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Sample records for global daily irradiation

  1. Parameterization of daily solar global ultraviolet irradiation.

    PubMed

    Feister, U; Jkel, E; Gericke, K

    2002-09-01

    Daily values of solar global ultraviolet (UV) B and UVA irradiation as well as erythemal irradiation have been parameterized to be estimated from pyranometer measurements of daily global and diffuse irradiation as well as from atmospheric column ozone. Data recorded at the Meteorological Observatory Potsdam (52 degrees N, 107 m asl) in Germany over the time period 1997-2000 have been used to derive sets of regression coefficients. The validation of the method against independent data sets of measured UV irradiation shows that the parameterization provides a gain of information for UVB, UVA and erythemal irradiation referring to their averages. A comparison between parameterized daily UV irradiation and independent values of UV irradiation measured at a mountain station in southern Germany (Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeissenberg at 48 degrees N, 977 m asl) indicates that the parameterization also holds even under completely different climatic conditions. On a long-term average (1953-2000), parameterized annual UV irradiation values are 15% and 21% higher for UVA and UVB, respectively, at Hohenpeissenberg than they are at Potsdam. Daily global and diffuse irradiation measured at 28 weather stations of the Deutscher Wetterdienst German Radiation Network and grid values of column ozone from the EPTOMS satellite experiment served as inputs to calculate the estimates of the spatial distribution of daily and annual values of UV irradiation across Germany. Using daily values of global and diffuse irradiation recorded at Potsdam since 1937 as well as atmospheric column ozone measured since 1964 at the same site, estimates of daily and annual UV irradiation have been derived for this site over the period from 1937 through 2000, which include the effects of changes in cloudiness, in aerosols and, at least for the period of ozone measurements from 1964 to 2000, in atmospheric ozone. It is shown that the extremely low ozone values observed mainly after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in 1991 have substantially enhanced UVB irradiation in the first half of the 1990s. According to the measurements and calculations, the nonlinear long-term changes observed between 1968 and 2000 amount to +4%, ..., +5% for annual global irradiation and UVA irradiation mainly because of changing cloudiness and + 14%, ..., +15% for UVB and erythemal irradiation because of both changing cloudiness and decreasing column ozone. At the mountain site, Hohenpeissenberg, measured global irradiation and parameterized UVA irradiation decreased during the same time period by -3%, ..., -4%, probably because of the enhanced occurrence and increasing optical thickness of clouds, whereas UVB and erythemal irradiation derived by the parameterization have increased by +3%, ..., +4% because of the combined effect of clouds and decreasing ozone. The parameterizations described here should be applicable to other regions with similar atmospheric and geographic conditions, whereas for regions with significantly different climatic conditions, such as high mountainous areas and arctic or tropical regions, the representativeness of the regression coefficients would have to be approved. It is emphasized here that parameterizations, as the one described in this article, cannot replace measurements of solar UV radiation, but they can use existing measurements of solar global and diffuse radiation as well as data on atmospheric ozone to provide estimates of UV irradiation in regions and over time periods for which UV measurements are not available. PMID:12403449

  2. The frequency distribution of daily global irradiation at Kumasi

    SciTech Connect

    Akuffo, F.O.; Brew-Hammond, A. )

    1993-02-01

    Cumulative frequency distribution curves (CDC) for daily global irradiation on the horizontal produced by Liu and Jordan in 1963 have until recently been considered to have universal validity. Results obtained by Saunier et al. in 1987 and Ideriah and Suleman in 1989 for two tropical locations, Ibadan in Nigeria and Bangkok in Thailand, respectively, have thrown into question the universal validity of the Liu and Jordan generalized CDC. Saunier et al., in particular, showed that their results disagreed with the generalized CDC mainly because of differences in the values of the maximum clearness index (Kmax), as well as the underlying probability density functions. Consequently, they proposed two expressions for determining Kmax and probability densities in tropical locations. This paper presents the results of statistical analysis of daily global irradiation for Kumasi, Ghana, also a tropical location. The results show that the expressions of Saunier et al. provide a better description of the observations than the generalized CDC and, in particular, the empirical equation for Kmax may be valid for Kumasi. Furthermore, the results show that the values of the minimum clearness index (Kmin) for Kumasi are much higher than the generally accepted value of 0.05 for overcast sky conditions. A comparison of the results for Kumasi and Ibadan shows that there is satisfactory agreement when the values of Kmax and Kmin are comparable; in cases where there are discrepancies in the Kmax and Kmin values, the CDC also disagree. 13 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Mathematically integrable parameterization of clear-sky beam and global irradiances and its use in daily irradiation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gueymard, C. )

    1993-05-01

    A simple parameterized clear-sky short-wave irradiance model is derived from a detailed two-band physical model presented earlier. The inputs for the parameterized model (called PSIM) are the solar elevation, the amount of precipitable water (w), the Angstrom turbidity coefficient ([Beta]), the station's pressure (or its altitude), and the zonal surface albedo (for which a simple submodel is provided for North America). PSIM is intended to give accurate irradiance estimates in any atmospheric condition whenever w < 5 cm and [Beta] < 0.45. The parameterization uses a function of solar elevation that is integrable with time, so that a parameterized daily irradiation model (called DIM) is also obtained. The seasonal variations of the daily clear-sky beam and global irradiations are presented for different combinations of w, [Beta], and latitude. It is possible to use these irradiation estimates in different applications when dealing with solar energy or climatology. For example, a simple way to derive the mean monthly apparent solar elevation or air mass is given. It is also suggested that the original Angstrom's equation (to derive the average global irradiation from the fraction of possible sunshine) be used more extensively with DIM. Finally, it is demonstrated (using data from Albany, NY) that the monthly average beam irradiation may be obtained with a very simple equation from the fraction of possible sunshine and DIM, yielding more accurate estimates than the existing best-performing method.

  4. Estimation of daily global solar irradiation under different sky conditions in central and southern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didari, Shohreh; Zand-Parsa, Shahrokh

    2015-10-01

    Daily global solar irradiation (R s) is one of the main inputs in environmental modeling. Because of the lack of its measuring facilities, high-quality and long-term data are limited. In this research, R s values were estimated based on measured sunshine duration and cloud cover of our synoptic meteorological stations in central and southern Iran during 2008, 2009, and 2011. Clear sky solar irradiation was estimated from linear regression using extraterrestrial solar irradiation as the independent variable with normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) of 4.69 %. Daily R s was calibrated using measured sunshine duration and cloud cover data under different sky conditions during 2008 and 2009. The 2011 data were used for model validation. According to the results, in the presence of clouds, the R s model using sunshine duration data was more accurate when compared with the model using cloud cover data (NRMSE = 11. 69 %). In both models, with increasing sky cloudiness, the accuracy decreased. In the study region, more than 92 % of sunshine durations were clear or partly cloudy, which received close to 95 % of total solar irradiation. Hence, it was possible to estimate solar irradiation with a good accuracy in most days with the measurements of sunshine duration.

  5. Global Daily Reference ET Modeling and Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senay, G. B.; Verdin, J. P.; Lietzow, R.

    2005-12-01

    Accurate and reliable Evapotranspiration (ET) data sets are crucial in regional water and energy balance studies. Due to the complex instrumentation requirements, actual ET values are generally estimated from reference ET values by adjustment factors using coefficients for water stress and vegetation conditions, commonly referred to as crop coefficients. Until recently, the modeling of reference ET has been solely based on important weather variables collected from weather stations that are generally located on selected agro-climatic locations. Since 2000, NOAA's Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) has been producing 6-hourly climate parameter data sets of the input meteorological variables used to calculate daily reference ET for the whole globe at 1 degree spatial resolution. USGS at the Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) has been producing daily reference ET since 2000 and the results have been used for a variety of models for drought and stream flow monitoring all over the world in an operational basis. With the increasing availability of station-based reference ET estimates over the internet, we evaluated the GDAS-based reference ET estimates using data from the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS). Daily CMIS reference ET estimates from over 120 stations were compared with GDAS-based reference ET at different spatial and temporal scales using the 2004 data. Despite the large difference in spatial scale (point vs ~100 km grid) between the two data sets, the correlations between station-based ET and GDAS-ET were very high, exceeding 0.90 on a daily-basis to more than 0.98 on time scales of over 10 days. The effect of elevation in the reference ET estimation at a coarse spatial scale was also investigated. Both the temporal and spatial correspondences in trend/pattern and magnitudes between the two data sets were satisfactory, suggesting the reliability of using GDAS parameter based reference ET for regional water and energy balance studies in many parts of the world.

  6. Markov processes and Zipf's law in daily solar irradiation at earth's surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vindel, J. M.; Polo, J.

    2014-01-01

    Sequences of two consecutive days of solar irradiation (global horizontal and direct normal) have been studied here by different approaches. The frequency vs. rank relationships have been analyzed as an attempt to explore whether the Zifp's law is fulfilled, yielding to a partial fulfillment and observing that a good logarithmic fit can be applied to the data in the whole range. In addition, the pdfs of increments in two consecutive daily irradiation values are also studied, showing a relationship between persistence and the coefficients of the logarithmic fit. Finally, it has been shown that a Markov process can represent properly sequences of two consecutive daily irradiation values, for both global horizontal and direct normal components. Thus, synthetic series can be generated by Markov chains for characterizing daily global and direct irradiation.

  7. Global daily reference evapotranspiration modeling and evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.P.; Lietzow, R.; Melesse, Assefa M.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate and reliable evapotranspiration (ET) datasets are crucial in regional water and energy balance studies. Due to the complex instrumentation requirements, actual ET values are generally estimated from reference ET values by adjustment factors using coefficients for water stress and vegetation conditions, commonly referred to as crop coefficients. Until recently, the modeling of reference ET has been solely based on important weather variables collected from weather stations that are generally located in selected agro-climatic locations. Since 2001, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) has been producing six-hourly climate parameter datasets that are used to calculate daily reference ET for the whole globe at 1-degree spatial resolution. The U.S. Geological Survey Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science has been producing daily reference ET (ETo) since 2001, and it has been used on a variety of operational hydrological models for drought and streamflow monitoring all over the world. With the increasing availability of local station-based reference ET estimates, we evaluated the GDAS-based reference ET estimates using data from the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS). Daily CIMIS reference ET estimates from 85 stations were compared with GDAS-based reference ET at different spatial and temporal scales using five-year daily data from 2002 through 2006. Despite the large difference in spatial scale (point vs. ???100 km grid cell) between the two datasets, the correlations between station-based ET and GDAS-ET were very high, exceeding 0.97 on a daily basis to more than 0.99 on time scales of more than 10 days. Both the temporal and spatial correspondences in trend/pattern and magnitudes between the two datasets were satisfactory, suggesting the reliability of using GDAS parameter-based reference ET for regional water and energy balance studies in many parts of the world. While the study revealed the potential of GDAS ETo for large-scale hydrological applications, site-specific use of GDAS ETo in complex hydro-climatic regions such as coastal areas and rugged terrain may require the application of bias correction and/or disaggregation of the GDAS ETo using downscaling techniques. ?? 2008 American Water Resources Association.

  8. A comparison between one year of daily global irradiation from ground-based measurements versus meteosat images from seven locations in Tunisia

    SciTech Connect

    Djemaa, A.B.; Delorme, C. )

    1992-01-01

    Three numerical images from METEOSAT B2 per day have been processed over a period of 12 months, from October 1985 to September 1986, to estimate the daily values of available solar radiation in Tunisia. The methodology used, GISTEL, on the images of the visible' channel of METEOSAT, is described. Results are compared with measured radiation values from seven stations of the Institut de la Meteorologie de Tunisie.' Among more than 2,200 measured-estimated daily pairs, a high percentage, 89%, show a relative error of + or {minus}10%. Many figures concerning Sidi-Bou-Said, Kairouan, Thala, and Gafsa are presented to show the capability of GISTEL to map the daily available solar radiation with a sufficient spatial resolution in countries where radiation measurements are too scarce.

  9. Estimation of monthly mean daily global solar radiation in Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, G. )

    1990-10-01

    By comparing the published values of monthly mean daily global solar radiation on horizontal surfaces in Memphis and Nashville with calculated values using equations from four models for this parameter, it is shown that the best estimates arise from the use of a model that requires sunshine hours, rain days, and relative humidity as the relevant climatological variables. It is suggested that this equation be used to estimate monthly mean daily global solar radiation for all locations in Tennessee.

  10. Influence of lunar phase on daily global temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Balling, R.C. Jr.; Cerveny, R.S.

    1995-03-10

    A newly available data set of daily satellite-derived, lower-tropospheric global temperature anomalies provides an opportunity to assess the influence of lunar phase on planetary temperature. These results reveal a statistically significant 0.02 K modulation between new moon and full moon, with the warmest daily global temperatures over a synodic month coincident with the occurrence of the full moon. Spectral analysis of the daily temperature record confirms the presence of a periodicity that matches the lunar synodic (29-53-day) cycle. The precision of the satellite-based daily temperature record allows verification that the moon exerts a discernible influence on the short-term, global temperature record. 25 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Reconstruction of daily solar UV irradiation from 1893 to 2002 in Potsdam, Germany.

    PubMed

    Junk, Jürgen; Feister, Uwe; Helbig, Alfred

    2007-08-01

    Long-term records of solar UV radiation reaching the Earth's surface are scarce. Radiative transfer calculations and statistical models are two options used to reconstruct decadal changes in solar UV radiation from long-term records of measured atmospheric parameters that contain information on the effect of clouds, atmospheric aerosols and ground albedo on UV radiation. Based on earlier studies, where the long-term variation of daily solar UV irradiation was derived from measured global and diffuse irradiation as well as atmospheric ozone by a non-linear regression method [Feister et al. (2002) Photochem Photobiol 76:281-293], we present another approach for the reconstruction of time series of solar UV radiation. An artificial neural network (ANN) was trained with measurements of solar UV irradiation taken at the Meteorological Observatory in Potsdam, Germany, as well as measured parameters with long-term records such as global and diffuse radiation, sunshine duration, horizontal visibility and column ozone. This study is focussed on the reconstruction of daily broad-band UV-B (280-315 nm), UV-A (315-400 nm) and erythemal UV irradiation (ER). Due to the rapid changes in cloudiness at mid-latitude sites, solar UV irradiance exhibits appreciable short-term variability. One of the main advantages of the statistical method is that it uses doses of highly variable input parameters calculated from individual spot measurements taken at short time intervals, which thus do represent the short-term variability of solar irradiance. PMID:17318610

  12. Daily total global solar radiation modeling from several meteorological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgili, Mehmet; Ozgoren, Muammer

    2011-05-01

    This paper investigates the modeling of the daily total global solar radiation in Adana city of Turkey using multi-linear regression (MLR), multi-nonlinear regression (MNLR) and feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) methods. Several daily meteorological data, i.e., measured sunshine duration, air temperature and wind speed and date of the year, i.e., monthly and daily, were used as independent variables to the MLR, MNLR and ANN models. In order to determine the relationship between the total global solar radiation and other meteorological data, and also to obtain the best independent variables, the MLR and MNLR analyses were performed with the "Stepwise" method in the Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program. Thus, various models consisting of the combination of the independent variables were constructed and the best input structure was investigated. The performances of all models in the training and testing data sets were compared with the measured daily global solar radiation values. The obtained results indicated that the ANN method was better than the other methods in modeling daily total global solar radiation. For the ANN model, mean absolute error (MAE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), correlation coefficient ( R) and coefficient of determination ( R 2) for the training/testing data set were found to be 0.89/1.00 MJ/m2 day, 7.88/9.23%, 0.9824/0.9751, and 0.9651/0.9508, respectively.

  13. Hematopoietic tissue repair under chronic low daily dose irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seed, T. M.

    The capacity of the hematopoietic system to repair constantly accruing cellular damage under chronic, low daily dose gamma irradiation is essential for the maintenance of a functional hematopoietic system, and, in turn, long term survival. In certain individuals, however, such continuous cycles of damage and repair provide an essential inductive environment for selected types of hematopathologies, e.g., myeloid leukemia (ML). In our laboratory we have been studying temporal and causal relationships between hematopoietic capacity, associated repair functions, and propensities for hematologic disease in canines under variable levels of chronic radiation stress (0.3-26.3 cGy d^-1). Results indicate that the maximum exposure rate tolerated by the hematopoietic system is highly individual-specific (three major responding subgroups identified) and is based largely on the degree to which repair capacity, and, in turn, hematopoietic restoration, is augmented under chronic exposure. In low-tolerance individuals (prone to aplastic anemia, subgroup 1), the failure to augment basic repair functions seemingly results in a progressive accumulation of genetic and cellular damage within vital progenitorial marrow compartments (particularly marked within erythroid compartments) that results in loss of reproductive capacity and ultimately in collapse of the hematopoietic system. The high-tolerance individuals (radioaccommodated and either prone- or not prone to ML, subgroup 2 & 3) appear to minimize the accumulating damage effect of daily exposures by extending repair functions, which preserves reproductive integrity and fosters regenerative hematopoietic responses. As the strength of the regenerative response manifests the extent of repair augmentation, the relatively strong response of high-tolerance individuals progressing to patent ML suggests an insufficiency of repair quality rather than repair quantity. The kinetics of these repair-mediated, regenerative hematopoietic responses within the major subgroups are under study and should provide useful insights into the nature of hematopoietic accommodation (or its failure) under greatly extended periods of chronic, low-daily-dose ionizing radiation exposure.

  14. Hematopoietic tissue repair under chronic low daily dose irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Seed, T.M.

    1994-12-01

    The capacity of the hematopoietic system to repair constantly accruing cellular damage under chronic, low daily dose gamma irradiation is essential for the maintenance of a functional hematopoietic system, and, in turn, long term survival. In certain individuals, however, such continuous cycles of damage and repair provide an essential inductive environment for selected types of hematopathologies, e.g., myeloid leukemia (ML). We have been studying temporal and causal relationships between hematopoietic capacity, associated repair functions, and propensities for hematologic disease in canines under variable levels of chronic radiation stress (0.3{minus}26.3 cGy d{sup {minus}1}). Results indicate that the maximum exposure rate tolerated by the hematopoietic system is highly individual-specific and is based largely on the degree to which repair capacity, and, in turn, hematopoietic restoration, is augmented under chronic exposure. In low-tolerance individuals (prone to aplastic anemia, subgroup (1), the failure to augment basic m-pair functions seemingly results in a progressive accumulation of genetic and cellular damage within vital progenitorial marrow compartments particularly marked within erythroid compartments. that results in loss of reproductive capacity and ultimately in collapse of the hematopoietic system. The high-tolerance individuals (radioaccomodated and either prone- or not prone to ML, subgroup 2 & 3 appear to minimize the accumulating damage effect of daily exposures by extending repair functions, which preserves reproductive integrity and fosters regenerative hematopoietic responses. As the strength of the regenerative response manifests the extent of repair augmentation, the relatively strong response of high- tolerance individuals progressing to patent ML suggests an insufficiency of repair quality rather than repair quantity.

  15. A daily global mesoscale ocean eddy dataset from satellite altimetry

    PubMed Central

    Faghmous, James H.; Frenger, Ivy; Yao, Yuanshun; Warmka, Robert; Lindell, Aron; Kumar, Vipin

    2015-01-01

    Mesoscale ocean eddies are ubiquitous coherent rotating structures of water with radial scales on the order of 100?kilometers. Eddies play a key role in the transport and mixing of momentum and tracers across the World Ocean. We present a global daily mesoscale ocean eddy dataset that contains ~45 million mesoscale features and 3.3 million eddy trajectories that persist at least two days as identified in the AVISO dataset over a period of 19932014. This dataset, along with the open-source eddy identification software, extract eddies with any parameters (minimum size, lifetime, etc.), to study global eddy properties and dynamics, and to empirically estimate the impact eddies have on mass or heat transport. Furthermore, our open-source software may be used to identify mesoscale features in model simulations and compare them to observed features. Finally, this dataset can be used to study the interaction between mesoscale ocean eddies and other components of the Earth System. PMID:26097744

  16. A daily global mesoscale ocean eddy dataset from satellite altimetry.

    PubMed

    Faghmous, James H; Frenger, Ivy; Yao, Yuanshun; Warmka, Robert; Lindell, Aron; Kumar, Vipin

    2015-01-01

    Mesoscale ocean eddies are ubiquitous coherent rotating structures of water with radial scales on the order of 100?kilometers. Eddies play a key role in the transport and mixing of momentum and tracers across the World Ocean. We present a global daily mesoscale ocean eddy dataset that contains ~45 million mesoscale features and 3.3 million eddy trajectories that persist at least two days as identified in the AVISO dataset over a period of 1993-2014. This dataset, along with the open-source eddy identification software, extract eddies with any parameters (minimum size, lifetime, etc.), to study global eddy properties and dynamics, and to empirically estimate the impact eddies have on mass or heat transport. Furthermore, our open-source software may be used to identify mesoscale features in model simulations and compare them to observed features. Finally, this dataset can be used to study the interaction between mesoscale ocean eddies and other components of the Earth System. PMID:26097744

  17. [Comparison of three daily global solar radiation models].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-Ming; Fan, Wen-Yi; Zhao, Ying-Hui

    2014-08-01

    Three daily global solar radiation estimation models ( -P model, Thornton-Running model and model provided by Liu Ke-qun et al.) were analyzed and compared using data of 13 weather stations from 1982 to 2012 from three northeastern provinces and eastern Inner Mongolia. After cross-validation analysis, the result showed that mean absolute error (MAE) for each model was 1.71, 2.83 and 1.68 MJ x m(-2) x d(-1) respectively, showing that -P model and model provided by Liu Ke-qun et al. which used percentage of sunshine had an advantage over Thornton-Running model which didn't use percentage of sunshine. Model provided by Liu Ke-qun et al. played a good effect on the situation of non-sunshine, and its MAE and bias percentage were 18.5% and 33.8% smaller than those of -P model, respectively. High precision results could be obtained by using the simple linear model of -P. -P model, Thornton-Running model and model provided by Liu Ke-qun et al. overvalued daily global solar radiation by 12.2%, 19.2% and 9.9% respectively. MAE for each station varied little with the spatial change of location, and annual MAE decreased with the advance of years. The reason for this might be that the change of observation accuracy caused by the replacement of radiation instrument in 1993. MAEs for rainy days, non-sunshine days and warm seasons of the three models were greater than those for days without rain, sunshine days and cold seasons respectively, showing that different methods should be used for different weather conditions on estimating solar radiation with meteorological elements. PMID:25509082

  18. Evaluation of SUNY satellite-to-irradiance model performance using ECMWF GEMS daily aerosol optical depth reanalysis data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itterly, Kyle F.

    The current version of the State University of New York (SUNY) radiative transfer model (RTM) uses climatological monthly averages derived from a National Renewable Energy Labs (NREL) gridded dataset to parameterize aerosol optical depth (AOD), water vapor and ozone. This is mostly due to the limited availability of high spatially and temporally resolved observations. Several global chemical transport models are analyzed and compared in depth to determine which daily AOD dataset should be implemented into the SUNY Model. After thorough comparison, the chemical transport model chosen was the Global and regional Earth-system Monitoring using satellite and in-situ data (GEMS) model developed by the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Using daily AOD values instead of monthly climatological values, the SUNY Model better captures events of extreme aerosol loadings, which greatly improves the accuracy in calculations of direct normal irradiance (DNI) and to a lesser extent, global horizontal irradiance (GHI). In clear-sky conditions with the sun directly overhead, a change in AOD from 0.1 to 0.5 is found to cause a 55% (20%) decrease in DNI (GHI) for Desert Rock, Nevada in January. A calibration scheme is applied to the daily GEMS AOD reanalysis data. For each site, the monthly means of the GEMS daily AOD are corrected by a factor to match the currently used monthly climatological AOD in order to avoid large errors caused by changing the magnitude of the monthly average AOD. The performance of the SUNY model improved significantly for many of the stations analyzed in this work after applying the daily-calibrated GEMS AOD. The Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) was the most notable statistical improvement, which measures the models precision compared to the observed measurements from a ground station, and many other statistical improvements are also evident. All 7 SURFRAD locations showed improvements in DNI RMSE after using the calibrated GEMS daily AOD compared to the monthly climatological AOD values currently used. On average, the mean bias error decreased significantly for all SURFRAD stations as well.

  19. Diagnosing a daily index of tornado variability with global reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegion, P. J.; Hoerling, M. P.

    2011-12-01

    The recent record setting tornado outbreaks in April 2011 has spurred a lot of discussion and debate of the causes of this record setting month. Global warming and the decaying La Nia were both common causes suggested as the reason behind such a destructive tornado season. Due to the inhomogeneity of the observed tornado record, there are few published studies that relate climate variability to occurrences of tornados. We employ a method developed by Harold Brooks and co-authors in 2003 that discriminates tornadic and severe weather soundings from everyday convection to circumvent the problems with the observed tornado record. We will show how this index, derived from the CFS-R, realistically reproduces the observed variability in tornadoes, and the relative impacts of different modes of climate variability on tornadoes over the United States. This analysis will provide a baseline that will be expanded to climate model simulations of the 20th Century and future projections.

  20. Solar global horizontal and direct normal irradiation maps in Spain derived from geostationary satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polo, J.

    2015-08-01

    Solar radiation derived from satellite imagery is a powerful and highly accurate technique for solar resource assessment due to its maturity and to the long term database of observation images available. This work presents the methodology developed at CIEMAT for mapping solar radiation from geostationary satellite information and it also shows solar irradiation maps of global horizontal and direct normal components elaborated for Spain. The maps presented here have been developed from daily solar irradiation estimated for eleven years of satellite images (2001-2011). An attempt to evaluate the uncertainty of the presented maps is made using ground measurements from 27 meteorological stations available in Spain for global horizontal irradiation obtained from the World Radiation Data Centre. In the case of direct normal irradiation the ground measurement database was scarce, having available only six ground stations with measurements for a period of 4 years. Yearly values of global horizontal irradiation are around 1800 kWh m-2 in most of the country and around 1950-2000 kWh m-2 for annual direct normal irradiation. Root mean square errors in monthly means were of 11% and of 29% for global horizontal and direct normal irradiation, respectively.

  1. Global Monthly and Daily Precipitation Analysis for the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP): Global and Regional Variations and Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George; Curtis, Scott; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The 22 year, monthly, globally complete precipitation analysis of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP/GEWEX) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and the four year (1997-present) daily GPCP analysis are described in terms of the data sets and analysis techniques used in their preparation. These analyses are then used to study global and regional variations and trends during the 22 years and the shorter-time scale events that constitute those variations. The GPCP monthly data set shows no significant trend in global precipitation over the twenty years, unlike the positive trend in global surface temperatures over the past century. The global trend analysis must be interpreted carefully, however, because the inhomogeneity of the data set makes detecting a small signal very difficult, especially over this relatively short period. The relation of global (and tropical) total precipitation and ENSO (El Nino and Southern Oscillation) events is quantified with no significant signal when land and ocean are combined. In terms of regional trends 1979 to 2000 the tropics have a distribution of regional rainfall trends that has an ENSO-like pattern with features of both the El Nino and La Nina. This feature is related to a possible trend in the frequency of ENSO events (either El Nino or La Nina) over the past 20 years. Monthly anomalies of precipitation are related to ENSO variations with clear signals extending into middle and high latitudes of both hemispheres. The El Nino and La Nina mean anomalies are near mirror images of each other and when combined produce an ENSO signal with significant spatial continuity over large distances. A number of the features are shown to extend into high latitudes. Positive anomalies extend in the Southern Hemisphere from the Pacific southeastward across Chile and Argentina into the south Atlantic Ocean. In the Northern Hemisphere the counterpart feature extends across the southern U.S. and Atlantic Ocean into Europe. In the Southern Hemisphere an anomaly feature is shown to spiral into the Antarctica land mass. The extremes of ENSO-related anomalies are also examined and indicate that globally, during both El Nino and La Nina, more extremes of precipitation (both wet and dry) occur than during the "neutral" regime, with the El Nino regime showing larger magnitudes. The distribution is different for the globe as a whole and when the area is restricted to just land. The recent (1998-present) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observations are also compared with the GPCP analyses and are evaluated with regard to improving the long-term GPCP data set.

  2. Global irradiance calibration of multifilter UV radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piedehierro, A. A.; Cancillo, M. L.; Serrano, A.; Antón, M.; Vilaplana, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the amount of ultraviolet solar radiation (UV) reaching the Earth's surface is governed by stratospheric ozone, which has exhibited notable variations since the late 1970s. A thorough monitoring of UV radiation requires long-term series of accurate measurements worldwide, and to keep track of its evolution, it is essential to use high-quality instrumentation with an excellent long-term performance capable of detecting low UV signal. There are several UV monitoring networks worldwide based on multifilter UV radiometers; however, there is no general agreement about the most suitable methodology for the global irradiance calibration of these instruments. This paper aims to compare several calibration methods and to analyze their behavior for different ranges of solar zenith angle (SZA). Four methods are studied: the two currently most frequently used methods referred to in the literature and two new methods that reduce systematic errors in calibrated data at large solar zenith angles. The results evidence that proposed new methods show a clear improvement compared to the classic approaches at high SZA, especially for channels 305 and 320 nm. These two channels are of great interest for calculating the total ozone column and other products such as dose rates of biological interest in the UV range (e.g., the erythemal dose).

  3. Forecasting Plant Productivity and Health Using Diffuse-to-Global Irradiance Ratios Extracted from the OMI Aerosol Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowlton, Kelly; Andrews, Jane C.; Ryan, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are a major contributor to diffuse irradiance. This Candidate Solution suggests using the OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) aerosol product as input into a radiative transfer model, which would calculate the ratio of diffuse to global irradiance at the Earth s surface. This ratio can significantly influence the rate of photosynthesis in plants; increasing the ratio of diffuse to global irradiance can accelerate photosynthesis, resulting in greater plant productivity. Accurate values of this ratio could be useful in predicting crop productivity, thereby improving forecasts of regional food resources. However, disagreements exist between diffuse-to-global irradiance values measured by different satellites and ground sensors. OMI, with its unique combination of spectral bands, high resolution, and daily global coverage, may be able to provide more accurate aerosol measurements than other comparable sensors.

  4. Correlations for direct normal and global horizontal irradiation on a French Mediterranean site

    SciTech Connect

    Louche, A.; Notton, G.; Poggi, P.; Simonnot, G. )

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish some correlations on direct normal and global horizontal irradiation for a Mediterranean site. The correlations have been developed for monthly mean values, daily and hourly values of irradiation data. The authors have used linear or polynomial regressions between energetical ratio and sunshine duration. For the monthly means and the daily values, the ratio I/I{sub M} fits very well the sunshine duration while, for hourly values, they express I{sub h}/I{sub o,h} as a function of H{sub h}/H{sub o,h}. In all cases, these correlations are, for this Mediterranean site, in good accordance with experimental data. Nevertheless, a study for other locations has to be developed.

  5. Daily global maps of carbon monoxide from NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, W. W.; Barnet, C.; Strow, L.; Chahine, M. T.; McCourt, M. L.; Warner, J. X.; Novelli, P. C.; Korontzi, S.; Maddy, E. S.; Datta, S.

    2005-06-01

    We present the first observations of tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard NASA's Aqua satellite. AIRS daily coverage of ~70% of the planet represents a significant evolutionary advance in satellite trace gas remote sensing. Tropospheric CO abundances are retrieved from AIRS 4.55 ?m spectral region using the full AIRS retrieval algorithm run in a research mode. The presented AIRS daily global CO maps from 22-29 September 2002 show large-scale, long-range transport of CO from anthropogenic and natural sources, most notably from biomass burning. The sequence of daily maps reveal CO advection from Brazil to the South Atlantic in qualitative agreement with previous observations. Forward trajectory analysis confirms this scenario and indicates much longer range transport into the southern Indian Ocean. Preliminary comparisons to in situ aircraft profiles indicate AIRS CO retrievals are approaching the 15% accuracy target set by pre-launch simulations.

  6. Reducing Noise in the MSU Daily Lower-Tropospheric Global Temperature Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, John R.; Spencer, Roy W.; McNider, Richard T.

    1996-01-01

    The daily global-mean values of the lower-tropospheric temperature determined from microwave emissions measured by satellites are examined in terms of their signal, noise, and signal-to-noise ratio. Daily and 30-day average noise estimates are reduced by almost 50% and 35%. respectively, by analyzing and adjusting (if necessary) for errors due to 1) missing data, 2) residual harmonics of the annual cycle unique to particular satellites, 3) lack of filtering, and 4) spurious trends. After adjustments, the decadal trend of the lower-tropospheric global temperature from January 1979 through February 1994 becomes -0.058 C. or about 0.03 C per decade cooler than previously calculated.

