mhayr - 1 ( - 1.4%yr - 1) in Northern Hemisphere Africa since 2000, a gradual increase of 2.3Mhayr - 1 (+1.8%yr - 1) in Southern Hemisphere Africa also since 2000, a slight increase of 0.2Mhayr - 1 (+2.5%yr - 1) in Southeast Asia since 1997, and a rapid decrease of approximately 5.5Mhayr - 1 ( - 10.7%yr - 1) from 2001 through 2011 in Australia, followed by a major upsurge in 2011 that exceeded the annual area burned in at least the previous 14 years. The net trend in <span class="hlt">global</span> burned area from 2000 to 2012 was a modest decrease of 4.3Mhayr - 1 ( - 1.2%yr - 1). We also performed a spectral analysis of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> burned area time series and found no vestiges of the 16 day MODIS repeat cycle.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Giglio, Louis; Randerson, James T.; Werf, Guido R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">55</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.H44C..07V"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Water Temperature and River Discharge Modeling for Climate Change Impact Assessment in Large River Basins <span class="hlt">Globally</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent and future changes in climate will affect hydrologic and thermal regimes, having a direct impact on water quality and in turn the growth rate and distribution of freshwater organisms. In addition, changes in river temperature and streamflow are of economic importance for water requirements for industry, electricity and drinking water production. Although integrated hydrological and deterministic water temperature modeling approaches have been successfully applied for small-scale catchments, much less work has been done at large scales. A computationally efficient modeling approach is needed to simulate water temperature and river discharge at large temporal and spatial scales, for purposes such as addressing climate change issues. In addition, realistic simulations of <span class="hlt">daily</span> water temperature and discharge of rivers with different basin characteristics and anthropogenic impacts are needed to address large-scale water management issues. Here we use the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model and the computationally efficient 1D stream temperature model RBM to simulate river discharge and water temperature on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis for selected large-scale river basins <span class="hlt">globally</span>. The models were forced with a new <span class="hlt">global</span> gridded 0.5° x 0.5° meteorological dataset provided by the EU FP6 Water and <span class="hlt">Global</span> Change (WATCH) project. The performance of this modeling approach was tested for the period 1980-1999 and during warm, dry periods specifically when water temperatures and water availability are generally most critical for usage functions and freshwater ecosystems. In addition, the impact of climate change on water temperature and river discharge is assessed by forcing the models with bias corrected output of selected <span class="hlt">Global</span> Climate Models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">van Vliet, M. T.; Yearsley, J. R.; Franssen, W. H.; Ludwig, F.; Haddeland, I.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Kabat, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">56</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.H23C0975L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Time Step Refinement of Optimized Flood Control Rule Curves for a <span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming Scenario</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pacific Northwest temperatures have warmed by 0.8 °C since 1920 and are predicted to further increase in the 21st century. Simulated streamflow timing shifts associated with climate change have been found in past research to degrade water resources system performance in the Columbia River Basin when using existing system operating policies. To adapt to these hydrologic changes, optimized flood control operating rule curves were developed in a previous study using a hybrid optimization-simulation approach which rebalanced flood control and reservoir refill at a monthly time step. For the climate change scenario, use of the optimized flood control curves restored reservoir refill capability without increasing flood risk. Here we extend the earlier studies using a detailed <span class="hlt">daily</span> time step simulation model applied over a somewhat smaller portion of the domain (encompassing Libby, Duncan, and Corra Linn dams, and Kootenai Lake) to evaluate and refine the optimized flood control curves derived from monthly time step analysis. Moving from a monthly to <span class="hlt">daily</span> analysis, we found that the timing of flood control evacuation needed adjustment to avoid unintended outcomes affecting Kootenai Lake. We refined the flood rule curves derived from monthly analysis by creating a more gradual evacuation schedule, but kept the timing and magnitude of maximum evacuation the same as in the monthly analysis. After these refinements, the performance at monthly time scales reported in our previous study proved robust at <span class="hlt">daily</span> time scales. Due to a decrease in July storage deficits, additional benefits such as more revenue from hydropower generation and more July and August outflow for fish augmentation were observed when the optimized flood control curves were used for the climate change scenario.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, S.; Fitzgerald, C.; Hamlet, A. F.; Burges, S. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">57</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRD..116.3104R"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> changes in indices describing moderate temperature extremes from the <span class="hlt">daily</span> output of a climate model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Climate change indices derived from <span class="hlt">daily</span> climate model temperature output are computed and analyzed to study the change of moderate climatic extremes between 1950 and 2100. We used output from the Ensemble Simulations of Extreme Weather Events Under Nonlinear Climate Change (ESSENCE) project, in which a 17-member ensemble simulation of climate change in response to the SRES A1b scenario has been carried out using the ECHAM5/MPI-OM climate model developed at the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg. The large size of the data set gives the opportunity to accurately detect the change of extreme climate indicators. We choose indices describing moderately extreme temperatures from the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection, Monitoring and Indices, focusing on percentile-based and duration indices. Additionally, we define some new indices measuring the intensity of <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature extremes. To study extremes within different consecutive 50 year time intervals (1950-2000, 2001-2050, and 2051-2100), we use corresponding reference periods (1961-1990, 2011-2040, and 2061-2090, respectively). Trends of the indices within each of the three 50-year periods are estimated using the Mann-Kendall slope estimator. The trends found in our model output for the period 1950-2000 compare well with those reported in the literature from observations. Future trend patterns resemble those from the 1950-2000 period, but have larger amplitudes. This suggests that the pattern of extreme temperature change might already emerge from the weather noise. Outside the tropics, the trend of indices defined from minimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperatures is greater in absolute value than the trend of indicators related to maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperatures. The trend of the annual temperature range (Tmax - Tmin) is positive or close to zero over the tropics and negative over the extratropics, indicating that the value of the yearly maximum temperature is increasing faster than the minimum temperature in the tropics and vice versa in the extratropics. Finally, using the empirical distribution, we study the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the occurrence of cold nights and warm days for nine regions. All PDFs shift in the direction of warming.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Russo, S.; Sterl, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">58</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9134014"> <span id="translatedtitle">Production of radiation-resistant E. coli strains by <span class="hlt">daily</span> X-<span class="hlt">irradiation</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Exposure of E. coli AB1157 (a K-12 wild-type strain) to very large, <span class="hlt">daily</span> X-ray doses has produced mutant strains resistant to both X-rays and UV photons. Results reported here are with KS0(160), the most resistant strain isolated thus far. Relative to its parent, KS0(160) is about 2.3 x more resistant to X-rays and about 2.2 x more resistant to ultraviolet photons (ratios of sensitivities in air). Two other characteristics of KS0(160) make its responses to X-rays different from those of AB1157: KS0(160) has an oxygen enhancement ratio of only 1.8 compared with 2.7 for its parent; glycerol reduces the sensitivity of AB1157 by about 75% (in air), but the maximum effect in KS0(160) is only a 49% reduction in response. P1 transduction experiments showed that all the acquired resistance in KS0(160) is lost when SOS repair activity is genetically blocked by an inserted lexAl, indicating that the mutation(s) associated with the acquired resistance in KS0(160) are in wild-type genes involved with induced DNA repair (i.e. SOS repair activity). PMID:9134014</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ewing, D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">59</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3292468"> <span id="translatedtitle">Accelerated partial breast <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> using once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> fractionation: analysis of 312 cases with four years median follow-up</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background There are limited data on accelerated partial breast <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> (APBI) using external beam techniques. Moreover, there are recent reports of increased fibrosis and unacceptable cosmesis with APBI using external beam with BID fractionation. We adopted a once <span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen of APBI with fractionation similar to that shown to be effective in a Canadian randomized trial of whole breast <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>. It is unclear whether patients with DCIS or invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) are suitable for APBI. Methods The retrospective cohort included 310 patients with 312 tumors of T1-T2N0-N1micM0 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), ILC, or Tis (DCIS) treated with APBI via external beam. Most patients were treated using IMRT with 16 <span class="hlt">daily</span> fractions of 270 cGy to a dose of 4320 cGy. The target volume included the lumpectomy cavity plus 1.0 cm to account for microscopic disease and an additional 0.5 to 1.0 cm for setup uncertainty and breathing motion. Ipsilateral breast failure (IBF) was pathologically confirmed as a local failure (LF) or an elsewhere failure (EF). Results Median follow-up was 49 months. Among the 312 cases, 213 were IDC, 31 ILC, and 68 DCIS. Median tumor size was 1.0 cm. There were 9 IBFs (2.9%) including 5 LFs and 4 EFs. The IBF rates among patients with IDC, ILC, and DCIS were 2.4%, 3.2%, and 4.4%, respectively, with no significant difference between histologies. When patients were analyzed by the ASTRO APBI consensus statement risk groups, 32% of treated cases were considered suitable, 50% cautionary, and 18% unsuitable. The IBF rates among suitable, cautionary, and unsuitable patients were 4.0%, 2.6%, and 1.8%, respectively, with no significant difference between risk groups. Acute skin reactions were rare and long-term cosmetic outcome was very good to excellent. Conclusions External beam APBI with once <span class="hlt">daily</span> fractionation has a low rate of IBF consistent with other published APBI studies. The ASTRO risk stratification did not differentiate a subset of patients with a higher rate of IBF. APBI may be an appropriate treatment for women with DCIS and ILC.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">60</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ThApC.tmp...74B"> <span id="translatedtitle">A simplified calibrated model for estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation in Madinah, Saudi Arabia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Solar radiation is the most important parameter in defining the energy budget at the surface thereby influencing the hydroclimate. Several empirical models based on air temperature are developed and used in several decision-making needs such as agriculture and energy sector. However, a calibration against direct observations is a priori for implementing such models. A calibrated model is developed for Saudi Arabia (Madinah) based on observations during 2007-2011. The model ( {Rs=A+B\\cdot R{{s}_0}{{{( {{T_{max }}-{T_{min }}} )}}^C}} ) is used to estimate <span class="hlt">daily</span> solar radiation and results show a correlation coefficient of 0.94. The calibrated model outperforms the uncalibrated model available for this location. To increase the confidence, the calibrated model is also compared with a simple artificial neural network.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Benghanem, M.; Mellit, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">61</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002IJSE...22..115M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of an innovative sensor for measuring <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, and sunshine duration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Delta-T Device Limited of Cambridge, UK have developed an integrated device which enables simultaneous measurement of horizontal <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> as well as sunshine status at any given instance in time. To evaluate the performance of this new device, horizontal <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> data were simultaneously collected from Delta-T device and Napier University's CIE First Class daylight monitoring station. To enable a cross check a Kipp & Zonen CM11 <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> sensor has also been installed in Currie, south-west Edinburgh. Sunshine duration data have been recorded at the Royal Botanical Garden, Edinburgh using their Campbell-Stokes recorder. Hourly data sets were analysed and plotted within the Microsoft Excel environment. Using the common statistical measures, Root Mean Square Difference (RMSD) and Mean Bias Difference (MBD) the accuracy of measurements of Delta-T sensor's horizontal <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, and sunshine duration were investigated. The results show a good performance on the part of Delta-T device for the measurement of <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. The sunshine measurements were found to have a lack of consistency and accuracy. It is argued herein that the distance between the respective sensors and the poor accuracy of Campbell-Stokes recorder may be contributing factors to this phenomenon.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Muneer, Tariq; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wood, John</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">62</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A33B0253K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Combination of spaceborne sensor(s) and 3-D aerosol models to assess <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">daily</span> near-surface air quality</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aerosol Particulate Matter (PM), measured by ground-based monitoring stations, is used as a standard by the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) to evaluate <span class="hlt">daily</span> air quality. PM monitoring is particularly important for human health protection because the exposure to suspended particles can contribute, among others, to lung and respiratory diseases and even premature death. However, most of the PM monitoring stations are located close to cities, leaving large areas without any operational data. Satellite remote sensing is well suited for a <span class="hlt">global</span> coverage of the aerosol load and can provide an independent and supplemental data source to in situ monitoring. Nevertheless, PM at the ground cannot easily be determined from satellite AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth) without additional information on the optical/microphysical properties and vertical distribution of the aerosols. The objective of this study is to explore the efficacy and accuracy of combining a 3-D aerosol transport model and satellite remote sensing as a cost-effective approach for estimating ground-level PM on a <span class="hlt">global</span> and <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis. The estimation of the near-surface PM will use the vertical distribution (and, if possible, the physicochemical properties) of the aerosols inferred from a transport model and the measured total load of particles in the atmospheric column retrieved by satellite sensor(s). The first step is to select a chemical transport model (CTM) that provides “good” simulated aerosol vertical profiles. A few <span class="hlt">global</span> (e.g., WRF-Chem-GOCART) or regional (e.g., MM5-CMAQ, PM-CAMx) CTM will be compared during selected airborne campaigns like ARCTAS-CARB (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites- California Air Resources Board). The next step will be to devise an algorithm that combines the satellite and model data to infer PM mass estimates at the ground, after evaluating different spaceborne instruments and possible multi-sensor combinations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kacenelenbogen, M.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">63</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AtmRe.118..232A"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> and diffuse shortwave <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> during a strong desert dust episode at Granada (Spain)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper studies the influence of a strong Saharan dust event on diffuse and <span class="hlt">global</span> (direct + diffuse) shortwave <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (0.305 to 2.800 ?m) recorded at Granada (South Spain) during 6 September 2007. The contribution of coarse mineral dust particles to the aerosol load was evidenced from the large aerosol optical depth (AOD, between 0.8 and 1.5) and the small Angström exponent (between 0.1 and 0.25) values recorded by a sun-photometer. <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on 6 September decreased about 20% compared to low-aerosol load days, while diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> increased 200-400% around solar noon. On that day, the diffuse component was nearly 60% of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at 12:00 UTC and therefore the direct component was substantially reduced. The aerosol forcing efficiency (radiative forcing per unit of AOD) during this strong event was higher than most of the desert dust forcing efficiencies reported in the literature; an increase of one unit in the AOD at 440 nm led to a decrease in <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at the surface of 123 W/m2. Additionally, low values of the single scattering albedo at 440 nm (mean value 0.90 ± 0.2) in relation to pure desert dust episodes were indicative of absorbing anthropogenic particles from the European and Mediterranean regions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Antón, M.; Valenzuela, A.; Cazorla, A.; Gil, J. E.; Fernández-Gálvez, J.; Lyamani, H.; Foyo-Moreno, I.; Olmo, F. J.; Alados-Arboledas, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">64</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54537381"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar total <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variations and the <span class="hlt">global</span> sea surface temperature record</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The record of <span class="hlt">globally</span> averaged sea surface temperature (SST) over the past 130 years shows a highly significant correlation with the envelope of the 11-year cycle of solar activity over the same period. This correlation could be explained by a variation in the sun's total <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (the solar ``constant'') that is in phase with the solar-cycle envelope, supporting and updating</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">George C. Reid</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">65</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40127216"> <span id="translatedtitle">North Pacific cyclonic and anticyclonic transients in a <span class="hlt">global</span> warming context: possible consequences for Western North American <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and temperature extremes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Trajectories of surface cyclones and anticyclones were constructed using an automated scheme by tracking local minima and\\u000a maxima of mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> sea level pressure data in the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis and the Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques\\u000a coupled <span class="hlt">global</span> climate Model (CNRM-CM3) SRES A2 integration. Mid-latitude lows and highs traveling in the North Pacific were\\u000a tracked and <span class="hlt">daily</span> frequencies were gridded.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alice Favre; Alexander Gershunov</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">66</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE..82S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Towards the automatic identification of cloudiness condition by means of solar <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study focuses on the design of an automatic algorithm for classification of the cloudiness condition based only on <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements. Clouds are a major modulating factor for the Earth radiation budget. They attenuate the solar radiation and control the terrestrial radiation participating in the energy balance. Generally, cloudiness is a limiting factor for the solar radiation reaching the ground, highly contributing to the Earth albedo. Additionally it is the main responsible for the high variability shown by the downward <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measured at ground level. Being a major source for the attenuation and high-frequency variability of the solar radiation available for energy purposes in solar power plants, the characterization of the cloudiness condition is of great interest. This importance is even higher in Southern Europe, where very high <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> values are reached during long periods within the year. Thus, several indexes have been proposed in the literature for the characterization of the cloudiness condition of the sky. Among these indexes, those exclusively involving <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> are of special interest since this variable is the most widely available measurement in most radiometric stations. Taking this into account, this study proposes an automatic algorithm for classifying the cloudiness condition of the sky into three categories: cloud-free, partially cloudy and overcast. For that aim, solar <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> was measured by Kipp&Zonen CMP11 pyranometer installed on the terrace of the Physics building in the Campus of Badajoz (Spain) of the University of Extremadura. Measurements were recorded at one-minute basis for a period of study extending from 23 November 2009 to 31 March 2010. The algorithm is based on the clearness index kt, which is calculated as the ratio between the solar <span class="hlt">global</span> downward <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measured at ground and the solar downward <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at the top of the atmosphere. Since partially cloudy conditions exhibit large variability in the solar <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measured at ground and, therefore, in the kt index, the algorithm is based, along with the value of the kt index, on the local variability. This variability was locally computed as the coefficient of variation of a two-neighbor window around each measurement. The consideration of both, the value of kt index and its local variability, highly improves previous classifications consisting in applying fixed thresholds to the kt index value. The proposed algorithm is applied to certain selected cases and compared to classifications proposed by other authors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sanchez, G.; Serrano, A.; Cancillo, M. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">67</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE..84S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of direct to diffuse partitioning of <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at the radiometric station in Badajoz (Spain)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study is aimed at the analysis of the partitioning of <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> into its direct and diffuse components at the radiometric station in Badajoz (Spain). The detailed knowledge of the solar radiation field is of increasing interest in Southern Europe due to its use as renewable energy. In particular, the knowledge of the solar radiation partitioning into direct and diffuse radiation has become a major demand for the design and suitable orientation of solar panels in solar power plants. In this study the first measurements of solar diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> performed in the radiometric station in Badajoz (Spain) are presented and analyzed in the framework of the partitioning of solar <span class="hlt">global</span> radiation. Thus, solar <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> were measured at one-minute basis from 23 November 2009 to 31 March 2010. Solar <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> were measured by two Kipp&Zonen CMP11 pyranometers, using a Kipp&Zonen CM121 shadow ring for the measurements of solar diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. Diffuse measurements were corrected from the solid angle hidden by the ring and direct <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> was calculated as the difference between <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse measurements. <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> was obtained from the pyranomenters by applying calibration coefficients obtained in an inter-comparison campaign performed at INTA/El Arenosillo, in Huelva (Spain), last September 2009. There, calibration coefficients were calculated using as a reference a CMP11 pyranometer which had been previously calibrated by the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos/World Radiation Centre in Switzerland. In order to study the partitioning of the solar radiation, the <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> have been analyzed for three typical different sky conditions: cloud-free, broken clouds and overcast. Particular days within the period of study have been selected by visual inspection. Along with the analysis of the <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> themselves, ratios of these <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> to the downward <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at the top of the atmosphere have also been analyzed. Several interesting features have been found. It is particularly worth to note the decreasing relative contribution of the direct component to the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> as the solar zenith angle increases, due to a longer path crossed within the atmosphere. In broken clouds and overcast conditions, the diffuse component becomes the major contribution to the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> being the high-frequency variability the main difference between both type of cases. While in overcast conditions the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> remains remarkably low, under broken clouds the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> shows a very high variability frequently reaching values higher than the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at the top of the atmosphere, due to multi-reflection phenomenon. The present study contributes to a better knowledge of the radiation field and its partitioning, involving original high-frequency measurements.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sanchez, G.; Cancillo, M. L.; Serrano, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">68</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.P52A..02C"> <span id="translatedtitle">MARs Color Imager (MARCI) <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">Global</span> Ozone Column Mapping from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO): A Survey of 2006-2010 Results</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">MARCI UV band imaging photometry within (260nm) and outside (320nm) the Hartley ozone band absorption supports <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> mapping of Mars ozone column abundances. Key retrieval issues include accurate UV radiometric calibrations, detailed specifications of surface and atmospheric background reflectance (surface albedo, atmospheric Raleigh and dust scattering/absorption), and simultaneous cloud retrievals. The implementation of accurate radiative transfer (RT) treatments of these processes has been accomplished (Wolff et al., 2010) such that <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> mapping retrievals for Mars ozone columns have been completed for the 2006-2010 period of MARCI <span class="hlt">global</span> imaging. Ozone retrievals are most accurate for high column abundances associated with mid-to-high latitude regions during fall, winter, and spring seasons. We present a survey of these MARCI ozone column retrievals versus season, latitude, longitude, and year.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clancy, R. T.; Wolff, M. J.; Malin, M. C.; Cantor, B. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">69</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26542756"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Kuwait's oil-fire smoke cloud on <span class="hlt">global</span> horizontal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The influence of Kuwait's 1991 Oil-Fire smoke cloud on incident total horizontal solar radiation has been investigated using measurements made at the automatic solar radiation and meteorological monitoring station in Dhahran (26[degrees] 32'N, 50[degrees] 13'E), Saudi Arabia. Results indicate that the <span class="hlt">global</span> horizontal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on smoky days was 70-87% of that on clear\\/non-smoky days and that the Clearness Index was</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. A. Elhadidy; S. M. Shaahid</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">70</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22450998"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> effects, stem cell genes and rare transcripts in the planarian transcriptome.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Stem cells are the closest relatives of the totipotent primordial cell, which is able to spawn millions of daughter cells and hundreds of cell types in multicellular organisms. Stem cells are involved in tissue homeostasis and regeneration, and may play a major role in cancer development. Among animals, planarians host a model stem cell type, called the neoblast, which essentially confers immortality. Gaining insights into the <span class="hlt">global</span> transcriptional landscape of these exceptional cells takes an unprecedented turn with the advent of Next Generation Sequencing methods. Two Digital Gene Expression transcriptomes of Schmidtea mediterranea planarians, with or without neoblasts lost through <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>, were produced and analyzed. Twenty one bp NlaIII tags were mapped to transcripts in the Schmidtea and Dugesia taxids. Differential representation of tags in normal versus <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> animals reflects differential gene expression. Canonical and non-canonical tags were included in the analysis, and comparative studies with human orthologs were conducted. Transcripts fell into 3 categories: invariant (including housekeeping genes), absent in <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> animals (potential neoblast-specific genes, IRDOWN) and induced in <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> animals (potential cellular stress response, IRUP). Different mRNA variants and gene family members were recovered. In the IR-DOWN class, almost all of the neoblast-specific genes previously described were found. In <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> animals, a larger number of genes were induced rather than lost. A significant fraction of IRUP genes behaved as if transcript versions of different lengths were produced. Several novel potential neoblast-specific genes have been identified that varied in relative abundance, including highly conserved as well as novel proteins without predicted orthologs. Evidence for a large body of antisense transcripts, for example regulated antisense for the Smed-piwil1 gene, and evidence for RNA shortening in <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> animals is presented. Novel neoblast-specific candidates include a peroxiredoxin protein that appears to be preferentially expressed in human embryonic stem cells. PMID:22450998</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Galloni, Mireille</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">71</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992JApMe..31.1067C"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Technique for <span class="hlt">Global</span> Monitoring of Net Solar <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> at the Ocean Surface. Part II: Validation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present study constitutes the generation and validation of the first satellite-based, long-term record of surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> over the <span class="hlt">global</span> oceans. The record is generated using Nimbus-7 earth radiation budget (ERB) wide-field-of-view (WFOV) planetary-albedo data as input to a numerical algorithm designed and implemented for this study based on radiative transfer theory. Net surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> is obtained by subtracting the solar radiation reflected by the ocean-atmosphere system (measured by satellite) and the solar radiation absorbed by atmospheric constituents (modeled theoretically) from the solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at the top of the atmosphere (a known quantity). The resulting monthly mean values are computed on a 9° latitude-longitude spatial grid for November 1978°October 1985.Because direct measurements of surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> are not available on the <span class="hlt">global</span> spatial scales needed to validate the new approach, the ERB-based values cannot be verified directly against in situ pyranometer data. Although the ERB-based annual and monthly mean climatologies are compared with those obtained from ship observations and empirical formulas, a comparison with long-term mean climatologies does not provide an assessment of the month-to-month accuracies achieved using the new technique. Furthermore, the accuracy of the ship-based climatologies is questionable.Therefore, the new dataset is validated in comparisons with short-term, regional, high-resolution, satellite- based records (which were generated using methods that in turn have been validated using in situ measurements). The ERB-based values of net surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> are compared with corresponding values based on radiance measurements taken by the VISSR (Visible-Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer) aboard GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite) series satellites during the TOGA (Tropical Ocean <span class="hlt">Global</span> Atmosphere), Tropic Heat, and MONEX (Monsoon Experiment) field experiments. The rms differences are 14.5 W m2 (i.e., 6.2% of the average VISSR-based value on monthly time scales) for the TOGA data comparison, 6.4 W m2 (i.e., 2.5% of the average VISSR-based value on monthly time scales) for the Tropic Heat data comparison, and 16.8 W m2 (i.e., 7.5% of the average VISSR-based value on monthly time scales) for the MONEX data comparison. The ERB-based record is also compared with an additional satellite-based dataset, focused primarily over the Atlantic Ocean, that was generated using radiance measurements from the Meteosat radiometer. On the basis of these validation studies, errors in the new dataset are estimated to lie between 10 and 20 W m2 on monthly time scales.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chertock, Beth; Frouin, Robert; Gautier, Catherine</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">72</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26543055"> <span id="translatedtitle">Two estimation methods for monthly mean hourly total <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> on tilted surfaces from monthly mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> horizontal <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> from solar radiation data of Ajaccio, Corsica</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The sizing of a photovoltaic or a thermal solar system is generally based on monthly mean values of <span class="hlt">daily</span> solar radiation on tilted surfaces. Many authors have demonstrated that it will be better to use monthly mean values of hourly radiation, particularly taking into account the Sun's position and to predict long-term performances of solar systems. (Liu and Jordan, 1963;</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Notton; M. Muselli; A. Louche</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">73</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5005147"> <span id="translatedtitle">Splenic <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> in the treatment of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia or myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia. Results of <span class="hlt">daily</span> and intermittent fractionation with and without concomitant hydroxyurea</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Seventeen patients with either chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) or myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MMM) received 24 courses of splenic <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> at this institution from 1973 to 1982. Eleven of the 17 patients had received prior chemotherapy. Patients were treated with /sup 60/Co gamma rays or 6 MV photons. The fraction size ranged from 15 to 100 rad and the total dose per treatment course from 15 to 650 rad, with the exception of one patient who received 1650 rad. Fourteen of 19 courses (71%) given for splenic pain yielded significant subjective relief while 17 of 26 courses given for splenomegaly obtained at least 50% regression of splenic size. Blood counts were carefully monitored before each treatment to limit hematologic toxicity. From this experience, the authors conclude that splenic <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> effectively palliates splenic pain and reverses splenomegaly in the majority of patients with CML and MMM. Intermittent fractionation (twice or thrice weekly) is more convenient for the patient, appears to be as effective as <span class="hlt">daily</span> treatment, and may be associated with less hematologic toxicity. Preliminary results of concurrent treatment with splenic <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> and oral hydroxyurea show promise and warrant further study.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wagner, H. Jr.; McKeough, P.G.; Desforges, J.; Madoc-Jones, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">74</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3534267"> <span id="translatedtitle">The dosimetric impact of respiratory breast movement and <span class="hlt">daily</span> setup error on tangential whole breast <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> using conventional wedge, field-in-field and irregular surface compensator techniques</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To evaluate the dosimetric impact of respiratory breast motion and <span class="hlt">daily</span> setup error on whole breast <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> (WBI) using three <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> techniques; conventional wedge (CW), field-in-field (FIF) and irregular surface compensator (ISC). WBI was planned for 16 breast cancer patients. The dose indices for evaluated clinical target volume (CTVevl), lung, and body were evaluated. For the anterior-posterior (AP) respiratory motion and setup error of a single fraction, the isocenter was moved according to a sine function, and the dose indices were averaged over one period. Furthermore, the dose indices were weighted according to setup error frequencies that have a normal distribution to model systematic and random setup error for the entire treatment course. In all <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> techniques, AP movement has a significant impact on dose distribution. CTVevlD95 (the minimum relative dose that covers 95 % volume) and V95 (the relative volume receiving 95 % of the prescribed dose) were observed to significantly decrease from the original ISC plan when simulated for the entire treatment course. In contrast, the D95, V95 and dose homogeneity index did not significantly differ from those of the original plans for FIF and CW. With regard to lung dose, the effect of motion was very similar among all three techniques. The dosimetric impact of AP respiratory breast motion and setup error was largest for the ISC technique, and the second greatest effect was observed with the FIF technique. However, these variations are relatively small.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Furuya, Tomohisa; Sugimoto, Satoru; Kurokawa, Chie; Ozawa, Shuichi; Karasawa, Kumiko; Sasai, Keisuke</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">75</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=215288"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measures of <span class="hlt">daily</span> distribution patterns of cow calf pairs using <span class="hlt">global</span> positioning systems on both cows and calves</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">GPS collars were used to describe the <span class="hlt">daily</span> distribution patterns of cows and their calves from 18 to 60 days postpartum on pinyon juniper-shortgrass rangeland in central New Mexico. Eighteen, 3 year old cows and their calves were fitted weekly with GPS collars for seven consecutive weeks. Twenty da...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">76</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1215755S"> <span id="translatedtitle">The vital role of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> aerosol and trace gas monitoring: a satellite perspective highlighting OMI and GOME-2 analysis of Eyjafjallajökull emissions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The enormous social and economic impact caused by the ash cloud disruption of Western European air travel underscore the need for accurate, near-real time, <span class="hlt">global</span> measurements of aerosol and trace gases. OMI and GOME-2 instruments provide <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> coverage of a variety of trace gases and aerosol parameters. Measurements of the presence of ash, aerosol optical thickness, and concentrations of SO2 from these satellites as well as spectral data showing UV absorption by the ash from SCIAMACHY provided important information about the location of the plumes and the plume evolution. The near-real time data provided from these instruments within three hours of satellite overpass were used to inform the KNMI meteorologists to verify forecasts that helped determine safe boundaries for air travel. This work brings to light the need to further develop measurement networks with the capacity to quickly coordinate and synthesize satellite measurements of volcanic ash clouds with model output and ground-based observations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stein Zweers, D.; Stammes, P.; Tuinder, O.; van der A, R.; Tilstra, G.; Boersma, F.; Dirksen, R.; Veefkind, P.; Levelt, P. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">77</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.B33A0386I"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation in Vietnamese Mekong Delta area: A combinational application of statistical downscaling method and Bayesian inference</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Long-term <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation (GSR) data of the same quality in the 20th century has been needed as a baseline to assess the climate change impact on paddy rice production in Vietnamese Mekong Delta area (MKD: 104.5-107.5oE/8.2-11.2oN). However, though sunshine duration data is available, the accessibility of GSR data is quite poor in MKD. This study estimated the <span class="hlt">daily</span> GSR in MKD for 30-yr (1978- 2007) by applying the statistical downscaling method (SDM). The estimates of GSR was obtained from four different sources: (1) the combined equations with the corrected reanalysis data of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum/minimum temperatures, relative humidity, sea level pressure, and precipitable water; (2) the correction equation with the reanalysis data of downward shortwave radiation; (3) the empirical equation with the observed sunshine duration; and (4) the observation at one site for short term. Three reanalysis data, i.e., NCEP-R1, ERA-40, and JRA-25, were used. Also the observed meteorological data, which includes many missing data, were obtained from 11 stations of the Vietnamese Meteorological Agency for 28-yr and five stations of the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Summary of the Day for 30-yr. The observed GSR data for 1-yr was obtained from our station. Considering the use of data with many missing data for analysis, the Bayesian inference was used for this study, which has the powerful capability to optimize multiple parameters in a non-linear and hierarchical model. The Bayesian inference provided the posterior distributions of 306 parameter values relating to the combined equations, the empirical equation, and the correction equation. The preliminary result shows that the amplitude of <span class="hlt">daily</span> fluctuation of modeled GSR was underestimated by the empirical equation and the correction equation. The combination of SDM and Bayesian inference has a potential to estimate the long- term <span class="hlt">daily</span> GSR of the same quality even though in the area where the observed data is quite limited.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Iizumi, T.; Nishimori, M.; Yokozawa, M.; Kotera, A.; Khang, N. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">78</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3113959"> <span id="translatedtitle">Image guidance using 3D-ultrasound (3D-US) for <span class="hlt">daily</span> positioning of lumpectomy cavity for boost <span class="hlt">irradiation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose The goal of this study was to evaluate the use of 3D ultrasound (3DUS) breast IGRT for electron and photon lumpectomy site boost treatments. Materials and methods 20 patients with a prescribed photon or electron boost were enrolled in this study. 3DUS images were acquired both at time of simulation, to form a coregistered CT/3DUS dataset, and at the time of <span class="hlt">daily</span> treatment delivery. Intrafractional motion between treatment and simulation 3DUS datasets were calculated to determine IGRT shifts. Photon shifts were evaluated isocentrically, while electron shifts were evaluated in the beam's-eye-view. Volume differences between simulation and first boost fraction were calculated. Further, to control for the effect of change in seroma/cavity volume due to time lapse between the 2 sets of images, interfraction IGRT shifts using the first boost fraction as reference for all subsequent treatment fractions were also calculated. Results For photon boosts, IGRT shifts were 1.1 ± 0.5 cm and 50% of fractions required a shift >1.0 cm. Volume change between simulation and boost was 49 ± 31%. Shifts when using the first boost fraction as reference were 0.8 ± 0.4 cm and 24% required a shift >1.0 cm. For electron boosts, shifts were 1.0 ± 0.5 cm and 52% fell outside the dosimetric penumbra. Interfraction analysis relative to the first fraction noted the shifts to be 0.8 ± 0.4 cm and 36% fell outside the penumbra. Conclusion The lumpectomy cavity can shift significantly during fractionated radiation therapy. 3DUS can be used to image the cavity and correct for interfractional motion. Further studies to better define the protocol for clinical application of IGRT in breast cancer is needed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">79</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42423472"> <span id="translatedtitle">A COMPARISON OF THREE MODELS FOR ESTIMATION OF <span class="hlt">GLOBAL</span> SOLAR <span class="hlt">IRRADIATION</span> ON TILTED AND ORIENTED SURFACES IN ATHENS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Solar radiation data from one location in Greece (Athens), are used to test the applicability of three models for computing <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on tilted surfaces. The models selected for discussion, applicability, and comparisons are the model suggested by Liu and Jordan dated 1962, the model of Klein dated 1977, and the model of Klein and Theilacker dated 1981. All these</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. M. SYNODINOU; BASIL D. KATSOULIS</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">80</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20357295"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exposure-response analyses of the effects of pregabalin in patients with fibromyalgia using <span class="hlt">daily</span> pain scores and patient <span class="hlt">global</span> impression of change.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Data from 4 phase 2/3 studies were pooled to characterize the exposure response of <span class="hlt">daily</span> pregabalin (150-600 mg) in patients with fibromyalgia using self-assessed <span class="hlt">daily</span> pain scores (PAIN) and end-of-treatment patient <span class="hlt">global</span> impression of change (PGIC). The exposure responses of both endpoints were characterized by an Emax model using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM). Drug effect on PAIN relative to placebo was significant with additional maximum effect of 1.51 points on the logit scale and EC50 of 1.54 ng/mL (dose of 174 mg) and a rapid onset (half-life of 11 hours), consistent with the half-life of the drug. The decrease in PAIN with placebo occurred more slowly, reaching maximum response (1.52 points on the logit scale) after 1 month. Drug response in fibromyalgia was dependent on age and sex, with greater PAIN reduction in older patients, in addition to the effect of creatinine clearance, and in females. For PGIC, administration of pregabalin resulted in an increase in the proportion of patients reporting improvement with an ED50 of 228 mg. The analyses support the recommended dose of pregabalin in patients with fibromyalgia of 300 to 450 mg/d. PMID:20357295</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Byon, Wonkyung; Ouellet, Daniele; Chew, Marci; Ito, Kaori; Burger, Paula; Pauer, Lynne; Zeiher, Bernhardt; Corrigan, Brian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">81</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21350412"> <span id="translatedtitle">Validation of the NSRDB-SUNY <span class="hlt">global</span> horizontal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> in California</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Satellite derived <span class="hlt">global</span> horizontal solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (GHI) from the SUNY modeled dataset in the National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) was compared to measurements from 27 weather stations in California during the years 1998-2005. The statistics of spatial and temporal differences between the two datasets were analyzed and related to meteorological phenomena. Overall mean bias errors (MBE) of the NSRDB-SUNY indicated a GHI overprediction of 5%, which is smaller than the sensor accuracy of ground stations. However, at coastal sites, year-round systematic positive MBEs in the NSRDB-SUNY data up to 18% were observed and monthly MBEs increased up to 54% in the summer months during the morning. These differences were explained by a tendency for the NSRDB-SUNY model to overestimate GHI under cloudy conditions at the coast during summer mornings. A persistent positive evening MBE which was independent of site location and cloudiness occurred at all stations and was explained by an error in the time-shifting method applied in the NSRDB-SUNY. A correction method was derived for these two errors to improve the accuracy of the NSRDB-SUNY data in California. (author)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nottrott, Anders; Kleissl, Jan [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">82</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411706G"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">globally</span> calibrated aerosol optical depth gridded dataset for improved solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> predictions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The shortwave direct normal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (DNI), as well as the diffuse and <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, all depend on aerosol optical depth (AOD). Recent investigations have shown that many existing modeled DNI datasets were severely biased over areas with large and variable AOD, due to errors in the latter data. Unbiased historical DNI data are of crucial importance for the siting, design and financing of large solar power projects, particularly those using concentrators. This requires unbiased AOD data at any site where such projects can be potentially built. Until now, only sunphotometer stations could provide such unbiased data, but these stations are scarce and their records are generally short. For <span class="hlt">global</span> coverage, gridded AOD data from satellite observations may be used, but their bias is often significant. Moreover, multiwavelength AOD satellite records only exist since 2000 and are not complete over all areas. In this contribution, a method is developed to optimally combine sources of gridded data from various satellites, calibrate them against ground truth on a regional and seasonal basis, and fill missing data points with an appropriate climatology. The monthly satellite data from MODIS (Terra and Aqua, collection 5.1), generated with or without the Deep Blue retrieval algorithm, and from MISR (version 31), are obtained at 0.5x0.5° resolution using appropriate Digital Elevation Models and scale-height corrections of AOD at 550 nm. The ground-truth data originates from networks such as Aeronet. All monthly ground-truth data points are subjected to a scale-height correction for elevation (so that they can be directly compared to the corresponding satellite data), and to a wavelength correction to obtain AOD at 550 nm. This process is undertaken separately for summer and winter, owing to the varying magnitude of AOD, and possible seasonal variations in aerosol composition. For the same reasons, it is also undertaken on a regional basis. The importance of this is confirmed by the uneven results obtained over adjacent areas. In North America, for instance, the MISR dataset and the various MODIS datasets exhibit relatively low bias over most of the continent, but an extremely high bias over the southwestern USA and northern Mexico, possibly due to higher elevation, lower AOD, and more reflective ground. The satellite data calibration (or "debiasing") is performed by applying appropriate scaling factors on a seasonal and regional basis, after comparison with ground truth. To remove all missing data points during the period 2000-2011, an appropriate climatology is selected from existing sources (including chemical transport models), and is subjected to an identical calibration method. A similar methodology is applied to obtain a complete, gridded dataset of the mean monthly Ångström exponent (AE) over the same period of 144 months. The AOD and AE <span class="hlt">global</span> datasets thus obtained still contain significant random errors, but their regional bias is considerably reduced compared to existing satellite data. Overall, the combination of AOD and AE from these calibrated datasets can significantly improve the derivation of 12-year time series of DNI, which is demonstrated with a few examples.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gueymard, C. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">83</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26542313"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dependence on latitude of the relation between the diffuse fraction of solar radiation and the radiation and the ratio of <span class="hlt">global</span>-to-extraterrestrial radiation for monthly average <span class="hlt">daily</span> values</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An approach for the prediction of the monthly average <span class="hlt">daily</span> diffuse radiation, {bar H}{sub d}, was proposed by Page in 1961. The Page method is based on the use of the linear correlation {bar H}{sub d}\\/{bar H} = c + d{bar H}\\/{bar H}{sub o}, where {bar H} and {bar H}{sub o} are, respectively, the monthly average <span class="hlt">daily</span> values of <span class="hlt">global</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A Soler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">84</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.8512T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relationship between the NO2 photolysis frequency and the <span class="hlt">global</span> broadband <span class="hlt">irradiance</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Direct measurements of the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) photolysis rate (j(NO2)) at ground level are often not available from field experiments. Modeling approaches are mainly used to estimate j(NO2) for air chemistry studies, involving complex radiative transfer algorithms based on e.g., actinic flux, absorption cross sections, solar zenith angle, aerosol optical thickness, ozone column concentration and cloud cover. Bahe et al., 1980 empirically found a near-linear relationship between <span class="hlt">global</span> broadband <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (G) and j(NO2) on top of a laboratory building in Germany, which has been applied to estimate j(NO2) from G. We have measured incoming j(NO2) using spectral/filterradiometers and G using pyranometers side-by-side at several field sites. In this study, we will show that a second-order polynomial function can be used to accurately estimate j(NO2) solely from G, independent of latitude and longitude, solar zenith angle, aerosol optical thickness and cloud cover. Our results include solar zenith angels smaller than 30° and are based on nine field observations in temperate, subtropical and tropical environments. This approach can be applied to calculate chemical timescales of the NO-NO2-O3 triad in order to evaluate the potential influence of chemical reactions on surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes. Furthermore, the relationship represents a simple tool to evaluate the photochemical steady state (PSS) assumption of NOx in the absence of j(NO2) measurements, subsequently being useful for examining the local photochemistry. Bahe, F.C., Schurath, U. and Becker, K.H., 1980. The Frequency of NO2 Photolysis at Ground-Level, as Recorded by a Continuous Actinometer. Atmospheric Environment, 14(6): 711-718.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Trebs, I.; Rummel, U.; Ammann, C.; Koenigstedt, R.; Bohn, B.; Blumthaler, M.; Meixner, F. X.; Andreae, M. O.