  7. Estimation of the diffuse fraction of daily and monthly average global radiation for Fudhaliyah, Baghdad (Iraq)

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Hamdani, N.; Al-Riahi, M.; Tahir, K. )

    1989-01-01

    Separating the global solar radiation on a horizontal surface into direct and diffuse components is required in the simulation of solar energy systems. Many models have been developed for this purpose. The aim of this study is to establish, from the data collected over the period 1985-1986 at Fudhaliyah, daily correlations between (i) diffuse fraction of global radiation and clearness index; (ii) diffuse fraction and fractional sunshine duration; (iii) diffuse fraction and clearness index combined with fractional sunshine duration. In addition, the monthly average values of the above-mentioned correlations were established. Comparison with the most commonly used equation, Page's correlation, gives good agreement for monthly average of the relationship between diffuse fraction and clearness index. An equation for daily diffuse transmissivity values that incorporates a single physically based coefficient, which reflects the maximum clear-sky transmissivity at the study site is presented.

  8. Reducing Noise in the MSU Daily Lower-Tropospheric Global Temperature Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, John R.; Spencer, Roy W.; McNider, Richard T.

    1995-01-01

    The daily global-mean values of the lower-tropospheric temperature determined from microwave emissions measured by satellites are examined in terms of their signal, noise, and signal-to-noise ratio. Daily and 30-day average noise estimates are reduced by, almost 50% and 35%, respectively, by analyzing and adjusting (if necessary) for errors due to (1) missing data, (2) residual harmonics of the annual cycle unique to particular satellites, (3) lack of filtering, and (4) spurious trends. After adjustments, the decadal trend of the lower-tropospheric global temperature from January 1979 through February 1994 becomes -0.058 C, or about 0.03 C per decade cooler than previously calculated.

  9. Global Precipitation at One-Degree Daily Resolution From Multi-Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Morrissey, Mark M.; Curtis, Scott; Joyce, Robert; McGavock, Brad; Susskind, Joel

    2000-01-01

    The One-Degree Daily (1DD) technique is described for producing globally complete daily estimates of precipitation on a 1 deg x 1 deg lat/long grid from currently available observational data. Where possible (40 deg N-40 deg S), the Threshold-Matched Precipitation Index (TMPI) provides precipitation estimates in which the 3-hourly infrared brightness temperatures (IR T(sub b)) are thresholded and all "cold" pixels are given a single precipitation rate. This approach is an adaptation of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Precipitation Index (GPI), but for the TMPI the IR Tb threshold and conditional rain rate are set locally by month from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I)-based precipitation frequency and the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) satellite-gauge (SG) combined monthly precipitation estimate, respectively. At higher latitudes the 1DD features a rescaled daily Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) precipitation. The frequency of rain days in the TOVS is scaled down to match that in the TMPI at the data boundaries, and the resulting non-zero TOVS values are scaled locally to sum to the SG (which is a globally complete monthly product). The time series of the daily 1DD global images shows good continuity in time and across the data boundaries. Various examples are shown to illustrate uses. Validation for individual grid -box values shows a very high root-mean-square error but, it improves quickly when users perform time/space averaging according to their own requirements.

  10. Global reconstructed daily storm surge levels from the 20th century reanalysis (1871-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cid, Alba; Camus, Paula; Castanedo, Sonia; Mendez, Fernando; Medina, Raul

    2015-04-01

    The study of global patterns of wind and pressure gradients, and more specifically, their effect on the sea level variation (storm surge), is a key issue in the understanding of recent climate changes. The local effect of storm surges on coastal areas (zones particularly vulnerable to climate variability and changes in sea level), is also of great interest in, for instance, flooding risk assessment. Studying the spatial and temporal variability of storm surges from observations is a difficult task to accomplish since observations are not homogeneous in time and scarce in space, and moreover, their temporal coverage is limited. The development of a global storm surge database (DAC, Dynamic Atmospheric Correction by Aviso, Carrère and Lyard, 2003) fulfils the lack of data in terms of spatial coverage, but not regarding time extent since it only includes last couple of decades (1992-2014). In this work, we propose the use of the 20CR ensemble (Compo et al., 2011) which spans from 1871 to 2010 to statistically reconstruct storm surge at a global scale and for a long period of time. Therefore, the temporal and spatial variability of storm surges can be fully studied and with much less effort than performing a dynamical downscaling. The statistical method chosen to carry out the reconstruction is based on multiple linear regression between an atmospheric predictor and the storm surge level at daily scale (Camus et al., 2014). The linear regression model is calibrated and validated using daily mean sea level pressure fields (and gradients) from the ERA-interim reanalysis and daily maxima surges from DAC. The obtained daily database of maximum daily surges has allowed us to estimate global trends at a centennial scale and analyse the effect of the changing climate on storm surges during the 20th century. Hence, this work improves the knowledge on historical storm-surge conditions and provides helpful information to the community concern on marine climate evolution and coastal impacts. Camus, P., Méndez, F.J., Losada, I.J., Menéndez, M., Espejo, A., Pérez, A., Rueda, A., Guanche, Y. (2014). A method for finding the optimal predictor indices for local wave climate conditions. Ocean Dynamics, 64 (7), 1025-1038, doi: 10.1007/s10236-014-0737-2. Carrère, L., Lyard, F. (2003). Modeling the barotropic response of the global ocean atmospheric wind and pressure forcing - comparisons with observations. Geophysical Research Letters, 30 (6), 1275. Compo, G. P., et al. (2011). The Twentieth century reanalysis project, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 137, 1-28, doi:10.1002/qj.776.

  11. Daily global fire radiative power fields estimation from one or two MODIS instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remy, S.; Kaiser, J. W.

    2014-08-01

    Fires are important emitters of aerosol and trace gases and as such need to be taken into account in any atmospheric composition modeling enterprise. One method to estimate these emissions is to convert Fire Radiative Power (FRP) analysis to dry matter burnt and emissions of smoke constituents using land cover dependent conversion factors. Inventories like the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) follow this approach by calculating daily global smoke emissions from FRP observed by the MODIS instruments on-board of the Terra and Aqua satellites. Observations with different overpass times systematically sample fires at different stages in the strong diurnal fire cycle. For some time periods, observations are available from only one instrument, which leads to a bias in the observed average FRP. We develop a method to correct this bias in daily FRP observations from any Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite, so that the budget of daily smoke emissions remains independent of the number of satellites from which FRP observations are taken into account. This ensures the possibility of running, e.g., GFAS in case of a default of one of the MODIS instruments. It also enables the extension GFAS to 2000-2002 and the inclusion of FRP observations from upcoming satellite missions. The correction combines linear and non-linear regressions and uses an adaptive regionalization algorithm. It removes the bias in daily average FRP observations from Terra and Aqua nearly entirely. Errors are larger for Terra than for Aqua, are generally relatively small at a global scale, but can be important at a local scale. The correction algorithm is applied to Terra observations from 25 February 2000 to 31 December 2002, when Aqua observations were not available. The database of fire emissions GFASv1.0 is extended correspondingly.

  12. Prediction of monthly mean daily global solar radiation using Artificial Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivamadhavi, V.; Selvaraj, R. Samuel

    2012-12-01

    In this study, a multilayer feed forward (MLFF) neural network based on back propagation algorithm was developed, trained, and tested to predict monthly mean daily global radiation in Tamil Nadu, India. Various geographical, solar and meteorological parameters of three different locations with diverse climatic conditions were used as input parameters. Out of 565 available data, 530 were used for training and the rest were used for testing the artificial neural network (ANN). A 3-layer and a 4-layer MLFF networks were developed and the performance of the developed models was evaluated based on mean bias error, mean absolute percentage error, root mean squared error and Student's t-test. The 3-layer MLFF network developed in this study did not give uniform results for the three chosen locations. Hence, a 4-layer MLFF network was developed and the average value of the mean absolute percentage error was found to be 5.47%. Values of global radiation obtained using the model were in excellent agreement with measured values. Results of this study show that the designed ANN model can be used to estimate monthly mean daily global radiation of any place in Tamil Nadu where measured global radiation data are not available.

  13. Daily global fire radiative power fields estimation from one or two MODIS instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remy, S.; Kaiser, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Fires are important emitters of aerosol and trace gases and as such need to be taken into account in any atmospheric composition modelling enterprise. One method to estimate these emissions is to convert fire radiative power (FRP) analysis into dry matter burnt and emissions of smoke constituents using land-cover-dependent conversion factors. Inventories like the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) follow this approach by calculating daily global smoke emissions from FRP observed by the MODIS instruments onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites. Observations with different overpass times systematically sample fires at different stages in the strong diurnal fire cycle. For some time periods, observations are available from only one instrument, which leads to a bias in the observed average FRP. We develop a method to correct this bias in daily FRP observations from any low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite, so that the budget of daily smoke emissions remains independent of the number of satellites from which FRP observations are taken into account. This ensures the possibility of running, for example, GFAS in case of failure of one of the MODIS instruments. It also enables the extension GFAS to 2000-2002 and the inclusion of FRP observations from upcoming satellite missions. The correction combines linear and non-linear regressions and uses an adaptive regionalization algorithm. It decreases the bias in daily average FRP from Terra and Aqua by more than 95%, and RMSE by 75% for Aqua and 55% for Terra. The correction algorithm is applied to Terra observations from 25 February 2000 to 31 December 2002, when Aqua observations were not available. The database of fire emissions GFASv1.0 is extended correspondingly.

  14. Calculation of monthly average global solar radiation on horizontal surfaces using daily hours of bright sunshine

    SciTech Connect

    Halouani, N.; Nguyen, C.T.; Vo-Ngoc, D. )

    1993-03-01

    Several statistical models calculating the monthly average global solar radiation on horizontal surfaces using the daily hours of bright sunshine have been extensively evaluated and compared for Canadian regions. Results show that Gariepy's model provides the best overall performance and Hay's model is rated next best, whereas Rietveld's model has been found to be the least accurate. Local performances of models have also been established throughout Canada that show that both Gariepy's and Hay's models perform quite well. Recommended models have been suggested for the studied regions. 27 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Validation and Development of the GPCP Experimental One-Degree Daily (1DD) Global Precipitation Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Bolvin, David T.; Einaud, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The One-Degree Daily (1DD) precipitation dataset has been developed for the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and is currently in beta test preparatory to release as an official GPCP product. The 1DD provides a globally-complete, observation-only estimate of precipitation on a daily 1 deg. x 1 deg. grid for the period 1997 through early 2000 (by the time of the conference). In the latitude band 40N-40S the 1DD uses the Threshold-Matched Precipitation Index (TMPI), a GPI-like IR product with the pixel-level T(sub b) threshold and (single) conditional rain rate determined locally for each month by the frequency of precipitation in the GPROF SSM/I product and by, the precipitation amount in the GPCP monthly satellite-gauge (SG) combination. Outside 40N-40S the 1DD uses a scaled TOVS precipitation estimate that has month-by-month adjustments based on the TMPI and the SG. Early validation results are encouraging. The 1DD shows relatively large scatter about the daily validation values in individual grid boxes, as expected for a technique that depends on cloud-sensing schemes such as the TMPI and TOVS. On the other hand, the time series of 1DD shows good correlation with validation in individual boxes. For example, the 1997-1998 time series of 1DD and Oklahoma Mesonet values in a grid box in northeastern Oklahoma have the correlation coefficient = 0.73. Looking more carefully at these two time series, the number of raining days for the 1DD is within 7% of the Mesonet value, while the distribution of daily rain values is very similar. Other tests indicate that area- or time-averaging improve the error characteristics, making the data set highly attractive to users interested in stream flow, short-term regional climatology, and model comparisons. The second generation of the 1DD product is currently under development; it is designed to directly incorporate TRMM and other high-quality precipitation estimates. These data are generally sparse because they are observed by low-orbit satellites, so a fair amount of work must be devoted to analyzing the effect of data boundaries. This work is laying, the groundwork for effective use of the NASA Global Precipitation Mission, which will have full Global coverage by low-orbit passive microwave satellites every three hours.

  16. Global Mapping of Underwater UV Irradiances and DNA-Weighted Exposures using TOMS and SeaWiFS Data Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasilkov, Alexander; Krotkov, Nickolay; Herman, Jay; McClain, Charles; Arrigo, Kevin; Robinson, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    The global stratospheric ozone-layer depletion results In an increase in biologically harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the surface and penetrating to ecologically significant depths in natural waters. Such an increase can be estimated on a global scale by combining satellite estimates of UV irradiance at the ocean surface from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite instrument with the SeaWIFS satellite ocean-color measurements in the visible spectral region. In this paper we propose a model of seawater optical properties in the UV spectral region based on the Case I water model in the visible range. The inputs to the model are standard monthly SeaWiFS products: chlorophyll concentration and the diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490nm. Penetration of solar UV radiation to different depths in open ocean waters is calculated using the RT (radiative transfer) quasi-single scattering approximation (QSSA). The accuracy of the QSSA approximation in the water is tested using more accurate codes. The sensitivity study of the underwater UV irradiance to atmospheric and oceanic optical properties have shown that the main environmental parameters controlling the absolute levels of the UVB (280-320nm) and DNA-weighted irradiance underwater are: solar-zenith angle, cloud transmittance, water optical properties, and total ozone. Weekly maps of underwater UV irradiance and DNA-weighted exposure are calculated using monthly-mean SeaWiFS chlorophyll and diffuse attenuation coefficient products, daily SeaWiFS cloud fraction data, and the TOMS-derived surface UV irradiance daily maps. The final products include global maps of weekly-average UVB irradiance and DNA-weighted daily exposures at 3m and 10m, and depths where the UVB irradiance and DNA-weighted dose rate at local noon are equal to 10% of their surface values.

  17. The potential of different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques in daily global solar radiation modeling based on meteorological data

    SciTech Connect

    Behrang, M.A.; Assareh, E.; Ghanbarzadeh, A.; Noghrehabadi, A.R.

    2010-08-15

    The main objective of present study is to predict daily global solar radiation (GSR) on a horizontal surface, based on meteorological variables, using different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques. Daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation, and wind speed values between 2002 and 2006 for Dezful city in Iran (32 16'N, 48 25'E), are used in this study. In order to consider the effect of each meteorological variable on daily GSR prediction, six following combinations of input variables are considered: (I)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature and relative humidity as inputs and daily GSR as output. (II)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature and sunshine hours as inputs and daily GSR as output. (III)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity and sunshine hours as inputs and daily GSR as output. (IV)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and evaporation as inputs and daily GSR as output. (V)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and wind speed as inputs and daily GSR as output. (VI)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation and wind speed as inputs and daily GSR as output. Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) neural networks are applied for daily GSR modeling based on six proposed combinations. The measured data between 2002 and 2005 are used to train the neural networks while the data for 214 days from 2006 are used as testing data. The comparison of obtained results from ANNs and different conventional GSR prediction (CGSRP) models shows very good improvements (i.e. the predicted values of best ANN model (MLP-V) has a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) about 5.21% versus 10.02% for best CGSRP model (CGSRP 5)). (author)

  18. Global daily precipitation analysis for the validation of medium-range climate predictions (DAPACLIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietzsch, Felix; Andersson, Axel; Schröder, Marc; Ziese, Markus; Becker, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The Federal Ministry of Education and Research in Germany funds the research programme "Mittelfristige Klimaprognosen" (MiKlip) with the aim to create a model system that can provide reliable forecasts on climate and weather, including extreme weather events. It is of central importance for the development process of the Miklip system to validate the decadal prediction system based upon data and processes during the development stages. An essential part of the evaluation procedure will be the application of satellite derived datasets to assess the aspired model system with respect to atmospheric water cycle components including precipitation, clouds and related changes in the radiation budget. Within the MiKlip DAPACLIP project new precipitation products suitable for the evaluation of the MiKlip prediction system were developed in close contact with the modelling community. These new datasets are used to evaluate precipitation from global and regional decadal MiKlip hindcasts on a daily time scale, including the statistical analysis of extreme precipitation events. The DAPACLIP dataset covers the time period from 1988 to 2008. It is available in 1° and 2.5° resolution for global coverage as well as in 0.5° resolution for the European domain. The dataset consists of a combination of an in-situ based precipitation analysis of the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) and a new version of the satellite-derived Hamburg Ocean Atmospheric Parameters and fluxes from Satellite Data (HOAPS) precipitation analysis over ocean surfaces. Verification results from comparisons between the DAPACLIP dataset and different precipitation products and datasets over land and ocean will be shown. Here, APHRODITE, PACRAIN and TRMM 3B42 daily have been used as verification datasets. Furthermore we provide first results from the evaluation of MiKlip Decadal Prediction System historical runs and hindcasts. The evaluation focuses on precipitation intensity and frequency, e.g. in terms of drought and wet spells as well as the statistical distribution of precipitation events.

  19. Global and diffuse solar irradiances in urban and rural areas in southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codato, G.; Oliveira, A. P.; Soares, J.; Escobedo, J. F.; Gomes, E. N.; Pai, A. D.

    2008-06-01

    The seasonal evolution of daily and hourly values of global and diffuse solar radiation at the surface are compared for the cities of São Paulo and Botucatu, both located in Southeast Brazil and representative of urban and rural areas, respectively. The comparisons are based on measurements of global and diffuse solar irradiance carried out at the surface during a six year simultaneous period in these two cities. Despite the similar latitude and altitude, the seasonal evolution of daily values indicate that São Paulo receives, during clear sky days, 7.8% less global irradiance in August and 5.1% less in June than Botucatu. On the other hand, São Paulo receives, during clear sky days, 3.6% more diffuse irradiance in August and 15.6% more in June than Botucatu. The seasonal variation of the diurnal cycle confirms these differences and indicates that they are more pronounced during the afternoon. The regional differences are related to the distance from the Atlantic Ocean, systematic penetration of the sea breeze and daytime evolution of the particulate matter in São Paulo. An important mechanism controlling the spatial distribution of solar radiation, on a regional scale, is the sea breeze penetration in São Paulo, bringing moisture and maritime aerosol that in turn further increases the solar radiation scattering due to pollution and further reduces the intensity of the direct component of solar radiation at the surface. Surprisingly, under clear sky conditions the atmospheric attenuation of solar radiation in Botucatu during winter the biomass burning period due to the sugar cane harvest is equivalent to that at São Paulo City, indicating that the contamination during sugar cane harvest in Southeast Brazil has a large impact in the solar radiation field at the surface.

  20. Analysis of a long-term dataset of global and diffuse horizontal irradiance at northeastern Spain for energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincn, A.; Jorba, O.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    An accurate knowledge of the global, diffuse and direct beam irradiance at specific geographical locations in high temporal and spatial resolutions is a must requirement for the development of solar energy applications. Most available datasets comprise global irradiance, but it is not the case for diffuse or direct beam components. These two latter are of great importance when converting the data into declined impinging irradiance or specific components like for example daylight or available energy, utilized to assess the feasibility of solar energy systems. The surface irradiance presents a high temporal variability, and analysis of high frequency sampling datasets provides very valuable information for energy applications. In this contribution, we present an analysis of a long-term dataset of ground measurements of global and diffuse irradiance over a period of 22 years (1986-2007) at northeastern Spain. Ten Irradiance stations of the Catalan Energy Institute (ICAEN) solar network are analyzed to assess the temporal and spatial fluctuations and trends of the ground solar irradiance. The stations provide 5-minutes global and diffuse irradiance over a period of 22 years. In a first step, a quality control testing is applied over our datasets based on QCRad methodology (Long and Shi, 2006; Long and Dutton, 2002). The total amount of valid data from sunrise to sunset is over 6 Million data for global irradiance (87%) and over 4.5 Million data for diffuse irradiance (62%). Then, a comparison and validation of global-to-beam irradiance conversion models is performed to estimate beam irradiance and daily sunshine duration through the clearness index (Kt) and diffuse fraction (Kd). The results allow us to provide a representative solar radiation year which sums up all the climatic information characterizing an annual radiation cycle. REFERENCES Long CN. and Shi Y., 2006. "The QCRad Value Added Product: Surface Radiation Measurement Quality Control Testing, Including Climatology Configurable Limits". Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Technical Report, DOE/SC-ARM/TR-074, available via http://www.arm.gov/publications/vaps.stm Long CN. and Dutton EG., 2002. "BSRN Global Network recommended QC tests, V2.0." BSRN Technical Report, available via http://ezksun3.ethz.ch/bsrn/admin/dokus/qualitycheck.pdf

  1. Sub-daily resolution of earth rotation variations with Global Positioning System measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.; Marcus, Steven L.; Dickey, Jean O.

    1992-01-01

    Data from a worldwide Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking experiment have been used to determine variations in earth rotation (UT1-UTC) over a time period of three weeks. Kalman filtering and smoothing enabled changes in UT1-UTC over intervals of 2 to 24 hrs to be detected with the GPS data. Internal consistency checks and comparisons with other solutions from very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and satellite laser ranging (SLR) indicate that the GPS UT1-UTC estimates are accurate to about 2 cm. Comparison of GPS-estimated variations in UT1-UTC with 2-hr time resolution over 4 days with predicted variations computed from diurnal and semidiurnal oceanic tidal contributions strongly suggests that the observed periodic sub-daily variations of about 0.1 msec are largely of tidal origin.

  2. A Temperature-Based Model for Estimating Monthly Average Daily Global Solar Radiation in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huashan; Cao, Fei; Wang, Xianlong; Ma, Weibin

    2014-01-01

    Since air temperature records are readily available around the world, the models based on air temperature for estimating solar radiation have been widely accepted. In this paper, a new model based on Hargreaves and Samani (HS) method for estimating monthly average daily global solar radiation is proposed. With statistical error tests, the performance of the new model is validated by comparing with the HS model and its two modifications (Samani model and Chen model) against the measured data at 65 meteorological stations in China. Results show that the new model is more accurate and robust than the HS, Samani, and Chen models in all climatic regions, especially in the humid regions. Hence, the new model can be recommended for estimating solar radiation in areas where only air temperature data are available in China. PMID:24605046

  3. Effect of Estimated Daily Global Solar Radiation Data on the Results of Crop Growth Models

    PubMed Central

    Trnka, Miroslav; Eitzinger, Josef; Kapler, Pavel; Dubrovský, Martin; Semerádová, Daniela; Žalud, Zden ěk; Formayer, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    The results of previous studies have suggested that estimated daily global radiation (RG) values contain an error that could compromise the precision of subsequent crop model applications. The following study presents a detailed site and spatial analysis of the RG error propagation in CERES and WOFOST crop growth models in Central European climate conditions. The research was conducted i) at the eight individual sites in Austria and the Czech Republic where measured daily RG values were available as a reference, with seven methods for RG estimation being tested, and ii) for the agricultural areas of the Czech Republic using daily data from 52 weather stations, with five RG estimation methods. In the latter case the RG values estimated from the hours of sunshine using the Ångström-Prescott formula were used as the standard method because of the lack of measured RG data. At the site level we found that even the use of methods based on hours of sunshine, which showed the lowest bias in RG estimates, led to a significant distortion of the key crop model outputs. When the Ångström-Prescott method was used to estimate RG, for example, deviations greater than ±10 per cent in winter wheat and spring barley yields were noted in 5 to 6 per cent of cases. The precision of the yield estimates and other crop model outputs was lower when RG estimates based on the diurnal temperature range and cloud cover were used (mean bias error 2.0 to 4.1 per cent). The methods for estimating RG from the diurnal temperature range produced a wheat yield bias of more than 25 per cent in 12 to 16 per cent of the seasons. Such uncertainty in the crop model outputs makes the reliability of any seasonal yield forecasts or climate change impact assessments questionable if they are based on this type of data. The spatial assessment of the RG data uncertainty propagation over the winter wheat yields also revealed significant differences within the study area. We found that RG estimates based on diurnal temperature range or its combination with daily total precipitation produced a bias of to 30 per cent in the mean winter wheat grain yields in some regions compared with simulations in which RG values had been estimated using the Ångström-Prescott formula. In contrast to the results at the individual sites, the methods based on the diurnal temperature range in combination with daily precipitation totals showed significantly poorer performance than the methods based on the diurnal temperature range only. This was due to the marked increase in the bias in RG estimates with altitude, longitude or latitude of given region. These findings in our view should act as an incentive for further research to develop more precise and generally applicable methods for estimating daily RG based more on the underlying physical principles and/or the remote sensing approach.

  4. Prediction of global solar irradiance based on time series analysis: Application to solar thermal power plants energy production planning

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Luis; Marchante, Ruth; Cony, Marco; Zarzalejo, Luis F.; Polo, Jesus; Navarro, Ana

    2010-10-15

    Due to strong increase of solar power generation, the predictions of incoming solar energy are acquiring more importance. Photovoltaic and solar thermal are the main sources of electricity generation from solar energy. In the case of solar thermal energy plants with storage energy system, its management and operation need reliable predictions of solar irradiance with the same temporal resolution as the temporal capacity of the back-up system. These plants can work like a conventional power plant and compete in the energy stock market avoiding intermittence in electricity production. This work presents a comparisons of statistical models based on time series applied to predict half daily values of global solar irradiance with a temporal horizon of 3 days. Half daily values consist of accumulated hourly global solar irradiance from solar raise to solar noon and from noon until dawn for each day. The dataset of ground solar radiation used belongs to stations of Spanish National Weather Service (AEMet). The models tested are autoregressive, neural networks and fuzzy logic models. Due to the fact that half daily solar irradiance time series is non-stationary, it has been necessary to transform it to two new stationary variables (clearness index and lost component) which are used as input of the predictive models. Improvement in terms of RMSD of the models essayed is compared against the model based on persistence. The validation process shows that all models essayed improve persistence. The best approach to forecast half daily values of solar irradiance is neural network models with lost component as input, except Lerida station where models based on clearness index have less uncertainty because this magnitude has a linear behaviour and it is easier to simulate by models. (author)

  5. The Nature of Martian Dust Storms as Revealed by Long Term Daily Global Atmospheric Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Richardson, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    The Martian dust cycle is composed of dust lifting and transport events that span a very wide spectrum of temporal and spatial scales. The largest storm events occur with sufficiently low frequency that we are only beginning to be able to provide an observational baseline for these events after seven Martian years of roughly continuous global atmospheric imaging. Creation of daily global maps from Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and Wide Angle and Mars Color Imager (MARCI) images allows the occurrence, evolutionary pathway and development style of large dust storms to be examined in detail. For the period of observations with Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) or Mars Climate Sounder (MCS), we can also examine commensurate changes in atmospheric opacity, temperature and crudely track those in surface dust cover (for TES). These observations allow us to construct a "climatology" of large dust storms, which shows distinct families of dust storm types on the basis of the season and location of storm origin, replacing prior simplified descriptions of a single "dust storm season". We are also able to describe common transport and evolutionary pathways for storms, including very different behaviors of storms originating in the northern versus the southern mid- and high-latitudes. For some of the larger storms during Mars Years 24-26, we are also able to show how the storms modified the surface dust cover, and on what time scales and by what processes the surface dust distribution "recovers" to pre-storm conditions. The results from MOC and MARCI suggest that we have only just begun to collect enough data for a statistically-meaningful climatology of regional-scale storms, and that substantially longer time series would be needed to understanding the diversity and nature of the very largest, global-scale storms. A planned successor for MARCI is greatly needed for our prospects of adequately understanding these dust storm systems, not only for the current and past climate system dynamics, but also for the planning of future missions.

  6. Global, Daily, Near Real-Time Satellite-based Flood Monitoring and Product Dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slayback, D. A.; Policelli, F. S.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Tokay, M. M.; Smith, M. M.; Kettner, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Flooding is the most destructive, frequent, and costly natural disaster faced by modern society, and is expected to increase in frequency and damage with climate change and population growth. Some of 2013's major floods have impacted the New York City region, the Midwest, Alberta, Australia, various parts of China, Thailand, Pakistan, and central Europe. The toll of these events, in financial costs, displacement of individuals, and deaths, is substantial and continues to rise as climate change generates more extreme weather events. When these events do occur, the disaster management community requires frequently updated and easily accessible information to better understand the extent of flooding and better coordinate response efforts. With funding from NASA's Applied Sciences program, we developed and are now operating a near real-time global flood mapping system to help provide critical flood extent information within 24-48 hours of events. The system applies a water detection algorithm to MODIS imagery received from the LANCE (Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS) system at NASA Goddard within a few hours of satellite overpass. Using imagery from both the Terra (10:30 AM local time overpass) and Aqua (1:30 PM) platforms allows an initial daily assessment of flooding extent by late afternoon, and more robust assessments after accumulating cloud-free imagery over several days. Cloud cover is the primary limitation in detecting surface water from MODIS imagery. Other issues include the relatively coarse scale of the MODIS imagery (250 meters), the difficulty of detecting flood waters in areas with continuous canopy cover, confusion of shadow (cloud or terrain) with water, and accurately identifying detected water as flood as opposed to normal water extents. We have made progress on many of these issues, and are working to develop higher resolution flood detection using alternate sensors, including Landsat and various radar sensors. Although these provide better spatial resolution, this typically comes at the cost of being less timely. Since late 2011, this system has been providing daily flood maps of the global non-antarctic land surface. These data products are generated in raster and vector formats, and provided freely on our website. To better serve the disaster response community, we have recently begun providing the products via live OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) services, allowing easy access in a variety of platforms (Google Earth, desktop GIS software, mobile phone apps). We are also working with the Pacific Disaster Center to bring our product into their Disaster Alert system (including a mobile app), which will help simplify product distribution to the disaster management community.

  7. Daily global mapping of Mars ozone column abundances with MARCI UV band imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd Clancy, R.; Wolff, Michael J.; Lefèvre, Franck; Cantor, Bruce A.; Malin, Michael C.; Smith, Michael D.

    2016-03-01

    Since November of 2006, The Mars Color Imager (MARCI) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has obtained multiple-filter daily global images of Mars centered upon a local time (LT) of 3 pm. Ultraviolet imaging bands placed within (260 nm) and longward (320 nm) of Hartley band (240-300 nm) ozone (O3) absorption support retrievals of atmospheric ozone columns, with detection limits (∼1 μm-atm) appropriate to mapping elevated O3 abundances at low latitudes around Mars aphelion, and over mid-to-high latitudes during fall/winter/spring seasons. MARCI O3 maps for these regions reveal the detailed spatial (∼1° lat/long, for 8 × 8 pixel binned resolution) and temporal (daily, with substantial LT coverage at pole) behaviors of water vapor saturation conditions that force large variations in water vapor photolysis products (HOx-OH, HO2, and H) responsible for the catalytic destruction of O3 in the Mars atmosphere. A detailed description of the MARCI O3 data set, including measurement and retrieval characteristics, is provided in conjunction with comparisons to Mars Express SPICAM ozone measurements (Perrier, S. et al. [2006]. J. Geophys. Res. (Planets) 111) and LMD GCM simulated O3 abundances (Lefèvre, F. [2004]. J. Geophys. Res. (Planets) 109). Presented aspects of the MARCI ozone mapping data set include aphelion increases in low latitude O3, dynamically evolving high latitude O3 maxima associated with planetary waves and weather fronts during northern early spring, and distinctive winter/spring O3 and CO increases within the Hellas Basin associated with transport of condensation-enhanced south polar air mass. Comparisons of coincident MARCI measurements and LMD simulations for ice cloud and O3 columns are considered in the context of potential heterogeneous photochemical processes (Lefèvre, F. [2008]. Nature 454, 971-975), which are not strongly evidenced in the MARCI observations. Modest interannual variations are exhibited, most notably a 20% reduction in aphelion low latitude O3 columns following the 2007 perihelic global dust storm.

  8. A new perspective on recent global warming: Asymmetric trends of daily maximum and minimum temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Karl, T.R.; Knight, R.W.; Gallo, K.P.; Peterson, T.C. ); Jones, P.D. ); Kukla, G. ); Plummer, N. ); Razuvayev, V. ); Lindseay, J. ); Charlson, R.J. )

    1993-06-01

    In this work, it was concluded that monthly mean maximum and minimum temperatures for over 50% (10%) of the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere landmass, accounting for 37% of the global landmass, indicate that the rise of the minimum temperature has occurred at a rate three times that of the maximum temperature during the period 1951-90 (0.84[degrees]C versus 0.28[degrees]C). The decrease of the diurnal temperature range is approximately equal to the increase of mean temperature. The asymmetry is detectable in all seasons and in most of the regions studied. The decrease in the daily temperature range is partially related to increases in cloud cover. Furthermore, a large number of atmospheric and surface boundary conditions are shown to differentially affect the maximum and minimum temperature. Linkages of the observed changes in the diurnal temperature range to large-scale climate forcings, such as anthropogenic increases in sulfate aerosols, greenhouse gases, or biomass burning (smoke), remain tentative. Nonetheless, the observed decrease of the diurnal temperature range is clearly important, both scientifically and practically. 36 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Estimates and Measurements of Photosynthetically Active Radiation and Global Solar Irradiance in Rondonia

    SciTech Connect

    Aguiar, Leonardo J. G.; Costa, Jose M. N. da; Fischer, Graciela R.; Aguiar, Renata G.

    2009-03-11

    Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and global solar irradiance (R{sub s}) were made at a LBA (The Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia) experimental site, at Fazenda Nossa Senhora (10 deg. 45' S; 62 deg. 21' W), in Rondonia, in the years of 2004 and 2005, with the objective of estimating the seasonal variation of the ratio between the photosynthetically active radiation and the global solar irradiance. The relationship between PAR and R{sub s} were made by using linear regressions equations with data from year 2004 and tested with data from the year 2005. The seasonal variation of the ratio PAR/R{sub s} ranged from 0.43 (September) to 0.48 (January). The linear regression equations between PAR and R{sub s} obtained were: a) On an hourly basis: PAR 0.747+0.478*R{sub s},(R{sup 2} = 0.99; wet season) and PAR = -4.578+0.452*R{sub s}(R{sup 2} 0.99; dry season); b) On a daily basis: PAR = 4.956+0.466*R{sub s}(R{sup 2} = 0.99; wet season) and PAR = -6.762+0.457*R{sub s}(R{sup 2} = 0.96; dry season)

  10. Validating a Satellite Microwave Remote Sensing Based Global Record of Daily Landscape Freeze-Thaw Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimball, J. S.; Kim, Y.; McDonald, K. C.

    2012-12-01

    The freeze-thaw (FT) parameter from satellite microwave remote sensing quantifies the predominant landscape frozen or thawed state and is closely linked to surface energy budget and hydrologic activity, vegetation growth, terrestrial carbon budgets and land-atmosphere trace gas exchange. A global Earth System Data Record of daily landscape FT status (FT-ESDR) was developed using a temporal change classification of overlapping 37 GHz brightness temperature (Tb) series from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), and encompassing land areas where seasonal frozen temperatures influence ecosystem processes. A temporally consistent, long-term (>30 yr) FT record was created by ensuring cross-sensor consistency through pixel-wise adjustment of the SMMR Tb record based on empirical analyses of overlapping SMMR and SSM/I measurements. The FT-ESDR is designed to determine the FT status of the composite landscape vegetation-snow-soil medium with sufficient accuracy to characterize frozen temperature constraints to surface water mobility, vegetation productivity and land-atmosphere CO2 fluxes. A multi-tier validation scheme was applied using in situ temperature measurements, other satellite FT retrievals and synergistic biophysical data. These results are incorporated into the product metadata structure, including mean daily spatial classification accuracies and annual quality assessment (QA) maps accounting for landscape heterogeneity, algorithm limitations and sensor retrieval gaps. The resulting FT-ESDR shows mean annual spatial classification accuracies of 91 (+/-8.6) and 84 (+/-9.3) percent for PM and AM overpass retrievals. Accuracy is reduced during seasonal transition periods when FT heterogeneity is maximized within the relatively coarse (~25-km) satellite footprint. The QA rankings range from low (estimated accuracy <70%) to best (>90%) categories; mean annual QA results for the 1979-2011 period show relative proportions of the FT classification domain under Best (51%), Good (38%), Moderate (7%) and Low (4%) quality categories. Estimated FT-ESDR quality is reduced over complex terrain and dry climate areas where periodic wetting and drying strongly influence surface dielectric and Tb seasonal changes. These results are being used to inform development of an operational FT product for the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission. Portions of this work were conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  11. Modeling Biases of Mean Air Temperature Averaged from Daily Maximum and Minimum Temperatures over Global Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhijun; Wang, Kaicun

    2015-04-01

    The true monthly mean temperature is defined as the integral of the continuous temperature measurements in a month(Td0), which is apparently different from the average of the maximum and minimum temperatures(Td1). Unfortunately, Td1 instead of Td0 has been widely used as the monthly mean temperature, which is an indicator of climate change and input parameters of various models. It has already been proved in some researches that the bias between Td0 and Td1 (Tbias=Td1-Td0) can not be ignored, in someplace it could even be very large. It is in great urgent to replace Td1 with the true monthly mean temperature Td0 to eliminate the impacts of the inaccurate monthly mean temperature in related researches. However, Td0 cannot be obtained directly for the lack of the historical observed hourly air temperature. In our study, a Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) based method is created firstly by now to calculate Tbias with the predictor of day length, DTR (Diurnal Temperature Range) and Td1. Then the historical Td0 can be obtained further based on the relationship between Td1 and Td0. The method performs very well with a R-square surpassing 0.57, in arid or semi-arid areas the mean R-square exceeding 0.76. The mean relative importance of day length, Td1 and DTR is 52.8%, 26.3% and 20.9%, respectively. The method can accurately reproduce temporal and spatial variability of the bias of mean air temperature calculated from daily maximum and minimum temperatures (Tmax and Tmin). It can be applied globally to model its long term variability, and provide a new approach to Td0.

  12. Global horizontal irradiance clear sky models : implementation and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Hansen, Clifford W.; Reno, Matthew J.

    2012-03-01

    Clear sky models estimate the terrestrial solar radiation under a cloudless sky as a function of the solar elevation angle, site altitude, aerosol concentration, water vapor, and various atmospheric conditions. This report provides an overview of a number of global horizontal irradiance (GHI) clear sky models from very simple to complex. Validation of clear-sky models requires comparison of model results to measured irradiance during clear-sky periods. To facilitate validation, we present a new algorithm for automatically identifying clear-sky periods in a time series of GHI measurements. We evaluate the performance of selected clear-sky models using measured data from 30 different sites, totaling about 300 site-years of data. We analyze the variation of these errors across time and location. In terms of error averaged over all locations and times, we found that complex models that correctly account for all the atmospheric parameters are slightly more accurate than other models, but, primarily at low elevations, comparable accuracy can be obtained from some simpler models. However, simpler models often exhibit errors that vary with time of day and season, whereas the errors for complex models vary less over time.

  13. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-03-01

    This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer.

  14. Control of continuous irradiation injury on potatoes with daily temperature cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Bennett, S. M.; Cao, W.

    1990-01-01

    Two controlled-environment experiments were conducted to determine the effects of temperature fluctuations under continuous irradiation on growth and tuberization of two potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars, Kennebec and Superior. These cultivars had exhibited chlorotic and stunted growth under continuous irradiation and constant temperatures. The plants were grown for 4 weeks in the first experiment and for 6 weeks in the second experiment. Each experiment was conducted under continuous irradiation of 400 micromoles per square meter per second of photosynthetic photon flux and included two temperature treatments: constant 18 degrees C and fluctuating 22 degrees C/14 degrees C on a 12-hour cycle. A common vapor pressure deficit of 0.62 kilopascal was maintained at all temperatures. Plants under constant 18 degrees C were stunted and had chlorotic and abscised leaves and essentially no tuber formation. Plants grown under the fluctuating temperature treatment developed normally, were developing tubers, and had a fivefold or greater total dry weight as compared with those under the constant temperature. These results suggest that a thermoperiod can allow normal plant growth and tuberization in potato cultivars that are unable to develop effectively under continuous irradiation.

  15. Control of Continuous Irradiation Injury on Potatoes with Daily Temperature Cycling 1

    PubMed Central

    Tibbitts, Theodore W.; Bennett, Susan M.; Cao, Weixing

    1990-01-01

    Two controlled-environment experiments were conducted to determine the effects of temperature fluctuations under continuous irradiation on growth and tuberization of two potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars, Kennebec and Superior. These cultivars had exhibited chlorotic and stunted growth under continuous irradiation and constant temperatures. The plants were grown for 4 weeks in the first experiment and for 6 weeks in the second experiment. Each experiment was conducted under continuous irradiation of 400 micromoles per square meter per second of photosynthetic photon flux and included two temperature treatments: constant 18C and fluctuating 22C/14C on a 12-hour cycle. A common vapor pressure deficit of 0.62 kilopascal was maintained at all temperatures. Plants under constant 18C were stunted and had chlorotic and abscised leaves and essentially no tuber formation. Plants grown under the fluctuating temperature treatment developed normally, were developing tubers, and had a fivefold or greater total dry weight as compared with those under the constant temperature. These results suggest that a thermoperiod can allow normal plant growth and tuberization in potato cultivars that are unable to develop effectively under continuous irradiation. Images Figure 1 PMID:11537703

  16. Assessment and management of interfractional variations in daily diagnostic-quality-CT guided prostate-bed irradiation after prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Feng; Ahunbay, Ergun; Lawton, Colleen; Allen Li, X.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To quantify interfractional anatomic variations and limitations of the current practice of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for prostate-bed patients and to study dosimetric benefits of an online adaptive replanning scheme that addresses the interfractional variations. Methods: Contours for the targets and organs at risk (OARs) from daily diagnostic-quality CTs acquired with in-room CT (CTVision, Siemens) were generated by populating the planning contours using an autosegmentation tool based on deformable registration (ABAS, Elekta) with manual editing for ten prostate-bed patients treated with postoperative daily CT-guided IMRT. Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) obtained by maximizing the overlap of contours for a structure between the daily and plan contours was used to quantify the organ deformation between the plan and daily CTs. Three interfractional-variation-correction schemes, the current standard practice of IGRT repositioning, a previously developed online adaptive RT (ART), and the full reoptimization, were applied to these daily CTs and a number of dose-volume quantities for the targets and organs at risk were compared for their effectiveness to account for the interfractional variations. Results: Large interfractional organ deformations in prostate-bed irradiation were seen. The mean DSCs for CTV, rectum, and bladder were 86.6 ± 5.1% (range from 61% to 97%), 77.3% ± 7.4% (range from 55% to 90%), and 75.4% ± 11.2% (range from 46% to 96%), respectively. The fractional and cumulative dose-volume quantities for CTV and PTV: V100 (volume received at least 100% prescription dose), and rectum and bladder: V{sub 45Gy} and V{sub 60Gy} (volume received at least 45 or 60 Gy), were compared for the repositioning, adaptive, reoptimization, and original plans. The fractional and cumulative dosimetric results were nearly the same. The average cumulative CTV V100 were 88.0%, 98.4%, 99.2%, and 99.3% for the IGRT, ART, reoptimization, and original plans, respectively. The corresponding rectal V{sub 45Gy} (V{sub 60Gy}) were 58.7% (27.3%), 48.1% (20.7%), 43.8% (16.1%), and 44.9% (16.8%). The results for bladder were comparable among three schemes. Paired two-tailed Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were performed and it was found that ART and reoptimization provide better target coverage and better OAR sparing, especially rectum sparing. Conclusions: The interfractional organ motions and deformations during prostate-bed irradiation are significant. The online adaptive replanning scheme is capable of effectively addressing the large organ deformation, resulting in cumulative doses equivalent to those originally planned.

  17. A Global Record of Daily Landscape Freeze-Thaw Status from Satellite Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimball, J. S.; Kim, Y.; Colliander, A.; McDonald, K. C.

    2011-12-01

    The freeze-thaw (FT) parameter from satellite microwave remote sensing quantifies the predominant landscape frozen or thawed state and is closely linked to surface energy budget and hydrologic activity, seasonal vegetation growth dynamics and terrestrial carbon budgets. A global Earth System Data Record (ESDR) of daily landscape FT status (FT-ESDR) was developed using a temporal change classification of 37 GHz brightness temperature (Tb) series from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), and encompassing land areas where seasonal frozen temperatures influence ecosystem processes. A consistent, long-term (>30 yr) FT record was created by ensuring cross-sensor consistency through pixel-wise adjustment of the SMMR Tb record based on empirical analyses of overlapping SMMR and SSM/I measurements. The product is designed to determine the FT status of the composite landscape vegetation-snow-soil medium with sufficient accuracy to characterize frozen temperature constraints to surface water mobility, vegetation productivity and land-atmosphere CO2 fluxes. A multi-tier product validation is applied using in situ temperature and tower carbon flux measurements, and other satellite FT retrievals. The FT-ESDR record shows mean annual spatial classification accuracies of 91 (+/-8.6) and 84 (+/-9.3) percent for PM and AM overpass retrievals relative to surface air temperature measurements from global weather stations. Other comparisons against spatially dense temperature observations from an Alaska ecological transect reveal satellite sensor frequency dependence and variable FT sensitivity to surface air, vegetation, soil and snow properties. Other satellite sensor retrievals, including AMSR-E and SMOS show similar FT classification accuracies, but variable sensitivity to different landscape elements. Sensor FT classification differences reflect differences in microwave frequency, footprint resolution and satellite overpass timing. Herein we discuss FT-ESDR uncertainty issues, including satellite retrieval gaps, and coarse spatial and temporal sampling relative to landscape FT heterogeneity. We discuss plans for analyzing error sources related to FT-ESDR assembly, including uncertainties associated with remote sensing data, algorithms and cross-product harmonization. We also discuss plans for enhanced FT retrievals and uncertainty analyses, including data assimilation methods for merging synergistic data from multiple sensors and frequencies for improved FT classification accuracy and uncertainty assessment. The FT-ESDR documentation will include a detailed algorithm error budget and descriptions of associated product uncertainties, including detailed data quality flags for every grid cell. These activities support the proposed NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, which will provide operational FT products with L-band sensitivity and improved resolution of FT patterns and temporal dynamics. Portions of this work were conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  18. Variability of daily winter wind speed distribution over Northern Europe during the past millennium in regional and global climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierstedt, Svenja E.; Hünicke, Birgit; Zorita, Eduardo; Wagner, Sebastian; José Gómez-Navarro, Juan

    2016-02-01

    We analyse the variability of the probability distribution of daily wind speed in wintertime over Northern and Central Europe in a series of global and regional climate simulations covering the last centuries, and in reanalysis products covering approximately the last 60 years. The focus of the study lies on identifying the link of the variations in the wind speed distribution to the regional near-surface temperature, to the meridional temperature gradient and to the North Atlantic Oscillation. Our main result is that the link between the daily wind distribution and the regional climate drivers is strongly model dependent. The global models tend to behave similarly, although they show some discrepancies. The two regional models also tend to behave similarly to each other, but surprisingly the results derived from each regional model strongly deviates from the results derived from its driving global model. In addition, considering multi-centennial timescales, we find in two global simulations a long-term tendency for the probability distribution of daily wind speed to widen through the last centuries. The cause for this widening is likely the effect of the deforestation prescribed in these simulations. We conclude that no clear systematic relationship between the mean temperature, the temperature gradient and/or the North Atlantic Oscillation, with the daily wind speed statistics can be inferred from these simulations. The understanding of past and future changes in the distribution of wind speeds, and thus of wind speed extremes, will require a detailed analysis of the representation of the interaction between large-scale and small-scale dynamics.

  19. Reconstruction of six decades of daily total solar shortwave irradiation in the Iberian Peninsula using sunshine duration records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romn, Roberto; Bilbao, Julia; de Miguel, Argimiro

    2014-12-01

    Total global solar shortwave (G) irradiation and sunshine duration were recorded at nine Spanish stations located in the Iberian Peninsula. G irradiation under cloudless conditions was simulated by means of a radiative transfer model using satellite data as input. A method based on these cloudless simulations and sunshine duration records was developed to reconstruct G series. This model was validated against experimental data, providing a good agreement for cloudless skies (mean bias error of 0.4% and root mean square error of 5.8%). Monthly averages of modelled and measured G irradiation presented a mean bias error of 0.5% and a root mean square error of 3%. Differences between modelled and measured G irradiation were in agreement within the model uncertainties. The reconstruction model was applied to sunshine duration measurements, giving long-term G series at the nine locations. Monthly, seasonal, and annual G anomalies were calculated and analysed. Averaged series (using the nine locations) showed a statistically significant decrease in annual G from 1950 to the mid 1980s (-1.7%dc-1) together with a significant increase from the mid 1980s to 2011 (1.6%dc-1). The effect of uncertainty in the reconstructed series on statistically significant trends was studied.

  20. Global Horizontal Irradiance Anomalies in Long Term Series Over India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cony, Marco; Liria, Juan; Weisenberg, Ralf; Serrano, Enrique

    2014-05-01

    India has a high potential for solar energy applications due to its geographic position within the Sun Belt and the large number of cloudless days in many regions of the country. However, certain regions of India, particularly those largely populated, can exhibit large aerosol loading in the atmosphere as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions that could have a negative feedback in the solar resource potential. This effect, named as solar dimming, has already been observed in India, and in some other regions in the world, by some authors using ground data from the last two decades. The recent interest in the promotion of solar energy applications in India highlights the need of extending and improving the knowledge of the solar radiation resources in this country, since most of the long term measurements available correspond to global horizontal radiation (GHI) and most of them are also located big cities or highly populated areas. In addition, accurate knowledge on the aerosol column quantification and on its dynamical behavior with high spatial resolution is particularly important in the case of India, due to their impact on direct normal irradiation. Long term studies of solar irradiation over India can be performed using monthly means of GHI measurements from the Indian Meteorological Department. Ground data are available from 1964 till today through the World Radiation Data Centre that publish these values in the web. This work shows a long term analysis of GHI using anomalies techniques over ten different sites over India. Besides, techniques of linear trends have been applied for to show the evolution over this period. The analysis of anomalies has also found two periods of different behavior. From 1964 till 1988 the anomalies observed were positive and the last 20 years seems to be a period of negative anomalies. The results exhibit a decreasing trend and negative anomalies confirming thus the darkening effect already reported by solar dimming studies. This observation is also consequent with solar dimming effect, apparently increased during the last two decades due to the increase of aerosol loading in the atmosphere. These results remark the important of having accurate knowledge of atmospheric aerosol loading and its dynamics over India with high spatial resolution in the framework of solar energy deployment in the country. It is worth to mention that greater anomalies and a noticeable decreasing trend found in Calcutta could be correlated with the highly population rate, and thus the greater the population density of the area the greater the negative anomalies and the decreasing trend of solar irradiation monthly means.

  1. Optimal Normal Tissue Sparing in Craniospinal Axis Irradiation Using IMRT With Daily Intrafractionally Modulated Junction(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Kusters, Johannes M.A.M.; Louwe, Rob J.W.; Kollenburg, Peter G.M. van; Kunze-Busch, Martina C.; Gidding, Corrie E.M.; Lindert, Erik J. van; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Janssens, Geert O.R.J.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To develop a treatment technique for craniospinal irradiation using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with improved dose homogeneity at the field junction(s), increased target volume conformity, and minimized dose to the organs at risk (OARs). Methods and Materials: Five patients with high-risk medulloblastoma underwent CT simulation in supine position. For each patient, an IMRT plan with daily intrafractionally modulated junction(s) was generated, as well as a treatment plan based on conventional three-dimensional planning (3DCRT). A dose of 39.6 Gy in 22 daily fractions of 1.8 Gy was prescribed. Dose-volume parameters for target volumes and OARs were compared for the two techniques. Results: The maximum dose with IMRT was <107% in all patients. V{sub <95} and V{sub >107} were <1 cm{sup 3} for IMRT compared with 3-9 cm{sup 3} for the craniospinal and 26-43 cm{sup 3} for the spinal-spinal junction with 3DCRT. These observations corresponded with a lower homogeneity index and a higher conformity index for the spinal planning target volume with IMRT. IMRT provided considerable sparing of acute and late reacting tissues. V{sub 75} for the esophagus, gastroesophageal junction, and intestine was 81%, 81%, and 22% with 3DCRT versus 5%, 0%, and 1% with IMRT, respectively. V{sub 75} for the heart and thyroid was 42% and 32% vs. 0% with IMRT. Conclusion: IMRT with daily intrafractionally modulated junction results in a superior target coverage and junction homogeneity compared with 3DCRT. A significant dose reduction can be obtained for acute as well as late-reacting tissues.

  2. A general model for estimation of daily global solar radiation using air temperatures and site geographic parameters in Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mao-Fen; Fan, Li; Liu, Hong-Bin; Guo, Peng-Tao; Wu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of daily global solar radiation (Rs) from routinely measured temperature data has been widely developed and used in many different areas of the world. However, many of them are site specific. It is assumed that a general model for estimating daily Rs using temperature variables and geographical parameters could be achieved within a climatic region. This paper made an attempt to develop a general model to estimate daily Rs using routinely measured temperature data (maximum (Tmax, C) and minimum (Tmin, C) temperatures) and site geographical parameters (latitude (La, N), longitude (Ld, E) and altitude (Alt, m)) for Guizhou and Sichuan basin of southwest China, which was classified into the hot summer and cold winter climate zone. Comparison analysis was carried out through statistics indicators such as root mean squared error of percentage (RMSE%), modeling efficiency (ME), coefficient of residual mass (CRM) and mean bias error (MBE). Site-dependent daily Rs estimating models were calibrated and validated using long-term observed weather data. A general formula was then obtained from site geographical parameters and the better fit site-dependent models with mean RMSE% of 38.68%, mean MBE of 0.381 MJ m-2 d-1, mean CRM of 0.04 and mean ME value of 0.713.

  3. Evaluation of global horizontal irradiance to plane-of-array irradiance models at locations across the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lave, Matthew; Hayes, William; Pohl, Andrew; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2015-02-02

    We report an evaluation of the accuracy of combinations of models that estimate plane-of-array (POA) irradiance from measured global horizontal irradiance (GHI). This estimation involves two steps: 1) decomposition of GHI into direct and diffuse horizontal components and 2) transposition of direct and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) to POA irradiance. Measured GHI and coincident measured POA irradiance from a variety of climates within the United States were used to evaluate combinations of decomposition and transposition models. A few locations also had DHI measurements, allowing for decoupled analysis of either the decomposition or the transposition models alone. Results suggest that decomposition models had mean bias differences (modeled versus measured) that vary with climate. Transposition model mean bias differences depended more on the model than the location. Lastly, when only GHI measurements were available and combinations of decomposition and transposition models were considered, the smallest mean bias differences were typically found for combinations which included the Hay/Davies transposition model.

  4. Daily and Hourly Variability in Global Fire Emissions and Consequences for Atmospheric Model Predictions of Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mu, M.; Randerson, J. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Giglio, L.; Kasibhatla, P.; Morton, D.; Collatz, G. J.; DeFries, R. S.; Hyer, E. J.; Prins, E. M.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Wunch, D.; Toon, G. C.; Sherlock, V.; Wennberg, P. O.

    2011-01-01

    Attribution of the causes of atmospheric trace gas and aerosol variability often requires the use of high resolution time series of anthropogenic and natural emissions inventories. Here we developed an approach for representing synoptic- and diurnal-scale temporal variability in fire emissions for the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3). We distributed monthly GFED3 emissions during 2003-2009 on a daily time step using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived measurements of active fires from Terra and Aqua satellites. In parallel, mean diurnal cycles were constructed from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) active fire observations. We found that patterns of daily variability in fires varied considerably across different biomes, with short but intense periods of daily emissions in boreal ecosystems and lower intensity (but more continuous) periods of bunting in savannas. On diurnal timescales, our analysis of the GOES active fires indicated that fires in savannas, grasslands, and croplands occurred earlier in the day as compared to fires in nearby forests. Comparison with Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) column CO observations provided evidence that including daily variability in emissions moderately improved atmospheric model simulations, particularly during the fire season and near regions with high levels of biomass burning. The high temporal resolution estimates of fire emissions developed here may ultimately reduce uncertainties related to fire contributions to atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Important future directions include reconciling top-down and bottom up estimates of fire radiative power and integrating burned area and active fire time series from multiple satellite sensors to improve daily emissions estimates.

  5. Daily and 3-hourly Variability in Global Fire Emissions and Consequences for Atmospheric Model Predictions of Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mu, M.; Randerson, J. T.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Giglio, L.; Kasibhatla, P.; Morton, D.; Collatz, G. J.; DeFries, R. S.; Hyer, E. J.; Prins, E. M.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Wunch, D.; Toon, G. C.; Sherlock, V.; Wennberg, P. O.

    2011-01-01

    Attribution of the causes of atmospheric trace gas and aerosol variability often requires the use of high resolution time series of anthropogenic and natural emissions inventories. Here we developed an approach for representing synoptic- and diurnal-scale temporal variability in fire emissions for the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3). We disaggregated monthly GFED3 emissions during 2003.2009 to a daily time step using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ]derived measurements of active fires from Terra and Aqua satellites. In parallel, mean diurnal cycles were constructed from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) active fire observations. Daily variability in fires varied considerably across different biomes, with short but intense periods of daily emissions in boreal ecosystems and lower intensity (but more continuous) periods of burning in savannas. These patterns were consistent with earlier field and modeling work characterizing fire behavior dynamics in different ecosystems. On diurnal timescales, our analysis of the GOES WF_ABBA active fires indicated that fires in savannas, grasslands, and croplands occurred earlier in the day as compared to fires in nearby forests. Comparison with Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) column CO observations provided evidence that including daily variability in emissions moderately improved atmospheric model simulations, particularly during the fire season and near regions with high levels of biomass burning. The high temporal resolution estimates of fire emissions developed here may ultimately reduce uncertainties related to fire contributions to atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Important future directions include reconciling top ]down and bottom up estimates of fire radiative power and integrating burned area and active fire time series from multiple satellite sensors to improve daily emissions estimates.

  6. 33 Years of Near-Global Daily Precipitation from Multisatellite Observations and its Application to Drought Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashouri, H.; Hsu, K.; Sorooshian, S.; Braithwaite, D.; Knapp, K. R.; Cecil, L. D.

    2013-12-01

    PERSIANN Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR) is a new retrospective satellite-based precipitation data set that is constructed for long-term hydrological and climate studies. The PERSIANN-CDR is a near-global (60°S-60°N) long-term (1980-2012), multi-satellite, high-resolution precipitation product that provides rain rate estimates at 0.25° and daily spatiotemporal resolution. PERSIANN-CDR is aimed at addressing the need for a consistent, long-term, high resolution precipitation data set for studying the spatial and temporal variations and changes of precipitation patterns, particularly in a scale relevant to climate extremes at the global scale. PERSIANN-CDR is generated from the PERSIANN algorithm using GridSat-B1 infrared data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). PERSIANN-CDR is adjusted using the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly precipitation to maintain consistency of two data sets at 2.5° monthly scale throughout the entire reconstruction period. PERSIANN-CDR daily precipitation data demonstrates considerable consistency with both GPCP monthly and GPCP 1DD precipitation products. Verification studies over Hurricane Katrina show that PERSIANN-CDR has a good agreement with NCEP Stage IV radar data, noting that PERSIANN-CDR has better spatial coverage. In addition, the Probability Density Function (PDF) of PERSIANN-CDR over the contiguous United States was compared with the PDFs extracted from CPC gauge data and the TMPA precipitation product. The experiment also shows good agreement of the PDF of PERSIANN-CDR with the PDFs of TMPA and CPC gauge data. The application of PERSIANN-CDR in regional and global drought monitoring is investigated. Consisting of more than three decades of high-resolution precipitation data, PERSIANN-CDR makes us capable of long-term assessment of droughts at a higher resolution (0.25°) than previously possible. The results will be presented at the meeting.

  7. Analysis of daily, monthly, and annual burned area using the fourth-generation global fire emissions database (GFED4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giglio, Louis; Randerson, James T.; Werf, Guido R.