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">85</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GMDD....6.4833K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Methodological aspects of a pattern-scaling approach to produce <span class="hlt">global</span> fields of monthly means of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum temperature</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A Climate Pattern-Scaling Model (CPSM) that simulates <span class="hlt">global</span> patterns of climate change, for a prescribed emissions scenario, is described. A CPSM works by quantitatively establishing the statistical relationship between a climate variable at a specific location (e.g. <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum surface temperature, Tmax) and one or more predictor time series (e.g. <span class="hlt">global</span> mean surface temperature, Tglobal) - referred to as the "training" of the CPSM. This training uses a regression model to derive fit-coefficients that describe the statistical relationship between the predictor time series and the target climate variable time series. Once that relationship has been determined, and given the predictor time series for any greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, the change in the climate variable of interest can be reconstructed - referred to as the "application" of the CPSM. The advantage of using a CPSM rather than a typical atmosphere-ocean <span class="hlt">global</span> climate model (AOGCM) is that the predictor time series required by the CPSM can usually be generated quickly using a simple climate model (SCM) for any prescribed GHG emissions scenario and then applied to generate <span class="hlt">global</span> fields of the climate variable of interest. The training can be performed either on historical measurements or on output from an AOGCM. Using model output from 21st century simulations has the advantage that the climate change signal is more pronounced than in historical data and therefore a more robust statistical relationship is obtained. The disadvantage of using AOGCM output is that the CPSM training might be compromised by any AOGCM inadequacies. For the purposes of exploring the various methodological aspects of the CPSM approach, AOGCM output was used in this study to train the CPSM. These investigations of the CPSM methodology focus on monthly mean fields of <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature extremes (Tmax and Tmin). Key conclusions are: (1) overall, the CPSM trained on simulations based on the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 emissions scenario is able to reproduce AOGCM simulations of Tmax and Tmin based on predictor time series from an RCP 4.5 emissions scenario; (2) access to hemisphere average land and ocean temperatures as predictors improves the variance that can be explained, particularly over the oceans; (3) regression model fit-coefficients derived from individual simulations based on the RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5 emissions scenarios agree well over most regions of the globe (the Arctic is the exception); (4) training the CPSM on concatenated time series from an ensemble of simulations does not result in fit-coefficients that explain significantly more of the variance than an approach that weights results based on single simulation fits; and (5) the inclusion of a linear time dependence in the regression model fit-coefficients improves the variance explained, primarily over the oceans.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kremser, S.; Bodeker, G. E.; Lewis, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">86</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.helioclim.com/publications/2002_SE_Geiger.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A web service for controlling the quality of measurements of <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The control of the quality of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> data is often a prerequisite to their further processing. Though data are usually controlled by meteorological offices, the sources are so numerous that the user often faces time-series of measurements containing questionable values. As customers of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> data, we established our own procedures to screen time-series of measurements. Since this problem of quality</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Geiger; L. Diabaté; L. Ménard; L. Wald</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">87</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57655409"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on tilted surfaces facing south for Tanta, Egypt</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper aims to investigate a computer program using Pascal language to estimate solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on inclined surfaces. The <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on horizontal surfaces is measured for Tanta at 30°47? latitude and 30°99? longitude for the period 2008–2009. The computer program has been prepared to calculate the monthly average <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and hourly solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on inclined surfaces using</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Ibrahim; A. A. El-Sebaii; M. R. I. Ramadan; S. M. El-Broullesy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">88</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.sbccp.org.br/arquivos/hn_04-2009_toxicity_and_survival_outcomes.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Toxicity and survival outcomes of hyperfractionated split-course reirradiation and <span class="hlt">daily</span> concurrent chemotherapy in locoregionally recurrent, previously <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> head and neck cancers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background. Reirradiation of locoregionally recurrent, previously <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> head\\/neck cancer may be con- sidered in situations of unresectability, medical inoperability, or adverse pathologic features found at salvage resection. Methods. Retrospective cohort analysis of toxicity and sur- vival outcomes in locoregionally recurrent, previously <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> patients with head\\/neck cancer treated with hyperfractionated split-course radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">John M. Watkins; Keisuke S. Shirai; Amy E. Wahlquist; Robert K. Stuart; Uzair B. Chaudhary; Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer; Terry A. Day; M. Boyd Gillespie; Anand K. Sharma</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">89</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52618458"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of direct normal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> derived from silicon and thermopile <span class="hlt">global</span> hemispherical radiation detectors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Concentrating solar applications utilize direct normal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (DNI) radiation, a measurement rarely available. The solar concentrator industry has begun to deploy numerous measurement stations to prospect for suitable system deployment sites. Rotating shadowband radiometers (RSR) using silicon photodiodes as detectors are typically deployed. This paper compares direct beam estimates from RSR to a total hemispherical measuring radiometer (SPN1) multiple fast</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daryl R. Myers</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">90</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18602273"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> status of commercialization of and developments on international trade in <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> food</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">National and international organizations have paid particular attention to the use of food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> as a method to reduce postharvest food losses, to ensure hygienic quality of foods-especially those of animal origin, and to overcome certain non-tariff barriers to trade for the following reasons: (1) The increasingly strict standards for quality and quarantine in food trade. (2) The increasingly restrictions</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paisan Loaharanu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">91</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ApOpt..45.4383P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Narrowband filter radiometer for ground-based measurements of <span class="hlt">global</span> ultraviolet solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and total ozone</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ultraviolet narrowband filter radiometer (UV-RAD) designed by the authors to take ground-based measurements of UV solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, total ozone, and biological dose rate is described, together with the main characteristics of the seven blocked filters mounted on it, all of which have full widths at half maxima that range 0.67 to 0.98 nm. We have analyzed the causes of cosine response and calibration errors carefully to define the corresponding correction terms, paying particular attention to those that are due to the spectral displacements of the filter transmittance peaks from the integer wavelength values. The influence of the ozone profile on the retrieved ozone at large solar zenith angles has also been examined by means of field measurements. The opportunity of carrying out nearly monochromatic <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements offered by the UV-RAD allowed us to improve the procedure usually followed to reconstruct the solar spectrum at the surface by fitting the computed results, using radiative transfer models with field measurements of <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. Two long-term comparison campaigns took place, showing that a mean discrepancy of +0.3% exists between the UV-RAD total ozone values and those given by the Brewer #63 spectroradiometer and that mean differences of +0.3% and -0.9% exist between the erythemal dose rates determined with the UV-RAD and those obtained with the Brewer #63 and the Brewer #104 spectroradiometers, respectively.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Petkov, Boyan; Vitale, Vito; Tomasi, Claudio; Bonafé, Ubaldo; Scaglione, Salvatore; Flori, Daniele; Santaguida, Riccardo; Gausa, Michael; Hansen, Georg; Colombo, Tiziano</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">92</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49352427"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> on horizontal and inclined surfaces based on the horizontal measurements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Solar radiation data are essential in the design of solar energy conversion devices. In this regard, empirical models were selected to estimate the <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation on horizontal and inclined surfaces. The hourly solar radiation data measured at the study area during the period of 2004–2007, were used to calculate solar radiations using selected models. The selected models were compared</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. M. Muzathik; M. Z. Ibrahim; K. B. Samo; W. B. Wan Nik</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">93</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18856788"> <span id="translatedtitle">Two-dimensional numerical modelling of a deep submicron <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> MOSFET to extract its <span class="hlt">global</span> characteristics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A two-dimensional numerical model of a deep submicron metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) has been developed to examine theoretically the effect of ionizing radiation on the threshold voltage and the <span class="hlt">global</span> output characteristics of the device. The radiation induced change in the flat-band voltage has been utilized to estimate the changes in the surface potential and hence the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Dasgupta</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">94</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.sciencedaily.com/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Science <span class="hlt">Daily</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Science <span class="hlt">Daily</span> is a web-based magazine that delivers timely news about discoveries in science and technology, appropriate for all audiences. Articles are often accompanied by streaming video or podcasts; all are written in language a non-scientist can understand. The web site archives contain more than 40,000 resources on topics that include medicine, the brain, plants and animals, earth science, climate, space, matter and energy, computers, mathematics, and paleontology. The web site has been the recipient of numerous awards since its inception in 1995.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-03-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">95</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jc/jc0212/2001JC001126/2001JC001126.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Parameterization of a spectral solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> model for the <span class="hlt">global</span> ocean using multiple satellite sensors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Monthly and seasonal means of the spectral solar radiation at the sea surface is determined at <span class="hlt">global</span> scale (1° × 1° grid) from satellite composite imagery. The transmittance functions of each atmospheric component have been modified from an existing clear-sky radiative model to assimilate data sets from multiple satellite sensors, including the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (NASA). All satellite-derived parameters</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marc Bouvet; Nicolas Hoepffner; Mark D. Dowell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">96</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1211585S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measurements of <span class="hlt">global</span> UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at Terranova Bay, Antactica, by a home made narrow band filter radiometer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Filter radiometers measure the solar radiation in several channels (typically 4 to 7) with a bandwith from 2 to 10 nm. They require less maintenance than the spectroradiometer and they are able to work in hostile environment as for instance the polar regions. The spectral resolution depends on the width at half maximum (FWHM) of the filters and is generally lower than the spectroradiometer resolution (0.5 nm). Other than the robustness of this instruments, the main advantage of the filter radiometers is the high frequency with which all wavelengths can be measured, making this class of instrument well suited for investigating short term <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variation. In this work is presented the results of UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements performed by a very narrow band (FWHM less than 1 nm) filter radiometer at Antarctica Italia Base, Mario Zucchelli Station, Terranova Bay, lat. 74° 41.6084' south and lon. 164° 05.9224' est. All-dielectric Fabry-Perot filters were manufactured in the laboratories of the Optical Coating Group, ENEA, by the ion beam assistance physical vapor deposition technique. Nine filters select nine different wavelengths in the UV spectral range from 296.5 nm to 377 nm with about 1 minute of measurement period, i.e. each wavelength is measured about 1250 times per day. At the moment the radiometer are permanently located near MZS and the data are <span class="hlt">daily</span> downloaded in ENEA, Rome, by a dedicated satellite channel. During the Antarctica winter the radiometer will be in standby mode, in this season MZS is closed, and it will be start to measure again in the Antarctica spring.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Salvatore, Scaglione; di Sarcina, Ilaria; Flori, Daniele; Menchini, Francesca</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">97</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AtmEn..45.2465S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of monthly values of atmospheric turbidity using measured values of <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> and estimated values from CSR and Yang Hybrid models. Study case: Argentina</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For ten sites in Argentina, monthly average Ångström turbidity coefficient ? values were estimated using mean monthly <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> values measured at these sites from the former Argentinean radiometric network REDSOL. The values of the horizontal direct and diffuse components of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> were estimated using the Yang Hybrid model (YHM) and, to determine the representativeness of those results, they were compared to values from the SWERA database which uses the CSR model, developed by NREL, to make estimates. An inconsistency in the estimated values of the diffuse component was detected, therefore a new expression for that component was proposed, generating a corrected version of the YHM (CYHM). The turbidity coefficient ? is considered an independent variable in the equation that estimates the direct transmittance and the values that forces an exact correlation between the measured monthly average <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> values with those estimated with the CYHM are considered representative for each site since the RMSE between the monthly <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> values of SWERA and CYHM is 11.7%, this value being very close to that found by the designers of the CSR model (10%) when they tested it with meteorological data from USA. The monthly average value estimates of turbidity coefficient ? show expected behavior, with values varying according to the season of the year.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Salazar, Germán A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">98</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57491969"> <span id="translatedtitle">The negative impact of <span class="hlt">global</span> perceptions of and <span class="hlt">daily</span> care-related family conflict on Hispanic caregivers: Familism as a potential moderator</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objectives: Using selected concepts from Pearlin's care giving stress model and incorporating a <span class="hlt">daily</span> stress-reactivity perspective, the current study surveyed Hispanic family caregivers (HCGs) to: (a) document the occurrence of family disagreements regarding care; (b) examine the impact of family disagreements regarding care on HCGs’ emotional\\/physical well being; and (c) determine the moderating role of familism – whether strong familism</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Susan Silverberg Koerner; Yumi Shirai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">99</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1006243"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of Direct Normal <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Derived from Silicon and Thermopile <span class="hlt">Global</span> Hemispherical Radiation Detectors: Preprint</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Concentrating solar applications utilize direct normal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (DNI) radiation, a measurement rarely available. The solar concentrator industry has begun to deploy numerous measurement stations to prospect for suitable system deployment sites. Rotating shadowband radiometers (RSR) using silicon photodiodes as detectors are typically deployed. This paper compares direct beam estimates from RSR to a total hemispherical measuring radiometer (SPN1) multiple fast thermopiles. These detectors simultaneously measure total and diffuse radiation from which DNI can be computed. Both the SPN1 and RSR-derived DNI are compared to DNI measured with thermopile pyrheliometers. Our comparison shows that the SPN1 radiometer DNI estimated uncertainty is somewhat greater than, and on the same order as, the RSR DNI estimates for DNI magnitudes useful to concentrator technologies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Myers, D. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">100</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7773E..14M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of direct normal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> derived from silicon and thermopile <span class="hlt">global</span> hemispherical radiation detectors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Concentrating solar applications utilize direct normal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (DNI) radiation, a measurement rarely available. The solar concentrator industry has begun to deploy numerous measurement stations to prospect for suitable system deployment sites. Rotating shadowband radiometers (RSR) using silicon photodiodes as detectors are typically deployed. This paper compares direct beam estimates from RSR to a total hemispherical measuring radiometer (SPN1) multiple fast thermopiles. These detectors simultaneously measure total and diffuse radiation from which DNI can be computed. Both the SPN1 and RSR-derived DNI are compared to DNI measured with thermopile pyrheliometers. Our comparison shows that the SPN1 radiometer DNI estimated uncertainty is somewhat greater than, and on the same order as, the RSR DNI estimates for DNI magnitudes useful to concentrator technologies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Myers, Daryl R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">101</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.3650N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hourly <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> from satellite data in Badajoz, Spain: Spatial and temporal dependence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Satellite estimates of solar radiation at the hourly scale depend on the spatial and temporal variability of solar radiation within a region. To examine this effect, a field program was established near Badajoz, Spain (38.88°N, 7.01°W) consisting in deployment of seven pyranometers at or adjoining the Meteosat pixel for the area. A simple semiempirical retrieval approach based on the satellite reflectance was developed using data from one pyranometer station at the University campus and subsequently tested with an independent data set for the same station. The accuracy of the satellite estimate is a strong function of the averaging period and the frequency of satellite scans used. At the hourly scale, best estimates of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> are obtained with satellite data taken every 5 min, giving a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.883. Within-pixel spatial variability of measured <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> is substantial but only for averaging periods less than 1 h. Comparison of surface point measurements with the satellite retrieval algorithm at the 5 min scale are associated with a relative RMS difference of 20.2% out of which 19.5% is due to model-induced uncertainties and 5.2% is due to instrumentation uncertainties involved in the retrieval process. Within-pixel point sampling will lower both the instrument uncertainty and the uncertainty in the retrieval algorithm for averaging periods lower than 1 h. Beyond this time, a single pyranometer is well representative of the overhead cloud structure, reaching root mean square difference values of 14% at the hourly scale.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nunez, M.; Serrano, A.; Cancillo, M. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">102</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58412235"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Globalization</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Globalization</span>--the integration of the world economy--has ebbed and flowed over the twentieth century. This paper surveys the varying flows of goods, people, and capital around the world. It asks also about the flow of information across national boundaries and the flows of all these various commodities and factors within countries. Goods, people, and capital flowed easily in much, but not</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peter Temin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">103</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmRe.132..291S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Selection of cloudless sky conditions by applying solar <span class="hlt">global</span> ultraviolet <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Taking advantage of UV (295–385 nm) <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements is one of the objectives of this paper. A new index termed kt? is established for this band. This new index works as a 'zenith angle independent clearness index' for band measurements and has similar applications to those of kt? for broadband measurements. The new index may be applied to identify cloudless instants from UV band measurements. Both indexes were correlated throughout the period 1998–2004 with a R2 of 0.85. A selection criterion of kt?UV > 1.1 classified cloudless sky conditions with a probability of 95% in comparison with a selection that two criteria-applying broadband measurements would make. This index may be of interest for classifying cloudless sky conditions when only UV band measurements are available. An estimation method from the literature was applied to the period 1998–2004. This method was previously validated for the UV band with a measurement campaign made in Valencia (Spain) in the summer season.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Serrano, María-Antonia; Boscà, José V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">104</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.1049B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Climate Change Impact On <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Precipitation Simulated By A Regional and A <span class="hlt">Global</span> Climate Model For North-rhine Westfalia, Germany</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The spatio-temporal distribution of the intensity of <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation events over North Rhine-Westfalia (Germany) and its change in a greenhouse-gas scenario are presented. Data from the ECHAM4/OPYC3 (T42 resolution) GCM and a version of the HIRLAM regional climate model (RCM, 40km resolution) are used and compared to <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation observations. These are available from 1940 to 1990 for 173 sta- tions. The total precipitation simulated by the GCM at grid points, close to the area of interest, agrees very well with the oberservations (flat country: 800mm/year, moun- tainous country: 1200mm/year to 1400 mm/year), whereas the nested RCM produces systematically too high total precipitation (up to 200mm). The RCM produces a cli- matological rainfall maximum at the slope of the mountain ranges while the observed maximum is located over the hill tops. The climate signal of both models shows a decrease of summer precipitation and an increase in winter precipitation. In the GCM the negative trend in summer balances the positive trend in winter, while in the RCM there is a net decrease of about 12%. Again the greatest changes are found in the area of maximum slope. Both models agree in simulating increasing numbers of months with extreme low (summer) and high (winter) rainfall. This is partly related to a shift towards more extremes in <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall. These trends apply for all regions of the area under investigation and are simulated more intensive by the RCM than simulated by the GCM.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brücher, T.; Krüger, A.; Ulbrich, U.; Speth, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">105</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42080998"> <span id="translatedtitle">Response in extremes of <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and wind from a downscaled multi-model ensemble of anthropogenic <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change scenarios</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Time-slices of eight <span class="hlt">global</span> climate model (GCM) response simulations of the IPCC IS92a, CMIP2, SRES A2, B2 and A1B greenhouse gas scenarios have been downscaled using the HIRHAM atmospheric regional climate model (RCM). The area covers Central and Northern Europe, adjacent sea-areas and Greenland. The GCM data were provided from the Max Planck Institute, Germany (MPI), the Hadley Centre, U.K.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jan Erik Haugen; Trond Iversen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">106</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20849990"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fifteen-year results of a randomized prospective trial of hyperfractionated chest wall <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> versus once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> chest wall <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> after chemotherapy and mastectomy for patients with locally advanced noninflammatory breast cancer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: To analyze the results of a Phase III clinical trial that investigated whether a hyperfractionated radiotherapy (RT) schedule could reduce the risk of locoregional recurrence in patients with locally advanced breast cancer treated with chemotherapy and mastectomy. Methods and Materials: Between 1985 and 1989, 200 patients with clinical Stage III noninflammatory breast cancer were enrolled in a prospective study investigating neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy. Of the 179 patients treated with mastectomy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 108 participated in a randomized component of the trial that compared a dose-escalated, hyperfractionated (twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span>, b.i.d.) chest wall RT schedule (72 Gy in 1.2-Gy b.i.d. fractions) with a once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> (q.d.) schedule (60 Gy in 2-Gy q.d. fractions). In both arms of the study, the supraclavicular fossa and axillary apex were treated once <span class="hlt">daily</span> to 50 Gy. The median follow-up period was 15 years. Results: The 15-year actuarial locoregional recurrence rate was 7% for the q.d. arm and 12% for the b.i.d. arm (p = 0.36). The rates of severe acute toxicity were similar (4% for q.d. vs. 5% for b.i.d.), but moist desquamation developed in 42% of patients in the b.i.d. arm compared with 28% of the patients in the q.d. arm (p = 0.16). The 15-year actuarial rate of severe late RT complications did not differ between the two arms (6% for q.d. vs. 11% for b.i.d., p = 0.54). Conclusion: Although the sample size of this study was small, we found no evidence that this hyperfractionation schedule of postmastectomy RT offered a clinical advantage. Therefore, we have concluded that it should not be further studied in this cohort of patients.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Buchholz, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)]. E-mail: tbuchhol@mdanderson.org; Strom, Eric A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Oswald, Mary Jane [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Perkins, George H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Oh, Julia [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Domain, Delora [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Yu, Tse-Kuan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Woodward, Wendy A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Tereffe, Welela [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Singletary, S. Eva [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Thomas, Eva [Department of Breast Medical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Buzdar, Aman U. [Department of Breast Medical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Hortobagyi, Gabriel N. [Department of Breast Medical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); McNeese, Marsha D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-07-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">107</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982ApEn...10..189B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> efficiency of solar collectors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is shown that the <span class="hlt">daily</span> efficiency of flat-plate solar collectors working at constant flow rate can be evaluated with a simple algorithm when their structural features are known. It is also shown that long-term performances can be calculated starting from monthly values of <span class="hlt">global</span> radiation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bartoli, B.; Cuomo, V.; Francesca, M.; Serio, C.; Barone, G.; Mattarelli, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">108</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996JGR...10112585F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lifetime and emission estimates of 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluorethane (CFC-113) from <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> background observations June 1982-June 1994</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Observations every two hours of CCl2FCClF2 at Mace Head, Ireland (February 1987-June 1994); Cape Meares, Oregon (April 1984-June 1989); Ragged Point, Barbados (October 1985-June 1994); Cape Matatula, Samoa (October 1985-June 1989 and January 1992-June 1994); and Cape Grim, Tasmania (June 1982-June 1994) are reported. The observations from Cape Grim have been extended back to 1978 using archived air samples. The <span class="hlt">global</span> atmospheric abundance of CCl2FCClF2 is indicated to have been growing exponentially between 1978 and 1987 with an e-folding time of approximately 7.6 years; it has been growing less rapidly since that time. On January 1, 1994, the mean inferred northern hemispheric mixing ratio in the lower troposphere was 84.4 ± 0.4 ppt and the southern hemispheric value was 80.6 ± 0.4 ppt; the <span class="hlt">global</span> growth rate in 1991-1993 is estimated to have averaged approximately 3.1 ± 0.1 ppt/year. The differences between the northern and southern hemispheric concentrations are calculated to be consistent with the almost entirely northern hemispheric release of this gas. The annual release estimates of CCl2FCClF2 by industry, which include estimates of eastern European emissions, fairly consistently exceed those deduced from the measurements by approximately 10% from 1980 to 1993. The uncertainties in each estimate is approximately 5%. This difference suggests that up to 10% of past production might not yet have been released. The measurements indicate that atmospheric releases of CCl2FCClF2 have been decreasing rapidly since 1989 and in 1993 amounted to 78 ± 27 × 106 kg or 42 ± 15% of the 1985-1987 emissions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fraser, P.; Cunnold, D.; Alyea, F.; Weiss, R.; Prinn, R.; Simmonds, P.; Miller, B.; Langenfelds, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">109</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jd/jd1004/2009JD012219/2009JD012219.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> increase in UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> during the past 30 years (1979–2008) estimated from satellite data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Zonal average ultraviolet <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (flux ultraviolet, FUV) reaching the Earth's surface has significantly increased since 1979 at all latitudes except the equatorial zone. Changes are estimated in zonal average FUV caused by ozone and cloud plus aerosol reflectivity using an approach based on Beer's law for monochromatic and action spectrum weighted <span class="hlt">irradiances</span>. For four different cases, it is shown that</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jay R. Herman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">110</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29138731"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Gene Expression Analysis of Keloid Fibroblasts in Response to Electron Beam <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> Reveals the Involvement of Interleukin6 Pathway</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Keloid is a dermal fibroproliferative lesion of unknown etiology that commonly recurs after surgical excision. Post-operative adjuvant electron beam (EB) <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> has been successfully used to reduce keloid recurrences. To provide new insights into the molecular mechanism behind the effect of EB <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>, we used a cDNA microarray screening of more than 5000 genes to assess early changes in gene</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mamiko Tosa; Mohammad Ghazizadeh; Hajime Shimizu; Takashi Hirai; Hiko Hyakusoku; Oichi Kawanami</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">111</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.4709D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cirrus cloud radiative forcing on surface-level shortwave and longwave <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> at regional and <span class="hlt">global</span> scale</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cirrus clouds not only play a major role in the energy budget of the Earth-Atmosphere system, but are also important in the hydrological cycle. According to satellite passive remote sensing high-altitude clouds cover as much as 40% of the earth's surface on average and can reach 70% of cloud cover over the Tropics. Hence, given their very large cloud cover, the relatively small instantaneous radiative effects of these cirrus clouds can engender a significant cumulative radiative forcing at the surface. Precise calculations of the cirrus cloud radiative forcing are obtained from the difference between measured radiative fluxes downwelling at the surface in the presence of cirrus clouds (broadband flux measurements) and computed clear sky references (parametric models with RMS error < 5 W m-2). Overcast and clear sky period identification is obtained from a combined analysis of lidar and broadband flux measurements. In this study, we analyze two datasets: ground-based and satellite measurements. The firsts corresponds to solar and infrared <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements, cloud and aerosol Lidar backscattering profiles, microwave radiometer brightness temperatures, radiosonde profiles, and sun-photometer extinctions monitored at four observatories located in the midlatitudes (SIRTA Observatory and ARM SGP Lamont), the Tropics (ARM TWP Nauru) and the Arctic (ARM NSA Barrow). This dataset permits us to estimate the Cirrus cloud Radiative Forcing (cloud base altitude above 7 km) on surface-level shortwave (CRFSW) and longwave (CRFLW) <span class="hlt">irradiances</span>. The sensitivity of CRFSW to Cloud Optical Thickness (noted CRFSW*) is established and ranges from 100 W m-2 to 200 W m-2 per unit of cloud optical thickness. The important variability of aerosols and water vapor content obtained in studying the 4 observatories allows us to quantify the combined influence of aerosol optical thickness and integrated water vapor on CRFSW* : 10 to 20 % CRFSW* range for turbid and pristine atmosphere. Moreover, the sensitivity of the CRFLW to both cloud emissivity and cloud temperature (noted CRFLW*) is established and the influence of integrated water vapor on CRFLW* quantified: partial infrared opacity for arctic site (dry atmosphere) and quasi-total infrared opacity for tropical site (wet atmosphere), respectively 20% and 97% of opacity. Cirrus cloud radiative forcing parameterizations are hence developed starting from the ground-based collocated measurements. They relate CRFSW or CRFLW to cirrus cloud macrophysical properties, atmospheric humidity, aerosol content and solar zenith angle. Satellite measurements are used next as input parameters to the cirrus cloud radiative forcing parameterizations to calculate CRFSW and CRFLW at <span class="hlt">global</span> scale. CALIOP provide aerosol and cirrus cloud properties and AIRS the integrated water vapor. Meridian distribution are shown and discussed. They reveal a positive cirrus cloud net radiative effect (CRFSW + CRFLW) from 30°N poleward during boreal winter and from 45°S during austral winter. The cumulative cirrus cloud net radiative effect reaches +1.5 W m-2 for these two winter cases and -8 W m-2 near the equator.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dupont, J. C.; Haeffelin, M.; Long, C. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">112</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57549106"> <span id="translatedtitle">Watching The <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Show in Kenya</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Global</span> distribution of a popular American television programme – Jon Stewart's <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Show – offers a rare opportunity to examine transnational contingencies of meaning in political satire. Drawing on focus group discussions in Kenya, this analysis shows how some East Africans appropriated and reinterpreted – indeed unexpectedly subverted – The <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Show's political content, deriving from it insights that Stewart</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Angelique Haugerud; Dillon Mahoney; Meghan Ference</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">113</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://nova.stanford.edu/projects/mgs/dmwr.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Martian Weather Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This site from the Mars <span class="hlt">Global</span> Surveyor Radio Science Team features the results of a detailed study of the Martian atmosphere in the form of a <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather report and precise atmospheric measurements for the planet Mars. Atmospheric temperature and pressure profiles which have been archived with NASA's Planetary Data System are also available on this site. These profiles illustrate the vertical structure of the atmosphere of Mars. The site also includes links to many images of Martian atmospheric and weather phenomena (with captions) from the Mars <span class="hlt">Global</span> Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera (MGS MOC), the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) and the Hubble Space Telescope.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Team, Mars G.; University, Stanford</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">114</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMGC23A0733S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of the total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> composite and their contribution to <span class="hlt">global</span> mean air surface temperature rise</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Herein I discuss and propose updated satellite composites of the total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> covering the period 1978-2008. The composites are compiled from measurements made with the three ACRIM experiments. Measurements from the NIMBUS7/ERB, the ERBS/ERBE satellite experiments and a total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> proxy reconstruction are used to fill the gap from June 1989 to October 1991 between ACRIM1 and ACRIM2 experiments. The result of the analysis does suggests that the total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> did increase from 1980 to 2002. The climate implications of the alternative satellite composites are discussed by using a phenomenological climate model which depends on two characteristics time response at tau1 =0.4 year and tau2=8-12 years, as determined phenomenologically [Scafetta, JGR 2008]. Reconstructions of total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> signature on climate during the last four centuries are discussed. The solar variability appears to have significantly contributed to climate change during the last four centuries, including the last century. Indirectly, the model suggests that the preindustrial climate experienced a large variability which is incompatible with an Hockey Stick temperature graph.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Scafetta, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">115</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26543924"> <span id="translatedtitle">Technical and economical system comparison of photovoltaic and concentrating solar thermal power systems depending on annual <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Concentrating solar thermal power and photovoltaics are two major technologies for converting sunlight to electricity. Variations of the annual solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> depending on the site influence their annual efficiency, specific output and electricity generation cost. Detailed technical and economical analyses performed with computer simulations point out differences of solar thermal parabolic trough power plants, non-tracked and two-axis-tracked PV systems. Therefore,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Volker Quaschning</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">116</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57478510"> <span id="translatedtitle">Frequency distribution of <span class="hlt">daily</span> insolation at Cairo (30°N, 31°E), Egypt</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the present analysis, the <span class="hlt">daily</span> totals of <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation falling on a horizontal surface at Cairo (30°N, 31°E) during the period 1980 to 1987 have been processed, analysed and presented. Mean annual, monthly and <span class="hlt">daily</span> totals, the diurnal variation, frequency distribution of <span class="hlt">daily</span> totals, frequency of extended periods with <span class="hlt">daily</span> totals of <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation less than 4.29,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. I. Salem; A. H. Bassyouni</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">117</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7075880"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quick use of WEFAX images from METEOSAT to determine <span class="hlt">daily</span> solar radiation in France</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors present some preliminary results about 74 days: March 15th to June 30th, 1990. Four WEFAX images per day from the visible channel of METEOSAT have been processed. The main elements of the GISTEL methodology are briefly stated again. The estimated <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> on the ground is compared with figures measured at 10 stations in the south of France. In order to analyze the main causes of inaccuracy, this comparison is made on several modes: estimated and measured values, estimated and measured weather indexes for normalization, station per station to detect possible geographic errors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Delorme, C.; Gallo, A.; Olivieri, J. (Univ. of Avignon Energie-Climat (France))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">118</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.internetstockreport.com/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Internet <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Stock Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Internet <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Stock Report contains a <span class="hlt">daily</span> market recap and morning report on how Internet related stocks are faring. Provided by Internet World, it also contains an Internet stock index of over twenty companies, with names, stock symbols, and business type. Hypertext links to the home pages of those companies are provided.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">119</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/44464963"> <span id="translatedtitle">Singularities in <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Temperatures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The means of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum temperatures using twenty years of record are obtained. The average of these means over n consecutive calendar days is used as a predictor of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum temperature one and more years in advance. Data from ten stations in the United States for the period 1905 to 1957 are analyzed in this fashion and a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Isadore Enger</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1959-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">120</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10133703"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> gradients</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new method for improving the accuracy of a diffuse interreflection calculation is introduced in a ray tracing context. The information from a hemispherical sampling of the luminous environment is interpreted in a new way to predict the change in <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> as a function of position and surface orientation. The additional computation involved is modest and the benefit is substantial. An improved interpolation of <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> resulting from the gradient calculation produces smoother, more accurate renderings. This result is achieved through better utilization of ray samples rather than additional samples or alternate sampling strategies. Thus, the technique is applicable to a variety of <span class="hlt">global</span> illumination algorithms that use hemicubes or Monte Carlo sampling techniques.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ward, G.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland); Heckbert, P.S. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). School of Computer Science]|[Technische Hogeschool Delft (Netherlands). Dept. of Technical Mathematics and Informatics</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a 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<img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">121</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.rug.nl/biologie/onderzoek/onderzoekGroepen/oe/organisatie/personalpages/artikelen/polllminocea522007.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acclimation to a dynamic <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> regime changes excessive <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> sensitivity of Emiliania huxleyi and Thalassiosira weissflogii</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Effects of fluctuating <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> regimes on excessive photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation sensitivity were assessed for Emiliania huxleyi (Lohman) and Thalassiosira weissflogii (Grunow) Fryxell and Hasle. Cultures acclimated to low <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> were subjected to two <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> regimes of equal <span class="hlt">daily</span> dose: dynamic <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> simulating vertical mixing within the water column and constant <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. For each regime two</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. J. W. Visser; W. H. van de Poll; Anita G. J. Buma</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">122</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ERL.....4a4006E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar activity and the mean <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The variation with time from 1956 to 2002 of the <span class="hlt">globally</span> averaged rate of ionization produced by cosmic rays in the atmosphere is deduced and shown to have a cyclic component of period roughly twice the 11 year solar cycle period. Long term variations in the <span class="hlt">global</span> average surface temperature as a function of time since 1956 are found to have a similar cyclic component. The cyclic variations are also observed in the solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and in the mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> sun spot number. The cyclic variation in the cosmic ray rate is observed to be delayed by 2-4 years relative to the temperature, the solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and <span class="hlt">daily</span> sun spot variations suggesting that the origin of the correlation is more likely to be direct solar activity than cosmic rays. Assuming that the correlation is caused by such solar activity, we deduce that the maximum recent increase in the mean surface temperature of the Earth which can be ascribed to this activity is {\\lesssim }14% of the observed <span class="hlt">global</span> warming.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Erlykin, A. D.; Sloan, T.; Wolfendale, A. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">123</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.strokeassociation.org/STROKEORG/LifeAfterStroke/RegainingIndependence/TipsforDailyLiving/Tips-for-Daily-Living_UCM_308551_SubHomePage.jsp"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tips for <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Living</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... and on ASA Facebook's #WhatWorksWednesdays! Tips For <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Living Karen Dionne, hemorrhagic stroke survivor, shares her tips ... See how Rosanna Radding shares her tips for living re-abled. See how she chops an onion ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">124</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.teachersdomain.org/resource/city07.sci.engin.design.daily/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Shaundra Bryant <span class="hlt">Daily</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this video from Science City, Shaundra Bryant <span class="hlt">Daily</span>, an electrical engineer, describes a software program she developed to help girls reflect on their emotions, and how her two passions—science and dance—are connected.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Foundation, Wgbh E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-09-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">125</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AnGeo..23.3591B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> ionospheric forecasting service (DIFS) III</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">daily</span> variability of the ionosphere can greatly affect HF or SATCOM communications. HF skywave operators plan frequency schedules months in advance, however, they also require <span class="hlt">daily</span> knowledge of the ionospheric conditions in order to modify assignments. SATCOM operators also require <span class="hlt">daily</span> information about the levels of scintillation, which are variations in phase, amplitude, polarisation and angle of arrival that can cause severe degradation of the received signal. <P style="line-height: 20px;"> Using a number of ionosonde measurements and geomagnetic and solar values, a <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Ionospheric Forecasting Service (DIFS) has been developed, which provides HF and SATCOM operators with <span class="hlt">daily</span> forecasts of predicted ionospheric conditions. The system uses in-house algorithms and an externally developed <span class="hlt">Global</span> Ionospheric Scintillation Model (GISM) to generate HF and SATCOM forecasts. HF forecasts consist of a past summary and a forecast section, primarily displaying observed values and predicted categories for the Maximum Usable Frequency (MUF), as well as an Ionospheric Correction factor (ICF) that can be fed into the ionospheric propagation prediction tool, WinHF. SATCOM forecasts give predictions of <span class="hlt">global</span> scintillation levels, for the polar, mid and equatorial latitude regions. Thorough analysis was carried out on DIFS and the results conclude that the service gives good accuracy, with user feedback also confirming this, as well.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Butcher, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">126</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7773E..25M"> <span id="translatedtitle">CCD fiber optic spectrometer for the measurement of spectral <span class="hlt">irradiance</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent technological advancements have made CCD spectrometers an increasingly suitable alternative to traditional monochromator-based instrumentation. The authors have developed instrumentation for the near instantaneous measurement of spectral <span class="hlt">global</span>, direct, diffuse, reflected and southward-tilted <span class="hlt">irradiances</span>. The system uses an AvaSpec2048TEC-2 - a dual channel thermo-electric-cooled fiber optic spectrometer from Avantes Inc. Each channel has a 2048-pixel linear array detector and the system achieves a spectral resolution of 0.0007 ?m (FWHM) over the range 0.241-1.1 ?m. The system also includes sensor heads, fiber optic cables and a multiplexer. Two types of sensor heads have been developed: a pyrheliometer configuration for direct beam, and a pyranometer configuration for <span class="hlt">global</span>, diffuse, reflected and tilted measurements. Calibration uses a system of standard light sources. Cosine errors inherent to the spectralon diffusers have been characterized and corrections are applied to data from each sensor head. Accuracy of <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> is examined by comparing measurements against <span class="hlt">global</span> photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (0.395 - 0.695 ?m) from Eppley red and green dome pyranometers. PAR <span class="hlt">daily</span> totals (MJ/m2/day) and one minute averages (W/m2) are compared for 35 days in 2009 and <span class="hlt">daily</span> totals are within +/- 10% from June to October.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morley, J. U.; McArthur, L. J. B.; Halliwell, D.; Poissant, Y.; Pelland, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">127</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fluoridation&pg=4&id=EJ471371"> <span id="translatedtitle">Toothbrushing: Do It <span class="hlt">Daily</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Offers a practical guide for promoting <span class="hlt">daily</span> toothbrushing in young children. Discusses the importance of proper dental care, explains the causes of tooth decay, describes proper dental care for infants and young children, recommends materials and teaching methods, and discusses visits to the dentist and the benefits of fluoride for dental…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Texas Child Care, 1993</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">128</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/dailywxmap/index.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">NOAA <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Weather Maps</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The charts on this website are the principal charts of the former Weather Bureau publication, "<span class="hlt">Daily</span> Weather Map." They are the Surface Weather Map, the 500-Millibar Height Contours chart, the Highest and Lowest Temperatures chart, and the Precipitation Areas and Amounts chart. For each day, simple charts are arranged on a single page. These charts are the surface analysis of pressure and fronts, color shading, in ten degree intervals,of maximum and minimum temperature, 500-Millibar height contours, and color shaded 24-hour total precipitation. These charts act as links to their respective <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Weather Map charts. All charts are derived from the operational weather maps prepared at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, National Weather Service.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Center, Hydrometeorological P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">129</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://earthstorm.ocs.ou.edu/materials/les_dailyrad.php"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Radiation Balance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This lesson is designed to provide students an understanding of the extent to which radiative energy heats and cools the surface of Earth on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis. Students will learn to calculate the total amount of incoming and outgoing radiation over a day. They will learn to determine how balanced the radiative system is over a particular location and try to determine whether the surface is in radiative equilibrium.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">130</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14..174C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Precipitation Concentration across Europe during 1971-2010</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Precipitation Concentration Index (CI) was used in this paper to investigate the statistical structure of <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation across Europe based on 744 <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall series for the period 1971-2010. Annual CI shows a <span class="hlt">global</span> crosswise gradient, form North-West to South-East of Europe (excluding Turkey and Greece). The same gradient is also observed in winter, spring and autumn, while in summer the gradient is North-South. Highest annual and seasonal <span class="hlt">daily</span> concentration of rainfall were detected primarily to the western Mediterranean basin, along Spanish and French coastlands. Relief seems to be one of the most noticeable factor in the spatial distribution of CI. Mann-Kendall test identifies no <span class="hlt">global</span> significant temporal trend patterns across Europe for 1971-2010 period. French is the only country with increasing annual and seasonal CI values. These results suggest that no significant changes have occurred in <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation distribution across Europe during 1971-2010.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cortesi, N.; González-Hidalgo, J. C.; Brunetti, M.; Martin-Vide, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">131</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17892339"> <span id="translatedtitle">The dynamics of <span class="hlt">daily</span> events and well-being across cultures: when less is more.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors examined cultural and individual differences in the relation between <span class="hlt">daily</span> events and <span class="hlt">daily</span> satisfaction. In a preliminary study, they established cross-cultural equivalence of 50 <span class="hlt">daily</span> events. In the main study, participants in the United States, Korea, and Japan completed <span class="hlt">daily</span> surveys on the 50 events and <span class="hlt">daily</span> satisfaction for 21 days. The multilevel random coefficient model analyses showed that (a) the within-person association between positive events and <span class="hlt">daily</span> satisfaction was significantly stronger among Asian American, Korean, and Japanese participants than among European American participants and (b) the within-person association between positive events and <span class="hlt">daily</span> satisfaction was significantly weaker among individuals high in <span class="hlt">global</span> life satisfaction than among those low in <span class="hlt">global</span> life satisfaction. The findings demonstrate a weaker effect of positive events on <span class="hlt">daily</span> well-being among individuals and cultures high in <span class="hlt">global</span> well-being. PMID:17892339</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oishi, Shigehiro; Diener, Ed; Choi, Dong-Won; Kim-Prieto, Chu; Choi, Incheol</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">132</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..79..395R"> <span id="translatedtitle">A geostatistical approach for producing <span class="hlt">daily</span> Level-3 MODIS aerosol optical depth analyses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">daily</span> Level-3 MODIS (dL3M) aerosol optical depth product is a <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">daily</span> spatial aggregation of the Level-2 MODIS aerosol optical depth (10-km spatial resolution) into a regular grid with a resolution of 1° × 1°. Aerosol optical depth is a seminal parameter for surface solar radiation assessment, in particular, for those applications involving direct <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. However, the dL3M AOD is prone to data gaps originated mostly by the unfeasibility of retrieving reliable estimates under cloudy conditions. In addition, its usability is also constrained by regional biases owing to some other reasons. In this work we propose a methodology for bias reduction and data-gaps removal of the dL3M AOD dataset. The result is a database of <span class="hlt">daily</span> regularly-gridded AOD suitable for use in surface solar radiation applications and large-scale and long-term studies involving AOD without requiring a previous costly data assimilation process involving numerical weather prediction models. The method consists of an empirical approach to bias reduction, data-gaps removal by kriging interpolation and, finally, where reliable ground observations are available, an optimal interpolation procedure. The method was tested in the North American region, where it was able to reduce the initial mean error from 0.067 to 0.001, the root mean square error from 0.130 to 0.057, and increase the squared correlation coefficient from 23% to 58%, as compared against ground measurements.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ruiz-Arias, J. A.; Dudhia, J.; Lara-Fanego, V.; Pozo-Vázquez, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">133</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/34625037"> <span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiology of chronic <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> or near-<span class="hlt">daily</span> headache is a widespread problem in clinical practice. The general term of chronic <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache (CDH)\\u000a encompasses those primary headaches presenting more than 15 days per month and lasting more than 4 hours per day. CDH includes\\u000a transformed migraine (TM), chronic tension-type headache (CTTH), new <span class="hlt">daily</span> persistent headache (NDPH), and hemicrania continua\\u000a (HC). Around 40% of patients</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Julio Pascual; Rafael Colás; Jesús Castillo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">134</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://egyptdaily.com/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Egypt <span class="hlt">Daily</span>.com</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Part of the World News network, Egypt <span class="hlt">Daily</span>.com provides a wealth of links to frequently updated news stories dealing primarily with Egypt. From the homepage, users can click on any number of recent items gathered from a variety of different sources, including the BBC, ABC News, Arabic News, and CNN. The archive of news items stretches back several weeks, and news items are also arranged thematically into sections dealing with the economy, tourism, and technology on the site's main page. The site also features a number of helpful links, such as those leading to English-language news resources for the Arabic-speaking world and to online newspapers in Arabic. The site is rounded out by a list of online travel guides for those seeking to plan a trip to Egypt or other parts of North Africa.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">135</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3444222"> <span id="translatedtitle">New <span class="hlt">daily</span> persistent headache</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">New <span class="hlt">daily</span> persistent headache (NDPH) is a chronic headache developing in a person who does not have a past history of headaches. The headache begins acutely and reaches its peak within 3 days. It is important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure and volume. A significant proportion of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. The condition is best viewed as a syndrome rather than a diagnosis. The headache can mimic chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache, and it is also important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in CSF pressure and volume. A large proportion of NDPH sufferers have migrainous features to their headache and should be managed with treatments used for treating migraine. A small group of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tyagi, Alok</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">136</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002PhDT.......166B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modelling spectral and broadband UV-B (290--325 nm) <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> for Canada</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This is a study concerning the modeling of UV-B <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at the earth's surface. It is timely because stratospheric ozone depletion has occurred <span class="hlt">globally</span> as a result of increasing chlorofluorocarbons in the stratosphere. This reduction allows more UV-B <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (290--325 nm) to reach the earth's surface and cause detrimental biological effects. Presently there are few spectral UV-B radiation measurements. Therefore, <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> models are useful tools for estimating UV-B <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> in areas where measurements are not made. A numerical model to calculate spectral and broadband <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> for all sky conditions is described and the results are validated with measurements for nine Canadian stations (Alert, Resolute Bay, Churchill, Edmonton, Regina, Winnipeg, Montreal, Halifax and Toronto). The model uses either the discrete ordinate radiative transfer (DISORT) or the delta-Eddington algorithms to solve the radiative transfer equation for a 49-layer, vertically inhomogeneous, plane-parallel atmosphere, with cloud inserted between the 2 and 3 km heights. Spectral calculations are made at 1 nm intervals. The model uses extraterrestrial spectral <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, spectral optical properties for each atmospheric layer for ozone, air molecules, and aerosol and surface albedo. Cloud optical depths tau c were calculated separately for overcast <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements for nine stations from 26 years of data. The delta-Eddington method performed well for producing tauc and overcast broadband <span class="hlt">irradiances</span>. A fixed tauc value of 18.7 was found to be accurate for calculating cloudy sky <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> at all stations except in the arctic. Twenty-six station years of <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements and model estimates are compared. Comparisons are made both for <span class="hlt">daily</span> totals and for monthly averaged spectral and broadband <span class="hlt">irradiances</span>. It is shown that the delta-Eddington method is not suitable for calculating spectral <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> under clear skies, at short wavelengths (<305 nm), where absorption by ozone is high, and at large solar zenith angles. The errors are smaller for overcast conditions. The method was found to be adequate for <span class="hlt">daily</span> total spectral (?305 nm) and for broadband calculations for all sky conditions, although consistently overestimating the <span class="hlt">irradiances</span>. There is a good agreement between broadband measurements and calculations for both <span class="hlt">daily</span> totals and monthly averages with mean bias error (MBE) mainly less than 5% of the mean measured <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and root mean square error (RMSE) less than 26%, decreasing to below 15% for monthly averages. Agreement between mean monthly measured and calculated spectral <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> is also good for wavelengths ?305 nm. The accuracy of the Brewer instrument is questioned at wavelengths <305 nm at most stations. Comparison of the model broadband <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> with simultaneous satellite-based results and Brewer measurements at six stations shows that the model performs as well as the satellite model but with the advantage that it can provide <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> estimates throughout the day and, therefore, <span class="hlt">daily</span> totals.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Binyamin, Jacqueline</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">137</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JGR...10430139M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Derivation of UV-A <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> from pyranometer measurements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two statistical models have been developed from 6 years of simultaneous measurements of <span class="hlt">global</span> radiation by pyranometers, UV-A by a Brewer spectrophotometer and from total ozone, dew point temperature and snow cover data at Toronto. The models estimate instantaneous UV-A <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at 324 nm from pyranometer data with an uncertainty as low as 3.5% (1 ?) for summer sunny conditions and between 6-10% for cloudy conditions. These uncertainties are reasonably small when compared with the uncertainty of UV-A and <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements (2-3%). The uncertainty is reduced when <span class="hlt">daily</span> and longer-term averages are considered. The major source of error in the models is likely linked to rare occurrences of absorbing aerosols in the atmosphere. The models were also tested on a 6-year, independent record from Edmonton. The uncertainties at Edmonton are 30-45% larger than at Toronto for the instantaneous data, approximately 20% larger for <span class="hlt">daily</span> integrated values.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McArthur, L. J. B.; Fioletov, V. E.; Kerr, J. B.; McElroy, C. T.; Wardle, D. I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">138</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jz/v067/i005/JZ067i005p01885/JZ067i005p01885.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Variation at Koror</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method of exhibiting the magnetic <span class="hlt">daily</span> variations using contours based on running means can give a more precise indication of the seasonal changes in <span class="hlt">daily</span> variation than conventional methods. This method is applied to the variations at Koror, which are of particular interest owing to Koror's location, almost exactly on the magnetic dip equator. The contour charts give new</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1962-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">139</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRA..116.1102L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar extreme ultraviolet <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>: Present, past, and future</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">New models of solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variability are constructed in 1 nm bins from 0 to 120 nm using multiple regression of the Mg II and F10.7 solar activity indices with <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> observations made during the descending phase of cycle 23. The models have been used to reconstruct EUV spectra <span class="hlt">daily</span> since 1950, annually since 1610, to forecast <span class="hlt">daily</span> EUV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and to estimate future levels in cycle 24. A two-component model developed by scaling the observed rotational modulation of the two solar indices underestimates the solar cycle changes that the Solar EUV Experiment (SEE) reports at wavelengths shorter than 40 nm and longer than 80 nm. A three-component model implemented by including an additional term derived from the smoothed Mg II index better reproduces the measurements at all wavelengths. The three-component model is consistent with variations in the EUV energy from 0 to 45 nm that produces the far ultraviolet (FUV) terrestrial dayglow observed by the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Ultraviolet Imager (GUVI). However, the spectral structure of this third component is complex, and its origin is uncertain. Analogous two- and three-component models are also developed with absolute scales determined by the NRLEUV2 spectrum of the quiet Sun rather than by the SEE average spectrum. Assessment of the EUV absolute spectrum and variability of the four different models indicate that during solar cycle 23, the EUV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (0 to 120 nm) increased 100 ± 30%, from 2.9 ± 0.2 to 5.8 ± 0.9 mWm-2, and may have been as low as 1.9 ± 0.5 mWm-2 during the 17th-century Maunder Minimum. Near the peak of upcoming solar cycle 24, EUV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> is expected to increase 40% to 80% above the 2008 minimum values.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lean, J. L.; Woods, T. N.; Eparvier, F. G.; Meier, R. R.; Strickland, D. J.; Correira, J. T.; Evans, J. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">140</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ghrc.msfc.nasa.gov"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Hydrology Resource Center</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Global</span> Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration provides data ingest, archive, and distribution services for the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Hydrology and Climate Center (GHCC). Eight categories of online data are available to download using FTP. These include MSFC SSM/I Brightness Temperature, MSFC SSM/I <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Gridded Products, and MSU <span class="hlt">Daily</span>/Monthly Anomalies/Annual Cycle Temperatures-Limb90. The entire database can be viewed through HyDRO, the Hydrologic Data search, Retrieval, and Order system. Note that some data is restricted to Earth Observing System (EOS) affiliated investigators.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-08-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> 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<img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">141</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ghrc.msfc.nasa.gov/index.html"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Hydrology Resource Center</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Global</span> Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration provides data ingest, archive, and distribution services for the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Hydrology and Climate Center (GHCC). Eight categories of online data are available to download using FTP. These include MSFC SSM/I Brightness Temperature, MSFC SSM/I <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Gridded Products, and MSU <span class="hlt">Daily</span>/Monthly Anomalies/Annual Cycle Temperatures-Limb90. The entire database can be viewed through HyDRO, the Hydrologic Data search, Retrieval, and Order system. Note that some data is restricted to Earth Observing System (EOS) affiliated investigators.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">142</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB83152496"> <span id="translatedtitle">Determination of Potential Direct Beam Solar <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Procedures are presented for calculating potential direct beam solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, corrected for latitude, azimuth and inclination of slope, date, and time of day. Equations are structured to permit the user to calculate instantaneous or total <span class="hlt">daily</span> irradia...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. R. Kaufmann J. D. Weatherred</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">143</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3530403"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coping with <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Stress: Differential Role of Spiritual Experience on <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Positive and Negative Affect</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objectives. On the <span class="hlt">global</span>-level, spiritual experiences have been shown to buffer against the negative effects of stress on well-being for older adults, but this <span class="hlt">global</span>-level analysis may not reflect the day-to-day processes at work. The present project uses a <span class="hlt">daily</span> paradigm to examine the potential moderating effect of everyday spiritual experience (ESE) on the deleterious impact of a given day’s perceived stress (PS) on that day’s positive and negative affect (PA/NA). Method. Participants were 244 older adults aged 55–80 years who completed <span class="hlt">daily</span> assessments for up to 56 days. Results. Results partially support the moderating hypothesis: ESE buffered the negative effect of PS on same-day NA but had a positive direct effect on same-day PA. Discussion. These results point to a differential function of ESE—that it serves a coping function for NA but enhances PA directly—in the day-to-day lives of older adults, shedding light on the nuanced role of religiousness and spirituality when it comes to coping with <span class="hlt">daily</span> stress.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bergeman, Cindy S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">144</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1693766"> <span id="translatedtitle">Defining the radiation target on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The delineation of the target volume for <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> is a critical step in the radiotherapy process. Delivery of radiotherapy occurs over a fractionated course of many treatments. Variations in the position of the target volume may occur on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis during treatment and so the procedure for defining the target volume on a single initial ‘snapshot’ computed tomography scan has been re-evaluated. Newer technologies of image-guided radiotherapy allow the development of on-line <span class="hlt">daily</span> definition of the target volume prior to radiotherapy delivery.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dobbs, H J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">145</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42027664"> <span id="translatedtitle">A stochastic <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather generator for skewed data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">To simulate multivariate <span class="hlt">daily</span> time series (minimum and maximum temperatures, <span class="hlt">global</span> radiation, wind speed, and precipitation intensity), we propose a weather state approach with a multivariate closed skew-normal generator, WACS-Gen, that is able to accurately reproduce the statistical properties of these five variables. Our weather generator construction takes advantage of two elements. We first extend the classical wet and dry</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. Flecher; P. Naveau; D. Allard; N. Brisson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">146</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts/substantiallyequivalent510kdeviceinformation/ucm323664.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span>Chek QC Kit</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://google2.fda.gov/search?client=FDAgov&site=FDAgov&lr=&proxystylesheet=FDAgov&output=xml_no_dtd&&proxycustom=%3CADVANCED/%3E">Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... <span class="hlt">Daily</span>Chek QC Kit. Applicant: American National Red Cross. ... (800) 835-4709. (301) 827-1800. ocod@fda.hhs.gov. Consumer Affairs Branch (CBER) ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">147</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Media+AND+TV+AND+Shows&pg=4&id=EJ389790"> <span id="translatedtitle">TV Producer Juggles <span class="hlt">Daily</span> News.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Brennan discusses the <span class="hlt">daily</span> activities required in the production of a television news show. In "The Not-So-Glamorous Life of a TV Reporter," Linda Yu describes the time and effort required to become a television reporter. (LS)|</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brennan, Bill</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">148</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23658117"> <span id="translatedtitle">Unravelling <span class="hlt">daily</span> human mobility motifs.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Human mobility is differentiated by time scales. While the mechanism for long time scales has been studied, the underlying mechanism on the <span class="hlt">daily</span> scale is still unrevealed. Here, we uncover the mechanism responsible for the <span class="hlt">daily</span> mobility patterns by analysing the temporal and spatial trajectories of thousands of persons as individual networks. Using the concept of motifs from network theory, we find only 17 unique networks are present in <span class="hlt">daily</span> mobility and they follow simple rules. These networks, called here motifs, are sufficient to capture up to 90 per cent of the population in surveys and mobile phone datasets for different countries. Each individual exhibits a characteristic motif, which seems to be stable over several months. Consequently, <span class="hlt">daily</span> human mobility can be reproduced by an analytically tractable framework for Markov chains by modelling periods of high-frequency trips followed by periods of lower activity as the key ingredient. PMID:23658117</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schneider, Christian M; Belik, Vitaly; Couronné, Thomas; Smoreda, Zbigniew; González, Marta C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">149</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7841E..29E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ten-<span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> composites of METOP-AVHRR</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Systematic scanning of the earth surface could be achieved for the first time in 1978, with the launch of the earth observation system NOAA-AVHRR. Some twenty years later, the SPOT-VEGETATION instrument introduced significant improvements at the levels of image quality, timeliness and availability. Since the start in April 1998, VITO is responsible for the central processing, archiving and distribution of the VEGETATION data. This paper briefly announces how a similar service is being established at VITO to provide the same kind of image data from the recently launched METOP-AVHRR.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eerens, Herman; Baruth, Bettina; Bydekerke, Lieven; Deronde, Bart; Dries, Jan; Goor, Erwin; Heyns, Walter; Jacobs, Tim; Ooms, Bart; Piccard, Isabelle; Royer, Antoine; Swinnen, Else; Timmermans, Adri; van Roey, Tom; Vereecken, Johan; Verheijen, Yves</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">150</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Hunger+AND+in+AND+America&pg=3&id=EJ539976"> <span id="translatedtitle">Feeding the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Family.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Presents an activity and background information to help students in America's Midwest understand that the world is in the midst of a <span class="hlt">global</span> food crisis. Discusses the view that hunger is a <span class="hlt">daily</span> concern with serious social, political, and economic consequences. (DDR)|</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wasserman, Pamela; Doyle, Andrea</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">151</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/cgi/reprint/51/3/979.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of Skin Tumors in Hairless Mice after Discontinuation of Ultraviolet <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span>1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The development of skin tumors (mainly squamous cell carcinomas) in hairless Skh-HRl mice after discontinuation of a course of <span class="hlt">daily</span> UV <span class="hlt">irradiations</span> (wavelengths, 280-370 nm) is compared to that when the <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">irradiations</span> are continued. Under conditions of continued <span class="hlt">daily</span> exposures 50% of 22 animals contracted tumors with diameters of at least 4 mm in 135 days. With exposures stopped</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Frank R. de GruijI; Jan C. van der Leun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">152</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26587813"> <span id="translatedtitle">Correlation of <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation with meteorological parameters over Egypt</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Global</span> solar radiation measurements on a horizontal surface (Gm), mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum temperature (T), mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> relative humidity (RH), mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> sea level pressure (MSL), mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> vapor pressure (V) and hours of bright sunshine (S) are presented, analyzed, arranged in tables and graphs and discussed for five selected locations over Egypt. The locations chosen represent the different weather conditions</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. A. Trabea; M. A. Mosalam Shaltout</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">153</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26360394"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cokriging estimation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> suspended sediment loads</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> suspended sediment loads (S) were estimated using cokriging (CK) of S with <span class="hlt">daily</span> river discharge based on weekly, biweekly, or monthly sampled sediment data. They were also estimated with ordinary kriging (OK) and a rating curve method. The estimated <span class="hlt">daily</span> loads were compared with the <span class="hlt">daily</span> measured values over a nine-year-period. The results show that the estimated <span class="hlt">daily</span> sediment</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhongwei Li; You-Kuan Zhang; Keith Schilling; Mary Skopec</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">154</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=135463"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Gene Expression Profiles of the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803 in Response to <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> with UV-B and White Light</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We developed a transcript profiling methodology to elucidate expression patterns of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 and used the technology to investigate changes in gene expression caused by <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> with either intermediate-wavelength UV light (UV-B) or high-intensity white light. Several families of transcripts were altered by UV-B treatment, including mRNAs specifying proteins involved in light harvesting, photosynthesis, photoprotection, and the heat shock response. In addition, UV-B light induced the stringent response in Synechocystis, as indicated by the repression of ribosomal protein transcripts and other mRNAs involved in translation. High-intensity white light- and UV-B-mediated expression profiles overlapped in the down-regulation of photosynthesis genes and induction of heat shock response but differed in several other transcriptional processes including those specifying carbon dioxide uptake and fixation, the stringent response, and the induction profile of the high-light-inducible proteins. These two profile comparisons not only corroborated known physiological changes but also suggested coordinated regulation of many pathways, including synchronized induction of D1 protein recycling and a coupling between decreased phycobilisome biosynthesis and increased phycobilisome degradation. Overall, the gene expression profile analysis generated new insights into the integrated network of genes that adapts rapidly to different wavelengths and intensities of light.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huang, Lixuan; McCluskey, Michael P.; Ni, Hao; LaRossa, Robert A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">155</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB82200197"> <span id="translatedtitle">Climatology of Solar <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> on Inclined Surfaces; Part 1.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The following solar input variables were measured from March 1979 to October 1979 in Cabauw in the Netherlands: (1) the <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, with an Eppley pyranometer, for five different orientations; (2) the direct solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on a surface perp...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. H. Slob D. E. Brethouwer C. Den Ouden</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">156</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE87751559"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gamma <span class="hlt">Irradiator</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fiability of devices set around reactors depends on material resistance under <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> noticeably joints, insulators, which belongs to composition of technical, safety or physical incasurement devices. The <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> fuel elements, during their desacti...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Simonet</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">157</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53944796"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Pan Evaporation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> pan evaporation estimations are achieved by a suitable Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for the meteorological data recorded from Automated GroWheather meteorological station near Lake Egirdir which lies in the Lake District of western Turkey. In this station six meteorological variables are measured simultaneously, namely, air temperature, water temperature, solar radiation, air pressure, wind speed and relative humidity. Since</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Özlem Terzi; M. Erol Keskin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">158</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB239268"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stochastic Simulation of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Rainfall.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The design of many water resources projects requires knowledge of possible long-term rainfall patterns. A stochastic model based on a first order Markov chain was developed to simulate <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall at a point. The model is applicable to any point in Ken...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. M. Allen C. T. Haan D. Linton J. Street D. Jordan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">159</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010WRR....46.7519F"> <span id="translatedtitle">A stochastic <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather generator for skewed data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To simulate multivariate <span class="hlt">daily</span> time series (minimum and maximum temperatures, <span class="hlt">global</span> radiation, wind speed, and precipitation intensity), we propose a weather state approach with a multivariate closed skew-normal generator, WACS-Gen, that is able to accurately reproduce the statistical properties of these five variables. Our weather generator construction takes advantage of two elements. We first extend the classical wet and dry days dichotomy used in most past weather generators to the definition of multiple weather states using clustering techniques. The transitions among weather states are modeled by a first-order Markov chain. Second, the vector of our five <span class="hlt">daily</span> variables of interest is sampled, conditionally on these weather states, from a closed skew-normal distribution. This class of distribution allows us to handle nonsymmetric behaviors. Our method is applied to the 20 years of <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather measurements from Colmar, France. This example illustrates the advantages of our approach, especially improving the simulation of radiation and wind distributions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Flecher, C.; Naveau, P.; Allard, D.; Brisson, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">160</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://patft1.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-adv.htm&r=1&p=1&f=G&l=50&d=PTXT&S1=%28ADHA+AND+GAME%29&OS=ADHA+and+GAME&RS=%28ADHA+AND+GAME%29"> <span id="translatedtitle">Supporting activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://patft.uspto.gov/netahtml/PTO/search-adv.htm">US Patent & Trademark Office Database</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The invention provides a method for supporting operational activities in <span class="hlt">daily</span> living by providing a combination of (a) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly DHA and/or EPA, and (b) nucleosides or nucleotides, particularly uridine or its equivalent. The operational activities comprise eating; walking; toileting; bathing; grooming; dressing; use of communication equipment; making conversations; keeping appointments; use of household appliances; cleaning dishes; preparation of meal or drink; writing; reading; independent housekeeping; transportation and shopping.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Groenendijk; Martine (Barendrecht, NL); de Wilde; Mattheus Cornelis (Elst, NL); Hageman; Robert Johan Joseph (Wageningen, NL); Kamphuis; Patrick Joseph Gerardus Hendrikus (Utrecht, NL)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">161</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009awsy.book..351M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Awareness of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Life Activities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The well-publicized aging of Western societies has prompted a growing interest into technologies that support awareness in cross-generational families. The idea of supporting continual and partly automated flow of information between seniors living alone and their social intimates has been gaining ground among researchers but even among industries. It is anticipated that such an information flow can help bridge geographical distance, discrepant lifestyles, and <span class="hlt">daily</span> routines, potentially providing peace of mind to both parties and feelings of being connected.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Metaxas, Georgios; Metin, Barbaros; Schneider, Jutta; Markopoulos, Panos; De Ruyter, Boris</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">162</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48503832"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gender in Spanish <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Newspapers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to examine the portrayal of women and men in a Spanish <span class="hlt">daily</span> newspaper and to find whether there\\u000a were gender differences among the authors of the articles in said newspaper. A content analysis was conducted of 4,060 articles\\u000a and advertisements from 24 issues of a randomly selected, large-circulation, Spanish newspaper. Men were found to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Pilar Matud; Carmen Rodríguez; Inmaculada Espinosa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42080907"> <span id="translatedtitle">Correlation properties of <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature anomalies over land</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several thousands of temperature records from the <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Climatology Network are analysed by means of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Long-range temporal power-law correlations extending up to several years are detected for each station. Contrary to earlier claims, the correlation exponent is not universal for continental locations. Short-range correlations are also evaluated by DFA and by first order autoregressive models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrea Király; Imre Bartos; Imre M. Jánosi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998ThApC..61...77I"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Diffuse Fraction of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Solar Irradianceat a Tropical Location</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The annual and monthly mean diurnal variations of the diffuse fraction of <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> arriving on the ground at a tropical station in Sub-Sahel Africa is here been reported. The monthly mean hourly values of the diffuse fraction (Kd) for such clear-sky months as February, March and November at this location, which approach a minimum at about local noon, are observed to lie generally below 0.50 during the period from 11:00 to 15:00hrs (LST). Consequently, solar concentrators utilising parabolic mirrors are expected to have high performance during these months in this region. Like the mainly-cloudy and wet months (June to August) in which monthly mean hourly values of Kd higher than 0.62 have been recorded, the corresponding diffuse fraction for dust-haze months (mostly December and January) with high turbidity coefficients were generally above 0.50. Monthly mean hourly values of Kd for less cloudy months (April, May, September and October) ranged between 0.48 and 0.77 during the period from 11:00 to 15:00hrs (LST). The effects of atmospheric dust-haze, clouds and albedo on the monthly mean diurnal variation of the diffuse fraction has been discussed. Also reported are the characteristic values of Kd for sets of months with relatively similar atmospheric and sky conditions at this location. The annual variations of the monthly mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> values of Kd which exhibit strong seasonal dependence showed a peak in August for both years. Except for the months of February and March, the monthly mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> totals of Kd exhibited similar annual marches during both years. The major discrepancy in the values of the monthly mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> totals of Kd in both years were recorded in the months of February, November and December, with the corresponding Kd values for these months in both years agreeing only to within 32.9% in February, 15.4% in November and 16.2% in December. Apart from the aforementioned months, the corresponding monthly mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> totals of Kd for the remaining nine months in both years agreed mostly to within less than 8.4%. The least monthly mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> ratios of Kd were obtained in the relatively clear month of November for both years being 0.43 in 1993 and 0.49 in 1994. On an annual average, the diffuse component was found to constitute 59.6% of the <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> arriving on the ground at this region in 1993 and 60.9% in 1994. The results been reported here have been compared with a few others emanating from other tropical stations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Iziomon, M. G.; Aro, T. O.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6498804"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analytical model for the <span class="hlt">daily</span> energy input/output relationship for solar collector systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Input/output regression lines are often used for presentation of solar-collector-array performance from different systems and climates. Usually, for well-performing solar-collector systems, a very linear relationship is experienced between <span class="hlt">daily</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> H and <span class="hlt">daily</span> energy collected Q in an input/output diagram. To explain and analyze the experimental curves, a model is developed based on conventional short-term collector theory.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Perers, B.; Zinko, H.; Holst, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=smoking+AND+survey&pg=5&id=EJ999531"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intent to Quit among <span class="hlt">Daily</span> and Non-<span class="hlt">Daily</span> College Student Smokers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-<span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers (i.e. never <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers), converted non-<span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers (i.e. former <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers) and <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers] and (ii) smoking…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013759"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> cycles in coastal dunes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> cycles of summer sea breezes produce distinctive cyclic foreset deposits in dune sands of the Texas and Oregon coasts. In both areas the winds are strong enough to transport sand only during part of the day, reach a peak during the afternoon, and vary little in direction during the period of sand transport. Cyclicity in the foreset deposits is made evident by variations in the type of sedimentary structure, the texture, and the heavy-mineral content of the sand. Some of the cyclic deposits are made up entirely of one basic type of structure, in which the character of the structure varies cyclically; for example, the angle of climb in a climbing-wind-ripple structure may vary cyclically. Other cyclic deposits are characterized by alternations of two or more structural types. Variations in the concentration of fine-grained heavy minerals, which account for the most striking cyclicity, arise mainly because of segregation on wind-rippled depositional surfaces: where the ripples climb at low angles, the coarsegrained light minerals, which accumulate preferentially on ripple crests, tend to be excluded from the local deposit. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> cyclic deposits are thickest and best developed on small dunes and are least recognizable near the bases of large dunes. ?? 1988.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hunter, R. E.; Richmond, B. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=245022"> <span id="translatedtitle">Once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> aminoglycoside therapy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> administration of aminoglycosides is an attractive concept. In animal experiments and clinical trials, there is either a reduction in or no influence on the risk of toxicity. Less frequent dosing reduces the contact time between host tissue binding sites and drug. Thanks to the PAE and perhaps other as-yet-unrecognized factors, the fall in the level in serum below the MIC does not appear to impair antibacterial efficacy; in fact, the higher peak level in serum may enhance drug efficacy early in a dosage interval. In neutropenic patients, the in vivo PAE may be lost or small-colony variants with a shorter PAE may be selected unless a concomitant beta-lactam is administered. Because it will be some time before data from clinical trials in the United States are available, because the results from the international trials are encouraging, and because there is potential benefit to patients, it seems reasonable for infectious diseases consultants to cautiously initiate the educational process necessary to implement once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> aminoglycoside therapy in their institutions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gilbert, D N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61291072"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> warning, <span class="hlt">global</span> warming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This book provides insights into the formidable array of issues which, in a warmer world, could impinge upon every facet of readers lives. It examines climatic change and long-term implications of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming for the ecosystem. Topics include the ozone layer and how it works; the greenhouse effect; the dangers of imbalance and its effects on human and animal life;</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Benarde</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N7917384"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spectral <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> of Daylight at Durban.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An apparatus and method used to measure the spectral <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> of daylight on a horizontal plane in the 295-775 nm wavelength region are described. Both <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse sky <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> were measured over a period of approximately 12 months. The result...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. J. Kok A. N. Chalmers</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=261016"> <span id="translatedtitle">Emerging issues in food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> research</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ionizing radiation is used on a <span class="hlt">global</span> basis to improve the phytosanitary and microbial safety and shelf-life of foods. In recent years progress has been made in the commercial application of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> to sterilize destructive invasive insects and to <span class="hlt">irradiate</span> produce to improve its microbiologica...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52749815"> <span id="translatedtitle">Photographic <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">I SHALL be obliged if you will allow me space to state more specifically why I am not able to concur in the <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> theory of Mr. Aitken (vol. x. p. 439). I understand from his last letter that he fully agrees with Lord Lindsay and myself as to the cause of the outer <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>, and our only difference of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Cowper Ranyard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1874-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACPD...1231917S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Validation of an hourly resolved <span class="hlt">global</span> aerosol model in answer to solar electricity generation information needs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Solar energy applications need <span class="hlt">global</span> aerosol optical depth (AOD) information to derive historic surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> databases from geostationary meteorological satellites reaching back to the 1980's. This paper validates the MATCH/DLR model originating in the climate community against AERONET ground measurements. Hourly or <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean AOD model output is evaluated individually for all stations in Europe, Africa and the Middle East - an area highly interesting for solar energy applications being partly dominated by high aerosol loads. Overall, a bias of 0.02 and a root mean square error of 0.23 are found for <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean AOD values, while the RMSE increases to 0.28 for hourly mean AOD values. Large differences between various regions and stations are found providing a feedback loop for the aerosol modelling community. The difference in using <span class="hlt">daily</span> means versus hourly resolved modelling with respect to hourly resolved observations is evaluated. Nowadays state of the art in solar resource assessment relies on monthly turbidity or AOD climatologies while at least hourly resolved <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> time series are needed by the solar sector. Therefore, the contribution of higher temporally modelled AOD is evaluated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schroedter-Homscheidt, M.; Oumbe, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACP....13.3777S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Validation of an hourly resolved <span class="hlt">global</span> aerosol model in answer to solar electricity generation information needs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Solar energy applications need <span class="hlt">global</span> aerosol optical depth (AOD) information to derive historic surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> databases from geostationary meteorological satellites reaching back to the 1980's. This paper validates the MATCH/DLR model originating in the climate community against AERONET ground measurements. Hourly or <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean AOD model output is evaluated individually for all stations in Europe, Africa and the Middle East - an area highly interesting for solar energy applications being partly dominated by high aerosol loads. Overall, a bias of 0.02 and a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.23 are found for <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean AOD values, while the RMSE increases to 0.28 for hourly mean AOD values. Large differences between various regions and stations are found providing a feedback loop for the aerosol modelling community. The difference in using <span class="hlt">daily</span> means versus hourly resolved modelling with respect to hourly resolved observations is evaluated. Nowadays state-of-the-art in solar resource assessment relies on monthly turbidity or AOD climatologies while at least hourly resolved <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> time series are needed by the solar sector. Therefore, the contribution of higher temporally modelled AOD is evaluated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schroedter-Homscheidt, M.; Oumbe, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3175955"> <span id="translatedtitle">Brief <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Periods of Unrestricted Vision Preserve Stereopsis in Strabismus</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose. This study examines whether brief periods of binocular vision could preserve stereopsis in monkeys reared with optical strabismus. Methods. Starting at 4 weeks of age, six infant monkeys were reared with a total of 30 prism diopters base-in split between the eyes. Two of the six monkeys wore prisms continuously, one for 4 weeks and one for 6 weeks. Four of the six monkeys wore prisms but had 2 hours of binocular vision <span class="hlt">daily</span>, one for 4, one for 6, and two for 16 weeks. Five normally reared monkeys provided control data. Behavioral methods were used to measure spatial contrast sensitivity, eye alignment, and stereopsis with Gabor and random dot targets. Results. The same pattern of results was evident for both local and <span class="hlt">global</span> stereopsis. For monkeys treated for 4 weeks, <span class="hlt">daily</span> periods of binocular vision rescued stereopsis from the 10-fold reduction observed with continuous optical strabismus. Six weeks of continuous strabismus resulted in stereo blindness, whereas <span class="hlt">daily</span> periods of binocular vision limited the reduction to a twofold loss from normal. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> periods of binocular vision preserved stereopsis over 16 weeks of optical strabismus for one of the two monkeys. Conclusions. Two hours of <span class="hlt">daily</span> binocular vision largely preserves local and <span class="hlt">global</span> stereopsis in monkeys reared with optical strabismus. During early development, the effects of normal vision are weighed more heavily than those of abnormal vision. The manner in which the effects of visual experience are integrated over time reduces the likelihood that brief episodes of abnormal vision will cause abnormal binocular vision development.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, Earl L.; Hung, Li-Fang; Harwerth, Ronald S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2857711"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intraindividual change and variability in <span class="hlt">daily</span> stress processes: Findings from two measurement-burst diary studies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is little longitudinal information on aging-related changes in emotional responses to negative events. The present manuscript examined intraindividual change and variability in the within-person coupling of <span class="hlt">daily</span> stress and negative affect (NA) using data from two-measurement burst <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary studies. Three main findings emerged. First, average reactivity to <span class="hlt">daily</span> stress increased longitudinally, and this increase was evident across most the adult lifespan. Second, individual differences in emotional reactivity to <span class="hlt">daily</span> stress exhibited long-term temporal stability, but this stability was greatest in midlife and decreased in old age. And third, reactivity to <span class="hlt">daily</span> stress varied reliably within-persons (across-time), with individual exhibiting higher levels of reactivity during times when reporting high levels of <span class="hlt">global</span> subject stress in previous month. Taken together, the present results emphasize the importance of modeling dynamic psychosocial and aging processes that operate across different time scales for understanding age-related changes in <span class="hlt">daily</span> stress processes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sliwinski, Martin J.; Almeida, David M.; Smyth, Joshua; Stawski, Robert S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009NW.....96.1235G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hibernation and <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor minimize mammalian extinctions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Small mammals appear to be less vulnerable to extinction than large species, but the underlying reasons are poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that almost all (93.5%) of 61 recently extinct mammal species were homeothermic, maintaining a constant high body temperature and thus energy expenditure, which demands a high intake of food, long foraging times, and thus exposure to predators. In contrast, only 6.5% of extinct mammals were likely heterothermic and employed multi-day torpor (hibernation) or <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor, even though torpor is widespread within more than half of all mammalian orders. Torpor is characterized by substantial reductions of body temperature and energy expenditure and enhances survival during adverse conditions by minimizing food and water requirements, and consequently reduces foraging requirements and exposure to predators. Moreover, because life span is generally longer in heterothermic mammals than in related homeotherms, heterotherms can employ a ‘sit-and-wait’ strategy to withstand adverse periods and then repopulate when circumstances improve. Thus, torpor is a crucial but hitherto unappreciated attribute of small mammals for avoiding extinction. Many opportunistic heterothermic species, because of their plastic energetic requirements, may also stand a better chance of future survival than homeothermic species in the face of greater climatic extremes and changes in environmental conditions caused by <span class="hlt">global</span> warming.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Geiser, Fritz; Turbill, Christopher</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://wuecon.wustl.edu/~lsaarine/news.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Daily</span> News - Free Internet Sources</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Daily</span> News - Free Internet Sources. A catalog of those sites on the Internet that provide significant business and economic news on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis, without charge. Includes publications organized by geographic regions around the world.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/resourcesforyou/consumers/buyingusingmedicinesafely/understandingover-the-countermedicines/safeuseofover-the-counterpainrelieversandfeverreducers/ucm232896.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Medicine Record for Your Child</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://google2.fda.gov/search?client=FDAgov&site=FDAgov&lr=&proxystylesheet=FDAgov&output=xml_no_dtd&&proxycustom=%3CADVANCED/%3E">Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Text VersionPage 1. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Medicine Record for Your Child Why should I keep a <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Medicine Record for My Child? • To keep your child safe. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/resourcesforyou</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/alzheimers-caregiver/HO00125/METHOD=print"> <span id="translatedtitle">Alzheimer's Care: Simple Tips for <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Tasks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Alzheimer's care: Simple tips for <span class="hlt">daily</span> tasks By Mayo Clinic ... share your e-mail address Sign up Alzheimer's care: Simple tips for <span class="hlt">daily</span> tasks Alzheimer's caregiving takes ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://gerontology.ssri.psu.edu/nsde/papers/Mroczek%20and%20Almeida%20%282004%29.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Stress, Personality, and Age on <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Negative Affect</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The current study examined whether stress reactivity becomes stronger or weaker with age. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> stress and <span class="hlt">daily</span> negative affect were modeled using 1,012 subjects from the National Study of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Events (NSDE), an 8-day <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary study. Age ranged from 25 to 74. Data were modeled using within-person HLM techniques. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> stress and neuroticism interacted in their effect on <span class="hlt">daily</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daniel K. Mroczek; David M. Almeida</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.epa.gov/owow/tmdl/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Total Maximum <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Load Program</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides this informative resource on Total Maximum <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Loads (TMDL). A term used to discuss water quality, TMDL refers to "a calculation of the maximum amount of a pollutant that a water body can receive and still meet water quality standards." The TMDL Program Website offers background information on TMDLs (including FAQs), a National Overview of Impaired Waters in the US, and two standard presentations on TMDLs (HTML and Power Point). The heart of the site, however, is the interactive map of the US, which allows users access to each state's TMDL Program. Within each state, watershed names and maps, as well as source information (Water body, Parameter of Concern, Priority for TMDL Development), are provided.