    2013-03-01

    Abstract We describe the fourth generation of the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Fire Emissions Database (GFED4) burned area data set, which provides <span class="hlt">global</span> monthly burned area at 0.25 spatial resolution from mid-1995 through the present and <span class="hlt">daily</span> burned area for the time series extending back to August 2000. We produced the full data set by combining 500 m MODIS burned area maps with active fire data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) family of sensors. We found that the <span class="hlt">global</span> annual area burned for the years 1997 through 2011 varied from 301 to 377Mha, with an average of 348Mha. We assessed the interannual variability and trends in burned area on the basis of a region-specific definition of fire years. With respect to trends, we found a gradual decrease of 1.7Mhayr - 1 ( - 1.4%yr - 1) in Northern Hemisphere Africa since 2000, a gradual increase of 2.3Mhayr - 1 (+1.8%yr - 1) in Southern Hemisphere Africa also since 2000, a slight increase of 0.2Mhayr - 1 (+2.5%yr - 1) in Southeast Asia since 1997, and a rapid decrease of approximately 5.5Mhayr - 1 ( - 10.7%yr - 1) from 2001 through 2011 in Australia, followed by a major upsurge in 2011 that exceeded the annual area burned in at least the previous 14 years. The net trend in <span class="hlt">global</span> burned area from 2000 to 2012 was a modest decrease of 4.3Mhayr - 1 ( - 1.2%yr - 1). We also performed a spectral analysis of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> burned area time series and found no vestiges of the 16 day MODIS repeat cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3874135','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3874135"><span id="translatedtitle">Age differences in emotional responses to <span class="hlt">daily</span> stress: The role of timing, severity, and <span class="hlt">global</span> perceived stress</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Scott, Stacey B.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Blanchard Fields, Fredda</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Research on age differences in emotional responses to <span class="hlt">daily</span> stress has produced inconsistent findings. Guided by recent theoretical advances in aging theory (Charles, 2010) that emphasize the importance of context for predicting when and how age is related to affective well-being, the current study examined age differences in emotional responses to everyday stressors. The present study examines how three contextual features (e.g., timing of exposure, stressor severity, <span class="hlt">global</span> perceived stress [GPS]) moderate age differences in emotional experience in an ecological momentary assessment study of adults aged 18–81 (N=190). Results indicated older adults’ negative affect (NA) was less affected by exposure to recent stressors than younger adults, but that there were no age differences in the effects of stressor exposure three to six hours afterward. Higher levels of GPS predicted amplified NA responses to <span class="hlt">daily</span> stress, and controlling for GPS eliminated age differences in NA responses to stressors. No age differences in NA responses as a function of stressor severity were observed. In contrast, older age was associated with less of a decrease in PA when exposed to recent stressors or with more severe recent stressors. There were no age differences in the effect of previous stressor exposure or severity on PA, nor any interactions between momentary or previous stress and GPS on PA. Together, these results support the notion that chronic stress plays a central role in emotional experience in <span class="hlt">daily</span> life. Implications of these results for emotion theories of aging are discussed. PMID:24364410</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.tmp..163M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.tmp..163M"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation as a function of routine meteorological data in Mediterranean areas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meza, Francisco Javier; Yebra, Mara Lorenzo</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Solar radiation is the main responsible of many processes of the biophysical environment. Temperature changes, snow melt dynamics, carbon sequestration, evaporation from soils, plants, and open water bodies are explained by the amount of radiation received in a surface. Lack of direct observations and insufficient record length limit the ability to use <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation information for resource use management and planning. Based on the general equation of Bristow and Campbell, we propose a modification that allows us to better represent atmospheric transmissivity as a function of routine meteorological variables and improve estimates of <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation in Mediterranean and semi arid areas. The improved Bristow-Campbell model (IBC) is easy to use in any location where measurements of temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity are available, and present a simple solution that can be used as proxy for relative humidity in case that variable is not been measured.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000021367&hterms=synchronous+generation+grid&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dsynchronous%2Bgeneration%2Bgrid','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000021367&hterms=synchronous+generation+grid&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dsynchronous%2Bgeneration%2Bgrid"><span id="translatedtitle">Incorporating TRMM and Other High-Quality Estimates into the One-Degree <span class="hlt">Daily</span> (1DD) <span class="hlt">Global</span> Precipitation Product</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Bolvin, David T.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The One-Degree <span class="hlt">Daily</span> (1DD) precipitation dataset was recently developed for the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). The IDD provides a <span class="hlt">globally</span>-complete, observation-only estimate of precipitation on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> 1 deg x 1 deg grid for the period 1997 through late 1999 (by the time of the conference). In the latitude band 40 N - 40 S the IDD uses the Threshold-Matched Precipitation Index (TMPI), a GPI-like IR product with the T(sub b) threshold and (single) conditional rain rate determined locally for each month by the frequency of precipitation in the GPROF SSNU product and by the precipitation amount in the GPCP satellite-gauge (SG) combination. Outside 40 N - 40 S the 1DD uses a scaled TOVS precipitation estimate that has adjustments based on the TMPI and the SG. This first-generation 1DD has been in beta test preparatory to release as an official GPCP product. In this paper we discuss further development of the 1DD framework to allow the direct incorporation of TRMM and other high-quality precipitation estimates. First, these data are generally sparse (typically from low-orbit satellites), so a fair amount of work was devoted to data boundaries. Second, these data are not the same as the original 1DD estimates, so we had to give careful consideration to the best scheme for forcing the 1DD to sum to the SG for the month. Finally, the non-sun-synchronous, low-inclination orbit occupied by TRMM creates interesting variations against the sun-synchronous, high-inclination orbits occupied by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program satellites that carry the SSM/I. Examples will be given of each of the development issues, then comparisons will be made to <span class="hlt">daily</span> raingauge analyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.4806S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.4806S"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparative analysis of CMIP3 and CMIP5 <span class="hlt">global</span> climate models for simulating the <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures and <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation over China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Qiaohong; Miao, Chiyuan; Duan, Qingyun</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>This study assesses the simulations of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures and <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation over China during the period 1990-1999, based on phase 3 and phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3 and CMIP5). Fourteen CMIP3 models and 14 CMIP5 models were investigated over eight regions across China. Skill scores quantifying the match between the simulated and observed probability density functions (PDFs) were applied to evaluate the performance of the models. For <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures, the results revealed that CMIP3 and CMIP5 models captured the basic pattern of the observed PDFs in all regions. However, the probabilities at lower values were overestimated in most models. In all regions except the west of Northwest China (region 7), all CMIP5 models captured more than 80% of the observed PDFs. Compared with performance at the annual time scale, the models tended to perform relatively worse over the period June to August. The performances of the CMIP5 and CMIP3 models were not as good for <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation as for <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature, and the skill scores for precipitation were generally lower than 0.7 in all regions. The amount of drizzle (<span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation < 5 mm) was overestimated notably in all regions. The amount of very heavy precipitation (<span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation ? 20 mm) tended to be underestimated in humid regions but overestimated in arid regions. Compared with CMIP3, CMIP5 models showed some improvements in the simulation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures, but there was a lack of apparent improvement for simulation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920055252&hterms=ca+19-9&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dca%2B19-9','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920055252&hterms=ca+19-9&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dca%2B19-9"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> estimates of the earth's pole position with the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Positioning System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lindqwister, Ulf J.; Freedman, Adam P.; Blewitt, Geoffrey</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> estimates of the earth's pole position have been obtained with measurements from a worldwide network of GPS receivers, obtained during the three week GIG '91 experiment in January-February 1991. For this short-term study, the GPS based polar motion series agrees with the other space based geodetic techniques (Very Long Baseline Interferometry and Satellite Laser Ranging) to about 0.4 mas rms, after the removal of mean biases of order 1-3 mas. The small error in day-to-day variability is not sensitive to the fiducial strategy used, nor are fiducial sites even necessary for monitoring high frequency pole position variability. The small biases indicate that the applied reference frames of the three geodetic techniques are nearly aligned, that the GPS fiducial errors are small, and that systematic errors in GPS are also small (of order 5 ppb). A well determined reference frame is necessary for monitoring the long-term stability of polar motion and for separating it from other long-term signals such as tectonic motion and internal systematic errors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4139R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4139R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> surface mass time variations by using a two-step inversion for cumulating <span class="hlt">daily</span> satellite gravity information</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramillien, Guillaume; Frappart, Frappart; Seoane, Lucia</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>We propose a new method to produce time series of <span class="hlt">global</span> maps of surface mass variations by progressive integration of <span class="hlt">daily</span> geopotential variations measured by orbiting satellites. In the case of the GRACE mission (2002 - 2012), these geopotential variations can be determined from very accurate inter-satellite K-Band Range Rate (KBRR) measurements of 5-second <span class="hlt">daily</span> orbits. In particular, the along-track gravity contribution of hydrology is extracted by removing de-aliasing models for static field, atmosphere, oceans mass variations (including periodical tides), as well as polar movements. Our determination of surface mass sources consists of two successive dependent Kalman filter stages. The first one consists of reducing the satellite-based potential anomalies by adjusting the longest spatial wavelengths (i.e., low-degree spherical harmonics less than 5-6). In the second stage, the residual potential anomalies from the previous stage are used to recover surface mass density changes - in terms of Equivalent-Water Height (EWH) - over a <span class="hlt">global</span> network of juxtaposed triangular elements. These surface tiles of ~40,000 km x km are imposed to be identical and homogeneously-distributed over the terrestrial sphere, however they can be adapted to the local geometry of the surface mass. Our <span class="hlt">global</span> approach was tested by inverting simulated hydrology-related geopotential data, and successfully applied to estimate time-varying surface mass densities from real GRACE-based residuals. This strategy of combined Kalman filter-type inversions can also be useful for exploring the possibility of reaching better time and space resolutions for hydrology, that would be hopefully brought by future low altitude geodetic missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E1359K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E1359K"><span id="translatedtitle">Sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> periodicities in the results of local monitoring using <span class="hlt">global</span> navigation satellite systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kaftan, Vladimir; Ustinov, Alexander</p> <p></p> <p>Nowadays the more attention is focused on the continuous monitoring by using of <span class="hlt">global</span> navigation satellite systems (GNSS) in the study and control of stability of engineering structures and natural objects. The diurnal and semi-diurnal oscillations take place in high frequency GNSS observation. These waves are caused by the presence of the high frequency periodicities in changes of all geospheres, but also in systematic errors of GNSS techniques. Thus the diurnal variations are already found in the coordinates of <span class="hlt">global</span> and regional networks of CORS stations. They are often related with the influence of Earth's diurnal tides. The purpose of this study is to examine the periodic variations in coordinate increments of local monitoring networks of engineering structures and the earth's surface. But in this case the tidal changes have a small influence because of the relative proximity of the network control points. Results of static GNSS observations in the local network with the control vectors baselines from 170 m to 4.3 km of length were used for the analysis of periodicities. The hourly time series of baseline components of the length of two months were analyzed. Three qualitatively different methods were applied: wavelet transformation (Morlet wavelet function), fast Fourier transformation (FFT), and sequential analysis of the dominant harmonics (dominant analysis) for the more sure detection of hidden periodicities. The results of determination of oscillation spectrum were obtained by the three methods mentioned above. For all baselines their good mutual agreement were obtained. Diurnal and semi-diurnal waves are mainly and the most vividly appeared in the horizontal components, in the heights component there are also other periodicity of the high and low frequencies. The oscillations amplitude reaches 4 mm. It is necessary to clarify the nature of the observed oscillations, which will be the main subject of the following more detailed studies. It is important, since the cause of the detected periodic oscillations can be the real changes, such as temperature deformation of engineering structures as well as the changes connected with the influence of systematic errors of GNSS measurements for example. The obtained results lead to the following conclusions. - In the results of GNSS geodynamic monitoring of engineering structures and objects on the earth surface the stable oscillatory components with periods of 1 and 0.5 days, and amplitudes up to 4 mm are found. - Further analysis of the reasons of identified oscillations that may be caused by the real change of monitored objects and as well as systematic errors of measurement GNSS is required.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JHyd..480...46S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JHyd..480...46S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> cross-station assessment of neuro-fuzzy models for estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> reference evapotranspiration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shiri, Jalal; Nazemi, Amir Hossein; Sadraddini, Ali Ashraf; Landeras, Gorka; Kisi, Ozgur; Fard, Ahmad Fakheri; Marti, Pau</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>SummaryAccurate estimation of reference evapotranspiration is important for irrigation scheduling, water resources management and planning and other agricultural water management issues. In the present paper, the capabilities of generalized neuro-fuzzy models were evaluated for estimating reference evapotranspiration using two separate sets of weather data from humid and non-humid regions of Spain and Iran. In this way, the data from some weather stations in the Basque Country and Valencia region (Spain) were used for training the neuro-fuzzy models [in humid and non-humid regions, respectively] and subsequently, the data from these regions were pooled to evaluate the generalization capability of a general neuro-fuzzy model in humid and non-humid regions. The developed models were tested in stations of Iran, located in humid and non-humid regions. The obtained results showed the capabilities of generalized neuro-fuzzy model in estimating reference evapotranspiration in different climatic zones. <span class="hlt">Global</span> GNF models calibrated using both non-humid and humid data were found to successfully estimate ET0 in both non-humid and humid regions of Iran (the lowest MAE values are about 0.23 mm for non-humid Iranian regions and 0.12 mm for humid regions). non-humid GNF models calibrated using non-humid data performed much better than the humid GNF models calibrated using humid data in non-humid region while the humid GNF model gave better estimates in humid region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002IJSE...22..115M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002IJSE...22..115M"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of an innovative sensor for measuring <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, and sunshine duration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Muneer, Tariq; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wood, John</p> <p>2002-03-01</p> <p>Delta-T Device Limited of Cambridge, UK have developed an integrated device which enables simultaneous measurement of horizontal <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> as well as sunshine status at any given instance in time. To evaluate the performance of this new device, horizontal <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> data were simultaneously collected from Delta-T device and Napier University's CIE First Class daylight monitoring station. To enable a cross check a Kipp & Zonen CM11 <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> sensor has also been installed in Currie, south-west Edinburgh. Sunshine duration data have been recorded at the Royal Botanical Garden, Edinburgh using their Campbell-Stokes recorder. Hourly data sets were analysed and plotted within the Microsoft Excel environment. Using the common statistical measures, Root Mean Square Difference (RMSD) and Mean Bias Difference (MBD) the accuracy of measurements of Delta-T sensor's horizontal <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, and sunshine duration were investigated. The results show a good performance on the part of Delta-T device for the measurement of <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. The sunshine measurements were found to have a lack of consistency and accuracy. It is argued herein that the distance between the respective sensors and the poor accuracy of Campbell-Stokes recorder may be contributing factors to this phenomenon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38..137W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38..137W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> product derived from SCIAMACHY FRESCO cloud fraction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Ping; Stammes, Piet; Mller, Richard</p> <p></p> <p>The FRESCO cloud retrieval algorithm has been developed as a simple but fast and efficient algorithm for GOME and SCIAMACHY (Koelemeijer et al., 2001; Fournier et al., 2006; Wang et al., 2008). FRESCO employs the O2 A band at 760 nm to retrieve the effective cloud fraction and cloud pressure using a simple Lambertian cloud model. The effective cloud fraction is a combination of geometric cloud fraction and cloud optical thickness, which yield the same reflectance at the top of the atmosphere as the cloud in the scene. It is well-known that clouds reduce the surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. Therefore the all-sky <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> can be derived from the clear-sky <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> with a scaling factor related to the cloud index. The cloud index is very similar to the effective cloud fraction by definition. The MAGIC (Mesoscale Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Code) software converts the cloud index to the surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> using the Heliosat method (Mueller et al. 2009). The MAGIC algorithm is also used by the CM-SAF surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> product for clear sky cases. We applied the MAGIC software to FRESCO effective cloud fraction with slight modifications. In this presentation we will show the FRESCO-SSI monthly mean product and the comparison with the BSRN <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> data at Cabauw, the Netherlands and surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurement at Tibetan plateau in China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800007301','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800007301"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> calibration of terrestrial reference cells and errors involved in using different <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> monitoring techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Curtis, H. B.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The feasibility of <span class="hlt">global</span> calibration of terrestrial reference cells is discussed. A simple, accurate 'secondary' calibration technique based on ratios of test to reference cell currents measured in natural sunlight is described. Different techniques for monitoring incident <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> during solar cell performance measurements are also examined and assessed, including the techniques of black-body detectors, calibrated reference cells, and the convolution of spectral response with solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1235343-evaluation-global-horizontal-irradiance-plane-array-irradiance-models-locations-across-united-states','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1235343-evaluation-global-horizontal-irradiance-plane-array-irradiance-models-locations-across-united-states"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of <span class="hlt">global</span> horizontal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> to plane-of-array <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> models at locations across the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Lave, Matthew; Hayes, William; Pohl, Andrew; Hansen, Clifford W.</p> <p>2015-02-02</p> <p>We report an evaluation of the accuracy of combinations of models that estimate plane-of-array (POA) <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> from measured <span class="hlt">global</span> horizontal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (GHI). This estimation involves two steps: 1) decomposition of GHI into direct and diffuse horizontal components and 2) transposition of direct and diffuse horizontal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (DHI) to POA <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. Measured GHI and coincident measured POA <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> from a variety of climates within the United States were used to evaluate combinations of decomposition and transposition models. A few locations also had DHI measurements, allowing for decoupled analysis of either the decomposition or the transposition models alone. Results suggest that decompositionmore » models had mean bias differences (modeled versus measured) that vary with climate. Transposition model mean bias differences depended more on the model than the location. Lastly, when only GHI measurements were available and combinations of decomposition and transposition models were considered, the smallest mean bias differences were typically found for combinations which included the Hay/Davies transposition model.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HESSD..1211549E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HESSD..1211549E"><span id="translatedtitle">Combining satellite observations to develop a <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> soil moisture product for a wide range of applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Enenkel, M.; Reimer, C.; Dorigo, W.; Wagner, W.; Pfeil, I.; Parinussa, R.; De Jeu, R.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The soil moisture dataset that is generated via the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) of the European Space Agency (ESA) (ESA CCI SM) is a popular research product. It is composed of observations from nine different satellites and aims to exploit the individual strengths of active (radar) and passive (radiometer) sensors, thereby providing surface soil moisture estimates at a spatial resolution of 0.25°. However, the annual updating cycle limits the use of the ESA CCI SM dataset for operational applications. Therefore, this study proposes an adaptation of the ESA CCI processing chain for <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> updates via satellite-derived near real-time (NRT) soil moisture observations. In order to extend the ESA CCI SM dataset from 1978 to present we use NRT observations from the Advanced SCATterometer on-board the MetOp satellites and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 on-board GCOM-W. Since these NRT observations do not incorporate the latest algorithmic updates, parameter databases, and intercalibration efforts, by nature they offer a lower quality than reprocessed offline datasets. Our findings indicate that, despite issues in arid regions, the new "CCI NRT" dataset shows a good correlation with ESA CCI SM. The average <span class="hlt">global</span> correlation coefficient between CCI NRT and ESA CCI SM (Pearson's R) is 0.8. An initial validation with 40 in-situ observations in France, Kenya, Senegal and Kenya yields an average R of 0.58 and 0.49 for ESA CCI SM and CCI NRT respectively. In summary, the CCI NRT dataset is getting ready for operational use, supporting applications such as drought and flood monitoring, weather forecasting or agricultural applications.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7931K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7931K"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation extremes in a <span class="hlt">global</span> climate model with super-parameterization under CO2 warming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khairoutdinov, Marat; Zhou, Xin</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Virtually all of the projections for future change of extreme precipitation statistics under CO2 warming have been made using <span class="hlt">global</span> climate models (GCMs) in which clouds and, in particular, convective cloud systems are not explicitly resolved, but rather parameterized. In our study, a different kind of a GCM, a super-parameterized Community Atmosphere Model (SP-CAM), is employed. In SP-CAM, all the conventional cloud parameterizations are replaced with a small-domain cloud resolving model (CRM), called super-parameterization (SP). The SP is embedded in each grid column of the host GCM. The resolution of each embedded CRM is 4 km, which is generally sufficient to explicitly represent deep convection, which is mostly responsible for extreme precipitation events. In this study, we use the SP-CAM to contrast to the present and to conventional climate model, CAM, the sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> extreme precipitation statistics in response to the sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) and CO2 levels as projected for the end of 21st century in response to the IPCC AR5 RCP8.5 emission scenario. Different mechanisms for extreme precipitation changes are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JASTP.134..109S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JASTP.134..109S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation prediction from air temperatures using kernel extreme learning machine: A case study for Iran</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Mohammadi, Kasra; Chen, Hui-Ling; Narayana Samy, Ganthan; Petković, Dalibor; Ma, Chao</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Lately, the kernel extreme learning machine (KELM) has gained considerable importance in the scientific area due to its great efficiency, easy implementation and fast training speed. In this paper, for the first time the potential of KELM to predict the <span class="hlt">daily</span> horizontal <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation from the maximum and minimum air temperatures (Tmax and Tmin) is appraised. The effectiveness of the proposed KELM method is evaluated against the grid search based support vector regression (SVR), as a robust methodology. Three KELM and SVR models are developed using different input attributes including: (1) Tmin and Tmax, (2) Tmin and Tmax-Tmin, and (3) Tmax and Tmax-Tmin. The achieved results reveal that the best predictions precision is achieved by models (3). The achieved results demonstrate that KELM offers favorable predictions and outperforms the SVR. For the KELM (3) model, the obtained statistical parameters of mean absolute bias error, root mean square error, relative root mean square error and correlation coefficient are 1.3445 MJ/m2, 2.0164 MJ/m2, 11.2464% and 0.9057%, respectively for the testing data. As further examination, a month-by-month evaluation is conducted and found that in six months from May to October the KELM (3) model provides further accuracy than overall accuracy. Based upon the relative root mean square error, the KELM (3) model shows excellent capability in the period of April to October while in the remaining months represents good performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.2254S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.2254S"><span id="translatedtitle">Error analysis of <span class="hlt">global</span> satellite precipitation products using <span class="hlt">daily</span> gauged observations over the upper central Blue Nile Basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sahlu, Dejene; Moges, Semu; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Hailu, Dereje</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Water resource assessment, planning and management in Africa are often constrained due to lack of reliable spatio-temporal rainfall data. Satellite and <span class="hlt">global</span> reanalysis products are steadily growing and offering useful alternative datasets of rainfall <span class="hlt">globally</span>. Aim of this paper is to examine the error characteristics of the main available <span class="hlt">global</span> satellite precipitation products with the view to improve the reliability of wet season (June to September) rainfall datasets over the upper Blue Nile Basin in Ethiopia. The study utilized six satellite derived precipitation datasets at 0.25-deg spatial grid size and <span class="hlt">daily</span> temporal resolution:1) the near real-time (3B42_RT) and gauge adjusted (3B42_V7) products of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), 2) gauge adjusted and unadjusted Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN) products and 3) the gauge adjusted and un-adjusted product of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Prediction Center Morphing technique (CMORPH) over the period of 2000 to 2013. The historical <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall data sets are chosen for the same period from 64 gauging stations which are within a mountainous area of about 45,000 km2. The elevation of gauges used in this error study ranged from 1800 to 3000 meters above sea level. The error analysis utilized statistical techniques of missed rainfall volume fraction (MRV), falsely detected rainfall volume fraction (FRV), mean relative error (MRE), bias ratio (Bias), coefficient of variation of error (CVE) and the trends of the error metrics with respect to elevation. The three error metrics, MRE, Bias and CVE are further examined for five rainfall thresholds associated with different percentile categories (2nd, 20th, 50th, 80th and 98th) . Results show that CMORPH has relatively lower MRV (~1.5 %) than the TRMM and PERSIANN products (10 -13 %.). Non-gauge adjusted PERSIANN gave slightly higher percentage of FRV (13%) than the other satellite rainfall products (10 to 11 %). Among the six satellite rainfall products only adjusted PERSIANN overestimated gauge precipitation whereas, adjusted CMORPH exhibited relatively better estimation bias (0.92) followed by 3B42_V7 (0.85), 3B42_RT (0.78), non-adjusted CMORPH (0.77) and adjusted-PERSIANN (0.76). Bias showed increase underestimation with increase in rainfall threshold for all rainfall products. The results from coefficient of variation of error statistics also showed higher spreads of error for adjusted PERSIANN (CVE=2.2). The other five products gave CVE between1.25 and 1.39 whereas, the non-adjusted CMORPH gave the lowest error spread (CVE=1.25). The spread of the errors is negative correlated to rainfall magnitude. Generally, no significant relationship is observed between gauge rainfall elevation and the error metrics. We have observed that among the six satellite rainfall products the adjusted CMORPH has relatively better potential to improve rainfall estimate over the region. However, for higher rainfall amounts, particularly above the 50th percentile threshold non-adjusted PERSIANN performed better than the others.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE..84S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE..84S"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of direct to diffuse partitioning of <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at the radiometric station in Badajoz (Spain)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sanchez, G.; Cancillo, M. L.; Serrano, A.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>This study is aimed at the analysis of the partitioning of <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> into its direct and diffuse components at the radiometric station in Badajoz (Spain). The detailed knowledge of the solar radiation field is of increasing interest in Southern Europe due to its use as renewable energy. In particular, the knowledge of the solar radiation partitioning into direct and diffuse radiation has become a major demand for the design and suitable orientation of solar panels in solar power plants. In this study the first measurements of solar diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> performed in the radiometric station in Badajoz (Spain) are presented and analyzed in the framework of the partitioning of solar <span class="hlt">global</span> radiation. Thus, solar <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> were measured at one-minute basis from 23 November 2009 to 31 March 2010. Solar <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> were measured by two Kipp&Zonen CMP11 pyranometers, using a Kipp&Zonen CM121 shadow ring for the measurements of solar diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. Diffuse measurements were corrected from the solid angle hidden by the ring and direct <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> was calculated as the difference between <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse measurements. <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> was obtained from the pyranomenters by applying calibration coefficients obtained in an inter-comparison campaign performed at INTA/El Arenosillo, in Huelva (Spain), last September 2009. There, calibration coefficients were calculated using as a reference a CMP11 pyranometer which had been previously calibrated by the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos/World Radiation Centre in Switzerland. In order to study the partitioning of the solar radiation, the <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> have been analyzed for three typical different sky conditions: cloud-free, broken clouds and overcast. Particular days within the period of study have been selected by visual inspection. Along with the analysis of the <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> themselves, ratios of these <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> to the downward <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at the top of the atmosphere have also been analyzed. Several interesting features have been found. It is particularly worth to note the decreasing relative contribution of the direct component to the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> as the solar zenith angle increases, due to a longer path crossed within the atmosphere. In broken clouds and overcast conditions, the diffuse component becomes the major contribution to the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> being the high-frequency variability the main difference between both type of cases. While in overcast conditions the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> remains remarkably low, under broken clouds the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> shows a very high variability frequently reaching values higher than the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at the top of the atmosphere, due to multi-reflection phenomenon. The present study contributes to a better knowledge of the radiation field and its partitioning, involving original high-frequency measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdSR...12..147B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdSR...12..147B"><span id="translatedtitle">UV and <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements and analysis during the Marsaxlokk (Malta) campaign</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bilbao, J.; Romn, R.; Yousif, C.; Mateos, D.; de Miguel, A.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>A solar radiation measurement campaign was performed in the south-eastern village of Marsaxlokk (3550' N; 1433' E; 10 m a.s.l), Malta, between 15 May and 15 October 2012. Erythemal solar radiation data (from a UVB-1 pyranometer), and total horizontal solar radiation (<span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse components) from two CM21 pyranometer were recorded. A comparison of atmospheric compounds from ground measurements and satellites shows that TOC (total ozone column) data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument OMI, TOMS and DOAS algorithms correlate well with ground-based recorded data. The water vapour column and the aerosol optical depth at 550 nm show a significant correlation at the confidence level of 99 %. Parametric models for evaluating the solar UV erythemal (UVER), <span class="hlt">global</span> (G) and diffuse (D) horizontal <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> are calibrated, from which aerosol effects on solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> are evaluated using the Aerosol Modification Factor (AMF). The AMFUVER values are lower than AMFG, indicating a greater aerosol effect on UVER than on <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. In this campaign, several dust event trajectories are identified by means of the HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model and by synoptic conditions for characterizing desert dust events. Hence, changes in the UV index due to atmospheric aerosols are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25438991','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25438991"><span id="translatedtitle">Time-course study of different innate immune mediators produced by UV-<span class="hlt">irradiated</span> skin: comparative effects of short and <span class="hlt">daily</span> versus a single harmful UV exposure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cela, Eliana M; Friedrich, Adrian; Paz, Mariela L; Vanzulli, Silvia I; Leoni, Juliana; González Maglio, Daniel H</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The modulatory effects of solar UV radiation on the immune system have been widely studied. As the skin is the main target of UV radiation, our purpose was to compare the impact on skin innate immunity of two contrasting ways to be exposed to sunlight. Hairless mice were UV <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> with a single high UV dose simulating a harmful exposure, or with repetitive low UV doses simulating short occasional <span class="hlt">daily</span> exposures. Skin samples were taken at different times after UV <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> to evaluate skin histology, inflammatory cell recruitment, epidermal T-cell population and the mitochondrial function of epidermal cells. The transcriptional profiles of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, antimicrobial peptides and Toll-like receptors were evaluated by RT-PCR and ELISA in tissue homogenates. Finally, a lymphangiography was performed to assess modification in the lymphatic vessel system. A single high UV dose produces a deep inflammatory state characterized by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that, in turn, induces the recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages into the <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> area. On the other hand, repetitive low UV doses drive the skin to a photo-induced alert state in which there is no sign of inflammation, but the epithelium undergoes changes in thickness, the lymphatic circulation increases, and the transcription of antimicrobial peptides is induced. PMID:25438991</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5005147','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5005147"><span id="translatedtitle">Splenic <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> in the treatment of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia or myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia. Results of <span class="hlt">daily</span> and intermittent fractionation with and without concomitant hydroxyurea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wagner, H. Jr.; McKeough, P.G.; Desforges, J.; Madoc-Jones, H.</p> <p>1986-09-15</p> <p>Seventeen patients with either chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) or myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MMM) received 24 courses of splenic <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> at this institution from 1973 to 1982. Eleven of the 17 patients had received prior chemotherapy. Patients were treated with /sup 60/Co gamma rays or 6 MV photons. The fraction size ranged from 15 to 100 rad and the total dose per treatment course from 15 to 650 rad, with the exception of one patient who received 1650 rad. Fourteen of 19 courses (71%) given for splenic pain yielded significant subjective relief while 17 of 26 courses given for splenomegaly obtained at least 50% regression of splenic size. Blood counts were carefully monitored before each treatment to limit hematologic toxicity. From this experience, the authors conclude that splenic <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> effectively palliates splenic pain and reverses splenomegaly in the majority of patients with CML and MMM. Intermittent fractionation (twice or thrice weekly) is more convenient for the patient, appears to be as effective as <span class="hlt">daily</span> treatment, and may be associated with less hematologic toxicity. Preliminary results of concurrent treatment with splenic <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> and oral hydroxyurea show promise and warrant further study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010081063','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010081063"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative Assessment of the Integrated Response in <span class="hlt">Global</span> Heat and Moisture Budgets to Changing Solar <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>White, Warren B.; Cayan, Daniel R.; Dettinger, Michael; Sharber, James (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Earlier, we found time sequences of basin- and <span class="hlt">global</span>-average upper ocean temperature (that is, diabatic heat storage above the main pycnocline) for 40 years from 1955-1994 and of sea surface temperature for 95 years from 1900-1994 associated with changes in the Sun's radiative forcing on decadal and interdecadal timescales, lagging by 10 deg.- 30 deg. of phase and confined to the upper 60-120 m. Yet, the observed changes in upper ocean temperature (approx. 0.1 K) were approximately twice those expected from the Stefan-Boltzmann black-body radiation law for the Earth's surface, with phase lags (0 deg. to 30 deg. of phase) much shorter than the 90 deg. phase shift expected as well. Moreover, White et al. (1997, 1998) found the Earth's <span class="hlt">global</span> decadal mode in covarying SST and SLP anomalies phase locked to the decadal signal in the Sun's <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. Yet, Allan (2000) found this decadal signal also characterized by patterns similar to those observed on biennial and interannual time scales; that is, the Troposphere Biennial Oscillation (TBO) and the El Nino and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This suggested that small changes in the Sun's total <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> could excite this <span class="hlt">global</span> decadal mode in the Earth's ocean-atmosphere-terrestrial system similar to those excited internally on biennial and interannual period scales. This is a significant finding, proving that energy budget models (that is, models based on <span class="hlt">globally</span>-averaged radiation balances) yield unrealistic responses. Thus, the true response must include positive and negative feedbacks in the Earth's ocean-atmosphere-terrestrial system as its internal mode (that is, the natural mode of the system) respond in damped resonance to quasi-periodic decadal changes in the Sun's <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. Moreover, these responses are not much different from those occurring internally on biennial and interannual period scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22450998','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22450998"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> effects, stem cell genes and rare transcripts in the planarian transcriptome.