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.scitechdaily.com/"> <span id="translatedtitle">SciTech <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Review</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Users wishing quick and easy access to some of the best writing online will want to examine this site. Scitech <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Review, updated four days per week offers links to articles, new book notices and reviews, and essays and opinion pieces for the fields of science and technology. The site does not provide original content, but rather mines a wide array of online newspapers, journals, and other publications and offer links with very brief introductions to the "precious nuggets of real content" on the Web. In addition, the site provides a linked list of the publications and columnists used to glean the reports as well as an archive of past features. Certainly few users will find all of the pieces interesting or pertinent, but the quantity and variety of content and the frequency with which it is updated guarantee that there will be something for almost anyone.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/264311"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">daily</span> changing pattern of hydrogen peroxide in New Zealand surface waters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Concerns are rising about a <span class="hlt">global</span> change of climate, which is based on changes of UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, rainfall, and temperature for example. One possible impact of increased UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on lake ecosystems is increased formation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Studies on the temporal and spatial behavior of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in lake waters may be a precondition for a better understanding of the impact of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} on aquatic ecosystems. Concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) were measured during daytime every 2 h at several depths in a catena of lakes of different trophic states including oligotrophic lakes Selfe and Oxbow, eutrophic Lake Hayes, dystrophic Lake Hochstetter, and a hypertrophic oxidation pond. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> patterns of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} of the various lakes can be explained firstly by the turnover regime of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} which results out of simultaneous biological or chemical decay and formation yield (ratio of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} formed per UV radiation dose) and secondly by internal transport. As in dystrophic, eutrophic, and hypertrophic lakes with high turnover, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is formed near the surface and the decay is rapid over the entire water column, a H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pattern with sharp temporal and vertical gradients develops. In contrast, oligotrophic lakes allow deeper penetration of UV radiation, thus H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is formed over greater depths. Further, the (biological) decay is slower than in lakes of higher trophic state leading to less sharp gradients within the <span class="hlt">daily</span> H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pattern. Input of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by wet deposition can contribute considerably to the increase of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in lakes, whereas dry deposition and groundwater flow do not.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Herrmann, R. [Univ. Bayreuth (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Hydrologie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRA..118..515X"> <span id="translatedtitle">The longitudinal variation of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean thermospheric mass density</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study uses the GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) and CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload) accelerometer measurements from 2003 to 2008. These measurements gave thermospheric mass densities at ~480 km (GRACE) and ~380 km (CHAMP), respectively. We found that there are strong longitude variations in the <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean thermospheric mass density. These variations are <span class="hlt">global</span> and have the similar characteristics at the two heights under geomagnetically quiet conditions (Ap < 10). The largest relative longitudinal changes of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean thermospheric mass density occur at high latitudes from October to February in the Northern Hemisphere and from March to September in the Southern Hemisphere. The positive density peaks locate always near the magnetic poles. The high density regions extend toward lower latitudes and even into the opposite hemisphere. This extension appears to be tilted westward, but mostly is confined to the longitudes where the magnetic poles are located. Thus, the relative longitudinal changes of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean thermospheric mass density have strong seasonal variations and show an annual oscillation at high and middle latitudes but a semiannual oscillation around the equator. Our results suggest that heating of the magnetospheric origin in the auroral region is most likely the cause of these observed longitudinal structures. Our results also show that the relative longitude variation of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean thermospheric mass density is hemispherically asymmetric and more pronounced in the Southern Hemisphere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xu, Jiyao; Wang, Wenbin; Gao, Hong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fda.gov/downloads/food/resourcesforyou/consumers/ucm262295.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Food <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://google2.fda.gov/search?client=FDAgov&site=FDAgov&lr=&proxystylesheet=FDAgov&output=xml_no_dtd&&proxycustom=%3CADVANCED/%3E">Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Text Version... longevity. • Sterilization – <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> can be used to sterilize foods, which can then be stored for years without refrigeration. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/resourcesforyou</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dceg.cancer.gov/research/what-we-study/environment/tonsil-irradiation"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tonsil <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.cancer.gov">Cancer.gov</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A cohort of about 3,000 individuals who were <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> during childhood for benign head and neck conditions at Michael Reese Hospital was assembled and monitored for the risk of thyroid and other cancers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14706037"> <span id="translatedtitle">Visual stimuli in <span class="hlt">daily</span> life.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">People of all ages, but especially children and adolescents, are increasingly exposed to visual stimuli. Typical environmental stimuli that can trigger epileptic seizures in susceptible persons are televisions (TVs), computers, videogames (VGs), discothèque lights, venetian blinds, striped walls, rolling stairs (escalators), striped clothing, and sunlight reflected from snow or the sea or interrupted by trees during a ride in a car or train. Less common stimuli are rotating helicopter blades, disfunctioning fluorescent lighting, welding lights, etc. New potentially provocative devices turn up now and then unexpectedly. During the last decades especially, displays have become increasingly dominant in many of our <span class="hlt">daily</span>-life activities. We therefore focus mainly on the characteristics of artificial light and on current and future developments in video displays and videogames. Because VG playing has been shown also to have positive effects, a rating system might be developed for provocativeness to inform consumers about the content. It is important that patients with epilepsy be informed adequately about their possible visual sensitivity. PMID:14706037</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, Dorothée G A; van der Beld, Gerrit; Heynderickx, Ingrid; Groen, Paul</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5317497"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> warning, <span class="hlt">global</span> warming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This book provides insights into the formidable array of issues which, in a warmer world, could impinge upon every facet of readers lives. It examines climatic change and long-term implications of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming for the ecosystem. Topics include the ozone layer and how it works; the greenhouse effect; the dangers of imbalance and its effects on human and animal life; disruptions to the basic ecology of the planet; and the real scientific evidence for and against aberrant climatic shifts. The author also examines workable social and political programs and changes that must be instituted to avoid ecological disaster.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Benarde, M.A. (Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JHyd..327..389L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cokriging estimation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> suspended sediment loads</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> suspended sediment loads (S) were estimated using cokriging (CK) of S with <span class="hlt">daily</span> river discharge based on weekly, biweekly, or monthly sampled sediment data. They were also estimated with ordinary kriging (OK) and a rating curve method. The estimated <span class="hlt">daily</span> loads were compared with the <span class="hlt">daily</span> measured values over a nine-year-period. The results show that the estimated <span class="hlt">daily</span> sediment loads with the CK using the weekly measured data best matched the measured <span class="hlt">daily</span> values. The rating curve method based on the same data provides a fairly good match but it tends to underestimate the peak and overestimate the low values. The CK estimation was better than the rating curve because CK considers the temporal correlation among the data values and honors the measured points whereas the rating curve method does not. For the site studied, weekly sampling may be frequent enough for estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> sediment loads with CK when <span class="hlt">daily</span> discharge data is available. The estimated <span class="hlt">daily</span> loads with CK were less reliable when the sediment samples were taken less frequently, i.e., biweekly or monthly. The OK estimates using the weekly measured data significantly underestimates the <span class="hlt">daily</span> S because unlike CK and the rating curve, OK makes no use of the correlation of sediment loads with frequently measured river discharge.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Zhongwei; Zhang, You-Kuan; Schilling, Keith; Skopec, Mary</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.11.028"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cokriging estimation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> suspended sediment loads</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> suspended sediment loads (S) were estimated using cokriging (CK) of S with <span class="hlt">daily</span> river discharge based on weekly, biweekly, or monthly sampled sediment data. They were also estimated with ordinary kriging (OK) and a rating curve method. The estimated <span class="hlt">daily</span> loads were compared with the <span class="hlt">daily</span> measured values over a nine-year-period. The results show that the estimated <span class="hlt">daily</span> sediment loads with the CK using the weekly measured data best matched the measured <span class="hlt">daily</span> values. The rating curve method based on the same data provides a fairly good match but it tends to underestimate the peak and overestimate the low values. The CK estimation was better than the rating curve because CK considers the temporal correlation among the data values and honors the measured points whereas the rating curve method does not. For the site studied, weekly sampling may be frequent enough for estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> sediment loads with CK when <span class="hlt">daily</span> discharge data is available. The estimated <span class="hlt">daily</span> loads with CK were less reliable when the sediment samples were taken less frequently, i.e., biweekly or monthly. The OK estimates using the weekly measured data significantly underestimates the <span class="hlt">daily</span> S because unlike CK and the rating curve, OK makes no use of the correlation of sediment loads with frequently measured river discharge. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Z.; Zhang, Y. -K.; Schilling, K.; Skopec, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/n36n524712487633.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flexibility in <span class="hlt">daily</span> travel routines causes regional variation in bird migration speed</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We used novel <span class="hlt">Global</span> Positioning System-based satellite telemetry to reconstruct <span class="hlt">daily</span> time budgets on travelling days of\\u000a a long-distance migrant, the Osprey Pandion haliaetus, to reveal how landscape affects migratory performance. We compared <span class="hlt">daily</span> travel routines between the Ospreys’ passage of\\u000a Europe and the Sahara. In Europe, where feeding habitat is abundant, Ospreys fed both before–after flights and during interruptions,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Raymond H. G. Klaassen; Roine Strandberg; Mikael Hake; Thomas Alerstam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=250326"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> canopy interception from satellite observations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new methodology for retrieving rainfall interception rates from multi satellite observations is presented. The approach makes use of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> productof the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) as driving data and applies Gash’s analytical model to derive interception rates at <span class="hlt">global</span> sc...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=consumerism&pg=5&id=EJ839706"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> and the Experiences of Aging</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|<span class="hlt">Globalization</span> is a product of urbanization and economic intensification which has escalated since the 1970s. <span class="hlt">Globalized</span> markets have created many of the features of modern life including consumerism, increased cultural homogeneity, increased social polarization, erosion of the sovereignty of nation states, and delocalization of <span class="hlt">daily</span> life. The…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fry, Christine L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40754144"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of NASA satellite- and assimilation model-derived long-term <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature data over the continental US</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Agricultural research increasingly is expected to provide precise, quantitative information with an explicit geographic coverage. Limited availability of <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological records often constrains efforts to provide such information through use of simulation models, spatial analysis, and related decision support tools. The Prediction Of Worldwide Energy Resources (NASA\\/POWER) project at the NASA Langley Research Center provides <span class="hlt">daily</span> data <span class="hlt">globally</span> for maximum</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jeffrey W. White; Gerrit Hoogenboom; Paul W. Stackhouse; James M. Hoell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Co-op&id=EJ961917"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mastering Social and Organization Goals: Strategy Use by Two Children with Asperger Syndrome during Cognitive Orientation to <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Occupational Performance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Preliminary data supports the effectiveness of Cognitive Orientation to (<span class="hlt">daily</span>) Occupational Performance (CO-OP) for children with Asperger syndrome (AS). Children with AS often experience social and organizational difficulties spanning <span class="hlt">daily</span> occupations. This case study explored the pattern of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Strategies and Domain-Specific Strategies…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rodger, Sylvia; Vishram, Alysha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61370323"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clinical experience with <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> of inflammatory carcinoma of the breast with and without elective chemotherapy. [. gamma. rays; effects of chemotherapy on incidence of late complications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">From 1948 to 1972, 69 patients with inflammatory carcinoma of the breast were treated with <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> alone. Because of a 46% incidence of local-regional failure, twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> fractionated <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> was given in 1972 to 11 patients; a decrease in local-regional failures (27%) was achieved. From 1973 through December 1976, preirradiation multidrug chemotherapy was added to the twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> fractionated <span class="hlt">irradiation</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. L. Barker; E. D. Montague; L. J. Peters</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cgge.aag.org/GlobalEconomy1e/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Economy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This learning module from the Association of American Geographer's Center for <span class="hlt">Global</span> Geography Education looks into the geographic characteristics of the <span class="hlt">global</span> economy and the processes linking economic activities at local, regional, and <span class="hlt">global</span> scales. Four case studies are included in the learning unit, each focusing on a different region (New Zealand, Chile, Central and South America, East/Southeast Asia).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22HRMS%22&pg=6&id=ED428216"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> HRD.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|This document contains four papers from a symposium on <span class="hlt">global</span> human resource development (HRD). "<span class="hlt">Globalization</span> of Human Resource Management (HRM) in Government: A Cross-Cultural Perspective" (Pan Suk Kim) relates HRM to national cultures and addresses its specific functional aspects with a unique dimension in a <span class="hlt">global</span> organization. "An…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">1997</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....5799T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reconstruction of erythemal UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at Hohenpeissenberg (1968-2001) considering trends of total ozone, cloudiness, and turbidity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">global</span> mean total column ozone amount for the period 1997-2001 was approximately 3% below the 1964-1980 average. The largest ozone decreases in the northern hemisphere midlatitudes are observed during winter-spring (˜4%), with summer-autumn decreases approximately half as large. Total ozone measured at Hohenpeissenberg, Germany (48^oN, 11^oE) shows a strong decrease by about 10% since 1968, representing the long-term downward trend over Central Europe. The main consequence of this phenomenon is the expected increase of solar ultraviolet <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> (UV-B) reaching the Earth's surface with the known harmful effects on the biosphere. <span class="hlt">Global</span> data records of reliable routine observations of UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> are still too short for accurate estimation of long-term UV variations and trends. While direct UV mesaurements at Hohenpeissenberg are available only since 1990, the long-term development of UV-B have to be reconstructed. Besides on the amount of total ozone the UV <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> at the ground depends also on atmospheric turbidity and cloudiness. The reconstruction method is based on statistical correlations of measured UV-B data with the influencing parameters total ozone, turbidity and cloud modification factors derived from eye-observations in connection with total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> data. These observed data allow a realistic reconstruction of the UV-B time series, since no assumption on these influencing data have to be made. A model is presented, using hourly observed spectral UV-B <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (1990-1998), total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, total ozone amount (<span class="hlt">daily</span> mean) and clouds to derive erythemal UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and <span class="hlt">daily</span> doses at Hohenpeissenberg in the period 1968-2001. A comparison with recorded UV data shows good agreement. Due to long-term total ozone loss, peak values of erythemal UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> in spring and summer at clear-sky conditions have strongly increased (+4.2%/decade in June). Mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> doses have also increased in this season (+5.4%/decade in May) but meteorological changes like reduced sunshine duration and increased cloudiness lead to a partly compensation of the ozone-loss effect in spring and to an overcompensation in autumn, where we found a long-term decrease of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> dose (-3.0%/decade in September). Model calculations also demonstrate large year-to-year fluctuations of UV doses induced by meteorological variability, which exceed the long-term trend of the various months significantly. Nevertheless, this investigation has shown that on a long-term time scale the <span class="hlt">daily</span> doses develop in a different way as compared to the peak values because the reasons for ozone decline (anthropogenic CFC's) and the cloud cover (hydrological cycle changes due to greenhouse effect) are caused by different phenomena.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Trepte, S.; Winkler, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" 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onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59523195"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stochastic Modelling of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Rainfall sequences</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rainfall series of different climatic regions were analysed with the aim of generating <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall sequences. A survey of the data is given in I, 1. When analysing <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall sequences one must be aware of the following points:a. Seasonality. Because of seasonal variation of features of the rainfall process the analysis is done for each month or season separately</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. A. Buishand</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=hunger+AND+in+AND+the+AND+united+AND+states&pg=4&id=ED297371"> <span id="translatedtitle">How the <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Press Looks at Hunger.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Utilizing both content analysis of 139 editorials appearing in 19 United States <span class="hlt">daily</span> newspapers and the results of a survey of 146 newspaper editors, a study asked three questions: (1) To what extent is hunger covered in the news and editorial columns of U.S. <span class="hlt">daily</span> newspapers? (2) How is hunger defined as a problem in terms of its causes in those…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robinson, Sondra G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.science.mcmaster.ca/geo/faculty/coulibaly/WRHML/Publications/Publications/Coulibaly_GRL31.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Downscaling <span class="hlt">daily</span> extreme temperatures with genetic programming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A context-free genetic programming (GP) method is presented that simulated local scale <span class="hlt">daily</span> extreme (maximum and minimum) temperatures based on large scale atmospheric variables. The method evolves simple and optimal models for downscaling <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature at a station. The advantage of the context-free GP method is that both the variables and constants of the candidate models are optimized and consequently</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paulin Coulibaly</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=personal+AND+hygiene&pg=7&id=ED047466"> <span id="translatedtitle">Techniques for <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Living: Curriculum Guides.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Presented are specific guides concerning techniques for <span class="hlt">daily</span> living which were developed by the child care staff at the Illinois Braille and Sight Saving School. The guides are designed for cottage parents of the children, who may have both visual and other handicaps, and show what <span class="hlt">daily</span> living skills are necessary and appropriate for the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wooldridge, Lillian; And Others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Hunger+AND+in+AND+America&id=ED297371"> <span id="translatedtitle">How the <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Press Looks at Hunger.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Utilizing both content analysis of 139 editorials appearing in 19 United States <span class="hlt">daily</span> newspapers and the results of a survey of 146 newspaper editors, a study asked three questions: (1) To what extent is hunger covered in the news and editorial columns of U.S. <span class="hlt">daily</span> newspapers? (2) How is hunger defined as a problem in terms of its causes in…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robinson, Sondra G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=meditation&pg=4&id=EJ995012"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Spiritual Experiences and Prosocial Behavior</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|This paper examines how the <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES) relates to range of prosocial behaviors, using a large, nationally representative U.S. data set. It finds that <span class="hlt">daily</span> spiritual experiences are a statistically and substantively significant predictor of volunteering, charitable giving, and helping individuals one knows…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Einolf, Christopher J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37075836"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neurons and networks in <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biological pacemakers dictate our <span class="hlt">daily</span> schedules in physiology and behaviour. The molecules, cells and networks that underlie these circadian rhythms can now be monitored using long-term cellular imaging and electrophysiological tools, and initial studies have already suggested a theme — circadian clocks may be crucial for widespread changes in brain activity and plasticity. These <span class="hlt">daily</span> changes can modify the amount</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Erik D. Herzog</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=exercise+AND+recommendations&pg=4&id=EJ808928"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Oral Language: Is It Effective?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|This study examines the <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Oral Language (DOL) program aimed at helping students learn mechanics of writing through <span class="hlt">daily</span> editing exercises. This nine-month study sought to determine if DOL improved editing skills and actual writing skills of seventy fourth-grade students. While the results of this study did not statistically demonstrate the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Whittingham, Jeff L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20850268"> <span id="translatedtitle">Whole-abdomen radiotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma using twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> fractionation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: To report the tolerability and efficacy of twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> whole-abdomen <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> (WAI) for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Methods and Materials: Of 123 patients treated for NHL with WAI, 37% received previous chemotherapy, 28% received WAI as part of comprehensive lymphatic <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> (CLI), and 32% received WAI for palliation. The median dose to the whole abdomen was 25.0 Gy, followed by a median tumor boost of 9.8 Gy in 58 patients. Fractionation was 1.0 Gy once <span class="hlt">daily</span> (54%) or 0.8 Gy twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> (46%). Blood counts were measured weekly. Results: At a median follow-up of 4.3 years, local control was 72% and overall survival was 55% at 5 years. Median time of WAI was 42 days for once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> treatment and 32 days for twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> treatment. Patients receiving twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> WAI did not have a significantly higher rate of acute side effects (e.g., nausea, diarrhea, platelet or red blood cell toxicity). Overall, acute thrombocytopenia was the most frequent side effect of treatment; 24 of 96 patients (25%) with available hematologic data had Grade 3+ toxicity. There was no acute Grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity and no late small bowel obstruction. Multiple regression indicated that patients with four or less involved sites and disease size {<=}6 cm had improved local control and overall survival. Conclusions: Twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> WAI using 0.8 Gy/fraction does not appear to have any greater toxicity compared with once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> treatment using 1 Gy/fraction. Small doses per fraction (0.8-1 Gy/fx) are effective, tolerated well in the acute setting, and associated with a low rate of late toxicity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liauw, Stanley L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Yeh, Alexander M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clarian Health Methodist-IU-Riley Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Morris, Christopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Olivier, Kenneth R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Mendenhall, Nancy Price [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States)]. E-mail: mendenan@shands.ufl.edu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5062474"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diffuse solar radiation-<span class="hlt">daily</span> and monthly values as affected by snow cover</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is generally recognized that surface albedo (terrain reflectance) has a significant effect on the diffuse fraction of <span class="hlt">global</span> radiation. In colder climates, ground snow cover could be expected to alter the terrain reflectance significantly. The objective of this paper was to study the effect of ground snow cover on the diffuse fraction of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> and the monthly average <span class="hlt">global</span> radiation and to develop empirical relationships which would permit the calculation of the diffuse solar component.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kierkus, W.T.; Colborne, W.G. (Univ. of Windsor, Ontario (Canada))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5227815"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gamma <span class="hlt">irradiators</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The commercial use of gamma radiation to sterilize medical equipment and supplies began in the late 1950s. This article describes the basic technology and design aspects of commercial <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> facilities. It explains the safety features and interlocks which protect workers, the public, and the environment from radiation and radioactive material.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cuda, J.; McKinnon, R.G. (Nordion International Inc. (US)); Baker, P.G. (Baxter/Convertors (US))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54509273"> <span id="translatedtitle">Photographic <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">FOR the purpose of determining whether any sensible amount of the photographic <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> surrounding the image of a bright object could be traced to an action taking place within the thickness of the collodion film, I some time ago tried an experiment in many respects similar to that detailed by Mr. Aitken in your last number (vol. x. p. 185).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Cowper Ranyard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1874-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42529164"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intercomparison and evaluation of <span class="hlt">global</span> sea surface temperature products</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">To clarify the characteristics of <span class="hlt">global</span> sea surface temperature (SST) products, we have compared the Reynolds product with four other products: the Center for Atmospheric and Oceanic Studies (CAOS) SST, the microwave optimum interpolation (MWOI) SST, the merged satellite and in?situ data <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">daily</span> (MGD) SST and the real time <span class="hlt">global</span> (RTG) SST. Furthermore, we have validated these five products</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Iwasaki; M. Kubota; H. Tomita</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58895150"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mental Models that Impede Business’ Role in <span class="hlt">Global</span> Poverty Alleviation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Six defective mental models that obstruct multinational enterprises from efforts at <span class="hlt">global</span> poverty alleviation are identified. These include mindsets that define poverty in terms of individual <span class="hlt">daily</span> earnings, that contend that <span class="hlt">global</span> poverty is unsolvable, and frame <span class="hlt">global</span> poverty as a human rights issue. In addition, there are the biased mental models that contend that the poor are incapable, that</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">dennis moberg; laura hartman; patricia werhane; scott kelley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48697397"> <span id="translatedtitle">A randomised, multinational study with sequential therapy comparing ciprofloxacin twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> and ofloxacin once <span class="hlt">daily</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary In a multinational, open, randomised, controlled clinical study, 474 hospitalised patients with moderate or severe infections were treated with sequential regimens of ofloxacin or ciprofloxacin. Ofloxacin 400 mg once <span class="hlt">daily</span> or ciprofloxacin 200 mg twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> were given intravenously for at least 3 days followed by oral treatment with ofloxacin 400 mg once <span class="hlt">daily</span> or ciprofloxacin 500 mg twice</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. Bassaris; E. Akalin; Semra Calangu; Ruth Kitzes; J. Kosmidis; M. Milicevic; H. Noack; E. Salewski; R. Raz; M. Sukalo; Lucka Tos; A. Tourkantonis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22leisure%22&pg=7&id=EJ956697"> <span id="translatedtitle">Deriving <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Purpose through <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Events and Role Fulfillment among Asian American Youth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Establishing life purpose is a key developmental task; however, how it is linked to adolescents' everyday family, school, extracurricular, and leisure experiences remains unclear. Using <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary data from 180 Asian American ninth and tenth graders (50% ninth; 58% female; 25% first generation), <span class="hlt">daily</span> purpose was positively related to <span class="hlt">daily</span>…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kiang, Lisa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=week&pg=2&id=EJ959374"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adolescent <span class="hlt">Daily</span> and General Maladjustment: Is There Reactivity to <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Repeated Measures Methodologies?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|The present study examined whether repeated exposure to <span class="hlt">daily</span> surveys about negative social experiences predicts changes in adolescents' <span class="hlt">daily</span> and general maladjustment, and whether question content moderates these changes. Across a 2-week period, 6th-grade students (N = 215; mode age = 11) completed 5 <span class="hlt">daily</span> reports tapping experienced or…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nishina, Adrienne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1590339"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pharmacokinetics and antibacterial activity of <span class="hlt">daily</span> gentamicin.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Twenty full term neonates with suspected bacterial infection were randomly assigned to a once <span class="hlt">daily</span> or a twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> dosage regimen with gentamicin (4 mg/kg/day). Concomitantly all patients were treated with ampicillin (200 mg/kg/day). The gentamicin concentration time curves were analysed by an open two compartment model under steady state conditions on day 4 of treatment. The mean theoretical maximum serum concentration in the group taking gentamicin once <span class="hlt">daily</span> (10.9 micrograms/ml) was significantly higher than in the group taking it twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> (7.4 micrograms/ml). Potentially toxic serum concentrations were never reached. Mean trough concentrations were comparable in both groups (once <span class="hlt">daily</span> 0.8 micrograms/ml; twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> 1.0 micrograms/ml). Urinary alanine aminopeptidase excretion increased during and even two days after end of treatment in both groups without any significant differences. The results of the dynamic in vitro model revealed that both dosage schedules showed comparable bactericidal effects on pathogens inhibited by low concentrations of gentamicin like Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. However the once <span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen was significantly superior in isolates with high minimal inhibitory concentrations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Skopnik, H; Wallraf, R; Nies, B; Troster, K; Heimann, G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513756V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Parallel measurements to study inhomogeneities in <span class="hlt">daily</span> data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> datasets have become a focus of climate research because they are essential for studying the variability and extremes in weather and climate. However, all long observational climate records are usually affected by changes due to nonclimatic factors and looking at the known physical causes of inhomogeneities, one would even expect that many causes especially affect the tails of the distribution. Fortunately, the number of national and regional homogenized <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature datasets is increasing, but still many <span class="hlt">daily</span> datasets are not homogenized or limited to adjustments on the mean of the distribution. In this literature review we investigate the physical causes of inhomogeneities and how they affect the distribution with respect to its mean and its tails. We review what is known about changes in the distribution from parallel measurements with historical measurement setups. We discuss the state of the art in the homogenization of the distribution and provide an overview of the quality of available datasets that are often used for studies on changes in extremes and of well-homogenized dataset. As expected, this review shows that the tails are even more affected by changes in monitoring practices than the means. Given the strong interest in studying changes in variability and extreme weather and the strong inhomogeneity in the raw data, the homogenization of <span class="hlt">daily</span> data and the development of better methods should have a high research priority. This research would be much facilitated by a <span class="hlt">global</span> reference database with parallel measurements. The climate community, and especially those involved in homogenization, bias correction and the evaluation of uncertainties, should take an active role to foster the compilation of such reference database.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Venema, Victor; Aguilar, Enric; Auchmann, Renate; Auer, Ingebor; Brandsma, Theo; Chimani, Barbara; Gilabert, Alba; Mestre, Olivier; Toreti, Andrea</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17002070"> <span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Daily</span> life activities following cerebrovascular infarct].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cerebro-vascular disease is the first cause of handicap in France. Disabilities in <span class="hlt">daily</span> life activities are due to motor, visual and cognitive impairments following a stroke. Difficulties arise while grooming, getting dressed, eating, moving around ... the WHO presents with a new classification of functioning, that has been followed by a recent law in France. The aim is to place the handicapped citizen in <span class="hlt">daily</span> life and not just to list his/her deficiencies. Rehabilitation after stroke has to establish functional objectives early so as to include <span class="hlt">daily</span> life goals in re-education. PMID:17002070</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pradat-Diehl, Pascale; Peskine, Anne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA096847"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Association between Perceptions of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Experiences and Self- and Spouse-Rated Mood.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A recent study by Rehm (1978) reported strong associations between the <span class="hlt">daily</span> report of pleasant and unpleasant events and a <span class="hlt">global</span> mood rating. This study examined desirable and undesirable events in an effort to replicate and extend Rehm's work by having...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. A. Stone</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32887890"> <span id="translatedtitle">Treatment of Postoperative Infections with a Single <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Dose of Ceftriaxone: Analysis of International Issues</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The results of 13 clinical trials were analysed in order to define the efficacy of ceftriaxone (Rocephin®) when given alone and in a single <span class="hlt">daily</span> dose in the treatment of postoperative infections. In a total of 306 evaluable patients, many of whom were suffering from severe infections, the <span class="hlt">global</span> clinical success rate was about 90 %. The drug was very</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Germiniani</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://web.bu.edu/alzresearch/team/faculty/documents/JeffersonBarakatetal2006ObjectperceptionimpairmentspredictIADLs.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Object Perception Impairments Predict Instrumental Activities of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Living Dependence in Alzheimer's Disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study examined the contribution of object perception and spatial localization to functional dependence among Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Forty patients with probable AD completed measures assessing verbal recognition memory, working memory, object perception, spatial localization, semantic knowledge, and <span class="hlt">global</span> cognition. Primary caregivers completed a measure of activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living (ADLs) that included instrumental and basic self-care subscales (i.e.,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Angela L. Jefferson; Lamia P. Barakat; Tania Giovannetti; Robert H. Paul; Guila Glosser</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48927958"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of six methods for the interpolation of <span class="hlt">daily</span>, European climate data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We compare versions of six interpolation methods for the interpolation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation, mean, minimum and maximum temperature, and sea level pressure from station data over Europe from 1961 to 1990. The interpolation methods evaluated are <span class="hlt">global</span> and local kriging, two versions of angular distance weighting, natural neighbor interpolation, regression, 2D and 3D thin plate splines, and conditional interpolation. We</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nynke Hofstra; Malcolm Haylock; Mark New; Phil Jones; Christoph Frei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jd/jd0724/2007JD008830/2007JD008830.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Validation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> erythemal doses from Ozone Monitoring Instrument with ground-based UV measurement data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Dutch-Finnish Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the NASA EOS Aura spacecraft is a nadir viewing spectrometer that measures solar reflected and backscattered light in a selected range of the ultraviolet and visible spectrum. The instrument has a 2600 km wide viewing swath and it is capable of <span class="hlt">daily</span>, <span class="hlt">global</span> contiguous mapping. The Finnish Meteorological Institute and NASA Goddard</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aapo Tanskanen; Anders Lindfors; Anu Määttä; Nickolay Krotkov; Jay Herman; Jussi Kaurola; Tapani Koskela; Kaisa Lakkala; Vitali Fioletov; Germar Bernhard; Richard McKenzie; Yutaka Kondo; Michael O'Neill; Harry Slaper; Peter den Outer; Alkiviadis F. Bais; Johanna Tamminen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26520383"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the performance of three diffuse hourly <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> models on tilted surfaces according to the utilizability concept</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The performance of three diffuse hourly <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> models on tilted surfaces was evaluated by making a database of hourly <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> on a horizontal surface, as well as <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> on a tilted surface, recorded in a solar radiation station located at Córdoba University (Spain).The method for a comparison of the performance of these models was</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Posadillo; R. López Luque</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2011105345"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Marijuana Users. The NSDUH Report.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Marijuana use impairs physical and mental health, cognitive abilities, career status, and social life. Heavy marijuana use critically lowers learning skills, and <span class="hlt">daily</span> use may result in overall reduced intellectual functioning. The National Survey on Drug...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ofmpub.epa.gov/sor_internet/registry/termreg/searchandretrieve/glossariesandkeywordlists/search.do?details=&glossaryName=Sediment%20TMDLs%20(Oct%201999)"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sediment Total Maximum <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Loads (TMDLs) Glossary</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Water Quality:  The biological, chemical, and physical conditions of a waterbody. It is a measure of a waterbody's ability to support beneficial uses.   From Sediment Total Maximum <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Loads (TMDLs) Glossary  -  Search all glossaries for terms containing water quality</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA496152"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Knowledge 'Vitamin': A Development Guide.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In October 2000, a two-week pilot study was conducted to test an innovative methodology to keep Department of Defense linguists' language skills current. The program provided brief, email-delivered, <span class="hlt">daily</span> language lessons, or 'vitamins,' while also encour...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. B. Supinski</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16260397"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> and the experiences of aging.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> is a product of urbanization and economic intensification which has escalated since the 1970s. <span class="hlt">Globalized</span> markets have created many of the features of modern life including consumerism, increased cultural homogeneity, increased social polarization, erosion of the sovereignty of nation states, and delocalization of <span class="hlt">daily</span> life. The consequences of <span class="hlt">globalization</span> for older people are primarily disadvantageous. Most notably is the restructuring of the redistributive economy. The <span class="hlt">globalization</span> of labor results in lower wages and marked social stratification. Also family life is altered with fewer relatives who must balance work and family obligations. PMID:16260397</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fry, Christine L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23197630"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intent to quit among <span class="hlt">daily</span> and non-<span class="hlt">daily</span> college student smokers.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-<span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers (i.e. never <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers), converted non-<span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers (i.e. former <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers) and <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers] and (ii) smoking category as it relates to readiness to quit among current smokers. Of the 4438 students at six Southeast colleges who completed an online survey, 69.7% (n = 3094) were non-smokers, 6.6% (n = 293) were quitters, 7.1% (n = 317) were native non-<span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers, 6.4% (n = 283) were converted non-<span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers and 10.2% (n = 451) were <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers. There were differences in sociodemographics, substance use (alcohol, marijuana, other tobacco products) in the past 30 days and psychosocial factors among these subgroups of students (P < 0.001). Among current smokers, there were differences in cigarettes smoked per day, recent quit attempts, self-identification as a smoker, self-efficacy and motivation to quit (P < 0.001). After controlling for important factors, converted non-<span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers were more likely to be ready to quit in the next month versus native non-<span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers (OR = 2.15, CI 1.32-3.49, P = 0.002). Understanding differences among young adults with different smoking patterns and histories is critical in developing interventions targeting psychosocial factors impacting cessation among this population. PMID:23197630</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pinsker, E A; Berg, C J; Nehl, E J; Prokhorov, A V; Buchanan, T S; Ahluwalia, J S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jd/jd0321/2002JD003307/2002JD003307.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> morphology of infrasound propagation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Atmospheric sound waves in the 0.02–10 Hz region, also known as infrasound, exhibit long-range <span class="hlt">global</span> propagation characteristics. Measurable infrasound is produced around the globe on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis by a variety of natural and man-made sources. As a result of weak classical attenuation (?0.01 dB km?1 at 0.1 hz), these acoustic signals can propagate thousands of kilometers in tropospheric, stratospheric,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Douglas P. Drob; J. M. Picone; M. Garcés</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1054296"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Thermal Predictions of the AGR-1 Experiment with Gas Gaps Varying with Time</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new <span class="hlt">daily</span> as-run thermal analysis was performed at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) test experiment number one at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This thermal analysis incorporates gas gaps changing with time during the <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> experiment. The purpose of this analysis was to calculate the <span class="hlt">daily</span> average temperatures of each compact to compare with experimental results. Post <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> examination (PIE) measurements of the graphite holder and fuel compacts showed the gas gaps varying from the beginning of life. The control temperature gas gap and the fuel compact – graphite holder gas gaps were linearly changed from the original fabrication dimensions, to the end of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> measurements. A steady-state thermal analysis was performed for each <span class="hlt">daily</span> calculation. These new thermal predictions more closely match the experimental data taken during the experiment than previous analyses. Results are presented comparing normalized compact average temperatures to normalized log(R/B) Kr-85m. The R/B term is the measured release rate divided by the predicted birth rate for the isotope Kr-85m. Correlations between these two normalized values are presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grant Hawkes; James Sterbentz; John Maki; Binh Pham</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30379505"> <span id="translatedtitle">A comparison of <span class="hlt">daily</span> CT localization to a <span class="hlt">daily</span> ultrasound-based system in prostate cancer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: <span class="hlt">Daily</span> CT localization has been demonstrated to be a precise method of correcting radiation field placement by reducing setup and organ motion variations to facilitate dose escalation in prostate carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of <span class="hlt">daily</span> ultrasound-guided localization utilizing <span class="hlt">daily</span> CT as a standard. The relatively simple computer-assisted ultrasound-based system is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Joseph Lattanzi; Shawn McNeeley; Wayne Pinover; Eric Horwitz; Indra Das; Timothy E Schultheiss; Gerald E Hanks</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD748679"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of Computer <span class="hlt">Global</span> Radiation for Areas of High Relief.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The variation over uneven terrain of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> total of incident shortwave (<span class="hlt">global</span>) radiation under cloudless conditions may be estimated by existing methods for calculating direct and diffuse solar radiation on a slope. A computer program for performing ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. T. Andrews L. D. Williams R. G. Barry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1971-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9218V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal disaggregation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological grid data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For operational flood forecasting, the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Administration (NVE) applies the conceptual HBV rainfall-runoff model for 117 catchments. The hydrological models are calibrated and run using an extensive meteorological grid data set providing <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature and precipitation data back to 1957 for entire Norway at 1x1 km grid resolution (seNorge grids). The <span class="hlt">daily</span> temporal resolution is dictated by the resolution of historical meteorological data. However, since meteorological forecasts and runoff observations are also available at a much finer than a <span class="hlt">daily</span> time-resolution (e.g. 6 hourly), and many hydrological extreme events happens at a temporal scale of less than <span class="hlt">daily</span>, it is important to try to establish a historical dataset of meteorological input at a finer corresponding temporal resolution. We present a simple approach for the temporal disaggregation of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological seNorge grids into 6-hour values by consulting a HIRLAM hindcast grid data series with an hourly time resolution and a 10x10 km grid resolution. The temporal patterns of the hindcast series are used to disaggregate the <span class="hlt">daily</span> interpolated observations from the seNorge grids. In this way, we produce a historical grid dataset from 1958-2010 with 6-hourly temperature and precipitation for entire Norway on a 1x1 km grid resolution. For validation and to see if additional information is gained, the disaggregated data is compared with observed values from selected meteorological stations. In addition, the disaggregated data is evaluated against <span class="hlt">daily</span> data, simply split into four fractions. The validation results indicate that additional information is indeed gained and point out the benefit of disaggregated data compared to <span class="hlt">daily</span> data split into four. With regard to temperature, the disaggregated values show very low deviations (MAE, RMSE), and are highly correlated with observed values. Regarding precipitation, the disaggregated data shows cumulative distribution functions (CDF) which are very consistent to those of measured values. Especially for extreme precipitation events with occurrence probabilities lower than 15 %, the disaggregated data is much more appropriate to measurements than the simply fractioned <span class="hlt">daily</span> data. For the recalibration of the hydrological models - and especially with regard to flood forecasting purposes - these results are very promising.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vormoor, K.; Skaugen, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ESDD....3..561B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Polynomial cointegration tests of anthropogenic impact on <span class="hlt">global</span> warming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use statistical methods for nonstationary time series to test the anthropogenic interpretation of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming (AGW), according to which an increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations raised <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature in the 20th century. Specifically, the methodology of polynomial cointegration is used to test AGW since during the observation period (1880-2007) <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature and solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> are stationary in 1st differences whereas greenhouse gases and aerosol forcings are stationary in 2nd differences. We show that although these anthropogenic forcings share a common stochastic trend, this trend is empirically independent of the stochastic trend in temperature and solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. Therefore, greenhouse gas forcing, aerosols, solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature are not polynomially cointegrated. This implies that recent <span class="hlt">global</span> warming is not statistically significantly related to anthropogenic forcing. On the other hand, we find that greenhouse gas forcing might have had a temporary effect on <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beenstock, M.; Reingewertz, Y.; Paldor, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15023155"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus in kidney transplant recipients: twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> versus once <span class="hlt">daily</span> dosing.