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Galloni, Mireille</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Stem cells are the closest relatives of the totipotent primordial cell, which is able to spawn millions of daughter cells and hundreds of cell types in multicellular organisms. Stem cells are involved in tissue homeostasis and regeneration, and may play a major role in cancer development. Among animals, planarians host a model stem cell type, called the neoblast, which essentially confers immortality. Gaining insights into the <span class="hlt">global</span> transcriptional landscape of these exceptional cells takes an unprecedented turn with the advent of Next Generation Sequencing methods. Two Digital Gene Expression transcriptomes of Schmidtea mediterranea planarians, with or without neoblasts lost through <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>, were produced and analyzed. Twenty one bp NlaIII tags were mapped to transcripts in the Schmidtea and Dugesia taxids. Differential representation of tags in normal versus <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> animals reflects differential gene expression. Canonical and non-canonical tags were included in the analysis, and comparative studies with human orthologs were conducted. Transcripts fell into 3 categories: invariant (including housekeeping genes), absent in <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> animals (potential neoblast-specific genes, IRDOWN) and induced in <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> animals (potential cellular stress response, IRUP). Different mRNA variants and gene family members were recovered. In the IR-DOWN class, almost all of the neoblast-specific genes previously described were found. In <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> animals, a larger number of genes were induced rather than lost. A significant fraction of IRUP genes behaved as if transcript versions of different lengths were produced. Several novel potential neoblast-specific genes have been identified that varied in relative abundance, including highly conserved as well as novel proteins without predicted orthologs. Evidence for a large body of antisense transcripts, for example regulated antisense for the Smed-piwil1 gene, and evidence for RNA shortening in <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> animals is presented. Novel neoblast-specific candidates include a peroxiredoxin protein that appears to be preferentially expressed in human embryonic stem cells. PMID:22450998</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23899474','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23899474"><span id="translatedtitle">Improvement of domain wall conduit properties in cobalt nanowires by <span class="hlt">global</span> gallium <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Serrano-Ramón, L; Fernández-Pacheco, A; Córdoba, R; Magén, C; Rodríguez, L A; Petit, D; Cowburn, R P; Ibarra, M R; De Teresa, J M</p> <p>2013-08-30</p> <p>Applications based on the movement of domain walls (DWs) in magnetic nanowires (NWs) require a good DW conduit behavior, i.e. a significant difference between DW nucleation and propagation fields. In this work, we have systematically studied how this property evolves in cobalt NWs grown by focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) as a function of <span class="hlt">global</span> gallium <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>, for <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> doses up to 1.24 × 10(17) ions cm(-2). Whereas for high doses the DW conduit is lost, below 6.42 × 10(15) ions cm(-2) the difference between the two fields increases with <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>, becoming up to ∼9 times larger than for non-<span class="hlt">irradiated</span> wires, due to a strong increase in the nucleation field, while the propagation field remains approximately constant. This behavior stems from two effects. The first effect is a decrease in the magnetic volume of the parasitic halo around the NW, typically present in FEBID nanostructures, leading to the disappearance of weak nucleation centers. The second effect is the formation of a 20 nm outer shell with Co crystals about twice the size of those forming the NW core, causing a net increase of the local magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The results presented here are important for the potential use of magnetic NWs grown by FEBID in DW-based devices, and might also be of interest for magnetic NWs fabricated by other techniques. PMID:23899474</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=215288','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=215288"><span id="translatedtitle">Measures of <span class="hlt">daily</span> distribution patterns of cow calf pairs using <span class="hlt">global</span> positioning systems on both cows and calves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>GPS collars were used to describe the <span class="hlt">daily</span> distribution patterns of cows and their calves from 18 to 60 days postpartum on pinyon juniper-shortgrass rangeland in central New Mexico. Eighteen, 3 year old cows and their calves were fitted weekly with GPS collars for seven consecutive weeks. Twenty da...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5513457','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5513457"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar total <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variations and the <span class="hlt">global</span> sea surface temperature record</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reid, G.C. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder )</p> <p>1991-02-20</p> <p>The record of <span class="hlt">globally</span> averaged sea surface temperature (SST) over the past 130 years shows a highly significant correlation with the envelope of the 11-year cycle of solar activity over the same period. This correlation could be explained by a variation in the sun's total <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (the solar constant) that is in phase with the solar-cycle envelope, supporting and updating an earlier conclusion by Eddy (1976) that such variations could have played a major role in climate change over the past millennium. Measurements of the total <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> from spacecraft, rockets, and balloons over the past 25 years have provided evidence of long-term variations and have been used to develop a simple linear relationship between <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and the envelope of the sunspot cycle. This relationship has been used to force a one-dimensional model of the thermal structure of the ocean, consisting of a 100-m mixed layer coupled to a deep ocean and including a thermohaline circulation. The model was started in the mid-seventeenth century, at the time of the Maunder Minimum of solar activity, and mixed-layer temperatures were calculated at 6-month intervals up to the present. The total range of <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> values during the period was about 1%, and the total range of SST was about 1C. Cool periods, when temperatures were about 0.5C below present-day values, were found in the early decades of both the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The results can be taken as indicating that solar variability has been an important contributor to <span class="hlt">global</span> climate variations in recent decades. The growing atmospheric burden of greenhouse gases may well have played an important role in the immediate past.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3113959','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3113959"><span id="translatedtitle">Image guidance using 3D-ultrasound (3D-US) for <span class="hlt">daily</span> positioning of lumpectomy cavity for boost <span class="hlt">irradiation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Purpose The goal of this study was to evaluate the use of 3D ultrasound (3DUS) breast IGRT for electron and photon lumpectomy site boost treatments. Materials and methods 20 patients with a prescribed photon or electron boost were enrolled in this study. 3DUS images were acquired both at time of simulation, to form a coregistered CT/3DUS dataset, and at the time of <span class="hlt">daily</span> treatment delivery. Intrafractional motion between treatment and simulation 3DUS datasets were calculated to determine IGRT shifts. Photon shifts were evaluated isocentrically, while electron shifts were evaluated in the beam's-eye-view. Volume differences between simulation and first boost fraction were calculated. Further, to control for the effect of change in seroma/cavity volume due to time lapse between the 2 sets of images, interfraction IGRT shifts using the first boost fraction as reference for all subsequent treatment fractions were also calculated. Results For photon boosts, IGRT shifts were 1.1 0.5 cm and 50% of fractions required a shift >1.0 cm. Volume change between simulation and boost was 49 31%. Shifts when using the first boost fraction as reference were 0.8 0.4 cm and 24% required a shift >1.0 cm. For electron boosts, shifts were 1.0 0.5 cm and 52% fell outside the dosimetric penumbra. Interfraction analysis relative to the first fraction noted the shifts to be 0.8 0.4 cm and 36% fell outside the penumbra. Conclusion The lumpectomy cavity can shift significantly during fractionated radiation therapy. 3DUS can be used to image the cavity and correct for interfractional motion. Further studies to better define the protocol for clinical application of IGRT in breast cancer is needed. PMID:21554697</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A11H0188E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A11H0188E"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal and geographical variation of Linke turbidity factor and its effect on <span class="hlt">global</span> horizontal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> estimation: UAE case study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eissa, Y. A.; Ghedira, H.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>In a clear-sky condition, solar radiation travelling through the Earth's atmosphere encounters atmospheric attenuation caused by several factors. Scattering of solar radiation is mainly caused by air molecules, water vapor, water droplets and dust. On the other hand, the absorption of solar radiation is usually related to the presence of O3, water vapor and CO2 layers in the upper atmosphere. Linke turbidity factor (TL) is commonly used to model the attenuation of solar radiation in the atmosphere. TL is the key parameter used in the Heliosat model, which is developed to estimate the <span class="hlt">global</span> horizontal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (GHI) at the surface of the earth. TL is calculated by the following equation: T_L=?/?_R where ? is the optical thickness of the whole atmosphere, and ?R is the optical thickness of the Rayleigh atmosphere, i.e. the clear and dry atmosphere. The problem with TL is its dependence on the air mass (m). Therefore, TL is normalized to an air mass of 2 in order to reduce the <span class="hlt">daily</span> variance. In this study, the monthly TL(m=2) is computed over 7 ground-based stations available in the UAE (figure 1). Spatial and temporal analysis was performed to assess the seasonal and the geographical distribution of TL over the UAE. The computed TL(m=2) values are then applied in the Heliosat model to compare between the measured and modeled GHI values. The model treats the atmospheric and cloud transmittances separately. First, clear-sky direct normal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (DNI) and diffused horizontal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (DHI) values are computed using TL(m=2), solar zenith angle, air mass, sun-earth distance correction, solar constant and the Rayleigh optical depth, from that the clear-sky GHI is determined. Next, the cloud index is derived from the HRV channel available from the SEVIRI instrument, and from that the cloud transmission is computed. The product of the cloud transmission and the clear-sky GHI produces the modeled GHI. The comparison between TL calculated over the seven stations show higher turbidity for the 4 inland stations (stations 4-7) in the summer compared to coastal and near-coastal stations (stations 1-3). This difference could be explained by the high dust generation in desert areas surrounding inland stations, in summer dry and hot weather. A preliminary comparison has been performed between the modeled and the measured GHI values over four inland stations (stations 4-7). The obtained results show RMSE and r2 values ranging between 16.7-18% and 0.95-0.96, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012HESS...16..983S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012HESS...16..983S"><span id="translatedtitle">Selecting the optimal method to calculate <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> reference potential evaporation from CFSR reanalysis data for application in a hydrological model study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sperna Weiland, F. C.; Tisseuil, C.; Drr, H. H.; Vrac, M.; van Beek, L. P. H.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Potential evaporation (PET) is one of the main inputs of hydrological models. Yet, there is limited consensus on which PET equation is most applicable in hydrological climate impact assessments. In this study six different methods to derive <span class="hlt">global</span> scale reference PET <span class="hlt">daily</span> time series from Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) data are compared: Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor and original and re-calibrated versions of the Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle method. The calculated PET time series are (1) evaluated against <span class="hlt">global</span> monthly Penman-Monteith PET time series calculated from CRU data and (2) tested on their usability for modeling of <span class="hlt">global</span> discharge cycles. A major finding is that for part of the investigated basins the selection of a PET method may have only a minor influence on the resulting river flow. Within the hydrological model used in this study the bias related to the PET method tends to decrease while going from PET, AET and runoff to discharge calculations. However, the performance of individual PET methods appears to be spatially variable, which stresses the necessity to select the most accurate and spatially stable PET method. The lowest root mean squared differences and the least significant deviations (95% significance level) between monthly CFSR derived PET time series and CRU derived PET were obtained for a cell-specific re-calibrated Blaney-Criddle equation. However, results show that this re-calibrated form is likely to be unstable under changing climate conditions and less reliable for the calculation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> time series. Although often recommended, the Penman-Monteith equation applied to the CFSR data did not outperform the other methods in a evaluation against PET derived with the Penman-Monteith equation from CRU data. In arid regions (e.g. Sahara, central Australia, US deserts), the equation resulted in relatively low PET values and, consequently, led to relatively high discharge values for dry basins (e.g. Orange, Murray and Zambezi). Furthermore, the Penman-Monteith equation has a high data demand and the equation is sensitive to input data inaccuracy. Therefore, we recommend the re-calibrated form of the Hargreaves equation which <span class="hlt">globally</span> gave reference PET values comparable to CRU derived values for multiple climate conditions. The resulting gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> PET time series provide a new reference dataset that can be used for future hydrological impact assessments in further research, or more specifically, for the statistical downscaling of <span class="hlt">daily</span> PET derived from raw GCM data. The dataset can be downloaded from <a href ="http://opendap.deltares.nl/thredds/dodsC/opendap/deltares/FEWS-IPCC"target="_blank">http://opendap.deltares.nl/thredds/dodsC/opendap/deltares/FEWS-IPCC</a>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711143B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711143B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> and diffuse solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> modelling over north-western Europe using MAR regional climate model : validation and construction of a 30-year climatology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beaumet, Julien; Doutreloup, Sbastien; Fettweis, Xavier; Erpicum, Michel</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> modelling is crucial for solar resource management, photovoltaic production forecasting and for a better integration of solar energy in the electrical grid network. For those reasons, an adapted version of the Modle Atmospheric Regional (MAR) is being developed at the Laboratory of Climatology of the University of Lige in order to provide high quality modelling of solar radiation, wind and temperature over north-western Europe. In this new model version, the radiation scheme has been calibrated using solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> in-situ measurements and CORINE Land Cover data have been assimilated in order to improve the modelling of 10 m wind speed and near-surface temperature. In this study, MAR is forced at its boundary by ERA-40 reanalysis and its horizontal resolution is 10 kilometres. Diffuse radiation is estimated using <span class="hlt">global</span> radiation from MAR outputs and a calibrated version of Ruiz-Arias et al., (2010) sigmoid model. This study proposes to evaluate the method performance for <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse radiation modelling at both the hourly and <span class="hlt">daily</span> time scale using data from the European Solar Radiation Atlas database for the weather stations of Uccle (Belgium) and Braunschweig (Germany). After that, a 30-year climatology of <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> for the 1981-2010 period over western Europe is built. The created data set is then analysed in order to highlight possible regional or seasonal trends. The validity of the results is then evaluated after comparison with trends found in in-situ data or from different studies from the literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1215755S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1215755S"><span id="translatedtitle">The vital role of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> aerosol and trace gas monitoring: a satellite perspective highlighting OMI and GOME-2 analysis of Eyjafjallajökull emissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stein Zweers, D.; Stammes, P.; Tuinder, O.; van der A, R.; Tilstra, G.; Boersma, F.; Dirksen, R.; Veefkind, P.; Levelt, P. F.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The enormous social and economic impact caused by the ash cloud disruption of Western European air travel underscore the need for accurate, near-real time, <span class="hlt">global</span> measurements of aerosol and trace gases. OMI and GOME-2 instruments provide <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> coverage of a variety of trace gases and aerosol parameters. Measurements of the presence of ash, aerosol optical thickness, and concentrations of SO2 from these satellites as well as spectral data showing UV absorption by the ash from SCIAMACHY provided important information about the location of the plumes and the plume evolution. The near-real time data provided from these instruments within three hours of satellite overpass were used to inform the KNMI meteorologists to verify forecasts that helped determine safe boundaries for air travel. This work brings to light the need to further develop measurement networks with the capacity to quickly coordinate and synthesize satellite measurements of volcanic ash clouds with model output and ground-based observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMIN31A3706K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMIN31A3706K"><span id="translatedtitle">Improvements and Extension to a <span class="hlt">Global</span> Earth System Data Record of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Landscape Freeze-Thaw Status Determined from Satellite Microwave Remote Sensing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Y.; Kimball, J. S.; Du, J.; Glassy, J. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">global</span> satellite microwave Earth System Data Record of <span class="hlt">daily</span> landscape freeze-thaw status (FT-ESDR) has been commonly used to quantify cold temperature impacts on productivity, phenology, evapotranspiration and the terrestrial carbon cycle. Overlapping 37 GHz, vertically polarized brightness temperature (Tb) measurements from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) were integrated to produce a temporally consistent and continuous <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">daily</span> FT data record from 1979 to 2012 and derived at 25-km pixel resolution. In this study, we develop and evaluate FT-ESDR enhancements, including expanded record length and spatial coverage, alternate algorithm calibrations, and a finer scale FT classification. A larger <span class="hlt">global</span> domain is evaluated that encompasses all land areas affected by seasonally frozen temperatures, including urban, snow-ice dominant, barren, and permafrost landscapes. The FT retrieval is obtained using a seasonal threshold algorithm (STA) that classifies <span class="hlt">daily</span> Tb changes in relation to frozen and non-frozen Tb reference states on a per-pixel basis. STA sensitivity to FT reference states is evaluated and alternative ancillary data are applied for defining Tb reference conditions, including surface temperatures from <span class="hlt">global</span> reanalysis and MODIS land surface temperature (LST) seasonal climatology. The resulting FT record shows mean annual spatial classification accuracies of 92 and 86 percent for PM and AM overpass retrievals relative to in-situ temperature measurements. Despite the larger domain and longer record, the new FT-ESDR showed a 1-3 percent spatial classification accuracy improvement over previous FT-ESDR versions. Areas with enhanced accuracy include the Central USA, Central Asia, and North and Central Europe. Sub-grid land surface spatial heterogeneity effects on the aggregate FT retrievals are also assessed to refine FT-ESDR data quality metrics. The results of this study are being applied for continuing FT-ESDR production and utility enhancements, and to inform development of similar FT algorithms and products from the NASA SMAP mission. This study was funded under the NASA MEaSUREs program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1714d0002V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1714d0002V"><span id="translatedtitle">Correlation between total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and <span class="hlt">global</span> land temperatures for the last 120 years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Varonov, A.; Shopov, Y. Y.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>We analyze the solar impact on one of the main Earth climate system components—the land-near-surface air temperature—during the past 120 years. Using statistical analysis, a correlation between the variations of the total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and of the annual-mean land-near-surface air temperatures was found. An unknown time lag between both data sets was expected to be present due to the complexity of the Earth's climate system leading to a delayed response to changes in influencing factors. We found the best correlation with coefficient over 90% for a 14-year shift of the annual mean land temperature record ahead with data before 1970, while the same comparison with data until 2006 yields 61% correlation. These results show the substantially higher influence of the total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on the <span class="hlt">global</span> land temperatures before 1970. The decline of this influence during the last 40 years could be attributed to the increasing concentration of anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmRe.153..209V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmRe.153..209V"><span id="translatedtitle">Stochastic model to describe atmospheric attenuation from yearly <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vindel, J. M.; Polo, J.; Zarzalejo, L. F.; Ramrez, L.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>A new stochastic model to describe atmospheric attenuation from yearly <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> has been developed and implemented. The proposed model takes into account the consideration that the whole of all attenuating elements can be thought of as a population where the higher the number of individuals the lesser the clearness index. Thus, the inverse of the clearness index is considered as the variable of a stochastic process. From the proposed master equation as starting point, the new model is characterized by transition rates (assessed from a growing parameter - G - and a decreasing parameter - D) which depend mainly on the climatological characteristics at each location. In this sense, different regions with an attenuation level calculated from the yearly <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> have been established using the Kppen-Geiger climate classification as a first approach. The model parameters G and D have been determined for different regions using the inverse of the clearness index as variable. The probability density function obtained after the application of the stochastic model for each climate zone shows how the index mode increases from the zones with lower levels of attenuation to those with higher levels of attenuation. This result confirms the proposed null hypothesis related to the use of the inverse of the clearness index as an attenuation population indicator. The fit between the empirical data and the data provided for the model is good enough according to a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test with a significance level of 0.05. Nevertheless, it is necessary to slightly modify the climate zones of Kppen-Geiger initial classification for a better explanation of the atmospheric attenuation. This climate zones modification can be considered as an additional result.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..99..508B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..99..508B"><span id="translatedtitle">Total ozone column, water vapour and aerosol effects on erythemal and <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> in Marsaxlokk, Malta</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bilbao, Julia; Román, Roberto; Yousif, Charles; Mateos, David; de Miguel, Argimiro</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Observations of erythemal (UVER; 280-400 nm) and total solar shortwave <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (SW; 305-2800 nm), total ozone column (TOC), water vapour column (w), aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent (α) were carried out at Marsaxlokk, in south-east Malta. These measurements were recorded during a measurement campaign between May and October 2012, aimed at studying the influence of atmospheric compounds on solar radiation transfer through the atmosphere. The effects of TOC, AOD and w on UVER and SW (<span class="hlt">global</span>, diffuse and direct) <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> were quantified using <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> values under cloud-free conditions at different fixed solar zenith angles (SZA). Results show that UVER (but not SW) <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> correlates well with TOC. UVER variations ranged between -0.24% DU-1 and -0.32% DU-1 with all changes being statistically significant. <span class="hlt">Global</span> SW <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> varies with water vapour column between -2.44% cm-1 and -4.53% cm-1, these results proving statistically significant and diminishing when SZA increases. The <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variations range between 42.15% cm-1 and 20.30% cm-1 for diffuse SW when SZA varies between 20° and 70°. The effect of aerosols on <span class="hlt">global</span> UVER is stronger than on <span class="hlt">global</span> SW. Aerosols cause a UVER reduction of between 28.12% and 52.41% and a <span class="hlt">global</span> SW reduction between 13.46% and 41.41% per AOD550 unit. Empirical results show that solar position plays a determinant role, that there is a negligible effect of ozone on SW radiation, and stronger attenuation by aerosol particles in UVER radiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ClDy...22..183M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ClDy...22..183M"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of the variability and extremes of <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall during the Indian summer monsoon for present and future times in a <span class="hlt">global</span> time-slice experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>May, W.</p> <p></p> <p>In this study the simulation of the variability and extremes of <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall during the Indian summer monsoon for the present-day and the future climate is investigated. This is done on the basis of a <span class="hlt">global</span> time-slice experiment (TSL) with the ECHAM4 atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) at a high horizontal resolution of T106. The first time-slice (period: 1970-1999) represents the present-day climate and the second (2060-2089) the future climate. Moreover, observational rainfall data from the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP, 1997-2002) and rainfall data from the ECMWF re-analysis (ERA, 1958-2001) are considered. ERA reveals serious deficiencies in its representation of the variability and extremes of <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall during the Indian summer monsoon. These are mainly a severe overestimation of the frequency of wet days over the oceans and in the Himalayas, where also the rainfall intensity is overestimated. Further, ERA shows unrealistically heavy rainfall events over the tropical Indian Ocean. The ECHAM4 atmospheric GCM at a horizontal resolution of T106, on the other hand, simulates the variability and extremes of <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall in good agreement with the observations. The only marked deficiencies are an underestimation of the rainfall intensity on the west coast of the Indian peninsula and in Bangladesh, an overestimation over the tropical Indian Ocean, due to an erroneous northwestward extension of the tropical convergence zone, and an overestimation of the frequency of wet days in Tibet. Further, heavy rainfall events are relatively strong in the centre of the Indian peninsula. For the future, TSL predicts large increases in the rainfall intensity over the tropical Indian Ocean as well as in northern Pakistan and northwest India, but decreases in southern Pakistan, in the centre of the Indian peninsula, and over the western part of the Bay of Bengal. The frequency of wet days is markedly increased over the tropical Indian Ocean and decreased over the northern part of the Arabian Sea and in Tibet. The intensity of heavy rainfall events is generally increased in the future, with large increases over the Arabian Sea and the tropical Indian Ocean, in northern Pakistan and northwest India as well as in northeast India, Bangladesh, and Myanmar.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS31E1776E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS31E1776E"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrating Research on <span class="hlt">Global</span> Climate Change and Human Use of the Oceans: a Geospatial Method for <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Monitoring of Sea Ice and Ship Traffic in the Arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eucker, W.; McGillivary, P. A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>One apparent consequence of <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change has been a decrease in the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice more rapidly than models have predicted, while Arctic ship traffic has likewise increased beyond economic predictions. To ensure representative observations of changing climate conditions and human use of the Arctic Ocean, we concluded a method of tracking <span class="hlt">daily</span> changes in both sea ice and shipping in the Arctic Ocean was needed. Such a process improves the availability of sea ice data for navigational safety and allows future developments to be monitored for understanding of ice and shipping in relation to policy decisions appropriate to optimize sustainable use of a changing Arctic Ocean. The impetus for this work was the 2009 Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment (AMSA) which provided baseline data on Arctic ship traffic. AMSA was based on responses from circumpolar countries, was manpower intensive, and took years to compile. A more timely method of monitoring human use of the Arctic Ocean was needed. To address this, a method of monitoring sea ice on a scale relevant to ship-navigation (<10km) was developed and implemented in conjunction with arctic ship tracking using S-AIS (Satellite Automatic Identification Systems). S-AIS is internationally required on ships over a certain size, which includes most commercial vessels in the Arctic Ocean. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> AIS and sea ice observations were chosen for this study. Results of this method of geospatial analysis of the entire arctic are presented for a year long period from April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2011. This confirmed the dominance of European Arctic ship traffic. Arctic shipping is maximal during August and diminishes in September with a minimum in winter, although some shipping continues year-round in perennially ice-free areas. Data are analyzed for the four principal arctic quadrants around the North Pole by season for number and nationality of vessels. The goal of this study was not merely to monitor ship traffic and ice conditions concurrently, but also to demonstrate a new method of ocean monitoring based on <span class="hlt">daily</span> assimilation, data fusion, and integrated visualization of satellite ice remote sensing data and S-AIS ship data. In the future, as Arctic ship traffic and cryosphere sea ice cover variability are both expected to increase, this method can provide near real-time physical data on <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change and human dimensions of ocean use of to guide policies addressing arctic resource management, Search and Rescue (SAR) operations, oil spill response, and issues such as ship noise impacts on marine mammals, and whale-ship collision avoidance. An internationally agreed implementation of this methodology would benefit ships operating in the Arctic and advance sustainable use of the Arctic Ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22149558','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22149558"><span id="translatedtitle">External Beam Accelerated Partial-Breast <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> Using 32 Gy in 8 Twice-<span class="hlt">Daily</span> Fractions: 5-Year Results of a Prospective Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pashtan, Itai M.; Recht, Abram; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Brachtel, Elena; Abi-Raad, Rita F.; D'Alessandro, Helen A.; Levy, Antonin; Wo, Jennifer Y.; Hirsch, Ariel E.; Kachnic, Lisa A.; Goldberg, Saveli; Specht, Michelle; Gadd, Michelle; Smith, Barbara L.; Powell, Simon N.; Taghian, Alphonse G.</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Purpose: External beam accelerated partial breast <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> (APBI) is an increasingly popular technique for treatment of patients with early stage breast cancer following breast-conserving surgery. Here we present 5-year results of a prospective trial. Methods and Materials: From October 2003 through November 2005, 98 evaluable patients with stage I breast cancer were enrolled in the first dose step (32 Gy delivered in 8 twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> fractions) of a prospective, multi-institutional, dose escalation clinical trial of 3-dimensional conformal external beam APBI (3D-APBI). Median age was 61 years; median tumor size was 0.8 cm; 89% of tumors were estrogen receptor positive; 10% had a triple-negative phenotype; and 1% had a HER-2-positive subtype. Median follow-up was 71 months (range, 2-88 months; interquartile range, 64-75 months). Results: Five patients developed ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), for a 5-year actuarial IBTR rate of 5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1%-10%). Three of these cases occurred in patients with triple-negative disease and 2 in non-triple-negative patients, for 5-year actuarial IBTR rates of 33% (95% CI, 0%-57%) and 2% (95% CI, 0%-6%; P<.0001), respectively. On multivariable analysis, triple-negative phenotype was the only predictor of IBTR, with borderline statistical significance after adjusting for tumor grade (P=.0537). Conclusions: Overall outcomes were excellent, particularly for patients with estrogen receptor-positive disease. Patients in this study with triple-negative breast cancer had a significantly higher IBTR rate than patients with other receptor phenotypes when treated with 3D-APBI. Larger, prospective 3D-APBI clinical trials should continue to evaluate the effect of hormone receptor phenotype on IBTR rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3565032','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3565032"><span id="translatedtitle">Baseline Disability in Activities of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Living Predicts Dementia Risk Even After Controlling for Baseline <span class="hlt">Global</span> Cognitive Ability and Depressive Symptoms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fauth, Elizabeth B.; Schwartz, Sarah; Tschanz, JoAnn T.; stbye, Truls; Corcoran, Christopher; Norton, Maria C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Objectives Late-life disability in Activities of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Living (ADL) is theorized to be driven by underlying cognitive and/or physical impairment, interacting with psychological and environmental factors. While we expect that cognitive deficits would explain associations between ADL disability and dementia risk, the current study examined ADL as a predictor of future dementia after controlling for <span class="hlt">global</span> cognitive status. Methods The population-based Cache County Memory Study (CCMS; N=3547) assessed individuals in four triennial waves (average age 74.9, years of education 13.36; 57.9% were women). Cox proportional hazards regression models assessed whether baseline ADL disability (presence of 2+ Instrumental ADL and/or 1+ Personal ADL) predicted incident dementia after controlling for APOE status, gender, age, baseline cognitive ability (Modified Mini-mental State Exam, 3MS-R; adjusted for education level), and baseline depressive symptoms (Diagnostic Interview Schedule). Results Over the course of study, 571 cases of incident dementia were identified through in-depth cognitive assessment, ending in expert consensus diagnosis. Results from Cox models suggest that ADL disability is a statistically significant predictor of incident dementia (adjusted Hazard Ratio=1.83, p<.001), even after controlling for covariate. Conclusions Findings suggest that ADL disability offers unique contributions in risk for incident dementia, even after controlling for <span class="hlt">global</span> cognitive status. We discuss how physical impairment and executive function may play important roles in this relationship, and how ADL is useful, not just a diagnostic tool at, or after dementia onset, but as a risk factor for future dementia, even in individuals not impaired on <span class="hlt">global</span> cognitive tests. PMID:22968965</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4029700','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4029700"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial Estimation of Sub-Hour <span class="hlt">Global</span> Horizontal <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Based on Official Observations and Remote Sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gutierrez-Corea, Federico-Vladimir; Manso-Callejo, Miguel-Angel; Moreno-Regidor, María-Pilar; Velasco-Gómez, Jesús</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This study was motivated by the need to improve densification of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Horizontal <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> (GHI) observations, increasing the number of surface weather stations that observe it, using sensors with a sub-hour periodicity and examining the methods of spatial GHI estimation (by interpolation) with that periodicity in other locations. The aim of the present research project is to analyze the goodness of 15-minute GHI spatial estimations for five methods in the territory of Spain (three geo-statistical interpolation methods, one deterministic method and the HelioSat2 method, which is based on satellite images). The research concludes that, when the work area has adequate station density, the best method for estimating GHI every 15 min is Regression Kriging interpolation using GHI estimated from satellite images as one of the input variables. On the contrary, when station density is low, the best method is estimating GHI directly from satellite images. A comparison between the GHI observed by volunteer stations and the estimation model applied concludes that 67% of the volunteer stations analyzed present values within the margin of error (average of ±2 standard deviations). PMID:24732102</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21350412','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21350412"><span id="translatedtitle">Validation of the NSRDB-SUNY <span class="hlt">global</span> horizontal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> in California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nottrott, Anders; Kleissl, Jan</p> <p>2010-10-15</p> <p>Satellite derived <span class="hlt">global</span> horizontal solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (GHI) from the SUNY modeled dataset in the National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) was compared to measurements from 27 weather stations in California during the years 1998-2005. The statistics of spatial and temporal differences between the two datasets were analyzed and related to meteorological phenomena. Overall mean bias errors (MBE) of the NSRDB-SUNY indicated a GHI overprediction of 5%, which is smaller than the sensor accuracy of ground stations. However, at coastal sites, year-round systematic positive MBEs in the NSRDB-SUNY data up to 18% were observed and monthly MBEs increased up to 54% in the summer months during the morning. These differences were explained by a tendency for the NSRDB-SUNY model to overestimate GHI under cloudy conditions at the coast during summer mornings. A persistent positive evening MBE which was independent of site location and cloudiness occurred at all stations and was explained by an error in the time-shifting method applied in the NSRDB-SUNY. A correction method was derived for these two errors to improve the accuracy of the NSRDB-SUNY data in California. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24732102','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24732102"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial estimation of sub-hour <span class="hlt">Global</span> Horizontal <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> based on official observations and remote sensors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gutierrez-Corea, Federico-Vladimir; Manso-Callejo, Miguel-Angel; Moreno-Regidor, Mara-Pilar; Velasco-Gmez, Jess</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This study was motivated by the need to improve densification of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Horizontal <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> (GHI) observations, increasing the number of surface weather stations that observe it, using sensors with a sub-hour periodicity and examining the methods of spatial GHI estimation (by interpolation) with that periodicity in other locations. The aim of the present research project is to analyze the goodness of 15-minute GHI spatial estimations for five methods in the territory of Spain (three geo-statistical interpolation methods, one deterministic method and the HelioSat2 method, which is based on satellite images). The research concludes that, when the work area has adequate station density, the best method for estimating GHI every 15 min is Regression Kriging interpolation using GHI estimated from satellite images as one of the input variables. On the contrary, when station density is low, the best method is estimating GHI directly from satellite images. A comparison between the GHI observed by volunteer stations and the estimation model applied concludes that 67% of the volunteer stations analyzed present values within the margin of error (average of 2 standard deviations). PMID:24732102</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411706G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411706G"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">globally</span> calibrated aerosol optical depth gridded dataset for improved solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> predictions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gueymard, C. A.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The shortwave direct normal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (DNI), as well as the diffuse and <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, all depend on aerosol optical depth (AOD). Recent investigations have shown that many existing modeled DNI datasets were severely biased over areas with large and variable AOD, due to errors in the latter data. Unbiased historical DNI data are of crucial importance for the siting, design and financing of large solar power projects, particularly those using concentrators. This requires unbiased AOD data at any site where such projects can be potentially built. Until now, only sunphotometer stations could provide such unbiased data, but these stations are scarce and their records are generally short. For <span class="hlt">global</span> coverage, gridded AOD data from satellite observations may be used, but their bias is often significant. Moreover, multiwavelength AOD satellite records only exist since 2000 and are not complete over all areas. In this contribution, a method is developed to optimally combine sources of gridded data from various satellites, calibrate them against ground truth on a regional and seasonal basis, and fill missing data points with an appropriate climatology. The monthly satellite data from MODIS (Terra and Aqua, collection 5.1), generated with or without the Deep Blue retrieval algorithm, and from MISR (version 31), are obtained at 0.5x0.5 resolution using appropriate Digital Elevation Models and scale-height corrections of AOD at 550 nm. The ground-truth data originates from networks such as Aeronet. All monthly ground-truth data points are subjected to a scale-height correction for elevation (so that they can be directly compared to the corresponding satellite data), and to a wavelength correction to obtain AOD at 550 nm. This process is undertaken separately for summer and winter, owing to the varying magnitude of AOD, and possible seasonal variations in aerosol composition. For the same reasons, it is also undertaken on a regional basis. The importance of this is confirmed by the uneven results obtained over adjacent areas. In North America, for instance, the MISR dataset and the various MODIS datasets exhibit relatively low bias over most of the continent, but an extremely high bias over the southwestern USA and northern Mexico, possibly due to higher elevation, lower AOD, and more reflective ground. The satellite data calibration (or "debiasing") is performed by applying appropriate scaling factors on a seasonal and regional basis, after comparison with ground truth. To remove all missing data points during the period 2000-2011, an appropriate climatology is selected from existing sources (including chemical transport models), and is subjected to an identical calibration method. A similar methodology is applied to obtain a complete, gridded dataset of the mean monthly ngstrm exponent (AE) over the same period of 144 months. The AOD and AE <span class="hlt">global</span> datasets thus obtained still contain significant random errors, but their regional bias is considerably reduced compared to existing satellite data. Overall, the combination of AOD and AE from these calibrated datasets can significantly improve the derivation of 12-year time series of DNI, which is demonstrated with a few examples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3303O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3303O"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of confidence intervals of <span class="hlt">global</span> horizontal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> obtained from a weather prediction model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ohtake, Hideaki; Gari da Silva Fonseca, Joao, Jr.; Takashima, Takumi; Oozeki, Takashi; Yamada, Yoshinori</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Many photovoltaic (PV) systems have been installed in Japan after the introduction of the Feed-in-Tariff. For an energy management of electric power systems included many PV systems, the forecast of the PV power production are useful technology. Recently numerical weather predictions have been applied to forecast the PV power production while the forecasted values invariably have forecast errors for each modeling system. So, we must use the forecast data considering its error. In this study, we attempted to estimate confidence intervals for hourly forecasts of <span class="hlt">global</span> horizontal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (GHI) values obtained from a mesoscale model (MSM) de-veloped by the Japan Meteorological Agency. In the recent study, we found that the forecasted values of the GHI of the MSM have two systematical forecast errors; the first is that forecast values of the GHI are depended on the clearness indices, which are defined as the GHI values divided by the extraterrestrial solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. The second is that forecast errors have the seasonal variations; the overestimation of the GHI forecasts is found in winter while the underestimation of those is found in summer. The information of the errors of the hourly GHI forecasts, that is, confidence intervals of the forecasts, is of great significance for planning the energy management included a lot of PV systems by an electric company. On the PV systems, confidence intervals of the GHI forecasts are required for a pinpoint area or for a relatively large area control-ling the power system. For the relatively large area, a spatial-smoothing method of the GHI values is performed for both the observations and forecasts. The spatial-smoothing method caused the decline of confidence intervals of the hourly GHI forecasts on an extreme event of the GHI forecast (a case of large forecast error) over the relatively large area of the Tokyo electric company (approximately 68 % than for a pinpoint forecast). For more credible estimation of the confidence intervals, it is required to consider the location of the installed PV systems or its capacity over the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.tmp..141C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.tmp..141C"><span id="translatedtitle">Fast calculations of the spectral diffuse-to-<span class="hlt">global</span> ratios for approximating spectral <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at the street canyon level</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carrasco-Hernandez, Roberto; Smedley, Andrew R. D.; Webb, Ann R.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Two radiative transfer models are presented that simplify calculations of street canyon spectral <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> with minimum data input requirements, allowing better assessment of urban exposures than can be provided by standard unobstructed radiation measurements alone. Fast calculations improve the computational performance of radiation models, when numerous repetitions are required in time and location. The core of the models is the calculation of the spectral diffuse-to-<span class="hlt">global</span> ratios (DGR) from an unobstructed <span class="hlt">global</span> spectral measurement. The models are based on, and have been tested against, outcomes of the SMARTS2 algorithm (i.e. Simple Model of the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer of Sunshine). The modelled DGRs can then be used to partition <span class="hlt">global</span> spectral <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> values into their direct and diffuse components for different solar zenith angles. Finally, the effects of canyon obstructions can be evaluated independently on the direct and diffuse components, which are then recombined to give the total canyon <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. The first model allows ozone and aerosol inputs, while the second provides a further simplification, restricted to average ozone and aerosol contents but specifically designed for faster calculations. To assess the effect of obstructions and validate the calculations, a set of experiments with simulated obstructions (simulated canyons) were performed. The greatest source of uncertainty in the simplified calculations is in the treatment of diffuse radiation. The measurement-model agreement is therefore dependent on the region of the sky obscured and ranges from <5 % at all wavelengths to 20-40 % (wavelength dependent) when diffuse sky only is visible from the canyon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A31F0084G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A31F0084G"><span id="translatedtitle">A Comparison Between Heliosat-2 and Artificial Neural Network Methods for <span class="hlt">Global</span> Horizontal <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Retrievals over Desert Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ghedira, H.; Eissa, Y.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Global</span> horizontal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (GHI) retrievals at the surface of any given location could be used for preliminary solar resource assessments. More accurately, the direct normal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (DNI) and diffuse horizontal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (DHI) are also required to estimate the <span class="hlt">global</span> tilt <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, mainly used for fixed flat plate collectors. Two different satellite-based models for solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> retrievals have been applied over the desert environment of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Both models employ channels of the SEVIRI instrument, onboard the geostationary satellite Meteosat Second Generation, as their main inputs. The satellite images used in this study have a temporal resolution of 15-min and a spatial resolution of 3-km. The objective of this study is to compare between the GHI retrieved using the Heliosat-2 method and an artificial neural network (ANN) ensemble method over the UAE. The high-resolution visible channel of SEVIRI is used in the Heliosat-2 method to derive the cloud index. The cloud index is then used to compute the cloud transmission, while the cloud-free GHI is computed from the Linke turbidity factor. The product of the cloud transmission and the cloud-free GHI denotes the estimated GHI. A constant underestimation is observed in the estimated GHI over the dataset available in the UAE. Therefore, the cloud-free DHI equation in the model was recalibrated to fix the bias. After recalibration, results over the UAE show a root mean square error (RMSE) value of 10.1% and a mean bias error (MBE) of -0.5%. As for the ANN approach, six thermal channels of SEVIRI were used to estimate the DHI and the total optical depth of the atmosphere (δ). An ensemble approach is employed to obtain a better generalizability of the results, as opposed to using one single weak network. The DNI is then computed from the estimated δ using the Beer-Bouguer-Lambert law. The GHI is computed from the DNI and DHI estimates. The RMSE for the estimated GHI obtained over an independent dataset over the UAE is 7.2% and the MBE is +1.9%. The results obtained by the two methods have shown that both the recalibrated Heliosat-2 and the ANN ensemble methods estimate the GHI at a 15-min resolution with high accuracy. The advantage of the ANN ensemble approach is that it derives the GHI from accurate DNI and DHI estimates. The DNI and DHI estimates are valuable when computing the <span class="hlt">global</span> tilt <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. Also, accurate DNI estimates are beneficial for preliminary site selection for concentrating solar powered plants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A11I0163Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A11I0163Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of A <span class="hlt">Global</span>-To-Beam <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Model to the Satellite-Based NASA GEWEX SRB Data and Validation of the Results against the Ground-Based BSRN Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, T.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.; Chandler, W.; Hoell, J. M.; Westberg, D. J.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The NASA/GEWEX SRB (Surface Radiation Budget) project has produced a 24.5-year continuous <span class="hlt">global</span> record of shortwave and longwave radiation flux dataset at TOA and the Earth's surface from satellite measurements. The time span of the data is from July 1983 to December 2007, and the spatial resolution is 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude. SRB products are available on 3-hourly, 3-hourly-monthly, <span class="hlt">daily</span> and monthly time scales. The inputs to the models include: 1.) Cloud parameters derived from pixel-level DX product of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP); 2.) Temperature and moisture profiles of the atmosphere generated with the Goddard Earth Observing System model Version 4.0.3 (GEOS-4.0.3) from a 4-D data assimilation product of the Data Assimilation Office at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; 3.) Atmospheric column ozone record constructed from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aboard Nimbus-7 (July 1983 - November 1994), from the Operational Vertical Sounder aboard the Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS, TOVS) (December 1994 - October 1995), from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and from Stratospheric Monitoring Ozone Blended Analysis (SMOBA) products; 4.) Surface albedos based on monthly climatological clear-sky albedos at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) which in turn were derived from the NASA Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data during 2000-2005; 5.) Surface emissivities from a map developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The SRB <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> have been extensively validated against the ground-based BSRN (Baseline Surface Radiation Network), GEBA (<span class="hlt">Global</span> Energy Balance Archive), and WRDC (World Radiation Data Centre) data, and generally good agreement is achieved. In this paper, we apply the DirIndex model, a modified version of the DirInt model, to the SRB 3-hourly <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> and derive the 3-hourly beam, or direct normal, <span class="hlt">irradiances</span>. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> and monthly mean direct normal and diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> are derived. The input variables include, among others, surface pressure, precipitable water, geopotential height of the surface, 10-meter temperature, and specific humidity from GEOS, and AOD at 700 nm derived from the MATCH (Model for Atmospheric Transport and CHemistry) data. The DirIndex model is modified to accommodate the ranges of the input variables wider than specified in the original DirIndex model. The results are then validated against their BSRN counterparts. Compared with an earlier empirical model for monthly means, the results from the modified DirIndex model shows appreciable improvement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26ES...28a2007C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26ES...28a2007C"><span id="translatedtitle">Retrieval of the aerosol optical thickness from UV <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Costa, M. J.; Salgueiro, V.; Bortoli, D.; Obregn, M. A.; Antn, M.; Silva, A. M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> is measured at vora since several years, where a CIMEL sunphotometer integrated in AERONET is also installed. In the present work, measurements of UVA (315 - 400 nm) <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> taken with Kipp&Zonen radiometers, as well as satellite data of ozone total column values, are used in combination with radiative transfer calculations, to estimate the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) in the UV. The retrieved UV AOT in vora is compared with AERONET AOT (at 340 and 380 nm) and a fairly good agreement is found with a root mean square error of 0.05 (normalized root mean square error of 8.3%) and a mean absolute error of 0.04 (mean percentage error of 2.9%). The methodology is then used to estimate the UV AOT in Sines, an industrialized site on the Atlantic western coast, where the UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> is monitored since 2013 but no aerosol information is available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16778947','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16778947"><span id="translatedtitle">Narrowband filter radiometer for ground-based measurements of <span class="hlt">global</span> ultraviolet solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and total ozone.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Petkov, Boyan; Vitale, Vito; Tomasi, Claudio; Bonafé, Ubaldo; Scaglione, Salvatore; Flori, Daniele; Santaguida, Riccardo; Gausa, Michael; Hansen, Georg; Colombo, Tiziano</p> <p>2006-06-20</p> <p>The ultraviolet narrowband filter radiometer (UV-RAD) designed by the authors to take ground-based measurements of UV solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, total ozone, and biological dose rate is described, together with the main characteristics of the seven blocked filters mounted on it, all of which have full widths at half maxima that range 0.67 to 0.98 nm. We have analyzed the causes of cosine response and calibration errors carefully to define the corresponding correction terms, paying particular attention to those that are due to the spectral displacements of the filter transmittance peaks from the integer wavelength values. The influence of the ozone profile on the retrieved ozone at large solar zenith angles has also been examined by means of field measurements. The opportunity of carrying out nearly monochromatic <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements offered by the UV-RAD allowed us to improve the procedure usually followed to reconstruct the solar spectrum at the surface by fitting the computed results, using radiative transfer models with field measurements of <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. Two long-term comparison campaigns took place, showing that a mean discrepancy of +0.3% exists between the UV-RAD total ozone values and those given by the Brewer #63 spectroradiometer and that mean differences of +0.3% and -0.9% exist between the erythemal dose rates determined with the UV-RAD and those obtained with the Brewer #63 and the Brewer #104 spectroradiometers, respectively. PMID:16778947</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20853312','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20853312"><span id="translatedtitle">Narrowband filter radiometer for ground-based measurements of <span class="hlt">global</span> ultraviolet solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and total ozone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Petkov, Boyan; Vitale, Vito; Tomasi, Claudio; Bonafe, Ubaldo; Scaglione, Salvatore; Flori, Daniele; Santaguida, Riccardo; Gausa, Michael; Hansen, Georg; Colombo, Tiziano</p> <p>2006-06-20</p> <p>The ultraviolet narrowband filter radiometer (UV-RAD) designed by the authors to take ground-based measurements of UV solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, total ozone, and biological dose rate is described, together with the main characteristics of the seven blocked filters mounted on it, all of which have full widths at half maxima that range 0.67 to 0.98 nm. We have analyzed the causes of cosine response and calibration errors carefully to define the corresponding correction terms, paying particular attention to those that are due to the spectral displacements of the filter transmittance peaks from the integer wavelength values. The influence of the ozone profile on the retrieved ozone at large solar zenith angles has also been examined by means of field measurements. The opportunity of carrying out nearly monochromatic <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements offered by the UV-RAD allowed us to improve the procedure usually followed to reconstruct the solar spectrum at the surface by fitting the computed results, using radiative transfer models with field measurements of <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. Two long-term comparison campaigns took place, showing that a mean discrepancy of+0.3% exists between the UV-RAD total ozone values and those given by the Brewer no. 63 spectroradiometer and that mean differences of+0.3% and-0.9% exist between the erythemal dose rates determined with the UV-RAD and those obtained with the Brewer no. 63 and the Brewer no. 104 spectroradiometers, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93S.352B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93S.352B"><span id="translatedtitle">Warmer <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperatures since 1951</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bhattacharya, Atreyee</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Days and nights have indeed become warmer over the past 60 years, a new study finds. Although several observation-based studies have shown that <span class="hlt">daily</span> average temperatures as well as <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum temperatures have increased over the past few decades, controversy has remained as to how the observed trends in extreme and average temperatures are related to each other: Are the warming trends in extreme temperatures a result of a shifting mean climate, or have temperatures become more variable? Using a <span class="hlt">global</span> observational data set of <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperatures, Donat and Alexander compared the probability distributions of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum temperatures over two 30-year periods, 1951-1980 and 1981-2010. The authors show that the maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperatures all over the globe have significantly shifted toward higher values during the latter period. They further show that the distributions have become skewed toward the hotter part of the distribution; changes are greater for <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum (nighttime) temperatures than for the <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum (daytime) temperatures. The authors conclude that the distribution of <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperatures has indeed become more extreme compared to the middle of the twentieth century. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2012GL052459, 2012)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1211585S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1211585S"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurements of <span class="hlt">global</span> UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at Terranova Bay, Antactica, by a home made narrow band filter radiometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salvatore, Scaglione; di Sarcina, Ilaria; Flori, Daniele; Menchini, Francesca</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Filter radiometers measure the solar radiation in several channels (typically 4 to 7) with a bandwith from 2 to 10 nm. They require less maintenance than the spectroradiometer and they are able to work in hostile environment as for instance the polar regions. The spectral resolution depends on the width at half maximum (FWHM) of the filters and is generally lower than the spectroradiometer resolution (0.5 nm). Other than the robustness of this instruments, the main advantage of the filter radiometers is the high frequency with which all wavelengths can be measured, making this class of instrument well suited for investigating short term <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variation. In this work is presented the results of UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements performed by a very narrow band (FWHM less than 1 nm) filter radiometer at Antarctica Italia Base, Mario Zucchelli Station, Terranova Bay, lat. 74 41.6084' south and lon. 164 05.9224' est. All-dielectric Fabry-Perot filters were manufactured in the laboratories of the Optical Coating Group, ENEA, by the ion beam assistance physical vapor deposition technique. Nine filters select nine different wavelengths in the UV spectral range from 296.5 nm to 377 nm with about 1 minute of measurement period, i.e. each wavelength is measured about 1250 times per day. At the moment the radiometer are permanently located near MZS and the data are <span class="hlt">daily</span> downloaded in ENEA, Rome, by a dedicated satellite channel. During the Antarctica winter the radiometer will be in standby mode, in this season MZS is closed, and it will be start to measure again in the Antarctica spring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1006243','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1006243"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of Direct Normal <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Derived from Silicon and Thermopile <span class="hlt">Global</span> Hemispherical Radiation Detectors: Preprint</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Myers, D. R.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Concentrating solar applications utilize direct normal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (DNI) radiation, a measurement rarely available. The solar concentrator industry has begun to deploy numerous measurement stations to prospect for suitable system deployment sites. Rotating shadowband radiometers (RSR) using silicon photodiodes as detectors are typically deployed. This paper compares direct beam estimates from RSR to a total hemispherical measuring radiometer (SPN1) multiple fast thermopiles. These detectors simultaneously measure total and diffuse radiation from which DNI can be computed. Both the SPN1 and RSR-derived DNI are compared to DNI measured with thermopile pyrheliometers. Our comparison shows that the SPN1 radiometer DNI estimated uncertainty is somewhat greater than, and on the same order as, the RSR DNI estimates for DNI magnitudes useful to concentrator technologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012DSRI...63...52S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012DSRI...63...52S"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of surface <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on the absorption spectrum of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in the <span class="hlt">global</span> ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Swan, Chantal M.; Nelson, Norman B.; Siegel, David A.; Kostadinov, Tihomir S.</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>The cycling pathways of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) within marine systems must be constrained to better assess the impact of CDOM on surface ocean photochemistry and remote sensing of ocean color. Photobleaching, the loss of absorption by CDOM due to light exposure, is the primary sink for marine CDOM. Herein the susceptibility of CDOM to photobleaching by sea surface-level solar radiation was examined in 15 samples collected from wide-ranging open ocean regimes. Samples from the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian and Southern Oceans were <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> over several days with full-spectrum light under a solar simulator at in situ temperature in order to measure photobleaching rate and derive an empirical matrix, ɛsurf (m-1 μEin-1), which quantifies the effect of surface <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on the spectral absorption of CDOM. <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> responses among the ocean samples were similar within the ultraviolet (UV) region of the spectrum spanning 300-360 nm, generally exhibiting a decrease in the CDOM absorption coefficient (m-1) and concomitant increase in the CDOM spectral slope parameter, S (nm-1). However, an unexpected <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>-induced increase in CDOM absorption between approximately 360 and 500 nm was observed for samples from high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) environments. This finding was linked to the presence of dissolved nitrate and may explain discrepancies in action spectra for dimethylsulfide (DMS) photobleaching observed between the Equatorial Pacific and Subtropical North Atlantic Oceans. The nitrate-to-phosphate ratio explained 27-70% of observed variability in ɛsurf at observation wavelengths of 330-440 nm, while the initial spectral slope of the samples explained up to 52% of variability in ɛsurf at observation wavelengths of 310-330 nm. These results suggest that the biogeochemical and solar exposure history of the water column, each of which influence the chemical character and thus the spectral quality of CDOM and its photoreactivity, are the main factors regulating the susceptibility of CDOM to photodegradation in the surface ocean. The ɛsurf parameter reported herein may be applied to remote sensing retrievals of CDOM to estimate photobleaching at the surface on regional to <span class="hlt">global</span> scales.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.tmp..319S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.tmp..319S"><span id="translatedtitle">A New method for identifying possible causal relationships between CO2, total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seip, Knut L.; Grøn, Øyvind</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>We apply a novel method based upon "before" and "after" relationships to investigate and quantify interconnections between <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature anomaly (GTA), as response variable, and greenhouse gases (CO2) and total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (TSI) as candidate causal variables for the period 1880 to 2010. The most likely interpretations of our results for the 6 to 8 years cyclic components of the variables are that during the period 1929 to 1936, CO2 significantly leads GTA. However, during the period 1960-2003, GTA apparently leads CO2, that is, the peaks (and troughs) in GTA are in front of, and close to, the peaks (and troughs) in CO2. For time windows outside these periods, we did not find significant before or after-relations. An alternative interpretation is that there is a shift between short (≈1.5 year) and long (≈5 years) durations between cause and effect. Relationships between GTA and TSI suggest that "inertia" of the <span class="hlt">global</span> sea, land, and atmosphere system leads to delays longer than half their common cycle length of about 10 years. Based on the interaction patterns between the variables GTA, CO2, and TSI, we suggest the possibility that a new regime for how the variables interact started around 1960. From trend forms, and not considering physical mechanisms, we found that the trend in CO2 contributes ≈ 90 %, and the trend in TSI ≈ 10 %, to the trend in GTA during the last 130 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100003076','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100003076"><span id="translatedtitle">Solutions Network Formulation Report. Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor Measurements of Diffuse-to-<span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Ratio for Improved Forecasting of Plant Productivity and Health</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Knowlton, Kelly; Andrews, Jane C.; Ryan, Robert E.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Studies have shown that vegetation is directly sensitive to changes in the diffuse-to-<span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> ratio and that increased percentage of diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> can accelerate photosynthesis. Therefore, measurements of diffuse versus <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> could be useful for monitoring crop productivity and overall vegetative health as they relate to the total amount of particulates in the air that result from natural disasters or anthropogenic (manmade) causes. While the components of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> are measured by satellite and surface sensors and calculated with atmospheric models, disagreement exists between the results, creating a need for more accurate and comprehensive retrievals of atmospheric aerosol parameters. Two satellite sensors--APS and VIIRS--show promise for retrieving aerosol properties at an unprecedented level of accuracy. APS is expected to be launched in December 2008. The planned launch date for VIIRS onboard NPP is September 2009. Identified partners include the USDA s ARS, North Carolina State University, Purdue Climate Change Research Center, and the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere at Colorado State University. Although at present no formal DSSs (decision support systems) require accurate values of diffuse-to-<span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, this parameter is sufficiently important that models are being developed that will incorporate these measurements. This candidate solution is aligned with the Agricultural Efficiency and Air Quality National Applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.121..211J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.121..211J"><span id="translatedtitle">Inter-<span class="hlt">daily</span> variability of a strong thermally-driven wind system over the Atacama Desert of South America: synoptic forcing and short-term predictability using the GFS <span class="hlt">global</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jacques-Coper, Martín; Falvey, Mark; Muñoz, Ricardo C.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Crucial aspects of a strong thermally-driven wind system in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile during the extended austral winter season (May-September) are studied using 2 years of measurement data from the Sierra Gorda 80-m meteorological mast (SGO, 22° 56' 24″ S; 69° 7' 58″ W, 2,069 m above sea level (a.s.l.)). <span class="hlt">Daily</span> cycles of atmospheric variables reveal a diurnal (nocturnal) regime, with northwesterly (easterly) flow and maximum mean wind speed of 8 m/s (13 m/s) on average. These distinct regimes are caused by pronounced topographic conditions and the diurnal cycle of the local radiative balance. Wind speed extreme events of each regime are negatively correlated at the inter-<span class="hlt">daily</span> time scale: High diurnal wind speed values are usually observed together with low nocturnal wind speed values and vice versa. The associated synoptic conditions indicate that upper-level troughs at the coastline of southwestern South America reinforce the diurnal northwesterly wind, whereas mean undisturbed upper-level conditions favor the development of the nocturnal easterly flow. We analyze the skill of the numerical weather model <span class="hlt">Global</span> Forecast System (GFS) in predicting wind speed at SGO. Although forecasted wind speeds at 800 hPa do show the diurnal and nocturnal phases, observations at 80 m are strongly underestimated by the model. This causes a pronounced <span class="hlt">daily</span> cycle of root-mean-squared error (RMSE) and bias in the forecasts. After applying a simple Model Output Statistics (MOS) post-processing, we achieve a good representation of the wind speed intra-<span class="hlt">daily</span> and inter-<span class="hlt">daily</span> variability, a first step toward reducing the uncertainties related to potential wind energy projects in the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JASTP.112...47D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JASTP.112...47D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> and direct UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variation in the Nahuel Huapi National Park (Patagonia, Argentina) after the eruption of Puyehue-Cordon Caulle (Chile)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Diaz, S. B.; Paladini, A. A.; Braile, H. G.; Dieguez, M. C.; Deferrari, G. A.; Vernet, M.; Vrsalovic, J.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>On June 4th, 2011, the Puyehue-Cordon Caulle volcanic complex (40°35‧25″S 72°07‧02″W, Chile) started eruption, sending ash 45,000 feet into the atmosphere. After the initial period, the eruption continued for several months, with less intensity. Changes in <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> in the UV-B and UV-A, and direct <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and AOD in the UV-A, as consequence of the eruption, were studied. <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> has been permanently measured at the Laboratory of Photobiology (LPh) (41.13S, 71.42W, 804 msl) since 1998. In addition, in the frame of a project to study altitude effect on direct and <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, field campaigns were performed during September 17th to 23rd, 2010 and September 14th to 18th, 2011, in the region of the Nahuel Huapi National Park, near 100 km from the eruption. In those periods, simultaneous measurements of direct and <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and aerosol optical depth (AOD) were carried out at three sites: Laboratory of Photobiology (LPh), Mt Otto (41.15S, 71.38W, 1386 msl) and Mt Catedral (41.17S, 71.48W, 1930 msl). The analysis of aerosols in 2011, three to four month after the eruption started, showed the presence of larger particles and more variability than in 2010, at all sites. <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, at LPh, also exhibited larger variability, compared to 1999, when no eruption or any other event that could have produced major changes in aerosols occurred. The mean decrease, as consequence of the volcano activity, at LPh, was around 20%, at 305 nm and closed to 10%, at 320 nm. At 380 nm, the decrease was very small and not statistically significant, although in particular days, with large aerosol load, a significant decrease was observed. Direct <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, in the UV-A, showed larger decrease than <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. The effect of the eruption was more pronounced at the low altitude site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20849990','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20849990"><span id="translatedtitle">Fifteen-year results of a randomized prospective trial of hyperfractionated chest wall <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> versus once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> chest wall <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> after chemotherapy and mastectomy for patients with locally advanced noninflammatory breast cancer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Buchholz, Thomas A. . E-mail: tbuchhol@mdanderson.org; Strom, Eric A.; Oswald, Mary Jane; Perkins, George H.; Oh, Julia; Domain, Delora; Yu, Tse-Kuan; Woodward, Wendy A.; Tereffe, Welela; Singletary, S. Eva; Thomas, Eva; Buzdar, Aman U.; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; McNeese, Marsha D.</p> <p>2006-07-15</p> <p>Purpose: To analyze the results of a Phase III clinical trial that investigated whether a hyperfractionated radiotherapy (RT) schedule could reduce the risk of locoregional recurrence in patients with locally advanced breast cancer treated with chemotherapy and mastectomy. Methods and Materials: Between 1985 and 1989, 200 patients with clinical Stage III noninflammatory breast cancer were enrolled in a prospective study investigating neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy. Of the 179 patients treated with mastectomy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 108 participated in a randomized component of the trial that compared a dose-escalated, hyperfractionated (twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span>, b.i.d.) chest wall RT schedule (72 Gy in 1.2-Gy b.i.d. fractions) with a once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> (q.d.) schedule (60 Gy in 2-Gy q.d. fractions). In both arms of the study, the supraclavicular fossa and axillary apex were treated once <span class="hlt">daily</span> to 50 Gy. The median follow-up period was 15 years. Results: The 15-year actuarial locoregional recurrence rate was 7% for the q.d. arm and 12% for the b.i.d. arm (p = 0.36). The rates of severe acute toxicity were similar (4% for q.d. vs. 5% for b.i.d.), but moist desquamation developed in 42% of patients in the b.i.d. arm compared with 28% of the patients in the q.d. arm (p = 0.16). The 15-year actuarial rate of severe late RT complications did not differ between the two arms (6% for q.d. vs. 11% for b.i.d., p = 0.54). Conclusion: Although the sample size of this study was small, we found no evidence that this hyperfractionation schedule of postmastectomy RT offered a clinical advantage. Therefore, we have concluded that it should not be further studied in this cohort of patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7918V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7918V"><span id="translatedtitle">Inhomogeneities in <span class="hlt">daily</span> data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Venema, Victor; Aguilar, Enric; Auchmann, Renate; Auer, Ingeborg; Brandsma, Theo; Chimani, Barbara; Gilabert, Alba; Mestre, Olivier; Toreti, Andrea; Vertacnik, Gregor</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> datasets have become a focus of climate research because they are essential for studying the variability and extremes in weather and climate. However, long observational climate records are usually affected by changes due to nonclimatic factors, resulting in inhomogeneities in the time series. Looking at the known physical causes of these inhomogeneities, one may expect that the tails of the distribution are especially affected. Although the number of national and regional homogenized <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature datasets is increasing, inhomogeneities affecting the tails of the distribution are often not or insufficiently taken into account. In this literature review we investigate the physical causes of inhomogeneities and how they affect the distribution with respect to its mean and its tails. We review what is known about changes in the distribution from existing historical parallel measurements. We discuss effects of the state-of-the-art homogenization methods on the temperature distribution. Finally, we provide an overview of the quality of available <span class="hlt">daily</span> datasets that are often used for studies on changes in extremes and additionally describe well-homogenized regional datasets. As expected, this review provides evidence that the tails of the distribution are generally more affected by non-climatic changes than the means. This is a problem because the question to which extent <span class="hlt">daily</span> homogenization methods can reduce those effects is insufficiently studied and most available methods are focused on temperature only. More specifically, it is advised to study whether the current deterministic correction methods should be succeeded by stochastic methods. Concerning the large scale available <span class="hlt">daily</span> datasets, many of them are not homogenized (with respect to the distribution), whereas the number of national and regional homogenized datasets is strongly growing. Given the strong interest in studying changes in weather variability and extremes and the existence of often large inhomogeneities in the raw data, the homogenization of <span class="hlt">daily</span> data and the development of better methods should have a high research priority. This research would be much facilitated by a <span class="hlt">global</span> reference database with parallel measurements. The climate community, and especially those involved in homogenization, bias correction and the evaluation of uncertainties, should take an active role to foster the compilation of such a reference database. We have started an initiative collecting parallel datasets, which is an expert team of the International Surface Temperature Initiative. Its aims will be explained and its progress will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70155975','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70155975"><span id="translatedtitle">Water vapour correction of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> 1 km AVHRR <span class="hlt">global</span> land dataset: Part I validation and use of the Water Vapour input field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>DeFelice, Thomas P.; Lloyd, D.; Meyer, D.J.; Baltzer, T. T.; Piraina, P.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>An atmospheric correction algorithm developed for the 1 km Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) <span class="hlt">global</span> land dataset was modified to include a near real-time total column water vapour data input field to account for the natural variability of atmospheric water vapour. The real-time data input field used for this study is the Television and Infrared Observational Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) Pathfinder A <span class="hlt">global</span> total column water vapour dataset. It was validated prior to its use in the AVHRR atmospheric correction process using two North American AVHRR scenes, namely 13 June and 28 November 1996. The validation results are consistent with those reported by others and entail a comparison between TOVS, radiosonde, experimental sounding, microwave radiometer, and data from a hand-held sunphotometer. The use of this data layer as input to the AVHRR atmospheric correction process is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20466163','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20466163"><span id="translatedtitle">The A1chieve study: a 60 000-person, <span class="hlt">global</span>, prospective, observational study of basal, meal-time, and biphasic insulin analogs in <span class="hlt">daily</span> clinical practice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shah, Siddharth N; Litwak, Len; Haddad, Jihad; Chakkarwar, Praful N; Hajjaji, Issam</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>While evidenced-based guidelines promote glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) targets <7.0% in order to reduce the long-term risk of diabetic complications, many individuals with type 2 diabetes do not achieve these targets. Fear of hypoglycemia provides a major barrier to improving blood glucose control as a result of delayed insulin initiation and failure to appropriately titrate insulin following initiation. Modern insulin analogs were designed to achieve improved blood glucose control with similar hypoglycemic risk compared with non-analog insulins (or similar blood glucose control with reduced hypoglycemic risk). While this has been demonstrated in randomized controlled trials, there is a need to confirm these findings in an everyday clinical setting. The A(1)chieve study will evaluate adverse events and effectiveness of premix (biphasic insulin aspart 30 [NovoMix 30]), basal (insulin detemir [Levemir]), and meal-time (insulin aspart [NovoRapid]) insulin analogs in people with type 2 diabetes in near-routine clinical practice. A(1)chieve is an international, prospective, multi-center, open-label, non-interventional, 24-week study of people with type 2 diabetes using an insulin analog. The study will recruit 60 000 people from 30 countries across four continents (Asia, Africa, South America, and Europe). The primary aim of the study is to assess the adverse event profile of the study insulins in routine clinical practice, including rates of hypoglycemia. In addition, effectiveness (HbA(1c), fasting plasma glucose, and postprandial plasma glucose) and patient quality of life outcomes will be measured. Comprehensive epidemiological data will be collected at baseline, including recent plasma glucose results and hypoglycemic episodes, prevalence of diabetes-related complications, and measures of current standards of care. Thus, A(1)chieve should provide important information about how insulin analogs perform in <span class="hlt">daily</span> clinical practice. PMID:20466163</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012jsrs.conf..140S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012jsrs.conf..140S"><span id="translatedtitle">The signature of atmospheric tides in sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> variations of Earth rotation as unveiled by <span class="hlt">globally</span>-gridded atmospheric angular momentum functions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schindelegger, M.; Böhm, J.; Salstein, D. A.; Schuh, H.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Thermally-driven atmospheric tides provide a small but distinct contribution to shortperiod variations of Earth rotation parameters (ERP). The effect of diurnal and semi-diurnal tides, commonly denoted as S1 and S2, respectively, is in the range of 2 - 10 uas for polar motion and 2 - 10 uas for changes in length-of-day (LOD). Even though ocean tides represent a much more dominant driving agent for ERP fluctuations at short time scales, high-frequency atmospheric effects are non-negligible, particularly given the prospective measurement accuracy of space geodetic techniques. However, previous studies, such as Brzezinski et al. (2002), de Viron et al. (2005) or Schindelegger et al. (2011), have been noticeably inconclusive on the exact amplitude and phase values of S1 and S2 atmospheric excitation signals. This study aims at shedding light on the origin of these uncertainties with respect to the axial component of Earth's rotation vector by investigating times series of atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) functions that are given on <span class="hlt">global</span> grids and computed from three-hourly meteorological data of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The signature of diurnal and semi-diurnal atmospheric tides is clearly visible in the gridded axial AAM functions, revealing a distinct spatial and temporal phase difference between pressure and wind tidal constituents of about ± π. It is shown that due to this counterbalance and the explicit axisymmetric spatial structure of S1 and S2, the net effect in sub-diurnal AAM (which is calculated from the <span class="hlt">global</span> sum of gridded AAM functions) is always a small quantity, particularly sensitive to minor differences between the analysis fields of numerical weather models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930022266','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930022266"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> exercise routines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, Patrick L.; Amoroso, Michael T.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Viewgraphs on <span class="hlt">daily</span> exercise routines are presented. Topics covered include: <span class="hlt">daily</span> exercise and periodic stress testings; exercise equipment; physiological monitors; exercise protocols; physiological levels; equipment control; control systems; and fuzzy logic control.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080047984','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080047984"><span id="translatedtitle">MRO SOW <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Script</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fisher, Forest E.; Khanampornpan, Teerapat; Gladden, Roy E.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The MRO SOW <span class="hlt">daily</span> script (wherein "MRO" signifies "Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter" and "SOW" signifies "sequence systems engineer of the week") is a computer program that automates portions of the MRO <span class="hlt">daily</span> SOW procedure, which includes checking file-system sizes and automated sequence processor (ASP) log files. The MRO SOW <span class="hlt">daily</span> script effects clear reporting of (1) the status of, and requirements imposed on, the file system and (2) the ASP log files.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960017623','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960017623"><span id="translatedtitle">White Paper on SBUV/2 Solar <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hilsenrath, Ernest; DeLand, Matthew T.; Cebula, Richard P.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The importance of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements by the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet, Model 2 (SBUV/2) instruments on NOAA's operational satellites is described. These measurements are necessary accurately monitor the long-term changes in the <span class="hlt">global</span> column ozone amount, the altitude distribution of ozone in the upper stratosphere, and the degree to which ozone changes are caused by anthropogenic sources. Needed to accomplish these goals are weekly solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements at the operational ozone wavelengths, <span class="hlt">daily</span> measurements of the Mg II proxy index, instrument-specific Mg II scale factors, and <span class="hlt">daily</span> measurements of the solar spectral <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at photochemically important wavelengths. Two solar measurement schedules are provided: (1) a baseline schedule for all instruments except the NOAA-14 instrument and (2) a modified schedule for the NOAA-14 SBUV/2 instrument. This latter schedule is needed due to the NOAA-14 grating drive problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040095303&hterms=Nm&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DNm','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040095303&hterms=Nm&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DNm"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimations of the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Distribution and Time Series of UV Noontime <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> (305, 310, 324, 380 nm, and Erythemal) from TOMS and SeaWiFS Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Herman, J.