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tacrolimus a macrolide immunosuppressant that is routinely given in two equally divided doses every 12 h. However, the time-dependent pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus suggest that once <span class="hlt">daily</span> morning administration of tacrolimus may produce appropriate drug exposure. The purpose of this pilot study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and safety of twice vs. once <span class="hlt">daily</span> administration of tacrolimus in stable kidney transplant recipients. Steady-state tacrolimus pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated on two occasions in an open-label, three-arm, two-period sequential study: twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> dosing (Phase I) and once <span class="hlt">daily</span> dosing (Phase II). In phase II, 18 patients were assigned to one of three arms: those taking 67%, 85% and 100% of their total twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> dose once in the morning. In phase I, the mean area under the blood concentration-time curve (AUC) was higher after the morning dose, AUC(0-12) 117 +/- 40 vs. AUC(12-24) 97 +/- 30 ng/h/mL, p=0.012. In the 85% Group, the mean AUC ratio between twice and once <span class="hlt">daily</span> was 1.0 (95% CI, 0.9-1.1) which predicted the best conversion ratio. Tacrolimus given once <span class="hlt">daily</span> in the morning, at 85% of the twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> dose, provides safe and equivalent drug exposure to twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> dosing. This convenient dosing schedule may help to increase compliance and lower costs. PMID:15023155</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hardinger, Karen L; Park, Jeong M; Schnitzler, Mark A; Koch, Matthew J; Miller, Brent W; Brennan, Daniel C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cgge.aag.org/GlobalEconomy1e/ConceptualFramework_Jan10/ConceptualFramework_Jan10_print.html"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Economy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Module covering the conceptual framework and case studies on economic <span class="hlt">globalization</span>. The module is primarily expositive but includes some interactive sections for checking factual understanding and user submitted interactive projects which are available with a (free) registration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Education, American A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/569271"> <span id="translatedtitle">Total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> trend during solar cycles 21 and 22</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Results from Activity Cavity Radiometer <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Monitor (ACRIM) experiments show an upward trend in total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> of 0.036 percent per decade between the minima of solar cycles 21 and 22. The trend follows the increasing solar activity of recent decades and, if sustained, could raise <span class="hlt">global</span> temperatures. Trends of total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> near this rate have been implicated as causal factors in climate change on century to millennial time scales. 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Willson, R.C. [Columbia Univ., Altadena, CA (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-09-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/44474078"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface Solar <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> in the Central Pacific during Tropic Heat: Comparisons between in Situ Measurements and Satellite Estimates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the first results concerning solar radiation at the ocean surface during the Tropic Heat experiment. Using calibrated GOES visible brightness measurements, a simple radiative transfer model calculates hourly and <span class="hlt">daily</span> surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> values. To validate the satellite-estimated solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements are taken from three sources; the Tropic Heat buoy 3, the R\\/V Weeama, and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Catherine Gautier</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mathmastery.com/dailybrains/"> <span id="translatedtitle">MathMastery.com: <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Brains</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Six days a week, a new math problem is posted on this Web site to intrigue and challenge grade school students. Each <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Brain has a different theme, considering some mathematical perspective of science, history, geography, and more. After solving the problem, or for a little help, students can look at a step-by-step solution that is also posted online. All old <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Brains are kept in an archive, and as of May 2003, they numbered around 400. The problems are mostly intended for students between fourth and sixth grades.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22976876"> <span id="translatedtitle">In-vivo confirmation of the use of the dart thrower's motion during activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The dart thrower's motion is a wrist rotation along an oblique plane from radial extension to ulnar flexion. We report an in-vivo study to confirm the use of the dart thrower's motion during activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living. <span class="hlt">Global</span> wrist motion in ten volunteers was recorded using a three-dimensional optoelectronic motion capture system, in which digital infra-red cameras track the movement of retro-reflective marker clusters. <span class="hlt">Global</span> wrist motion has been approximated to the dart thrower's motion when hammering a nail, throwing a ball, drinking from a glass, pouring from a jug and twisting the lid of a jar, but not when combing hair or manipulating buttons. The dart thrower's motion is the plane of <span class="hlt">global</span> wrist motion used during most activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living. Arthrodesis of the radiocarpal joint instead of the midcarpal joint will allow better wrist function during most activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living by preserving the dart thrower's motion. PMID:22976876</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brigstocke, G H O; Hearnden, A; Holt, C; Whatling, G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49882528"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Irradiance</span>-based Calibration Of Imaging Sensors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new method giving an absolute radiometric calibration of inflight satellite or aircraft imaging optical sensors is presented. The method uses measurements of the <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at ground level, the ground reflectance and spectral optical depths to derive a radiance at the sensor's entrance pupil. This radiance is compared with the sensor digital counts when it images the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. F. Biggar; R. P. Santer; P. N. Slater</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/gl/gl1003/2009GL042194/2009GL042194.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of white roofs on urban temperature in a <span class="hlt">global</span> climate model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Increasing the albedo of urban surfaces has received attention as a strategy to mitigate urban heat islands. Here, the effects of <span class="hlt">globally</span> installing white roofs are assessed using an urban canyon model coupled to a <span class="hlt">global</span> climate model. Averaged over all urban areas, the annual mean heat island decreased by 33%. Urban <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum temperature decreased by 0.6°C and <span class="hlt">daily</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. W. Oleson; G. B. Bonan; J. Feddema</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42558266"> <span id="translatedtitle">Saturation of Demand for <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Travel</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Data from successive national travel surveys show that important characteristics of personal <span class="hlt">daily</span> travel behaviour in Britain are comparatively stable. Over a 35?year period, there has been little change in average travel time, journey frequency, purposes of journeys, and proportion of household income devoted to travel. The one factor that has changed significantly is distance travelled, as people have taken</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David Metz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22%2c%2c5%22&id=EJ984125"> <span id="translatedtitle">Big Ideas behind <span class="hlt">Daily</span> 5 and CAFE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|The <span class="hlt">Daily</span> 5 and CAFE were born out of The Sister's research and observations of instructional mentors, their intense desire to be able to deliver highly intentional, focused instruction to small groups and individuals while the rest of the class was engaged in truly authentic reading and writing, and their understanding that a one size fits all…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boushey, Gail; Moser, Joan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30730646"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Boron Intake from the American Diet</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Interest in boron as a naturally occurring trace element nutrient from the food supply is increasing. Mounting evidence suggests that boron is essential to human beings. This study explores the major food and beverage contributors of boron and estimates of <span class="hlt">daily</span> boron intake from the American diet. Previous estimates in the literature of dietary boron consumption are based on limited</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">CHARLENE J RAINEY; LESLIE A NYQUIST; ROBERT E CHRISTENSEN; PHILIP L STRONG; B DWIGHT CULVER; JAMES R COUGHLIN</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37173142"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> prickly pear consumption improves platelet function</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Prickly pear is traditionally used by Pima Indians as a dietary nutrient against diabetes mellitus. We examined the effect of <span class="hlt">daily</span> consumption of 250g in 8 healthy volunteers and 8 patients with mild familial heterozygous hypercholesterolemia on various parameters of platelet function. Beside its action on lipids and lipoproteins, prickly pear consumption significantly reduced the platelet proteins (platelet factor 4</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Wolfram; A. Budinsky; Y. Efthimiou; J. Stomatopoulos; A. Oguogho; H. Sinzinger</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://riskfactor.cancer.gov/diet/screeners/daily_food_checklist.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">National Institutes of Health <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Food List</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.cancer.gov">Cancer.gov</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">DAILY</span> FOOD LIST PARTICIPANT ID HERE NOTIFICATION TO RESPONDENT OF ESTIMATED BURDEN Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 5 minutes per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19102916"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stochastic modeling of <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature fluctuations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Classical spectral, Hurst, and detrended fluctuation analysis have been revealed asymptotic power-law correlations for <span class="hlt">daily</span> average temperature data. For short-time intervals, however, strong correlations characterize the dynamics that permits a satisfactory description of temperature changes as a low order linear autoregressive process (dominating the texts on climate research). Here we propose a unifying stochastic model reproducing correlations for all time</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrea Király; Imre M. Jánosi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=64896"> <span id="translatedtitle">INTERPOLATING VANCOUVER'S <span class="hlt">DAILY</span> AMBIENT PM 10 FIELD</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this article we develop a spatial predictive distribution for the ambient space- time response field of <span class="hlt">daily</span> ambient PM10 in Vancouver, Canada. Observed responses have a consistent temporal pattern from one monitoring site to the next. We exploit this feature of the field b...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/t6u6rw7637571l7w.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> and seasonal activity in woodland ants</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> and seasonal foraging patterns are described for nine species of ants occupying a temperate zone woodland. Two common dominant species, Prenolepis imparis and Formica subsericea, are active at different times of day and during different parts of the year. They appear to be limited by physical factors (temperature and light, respectively) while the subordinate species show a wider tolerance</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Joan H. Fellers</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22employee+AND+orientation%22&id=ED189399"> <span id="translatedtitle">Good Ideas for Teaching <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Adult Living.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Intended for practicing Adult Basic Education teachers, this handbook provides materials for teaching specific coping skills in the area of <span class="hlt">daily</span> adult living. Three areas of study are explored: (1) community, which includes organizations, health, nutrition, safety, money management, and media; (2) government and law, which includes citizenship,…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leigh, Robert K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39912128"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lunar <span class="hlt">daily</span> distance numbers D and D?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In analyses of the effect of variation of the Earth-Moon distance on geophysical phenomena, it is customary to arrange the geophysical data according to the dates of apogee and perigee. However, lunar distances at apogee and especially at perigee vary within wide limits from month to month. A new <span class="hlt">daily</span> indexD' of lunar distance is defined to permit a more</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jagdish Chandra Gupta</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51566817"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar Wind-Driven Radiation Belt Response Functions at Sub-<span class="hlt">Daily</span> Time Scales Using SAMPEX Orbit-Averaged Electron Fluxes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Comprehensive studies of radiation belt dynamics using linear prediction filters (LPFs) were first published by Nagai (1988) and Baker et al. (1990). These studies focused primarily on short-term predictions of <span class="hlt">daily</span> averaged radiation flux at geostationary orbit using either <span class="hlt">global</span> magnetospheric indices, or the speed of the solar wind impinging the Earth's magnetosphere. Using <span class="hlt">daily</span> solar wind data from the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. J. Rigler; D. N. Baker; D. Vassiliadis; S. G. Kanekal; A. J. Klimas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23083112"> <span id="translatedtitle">Linaclotide: first <span class="hlt">global</span> approval.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Linaclotide is a once-<span class="hlt">daily</span>, orally administered, first-in-class agonist of guanylate cyclase-C that is minimally absorbed. It is being developed to treat gastrointestinal disorders by Ironwood Pharmaceuticals and its partners, Forest Laboratories (North America), Almirall (Europe) and Astellas Pharma (Asia-Pacific). Linaclotide has received its first <span class="hlt">global</span> approval in the US for the treatment of constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) and chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC), and a marketing submission has been filed in the EU for IBS-C. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of linaclotide leading to this first approval for IBS-C and CIC. This profile has been extracted and modified from the Adis R&D Insight drug pipeline database. Adis R&D Insight tracks drug development worldwide through the entire development process, from discovery, through pre-clinical and clinical studies to market launch. PMID:23083112</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McWilliams, Vanessa; Whiteside, Glenn; McKeage, Kate</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3335448"> <span id="translatedtitle">Total <span class="hlt">daily</span> physical activity and the risk of AD and cognitive decline in older adults</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective: Studies examining the link between objective measures of total <span class="hlt">daily</span> physical activity and incident Alzheimer disease (AD) are lacking. We tested the hypothesis that an objective measure of total <span class="hlt">daily</span> physical activity predicts incident AD and cognitive decline. Methods: Total <span class="hlt">daily</span> exercise and nonexercise physical activity was measured continuously for up to 10 days with actigraphy (Actical®; Philips Healthcare, Bend, OR) from 716 older individuals without dementia participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a prospective, observational cohort study. All participants underwent structured annual clinical examination including a battery of 19 cognitive tests. Results: During an average follow-up of about 4 years, 71 subjects developed clinical AD. In a Cox proportional hazards model adjusting for age, sex, and education, total <span class="hlt">daily</span> physical activity was associated with incident AD (hazard ratio = 0.477; 95% confidence interval 0.273–0.832). The association remained after adjusting for self-report physical, social, and cognitive activities, as well as current level of motor function, depressive symptoms, chronic health conditions, and APOE allele status. In a linear mixed-effect model, the level of total <span class="hlt">daily</span> physical activity was associated with the rate of <span class="hlt">global</span> cognitive decline (estimate 0.033, SE 0.012, p = 0.007). Conclusions: A higher level of total <span class="hlt">daily</span> physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of AD.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boyle, P.A.; Yu, L.; Shah, R.C.; Wilson, R.S.; Bennett, D.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AAS...21422801L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Programs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">IYA2009 is a <span class="hlt">global</span> collaboration between almost 140 nations and more than 50 international organisations sharing the same vision. Besides the common brand, mission, vision and goals, IAU established eleven cornerstones programmes to support the different IYA2009 stakeholder to organize events, activities under a common umbrella. These are <span class="hlt">global</span> activities centred on specific themes and are aligned with IYA2009's main goals. Whether it is the support and promotion of women in astronomy, the preservation of dark-sky sites around the world or educating and explaining the workings of the Universe to millions, the eleven Cornerstones are key elements in the success of IYA2009. However, the process of implementing <span class="hlt">global</span> projects across cultural boundaries is challenging and needs central coordination to preserve the pre-established goals. During this talk we will examine the ups and downs of coordinating such a project and present an overview of the principal achievements for the Cornerstones so far.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Russo, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.5194P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar Spectral <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> and Climate</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spectrally resolved solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> is recognized as being increasingly important to improving our understanding of the manner in which the Sun influences climate. There is strong empirical evidence linking total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> to surface temperature trends - even though the Sun has likely made only a small contribution to the last half-century's <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature anomaly - but the amplitudes cannot be explained by direct solar heating alone. The wavelength and height dependence of solar radiation deposition, for example, ozone absorption in the stratosphere, absorption in the ocean mixed layer, and water vapor absorption in the lower troposphere, contribute to the "top-down" and "bottom-up" mechanisms that have been proposed as possible amplifiers of the solar signal. New observations and models of solar spectral <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> are needed to study these processes and to quantify their impacts on climate. Some of the most recent observations of solar spectral variability from the mid-ultraviolet to the near-infrared have revealed some unexpected behavior that was not anticipated prior to their measurement, based on an understanding from model reconstructions. The atmospheric response to the observed spectral variability, as quantified in climate model simulations, have revealed similarly surprising and in some cases, conflicting results. This talk will provide an overview on the state of our understanding of the spectrally resolved solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, its variability over many time scales, potential climate impacts, and finally, a discussion on what is required for improving our understanding of Sun-climate connections, including a look forward to future observations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pilewskie, P.; Woods, T.; Cahalan, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return 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onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACPD...1223219R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of the Level-3 MODIS <span class="hlt">daily</span> aerosol optical depth in the context of surface solar radiation and numerical weather modeling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Level-3 MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) product offers interesting features for surface solar radiation and numerical weather modeling applications. Remarkably, the Collection 5.1 dataset extends over more than a decade, and provides <span class="hlt">daily</span> values of AOD over a <span class="hlt">global</span> regular grid of 1°×1° spatial resolution. However, most of the validation efforts so far have focused on Level-2 products (10-km, at original resolution) and only rarely on Level-3 (at aggregated spatial resolution of 1°×1°). In this contribution, we compare the Level-3 Collection 5.1 MODIS AOD dataset available since 2000 against observed <span class="hlt">daily</span> AOD values at 550 nm from more than 500 AERONET ground stations around the globe. One aim of this study is to check the advisability of this MODIS dataset for surface shortwave solar radiation calculations using numerical weather models. Overall, the mean error of the dataset is 0.03 (17%, relative to the mean ground-observed AOD), with a root mean square error of 0.14 (73%, relative to the same), albeit these values are found highly dependent on geographical region. For AOD values below about 0.3 the expected error is found very similar to that of the Level-2 product. However, for larger AOD values, higher errors are found. Consequently, we propose new functions for the expected error of the Level-3 AOD, as well as for both its mean error and its standard deviation. Additionally, we investigate the role of pixel count vis-à-vis the reliability of the AOD estimates. Our results show that a higher pixel count does not necessarily turn into a more reliable AOD estimate. Therefore, we recommend to verify this assumption in the dataset at hand if the pixel count is meant to be used. We also explore to what extent the spatial aggregation from Level-2 to Level-3 influences the total uncertainty in the Level-3 AOD. In particular, we found that, roughly, half of the error might be attributable to Level-3 AOD sub-pixel variability. Finally, we use a~radiative transfer model to investigate how the Level-3 AOD uncertainty propagates into the calculated direct normal (DNI) and <span class="hlt">global</span> horizontal (GHI) <span class="hlt">irradiances</span>. Overall, results indicate that, for Level-3 AODs smaller than 0.5, the induced uncertainty in DNI due to the AOD uncertainty alone is below 15% on average, and below 5% for GHI (for a solar zenith angle of 30°. However, the uncertainty in AOD is highly spatially variable, and so is that in <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ruiz-Arias, J. A.; Dudhia, J.; Gueymard, C. A.; Pozo-Vázquez, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4228160"> <span id="translatedtitle">Secure Web Application Development and <span class="hlt">Global</span> Regulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The World Wide Web (WWW) has been predominantly responsible for instigating radical paradigm transformations in today's <span class="hlt">global</span> information rich civilizations. Many societies have basic operational economical components that depend on Web enabled systems in order to support <span class="hlt">daily</span> commercial activities. The acceptance of E-commerce as a valid channel for conducting business coupled with societal integration and dependence on Web enabled</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">William Bradley Glisson; L. Milton Glisson; Ray Welland</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26518235"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> solar radiation estimation in Algeria</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, two models for estimating monthly average <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> radiation on a horizontal surface have been applied to four different locations. The first one is an empirical model, originally formulated by Barbaro et al. (Solar Energy 20 (1978) 431). Some modifications have been suggested. The second one is a regression equation of the Angstrom type. The agreement between</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Chegaar; A. Chibani</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21124210"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Bone Alignment With Limited Repeat CT Correction Rivals <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Ultrasound Alignment for Prostate Radiotherapy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of <span class="hlt">daily</span> ultrasound (US)- and computed tomography (CT)-guided alignments with an off-line correction protocol using <span class="hlt">daily</span> bone alignment plus a correction factor for systematic internal prostate displacement (CF{sub ID}). Methods and Materials: Ten prostate cancer patients underwent CT scans three times weekly using an integrated CT-linear accelerator system, followed by alignment using US for <span class="hlt">daily</span> radiotherapy. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans were designed with our current clinical margins. The treatment plan was copied onto the repeat CT images and aligned using several methods: (1) bone alignment plus CF{sub ID} after three off-line CT scans (bone+3CT), (2) bone alignment plus CF{sub ID} after six off-line CT scans (bone+6CT), (3) US alignment, and (4) CT alignment. The accuracy of the repeated US and CT measurements to determine the CF{sub ID} was compared. The target dosimetric effect was quantified. Results: The CF{sub ID} for internal systematic prostate displacements was more accurately measured with limited repeat CT scans than with US (residual error, 0.0 {+-} 0.7 mm vs. 2.0 {+-} 3.2 mm). Bone+3CT, bone+6CT, and US provided equivalent prostate and seminal vesicle dose coverage, but bone+3CT and bone+6CT produced more precise <span class="hlt">daily</span> alignments. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> CT alignment provided the greatest target dose coverage. Conclusion: <span class="hlt">Daily</span> bone alignment plus CF{sub ID} for internal systematic prostate displacement provided better <span class="hlt">daily</span> alignment precision and equivalent dose coverage compared with <span class="hlt">daily</span> US alignment. The CF{sub ID} should be based on at least three repeat CT scans, which could be collected before the start of treatment or during the first 3 treatment days. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> bone alignment plus CF{sub ID} provides another option for accurate prostate cancer patient positioning.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">O'Daniel, Jennifer C. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Dong Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)], E-mail: ldong@mdanderson.org; Zhang Lifei; Wang He [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Tucker, Susan L. [Department of Biostatistics and Applied Mathematics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Kudchadker, Rajat J. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Lee, Andrew K.; Cheung, Rex; Cox, James D.; Kuban, Deborah A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ESD.....3..173B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Polynomial cointegration tests of anthropogenic impact on <span class="hlt">global</span> warming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use statistical methods for nonstationary time series to test the anthropogenic interpretation of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming (AGW), according to which an increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations raised <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature in the 20th century. Specifically, the methodology of polynomial cointegration is used to test AGW since during the observation period (1880-2007) <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature and solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> are stationary in 1st differences, whereas greenhouse gas and aerosol forcings are stationary in 2nd differences. We show that although these anthropogenic forcings share a common stochastic trend, this trend is empirically independent of the stochastic trend in temperature and solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. Therefore, greenhouse gas forcing, aerosols, solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature are not polynomially cointegrated, and the perceived relationship between these variables is a spurious regression phenomenon. On the other hand, we find that greenhouse gas forcings might have had a temporary effect on <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beenstock, M.; Reingewertz, Y.; Paldor, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.globalhealth.gov/world-regions/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Health: World Regions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... Africa Americas Asia & Pacific Europe & Eurasia Middle East <span class="hlt">Global</span> Health Topics Communicable Diseases <span class="hlt">Global</span> Water Supply and Safety ... <span class="hlt">Global</span> Programs & Initiatives Emergency Response Exchange Visitor Program <span class="hlt">Global</span> Health Initiative <span class="hlt">Global</span> Health Partners One Health PEPFAR About ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=man-made+AND+materials&pg=4&id=ED404222"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Education.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|This theme issue focuses on topics related to <span class="hlt">global</span> issues. (1) "Recycling for Art Projects" (Wendy Stephenson) gives an argument for recycling in the art classroom; (2) "Winds of Change: Tradition and Innovation in Circumpolar Art" (Bill Zuk and Robert Dalton) includes profiles of Alaskan Yupik artist, Larry Beck, who creates art from recycled…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McCoubrey, Sharon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=effects+AND+global+AND+warming&pg=5&id=EJ391198"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|States the foundations of the theory of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. Describes methodologies used to measure the changes in the atmosphere. Discusses steps currently being taken in the United States and the world to slow the warming trend. Recognizes many sources for the warming and the possible effects on the earth. (MVL)|</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hileman, Bette</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=light+AND+temperature&pg=5&id=EJ484206"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Presents information and data on an experiment designed to test whether different atmosphere compositions are affected by light and temperature during both cooling and heating. Although flawed, the experiment should help students appreciate the difficulties that researchers face when trying to find evidence of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. (PR)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eichman, Julia Christensen; Brown, Jeff A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7012939"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> militarization</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the titles are: Military Formations and Social Formations: A Structural Analysis; <span class="hlt">Global</span> Conflict Formations: Present Developments and Future Directions; War and the Power of Warmakers in Western Europe and Elsewhere, 1600-1980; and The Urban Type of Society and International War.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wallensteen, P.; Galtung, J.; Portales, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fuelcelleducation.org/wp-content/themes/sandbox/pdf/Global%20Warming_07.ppt"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This document was created as a presentation for a fuel cell training seminar at Hocking College. The presentation covers the basics of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming, how human behavior has impacted our environment and the change using renewable fuels can have. This document may be downloaded in Power Point file format.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18829066"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> warming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">'<span class="hlt">Global</span> warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">John Houghton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.amnh.org/ology/features/globalgrocery/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Grocery</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This fun Web site is part of OLogy, where kids can collect virtual trading cards and create projects with them. Here, they take a behind-the-scenes look at the biodiversity that's part of the many things they eat and use <span class="hlt">daily</span>. The site opens by asking kids a series of questions to get them thinking about the ingredients in common foods and products. Then it takes them to a well-stocked kitchen, where they can mouse over everything from chocolate chip cookies and coffee to cough drops and cold medicine to learn about the origins of key ingredients.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JAMDS...4..179L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Continuous Blood Pressure Monitoring in <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Life</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Continuous monitoring of blood pressure in <span class="hlt">daily</span> life could improve early detection of cardiovascular disorders, as well as promoting healthcare. Conventional ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) equipment can measure blood pressure at regular intervals for 24 hours, but is limited by long measuring time, low sampling rate, and constrained measuring posture. In this paper, we demonstrate a new method for continuous real-time measurement of blood pressure during <span class="hlt">daily</span> activities. Our method is based on blood pressure estimation from pulse wave velocity (PWV) calculation, which formula we improved to take into account changes in the inner diameter of blood vessels. Blood pressure estimation results using our new method showed a greater precision of measured data during exercise, and a better accuracy than the conventional PWV method.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lopez, Guillaume; Shuzo, Masaki; Ushida, Hiroyuki; Hidaka, Keita; Yanagimoto, Shintaro; Imai, Yasushi; Kosaka, Akio; Delaunay, Jean-Jacques; Yamada, Ichiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17176205"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> occupational stressors and marital behavior.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study examined <span class="hlt">daily</span> fluctuations in marital behavior (anger and withdrawal) as a function of same-day job stressors, using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). Forty-three couples provided <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary reports of their workload and negative social interactions at work on 5 consecutive days. Within-subject analyses demonstrate that husbands and wives reported greater marital anger and withdrawal following negative social interactions at work, and wives reported greater marital anger and withdrawal following days of heavy workload. Mediation analyses provide support for the negative mood spillover hypothesis (e.g., workload no longer predicted wives' marital anger when controlling for negative mood). Between-subjects analyses suggest that spouses in high-conflict families may be especially vulnerable to the effects of job stressors on marital interaction. PMID:17176205</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Story, Lisa B; Repetti, Rena</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.midus.wisc.edu/findings/pdfs/669.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Women's <span class="hlt">daily</span> physical health symptoms and stressful experiences across adulthood</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study investigated the extent to which the experience of <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors was related to women's age and <span class="hlt">daily</span> health symptomology, such as flu and cold symptoms. Respondents were 562 women (aged 25–74) who were a part of the National Study of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Experiences (NSDE), a telephone diary study examining <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressful events. The respondents were interviewed by telephone on</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Melanie Horn Mallers; David M. Almeida; Shevaun D. Neupert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36993129"> <span id="translatedtitle">Facial Maturity and <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Social Interaction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although facial maturity has been repeatedly documented to influence first impressions, little is known about its impact on <span class="hlt">daily</span> social experience. To address this, 114 people kept diaries of their social encounters for 1 week. Descriptions of a total of 5, 106 interactions were collected. Baby-faced men reported less control and influence over opposite-sex interactions than did more mature-faced men.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Diane S. Berry; Julie C. Landry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4301933"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Routine Classification from Mobile Phone Data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The automatic analysis of real-life, long-term behavior and dynamics of individuals and groups from mobile sensor data constitutes\\u000a an emerging and challenging domain. We present a framework to classify people’s <span class="hlt">daily</span> routines (defined by day type, and by\\u000a group affiliation type) from real-life data collected with mobile phones, which include physical location information (derived\\u000a from cell tower connectivity), and social</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Katayoun Farrahi; Daniel Gatica-perez</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ofmpub.epa.gov/sor_internet/registry/termreg/searchandretrieve/glossariesandkeywordlists/search.do?details=&glossaryName=TMDLs%20(303d)%20Glossary"> <span id="translatedtitle">Total Maximum <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Loads (303d) Glossary</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Water quality standards:  State or federal law or regulation consisting of a designated use or uses for the waters of the United States, water quality criteria for such waters based upon such uses, and an antidegradation policy and implementation procedures. Water quality standards protect the public health or welfare, enhance the quality of water and serve the purposes of the Clean Water Act.   From Total Maximum <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Loads (303d) Glossary  -  Search all glossaries for terms containing (((health policy) in) US)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42020096"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> operation of a multipurpose reservoir system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An optimization model that may be used by reservoir system operators to improve <span class="hlt">daily</span>, real-time operations and to evolve better long-term operating guidelines is developed and tested. The four multipurpose reservoirs in the Green River Basin (GRB) of Kentucky are used as a case study. The GRB Operation Optimization Model (GRBOOM) is a linear program constructed to imitate the decision-making</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hasan Yazicigil; Mark H. Houck; Gerrit H. Toebes</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=520826"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> rhythms in plasma levels of homocysteine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background There is accumulated evidence that plasma concentration of the sulfur-containing amino-acid homocysteine (Hcy) is a prognostic marker for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Both fasting levels of Hcy and post methionine loading levels are used as prognostic markers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the existence of a <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm in plasma Hcy under strictly controlled nutritional and sleep-wake conditions. We also investigated if the time during which methionine loading is performed, i.e., morning or evening, had a different effect on the resultant plasma Hcy concentration. Methods Six healthy men aged 23–26 years participated in 4 experiments. In the first and second experiments, the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm in Hcy as well as in other amino acids was investigated under a normal or an inverse sleep-wake cycle. In the third and fourth, Hcy concentrations were investigated after a morning and evening methionine loading. To standardize food consumption in the first two experiments, subjects received every 3 hours 150 ml of specially designed low-protein liquid food (Ensure® formula). Results In both the first and second experiments there was a significant <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm in Hcy concentrations with a mid-day nadir and a nocturnal peak. Strikingly different 24-h patterns were observed in methionine, leucine, isoleucine and tyrosine. In all, the 24-h curves revealed a strong influence of both the sleep-wake cycle and the feeding schedule. Methionine loading resulted in increased plasma Hcy levels during both morning and evening experiments, which were not significantly different from each other. Conclusions There is a <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm in plasma concentration of the amino acid Hcy, and this rhythm is independent of sleep-wake and food consumption. In view of the fact that increased Hcy concentrations may be associated with increased cardiovascular risks, these findings may have clinical implications for the health of rotating shift workers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lavie, Lena; Lavie, Peretz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/24714337"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> urinary excretion of bisphenol A</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objectives  Concerns over dietary exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor, have been raised because BPA is contained in\\u000a resins and plastics commonly used for the preservation of food and beverages. The purpose of the present study was to assess\\u000a <span class="hlt">daily</span> intake levels of BPA in a group of male subjects by measuring total urinary BPA (free BPA plus BPA</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chikako Arakawa; Kayumi Fujimaki; Jun Yoshinaga; Hideki Imai; Shigeko Serizawa; Hiroaki Shiraishi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23424923"> <span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Daily</span> life of an epileptic child].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">daily</span> life of an epileptic child will be affected by the constraints of the medical follow-up, the consequences on the cognitive functions and behaviour, the impact on the schooling and professional activity, recreation, social and family life. If certain factors associated with a less good quality of life have been identified (intellectual disability or handicap associated, drug-resistant epilepsy, combination therapy, low socio-economic level maternal, absence of aetiology identified, number of consultations and hospitalizations in the last few months...), the <span class="hlt">daily</span> life is affected even in cases of epilepsy isolated well stabilized. The challenge of taking account of the impact of epilepsy on the <span class="hlt">daily</span> lives of the first episode and throughout the monitoring is capital in order to best preserve the quality of life of the child and his family. This approach is the subject of a collaborative work with other actors medical and paramedical personnel, and need the constitution of a network. The establishment of therapeutic education projects on the model of diabetes mellitus could be valuable. PMID:23424923</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ville, Dorothée</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16767065"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> hemodialysis 2006. State of the art.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The need to improve the dialysis outcomes, the negative results from the HEMO and ADEMEX studies as well reports of clinical benefits have rekindled the interest in <span class="hlt">daily</span> hemodialysis. Although no randomized controlled studies have been published, a large number of manuscripts have described significant benefits from both the short or nocturnal forms of <span class="hlt">daily</span> (quotidian) dialysis or hemo(dia)filtration. They include improved quality of life, hemodynamic stability, blood pressure control with minimal number of medications, anemia control, regression of cardiac hypertrophy and improved nutrition. Furthermore, quotidian nocturnal hemodialysis provides higher dialysis dose, and has been described to improve endothelial as well as endothelial progenitor cell function, heart rate variability, sleep and phosphate control while it offers unrestricted diet. Several studies have pointed to a lower overall cost and improved cost utility when treating patients using quotidian hemodialysis at home. The obstacles to widespread use are the reimbursement structure in most countries, the willingness and ability of the patients to do home hemodialysis and the availability of user-friendly machines. A prospective randomized controlled study sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and US Centers for Medicare and Medicaid services (CMS) currently underway will be pivotal in confirming these benefits and convincing the stakeholders to promote the use of <span class="hlt">daily</span> hemodialysis. PMID:16767065</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pierratos, A; McFarlane, P; Chan, C T; Kwok, S; Nesrallah, G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2587073"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Interpersonal Events in Pain Patients</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Action theory proposes that individuals actively shape and then respond to their environments, highlighting the role of stable person characteristics in the development and maintenance of life’s interpersonal difficulties. In this study, we adopted the action perspective in our examination of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> lives of chronic pain patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Our evaluation of patients’ <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary reports indicated that individuals played a more prominent role in shaping their positive versus their negative social worlds. The contribution of symptoms of ill health and demographic characteristics, as well as personality attributes were also examined as stable factors that predicted exposure to and appraisal of events. In addition to between-person measures, day to day variations in illness symptoms also played a key role in predicting their social experinces. Together, these findings suggest that stable person characteristics and within-person fluctuations in ill health are each tied to <span class="hlt">daily</span> interpersonal experiences for those in chronic pain. More broadly, they point to the value of capturing the experiences of individuals intensively over time, an approach that can help to elaborate the contributions of both stable factors and circumstance in shaping our social contexts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Davis, Mary C.; Affleck, Glenn; Zautra, Alex J.; Tennen, Howard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/v248262208682560.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Influence of Social Problem-Solving Ability on the Relationship Between <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Stress and Adjustment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study examined the role of social problem solving as a moderator and a mediator of the relationship between <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressful\\u000a events and adjustment in a sample of 259 college students. Problem solving was assessed by the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised,\\u000a which provides scores for <span class="hlt">global</span> problem-solving ability as well as five specific problem-solving dimensions, namely, positive\\u000a problem orientation, negative problem</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alissa C. Bell; Thomas J. D’Zurilla</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jb/v102/iB08/97JB01380/97JB01380.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Southern California Permanent GPS Geodetic Array: Error analysis of <span class="hlt">daily</span> position estimates and site velocities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyze time series of <span class="hlt">daily</span> positions estimated from data collected by 10 continuously monitoring <span class="hlt">Global</span> Positioning System (GPS) sites in southern California during the 19-month period between the June 28, 1992 (MW=7.3), Landers and January 17, 1994 (MW=6.7), Northridge earthquakes. Each time series exhibits a linear tectonic signal and significant colored noise. Spectral power at frequencies in the range</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jie Zhang; Yehuda Bock; Hadley Johnson; Peng Fang; Simon Williams; Joachim Genrich; Shimon Wdowinski; Jeff Behr</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57414576"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prevention of Rectal SHIV Transmission in Macaques by <span class="hlt">Daily</span> or Intermittent Prophylaxis with Emtricitabine and Tenofovir</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BackgroundIn the absence of an effective vaccine, HIV continues to spread <span class="hlt">globally</span>, emphasizing the need for novel strategies to limit its transmission. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with antiretroviral drugs could prove to be an effective intervention strategy if highly efficacious and cost-effective PrEP modalities are identified. We evaluated <span class="hlt">daily</span> and intermittent PrEP regimens of increasing antiviral activity in a macaque model</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Gerardo García-Lerma; Ron A Otten; Shoukat H Qari; Eddie Jackson; Mian-er Cong; Silvina Masciotra; Wei Luo; Caryn Kim; Debra R Adams; Michael Monsour; Jonathan Lipscomb; Jeffrey A Johnson; David Delinsky; Raymond F Schinazi; Robert Janssen; Thomas M Folks; Walid Heneine</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=media+AND+young+AND+children%27s+AND+learning&pg=6&id=EJ834679"> <span id="translatedtitle">Panwapa: <span class="hlt">Global</span> Kids, <span class="hlt">Global</span> Connections</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Panwapa, created by the Sesame Street Workshop of PBS, is an example of an initiative on the Internet designed to enhance students' learning by exposing them to <span class="hlt">global</span> communities. Panwapa means "Here on Earth" in Tshiluba, a Bantu language spoken in the Democratic Republic of Congo. At the Panwapa website, www.panwapa.org, children aged four to…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berson, Ilene R.; Berson, Michael J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24070134"> <span id="translatedtitle">Difference in nephrotoxicity of vancomycin administered once <span class="hlt">daily</span> and twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> in rats.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We compared the degree of nephrotoxicity of vancomycin (VCM) administered once <span class="hlt">daily</span> and twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> in rats. VCM was intraperitoneally administered once <span class="hlt">daily</span> to rats at a dose of 400 mg/kg (VCM-1-treated) or administered at a dose of 200 mg/kg twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> at 12-hour intervals (VCM-2-treated) for 7 consecutive days. Creatinine clearance was decreased more markedly in VCM-1 rats relative to VCM-2 rats, although there was no significant difference in renal accumulation of VCM between the two groups. Renal superoxide dismutase activity was lower in VCM-1 rats than that in VCM-2 rats. The magnitude of histological change in kidney tissue was in agreement with the degree of alterations in the abovementioned biochemical values. These results suggest that the nephrotoxic effect of once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> VCM administration is more pronounced than that of the twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> treatment. Our findings provide fundamental evidence for the advantage in choosing a divided VCM administration to attenuate nephrotoxicity. PMID:24070134</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Konishi, Hiroki; Morita, Yukiko; Mizumura, Miyo; Iga, Ikumi; Nagai, Katsuhito</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61199165"> <span id="translatedtitle">THE INFLUENCE OF ANTITUBERCULOUS VACCINATION ON THE COURSE OF THE TUBERCULOUS PROCESS IN CHRONIC <span class="hlt">IRRADIATION</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Preliminary antituberculosis vaccination of tuberculosisinfected rabbits ; subjected to protracted x <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> (10 r <span class="hlt">daily</span>) yields a positive effect only ; during the first stages of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>. Disturbance of specific antituberculous ; immunity occurs in the process of development of chronic radiation sickness. At ; this period the tuberculous process acquires a marked exudative-necrotic ; character. (auth);</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Khudushina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1961-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3397B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming And Meltwater</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to find new approaches and new ideas for my students to appreciate the importance of science in their <span class="hlt">daily</span> life, I proposed a theme for them to debate. They had to search for <span class="hlt">global</span> warming information and illustrations in the media, and discuss the articles they found in the classroom. This task inspired them to search for new information about this important and timely theme in science. I informed my students that all the best information about <span class="hlt">global</span> warming and meltwater they found would be used in a poster that would help us to update the knowledge base of the Physics laboratory. I guided them to choose the most eloquent images and significant information. Searching and working to create this poster, the students arrived to better appreciate the importance of science in their <span class="hlt">daily</span> life and to critically evaluate scientific information transmitted via the media. In the poster we created, one can find images, photos and diagrams and some interesting information: <span class="hlt">Global</span> warming refers to the rising average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans and its projected evolution. In the last 100 years, the Earth's average surface temperature increased by about 0.8 °C with about two thirds of the increase occurring over just the last three decades. Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and scientists are more than 90% certain most of it is caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuel. They indicate that during the 21st century the <span class="hlt">global</span> surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 2.9 °C for the lowest emissions scenario and 2.4 to 6.4 °C for the highest predictions. An increase in <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, and potentially result in expansion of subtropical deserts. Warming is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing decrease of glaciers, permafrost and sea ice. Other likely effects of the warming include more frequent occurrences of extreme weather events including heat waves, droughts and heavy rainfall events, species extinctions due to shifting temperature regimes, and changes in agricultural yields. Meltwater is the water released by the melting of snow or ice, including glacial ice and ice shelves in the oceans. Meltwater is often found in the ablation zone of glaciers, where the rate of snow cover is reduced. In a report published in June 2007, the United Nations Environment Program estimated that <span class="hlt">global</span> warming could lead to 40% of the world's population being affected by the loss of glaciers, snow and the associated meltwater in Asia. This is one of many activities of the physics laboratory that the students of our high school are involved in.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bratu, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/j54580316j076122.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prospective randomized study of once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> versus thrice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> netilmicin regimens in patients with intraabdominal infections</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">One hundred and ninety-seven patients with intraabdominal infections were enrolled in a prospective randomized multicenter study of netilmicin administered once <span class="hlt">daily</span> (n=98) versus thrice <span class="hlt">daily</span> (n=99) in combination with tinidazole administered once <span class="hlt">daily</span>. Randomization was achieved for the infection site, clinical severity score, <span class="hlt">daily</span> and total netilmicin dose, and duration of treatment. The mean maximum peak and trough levels of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. J. de Vries; R. P. Verkooyen; P. Leguit; H. A. Verbrugh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.globalintegrity.org/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Integrity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many of the worldÂs national governments have been plagued by charges of corruption and pervasive malfeasance over the past few decades. As a result, a number of international organizations have been created to provide information on corruption and governance trends for the policy community and the general public. With funding from the World Bank, the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Integrity organization produces the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Integrity Report, which features a number of Âintegrity indicatorsÂ, which analyze openness, governance, and anti-corruption mechanisms for a wide range of countries. Visitors to their site can read the Report in its entirety here, and also browse through a number of media resources designed for journalists. Additionally, visitors can also learn more about the organizationÂs staff members and their various methodologies for compiling reports.