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The amount of UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> reaching the Earth's surface is estimated from the measured cloud reflectivity, ozone, aerosol amounts, and surface reflectivity time series from 1980 to 1992 and 1997 to 2000 to estimate changes that have occurred over a 21-year period. Recent analysis of the TOMS data shows that there has been an apparent increase in reflectivity (decrease in W) in the Southern Hemisphere that is related to a calibration error in EP-TOMS. Data from the well-calibrated SeaWiFS satellite instrument have been used to correct the EP-TOMS reflectivity and UV time series. After correction, some of the local trend features seen in the N7 time series (1980 to 1992) have been continued in the combined time series, but the overall zonal average and <span class="hlt">global</span> trends have changed. In addition to correcting the EP-TOMS radiance calibration, the use of SeaWiFS cloud data permits estimation of UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at higher spatial resolution (1 to 4 km) than is available from TOMS (100 km) under the assumption that ozone is slowly varying over a scale of 100 km. The key results include a continuing decrease in cloud cover over Europe and North America with a corresponding increase in UV and a decrease in UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> near Antarctica.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3444216','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3444216"><span id="translatedtitle">Chronic <span class="hlt">daily</span> headaches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ahmed, Fayyaz; Parthasarathy, Rajsrinivas; Khalil, Modar</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Chronic <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new <span class="hlt">daily</span> persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic <span class="hlt">daily</span> headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches. PMID:23024563</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRD..115.4203H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRD..115.4203H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> increase in UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> during the past 30 years (1979-2008) estimated from satellite data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Herman, Jay R.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Zonal average ultraviolet <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (flux ultraviolet, FUV) reaching the Earth's surface has significantly increased since 1979 at all latitudes except the equatorial zone. Changes are estimated in zonal average FUV caused by ozone and cloud plus aerosol reflectivity using an approach based on Beer's law for monochromatic and action spectrum weighted <span class="hlt">irradiances</span>. For four different cases, it is shown that Beer's Law leads to a power law form similar to that applied to erythemal action spectrum weighted <span class="hlt">irradiances</span>. Zonal and annual average increases in FUV were caused by decreases in ozone amount from 1979 to 1998. After 1998, midlatitude annual average ozone amounts and UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> levels have been approximately constant. In the Southern Hemisphere, zonal and annual average UV increase is partially offset by tropospheric cloud and aerosol transmission decreases (hemispherical dimming), and to a lesser extent in the Northern Hemisphere. Ozone and 340 nm reflectivity changes have been obtained from multiple joined satellite time series from 1978 to 2008. The largest zonal average increases in FUV have occurred in the Southern Hemisphere. For clear-sky conditions at 50°S, zonal average FUV changes are estimated (305 nm, 23%; erythemal, 8.5%; 310 nm, 10%; vitamin D production, 12%). These are larger than at 50°N (305 nm, 9%; erythemal, 4%; 310 nm, 4%; vitamin D production, 6%). At the latitude of Buenos Aires, Argentina (34.6°S), the clear-sky FUV increases are comparable to the increases near Washington, D. C. (38.9°N): 305 nm, 9% and 7%; erythemal, 6% and 4%; and vitamin D production, 7% and 5%, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110013553','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110013553"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Increase in UV <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> during the Past 30 Years (1979-2008) Estimated from Satellite Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Herman, Jay R.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Zonal average ultraviolet <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (flux ultraviolet, F(sub uv)) reaching the Earth's surface has significantly increased since 1979 at all latitudes except the equatorial zone. Changes are estimated in zonal average F(sub uv) caused by ozone and cloud plus aerosol reflectivity using an approach based on Beer's law for monochromatic and action spectrum weighted <span class="hlt">irradiances</span>. For four different cases, it is shown that Beer's Law leads to a power law form similar to that applied to erythemal action spectrum weighted <span class="hlt">irradiances</span>. Zonal and annual average increases in F(sub uv) were caused by decreases in ozone amount from 1979 to 1998. After 1998, midlatitude annual average ozone amounts and UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> levels have been approximately constant. In the Southern Hemisphere, zonal and annual average UV increase is partially offset by tropospheric cloud and aerosol transmission decreases (hemispherical dimming), and to a lesser extent in the Northern Hemisphere. Ozone and 340 nm reflectivity changes have been obtained from multiple joined satellite time series from 1978 to 2008. The largest zonal average increases in F(sub uv) have occurred in the Southern Hemisphere. For clear-sky conditions at 50 S, zonal average F(sub uv) changes are estimated (305 nm, 23%; erythemal, 8.5%; 310 nm, 10%; vitamin D production, 12%). These are larger than at 50 N (305 nm, 9%; erythemal, 4%; 310 nm, 4%; vitamin D production, 6%). At the latitude of Buenos Aires, Argentina (34.6 S), the clear-sky Fuv increases are comparable to the increases near Washington, D. C. (38.9 N): 305 nm, 9% and 7%; erythemal, 6% and 4%; and vitamin D production, 7% and 5%, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7075880','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7075880"><span id="translatedtitle">Quick use of WEFAX images from METEOSAT to determine <span class="hlt">daily</span> solar radiation in France</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Delorme, C.; Gallo, A.; Olivieri, J. )</p> <p>1992-09-01</p> <p>The authors present some preliminary results about 74 days: March 15th to June 30th, 1990. Four WEFAX images per day from the visible channel of METEOSAT have been processed. The main elements of the GISTEL methodology are briefly stated again. The estimated <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> on the ground is compared with figures measured at 10 stations in the south of France. In order to analyze the main causes of inaccuracy, this comparison is made on several modes: estimated and measured values, estimated and measured weather indexes for normalization, station per station to detect possible geographic errors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950004646','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950004646"><span id="translatedtitle">UV-B radiation amplification factor determined based on the simultaneous observation of total ozone and <span class="hlt">global</span> spectral <span class="hlt">irradiance</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ito, T.; Sakoda, Y.; Matsubara, K.; Kajihara, R.; Uekubo, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Shitamichi, M.; Ueno, T.; Ito, M.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The Japan Meteorological Agency started the spectral observation of solar ultraviolet (UV) <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on 1 January 1990 at Tateno, Aerological Observatory in Tsukuba (35 deg N, 140 deg E). The observation has been carried out using the Brewer spectrophotometer for the wavelengths from 290 to 325 nm with a 0.5 nm interval every hour from 30 minutes before sunrise to 30 minutes after sunset throughout a year. Because of remarkable similarity within observed spectra, an observed spectrum can be expressed by a simple combination of a reference spectrum and two parameters expressing the deformation of the observed spectrum from the reference. By use of the relation between one of the deformation parameters and the total ozone simultaneously observed with the Dobson spectrophotometer, the possible increase of UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> due to ozone depletion is estimated. For damaging UV, the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> possibly increases about 19 percent with the ozone depletion of 10 percent at noon throughout the year in the northern midlatitudes. DUV at noon on the summer solstice possibly increases about 5.6 percent with the ozone depletion of 10 m atm-cm for all latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4482..259S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4482..259S"><span id="translatedtitle">Worldwide forecast of the biologically effective UV radiation: UV index and <span class="hlt">daily</span> dose</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmalwieser, Alois W.; Schauberger, Guenther; Janouch, Michal; Nunez, Manuel; Koskela, Tapani; Berger, Daniel; Karamanian, Gabriel; Prosek, Pavel; Laska, Kamil</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Since October 1995 a <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">daily</span> forecast of the UV index and the <span class="hlt">daily</span> dose, as the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> of the biologically effective ultraviolet radiation, for clear sky is calculated. The Austrian model as well as the input parameters are described. By connecting the <span class="hlt">daily</span> dose with the sensitivity of the photobiological skin types, a recommendation is given to select an appropriate sun protection factor of a sunscreen to avoid overexposure of the skin. The validation of the Austrian forecast model is done by long-term measurements of the biologically effective ultraviolet radiation. Measurements were taken from 6 different sites at 4 continents (Antarctica, Australia, America and Europe) covering the latitudinal range from 67 degree(s)N to 60 degree(s)S. By using the underestimation as criteria in the sense of radiation protection, the Austrian model shows less than 12% underestimation over the whole period for the UV index and less than 10% for the <span class="hlt">daily</span> dose. The evaluation shows further that the forecast of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> dose is much more influenced by the attenuation due to clouds than the UV index.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.choosemyplate.gov/tools-daily-food-plans','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.choosemyplate.gov/tools-daily-food-plans"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Food Plan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... for Increasing Online Tools SuperTracker What's Cooking? BMI Calculator MyPlate <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Checklist Portion Distortion Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Preschooler Growth Charts Quizzes Fruit Group Quiz Vegetable ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRD..114.0D08G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRD..114.0D08G"><span id="translatedtitle">Decadal changes in shortwave <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at the surface in the period from 1960 to 2000 estimated from <span class="hlt">Global</span> Energy Balance Archive Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gilgen, H.; Roesch, A.; Wild, M.; Ohmura, A.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>Decadal changes in shortwave <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at the Earth's surface are estimated for the period from approximately 1960 through to 2000 from pyranometer records stored in the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Energy Balance Archive. For this observational period, estimates could be calculated for a total of 140 cells of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project grid (an equal area 2.5 2.5 grid at the equator) using regression models allowing for station effects. In large regions worldwide, shortwave <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> decreases in the first half of the observational period, recovers from the decrease in the 1980s, and thereafter increases, in line with previous reports. Years of trend reversals are determined for the grid cells which are best described with a second-order polynomial model. This reversal of the trend is observed in the majority of the grid cells in the interior of Europe and in Japan. In China, shortwave <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> recovers during the 1990s in the majority of the grid cells in the southeast and northeast from the decrease observed in the period from 1960 through to 1990. A reversal of the trend in the 1980s or early 1990s is also observed for two grid cells in North America, and for the grid cells containing the Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia), Singapore, Casablanca (Morocco), Valparaiso (Chile) sites, and, noticeably, the remote South Pole and American Samoa sites. Negative trends persist, i.e., shortwave radiation decreases, for the observational period 1960 through to 2000 at the European coasts, in central and northwest China, and for three grid cells in India and two in Africa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988PhDT.......102B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988PhDT.......102B"><span id="translatedtitle">A Investigation of the Relationship Between Beam and <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> with the Development of Numerical Solar Radiation Models.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Balaras, Constantinos Agelou</p> <p></p> <p>A number of improved numerical models have been developed to predict the beam radiation from <span class="hlt">global</span> radiation data. The analysis was based on five years of hourly radiation data collected at the Solar Total Energy Project in Shenandoah, Georgia. Previously developed empirical correlations relate hourly values of the beam transmittance, tau _{rm b}--beam normal radiation over the extraterrestrial normal radiation, to clearness index, k_{rm t} --<span class="hlt">global</span> radiation over the extraterrestrial <span class="hlt">global</span> radiation. The relationship of tau_{rm b}-k_{rm t} , though, is not deterministic. Some the observed variation was explained by a seasonal dependence. Improved performance was achieved by introducing a third variable, either the atmospheric air-mass (m), or the temporal variation coefficient, eta, a new dimensionless parameter used to describe the sky condition without using any meteorological information. Seasonal effects on solar radiation caused by cloudiness and air quality were found to be significant and two methods were developed to account for this phenomenon. The air-mass dependence of solar radiation was examined through a study of the relationships between (tau _{rm b}-m) and (k _{rm t}-m). A simple clear sky beam transmittance model was developed for the region, although it was shown that clearest skies are not necessarily site specific. Two improved beam radiation models were developed, relating three variables at a time--namely (k_ {rm t},m,tau_ {rm b}) and (k_{ rm t},eta, tau_{rm b}). These correlations have significantly increased the predictive powers of the beam radiation model, without compensating for additional input information. These models can predict different values of beam radiation for a given day and over the year, for the same value of <span class="hlt">global</span> radiation which is what is observed. Several surface fitting techniques were used to generate the response surface among which are, a best RMS triangulation method, an inversely weighted fit method, and a fifth-degree polynomial fit. The work satisfies a major deficiency in solar radiation modeling by providing the most accurate up-to -date models for the southeast United States. The proposed models were validated with data from the National Observatory of Athens, Greece. The good performance of the models is reassuring of their wide applicability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Dental+AND+materials&pg=5&id=EJ471371','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Dental+AND+materials&pg=5&id=EJ471371"><span id="translatedtitle">Toothbrushing: Do It <span class="hlt">Daily</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Texas Child Care, 1993</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Offers a practical guide for promoting <span class="hlt">daily</span> toothbrushing in young children. Discusses the importance of proper dental care, explains the causes of tooth decay, describes proper dental care for infants and young children, recommends materials and teaching methods, and discusses visits to the dentist and the benefits of fluoride for dental health.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://appliedresearch.cancer.gov/diet/screeners/daily.html','NCI'); return false;" href="http://appliedresearch.cancer.gov/diet/screeners/daily.html"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Food Checklist</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.cancer.gov">Cancer.gov</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">daily</span> food checklist method is a form of food record. The tool is comprised of a list of foods; over the course of a day, a respondent makes a check beside a food each time she or he eats it. The checklist shares an advantage of other record methods in that it does not rely on memory. In addition, it avoids some disadvantages of complete quantitative food records in that it has relatively low respondent and investigator burden.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7040192','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7040192"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of height-dependent solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> and application to the solar climate of Iran</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Samimi, J. )</p> <p>1994-05-01</p> <p>An explicitly height-dependent model has been used to estimate the solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> over Iran which has a vast range of altitudes. The parameters of the model have been chosen on general grounds and not by parameters best fitting to any of the available measured <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> data in Iran. The estimated <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> on the horizontal surface shows a very good agreement (4.1% deviation) with the 17-year long pyranometric measurements in Tehran, and also, is in good agreement with other, shorter available measured data. The entire data base of the Iranian meteorological stations have been used to establish a simple relation between the sunshine duration records and the cloud cover reports which can be utilized in solar energy estimations for sites with no sunshine duration recorders. Clear sky maps of Iran for direct solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> on tracking, horizontal, and south-facing vertical planes are presented. The <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> map for horizontal surface with cloudiness is zoned into four <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> zones. In about four-fifths of the land in Iran, the annual-mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> on horizontal surface ranges from 4.5 to 5.4 kWh/m[sup 2].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.tmp..187L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.tmp..187L"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of monthly <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> using the Hargreaves-Samani model and an artificial neural network for the state of Alagoas in northeastern Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lyra, Gustavo Bastos; Zanetti, Sidney Sra; Santos, Anderson Amorim Rocha; de Souza, Jos Leonaldo; Lyra, Guilherme Bastos; Oliveira-Jnior, Jos Francisco; Lemes, Marco Antnio Maringolo</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The monthly <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> (H g) was estimated using the Hargreaves-Samani model (HS) with three different approaches for determining the k r coefficient and using an artificial neural network (ANN). The data consisted of long-term climate series measured at eight conventional meteorological stations in the state of Alagoas and its borders in northeastern Brazil. The approaches to determine the k r coefficient of the HS model included (i) the method proposed by Hargreaves (1994) (0.190 and 0.162 for coastal and interior regions, respectively), (ii) a method analogous to the previous except with altitude correction, and (iii) k r fitted with local climatic data. A new spatial interpolation method is also proposed to determine k r as a function of geographical coordinates and altitude. The fitted local values of k r (0.168-0.179 and 0.189-0.231 for interior and coastal stations, respectively) exhibited a strong dependence (r 2 = 0.81) on latitude, longitude, and altitude. The estimates of H g obtained with the HS model using fitted local values of k r and those using the ANN were similar (determination coefficient - r 2 = 0.75 and Willmontt agreement coefficient - d = 0.93) and better than those from the HS model using an altitude-corrected k r (r 2 = 0.68 and d = 0.90) or the values proposed by Hargreaves (1994) (r 2 = 0.57 and d = 0.85). The estimates of H g were less accurate and precise for the coastal stations, where cloudiness and humidity are high and the thermal amplitude is small.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..79..395R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..79..395R"><span id="translatedtitle">A geostatistical approach for producing <span class="hlt">daily</span> Level-3 MODIS aerosol optical depth analyses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ruiz-Arias, J. A.; Dudhia, J.; Lara-Fanego, V.; Pozo-Vzquez, D.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">daily</span> Level-3 MODIS (dL3M) aerosol optical depth product is a <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">daily</span> spatial aggregation of the Level-2 MODIS aerosol optical depth (10-km spatial resolution) into a regular grid with a resolution of 1 1. Aerosol optical depth is a seminal parameter for surface solar radiation assessment, in particular, for those applications involving direct <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. However, the dL3M AOD is prone to data gaps originated mostly by the unfeasibility of retrieving reliable estimates under cloudy conditions. In addition, its usability is also constrained by regional biases owing to some other reasons. In this work we propose a methodology for bias reduction and data-gaps removal of the dL3M AOD dataset. The result is a database of <span class="hlt">daily</span> regularly-gridded AOD suitable for use in surface solar radiation applications and large-scale and long-term studies involving AOD without requiring a previous costly data assimilation process involving numerical weather prediction models. The method consists of an empirical approach to bias reduction, data-gaps removal by kriging interpolation and, finally, where reliable ground observations are available, an optimal interpolation procedure. The method was tested in the North American region, where it was able to reduce the initial mean error from 0.067 to 0.001, the root mean square error from 0.130 to 0.057, and increase the squared correlation coefficient from 23% to 58%, as compared against ground measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015664','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015664"><span id="translatedtitle">An introduction to quiet <span class="hlt">daily</span> geomagnetic fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Campbell, W.H.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>On days that are quiet with respect to solar-terrestrial activity phenomena, the geomagnetic field has variations, tens of gamma in size, with major spectral components at about 24, 12, 8, and 6 hr in period. These quiet <span class="hlt">daily</span> field variations are primarily due to the dynamo currents flowing in the E region of the earth's ionosphere, are driven by the <span class="hlt">global</span> thermotidal wind systems, and are dependent upon the local tensor conductivity and main geomagnetic field vector. The highlights of the behavior and interpretation of these quiet field changes, from their discovery in 1634 until the present, are discussed as an introduction to the special journal issue on Quiet <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Geomagnetic Fields. ?? 1989 Birkha??user Verlag.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED314206.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED314206.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Measuring <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Stress in Children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Parfenoff, Sheila H.; Jose, Paul E.</p> <p></p> <p>A study of school-age children was designed to: (1) identify hassles that children experience in their families, among peers, and at school; (2) determine the ability of hassles to predict unhealthy psychological and physical functioning; and (3) explore the effect of <span class="hlt">daily</span> hassles on school behavior. A measure of children's <span class="hlt">daily</span> stress that used</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AtmRe..70..209O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AtmRe..70..209O"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of the total atmospheric optical depth and cloud cover on solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> components</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ogunjobi, K. O.; Kim, Y. J.; He, Z.</p> <p>2004-06-01</p> <p>Broadband solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> data obtained in the spectral range 400-940 nm at Kwangju, South Korea from 1999-2000 have been analyzed to investigate the effects of cloud cover and atmospheric optical depth on solar radiation components. Results from measurements indicate that the percentage of direct and diffuse horizontal components of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> depend largely on total optical depth (TOD) and cloud cover. During summer and spring, the percentages of diffuse solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> relative to the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> were 5.0% and 4.9% as compared to 2.2% and 3.0% during winter and autumn. The diffuse solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> is higher than the direct in spring and summer by 24.2%, and 40.6%, respectively, which may largely be attributed to the attenuation (scattering) of radiation by heavy dust pollution and large cloud amount. In cloud-free conditions with cloud cover ?2/10, the fraction of the direct and diffuse components were 66.0% and 34.0%, respectively, with a mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> value of 7.922.91 MJ m -2 day -1. However, under cloudy conditions (with cloud cover ?8/10), the diffuse and direct fractions were 97.9% and 2.2% of the <span class="hlt">global</span> component, respectively. The annual mean TOD under cloudless conditions (cloud cover?2/10) yields 0.740.33 and increased to as much as 3.150.67 under cloudy conditions with cloud amount ?8/10. An empirical formula is derived for estimating the diffuse and direct components of horizontal solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> by considering the total atmospheric optical depth (TOD). Results from statistical models are shown for the estimation of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> components as a function of TOD with sufficient accuracy as indicated by low standard error for each solar zenith angle (SZA).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=tv+AND+news+AND+media+AND+journalism&pg=4&id=EJ389790','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=tv+AND+news+AND+media+AND+journalism&pg=4&id=EJ389790"><span id="translatedtitle">TV Producer Juggles <span class="hlt">Daily</span> News.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brennan, Bill</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Brennan discusses the <span class="hlt">daily</span> activities required in the production of a television news show. In "The Not-So-Glamorous Life of a TV Reporter," Linda Yu describes the time and effort required to become a television reporter. (LS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19935489','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19935489"><span id="translatedtitle">[Social phobia in <span class="hlt">daily</span> life].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Morschitzky, Hans</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Based on present diagnostic criteria <span class="hlt">daily</span> routine of patients with social phobia is described in detail with all its social, educational and occupational impacts. Suffering of affected people is classified as a disease and in need of treatment. PMID:19935489</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Muses&pg=5&id=EJ556643','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Muses&pg=5&id=EJ556643"><span id="translatedtitle">Publishing <span class="hlt">Daily</span> on the Web.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Taylor, George</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Relates how a 16,000 circulation <span class="hlt">daily</span> newspaper publishes on the Web. Discusses lessons learned about audience, content, design, interactivity, and making money. Muses about the effect new media will have on print. (PA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1000866','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1000866"><span id="translatedtitle">Conversion from <span class="hlt">daily</span> to alternate <span class="hlt">daily</span> corticosteroids in rheumatoid arthritis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fitzcharles, M A; Halsey, J; Currey, H L</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>An attempt was made to convert 24 patients on corticosteroid treatment from a <span class="hlt">daily</span> to an alternate <span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen. Ten patients were successfully converted, 11 failed to convert, and 3 had to be withdrawn for irrelevant reasons. A simple tetracosactrin stimulation test gave some indication of which patients were more likely to convert successfully. Success was not influenced by severity or duration of disease, nor by dose of duration of steroid therapy. Conversion did not influence various clinical and laboratory measures of undesirable steroid side effects, but the follow-up period was probably too short to judge this. The evidence of others suggests that conversion is worth attempting. PMID:7065731</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmRe.149...24B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmRe.149...24B"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of erythemal UV/<span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> ratios to atmospheric parameters: application for estimating erythemal radiation at four sites in Thailand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Buntoung, Sumaman; Janjai, Serm; Nunez, Manuel; Choosri, Pranomkorn; Pratummasoot, Noppamas; Chiwpreecha, Kulanist</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Factors affecting the ratio of erythemal UV (UVER) to broadband (G) <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> were investigated in this study. Data from four solar monitoring sites in Thailand, namely Chiang Mai, Ubon Ratchathani, Nakhon Pathom and Songkhla were used to investigate the UVER/G ratio in response to geometric and atmospheric parameters. These comprised solar zenith angle, aerosol load, total ozone column, precipitable water and clearness index. A modeling scheme was developed to isolate and examine the effect of each individual environmental parameter on the ratio. Results showed that all parameters with the exception of solar zenith angle and clearness index influenced the ratios in a linear manner. These results were also used to develop a semi-empirical model for estimating hourly erythemal UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. Data from 2009 to 2010 were used to construct the ratio model while validation was performed using erythemal UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at the above four sites in 2011. The validation results showed reasonable agreement with a root mean square difference of 13.5% and mean bias difference of - 0.5%, under all sky conditions and 10.9% and - 0.3%, respectively, under cloudless conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmRe.148...24B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmRe.148...24B"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of erythemal UV/<span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> ratios to atmospheric parameters: application for estimating erythemal radiation at four sites in Thailand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Buntoung, Sumaman; Janjai, Serm; Nunez, Manuel; Choosri, Pranomkorn; Pratummasoot, Noppamas; Chiwpreecha, Kulanist</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Factors affecting the ratio of erythemal UV (UVER) to broadband (G) <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> were investigated in this study. Data from four solar monitoring sites in Thailand, namely Chiang Mai, Ubon Ratchathani, Nakhon Pathom and Songkhla were used to investigate the UVER/G ratio in response to geometric and atmospheric parameters. These comprised solar zenith angle, aerosol load, total ozone column, precipitable water and clearness index. A modeling scheme was developed to isolate and examine the effect of each individual environmental parameter on the ratio. Results showed that all parameters with the exception of solar zenith angle and clearness index influenced the ratios in a linear manner. These results were also used to develop a semi-empirical model for estimating hourly erythemal UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. Data from 2009 to 2010 were used to construct the ratio model while validation was performed using erythemal UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at the above four sites in 2011. The validation results showed reasonable agreement with a root mean square difference of 13.5% and mean bias difference of - 0.5%, under all sky conditions and 10.9% and - 0.3%, respectively, under cloudless conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24617697','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24617697"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> management systems in medicine.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Donnelly, Lane F</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>"Lean" (continuous improvement) organizations make use of <span class="hlt">daily</span> management systems (DMS) that are designed so that problems can be quickly identified, front-line staff are empowered to fix the problems that they can, and problems that the front-line staff cannot fix are escalated and countermeasures created quickly. Key components of a DMS include leadership standard work, visual controls, and a <span class="hlt">daily</span> accountability process, as well as discipline involving each of these three components. The author's organization recently had the opportunity to open a new, nonreplacement hospital, allowing the incorporation of continuous improvement principles into the hospital's design and operations. One high-priority task was the creation of a DMS, which was structured as a tiered "huddle" system. All of the front-line clinical areas, as well as all clinical and nonclinical ancillary support areas, conduct morning huddles. Problems identified at these huddles and needing escalation are then brought to a patient flow huddle and an integrated huddle. All of these huddles occur <span class="hlt">daily</span> and have a standard format with three clearly defined components: metrics-goal review, <span class="hlt">daily</span> readiness assessment, and problem accountability reporting. The huddles also provide a <span class="hlt">daily</span> opportunity to see and converse with the people with whom one needs to discuss certain issues. The process of bringing people together for these huddles can contribute significantly to team formation, coordination of efforts, and development of a culture of trust. PMID:24617697</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRG..120..887Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRG..120..887Z"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> underlying water use efficiency for AmeriFlux sites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, Sha; Yu, Bofu; Huang, Yuefei; Wang, Guangqian</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Water use efficiency (WUE) is a crucial parameter to describe the interrelationship between gross primary production (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET). Incorporating the nonlinear effect of vapor pressure deficit (VPD), underlying WUE (uWUE = GPP VPD0.5/ET) is better than inherent WUE (IWUE = GPP VPD/ET) at the half-hourly time scale. However, appropriateness of uWUE has not yet been evaluated at the <span class="hlt">daily</span> time scale. To determine whether uWUE is better than IWUE, <span class="hlt">daily</span> data for seven vegetation types from 34 AmeriFlux sites were used to validate uWUE at the <span class="hlt">daily</span> time scale. First, <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean VPD was shown to be a good substitute for the effective VPD that was required to preserve <span class="hlt">daily</span> GPP totals. Second, an optimal exponent, k*, corresponding to the best linear relationship between GPP VPDk* and ET, was about 0.55 both at half-hourly and <span class="hlt">daily</span> time scales. Third, correlation coefficient between GPP VPDk and ET showed that uWUE (k = 0.5 and r = 0.85) was a better approximation of the optimal WUE (k = k* and r = 0.86) than IWUE (k = 1 and r = 0.81) at the <span class="hlt">daily</span> scale. Finally, when yearly uWUE was used to predict <span class="hlt">daily</span> GPP from <span class="hlt">daily</span> ET and mean VPD, uWUE worked considerably better than IWUE. Comparing observed and predicted <span class="hlt">daily</span> GPP, the average correlation coefficient and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency were 0.81 and 0.59, respectively, using yearly uWUE, and only 0.59 and -0.83 using yearly IWUE. As a nearly optimal WUE, uWUE consistently outperformed IWUE and could be used to evaluate the effects of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming and elevated atmosphere CO2 on carbon assimilation and evapotranspiration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11720268','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11720268"><span id="translatedtitle">Design of landfill <span class="hlt">daily</span> cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Panagiotakopoulos, D; Dokas, I</p> <p>2001-08-01</p> <p>The objective of this paper is to study the behaviour of the landfill soil-to-refuse (S/R) ratio when size, geometry and operating parameters of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> cell vary over realistic ranges. A simple procedure is presented (1) for calculating the cell parameters values which minimise the S/R ratio and (2) for studying the sensitivity of this minimum S/R ratio to variations in cell size, final refuse density, working face length, lift height and cover thickness. In countries where <span class="hlt">daily</span> soil cover is required, savings in landfill space could be realised following this procedure. The sensitivity of minimum S/R to variations in cell dimensions decreases with cell size. Working face length and lift height affect the S/R ratio significantly. This procedure also offers the engineer an additional tool for comparing one large <span class="hlt">daily</span> cell with two or more smaller ones, at two different working faces within the same landfill. PMID:11720268</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4385424','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4385424"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-institutional Feasibility Study of a Fast Patient Localization Method in Total Marrow <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> With Helical Tomotherapy: A <span class="hlt">Global</span> Health Initiative by the International Consortium of Total Marrow <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Takahashi, Yutaka; Vagge, Stefano; Agostinelli, Stefano; Han, Eunyoung; Matulewicz, Lukasz; Schubert, Kai; Chityala, Ravishankar; Ratanatharathorn, Vaneerat; Tournel, Koen; Penagaricano, Jose A.; Florian, Sterzing; Mahe, Marc-Andre; Verneris, Michael R.; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; Corvo, Renzo; Dusenbery, Kathryn E.; Storme, Guy; Hui, Susanta K.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Purpose To develop, characterize, and implement a fast patient localization method for total marrow <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>. Methods and Materials Topographic images were acquired using megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) detector data by delivering static orthogonal beams while the couch traversed through the gantry. Geometric and detector response corrections were performed to generate a megavoltage topogram (MVtopo). We also generated kilovoltage topograms (kVtopo) from the projection data of 3-dimensional CT images to reproduce the same geometry as helical tomotherapy. The MVtopo imaging dose and the optimal image acquisition parameters were investigated. A multi-institutional phantom study was performed to verify the image registration uncertainty. Forty-five MVtopo images were acquired and analyzed with in-house image registration software. Results The smallest jaw size (front and backup jaws of 0) provided the best image contrast and longitudinal resolution. Couch velocity did not affect the image quality or geometric accuracy. The MVtopo dose was less than the MVCT dose. The image registration uncertainty from the multi-institutional study was within 2.8 mm. In patient localization, the differences in calculated couch shift between the registration with MVtopo-kVtopo and MVCT-kVCT images in lateral, cranialcaudal, and vertical directions were 2.2 1.7 mm, 2.6 1.4 mm, and 2.7 1.1 mm, respectively. The imaging time in MVtopo acquisition at the couch speed of 3 cm/s was <1 minute, compared with ?15 minutes in MVCT for all patients. Conclusion Whole-body MVtopo imaging could be an effective alternative to time-consuming MVCT for total marrow <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> patient localization. PMID:25442340</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22423836','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22423836"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-institutional Feasibility Study of a Fast Patient Localization Method in Total Marrow <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> With Helical Tomotherapy: A <span class="hlt">Global</span> Health Initiative by the International Consortium of Total Marrow <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Takahashi, Yutaka; Vagge, Stefano; Agostinelli, Stefano; Han, Eunyoung; Matulewicz, Lukasz; Schubert, Kai; Chityala, Ravishankar; Ratanatharathorn, Vaneerat; Tournel, Koen; Penagaricano, Jose A.; Florian, Sterzing; Mahe, Marc-Andre; Verneris, Michael R.; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; and others</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: To develop, characterize, and implement a fast patient localization method for total marrow <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>. Methods and Materials: Topographic images were acquired using megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) detector data by delivering static orthogonal beams while the couch traversed through the gantry. Geometric and detector response corrections were performed to generate a megavoltage topogram (MVtopo). We also generated kilovoltage topograms (kVtopo) from the projection data of 3-dimensional CT images to reproduce the same geometry as helical tomotherapy. The MVtopo imaging dose and the optimal image acquisition parameters were investigated. A multi-institutional phantom study was performed to verify the image registration uncertainty. Forty-five MVtopo images were acquired and analyzed with in-house image registration software. Results: The smallest jaw size (front and backup jaws of 0) provided the best image contrast and longitudinal resolution. Couch velocity did not affect the image quality or geometric accuracy. The MVtopo dose was less than the MVCT dose. The image registration uncertainty from the multi-institutional study was within 2.8 mm. In patient localization, the differences in calculated couch shift between the registration with MVtopo-kVtopo and MVCT-kVCT images in lateral, cranial–caudal, and vertical directions were 2.2 ± 1.7 mm, 2.6 ± 1.4 mm, and 2.7 ± 1.1 mm, respectively. The imaging time in MVtopo acquisition at the couch speed of 3 cm/s was <1 minute, compared with ≥15 minutes in MVCT for all patients. Conclusion: Whole-body MVtopo imaging could be an effective alternative to time-consuming MVCT for total marrow <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> patient localization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015FrP.....3...73A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015FrP.....3...73A"><span id="translatedtitle">Digital <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Cycles of Individuals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aledavood, Talayeh; Lehmann, Sune; Saramäki, Jari</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Humans, like almost all animals, are phase-locked to the diurnal cycle. Most of us sleep at night and are active through the day. Because we have evolved to function with this cycle, the circadian rhythm is deeply ingrained and even detectable at the biochemical level. However, within the broader day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital <span class="hlt">daily</span> cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We begin at the aggregate level, discuss earlier results, and illustrate differences between population-level <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms in different media. Then we move on to the individual level, and show that there is a strong individual-level variation beyond averages: individuals typically have their distinctive <span class="hlt">daily</span> pattern that persists in time. We conclude by discussing the driving forces behind these signature <span class="hlt">daily</span> patterns, from personal traits (morningness/eveningness) to variation in activity level and external constraints, and outline possibilities for future research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.choosemyplate.gov/MyPlate-Daily-Checklist','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.choosemyplate.gov/MyPlate-Daily-Checklist"><span id="translatedtitle">MyPlate <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Checklist</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Menus Seasonal Winter Spring Summer Fall Food Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide MyPlate <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Checklist ... Printable Materials MyPlate Videos Recipes & Menus Seasonal Resources Food Safety Newsroom Communicator's Guide Dietary Guidelines Stay connected Get ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.choosemyplate.gov/moms-daily-food-plan','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.choosemyplate.gov/moms-daily-food-plan"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Food Plan for Moms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Menus Seasonal Winter Spring Summer Fall Food Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide MyPlate <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Checklist ... Dietary Supplements Medical Conditions, Allergies, and Food Intolerances Food Safety Older Adults Children Students Professionals Multiple Languages MyPlate, ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040081066&hterms=chlorophyll&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dchlorophyll','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040081066&hterms=chlorophyll&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dchlorophyll"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent Trends in <span class="hlt">Global</span> Ocean Chlorophyll</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gregg, Watson; Casey, Nancy</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Recent analyses of SeaWiFS data have shown that <span class="hlt">global</span> ocean chlorophyll has increased more than 5% since 1998. The North Pacific ocean basin has increased nearly 19%. To understand the causes of these trends we have applied the newly developed NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Assimilation Model (OBAM), which is driven in mechanistic fashion by surface winds, sea surface temperature, atmospheric iron deposition, sea ice, and surface <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. The mode1 utilizes chlorophyll from SeaWiFS in a <span class="hlt">daily</span> assimilation. The model has in place many of the climatic variables that can be expected to produce the changes observed in SeaWiFS data. Ths enables us to diagnose the model performance, the assimilation performance, and possible causes for the increase in chlorophyll.