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mission+AND+profile&pg=2&id=EJ889844"> <span id="translatedtitle">Going <span class="hlt">Global</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|In a move to increase its out-of-state and international student enrollment, officials at the University of Iowa are stepping up their <span class="hlt">global</span> recruitment efforts--even in the face of criticism that the school may be losing sight of its mission. The goal is to increase enrollment across the board, with both in-state as well as out-of-state and…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boulard, Garry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoJI.184..759K"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> earthquake forecasts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have constructed <span class="hlt">daily</span> worldwide long- and short-term earthquake forecasts. These forecasts specify the earthquake rate per unit area, time and magnitude on a 0.5 degree grid for a <span class="hlt">global</span> zone region between 75N and 75S latitude (301 by 720 grid cells). We use both the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) and Preliminary Determinations of Epicenters (PDE) catalogues. Like our previous forecasts, the new forecasts are based largely on smoothed maps of past seismicity and assume spatial and temporal clustering. The forecast based on the GCMT catalogue, with the magnitude completeness threshold 5.8, includes an estimate of focal mechanisms of future earthquakes and of the mechanism uncertainty. The forecasted tensor focal mechanism makes it possible in principle to calculate an ensemble of seismograms for each point of interest on the Earth's surface. We also introduce a new approach that circumvents the need for focal mechanisms. This permits the use of the PDE catalogue that reliably documents many smaller quakes with a higher location accuracy. The result is a forecast at a higher spatial resolution and down to a magnitude threshold below 5.0. Such new forecasts can be prospectively tested within a relatively short time, such as a few years, because smaller events occur with greater frequency. The forecast's efficiency can be measured by its average probability gains per earthquake compared to the spatially or temporally uniform Poisson distribution. For the short-term forecast the gain is about 2.0 for the GCMT catalogue and 3.7 for the PDE catalogue relative to a temporally random but spatially localized null hypothesis. Preliminary tests indicate that for the long-term <span class="hlt">global</span> spatial forecast the gain is of the order 20-25 compared to the uniform event distribution over the Earth's surface. We can also prospectively test the long-term forecast to check whether it can be improved.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kagan, Yan Y.; Jackson, David D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SoPh..279..365F"> <span id="translatedtitle">A New Look at Solar <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Variation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We compare total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (TSI) and ultraviolet ( F uv) <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variation reconstructed using Ca K facular areas since 1915, with previous values based on less direct proxies. Our annual means for 1925 - 1945 reach values 30 - 50 % higher than those presently used in IPCC climate studies. A high facula/sunspot area ratio in spot cycles 16 and 17 seems to be responsible. New evidence from solar photometry increases the likelihood of greater seventeenth century solar dimming than expected from the disappearance of magnetic active regions alone. But the large additional brightening in the early twentieth century claimed from some recent models requires complete disappearance of the magnetic network. The network is clearly visible in Ca K spectroheliograms obtained since the 1890s, so these models cannot be correct. Changes in photospheric effective temperature invoked in other models would be powerfully damped by the thermal inertia of the convection zone. Thus, there is presently no support for twentieth century <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variation besides that arising from active regions. The mid-twentieth century <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> peak arising from these active regions extends 20 years beyond the early 1940s peak in <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature. This failure of correlation, together with the low amplitude of TSI variation and the relatively weak effect of Fuv driving on tropospheric temperature, limits the role of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variation in twentieth century <span class="hlt">global</span> warming.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Foukal, Peter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.V43E..05C"> <span id="translatedtitle">The first <span class="hlt">daily</span> measurements of passive volcanic degassing from space</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most volcanoes degas a significant proportion of their volatiles in plumes that reside in the lower troposphere and boundary layer (LT/BL), at similar altitudes to the emission vent. Although well constrained at a few volcanoes subject to intensive ground-based monitoring, the temporal and spatial variability of this passive degassing is poorly quantified on a <span class="hlt">global</span> scale. A more quantitative understanding of the magnitude, dynamics and spatial distribution of these emissions would be of enormous benefit to studies of the effects of volcanic activity on atmospheric chemistry and climate, and would contribute to hazard mitigation and to assessments of the health and environmental impacts of volcanic emissions. We have developed sulfur dioxide (SO2) retrieval algorithms for volcanic SO2 analysis using ultraviolet (UV) radiances measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the polar-orbiting EOS/Aura satellite, launched in July 2004. OMI has similarly high spectral resolution to the GOME and SCIAMACHY instruments that provided the first space- based observations of tropospheric SO2, but offers unprecedented spatial resolution (13x24 km at nadir) for UV SO2 retrievals, coupled with <span class="hlt">daily</span>, contiguous <span class="hlt">global</span> coverage. The SO2 detection limit of OMI is two orders of magnitude lower than TOMS, permitting the first <span class="hlt">daily</span> measurements of volcanic SO2 emissions in the LT/BL. Some results of our analysis of OMI SO2 measurements at actively degassing volcanoes will be presented. Visualization of <span class="hlt">daily</span> OMI SO2 data allows a rapid and timely appraisal of the most significant volcanic SO2 emitters. Using weekly, monthly or annual average SO2 maps we can evaluate longer-term trends, and detect weaker degassing sources. Our measurements highlight the deficiencies of previous compilations of volcanic SO2 emissions, which were biased towards accessible, frequently monitored volcanoes. Initial comparisons between OMI SO2 plume burdens and coincident ground-based SO2 fluxes (derived from COSPEC and miniature UV spectrometers) at several volcanoes, including Kilauea (Hawaii), Soufriere Hills (Montserrat), Etna (Italy) and Tungurahua (Ecuador), are very promising for monitoring efforts, but do not constitute a rigorous validation of the OMI SO2 vertical column densities (VCDs). This will require a coordinated campaign of intensive ground-based or airborne measurements using well-characterized, stable UV instruments at a persistently degassing volcano, combined with a mesoscale model and trajectory model to constrain plume dynamics, and a chemical model to account for conversion of SO2 to sulfate in the plume. Another challenge is assignment of the correct air mass factor (AMF) to convert OMI slant SO2 columns to VCDs, particularly in partly cloud-covered boundary layers. Using the OMI SO2 dataset in conjunction with other satellite and ground-based observations we aim to produce a new, accurate and vertically resolved inventory of <span class="hlt">global</span> volcanic SO2 emissions that better reflects the dynamic nature of volcanism.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carn, S. A.; Krotkov, N. A.; Krueger, A. J.; Yang, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy..tmp...40W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Record occurrence and record values in <span class="hlt">daily</span> and monthly temperatures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyze the occurrence and the values of record-breaking temperatures in <span class="hlt">daily</span> and monthly temperature observations. Our aim is to better understand and quantify the statistics of temperature records in the context of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. Similar to earlier work we employ a simple mathematical model of independent and identically distributed random variables with a linearly growing expectation value. This model proved to be useful in predicting the increase (decrease) in upper (lower) temperature records in a warming climate. Using both station and re-analysis data from Europe and the United States we further investigate the statistics of temperature records and the validity of this model. The most important new contribution in this article is an analysis of the statistics of record values for our simple model and European reanalysis data. We estimate how much the mean values and the distributions of record temperatures are affected by the large scale warming trend. In this context we consider both the values of records that occur at a certain time and the values of records that have a certain record number in the series of record events. We compare the observational data both to simple analytical computations and numerical simulations. We find that it is more difficult to describe the values of record breaking temperatures within the framework of our linear drift model. Observations from the summer months fit well into the model with Gaussian random variables under the observed linear warming, in the sense that record breaking temperatures are more extreme in the summer. In winter however a significant asymmetry of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature distribution hides the effect of the slow warming trends. Therefore very extreme cold records are still possible in winter. This effect is even more pronounced if one considers only data from subpolar regions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wergen, G.; Hense, A.; Krug, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52368402"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Expanded UV <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Database from TOMS Including the Effects of Ozone, Clouds, and Aerosol Attenuation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The TOMS UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> database (1978 to 2003) has been expanded to include 5 new products (noon <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at 305, 310, 324, and 380 nm, and noon erythemal-weighted <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>), in addition to the existing erythemal <span class="hlt">daily</span> exposure, that permit direct comparisons with ground-based measurements from spectrometers and broadband instruments. The new data are available on http:\\/\\/toms.gsfc.nasa.gov. Comparisons of the TOMS</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. R. Herman; N. Krotkov</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513750D"> <span id="translatedtitle">A reconstruction of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> using a flux transport model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reconstructions of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> into the past are of considerable interest for studies of solar influence on climate. Models based on the assumption that <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> changes are caused by the evolution of the photospheric magnetic field have been the most successful in reproducing the measured <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variations. Our SATIRE-S model is one of these. It uses solar full-disc magnetograms as an input, and these are available for less than four decades. Thus, to reconstruct the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> back to times when no observed magnetograms are available, we combine the SATIRE-S model with synthetic magnetograms, produced using a surface flux transport model. The model is fed with <span class="hlt">daily</span>, observed or modelled statistically, records of sunspot positions, areas, and tilt angles. To describe the secular change in the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, we used the concept of overlapping ephemeral region cycles. With this technique TSI can be reconstructed back to 1610.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dasi Espuig, Maria; Jiang, Jie; Krivova, Natalie; Solanki, Sami</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35614885"> <span id="translatedtitle">Metal ion absorption of carboxymethylcellulose gel formed by ?-ray <span class="hlt">irradiation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) is well known as a safe and biodegradable material, which is widely used as food additives, wash paste, etc., in our <span class="hlt">daily</span> life. Aiming at the environmental purification of this eco-friendly substance, the authors have investigated Cu2+ absorption property of CMC gel that was crosslinked by <span class="hlt">irradiating</span> with ?-rays without toxic crosslinker. The CMC gel has revealed to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. Hara; M. Iida; K. Yano; T. Nishida</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=CEACONF4977"> <span id="translatedtitle">Four Cases of Protracted Whole Body <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> (Algerian Accident 1978).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 25 Ci iridium-192 source accidentally lost was introduced in a room where, among others, four young female patients (14 to 20 years old), one of them pregnant, were <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> during 4/5 weeks, 6/8 hours <span class="hlt">daily</span>, cumulating skin doses in the range of 2500...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. Jammet R. Gongora P. Pouillart R. Le Go N. Parmentier</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2851552"> <span id="translatedtitle">Can We Predict <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Adherence to Warfarin?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Warfarin is the primary therapy to prevent stroke and venous thromboembolism. Significant periods of nonadherence frequently go unreported by patients and undetected by providers. Currently, no comprehensive screening tool exists to help providers assess the risk of nonadherence at the time of initiation of warfarin therapy. Methods: This article reports on a prospective cohort study of adults initiating warfarin therapy at two anticoagulation clinics (university- and Veterans Affairs-affiliated). Nonadherence, defined by failure to record a correct <span class="hlt">daily</span> pill bottle opening, was measured <span class="hlt">daily</span> by electronic pill cap monitoring. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to develop a point system to predict <span class="hlt">daily</span> nonadherence to warfarin. Results: We followed 114 subjects for a median of 141 days. Median nonadherence of the participants was 14.4% (interquartile range [IQR], 5.8-33.8). A point system, based on nine demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors, distinguished those demonstrating low vs high levels of nonadherence: four points or fewer, median nonadherence 5.8% (IQR, 2.3-14.1); five points, 9.1% (IQR, 5.9-28.6); six points, 14.5% (IQR, 7.1-24.1); seven points, 14.7% (IQR, 7.0-34.7); and eight points or more, 29.3% (IQR, 15.5-41.9). The model produces a c-statistic of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.61-0.71), suggesting modest discriminating ability to predict day-level warfarin nonadherence. Conclusions: Poor adherence to warfarin is common. A screening tool based on nine demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors, if further validated in other patient populations, may help to identify groups of patients at lower risk for nonadherence so that intensified efforts at increased monitoring and intervention can be focused on higher-risk patients.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Platt, Alec B.; Localio, A. Russell; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Cruess, Dean G.; Christie, Jason D.; Gross, Robert; Parker, Catherine S.; Price, Maureen; Metlay, Joshua P.; Cohen, Abigail; Newcomb, Craig W.; Strom, Brian L.; Laskin, Mitchell S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kms1.isn.ethz.ch/serviceengine/Files/ISN/35753/ipublicationdocument_singledocument/9231c809-0599-4622-ad30-6e1244490467/en/2002_10_18.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Asymmetric <span class="hlt">Globalization</span>: <span class="hlt">Global</span> Markets Require Good <span class="hlt">Global</span> Politics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper sets out two views of the facts about the effects of <span class="hlt">globalization</span> on world poverty and inequality. The bottom line: <span class="hlt">globalization</span> is not the cause, but neither is it the solution to world poverty and inequality. The paper then explores why and how the <span class="hlt">global</span> economy is stacked against the poor, making <span class="hlt">globalization</span> asymmetric, at least up to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nancy Birdsall</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2003/06/12/healthy-hearts/"> <span id="translatedtitle">NY Times <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Lesson Plan: Healthy Hearts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Lesson Plan from the New York Times Learning Network has students explore the causes and cures of diseases affecting the cardiopulmonary system. Designed for grades 6-12, the lesson covers pulse-taking, cardiopulmonary anatomy, cardiopulmonary diseases and advanced technological treatments, and so on. The lesson is based on a recent NYT article, which may be accessed for free and without registration. Helpful Web links are provided for the group research portion of the lesson plan, and the suggested extension activities provide interesting ways to explore cardiopulmonary issues in greater depth.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2003/01/28/thirsty-for-drought-relief/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Lesson Plan: Thirsty for Drought Relief</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Lesson Plan from the New York Times Learning Network, students explore a variety of drought-related issues and research possible courses of action as part of a "drought preparedness taskforce." Based on New York Times coverage of drought in Arizona (story link provided), this exercise offers an active, interdisciplinary way to learn about water conservation and the ecological and economic effects of drought. Designed for grades 6-8 or 9-12, this exercise can be completed in one class period. The site includes useful Web links and a printer-friendly version of the lesson plan. Free registration is required.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anderson, Bridget.; Chan, Priscilla.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a000000/a002400/a002484/index.html"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Snow Cover from MODIS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides data in 36 spectral bands, some of which are used in an algorithm to map <span class="hlt">global</span> snow cover. The animation shows the dynamic behavior of the advance and retreat of continental snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere for the winter of 2001-02 from MODIS-derived 8-day composite snow maps with a spatial resolution of about 5 km. A time series of MODIS snow-cover maps of the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California, derived from MODIS-derived <span class="hlt">daily</span> snow maps with 500-m resolution, is also shown for the winter and spring of 2001.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Starr, Cindy; Hall, Dorothy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ciese.org/curriculum/tempproj/"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Global</span> Sun Temperature Project</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This website created by Stevens Institute of Technology and the Center for Innovation in Engineering and Science Education (CIESE) allows students from around the world to work together to determine how average <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperatures and hours of sunlight change with distance from the equator. Upper elementary, middle, and high school students can participate in the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Sun Temperature Project from March 18 to June 3, 2005. Educators can find project information, lesson plans, and implementation assistance. Participants can submit their project data, pictures, and final reports. If interested parties miss the May 6th registration deadline, check out the website to discover future runs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.economist.com"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Agenda</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">New from the Economist.com, <span class="hlt">Global</span> Agenda "provides rolling coverage and analysis on six to eight of the most important business and political topics each day." Written by Economist staff writers, each world topic includes a short paragraph summary of the issue, as well as a mid-length article examining the issue in greater detail. Related items, found in a column on the right side of the screen, include links to Economist articles, newswires, and accompanying Websites. These dynamic articles are updated as events occur; dramatic changes will be noted in red.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24061036"> <span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Daily</span> difficulties associated with full conventional dentures].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effectiveness of health services can be evaluated from the quality of life (QOL) standpoint. Thus, this study evaluated rehabilitation services using full conventional dentures (FCD) of Specialized Dental Care Centers (SDCC) in Rio Grande do Norte (RN) regarding <span class="hlt">daily</span> difficulties associated with these dentures made between 2007 and 2009. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 138 users of these FCD, collecting data by clinical examination and a questionnaire based on the Oral Impacts on <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Performances index. The Fisher and chi-square tests were used to test the association between the variables. The result was that 42% of users reported difficulties in executing oral activities due to FCDs. These difficulties were more frequent and intense in the activities of eating, speaking and smiling. In general, 58.7% of users did not have functional teeth. In relation to the clinical evaluation of FCDs, 57.2% of upper and 9.2% of lower FCDs were satisfactory. There was an association between difficulty and the absence of functional teeth, but not with inadequate FCDs. Thus, the SDCCs were effective in upper FCD rehabilitation, since the difficulties encountered are within the standard limitations of this type of rehabilitation. On the other hand, the cost-benefit of rehabilitation of lower FCDs must be evaluated. PMID:24061036</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Machado, Flávia Christiane de Azevedo; Costa, Anna Paula Serêjo da; Pontes, Anna Lepríncia Bezerra; Lima, Kenio Costa; Ferreira, Maria Ângela Fernandes</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17115988"> <span id="translatedtitle">The prophylactic treatment of chronic <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Chronic <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache (CDH), a heterogeneous group of headache disorders occurring on at least 15 days per month, affects up to 4% to 5% of the general population. CDH disorders include transformed (or chronic) migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new <span class="hlt">daily</span> persistent headache, and hemicrania continua. Patients with CDH have greater disability and lower quality of life than episodic migraine patients and often overuse headache pain medications. To date, only topiramate, gabapentin, tizanidine, fluoxetine, amitriptyline, and botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA) have been evaluated as prophylactic treatment of CDH in randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, or active comparator-controlled trials. The evidence supporting the use of BoNTA as prophylaxis of CDH is composed of larger and longer trials, as over 1000 patients were evaluated for up to 11 months duration. Compared with placebo BoNTA has significantly reduced the frequency of headache episodes, a recommended efficacy measure for headache trials and has been demonstrated to be safe and very well tolerated with few discontinuations due to adverse events. Side effects are generally transient, mild to moderate, and nonsystemic. The results of clinical trials using traditional oral pharmacotherapy, while supportive of their use as prophylactic treatment of CDH, are limited by several factors, including small numbers of patients, the choice of efficacy measures, and short treatment periods. The use of oral agents was associated with systemic side effects, which may limit their effectiveness as prophylactic treatment of CDH. PMID:17115988</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mathew, Ninan T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eagle.brooklynpubliclibrary.org/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Brooklyn <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Eagle Online, 1841-1902</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sometimes referred to as "the borough of homes and churches," Brooklyn has long been an urban community that has captured the attention of the United States and the rest of the world. For over a century, the Brooklyn <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Eagle chronicled the community's history while under the reins of a host of well-regarded editors, including Walt Whitman. This Web site, which is a collaboration between the Brooklyn Public Library and the Institute of Museum and Library Services, brings over seventy years of this paper online for viewing by the Web-browsing public. The Web site includes an introduction to the paper's history over its long tenure as Brooklyn's main <span class="hlt">daily</span> paper, as well as a timeline of important changes to the paper's format, layout, and content organization. What is perhaps most remarkable about this online archive is that the entire run from 1841 to 1902 can be searched by keyword, date, and content type. It is important to note that this current archive is a beta release, and that, at certain times (until the main release in the summer of 2003), certain features may not be always available. Regardless of this fact, this is an excellent resource for urban historians and researchers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24173611"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chronic <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache in the elderly.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Disabling headache disorders are ubiquitous in all age groups, including the elderly, yet they are under-recognized, underdiagnosed and undertreated worldwide. Surveys and clinic-based research reports on headache disorders in elderly populations are extremely limited in number. Chronic <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache (CDH) is an important and growing subtype of primary headache disorders, associated with increased burden and disruption to quality of life. CDH can be divided into two forms, based on headache duration. Common forms of primary headache disorders of long duration (>4 hours) were comprehensively defined in the third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 beta). These include chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new <span class="hlt">daily</span> persistent headache, and hemicrania continua. Rarer short-duration (<4 hours) forms of CDH are chronic cluster headache, chronic paroxysmal hemicrania, SUNCT, and hypnic headache. Accurate diagnosis, management, and relief of the burden of CDH in the elderly population present numerous unique challenges as the "aging world" continues to grow. In order to implement appropriate coping strategies for the elderly, it is essential to establish the correct diagnosis at each step and to exercise caution in differentiating from secondary causes, while always taking into consideration the unique needs and limitations of the aged body. PMID:24173611</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ozge, Aynur</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984EOSTr..65R..33."> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> warming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A study prepared for the National Science Foundation (NSF) by engineers and economists at the Massachussetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Stanford University concludes that the <span class="hlt">global</span> warming caused by buildup of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere during the next century can at least be slowed down if we learn to use nonpolluting energy sources more efficiently. It will take international cooperation, however, and prompt action to keep the greenhouse effects to a minimum.The report follows on the heels of two separate studies released in October by the National Research Council and the Environmental Protection Agency on carbon dioxide and <span class="hlt">global</span> warming (Eos, November 15, 1983, p. 929). Like those groups, the NSF study panel believes that “a significant … warming in the next century probably cannot be avoided.” However, “the rate of increase of atmospheric CO2 due to fossil fuel consumption can be significantly reduced via the adoption of realistic energy strategies that are relatively ‘CO2-benign.”’ The so-called greenhouse effect is caused when carbon dioxide and other gasses create an atmospheric blanket that traps heat near the surface.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26587766"> <span id="translatedtitle">Testing of two models for computing <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation on tilted surfaces</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Solar radiation data computerly measured at Amman, Jordan was used to verify the performance accuracy of two models for estimation of <span class="hlt">global</span> radiation on tilted surfaces. The measurements used in this study were the <span class="hlt">daily</span> totals of <span class="hlt">global</span> radiation on a horizontal surface, diffuse radiation on a horizontal surface and <span class="hlt">global</span> radiation on a 45° tilted surface. The measured radiation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Salem Nijmeh; Rustom Mamlook</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2746422"> <span id="translatedtitle">Object Perception Impairments Predict Instrumental Activities of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Living Dependence in Alzheimer's Disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study examined the contribution of object perception and spatial localization to functional dependence among Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Forty patients with probable AD completed measures assessing verbal recognition memory, working memory, object perception, spatial localization, semantic knowledge, and <span class="hlt">global</span> cognition. Primary caregivers completed a measure of activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living (ADLs) that included instrumental and basic self-care subscales (i.e., IADLs and BADLs, respectively). Stepwise multiple regressions revealed that <span class="hlt">global</span> cognition accounted for significant portions of variance among the ADL total, IADL, and BADL scores. However, when <span class="hlt">global</span> cognition was removed from the model, object perception was the only significant cognitive predictor of the ADL total and IADL subscale scores, accounting for 18.5% and 19.3% of the variance, respectively. When considering multiple cognitive components simultaneously, object perception and the integrity of the inferotemporal cortex is important in the completion of functional abilities in general and IADLs in particular among AD patients.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">JEFFERSON, ANGELA L.; BARAKAT, LAMIA P.; GIOVANNETTI, TANIA; PAUL, ROBERT H.; GLOSSER, GUILA</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42381671"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Health Diplomacy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A variety of shifts emergent with <span class="hlt">globalization</span>, which are reflected in part by nascent programs in “<span class="hlt">Global</span> Public Health,” “<span class="hlt">Global</span> Health Sciences,” and “<span class="hlt">Global</span> Health,” are redefining international public health. We explore three of these shifts as a critical discourse and intervention in <span class="hlt">global</span> health diplomacy: the expansion in non-governmental organization participation in international health programs, the <span class="hlt">globalization</span> of science</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vincanne Adams; Thomas E. Novotny; Hannah Leslie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2117538"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rivastigmine: a placebo controlled trial of twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> and three times <span class="hlt">daily</span> regimens in patients with Alzheimer's disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of rapidly titrated rivastigmine administered twice (BID) or three times (TID) <span class="hlt">daily</span> in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods This was a 26 week international, randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study in which 678 patients with probable AD received placebo or rivastigmine 2–12?mg/day BID or TID. Primary outcome measures included the cognitive subscale of the AD Assessment Scale (ADAS?cog) and categorical analysis of the Clinician Interview Based Impression of Change incorporating caregiver information (CIBIC?Plus). Secondary outcomes were the CIBIC?Plus change from baseline, Progressive Deterioration Scale, ADAS?cogA, Mini?Mental State Examination and <span class="hlt">Global</span> Deterioration Scale. Results At week 26, mean rivastigmine dose was 9.6 (2.76)?mg/day in the TID group and 8.9 (2.93)?mg/day in the BID group. Mean ADAS?cog changes from baseline in the TID and BID rivastigmine treated groups were ?0.2 (SD 7.3) and 1.2 (SD 7.2) versus 2.8 (SD 7.2) for the placebo group (p<0.05). Differences between rivastigmine TID and placebo on the CIBIC?Plus categorical responder analysis were significant (31% vs 19%; p<0.05, intention to treat). No significant differences were seen between BID and placebo for this outcome measure. Adverse events were predominantly gastrointestinal, occurring mainly during dose titration. Withdrawal because of adverse events accounted for 17% of BID, 11% of TID and 9% of placebo patients. Conclusions Rivastigmine administered as a BID or TID regimen significantly benefited cognitive, function and <span class="hlt">global</span> performances in AD patients. The TID regimen showed a tendency for superior tolerability and permitted titration to higher doses, an outcome that is significant as the efficacy of rivastigmine is dose related.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Feldman, Howard H; Lane, Roger</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.3150G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multisegment statistical bias correction of <span class="hlt">daily</span> GCM precipitation output</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">improved bias correction method for <span class="hlt">daily</span> general circulation model (GCM) precipitation is presented. The method belongs to the widely used family of quantile mapping correction methods. The method uses different instances of gamma function that are fitted on multiple discrete segments on the precipitation cumulative density function (CDF), instead of the common quantile-quantile approach that uses one theoretical distribution to fit the entire CDF. This imposes to the method the ability to better transfer the observed precipitation statistics to the raw GCM data. The selection of the segment number is performed by an information criterion to poise between complexity and efficiency of the transfer function. The <span class="hlt">global</span> precipitation output of Institut Pierre Simon Laplace Coupled Model for the period 1960-2000 is bias corrected using the precipitation observations of WATCH Forcing Data. The 1960-1980 period of observations was used to calibrate the bias correction method, while 1981-2000 was used for validation. The proposed method performs well on the validation period, according to two performance estimators.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grillakis, Manolis G.; Koutroulis, Aristeidis G.; Tsanis, Ioannis K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> 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showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/u4286634210075kq.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Children's and parents' <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressful events and psychological symptoms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Associations of children's <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressful events and their parents' <span class="hlt">daily</span> hassles and psychological symptoms with children's emotional\\/behavioral problems were examined in a sample of fourth- and fifth-grade children and their parents. Correlational analyses indicated that children's self-reports of depressive symptoms were associated with children's <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors and mothers' <span class="hlt">daily</span> hassles, and children's selfreports of anxiety symptoms were associated with children's</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gerard A. Banez; Bruce E. Compas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AdSpR..48..521L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> variation characteristics at polar geomagnetic observatories</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper is based on the statistical analysis of the diurnal variation as observed at six polar geomagnetic observatories, three in the Northern and three in the Southern hemisphere. Data are for 2006, a year of low geomagnetic activity. We compared the Italian observatory Mario Zucchelli Station (TNB; corrected geomagnetic latitude: 80.0°S), the French-Italian observatory Dome C (DMC; 88.9°S), the French observatory Dumont D'Urville (DRV; 80.4°S) and the three Canadian observatories, Resolute Bay (RES; 83.0°N), Cambridge Bay (CBB; 77.0°N) and Alert (ALE, 87.2°N). The aim of this work was to highlight analogies and differences in <span class="hlt">daily</span> variation as observed at the different observatories during low geomagnetic activity year, also considering Interplanetary Magnetic Field conditions and geomagnetic indices.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lepidi, S.; Cafarella, L.; Pietrolungo, M.; Di Mauro, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cfr.org/publication/by_type/daily_analysis.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Council on Foreign Relations: <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Council on Foreign Relations produces an impressive array of background papers, online debates, op-ed pieces, and articles every year. International relations gurus, policy pundits, and members of the public benefit widely from these works, and those persons who haven't looked over the Council's "<span class="hlt">Daily</span> Analysis" yet, may wish to do so now. Here visitors can read analytical briefs written by staff members on issues of the day, complete with links to "the news, analysis, commentary, and primary source materials that put the facts in context." The briefs are arranged chronologically, and recent pieces include "Is Brain Drain Good For Africa?", "China's Olympic Moment", and "Picking Presidents and Foreign Policy". These briefs are a great way to get acquainted with important news developments from around the world, and it's easy to see how educators might want to draw on the site as a resource for political science or international relations courses.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002Natur.418..601T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Climatology: Contrails reduce <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature range</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The potential of condensation trails (contrails) from jet aircraft to affect regional-scale surface temperatures has been debated for years, but was difficult to verify until an opportunity arose as a result of the three-day grounding of all commercial aircraft in the United States in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Here we show that there was an anomalous increase in the average diurnal temperature range (that is, the difference between the daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperatures) for the period 11-14 September 2001. Because persisting contrails can reduce the transfer of both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation and so reduce the <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature range, we attribute at least a portion of this anomaly to the absence of contrails over this period.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Travis, David J.; Carleton, Andrew M.; Lauritsen, Ryan G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5606561"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> operation of a multipurpose reservoir system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An optimization model that may be used by reservoir system operators to improve <span class="hlt">daily</span>, real-time operations and to evolve better long-term operating guidelines is developed and tested. The four multipurpose reservoirs in the Green River Basin (GRB) of Kentucky are used as a case study. The GRB Operation Optimization Model (GRBOOM) is a linear program constructed to imitate the decision-making process that results in actual reservoir release decisions. The model is easily modifiable and very flexible, which allows sensitivity analysis and experimentation with new operating guidelines. This experimentation should permit the operators to evolve improved operating policies. The inputs to the model are data that are readily available, and the outputs may be presented in easily interpreted graphical form.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yazicigil, H.; Houck, M.H.; Toebes, G.H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.bioedonline.org/tasks/render/file/index.cfm?fileID=170935CF-DAC9-30AD-16BD879197DC50D6"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Science of Sleep and <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Rhythms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Created as part of the BioEd initiative at the Baylor College of Medicine, this fine guide to the science of sleep and <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms was authored by Nancy P. Moreno, Barbara Z. Tharp, and Gregory L. Vogt. The 32-page document is designed for use in a variety of classrooms, and it contains activities, worksheets, and information about how sleep studies are used to improve performance across a wide range of human endeavors. The activities here include "Using a Sundial," "Living Clocks," "Sleep Patterns," and "Investigating Sleep." Each of these activities is explained succinctly and thoroughly, and many do not required specialized equipment. One of the most interesting activities is the sun tracking board which allows students to track the sun's movements with just a bit of cardboard, several writing instruments, a ruler, and some string. Finally, the sleep cycle rhythms activity gets creative, as students are asked to write a few poems about their own sleep patterns.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vogt, Gregory; Moreno, Nancy P.; Tharp, Barbara Z.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009REDS..164..232C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermoluminescence sensitivity of <span class="hlt">daily</span>-use materials</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The thermoluminescence (TL) response of silicon-rich <span class="hlt">daily</span>-use materials, namely charoite (silicate gemstone), Spanish dental crown, phone chip and Spanish glass has been investigated. All the samples previously characterised by means of X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy associated with energy-dispersion and wavelength-dispersive spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence exhibit a reasonable sensitivity to ionising radiation. The preliminary results, based on their TL properties, allow us to speculate that these materials could be potentially of interest in situations where conventional dosimetric systems are not available. The dose dependence of the 400 nm TL emission of the studied samples displays a very good linearity in the range of 0.1-10 Gy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Correcher, V.; Garcia-Guinea, J.; Rivera, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985gmgm.rept...10D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> geomorphology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Any <span class="hlt">global</span> view of landforms must include an evaluation of the link between plate tectonics and geomorphology. To explain the broad features of the continents and ocean floors, a basic distinction between the tectogene and cratogene part of the Earth's surface must be made. The tectogene areas are those that are dominated by crustal movements, earthquakes and volcanicity at the present time and are essentially those of the great mountain belts and mid ocean ridges. Cratogene areas comprise the plate interiors, especially the old lands of Gondwanaland and Laurasia. Fundamental as this division between plate margin areas and plate interiors is, it cannot be said to be a simple case of a distinction between tectonically active and stable areas. Indeed, in terms of megageomorphology, former plate margins and tectonic activity up to 600 million years ago have to be considered.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Douglas, I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989EOSTr..70..748V"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> paleopoles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In July 1987, Phil McFadden of th e Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources wrote to Rob Van der Voo at the University of Michigan and to several other paleomagnetists in the U.S. suggesting that the time had come for construction of a paleomagnetic data base. He added that Mike McElhinny was thinking of retiring from BMR and might be interested in the project. He thought funding for the project could perhaps be sought from organizations such as the National Science Foundation. To make a long story short we are now, nearly two years later, well on the way with at least one large component of this suggestion: a <span class="hlt">global</span> paleomagnetic pole data base being constructed by Mike McElhinny for thr entire world.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Van der Voo, Rob; McElhinny, Michael W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40472038"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar UV radiation modulates <span class="hlt">daily</span> production and DNA damage of marine bacterioplankton from a productive upwelling zone (36°S), Chile</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In upwelling ecosystems, such as the Humboldt Current system (HCS) off Concepción, the effects of solar radiation on bacterioplankton incorporation rates have been related to previous light acclimation and responses to <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. In this paper, we study the <span class="hlt">daily</span> effect of Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR, 400–700 nm) and ultraviolet radiation UVR (280–400 nm) on bacterial secondary production (BSP). We also considered the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Klaudia L. Hernández; Renato A. Quiñones; Giovanni Daneri; María E. Farias; E. Walter Helbling</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56340192"> <span id="translatedtitle">Different Oxidative Stress Response in Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts of Reconstructed Skin Exposed to Non Extreme <span class="hlt">Daily</span>-Ultraviolet Radiation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Experiments characterizing the biological effects of sun exposure have usually involved solar simulators. However, they addressed the worst case scenario i.e. zenithal sun, rarely found in common outdoor activities. A non-extreme ultraviolet radiation (UV) spectrum referred as “<span class="hlt">daily</span> UV radiation” (DUVR) with a higher UVA (320–400 nm) to UVB (280–320 nm) <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> ratio has therefore been defined. In this study,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Claire Marionnet; Cécile Pierrard; François Lejeune; Juliette Sok; Marie Thomas; Françoise Bernerd; Simon Melov</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30714896"> <span id="translatedtitle">Derivation Of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Values Used For Nutrition Labeling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Values (DVs) are the <span class="hlt">daily</span> dietary intake standards used for nutrition labeling. Information on the derivation of DVs is important for dietetics professionals and nutrition educators who use DVs to educate and instruct patients and students about diet planning and evaluation and about adherence to modified diets. The first <span class="hlt">daily</span> intake standards for nutrition labeling were established in 1973</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">JEAN A. T. PENNINGTON; VANS. HUBBARD</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26358908"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> runoff in Central Asian alpine watersheds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A two-component model of river runoff simulation in alpine regions of Central Asia has been implemented. The first component was devoted to the estimation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> water input. The second component converts water input to river runoff hydrograph. The method of water input simulation was based on mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> air temperature and <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation at a reference meteorological station, and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">V. Aizen; E. Aizen; G. Glazirin; H. A. Loaiciga</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/9144/1/st05036.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> air pollution time series analysis of Isfahan City</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Different time series analysis of <span class="hlt">daily</span> air pollution of Isfahan city were performed in this study. Descriptive analysis showed different long-term variation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> air pollution. High persistence in <span class="hlt">daily</span> air pollution time series were identified using autocorrelation function except for SO2 which seemed to be short memory. Standardized air pollution index (SAPI) time series were also calculated to compare</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Modarres; A. Khosravi Dehkordi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58987975"> <span id="translatedtitle">Patterns of <span class="hlt">daily</span> prayer in Second Temple period Judaism</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This dissertation examines the origins and development of <span class="hlt">daily</span> prayer, particularly the establishment of fixed times for <span class="hlt">daily</span> prayer that emerged in Second Temple period Judaism. In this historical period, fixed <span class="hlt">daily</span> prayer was becoming popular, but since it lacked explicit biblical warrant, a number of strategies emerge at this time to legitimize and promote this custom as an important</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jeremy Penner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14991816"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> attenuates neurogenesis and exacerbates ischemia-induced deficits.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Increased neurogenesis after cerebral ischemia suggests that functional recovery after stroke may be attributed, in part, to neural regeneration. In this study, we investigated the role of neurogenesis in the behavioral performance of gerbils after cerebral <span class="hlt">global</span> ischemia. We used ionizing radiation to decrease neural regeneration, and 2 weeks later cerebral <span class="hlt">global</span> ischemia was induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion. One month after the occlusion, the animals were behaviorally tested. <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> alone reduced neurogenesis but did not change vascular or dendritic morphology at the time of behavioral testing. Neither did <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>, ischemia, or combined treatment impair rotor-rod performance or alter open-field activity. Gerbils subjected to both <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> and ischemia demonstrated impaired performance in the water-maze task, compared with those that received only ischemia, radiation, or no treatment. These impairments after cerebral <span class="hlt">global</span> ischemia under conditions of reduced neurogenesis support a role for the production of new cells in mediating functional recovery. PMID:14991816</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Raber, Jacob; Fan, Yang; Matsumori, Yasuhiko; Liu, Zhengyan; Weinstein, Philip R; Fike, John R; Liu, Jialing</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://scout.wisc.edu/Reports/NSDL/LifeSci/2004/ls-041112#TopicInDepth"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Biodiversity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nations around the world have recognized biodiversity as one of the most pressing ecological issues of our time. Declining biodiversity over recent decades has prompted the formation of international coalitions and national biodiversity programs. This Topic in Depth explores the work of both international and national efforts to increase <span class="hlt">global</span> biodiversity. The first site presents an archived report from the Convention on Biological Diversity, an international organization formed by many world nations after the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. This first edition of the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Biodiversity Outlook report, published in 2001, was created to provide a status summary, and an analysis of Convention objectives. It is expected that a second edition will be published this year presenting more recent data and analysis (1). Explore Biodiversity is an innovative project involving a team of scientists and filmmakers working to document the diminishing biological diversity of our planet. The hip Explore website shares beautiful images, videos, and information from expeditions to Hawaii, Mexico, and Alaska (2). The third site, from the Australian Government's Department of the Environment and Heritage, discusses biodiversity in Australia. The site contains sections regarding Migratory Species; Conservation and Regional Planning; Invasive Species; and Biodiversity Hotspots--to name a few (3). The fourth website presents the Belgian Biodiversity Platform (4), which is "an integrated network of people and institutions funded by the Belgian Federal Science Policy to facilitate dialogue and collaboration between scientists in Belgium and abroad, in the field of biological diversity." From the Nepalese Government's Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, the fifth site presents information about biodiversity programs in Nepal. The site contains sections about Forests, National Parks, Plant Resources, and the Ministry's National Biodiversity Unit (5). The final website presents the Centre for Marine Biodiversity (CMB), a Canada-based organization that was established in 2000 to promote scientific support of marine biodiversity. The CMB website contains research reports, links to several databases, links to various identification guides, and a photo gallery with some nice underwater images (6).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21372266"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bystander Effects Induced by Medium From <span class="hlt">Irradiated</span> Cells: Similar Transcriptome Responses in <span class="hlt">Irradiated</span> and Bystander K562 Cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: Cells exposed to ionizing radiation release factors that induce deoxyribonucleic acid damage, chromosomal instability, apoptosis, and changes in the proliferation rate of neighboring unexposed cells, phenomena known as bystander effects. This work analyzes and compares changes in <span class="hlt">global</span> transcript levels induced by direct <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> and by bystander effects in K562 (human erythroleukemia) cells. Methods and Materials: Cells were X-<span class="hlt">irradiated</span> with 4 Gy or transferred into culture medium collected from cells 1 h after <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> (<span class="hlt">irradiation</span>-conditioned medium). <span class="hlt">Global</span> transcript profiles were assessed after 36 h of growth by use of Affymetrix microarrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) and the kinetics of change of selected transcripts by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results: The level of the majority (72%) of transcripts changed similarly (increase, decrease, or no change) in cells grown in <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>-conditioned medium or <span class="hlt">irradiated</span>, whereas only 0.6% showed an opposite response. Transcript level changes in bystander and <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> cells were significantly different from those in untreated cells grown for the same amount of time and were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for selected genes. Signaling pathways in which the highest number of transcripts changed in both conditions were found in the following groups: neuroactive ligand-receptor, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Janus Kinase-Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (JAK-STAT) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) In control cells more transcripts were downregulated than in <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> and bystander cells with transcription factors YBX1 and STAT5B, heat shock protein HSPA1A, and ribonucleic acid helicase DDX3X as examples. Conclusions: The transcriptomes of cells grown in medium from X-<span class="hlt">irradiated</span> cells or directly <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> show very similar changes. Signals released by <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> cells may cause changes in the transcriptome of neighboring cells that sustain their survival.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Herok, Robert; Konopacka, Maria [Department of Experimental and Clinical Radiobiology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); Polanska, Joanna; Swierniak, Andrzej [System Engineering Group, Institute of Automatic Control, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland); Rogolinski, Jacek [Department of Experimental and Clinical Radiobiology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); Jaksik, Roman [System Engineering Group, Institute of Automatic Control, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland); Hancock, Ronald [Laval University Cancer Research Centre, Hotel-Dieu Hospital, Quebec, QC (Canada); Rzeszowska-Wolny, Joanna, E-mail: jwolny@io.gliwice.p [Department of Experimental and Clinical Radiobiology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); System Engineering Group, Institute of Automatic Control, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://globalvoicesonline.org/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Voices</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Former CNN Beijing and Tokyo Bureau Chief Rebecca MacKinnon and Africa expert Ethan Zuckerman started <span class="hlt">Global</span> Voices while they were both fellows at Harvard. The website is a community of over 300 bloggers and translators from around the world whose aim is "to redress some of the inequities in media attention by leveraging the power of citizens' media." The website has "featured stories" and "latest stories" on the homepage, as well as "Updates" and "Special Coverage", such as "Gabon Unrest 2011", "Nigeria Elections 2011", and the "Death of Osama Bin Laden". The site can also be searched by "Countries", "Topics" and "Contributors". The "Countries" link contains an extensive list of countries that visitors can peruse at their leisure. There is also a monthly archive that shows the number of posts for that country, and they date all the way back to August 2005. A look at Algeria allows visitors to read the post "Arab World: Tears Spilled on the Break Up of Sudan", which shows the reaction of Arab netizens on Twitter to South Sudan's Independence referendum. The tweets have been translated from the Arabic into English, which is particularly useful for those persons who do not speak Arabic.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17841800"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> cooling?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The world's inhabitants, including Scientists, live primarily in the Northern Hemisphere. It is quite natural to be concerned about events that occur close to home and neglect faraway events. Hence, it is not surprising that so little attention has been given to the Southern Hemisphere. Evidence for <span class="hlt">global</span> cooling has been based, in large part, on a severe cooling trend at high northern latitudes. This article points out that the Northern Hemisphere cooling trend appears to be out of phase with a warming trend at high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. The data are scanty. We cannot be sure that these temperature fluctuations are be not the result of natural causes. How it seems most likely that human activity has already significantly perturbed the atmospheric weather system. The effect of particulate matter pollution should be most severe in the highly populated and industrialized Northern Hemisphere. Because of the rapid diffusion of CO(2) molecules within the atmosphere, both hemispheres will be subject to warming due to the atmospheric (greenhouse) effect as the CO(2) content of the atmosphere builds up from the combustion of fossil fuels. Because of the differential effects of the two major sources of atmospheric pollution, the CO(2) greenhouse effect warming trend should first become evident in the Southern Hemisphere. The socioeconomic and political consequences of climate change are profound. We need an early warning system such as would be provided by a more intensive international world weather watch, particularly at high northern and southern latitudes. PMID:17841800</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Damon, P E; Kunen, S M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return 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<a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hydro.jpl.nasa.gov/satbias/ams.lucas.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimating the Satellite Equatorial Crossing Time Biases in the <span class="hlt">Daily</span>, <span class="hlt">Global</span> Outgoing Longwave Radiation Dataset</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Due to its long record length (approximately 25 years), the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) dataset has been used in a multitude of climatological studies including studies on tropical circulation and convection, the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, and the earth's radiation budget. Although many of the climatological studies using OLR have proven invaluable, proper interpretation of the low-frequency components of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. E. Lucas; D. E. Waliser; P. Xie; J. E. Janowiak; B. Liebmann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12878452"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> prickly pear consumption improves platelet function.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Prickly pear is traditionally used by Pima Indians as a dietary nutrient against diabetes mellitus. We examined the effect of <span class="hlt">daily</span> consumption of 250 g in 8 healthy volunteers and 8 patients with mild familial heterozygous hypercholesterolemia on various parameters of platelet function. Beside its action on lipids and lipoproteins, prickly pear consumption significantly reduced the platelet proteins (platelet factor 4 and beta-thromboglobulin), ADP-induced platelet aggregation and improved platelet sensitivity (against PGI2 and PGE1) in volunteers as well as in patients. Also plasma 11-DH-TXB2 and the WU-test showed a significant improvement in both patients and volunteers. In contrast, collagen-induced platelet aggregation and the number of circulating endothelial cells showed a significant response in patients only. No influence of prickly pear ingestion on peripheral platelet count was monitored. The dietary run-in period did not influence any of the parameters of haemostasis examined. No sex difference was seen. Prickly pear may induce at least part of its beneficial actions on the cardiovascular system via decreasing platelet activity and thereby improving haemostatic balance. PMID:12878452</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wolfram, R; Budinsky, A; Efthimiou, Y; Stomatopoulos, J; Oguogho, A; Sinzinger, H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999WRR....35.3783H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> phosphorus variation in a mountain stream</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Monthly diel monitoring studies for phosphorus content were conducted (1995-1996 period) for multiple stations on Incline Creek, a mountain stream in the Lake Tahoe basin (California-Nevada). Large discharge and particulate P (PP) concentration fluctuations occurred during June in the early evening as snowmelt from higher elevations arrived at the lower stream reaches. June diel dissolved organic P (DOP) concentrations steadily increased, while soluble reactive P (SRP) concentrations remained constant. June diel PP concentrations associated with sand-sized particles (PPsand: >63 ?m) exhibited a clockwise hysteresis, indicating possible sediment source depletion on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> timescale. June diel PP associated with silt- and clay-sized particles (PPSC: >0.45 ?m and <63 ?m) exhibited counterclockwise hysteresis behavior, suggesting a potential groundwater contribution to PPSC. PPSC comprised the majority of PP concentration, except during high-discharge events when PPsand concentration was dominant. Areal PP loading, specifically PPsand, appears to originate primarily from the lower eastern branch of Incline Creek during the spring snowmelt season. Possible sources include a ski resort/parking lot and a golf course. DOP and SRP areal loads were greatest from the undeveloped upper subwatershed, suggesting that natural factors such as slope are influencing loading of small-sized P fractions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hatch, Lorin K.; Reuter, John E.; Goldman, Charles R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/923436"> <span id="translatedtitle">TRENDS IN ESTIMATED MIXING DEPTH <span class="hlt">DAILY</span> MAXIMUMS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential temperature and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-11-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/gl/gl0505/2004GL022139/2004GL022139.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> observations of the land breeze</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Four-times <span class="hlt">daily</span> satellite wind observations from the QuikSCAT and ADEOS-II tandem scatterometer mission are used to study the land\\/sea breeze circulation. These observations provide a <span class="hlt">global</span> view of diurnal wind variations over the ocean. Results agree with frictional linear theory: winds follow an elliptical hodograph through the course of the day, but indicate that diurnal wind variations propagate offshore progressively</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sarah T. Gille; Stefan G. Llewellyn Smith; Nicholas M. Statom</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www-pord.ucsd.edu/~sgille/pub_dir/2004GL022139.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Observations of the Land Breeze</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Four-times <span class="hlt">daily</span> satellite wind observations from the QuikSCAT and ADEOS-II tandem scatterometer mission are used to study the land\\/sea breeze circulation. These observations provide a <span class="hlt">global</span> view of diurnal wind variations over the ocean. Results agree with frictional linear theory: winds follow an elliptical hodograph through the course of the day, but indicate that diurnal wind variations propagate offshore progressively</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stefan Llewellyn Smith; Sarah Gille; Nicholas M. Statom</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/vv52553u27m23288.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Episodic Nonlinearity in Leading <span class="hlt">Global</span> Currencies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We perform non-linearity tests using <span class="hlt">daily</span> data for leading currencies that include the Australian dollar, British pound,\\u000a Brazilian real, Canadian dollar, euro, Japanese yen, Mexican peso, and the Swiss franc to resolve the issue of whether these\\u000a currencies are driven by fundamentals or exogenous shocks to the <span class="hlt">global</span> economy. In particular, we use a new method of testing\\u000a for linear</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Apostolos Serletis; Anastasios G. Malliaris; Melvin J. Hinich; Periklis Gogas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001EP%26S...53...69F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean values of regional geomagnetic total force field changes in Japan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A spatial-temporal model of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean values of the geomagnetic total force field was constructed for Japan for the time interval from 1997 to 1999. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean data of six geomagnetic observatories and nine continuous geomagnetic stations in Japan were used for the model. Temporal functions of the model were constructed using the Natural Orthogonal Components method, and the spatial functions are polynomial functions of the horizontal positions. The accuracy of the model is within approximately a few nT, and it can be used for eliminating external fields for geomagnetic surveys or detecting local geomagnetic changes for monitoring crustal activities. Each function, which is calculated using the mathematical (statistical) method, has physical meaning, such as the intensity of the <span class="hlt">globally</span> symmetrical equatorial ring current and secular changes in the main field. The temporal and spatial functions can be then used for geophysical study of the Earth.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fujiwara, S.; Nishiki, T.; Shirai, H.; Hamazaki, H.; Golovkov, V. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41178290"> <span id="translatedtitle">Basic study on the prediction of solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> and its application to photovoltaic-diesel hybrid generation system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper at first describes a basic study on the prediction of hourly or <span class="hlt">daily</span> amount of solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>. The method is based on theoretical equation and observation of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. Then, the novel method to control photovoltaic-diesel hybrid generation system using the prediction is proposed to improve the total efficiency of the system. A numerical simulation result shows the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shigehiro Yamamoto; Jae-Shik Park; Masahiko Takata; Koichiro Sasaki; Takeshi Hashimoto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EOSTr..92S..72T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Research Spotlight: More accurate measurements of total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Radiation from the Sun is the dominant source of energy input to the Earth's climate system; even small variations in solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> can produce noticeable climate changes on <span class="hlt">global</span> and regional scales. Determining how much of the observed <span class="hlt">global</span> change can be attributed to variations in the Sun's output and how much can be attributed to human or other influences requires an accurate record of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. Measurements of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> made by the Total <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Monitor (TIM) on NASA's Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) satellite give a value of total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> that is significantly lower than previously accepted values. Kopp and Lean show that this new, lower value is more accurate than measurements made using older instruments. They used laboratory studies and satellite calibrations to diagnose and quantify error sources on TIM and other space-based solar radiometers and found that earlier radiometers measured higher values of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> because they included scattered instrument light in their signals, while the different optical design of the TIM radiometer reduces this spurious signal and acquires more accurate measurements. They also show that TIM's high stability gives improved agreement with models estimating solar variability, concluding that this new instrument provides the most accurate value of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and helps improve estimates of the Sun's influence on climate. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2010GL045777, 2011)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tretkoff, Ernie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23092623"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analyzing UV-B narrowband solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>: comparison with erythemal and vitamin D production <span class="hlt">irradiances</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The heliotherapy and the phototherapy are mainly focused on taking benefit of the therapeutic effects of the ultraviolet (UV) <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on different skin diseases. The use of UV-B narrowband lamps, with emissions centered at 311 nm, has spread out among the dermatologist community because of its high therapeutic effect in comparison with its low erythema dose. For cloudless sun exposure, the balance of solar erythemal and solar narrowband (NB)-equivalent <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> depends on several factors such as the solar zenith angle (SZA), the total ozone column (TOC) and the altitude. For SZA below 55°, the ratio of solar UV-B narrowband and erythemal <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> increases with the SZA whereas the ratio of vitamin D production and erythemal <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> decreases with the SZA with the maximum around midday. Furthermore, the solar NB ratio also increases with the TOC because the shorter wavelengths of the erythemal action spectrum are more affected by the ozone absorption processes. Considering the <span class="hlt">daily</span> variations of the ratio between narrowband and erythemal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, sun exposures avoiding midday hours are recommended in order to prevent negative side-effects. However to accumulate great NB doses and sufficient vitamin D in winter months is difficult because the time exposures may be longer than the day duration. PMID:23092623</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sola, Yolanda; Lorente, Jerónimo; Ossó, Albert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5829T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> VLBI antenna position estimates derived from the CONT11 campaign</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The International Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) observed the continuous CONT11 campaign from 15 to 30 September 2011. The goal of this campaign was to assess the current capabilities of the VLBI technique, e.g. the accuracy of geodetic parameters. In this study, we investigate the possibility of estimating sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> antenna TRF (terrestrial reference frame) positions from the VLBI observations. First, we divided the 15 24-hour sessions of CONT11 into two hour (2h) and six hour (6h) observation files and analyzed them with the software VieVS (Vienna VLBI Software). We optimized the parameterization according to the 2h and 6h sessions, e.g. by excluding antennas from the sessions of which number of observations is not enough for performing a regular solution and by fixing celestial pole offsets. The a priori TRF coordinates and <span class="hlt">daily</span> Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP) were obtained from a <span class="hlt">global</span> solution for CONT11. Then, we estimated one offset per antenna per 2h and 6h session, applying no-net-translation and no-net-rotation conditions with respect to the TRF derived from our <span class="hlt">global</span> solution. A noteworthy result from our study is that the sky distribution of the observations per antenna per sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> session should be homogeneous to derive reliable antenna positions, because homogenous sky coverage allows for a good separation of the coordinates and the tropospheric delays in the data analysis. Another result from our study is that the spectra of the position time series of certain antennas include significant amplitudes at sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> tidal frequencies which are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Teke, Kamil; Böhm, Johannes; Nilsson, Tobias; Krásná, Hana</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ARA%26A..51..311S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Variability and Climate</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The brightness of the Sun varies on all timescales on which it has been observed, and there is increasing evidence that this has an influence on climate. The amplitudes of such variations depend on the wavelength and possibly the timescale. Although many aspects of this variability are well established, the exact magnitude of secular variations (going beyond a solar cycle) and the spectral dependence of variations are under discussion. The main drivers of solar variability are thought to be magnetic features at the solar surface. The climate response can be, on a <span class="hlt">global</span> scale, largely accounted for by simple energetic considerations, but understanding the regional climate effects is more difficult. Promising mechanisms for such a driving have been identified, including through the influence of UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on the stratosphere and dynamical coupling to the surface. Here, we provide an overview of the current state of our knowledge, as well as of the main open questions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Solanki, Sami K.; Krivova, Natalie A.; Haigh, Joanna D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/global/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Tobacco Control</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... to... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks <span class="hlt">Global</span> Tobacco Control Best Practices — GATS data for India ... resources for efficient and sustainable tobacco control initiatives <span class="hlt">Global</span> Tobacco Surveillance System Data The <span class="hlt">Global</span> Tobacco Surveillance ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3699690"> <span id="translatedtitle">Childhood Abuse and Inflammatory Responses to <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Stressors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Childhood abuse leads to greater morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Dysregulated physiological stress responses may underlie the greater health risk among abused individuals. Purpose This study evaluated the impact of childhood abuse on inflammatory responses to naturalistically occurring <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors. Methods In this cross-sectional study of 130 older adults, recent <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors and childhood abuse history were evaluated using the <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Inventory of Stressful Events and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Blood samples provided data on circulating interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Results Childhood abuse history moderated IL-6 levels, but not TNF-? and CRP responses to <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors. Individuals with a childhood abuse history who experienced multiple stressors in the past 24 hours had IL-6 levels 2.35 times greater than those of participants who reported multiple <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors but no early abuse history. Conclusion Childhood abuse substantially enhances IL-6 responses to <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors in adulthood.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Glaser, Ronald; Malarkey, William B.; Beversdorf, David; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JARS....7.3538Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Improving temporal extrapolation for <span class="hlt">daily</span> evapotranspiration using radiation measurements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Accuracy needs to be improved when extrapolating instantaneous remote sensing evapotranspiration (ET) values for <span class="hlt">daily</span> ET estimates. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> net radiation (R) is a critical variable for this extrapolation. We expand the de Bruin and Sticker formula for R in the evaporative fraction method by incorporating ground radiation measurements. In addition, an improved <span class="hlt">daily</span> transmittance formula that considers atmospheric conditions and solar declination is proposed for R calculation. The coefficient for <span class="hlt">daily</span> net longwave radiation (R) in R is regressed from the ground radiation measurements and the improved <span class="hlt">daily</span> transmittance values. A comparative study was conducted in the Haihe River basin, China. Experimental results show that the improved method yields a root mean square error of 0.97 mm for <span class="hlt">daily</span> ET and only about 2% underestimation for actual seasonal ET in the study area. These results are better than the values obtained by traditional methods.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Xiaochun; Wu, Jingwei; Wu, Huayi; Chen, Haorui; Zhang, Tong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42043158"> <span id="translatedtitle">A comparison of variable solar total and ultraviolet <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> outputs in the 20th century</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Differences in time- variation between total and ultraviolet solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> could help in separating their influence on climate. We present the first models based on area measurements of magnetic plages from CaK spectroheliograms obtained between 1915-1999. Correlation of our time series of UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> with <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature, T, accounts for only 20% of the <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature variance during the 20th</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peter Foukal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5556681"> <span id="translatedtitle">Photometric measurements of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variations due to sunspots</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A photometric telescope constructed to obtain photometric sunspot areas and deficits on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis is described. Data from this Cartesian full disk telescope (CFDT) are analyzed with attention given to the period between June 4 and June 17, 1985 because of the availability of overlapping sunspot area and <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> deficit data from high-resolution digital spectroheliograms made with the San Fernando Observatory 28 cm vacuum solar telescope and spectroheliograph. The CFDT sunspot deficits suggest a substantial <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> contribution from faculae and active region plage. 23 refs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chapman, G.A.; Herzog, A.D.; Laico, D.E.; Lawrence, J.K.; Templer, M.S. (San Fernando Observatory, El Segundo, CA (USA))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21705793"> <span id="translatedtitle">The physiology and ontogeny of <span class="hlt">daily</span> oral behaviors.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the masticatory system, activities of muscles are the main source of force. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> activity of the jaw muscle is a measure of the total <span class="hlt">daily</span> loading of the tissues involved. This article gives an overview on the recent assessments of the physiology and ontogeny of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> use of the jaw muscles. Variations in the characteristics of <span class="hlt">daily</span> activity could be linked to differences in the types of fibers composing the muscles as well as to the properties of the underlying bone, although these relationships are not absolute. Experimental decrease of the hardness of foods eaten by rats and rabbits showed a significant decrease in the number of <span class="hlt">daily</span> bursts of feeding. These reductions in <span class="hlt">daily</span> muscular activity were accompanied by higher mineralization of bone and by a transition toward "faster" fiber types in the muscles. It was revealed in rabbits that the characteristics of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> activities of muscles (total duration of activity, number and lengths of bursts) were not altered during the transition from suckling to chewing and remained largely unaffected during further postnatal development. These results suggest that, despite large anatomical and functional changes, the average <span class="hlt">daily</span> load on the jaw muscles by the masticatory system appears to be established before chewing develops and remains largely unchanged all the way through development. Whenever the <span class="hlt">daily</span> muscular activity changes, this seems to have a significant effect on the properties of the tissues involved. PMID:21705793</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Langenbach, Geerling E J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-06-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/43558480"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of Three Satellite-Estimated Land Surface Downwelling Shortwave <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Data Sets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This letter assesses three satellite-estimated surface downwelling shortwave <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> data sets: 1) GEWEX-SRB; 2) ISCCP-FD; and 3) CERES-FSW, using ground measurements collected at 36 <span class="hlt">globally</span> distributed sites from 2000-2002. SRB and FD solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> are available at three hourly intervals during daytime and FSW hourly solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> is available at late morning. The data are compared to ground measurements at</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sheng Gui; Shunlin Liang; Kaicun Wang; Lin Li; Xiaotong Zhang; Xiaotong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a 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showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ujaen.es/investiga/tep220/es/pdf/05_sel.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Selection of input parameters to model direct solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> by using artificial neural networks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A very important factor in the assessment of solar energy resources is the availability of direct <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> data of high quality. However, this component of solar radiation is seldom measured and thus must be estimated from data of <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, which is registered in most radiometric stations. In recent years, artificial neural networks (ANN) have shown to be a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. López; F. J. Batlles; J. Tovar-Pescador</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ems..confE.240L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Linking changes in <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation values and extremes with weather patterns</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Climatic change has been one of the most important concern in the last years, specially in a <span class="hlt">global</span> scale. The scope of this paper is to bridge the gap between the <span class="hlt">global</span> scale and the regional scale. So, the trends in the frequency of <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation values and their extremes are analysed. The study area is Galicia, located in the northwest of Spain. Although this region is influenced by the pass of cold fronts coming from the Atlantic Ocean, this is not the unique synoptic situation that leads to rainfall. There is a complex ensemble of atmospheric configurations that implies precipitation over Galicia. Having these ideas in mind, a classification of weather patterns is made by means of Rotated Principal Component Analysis. Some trends in the weather types are found and studied, being related to the observed changes in the frequency of days with extreme precipitation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lago, A.; Lage, A.; Cruz, R.; Salsón, S.; Taboada, Jj.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1538117"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> Nation [food safety</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Electron beams and X-rays might make some foods safer to eat. But is <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> a silver bullet or an industrial-strength placebo for killer contaminants in the food chain? This paper discusses the technology and issues involved in this aspect of food safety. Even though it is highly effective at killing bugs and bacteria, <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> is at best only a partial</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. Goldstein</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60894112"> <span id="translatedtitle">Food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>: a survey</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The scope for preservation of foods by <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> is reviewed. The ; ability of ionizing radiations, such as gamma rays and fast electrons in the ; preservation of food and the sources of ionizing energy, high and low dose ; process and combination treatments are discussed. An important aspect of food ; <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> relates to the demonstration of safety of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sreenivasan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60738520"> <span id="translatedtitle">Update on meat <span class="hlt">irradiation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> of meat and poultry in the United States is intended to eliminate pathogenic bacteria from raw product, preferably after packaging to prevent recontamination. <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> will also increase the shelf life of raw meat and poultry products approximately two to three times the normal shelf life. Current clearances in the United States are for poultry (fresh or frozen) at</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865384"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comminuting <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> ferritic steel</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Disclosed is a method of comminuting <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> components.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bauer, Roger E. (Kennewick, WA); Straalsund, Jerry L. (Kennewick, WA); Chin, Bryan A. (Auburn, AL)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5454031"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comminuting <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> ferritic steel</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Disclosed is a method of comminuting <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> components.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bauer, R. E.; Chin, B. A.; Straalsund, J. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-03-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56512330"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cryostat for Reactor <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A cryostat for continuously bathing samples in liquid nitrogen or other heat transfer liquids during nuclear reactor <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> has been constructed and successfully operated. The samples to be <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> at low temperature are immersed in the heat transfer fluid which is high-purity liquified nitrogen circulating in a closed system at a pressure greater than that of the atmosphere. The liquid</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. C. Sartain; H. P. Yockey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1958-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/details.jsp?query_id=0&page=0&ostiID=4022007"> <span id="translatedtitle">MASSIVE LEAKAGE <span class="hlt">IRRADIATOR</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An <span class="hlt">irradiator</span> designed to utilize the neutrons that leak out of a reactor around its periphery is described. It avoids wasting neutron energy and reduces interference with the core flux to a minimum. This is done by surrounding all or most of the core with removable segments of the material to be <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> within a matrix of reflecting material.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wigner, E.P.; Szilard, L.; Christy, R.F.; Friedman, F.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1961-05-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://rheumatology.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/35/suppl_1/22.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A SIX-MONTH DOUBLE-BLIND TRIAL TO COMPARE THE EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF MELOXICAM 7.5 mg <span class="hlt">DAILY</span> AND NAPROXEN 750 mg <span class="hlt">DAILY</span> IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">SUMMARY Meloxicam is a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) which preferentially inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 over cyclooxygenase-1. A double-blind, parallel-group trial compared meloxicam 7.5 mg once <span class="hlt">daily</span> (n = 199) with naproxen 750 mg (n = 180) in rheumatoid arthritis. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding the primary efficacy variables (<span class="hlt">global</span> efficacy assessment by patient and investigator, number of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. A. WO JTULEWSKI; M. SCHATTENE; P. BARCEL; P. J. R. BEVIS; E. BLUHMH; M. DISTEL</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H53C0644V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Medium range flood forecasts at <span class="hlt">global</span> scale</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">While weather and climate forecast methods have advanced greatly over the last two decades, this capability has yet to be evidenced in mitigation of water-related natural hazards (primarily floods and droughts), especially in the developing world. Examples abound of extreme property damage and loss of life due to floods in the underdeveloped world. For instance, more than 4.5 million people were affected by the July 2000 flooding of the Mekong River and its tributaries in Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos and Thailand. The February- March 2000 floods in the Limpopo River of Mozambique caused extreme disruption to that country's fledgling economy. Mitigation of these events through advance warning has typically been modest at best. Despite the above noted improvement in weather and climate forecasts, there is at present no system for forecasting of floods <span class="hlt">globally</span>, notwithstanding that the potential clearly exists. We describe a methodology that is eventually intended to generate <span class="hlt">global</span> flood predictions routinely. It draws heavily from the experimental North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and the companion <span class="hlt">Global</span> Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) for development of nowcasts, and the University of Washington Experimental Hydrologic Prediction System to develop ensemble hydrologic forecasts based on Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models which serve both as nowcasts (and hence reduce the need for in situ precipitation and other observations in parts of the world where surface networks are critically deficient) and provide forecasts for lead times as long as fifteen days. The heart of the hydrologic modeling system is the University of Washington/Princeton University Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrology model. In the prototype (tested using retrospective data), VIC is driven <span class="hlt">globally</span> up to the time of forecast with <span class="hlt">daily</span> ERA40 precipitation (rescaled on a monthly basis to a station-based <span class="hlt">global</span> climatology), ERA40 wind, and ERA40 average surface air temperature (with temperature ranges adjusted to a station-based climatology). In the retrospective forecasting mode, VIC is driven by <span class="hlt">global</span> NCEP ensemble 15-day reforecasts provided by Tom Hamill (NOAA/ERL), bias corrected with respect to the adjusted ERA40 data and further downscaled spatially using higher spatial resolution <span class="hlt">Global</span> Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) 1dd <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation. Downward solar and longwave radiation, surface relative humidity, and other model forcings are derived from relationships with the <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature range during both the retrospective (spinup) and forecast period. The initial system is implemented <span class="hlt">globally</span> at one-half degree spatial resolution. We evaluate model performance retrospectively for predictions of major floods for the Oder River in 1997, the Mekong River in 2000 and the Limpopo River in 2000.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Voisin, N.; Wood, A. W.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Wood, E. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37835119"> <span id="translatedtitle">The outlook for <span class="hlt">globalization</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bruce Lloyd of the South Bank University reports on an interview with Professor George S. Yip, author of Total <span class="hlt">Global</span> Strategy: Managing for Worldwide Competitive Advantage. Argues that managers must analyse their industry and identify the specific drivers that affect their operation and development. Leads to the identification of a number of <span class="hlt">global</span> strategy levers: <span class="hlt">global</span> market participation; products (<span class="hlt">global</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bruce Lloyd</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58046806"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> and Economic Development</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Countries engaged actively in <span class="hlt">globalization</span> have experienced phenomenal changes in economic, social, cultural, political, and technological progress. Some countries have benefited significantly from greater integration, while others have held <span class="hlt">globalization</span> accountable for their economic failure and instability. <span class="hlt">Globalization</span> introduces new political and social challenges. Benefiting from <span class="hlt">globalization</span> requires complementary institutions and social development to deal with the changes and risks</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ming Yu Cheng; Ron Mittelhammer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/44361857"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anthropology and <span class="hlt">Global</span> Health</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article addresses anthropology's engagement with the emerging discipline of <span class="hlt">global</span> health. We develop a definition for <span class="hlt">global</span> health and then present four principal contributions of anthropology to <span class="hlt">global</span> health: (a) ethnographic studies of health inequities in political and economic contexts; (b) analysis of the impact on local worlds of the assemblages of science and technology that circulate <span class="hlt">globally</span>; (c)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Craig R. Janes; Kitty K. Corbett</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52864121"> <span id="translatedtitle">Scenarios of <span class="hlt">daily</span> extreme precipitation under climate change</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> extreme precipitation events under climate change conditions are the focus of research in our study. Such events can have considerable impacts on wealth and society by causing floodings or mudslides for example. In our study we used <span class="hlt">daily</span> records of precipitation at 50 stations over Austria covering the period 1963-2006. To calculate the adequate timeseries for the future considering</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hofstätter Michael; Matulla Christoph; Wang Jiafeng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40720196"> <span id="translatedtitle">Forecasting ozone <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum levels at Santiago, Chile</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In major urban areas, air pollution impact on health is serious enough to include it in the group of meteorological variables that are forecast <span class="hlt">daily</span>. This work focusses on the comparison of different forecasting systems for <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum ozone levels at Santiago, Chile. The modelling tools used for these systems were linear time series, artificial neural networks and fuzzy models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Héctor Jorquera; Ricardo Pérez; Aldo Cipriano; Andrés Espejo; M. Victoria Letelier; Gonzalo Acuña</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://aaae.okstate.edu/proceedings/2001/cartmell.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Attitudes of Arkansas <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Newspaper Editors Toward Agriculture</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The primary purpose of this study was to determine Arkansas <span class="hlt">daily</span> newspaper editors' attitudes toward agriculture that might affect their decision to print, or not to print, agricultural news. Specifically, this study sought to describe the demographic characteristics of editors of Arkansas <span class="hlt">daily</span> newspapers; determine editors' self-reported knowledge level of agriculture, experience in agriculture, and perception of the importance of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. Dwayne Cartmell; James E. Dyer; Robert J. Birkenholz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=advertising+AND+styles&pg=3&id=ED228680"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rich News: Metropolitan <span class="hlt">Dailies</span> and the Urban Poor.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The migration of people from cities to suburbs, new patterns of advertising, a less homogeneous and unified readership, and increasing competition from other media have produced tremendous pressures on <span class="hlt">daily</span> newspapers. In responding to these pressures, metropolitan <span class="hlt">dailies</span> are turning from "hard" to "soft" news, away from their poorer urban…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Draper, Mary Jo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32263809"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimating dominant upper-limb segments during <span class="hlt">daily</span> activity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new method of evaluation for functional assessment of the shoulder during <span class="hlt">daily</span> activity is presented. An ambulatory system using inertial sensors attached on the humerus was used to differentiate a dominant from a non-dominant shoulder. The method was tested on 31 healthy volunteers with no shoulder pathology while carrying the system during 8h of their <span class="hlt">daily</span> life. Shoulder mobility</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brian Coley; Brigitte M. Jolles; Alain Farron; C. Pichonnaz; J. P. Bassin; Kamiar Aminian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED393042.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Role of Religion in Coping with <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Hassles.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study examined the role of religion in coping with <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors. Specifically, <span class="hlt">daily</span> hassles, religious and nonreligious coping, Positive and Negative Affect, and Depression were assessed in a sample of college students (n=222). It was expected that religious coping would predict adjustment over and above the effects of nonreligious coping…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Belavich, Timothy G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=young+AND+consumers+AND+media&pg=5&id=ED228680"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rich News: Metropolitan <span class="hlt">Dailies</span> and the Urban Poor.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|The migration of people from cities to suburbs, new patterns of advertising, a less homogeneous and unified readership, and increasing competition from other media have produced tremendous pressures on <span class="hlt">daily</span> newspapers. In responding to these pressures, metropolitan <span class="hlt">dailies</span> are turning from "hard" to "soft" news, away from their poorer urban…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Draper, Mary Jo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57651703"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> hassles, sacrifices, and relationship quality for pregnant cohabitors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use <span class="hlt">daily</span> diaries to test how relational sacrifices and hassles are associated with relationship satisfaction in a community sample of pregnant, unmarried, cohabitors (n?=?34 individuals, or 17 couples). We found that on days when women reported more hassles than usual, their increased <span class="hlt">daily</span> sacrifices were associated with declines in relationship quality for their male partners, but not for themselves.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Casey J. Totenhagen; Melissa A. Curran</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/45899074"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multivariate linear parametric models applied to <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall time series</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this paper is to test the Multivariate Linear Parametric Models applied to <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall series. These simple models allow to generate synthetic series preserving both the time correlation (autocorrelation) and the space correlation (crosscorrelation). To have synthetic <span class="hlt">daily</span> series, in such a way realistic and usable, it is necessary the application of a corrective procedure, removing negative</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Grimaldi; F. Serinaldi; C. Tallerini</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/44619484"> <span id="translatedtitle">Head Start Fathers' <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Hassles and Involvement With Their Children</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study of Head Start fathers and father figures examined the relationship between men's <span class="hlt">daily</span> hassles and their involvement with children. Fathers completed a shortened version of a <span class="hlt">daily</span> hassles scale and a father involvement measure on two weekdays and one weekend day. The father involvement instrument used a modified time-diary strategy to assess amount of involvement with all children</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">JAY FAGAN</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://gerontology.ssri.psu.edu/nsde/papers/Almeida%20and%20Kessler%20%281998%29.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Everyday stressors and gender differences in <span class="hlt">daily</span> distress</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article examines gender differences in psychological distress by assessing men's and women's experience of <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors and psychological distress in a sample of 166 married couples. Respon- dents completed a structured <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary each day over the course of 42 days. Results showed that women reported a higher prevalence of high distress days and a lower prevalence of distress-free</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David M. Almeida; Ronald C. Kessler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Cerebral+AND+Palsy&pg=7&id=EJ908341"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Determinants of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|The aim of this study was to identify determinants of <span class="hlt">daily</span> function in a population-based sample of children with cerebral palsy (CP). The study took into consideration factors from the entire scope of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). Furthermore, the determinants of <span class="hlt">daily</span> function were examined from…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tseng, Mei-Hui; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Lu, Lu; Huang, Chien-Yu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57471268"> <span id="translatedtitle">Executive Function, Intellectual Decline and <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Living Skills</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Understanding the cognitive changes associated with compromised <span class="hlt">daily</span> living skills in elderly individuals is important for making appropriate recommendations about the capacity for independent functioning. To this end, we retrospectively examined data from 92 elderly individuals presenting with cognitive decline who were administered measures of executive functioning, general intelligence, and <span class="hlt">daily</span> living skills. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robert P. Hart; Melanie K. Bean</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://researchspace.csir.co.za/dspace/bitstream/10204/1321/1/Krygsman_2007.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Capturing <span class="hlt">daily</span> urban rhythms: The use of location aware technologies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> activities and travel often follow a natural rhythm or flow that is structured by the fixed spatial and temporal constraints. The work and home location act as pegs that define individual's activity space and it is within these spaces that activities and travel behaviour are believed to be habitual and recurring. Aggregating such individual behaviour leads to so-called <span class="hlt">daily</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stephan Krygsman; Tom de Jong; Peter Schmitz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=prosthetic&pg=5&id=ED143189"> <span id="translatedtitle">Manual of Alternative Procedures: Activities of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Living.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Intended for teachers and others providing services for moderately and severely physically and/or mentally handicapped children and young adults, the manual presents strategies, procedures, and task analyses for training in <span class="hlt">daily</span> living skills. Section I provides an overview of tactics for teaching activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living (ADL) skills,…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McCormack, James E.; And Others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57871768"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Mortality and PM10 Pollution in Utah Valley</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The association between <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality and respirable particulate pollution (PM10) in Utah County was assessed from April 1985 through December 1989. Poisson regression analysis was used to regress <span class="hlt">daily</span> death counts on PM10 pollution levels, controlling for variability in the weather. A significant positive association between nonaccidental mortality and PM10 pollution was observed. The strongest association was with 5-d moving</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. Arden Pope III; Joel Schwartz; Michael R. Ransom</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..65..171M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Which metric of ambient ozone to predict <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is well known that ozone concentration is associated with <span class="hlt">daily</span> cause specific mortality. But which ozone metric is the best predictor of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> variability in mortality?We performed a time series analysis on <span class="hlt">daily</span> deaths (all causes, respiratory and cardiovascular causes as well as death in elderly 65+) in Vienna for the years 1991-2009. We controlled for seasonal and long term trend, day of the week, temperature and humidity using the same basic model for all pollutant metrics. We found model fit was best for same day variability of ozone concentration (calculated as the difference between <span class="hlt">daily</span> hourly maximum and minimum) and hourly maximum. Of these the variability displayed a more linear dose-response function. Maximum 8 h moving average and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean value performed not so well. Nitrogen dioxide (<span class="hlt">daily</span> mean) in comparison performed better when previous day values were assessed. Same day ozone and previous day nitrogen dioxide effect estimates did not confound each other.Variability in <span class="hlt">daily</span> ozone levels or peak ozone levels seem to be a better proxy of a complex reactive secondary pollutant mixture than <span class="hlt">daily</span> average ozone levels in the Middle European setting. If this finding is confirmed this would have implications for the setting of legally binding limit values.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moshammer, Hanns; Hutter, Hans-Peter; Kundi, Michael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52414083"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oceanic excitation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> to seasonal signals in earth rotation: results from a constant-density numerical model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Velocity and mass fields from a constant-density, near-<span class="hlt">global</span> ocean model, driven with observed twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> surface wind stresses and atmospheric pressures for the peoriod October 1992 - September 1993, are used to calculate oceanic excitation functions for the length of day (LOD) and for polar motion (PM), and results are analysed as a function of the frequency band. Variable currents and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. M. Ponte</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26543881"> <span id="translatedtitle">The sun’s total and spectral <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> for solar energy applications and solar radiation models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using the most recent composite time series of total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> spaceborne measurements, a solar constant value of 1366.1 Wm?2 is confirmed, and simple quadratic expressions are proposed to predict its <span class="hlt">daily</span> value from the Zurich sunspot number, the MgII index, or the 10.7 cm radio flux index. Whenever these three indices are available on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis (since 1978),</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christian A. Gueymard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21667753"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> activities and sleep quality in young adults.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity levels were investigated as related to sleep quality in young adult college students aged 18 to 30 years. 85 participants (20 men, 65 women) completed the Young Adult <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Activity Scale (YADAS). This 37-item checklist has 34 items based on focus group discussion points of college students' typical <span class="hlt">daily</span> activities and three blank items for students to include their <span class="hlt">daily</span> activities if not in the listing. The tabulation of type and amount of waking <span class="hlt">daily</span> activities represents a unique measurement of factors that may affect sleep quality. The participants also rated their typical sleep quality using a standard 5-point scale (low indicating poor sleep). Correlations of sleep ratings and activities were not significant. PMID:21667753</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sexton-Radek, Kathy; Pichler-Mowry, Rene</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4949588"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> and human cooperation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. However, what does <span class="hlt">globalization</span> imply for the cooperation needed to address such <span class="hlt">global</span> social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that <span class="hlt">globalization</span> prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nancy R. Buchan; Gianluca Grimalda; Rick Wilson; Marilynn Brewer; Enrique Fatas; Margaret Foddy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2004541"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intranasal budesonide once <span class="hlt">daily</span> in seasonal allergic rhinitis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A double-blind, parallel-group, multi-centre study was carried out in 248 patients with symptomatic seasonal allergic rhinitis to assess the effectiveness and tolerability of intranasal aqueous budesonide given as a single <span class="hlt">daily</span> dose each morning of 400 micrograms compared with the conventional dosage regimen of 200 micrograms twice <span class="hlt">daily</span>. After a 1-week run-in period during which only oral terfenadine was allowed for intolerable symptom relief, symptomatic patients were allocated at random to receive budesonide in one or other dosage regimen for 3 weeks. The results of assessments made by the physician at clinic visits and by patients recording <span class="hlt">daily</span> data on diary record cards showed that specific nasal symptom incidence and severity were significantly (p less than 0.001) reduced in both treatment groups. The proportions of patients symptom-free at 3 weeks were 40% in the 400 micrograms once <span class="hlt">daily</span> and 45% in the 200 micrograms twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> group; in addition, mean nasal symptom scores from the <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary cards were significantly (p less than 0.001) reduced in both groups, with a reduction in total symptom scores of 53% and 60%, respectively. The differences between the groups were not statistically significant. Total symptom scores were significantly (p less than 0.01) reduced in both dosage groups at all levels of pollen exposure. Patients rated treatment overall as being highly effective, mean scores being very similar in both groups, and tolerability was similar and good whether budesonide was given as a 400 micrograms once <span class="hlt">daily</span> dose or as 200 micrograms twice <span class="hlt">daily</span>. Assuming equal symptom control, 74% of patients stated they would prefer once <span class="hlt">daily</span> to twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> treatment. PMID:2004541</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bhatia, M; Campbell, L M; Ross, J R; Taylor, M D; Peers, E M; Richardson, P D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012WRR....48.1536M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Continuous rainfall simulation: 2. A regionalized <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall generation approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper is the second of two in the current issue that presents a framework for simulating continuous (uninterrupted) rainfall sequences at both gaged and ungaged locations. The ultimate objective of the papers is to present a methodology for stochastically generating continuous subdaily rainfall sequences at any location such that the statistics at a range of aggregation scales are preserved. In this paper we complete the regionalized algorithm by adopting a rationale for generating <span class="hlt">daily</span> sequences at any location by sampling <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall records from "nearby" gages with statistically similar rainfall sequences.The approach consists of two distinct steps: first the identification of a set of locations with <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall sequences that are statistically similar to the location of interest, and second the development of an algorithm to sample <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall from those locations. In the first step, the similarity between all bivariate combinations of 2708 <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall records across Australia were considered, and a logistic regression model was formulated to predict the similarity between stations as a function of a number of physiographic covariates. Based on the model results, a number of nearby locations with adequate <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall records are identified for any ungaged location of interest (the "target" location), and then used as the basis for stochastically generating the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall sequences. The continuous simulation algorithm was tested at five locations where long historical <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall records are available for comparison, and found to perform well in representing the distributional and dependence attributes of the observed <span class="hlt">daily</span> record. These <span class="hlt">daily</span> sequences were then used to disaggregate to a subdaily time step using the rainfall state-based disaggregation approach described in the first paper, and found to provide a good representation of the continuous rainfall sequences at the location of interest.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mehrotra, Rajeshwar; Westra, Seth; Sharma, Ashish; Srikanthan, Ratnasingham</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22647035"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> experiences and well-being: do memories of events matter?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Retrospective subjective well-being (SWB) refers to self-reported satisfaction and emotional experience over the past few weeks or months. Two studies investigated the mechanisms linking <span class="hlt">daily</span> experiences to retrospective SWB. Participants reported events each day for 21 days (Study 1) or twice a week for two months (Study 2). The emotional intensity of each event was rated: (1) when it had recently occurred (proximal intensity); and (2) at the end of the event-reporting period (distal intensity). Both sets of ratings were then aggregated across events and used to predict retrospective SWB at the end of the study. Path analyses showed that proximal intensity predicted retrospective SWB whereas distal intensity did not. The effect remained even after controlling for trait happiness and neuroticism. These results suggest that <span class="hlt">daily</span> experiences influence retrospective SWB primarily through abstract representations of the past few weeks or months (as measured by aggregated proximal intensity ratings) rather than the explicit recollection of individual events during the same period (as measured by aggregated distal intensity ratings). Retrospective SWB, in turn, mediated the effect of <span class="hlt">daily</span> experiences on <span class="hlt">global</span> SWB (i.e., self-reported satisfaction and emotional experiences in general). PMID:22647035</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tov, William</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19255433"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> and human cooperation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. However, what does <span class="hlt">globalization</span> imply for the cooperation needed to address such <span class="hlt">global</span> social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that <span class="hlt">globalization</span> prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that <span class="hlt">globalization</span> strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, <span class="hlt">globalization</span>, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring <span class="hlt">globalization</span> at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between <span class="hlt">globalization</span> and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or <span class="hlt">global</span> accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of <span class="hlt">globalization</span> increase, so too does individual cooperation at the <span class="hlt">global</span> level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, "<span class="hlt">globalized</span>" individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. <span class="hlt">Globalization</span> may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of <span class="hlt">global</span> public goods. PMID:19255433</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Buchan, Nancy R; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-03-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2657440"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> and human cooperation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. However, what does <span class="hlt">globalization</span> imply for the cooperation needed to address such <span class="hlt">global</span> social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that <span class="hlt">globalization</span> prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that <span class="hlt">globalization</span> strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, <span class="hlt">globalization</span>, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring <span class="hlt">globalization</span> at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between <span class="hlt">globalization</span> and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or <span class="hlt">global</span> accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of <span class="hlt">globalization</span> increase, so too does individual cooperation at the <span class="hlt">global</span> level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, “<span class="hlt">globalized</span>” individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. <span class="hlt">Globalization</span> may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of <span class="hlt">global</span> public goods.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Buchan, Nancy R.; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2789754"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> sea level linked to <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We propose a simple relationship linking <span class="hlt">global</span> sea-level variations on time scales of decades to centuries to <span class="hlt">global</span> mean temperature. This relationship is tested on synthetic data from a <span class="hlt">global</span> climate model for the past millennium and the next century. When applied to observed data of sea level and temperature for 1880–2000, and taking into account known anthropogenic hydrologic contributions to sea level, the correlation is >0.99, explaining 98% of the variance. For future <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fourth Assessment Report, the relationship projects a sea-level rise ranging from 75 to 190 cm for the period 1990–2100.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vermeer, Martin; Rahmstorf, Stefan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=hunger&pg=4&id=ED464863"> <span id="translatedtitle">Going <span class="hlt">Global</span> Activity Guide: A Project To Educate and Involve American Students in <span class="hlt">Global</span> Hunger Issues.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|<span class="hlt">Global</span> hunger is one of the most urgent health and social problems the world faces at the beginning of the new millennium. In a world that produces enough food to feed every human being on the planet, there are still some 830 million people who do not get enough food on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis. About 24,000 people die each day from the effects of hunger;…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">White, Gene; Balakshin, Maria</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29551543"> <span id="translatedtitle">Helium-neon laser <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> inhibits the growth of kidney epithelial cells in culture</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have investigated the in vitro action of helium-neon (He-Ne) laser light on the cell cycle and the growth of rat kidney epithelial cell cultures. Dose-response studies showed that repeated He-Ne <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> (dose rate 40 mW\\/cm2) once a day in a dose range between 11.9 and 142 J\\/cm2 significantly inhibited cell growth, while <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> with 4.7 J\\/cm2 had no</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andreas J. Gross; Wolfgang Jelkmann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/q650w22n0j5k1ww2.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Enhancement of muscle regeneration in the rat gastrocnemius muscle by low energy laser <span class="hlt">irradiation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of low-energy laser (He-Ne) <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> on the rate of skeletal muscle regeneration after partial excision of the rat gastrocnemius muscle was studied using quantitative histological morphometric methods. The injured zones of the experimental rats were subjected to direct He-Ne laser (632.8 nm wavelength) <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> (6.0 mW for 2.3 min) immediately following injury and once <span class="hlt">daily</span> thereafter for 5</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">N. Weiss; U. Oron</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53814903"> <span id="translatedtitle">Improved <span class="hlt">Global</span> Sea Surface Temperature Analyses Using Optimum Interpolation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The new NOAA operational <span class="hlt">global</span> sea surface temperature (SST) analysis is described. The analyses use 7 days of in situ (ship and buoy) and satellite SST. These analyses are produced weekly and <span class="hlt">daily</span> using optimum interpolation (OI) on a 1° grid. The OI technique requires the specification of data and analysis error statistics. These statistics are derived and show that</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richard W. Reynolds; Thomas M. Smith</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53674720"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span>, Seasonal Surface Variations from Satellite Radiance Measurements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Global</span>, <span class="hlt">daily</span>, visible, and infrared radiance measurements from the NOAA-5 Scanning Radiometer (SR) are analyzed for the months of January, April, July, and October 1977 to infer surface radiative properties A radiative transfer model that simulates the spectral and angular characteristics of the NOAA-5 SR measurements is used to retrieve monthly mean surface visible reflectances and temperature at 25 km</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">William B. Rossow; Christopher L. Brest; Leonid C. Garder</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57478316"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diffuse, <span class="hlt">global</span> and extra-terrestrial solar radiation for Singapore</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, equations have been developed to estimate diffuse fraction of the hourly, <span class="hlt">daily</span> and monthly <span class="hlt">global</span> insolation on a horizontal surface. These correlations are expressed in terms of Kd, the ratio of diffuse-to-total radiation, and KT, the clearness index. The hourly correlation equations, show a fairly similar trend to that of Orgill and Hollands (1) and Spencer (5)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. N. A. Hawlader</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42631182"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> warming, population growth, and natural resources for food production</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">About one?quarter million people <span class="hlt">daily</span> are added to the 5.3 billion that already exist on earth. This rapidly growing population is increasing the pressures on the <span class="hlt">global</span> environment, threatening its ability to supply itself with adequate amounts of food, water, and fuel and with a quality environment. The growing use of fossil fuels, deforestation, and other human activities is increasing</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David Pimentel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8385073"> <span id="translatedtitle">Changes in body composition and <span class="hlt">daily</span> energy expenditure induced in rats during eight weeks of <span class="hlt">daily</span> swim training.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The body weight, body composition, and <span class="hlt">daily</span> (post-exercise) energy expenditure of five groups of male rats were examined following 1, 2, 4, 6 or 8 weeks of <span class="hlt">daily</span> (1 h) swim training. Rats that swam <span class="hlt">daily</span> weighed less than sedentary controls and had smaller adipose and lean tissue masses. The size of these body weight and composition changes grew as <span class="hlt">daily</span> training progressed. Relative to sedentary rats, the 24 h (post-exercise) expenditure of swim-trained rats, expressed either per BW0.75kg or per g of body protein, was significantly higher after two weeks of <span class="hlt">daily</span> training. This training-induced elevation in <span class="hlt">daily</span> (post-exercise) expenditure likewise grew larger as training continued. After eight weeks, rats that swam, although now maintaining significantly smaller lean and adipose masses, expended more calories <span class="hlt">daily</span> (post-exercise) than sedentary rats (42.2 vs. 39.2 kcal/day respectively). Thus, though exercise-induced elevations in expenditure have been associated with an increased lean tissue mass, other factors are apparently responsible for the progressive elevation (from sedentary levels) of 24 h expenditure found here with extended <span class="hlt">daily</span> swim training. PMID:8385073</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wilterdink, E J; Ballor, D L; Keesey, R E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=raising+AND+a+AND+child+AND+with+AND+autism&id=EJ936186"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adaptation to <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Stress among Mothers of Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Positive Affect</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Raising a child with an autism spectrum disorder is a challenging experience that can impact maternal well-being. Using a <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary methodology, this study investigates (1) the relationship between stress and negative affect, and (2) the role of <span class="hlt">daily</span> positive affect as a protective factor in the stress and negative affect relationship. Results…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ekas, Naomi V.; Whitman, Thomas L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3797633"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of once <span class="hlt">daily</span> versus twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> olmesartan in patients with chronic kidney disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background The effects of olmesartan (OLM) on blood pressure and kidney function in Japanese patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) were compared between 20 mg twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> (BID) and 40 mg once <span class="hlt">daily</span> (QD) treatments. Methods The subjects were Japanese CKD patients with concurrent hypertension who had been treated with OLM 20 mg BID for at least 3 months on an outpatient basis (n=39). After a change in the treatment regimen to 40 mg OLM QD (after breakfast), blood pressure (BP) (n=39), morning home BP (n=13), estimated glomerular filtration rate (n=39), and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (n=17) were monitored for 2 months. Results No significant change in office (mean ± standard deviation [SD] [mmHg], 143.9 ± 18.8/75.7 ± 12.0 to 141.6 ± 16.1/74.7 ± 11.7, not significant [ns]) or early morning home (mean ± SD [mmHg], 133.8 ± 15.9/71.2 ± 11.5 to 133.8 ± 13.9/74.5 ± 10.5, ns) BP was observed 2 months after the change in dose. The estimated glomerular filtration rate increased significantly (mean ± SD, 49.0 ± 28.0 to 51.8 ± 27.0, P<0.05), whereas urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio did not change significantly (mean ± SD, 0.551 ± 0.445 to 0.364 ± 0.5194, ns). Conclusion High-dose OLM administered BID and QD had similar effects on outpatient and early morning home BP in CKD patients, suggesting that the BID regimen can be safely changed to a QD regimen. For CKD patients with hypertension requiring continuous long-term treatment, the possibility that the QD regimen might bring a greater therapeutic effect was suggested. However, recognizing the best blood pressure control level for a CKD patient is still a matter of debate, and should ideally be personalized.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sakai, Yukinao; Suzuki, Anna; Mugishima, Koji; Sumi, Yuichiro; Otsuka, Yusuke; Otsuka, Tomoyuki; Ohno, Dai; Murasawa, Tsuneo; Tsuruoka, Shuichi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1885049"> <span id="translatedtitle">Discrepancies between prescribed <span class="hlt">daily</span> doses and WHO defined <span class="hlt">daily</span> doses of antibacterials at a university hospital</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aims The defined <span class="hlt">daily</span> doses (DDD) defined by the WHO are widely used as an indicator to measure antibiotic use in the hospital setting. However, discrepancies exist between countries in terms of antibiotic dosage. The aim of the present study was to compare, for each antibacterial agent available at our university hospital, the prescribed <span class="hlt">daily</span> doses (PDD) with the DDD. Methods Data were extracted from the pharmacy computer system. Antibiotic use was expressed in DDD per 1000 patient days. We also calculated the ratio of number of DDD : number of treatment-days and estimated the average PDD for each antibiotic and route of administration. Results The average PDD did not correspond to the DDD for many classes of antibiotics. If fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins were prescribed at a dosage close to the DDD, other antimicrobial classes such as penicillins, aminoglycosides or macrolides were not. Overall, the number of DDD overestimated the number of treatment days by 40%. For the most consumed antibiotic at our hospital, i.e. oral amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, the PDD was three times the DDD. Conclusions Our study shows that, except for the fluoroquinolones and the cephalosporins, the number of DDD did not correctly reflect the number of antibiotic treatment days at our hospital. This does not invalidate the systematic approach of the WHO and hospitals should use the DDDs to make national and international comparisons of their antibiotic use. However, each hospital should define and validate its own indicators to describe the local exposures to antibiotics and to study the relationship with resistance.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Muller, Arno; Monnet, Dominique L; Talon, Daniel; Henon, Thierry; Bertrand, Xavier</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21052870"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cosmic Rays and <span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Some workers have claimed that the observed temporal correlations of (low level) terrestrial cloud cover with the cosmic ray intensity changes, due to solar modulation, are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and <span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim in some detail. So far, we have not found any evidence in support and so our conclusions are to doubt it. From the absence of corroborative evidence we estimate that less than 15% at the 95% confidence level, of the 11-year cycle warming variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the warming over the last 43 years is due to this cause. The origin of the correlation itself is probably the cycle of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> although there is, as yet, no certainty.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sloan, T. [Physics Department, University of Lancaster, Lancaster, UK (United Kingdom); Wolfendale, A. W. [Physics Department, Durham University, Durham (United Kingdom)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PATENT3192054"> <span id="translatedtitle">Food <span class="hlt">Irradiator</span> and Method.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method and apparatus is provided for the <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> pasteurization of food packages of uniform size and shape. Fish is eviscerated, scaled, filleted, trimmed and packaged. The packaged food is passed through a source of gamma rays.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">O. A. Kuhl A. B. Oltmann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1965-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE89005154"> <span id="translatedtitle">Automated beta <span class="hlt">Irradiator</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To support the continuing effort of the US Department of Energy to maintain high-quality radiological calibrations, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory fabricated an automated beta <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> system. The system hardware includes a microprocessor that contro...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. A. Fox J. A. Leonowich F. M. Cummings</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhST..118..223C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stability of ?-<span class="hlt">Irradiated</span> Carmine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Carmine is a dye used mainly for coloring food products and galenicals but also in inks. As food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> is becoming a regular treatment for food preservation, it is desirable to have a proper knowledge about the radiation sensitivity of additives that can be included in the food formula. The aim of this work was to establish the radiation stability of carmine against Co-60 gamma radiation. Samples of 50% pure carmine powder as well as 50%, 10% and 5% aqueous solutions were <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> in a Gammacell 220, dose rate of about 5.2 kGy/h, with doses of 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 kGy. Spectrophotometric readings at 494 nm show a slight decrease of the absorbance as a function of dose: Samples <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> with 4 and 32 kGy retained 95% and 90% of absorbance of the unirradiated samples respectively. These results indicate a rather good stability of carmine against ?-<span class="hlt">irradiation</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cosentino, Hélio M.; Fontenele, Rinaldo S.; DelMastro, Nélida L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26542183"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stationary statistics and sequential properties of normal beam and <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation on tilted surfaces</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The stationary statistics and persistence characteristics of both hourly and <span class="hlt">daily</span> total <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation on tilted surfaces, as well as of hourly normal beam radiation, on a discrete monthly basis, are analyzed in a formalism akin to previous studies for <span class="hlt">global</span> horizontal solar radiation. Our database includes three Australian locations of varying latitude and clearness index. We find that</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. M. Gordon; T. A. Reddy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.scipub.org/fulltext/ajas/ajas411902-907.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fourier transforms Investigation of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Solar Radiation at True Noon: in the Desert climatology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this work has been to obtain a typical annual time a function by the application of a calculation procedure based on a Fourier analysis to <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation data of nine years at Helwan Egypt from June 1991 to August 1999. This function allows us to estimate the most probable values of the horizontal <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> solar</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">U. Ali Rahoma; A. H. Hassan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55884114"> <span id="translatedtitle">Northern hemisphere kinetic energy during the first garp <span class="hlt">global</span> experiment year</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A comparison of the monthly vertically integrated northern hemisphere kinetic energy (in the isentropic domain) during the First GARP (<span class="hlt">Global</span> Atmospheric Research Program) <span class="hlt">Global</span> Experiment (FGGE) year with 5-year monthly means (isobaric domain) shows only small seasonal differences, which are probably related to the different domains. Ratios of monthly total kinetic energy to available potential energy yield similar results. <span class="hlt">Daily</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jeffrey H. Zautner; Linda M. Whittaker; Lyle H. Horn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.friends-partners.org/utsumi/Global_University/Global%20University%20System/2005-10,%20George%20Washington%20University/GEL+GP_v3%20copy.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">GLOBAL</span> E-LEARNING FOR <span class="hlt">GLOBAL</span> PEACE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Global</span> University System (GUS) (Utsumi, et al, 2003) is a worldwide initiative to create advanced telecommunications infrastructure for access to educational resources across national and cultural boundaries for <span class="hlt">global</span> peace. GUS aims to create a worldwide consortium of universities to provide the underdeveloped world with access to 21 st Century education via broadband Internet technologies. The aim is to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Takeshi Utsumi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' 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title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Global+Approach%22&pg=5&id=EJ258561"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> History as Part of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Education.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Discusses the need for a <span class="hlt">global</span> approach to world history to help students at all levels understand social, economic, and ecological change. The author evaluates one example of a secondary <span class="hlt">global</span> world history textbook--"People and Civilization: A World History" (Lexington, MA: Ginn and Company, 1977). (AM)|</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schmidt-Sinns, Dieter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dendro.cornell.edu/articles/yesson2007.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">How <span class="hlt">Global</span> Is the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Biodiversity Information</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is a concerted <span class="hlt">global</span> effort to digitize biodiversity occurrence data from herbarium and museum collections that together offer an unparalleled archive of life on Earth over the past few centuries. The <span class="hlt">Global</span> Biodiversity Information Facility provides the largest single gateway to these data. Since 2004 it has provided a single point of access to specimen data from databases of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chris Yesson; Peter W. Brewer; Tim Sutton; Neil Caithness; Jaspreet S. Pahwa; Mikhaila Burgess; W. Alec Gray; Richard J. White</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24069871"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> tobacco smoking patterns in rural and urban areas of Poland - the results of the GATS study.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction and objective: Cigarette smoking is one of the main causes of premature death worldwide. Tobacco smoking is influenced by social and economic factors such as age, gender, level of education and place of residence. The objective of this paper is to describe the occurrence of <span class="hlt">daily</span> tobacco use in urban and rural populations in Poland. Materials and Method: The data was collected between 2009-2010 as part of the International <span class="hlt">Global</span> Adult Tobacco Survey project. The study was conducted based on population of age 15 and older. 7,840 full individual interviews were conducted (51.2% in rural and 48.8% in urban areas). The total response rate was equal to 65.1%. Results: 25.4% of rural residents at the age of 15 and above smoke tobacco <span class="hlt">daily</span> (32.5% men and 17.9% women). In cities, this percentage corresponds to 30.3% (35.4% males and 25.8% females, respectively). Among the males and females, the highest percentage of <span class="hlt">daily</span> tobacco smokers was found among respondents with vocational education (males 47.3% in urban and 41.8% in rural areas; females 36.8% and 23.5%, respectively). In both the rural and urban areas the lowest percentage of <span class="hlt">daily</span> cigarette smokers among male respondents were those with higher education (24.9% in urban and 16.1% in rural areas). In the group of female respondents, the lowest incidence was observed among those with primary education (16.4% in urban, 11.7% in rural areas). Conclusions: <span class="hlt">Daily</span> smoking patterns in Poland differ according to the place of residence (urban/rural) and gender. A decrease in the percentage of <span class="hlt">daily</span> tobacco users should be observed in the next few years. Along with age exceeding 60 years, the percentage of <span class="hlt">daily</span> cigarette smokers is clearly on the decline. PMID:24069871</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W?odarczyk, Andrzej; Raciborski, Filip; Opoczy?ska, Dagmara; Samoli?ski, Boles?aw; Pwg, Gats</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5126171"> <span id="translatedtitle">Total lymphoid <span class="hlt">irradiation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Total lymphoid <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">425</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3261434"> <span id="translatedtitle">ELPIS-JP: a dataset of local-scale <span class="hlt">daily</span> climate change scenarios for Japan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We developed a dataset of local-scale <span class="hlt">daily</span> climate change scenarios for Japan (called ELPIS-JP) using the stochastic weather generators (WGs) LARS-WG and, in part, WXGEN. The ELPIS-JP dataset is based on the observed (or estimated) <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather data for seven climatic variables (<span class="hlt">daily</span> mean, maximum and minimum temperatures; precipitation; solar radiation; relative humidity; and wind speed) at 938 sites in Japan and climate projections from the multi-model ensemble of <span class="hlt">global</span> climate models (GCMs) used in the coupled model intercomparison project (CMIP3) and multi-model ensemble of regional climate models form the Japanese downscaling project (called S-5-3). The capability of the WGs to reproduce the statistical features of the observed data for the period 1981–2000 is assessed using several statistical tests and quantile–quantile plots. Overall performance of the WGs was good. The ELPIS-JP dataset consists of two types of <span class="hlt">daily</span> data: (i) the transient scenarios throughout the twenty-first century using projections from 10 CMIP3 GCMs under three emission scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1) and (ii) the time-slice scenarios for the period 2081–2100 using projections from three S-5-3 regional climate models. The ELPIS-JP dataset is designed to be used in conjunction with process-based impact models (e.g. crop models) for assessment, not only the impacts of mean climate change but also the impacts of changes in climate variability, wet/dry spells and extreme events, as well as the uncertainty of future impacts associated with climate models and emission scenarios. The ELPIS-JP offers an excellent platform for probabilistic assessment of climate change impacts and potential adaptation at a local scale in Japan.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Iizumi, Toshichika; Semenov, Mikhail A.; Nishimori, Motoki; Ishigooka, Yasushi; Kuwagata, Tsuneo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">426</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22291226"> <span id="translatedtitle">ELPIS-JP: a dataset of local-scale <span class="hlt">daily</span> climate change scenarios for Japan.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We developed a dataset of local-scale <span class="hlt">daily</span> climate change scenarios for Japan (called ELPIS-JP) using the stochastic weather generators (WGs) LARS-WG and, in part, WXGEN. The ELPIS-JP dataset is based on the observed (or estimated) <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather data for seven climatic variables (<span class="hlt">daily</span> mean, maximum and minimum temperatures; precipitation; solar radiation; relative humidity; and wind speed) at 938 sites in Japan and climate projections from the multi-model ensemble of <span class="hlt">global</span> climate models (GCMs) used in the coupled model intercomparison project (CMIP3) and multi-model ensemble of regional climate models form the Japanese downscaling project (called S-5-3). The capability of the WGs to reproduce the statistical features of the observed data for the period 1981-2000 is assessed using several statistical tests and quantile-quantile plots. Overall performance of the WGs was good. The ELPIS-JP dataset consists of two types of <span class="hlt">daily</span> data: (i) the transient scenarios throughout the twenty-first century using projections from 10 CMIP3 GCMs under three emission scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1) and (ii) the time-slice scenarios for the period 2081-2100 using projections from three S-5-3 regional climate models. The ELPIS-JP dataset is designed to be used in conjunction with process-based impact models (e.g. crop models) for assessment, not only the impacts of mean climate change but also the impacts of changes in climate variability, wet/dry spells and extreme events, as well as the uncertainty of future impacts associated with climate models and emission scenarios. The ELPIS-JP offers an excellent platform for probabilistic assessment of climate change impacts and potential adaptation at a local scale in Japan. PMID:22291226</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Iizumi, Toshichika; Semenov, Mikhail A; Nishimori, Motoki; Ishigooka, Yasushi; Kuwagata, Tsuneo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">427</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3209618"> <span id="translatedtitle">Engagement in Adulthood: Perceptions and Participation in <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Activities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present research explores how older adults experience <span class="hlt">daily</span> activities through an application of the Day Reconstruction Method (Kahneman, Kreuger, Schakade, Schwartz, & Stone, 2004). Over the course of the day, individuals (N = 192, M = 72 years) spent an average of 14.50 hours engaged in a variety of activities. Individual differences in activity patterns could be partly explained by age and educational attainment. The oldest individuals (81-92 years) perceived lower levels of competence when engaging in <span class="hlt">daily</span> activities. Regardless of age, however, individuals with greater educational attainment allocated more time and felt more intellectually challenged in their <span class="hlt">daily</span> experiences.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Parisi, Jeanine M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">428</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUSM.A21A..15M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Measurement Biasing by Infrared Cooling Errors for the Eppley PSP</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements made using Eppley Precision Pyranometers (PSP) can be biased by IR cooling errors. During the New England high resolution temperature and forecasting experiment (NEHRTP-2004) the NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory made side-by-side comparisons of the <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measured using PSPs and by combining separate direct and diffuse measurements utilizing pyroheliometers and 8-48 Black and White pyranometers at Concord, NH and Plymouth, MA. These measurements allowed us to quantify and correct the magnitude of the thermal offset error in the PSPs, and allowed us to use the <span class="hlt">global</span> PSP's during periods when the solar trackers used in the experiment failed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mosley, C.; Mandock, R. L.; Zamora, R. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">429</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6496547"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reproduction of Japanese quail after microwave <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> (2. 45 GHz CW) during embryogeny</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) embryos were <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> continuously in ovo with 2.45-GHz continuous wave radiation during the first 12 days of embryogenesis at an incident power of 5 mW/cm2 and a specific absorption rate of 4.03 mW/g. The internal temperature of <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> and nonirradiated (sham) eggs was 37.5 +/- 0.3 degrees C, which is the optimum temperature for incubating quail eggs. At 35 days after hatching <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> and sham-<span class="hlt">irradiated</span> males were paired with <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> or sham-<span class="hlt">irradiated</span> females and <span class="hlt">daily</span> records of reproductive performance were collected through 224 days of age. Progeny were hatched from each of the male-female pairs, and progeny reproductive performance was measured from 35 through 168 days of age. Hatchability was not affected by <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> during embryogeny. Mortality after hatching, egg production, egg weight, fertility, hatchability of eggs produced, and reproductive performance of the progeny were not affected by <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> during embryogeny. These observations indicate that <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> of quail embryos with low-level microwave radiation does not affect the reproductive capacity of the hatchlings or of progeny produced from quail <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> during incubation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gildersleeve, R.P.; Galvin, M.J.; McRee, D.I.; Thaxton, J.P.; Parkhurst, C.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">430</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3613750"> <span id="translatedtitle">Conversion From Twice-<span class="hlt">Daily</span> Tacrolimus to Once-<span class="hlt">Daily</span> Extended Release Tacrolimus (LCPT): The Phase III Randomized MELT Trial</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Phase III noninferiority trial examining efficacy and safety of converting stable renal transplant recipients from twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> tacrolimus to a novel extended-release once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> tacrolimus formulation (LCPT) with a controlled agglomeration technology. Controls maintained tacrolimus twice <span class="hlt">daily</span>. The primary efficacy endpoint was proportion of patients with efficacy failures (death, graft failure, locally read biopsy-proven acute rejection [BPAR], or loss to follow-up) within 12 months. Starting LCPT dose was 30% lower (15% for blacks) than preconversion tacrolimus dose; target trough levels were 4–15 ng/mL. A total of 326 patients were randomized; the mITT population (n = 162 each group) was similar demographically in the two groups. Mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> dose of LCPT was significantly (p < 0.0001) lower than preconversion tacrolimus dose at each visit; mean trough levels between groups were similar. There were four efficacy failures in each group; safety outcomes were similar between groups. Frequency of premature study drug discontinuation was LCPT: 12% versus tacrolimus twice <span class="hlt">daily</span>: 5% (p = 0.028). LCPT demonstrated noninferiority to tacrolimus twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> in efficacy failure rates. LCPT may offer a safe and effective alternative for converting patients to a once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> formulation. Compared to currently available tacrolimus formulation, LCPT requires lower doses to achieve target trough levels.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bunnapradist, S; Ciechanowski, K; West-Thielke, P; Mulgaonkar, S; Rostaing, L; Vasudev, B; Budde, K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">431</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6414622"> <span id="translatedtitle">SSPS monthly data: plant operation report and <span class="hlt">daily</span> operation summary</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> operation data are given for both the central receiver and the distributed collector systems for the month of May 1984. Data include meteorological data, heliostat field performance, power conversion, and electric energy production. (LEW)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Not Available</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">432</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6283789"> <span id="translatedtitle">SSPS monthly data: plant operation report and <span class="hlt">daily</span> operation summary</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> operation data are given for both the central receiver and distributed collector systems for the month of June 1984. Data include meteorological data, heliostat field performance, power conversion, and electric energy production. (LEW)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Not Available</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">433</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=anorexia+AND+nervosa+AND+women&pg=2&id=EJ260859"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anorexia Nervosa in the Context of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Experience.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|This study investigated the anorectic's experience in <span class="hlt">daily</span> living using the Experience Sampling Method. Results suggest that anorectics spend more time alone and experience lower average affect than other young single women. (Author/GK)|</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Larson, Reed; Johnson, Craig</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">434</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2008114339"> <span id="translatedtitle">Total Maximum <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Load Analysis for Eagleville Brook, Mansfield, CT.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Total Maximum <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Load (TMDL) analysis was completed for Eagleville Brook, Mansfield, Connecticut. Eagleville Brook was included on the 2004 List of Connecticut Waterbodies Not Meeting Water Quality Standards 1 (2004 List) due to exceedences of the aqua...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">435</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2013-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 890.5050 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device. (a) Identification....</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">436</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57218664"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Press in Israel: An Appraisal after Twenty Years</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Changing rapidly in character to reflect the dynamic political and demographic realities of the country itself, it is now the most vigorous in the Middle East, outdistancing its nearest rival, Lebanon, with twice as many copies <span class="hlt">daily</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">James W. Markham; Ralph L. Lowenstein</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1969-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">437</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/diabetes-management/DA00005/METHOD=print"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diabetes Management: How Lifestyle, <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Routine Affect Blood Sugar</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Diabetes Basics In-Depth Multimedia Expert Answers Expert Blog Resources What's New Reprints A single copy of ... may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Diabetes management: How lifestyle, <span class="hlt">daily</span> routine affect blood sugar ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">438</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/labelingnutrition/ucm282421.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Around the Block Nutrition Facts at a Glance: Percent <span class="hlt">Daily</span> ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://google2.fda.gov/search?client=FDAgov&site=FDAgov&lr=&proxystylesheet=FDAgov&output=xml_no_dtd&&proxycustom=%3CADVANCED/%3E">Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... (Go to http://www.choosemyplate.gov for more information about your specific <span class="hlt">daily</span> ... of calories and nutrients that your child requires is going to vary ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/labelingnutrition</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">439</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA012415"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Computer Solution to the <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Flight Schedule Problem.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A computer procedure to solve interactively the <span class="hlt">daily</span> flight scheduling problem for training squadrons is proposed. The scheduling problem for a prototype squadron, Fighter Squadron One Hundred Twenty-one, is mathematically analyzed using graph coloring t...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. G. Honour</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">440</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/transient-global-amnesia/DS01022/DSECTION=all&METHOD=print"> <span id="translatedtitle">Transient <span class="hlt">Global</span> Amnesia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... <span class="hlt">global</span> amnesia is a sudden, temporary episode of memory loss that can't be attributed to a ... know well, but that doesn't make your memory loss less disturbing. Fortunately, transient <span class="hlt">global</span> amnesia is ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">441</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE93631663"> <span id="translatedtitle">Economics of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">global</span> warming threat is challenging the world community to both international cooperation and national policy action. This report focuses on the necessity to alternate between ''<span class="hlt">global</span> and national climate policies''. The Swiss perspective is at issu...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Pillet W. Hediger S. Kypreos C. Corbaz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">442</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N8131689"> <span id="translatedtitle">Changing <span class="hlt">Global</span> Biogeochemistry.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Key problems for a better understanding of the <span class="hlt">global</span> biogeochemical cycles are discussed. It is suggested that in modelling the role of terrestrial biomes for the <span class="hlt">global</span> biogeochemical interplay more attention should be given to interactions between biom...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. Bolin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">443</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.latrobe.edu.au/ANZCA2007/proceedings/Wilken%20and%20Sinclair.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Vision, Regional Focus, \\</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Global</span> marketers have long been perplexed with the question of how to make <span class="hlt">global</span> branding work. Historically, this issue generally pivots around whether, in what situations, and to what extent advertising across national and regional borders should be \\</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rowan Wilken; John Sinclair</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">444</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994SoPh..152..207T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeled soft X-ray solar <span class="hlt">irradiances</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Solar soft X-rays have historically been inaccurately modeled in both relative variations and absolute magnitudes by empirical solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> models. This is a result of the use of a limited number of rocket data sets which were primarily associated with the calibration of the AE-E satellite EUV data set. In this work, the EUV91 solar EUV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> model has been upgraded to improve the accuracy of the 3.0 to 5.0 nm relative <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variations. The absolute magnitude estimate of the flux in this wavelength range has also been revised upwards. The upgrade was accomplished by first digitizing the SOLRAD 11 satellite 4.4 to 6.0 nm measured energy flux data set, then extracting and extrapolating a derived 3.0 to 5.0 nm photon flux from these data, and finally by performing a correlation between these derived data and the <span class="hlt">daily</span> and 81-day mean 10.7 cm radio flux emission using a multiple linear regression technique. A correlation coefficient of greater than 0.9 was obtained between the dependent and independent data sets. The derived and modeled 3.0 to 5.0 nm flux varies by more than an order of magnitude over a solar cycle, ranging from a flux below 1 x 108 to a flux greater than 1 x 109 photons per sq cm per sec. Solar rotational (27-day) variations in the flux magnitude are a factor of 2. The derived and modeled <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> absolute values are an order of magnitude greater than previous values from rocket data sets related to the calibration of the AE-E satellite.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tobiska, W. Kent</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">445</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AdSpR..46..296S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar spectral <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variability in the ultraviolet from SORCE and UARS SOLSTICE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The SOLar-STellar <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) on the SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) has been measuring the solar spectral <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis since early 2003. This time period includes near-solar maximum conditions, the Halloween storms of 2003, and solar minimum conditions. These results can be compared to observations from the SOLSTICE I experiment that flew on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) during the decline of the previous solar cycle as well as with currently operating missions. We will discuss similarities and differences between the two solar cycles in the long-term ultraviolet <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> record.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Snow, M.; McClintock, W. E.; Woods, T. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">446</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/p583n20174177052.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling of <span class="hlt">daily</span> pan evaporation using partial least squares regression</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study presented the application of partial least squares regression (PLSR) in estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> pan evaporation by utilizing\\u000a the unique feature of PLSR in eliminating collinearity issues in predictor variables. The climate variables and <span class="hlt">daily</span> pan\\u000a evaporation data measured at two weather stations located near Elephant Butte Reservoir, New Mexico, USA and a weather station\\u000a located in Shanshan County, Xinjiang,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shalamu Abudu; ChunLiang Cui; J. Phillip King; Jimmy Moreno; A. Salim Bawazir</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">447</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58054621"> <span id="translatedtitle">Junk Bond Behavior with <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Returns and Business Cycles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using the Merrill-Lynch <span class="hlt">daily</span> junk bond index, we reexamine and extend previous junk bond return results. We include (1) the effect of business cycles on junk and investment-grade bonds, (2) the sensitivity of junk bond returns to economic activity and\\/or interest rates, and (3) sample periods that allow us to investigate periods of reduced junk bond liquidity. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> data confirm</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jayen B Patel; Dorla A Evans; John E Burnett</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">448</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/22612484"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> intake of uranium by urban indian population</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">daily</span> intake of uranium (238U) by an urban Indian adult population was estimated by the analysis of a duplicate diet, drinking water, and air samples using neutron activation and radio-chemical separation. The uranium intake through food is 0.55 g which is much larger than that from drinking water and air, at 0.09 and 0.01 g, respectively. The total <span class="hlt">daily</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. S. Dang; V. R. Pullat; D. D. Jaiswal; M. Parameswaran; C. M. Sunta</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">449</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ehpnet1.niehs.nih.gov/members/2003/5664/5664.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Particulate Matter, Sulfur Dioxide, and <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Mortality in Chongqing, China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In 1995, <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality in a district of Chongqing, China, was analyzed from January through December for associations with <span class="hlt">daily</span> ambient sulfur dioxide and fine particles (airborne particles with diameters ? 2.5 µm; PM2.5). The mean concentration of PM2.5 was 147 µg\\/m3 (maximum, 666 µg\\/m3), and that of SO2 was 213 µg\\/m3 (maximum, 571 µg\\/m3). On average, 9.6 persons died</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Scott A. Venners; Binyan Wang; Zhonggui Peng; Yu Xu; Lihua Wang; Xiping Xu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">450</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32006811"> <span id="translatedtitle">Obesity in Print: An Analysis of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Newspapers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">SummaryBackground: Stigmatizing attitudes towards obese people are common in the public. Based on findings that portrayals of obesity in entertainment media foster weight-related stigmatization, the goal of the current study was to analyze media coverage of obesity in <span class="hlt">daily</span> newspapers. Methods: For the year 2006, all 1,563 issues of five high-circulation <span class="hlt">daily</span> newspapers (two national newspapers, one tabloid newspaper, and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anja Hilbert; Jens Ried</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">451</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/31667514"> <span id="translatedtitle">Once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> ofloxacin otic solution for otitis externa</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Problem: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a 7-day regimen of ofloxacin otic 0.3% solution administered once <span class="hlt">daily</span> to treat otitis externa (OE).Methods: This was an open-label, multicenter, multinational study (involving 58 sites in the U.S. and Central America). Ofloxacin otic 0.3% solution was administered once <span class="hlt">daily</span> for the treatment of OE in patients over 6.0 months of age</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Benjamin Torun; Stan L. Block; John Riefler; Ephraim Katz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">452</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55600235"> <span id="translatedtitle">New gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall data for the Sahel</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rainfall in the Sahel is characterised by high interdecadal, interannual and intraseasonal variability. High quality <span class="hlt">daily</span> data is a prerequisite for empirical analysis and understanding of the physical processes underlying these modes of variability. Using data from 524 stations, bounded by the region 9°-22°N, 18°W-14°E, for the period 1958-1997, a gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall dataset covering the Western Sahelian region of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. P. Matthews</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">453</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1764954"> <span id="translatedtitle">Budesonide once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> in seasonal allergic rhinitis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A randomized, parallel group, double-blind multi-centre study was carried out in 342 patients with symptomatic seasonal allergic rhinitis to assess the efficacy and tolerability of intranasal budesonide administered either as a single morning dose of 400 micrograms or as a 200 micrograms twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> dose, morning and evening, for 4 weeks. Both treatments improved the symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis; specific nasal symptom scores recorded <span class="hlt">daily</span> by the patient being reduced. The proportions of patients symptom free after 4-weeks' treatment were 46% in the 400 micrograms once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> group and 54% in the 200 micrograms twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> group, with total <span class="hlt">daily</span> symptom scores recorded by diary cards reduced by 79% and 80%, respectively. The differences between the groups were not statistically significant. Sub-group analysis of patients allergic to grass pollen (n = 166) showed similar total symptom scores at each level of grass pollen exposure (no significant difference between treatment groups). Patients assessed both treatments to be effective (no significant difference between groups), with 65% of patients questioned stating a preference for a once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> treatment given equal symptom control. Both treatments were equally well tolerated and few side-effects were reported. PMID:1764954</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ross, J R; Mohan, G; Andersson, B; Taylor, M D; Richardson, P D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">454</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5087555"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> climate change</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This book places the scientific debate over <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change into a useful policymaking framework. It presents scientific evidence in support of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming, and describes the uncertainties surrounding predictions of climate change. Addresses potential regional impacts of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. It also discusses state policy options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to climate change.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Not Available</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">455</div> <div class="resultBody element">