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACP....13..675R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACP....13..675R"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of the Level-3 MODIS <span class="hlt">daily</span> aerosol optical depth in the context of surface solar radiation and numerical weather modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ruiz-Arias, J. A.; Dudhia, J.; Gueymard, C. A.; Pozo-Vzquez, D.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">daily</span> Level-3 MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) product is a <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">daily</span> spatial aggregation of the Level-2 MODIS AOD (10-km spatial resolution) into a regular grid with a resolution of 1 1. It offers interesting characteristics for surface solar radiation and numerical weather modeling applications. However, most of the validation efforts so far have focused on Level-2 products and only rarely on Level 3. In this contribution, we compare the Level-3 Collection 5.1 MODIS AOD dataset from the Terra satellite available since 2000 against observed <span class="hlt">daily</span> AOD values at 550 nm from more than 500 AERONET ground stations around the globe. Overall, the mean error of the dataset is 0.03 (17%, relative to the mean ground-observed AOD), with a root mean square error of 0.14 (73%, relative to the same), but these errors are also found highly dependent on geographical region. We propose new functions for the expected error of the Level-3 AOD, as well as for both its mean error and its standard deviation. Additionally, we investigate the role of pixel count vis--vis the reliability of the AOD estimates, and also explore to what extent the spatial aggregation from Level 2 to Level 3 influences the total uncertainty in the Level-3 AOD. Finally, we use a radiative transfer model to investigate how the Level-3 AOD uncertainty propagates into the calculated direct normal and <span class="hlt">global</span> horizontal <span class="hlt">irradiances</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..444..838P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..444..838P"><span id="translatedtitle">Observability of market <span class="hlt">daily</span> volatility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>We study the price dynamics of 65 stocks from the Dow Jones Composite Average from 1973 to 2014. We show that it is possible to define a <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Market Volatility σ(t) which is directly observable from data. This quantity is usually indirectly defined by r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) where the r(t) are the <span class="hlt">daily</span> returns of the market index and the ω(t) are i.i.d. random variables with vanishing average and unitary variance. The relation r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) alone is unable to give an operative definition of the index volatility, which remains unobservable. On the contrary, we show that using the whole information available in the market, the index volatility can be operatively defined and detected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=smoking+AND+-laurie+AND+s.&pg=4&id=EJ999531','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=smoking+AND+-laurie+AND+s.&pg=4&id=EJ999531"><span id="translatedtitle">Intent to Quit among <span class="hlt">Daily</span> and Non-<span class="hlt">Daily</span> College Student Smokers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-<span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers (i.e. never <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers), converted non-<span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers (i.e. former <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers) and <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers] and (ii) smoking</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230125-wapa-daily-energy-accounting-activities','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230125-wapa-daily-energy-accounting-activities"><span id="translatedtitle">WAPA <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Energy Accounting Activities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/">Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1990-10-01</p> <p>ISA (Interchange, Scheduling, & Accounting) is the interchange scheduling system used by the DOE Western Area Power Administration to perform energy accounting functions associated with the <span class="hlt">daily</span> activities of the Watertown Operations Office (WOO). The system's primary role is to provide accounting functions for scheduled energy which is exchanged with other power companies and power operating organizations. The system has a secondary role of providing a historical record of all scheduled interchange transactions. The followingmore » major functions are performed by ISA: scheduled energy accounting for received and delivered energy; generation scheduling accounting for both fossil and hydro-electric power plants; metered energy accounting for received and delivered totals; energy accounting for Direct Current (D.C.) Ties; regulation accounting; automatic generation control set calculations; accounting summaries for Basin, Heartland Consumers Power District, and the Missouri Basin Municipal Power Agency; calculation of estimated generation for the Laramie River Station plant; <span class="hlt">daily</span> and monthly reports; and dual control areas.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013759','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013759"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> cycles in coastal dunes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hunter, R.E.; Richmond, B.M.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> cycles of summer sea breezes produce distinctive cyclic foreset deposits in dune sands of the Texas and Oregon coasts. In both areas the winds are strong enough to transport sand only during part of the day, reach a peak during the afternoon, and vary little in direction during the period of sand transport. Cyclicity in the foreset deposits is made evident by variations in the type of sedimentary structure, the texture, and the heavy-mineral content of the sand. Some of the cyclic deposits are made up entirely of one basic type of structure, in which the character of the structure varies cyclically; for example, the angle of climb in a climbing-wind-ripple structure may vary cyclically. Other cyclic deposits are characterized by alternations of two or more structural types. Variations in the concentration of fine-grained heavy minerals, which account for the most striking cyclicity, arise mainly because of segregation on wind-rippled depositional surfaces: where the ripples climb at low angles, the coarsegrained light minerals, which accumulate preferentially on ripple crests, tend to be excluded from the local deposit. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> cyclic deposits are thickest and best developed on small dunes and are least recognizable near the bases of large dunes. ?? 1988.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AMT.....7.3927Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AMT.....7.3927Q"><span id="translatedtitle">Improving HelioClim-3 estimates of surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> using the McClear clear-sky model and recent advances in atmosphere composition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qu, Z.; Gschwind, B.; Lefevre, M.; Wald, L.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The HelioClim-3 database (HC3v3) provides records of surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> every 15 min, estimated by processing images from the geostationary meteorological Meteosat satellites using climatological data sets of the atmospheric Linke turbidity factor. This technical note proposes a method to improve a posteriori HC3v3 by combining it with data records of the <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> under clear skies from the new McClear clear-sky model, whose inputs are the advanced <span class="hlt">global</span> aerosol property forecasts and physically consistent total column content in water vapour and ozone produced by the MACC (Monitoring Atmosphere Composition and Climate) projects. The method is validated by comparison with a series of ground measurements for 15 min and 1 h for 6 stations and for <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> for 23 stations. The correlation coefficient is large, greater than respectively 0.92, 0.94, and 0.97, for 15 min, 1 h and <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>. The bias ranges from -4 to 4% of the mean observed <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> for most sites. The relative root mean square difference (RMSD) varies between 14 and 38% for 15 min, 12 and 33% for 1 h <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>, and 6 and 20% for <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>. As a rule of thumb, the farther from the nadir of the Meteosat satellite located at latitude 0 and longitude 0, and the greater the occurrence of fragmented cloud cover, the greater the relative RMSD. The method improves HC3v3 in most cases, and with no degradation in the others. A systematic correction of HC3v3 with McClear is recommended.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/ResourcesForYou/Consumers/BuyingUsingMedicineSafely/UnderstandingOver-the-CounterMedicines/SafeUseofOver-the-CounterPainRelieversandFeverReducers/ucm233848.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/ResourcesForYou/Consumers/BuyingUsingMedicineSafely/UnderstandingOver-the-CounterMedicines/SafeUseofOver-the-CounterPainRelieversandFeverReducers/ucm233848.htm"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Medicine Record for Your Child</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... the-Counter Pain Relievers and Fever Reducers <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Medicine Record for Your Child (English) Share Tweet Linkedin ... Age: ____ 2 years old___ Weight: ___ 30 pounds ___ <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Medicine Record Child’s name: ___________________ Today’s date: _________________ Age: ____________ Weight: ________________ (pounds) ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6788037','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6788037"><span id="translatedtitle">Brush border intestinal enzymes after multiple <span class="hlt">daily</span> fractionation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Becciolini, A.; Giache, V.; Balzi, M.; Morrone, A.</p> <p>1987-03-01</p> <p>The modifications in brush border enzyme activity of the epithelial cell of the small intestine were studied after multiple <span class="hlt">daily</span> fractionation (MDF) of 3 Gy X and 3 Gy X 2 X 2 (12 h split). Disaccharase and dipeptidase activities changed in the same way after <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>. The results show that both total doses caused the three known phases of increase, decrease, and a return to normal. With MDF, activity at the end of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> was similar to or greater than that of controls and remained higher longer than a single dose of 8 Gy. However, the return to normal occurred sooner than after a single dose of 8 Gy. After 11 days, circadian oscillations of brush border enzyme activity appeared similar to those of controls in many segments of the intestine, reaching the highest activity during the night and the lowest in the afternoon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110007072','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110007072"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhancement of the MODIS <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Snow Albedo Product</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hall, Dorothy K.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Wang, Zhuosen; Riggs, George A.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The MODIS <span class="hlt">daily</span> snow albedo product is a data layer in the MOD10A1 snow-cover product that includes snow-covered area and fractional snow cover as well as quality information and other metadata. It was developed to augment the MODIS BRDF/Albedo algorithm (MCD43) that provides 16-day maps of albedo <span class="hlt">globally</span> at 500-m resolution. But many modelers require <span class="hlt">daily</span> snow albedo, especially during the snowmelt season when the snow albedo is changing rapidly. Many models have an unrealistic snow albedo feedback in both estimated albedo and change in albedo over the seasonal cycle context, Rapid changes in snow cover extent or brightness challenge the MCD43 algorithm; over a 16-day period, MCD43 determines whether the majority of clear observations was snow-covered or snow-free then only calculates albedo for the majority condition. Thus changes in snow albedo and snow cover are not portrayed accurately during times of rapid change, therefore the current MCD43 product is not ideal for snow work. The MODIS <span class="hlt">daily</span> snow albedo from the MOD10 product provides more frequent, though less robust maps for pixels defined as "snow" by the MODIS snow-cover algorithm. Though useful, the <span class="hlt">daily</span> snow albedo product can be improved using a <span class="hlt">daily</span> version of the MCD43 product as described in this paper. There are important limitations to the MOD10A1 <span class="hlt">daily</span> snow albedo product, some of which can be mitigated. Utilizing the appropriate per-pixel Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDFs) can be problematic, and correction for anisotropic scattering must be included. The BRDF describes how the reflectance varies with view and illumination geometry. Also, narrow-to-broadband conversion specific for snow on different surfaces must be calculated and this can be difficult. In consideration of these limitations of MOD10A1, we are planning to improve the <span class="hlt">daily</span> snow albedo algorithm by coupling the periodic per-pixel snow albedo from MCD43, with <span class="hlt">daily</span> surface ref|outanoom, In this paper, we compare a <span class="hlt">daily</span> version of MCD43B3 with the <span class="hlt">daily</span> albedo from MOD10A1. and MCD43B3 with a 16-day average of MOD10A1, over Greenland. We also discuss some near-future planned enhancements to MOD10A1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25416461','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25416461"><span id="translatedtitle">Sleep and chronic <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stark, Catherine Diana; Stark, Richard James</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Sleep and headache have a complex and extensive interrelationship. This review focuses on the relationship between sleep and chronic <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache, examining recent advances in the epidemiology and insights into possible mechanisms of this relationship as well as reviewing advances in treatment. There is a clear relationship between obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and snoring and morning headache, but the relationship between OSA and snoring and other primary headaches requires clarification. OSA and chronic migraine share both obesity and patent foramen ovale (PFO) as possible co-morbidities. Hypoxia does not clearly predispose to morning headache. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is an established treatment for OSA, and mixed results have been reported with regards to headache improvement with this treatment. PMID:25416461</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title50-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title50-vol8-sec20-24.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title50-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title50-vol8-sec20-24.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR 20.24 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> limit.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> limit. 20.24 Section 20.24 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING..., more than the <span class="hlt">daily</span> bag limit or aggregate <span class="hlt">daily</span> bag limit, whichever applies....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=163502','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=163502"><span id="translatedtitle">Once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> aminoglycoside therapy: potential ototoxicity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Singer, C; Smith, C; Krieff, D</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Current data indicate that once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> aminoglycoside therapy is as efficacious as traditional multiple <span class="hlt">daily</span> dosing and equally or less toxic. Our experience with once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> gentamicin, 6 mg/kg of body weight led to a 10% (3 of 33 patients) occurrence of documented ototoxicity after prolonged aminoglycoside exposure. PMID:8878610</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=your+AND+mother&pg=2&id=ED525890','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=your+AND+mother&pg=2&id=ED525890"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Practices of Successful Principals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brock, Barbara L.; Grady, Marilyn L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>While many books outline the attributes of successful school leaders, few describe how those traits manifest in <span class="hlt">daily</span> practice. "The <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Practices of Successful Principals" goes beyond the outward picture of excellence and provides a compendium of <span class="hlt">daily</span> practices used by successful principals in various settings. Written by former administrators</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=atlas&pg=5&id=ED525890','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=atlas&pg=5&id=ED525890"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Practices of Successful Principals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brock, Barbara L.; Grady, Marilyn L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>While many books outline the attributes of successful school leaders, few describe how those traits manifest in <span class="hlt">daily</span> practice. "The <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Practices of Successful Principals" goes beyond the outward picture of excellence and provides a compendium of <span class="hlt">daily</span> practices used by successful principals in various settings. Written by former administrators…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910003170','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910003170"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Solar Lyman Alpha <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pap, J.; Hudson, H. S.; Rottman, G. J.; Willson, R. C.; Donnelly, R. F.; London, J.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Solar Lyman alpha <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> is estimated from various solar indices using linear regression analyses. Models developed with multiple linear regression analysis, including <span class="hlt">daily</span> values and 81-day running means of solar indices, predict reasonably well both the short- and long-term variations observed in Lyman alpha. It is shown that the full disk equivalent width of the He line at 1083 nm offers the best proxy for Lyman alpha, and that the total <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> corrected for sunspot effect also has a high correlation with Lyman alpha.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009NW.....96.1235G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009NW.....96.1235G"><span id="translatedtitle">Hibernation and <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor minimize mammalian extinctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Geiser, Fritz; Turbill, Christopher</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>Small mammals appear to be less vulnerable to extinction than large species, but the underlying reasons are poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that almost all (93.5%) of 61 recently extinct mammal species were homeothermic, maintaining a constant high body temperature and thus energy expenditure, which demands a high intake of food, long foraging times, and thus exposure to predators. In contrast, only 6.5% of extinct mammals were likely heterothermic and employed multi-day torpor (hibernation) or <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor, even though torpor is widespread within more than half of all mammalian orders. Torpor is characterized by substantial reductions of body temperature and energy expenditure and enhances survival during adverse conditions by minimizing food and water requirements, and consequently reduces foraging requirements and exposure to predators. Moreover, because life span is generally longer in heterothermic mammals than in related homeotherms, heterotherms can employ a sit-and-wait strategy to withstand adverse periods and then repopulate when circumstances improve. Thus, torpor is a crucial but hitherto unappreciated attribute of small mammals for avoiding extinction. Many opportunistic heterothermic species, because of their plastic energetic requirements, may also stand a better chance of future survival than homeothermic species in the face of greater climatic extremes and changes in environmental conditions caused by <span class="hlt">global</span> warming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3731190','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3731190"><span id="translatedtitle">Sedoanalgesia in pediatric <span class="hlt">daily</span> surgery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ozkan, Aybars; Okur, Mesut; Kaya, Murat; Kaya, Ertugrul; Kucuk, Adem; Erbas, Mesut; Kutlucan, Leyla; Sahan, Leyla</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: The present report was focused on clinical advantages of sedoanalgesia in the pediatric outpatient surgical cases. Method: Sedoanalgesia has been used to sedate patients for a variety of pediatric procedures in our department between 2007 and 2010. This is a retrospective review of 2720 pediatric patients given ketamine for sedation with midazolam premedication. Ketamine was given intravenously (1-2 mg/kg) together with atropine (0.02 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.1 mg/kg) + a local infiltration anesthetic 2 mg/kg 0.5% bupivacaine hydrochloride. Result: Median age of the patients included in the study was 5.76 2.12 (0-16 years). The main indications for ketamine include circumcision (69%), inguinal pathologies (inguinal hernia (17%), orchidopexy (2.68%), hydrocele (3.38%), hypospadias (1.94%), urethral fistula repair (0.33%), urethral dilatation (0.25%), and other conditions. All of our patients were discharged home well. In this regard, we have the largest group of patients ever given ketamine. Conclusion: Sedoanalgesia might be used as a quite effective method for <span class="hlt">daily</span> surgical procedures in children. PMID:23936597</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14706037','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14706037"><span id="translatedtitle">Visual stimuli in <span class="hlt">daily</span> life.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenit, Dorothe G A; van der Beld, Gerrit; Heynderickx, Ingrid; Groen, Paul</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>People of all ages, but especially children and adolescents, are increasingly exposed to visual stimuli. Typical environmental stimuli that can trigger epileptic seizures in susceptible persons are televisions (TVs), computers, videogames (VGs), discothque lights, venetian blinds, striped walls, rolling stairs (escalators), striped clothing, and sunlight reflected from snow or the sea or interrupted by trees during a ride in a car or train. Less common stimuli are rotating helicopter blades, disfunctioning fluorescent lighting, welding lights, etc. New potentially provocative devices turn up now and then unexpectedly. During the last decades especially, displays have become increasingly dominant in many of our <span class="hlt">daily</span>-life activities. We therefore focus mainly on the characteristics of artificial light and on current and future developments in video displays and videogames. Because VG playing has been shown also to have positive effects, a rating system might be developed for provocativeness to inform consumers about the content. It is important that patients with epilepsy be informed adequately about their possible visual sensitivity. PMID:14706037</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/264311','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/264311"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">daily</span> changing pattern of hydrogen peroxide in New Zealand surface waters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Herrmann, R.</p> <p>1996-05-01</p> <p>Concerns are rising about a <span class="hlt">global</span> change of climate, which is based on changes of UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, rainfall, and temperature for example. One possible impact of increased UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on lake ecosystems is increased formation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Studies on the temporal and spatial behavior of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in lake waters may be a precondition for a better understanding of the impact of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} on aquatic ecosystems. Concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) were measured during daytime every 2 h at several depths in a catena of lakes of different trophic states including oligotrophic lakes Selfe and Oxbow, eutrophic Lake Hayes, dystrophic Lake Hochstetter, and a hypertrophic oxidation pond. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> patterns of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} of the various lakes can be explained firstly by the turnover regime of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} which results out of simultaneous biological or chemical decay and formation yield (ratio of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} formed per UV radiation dose) and secondly by internal transport. As in dystrophic, eutrophic, and hypertrophic lakes with high turnover, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is formed near the surface and the decay is rapid over the entire water column, a H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pattern with sharp temporal and vertical gradients develops. In contrast, oligotrophic lakes allow deeper penetration of UV radiation, thus H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is formed over greater depths. Further, the (biological) decay is slower than in lakes of higher trophic state leading to less sharp gradients within the <span class="hlt">daily</span> H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pattern. Input of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by wet deposition can contribute considerably to the increase of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in lakes, whereas dry deposition and groundwater flow do not.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23604480','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23604480"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> regulation of hormone profiles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kalsbeek, Andries; Fliers, Eric</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The highly coordinated output of the hypothalamic biological clock does not only govern the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm in sleep/wake (or feeding/fasting) behaviour but also has direct control over many aspects of hormone release. In fact, a significant proportion of our current understanding of the circadian clock has its roots in the study of the intimate connections between the hypothalamic clock and multiple endocrine axes. This chapter will focus on the anatomical connections used by the mammalian biological clock to enforce its endogenous rhythmicity on the rest of the body, using a number of different hormone systems as a representative example. Experimental studies have revealed a highly specialised organisation of the connections between the mammalian circadian clock neurons and neuroendocrine as well as pre-autonomic neurons in the hypothalamus. These complex connections ensure a logical coordination between behavioural, endocrine and metabolic functions that will help the organism adjust to the time of day most efficiently. For example, activation of the orexin system by the hypothalamic biological clock at the start of the active phase not only ensures that we wake up on time but also that our glucose metabolism and cardiovascular system are prepared for this increased activity. Nevertheless, it is very likely that the circadian clock present within the endocrine glands plays a significant role as well, for instance, by altering these glands' sensitivity to specific stimuli throughout the day. In this way the net result of the activity of the hypothalamic and peripheral clocks ensures an optimal endocrine adaptation of the metabolism of the organism to its time-structured environment. PMID:23604480</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=261016','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=261016"><span id="translatedtitle">Emerging issues in food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Ionizing radiation is used on a <span class="hlt">global</span> basis to improve the phytosanitary and microbial safety and shelf-life of foods. In recent years progress has been made in the commercial application of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> to sterilize destructive invasive insects and to <span class="hlt">irradiate</span> produce to improve its microbiologica...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23023622','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23023622"><span id="translatedtitle">[Lipid therapy in <span class="hlt">daily</span> routine].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sonntag, F; Schaefer, J R; Gitt, A K; Weizel, A; Jannowitz, C; Karmann, B; Pittrow, D; Bestehorn, K</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Patients with increased cardiovascular risk profile are frequently seen in general practice. Comprehensive management of modifiable risk factors, in particular dyslipidemia, is mandatory. Many studies in clinical practice have shown a gap between the recommendations in clinical guidelines and the actual situation. Current data on the management situation of patients with high cardiovascular risk is provided by the prospective registry LIMA. Primary care physicians in 2,387 offices throughout Germany documented 13,924 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetes mellitus or peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Treatment with simvastatin 40?mg was an inclusion criterion. Physicians documented drug utilization, laboratory values (lipids, blood glucose), blood pressure and clinical events over one year and received feedback about the target value attainment of their patients after data entry. Mean age of the patients was 65.7 years, and 61.6?% were men. CAD was reported in 70.6?%, diabetes mellitus in 58.2?% and PAD in 14.9?%. Most patients (68?%) received simvastatin as monotherapy also after the inclusion visit; 20.6?% of patients received in addition the cholesterol absorption inhibitor (ezetimibe) in the first 6 months, and 23.3?% in the second 6 months. Patients achieved the LDL-cholesterol target value in 31.8?% at entry and 50.0?% after one year. The blood pressure target <?140?/90?mmHg was reached by 65.8?% after one year. Of patients with diabetes mellitus 40.0?% reached an HbA1c value below 6.5?%. Clinical events (death, hospitalization, (cardio-) vascular events, and dialysis) were reported by 11.7?% of patients between entry and Month 6, and by 12.0?% between Month 7 and 12. In <span class="hlt">daily</span> practice comprehensive management of risk factors in patients at high cardiovascular risk remains a challenge. For normalization of increased LDL cholesterol values addition of ezetimibe to existing statin therapy improves the chances of patients for target level attainment. PMID:23023622</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.123..593F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.123..593F"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of atmospheric turbidity and surface radiative parameters using broadband clear sky solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> models in Rio de Janeiro-Brasil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Flores, José L.; Karam, Hugo A.; Marques Filho, Edson P.; Pereira Filho, Augusto J.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The main goal of this paper is to estimate a set of optimal seasonal, <span class="hlt">daily</span>, and hourly values of atmospheric turbidity and surface radiative parameters Ångström's turbidity coefficient ( β), Ångström's wavelength exponent ( α), aerosol single scattering albedo ( ω o ), forward scatterance ( F c ) and average surface albedo ( ρ g ), using the Brute Force multidimensional minimization method to minimize the difference between measured and simulated solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> components, expressed as cost functions. In order to simulate the components of short-wave solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (direct, diffuse and <span class="hlt">global</span>) for clear sky conditions, incidents on a horizontal surface in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro (MARJ), Brazil (22° 51' 27″ S, 43° 13' 58″ W), we use two parameterized broadband solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> models, called CPCR2 and Iqbal C, based on synoptic information. The meteorological variables such as precipitable water ( u w ) and ozone concentration ( u o ) required by the broadband solar models were obtained from moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on Terra and Aqua NASA platforms. For the implementation and validation processes, we use <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> data measured by the radiometric platform of LabMiM, located in the north area of the MARJ. The data were measured between the years 2010 and 2012 at 1-min intervals. The performance of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> models using optimal parameters was evaluated with several quantitative statistical indicators and a subset of measured solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> data. Some <span class="hlt">daily</span> results for Ångström's wavelength exponent α were compared with Ångström's parameter (440-870 nm) values obtained by aerosol robotic network (AERONET) for 11 days, showing an acceptable level of agreement. Results for Ångström's turbidity coefficient β, associated with the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere, show a seasonal pattern according with increased precipitation during summer months (December-February) in the MARJ.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.tmp...26F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.tmp...26F"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of atmospheric turbidity and surface radiative parameters using broadband clear sky solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> models in Rio de Janeiro-Brasil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Flores, Jos L.; Karam, Hugo A.; Marques Filho, Edson P.; Pereira Filho, Augusto J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The main goal of this paper is to estimate a set of optimal seasonal, <span class="hlt">daily</span>, and hourly values of atmospheric turbidity and surface radiative parameters ngstrm's turbidity coefficient (?), ngstrm's wavelength exponent (?), aerosol single scattering albedo (? o ), forward scatterance (F c ) and average surface albedo (? g ), using the Brute Force multidimensional minimization method to minimize the difference between measured and simulated solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> components, expressed as cost functions. In order to simulate the components of short-wave solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (direct, diffuse and <span class="hlt">global</span>) for clear sky conditions, incidents on a horizontal surface in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro (MARJ), Brazil (22 51' 27? S, 43 13' 58? W), we use two parameterized broadband solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> models, called CPCR2 and Iqbal C, based on synoptic information. The meteorological variables such as precipitable water (u w ) and ozone concentration (u o ) required by the broadband solar models were obtained from moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on Terra and Aqua NASA platforms. For the implementation and validation processes, we use <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> data measured by the radiometric platform of LabMiM, located in the north area of the MARJ. The data were measured between the years 2010 and 2012 at 1-min intervals. The performance of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> models using optimal parameters was evaluated with several quantitative statistical indicators and a subset of measured solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> data. Some <span class="hlt">daily</span> results for ngstrm's wavelength exponent ? were compared with ngstrm's parameter (440-870 nm) values obtained by aerosol robotic network (AERONET) for 11 days, showing an acceptable level of agreement. Results for ngstrm's turbidity coefficient ?, associated with the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere, show a seasonal pattern according with increased precipitation during summer months (December-February) in the MARJ.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1007339','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1007339"><span id="translatedtitle">Measuring Degradation Rates Without <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pulver, S.; Cormode, D.; Cronin, A.; Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Smith, R.</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>A method to report PV system degradation rates without using <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> data is demonstrated. First, a set of relative degradation rates are determined by comparing <span class="hlt">daily</span> AC final yields from a group of PV systems relative to the average final yield of all the PV systems. Then, the difference between relative and absolute degradation rates is found from a statistical analysis. This approach is verified by comparing to methods that utilize <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> data. This approach is significant because PV systems are often deployed without <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> sensors, so the analysis method described here may enable measurements of degradation using data that were previously thought to be unsuitable for degradation studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=inventarios&id=EJ1051349','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=inventarios&id=EJ1051349"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Stressors in Primary Education Students</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fernndez-Baena, F. Javier; Trianes, Mara V.; Escobar, Milagros; Blanca, Mara J.; Muoz, ngela M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> stress can have a bearing on children's emotional and academic development. This study aimed to assess <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors and to determine their prevalence among primary education students, taking into account their gender, academic year, social adaptation, and the school location. A sample of 7,354 Spanish schoolchildren aged between 6</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED047466.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED047466.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Techniques for <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Living: Curriculum Guides.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wooldridge, Lillian; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>Presented are specific guides concerning techniques for <span class="hlt">daily</span> living which were developed by the child care staff at the Illinois Braille and Sight Saving School. The guides are designed for cottage parents of the children, who may have both visual and other handicaps, and show what <span class="hlt">daily</span> living skills are necessary and appropriate for the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title1-vol1-sec5-6.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title1-vol1-sec5-6.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 5.6 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL 5.6 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title1-vol1-sec5-6.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title1-vol1-sec5-6.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 5.6 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL 5.6 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title1-vol1-sec5-6.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title1-vol1-sec5-6.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 5.6 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL 5.6 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title1-vol1-sec5-6.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title1-vol1-sec5-6.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 5.6 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL 5.6 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title1-vol1-sec5-6.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title1-vol1-sec5-6.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 5.6 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL 5.6 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=helping+AND+relationship&pg=2&id=EJ995012','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=helping+AND+relationship&pg=2&id=EJ995012"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Spiritual Experiences and Prosocial Behavior</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Einolf, Christopher J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This paper examines how the <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES) relates to range of prosocial behaviors, using a large, nationally representative U.S. data set. It finds that <span class="hlt">daily</span> spiritual experiences are a statistically and substantively significant predictor of volunteering, charitable giving, and helping individuals one knows personally.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=moral+AND+indicator&pg=2&id=EJ995012','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=moral+AND+indicator&pg=2&id=EJ995012"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Spiritual Experiences and Prosocial Behavior</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Einolf, Christopher J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This paper examines how the <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES) relates to range of prosocial behaviors, using a large, nationally representative U.S. data set. It finds that <span class="hlt">daily</span> spiritual experiences are a statistically and substantively significant predictor of volunteering, charitable giving, and helping individuals one knows personally.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title49-vol4-sec229-21.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title49-vol4-sec229-21.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 229.21 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> inspection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> inspection. 229.21 Section 229.21..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Inspections and Tests 229.21 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> inspection. (a) Except for MU locomotives, each locomotive in use shall be inspected at least once...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2014-title49-vol4-sec229-21.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2014-title49-vol4-sec229-21.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 229.21 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> inspection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> inspection. 229.21 Section 229.21..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Inspections and Tests 229.21 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> inspection. (a) Except for MU locomotives, each locomotive in use shall be inspected at least once...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title49-vol4-sec229-21.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title49-vol4-sec229-21.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 229.21 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> inspection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> inspection. 229.21 Section 229.21..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Inspections and Tests 229.21 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> inspection. (a) Except for MU locomotives, each locomotive in use shall be inspected at least once...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title49-vol4-sec229-21.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title49-vol4-sec229-21.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 229.21 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> inspection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> inspection. 229.21 Section 229.21..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Inspections and Tests 229.21 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> inspection. (a) Except for MU locomotives, each locomotive in use shall be inspected at least once...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2011-title49-vol4-sec229-21.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2011-title49-vol4-sec229-21.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 229.21 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> inspection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> inspection. 229.21 Section 229.21..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Inspections and Tests 229.21 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> inspection. (a) Except for MU locomotives, each locomotive in use shall be inspected at least once...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26695063','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26695063"><span id="translatedtitle">Psychological Therapy in Adolescents with Chronic <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Headache.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chiappedi, Matteo; Mensi, Martina Maria; Termine, Cristiano; Balottin, Umberto</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Chronic <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache is a serious disease, causing significant problems in terms of reduced quality of life and disability, with pain localized to the head (headache) occurring 15 or more days per month for more than 3months (>180days per year). Drugs, both used as preventive medications or as pain-killers, are insufficient for the management of these patients; a more <span class="hlt">global</span> approach has been advocated. This paper reviews existing data concerning different psychological approaches, with a focus on adolescence. This leads to evidence still unanswered questions but also the importance to include psychological treatments in the management of this potentially disabling condition. PMID:26695063</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=318809','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=318809"><span id="translatedtitle">Phytosanitary <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> and Fresh Fruit Quality: Cultivar and Maturity Effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> is an effective quarantine treatment for <span class="hlt">global</span> trade of fresh produce. Variation in cultivars and maturity stages can impact the tolerance of fresh fruits to <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> for the purposes of quarantine security. Tolerance thresholds for <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> fruit are lacking for a large number of ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080012154&hterms=sunshine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dsunshine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080012154&hterms=sunshine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dsunshine"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release 2.5 QC Shortwave <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Data in Native Format (SRB_REL2.5_QCSW_<span class="hlt">DAILY</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p></p> <p>This data set contains average clear-sky surface insolation, all-sky surface insolation, surface absorbed SW flux, and all-sky surface albedo measured at <span class="hlt">daily</span> intervals for each day for the entire globe between 07/01/1983 and 06/30/2005. These SW surface radiative parameters were derived with the Quality-Check SW (QCSW) algorithm of the NASA World Climate Research Programme/<span class="hlt">Global</span> Energy and Water-Cycle Experiment (WCRP/GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Project. [Location=<span class="hlt">GLOBAL</span>] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=Ranges from 1 degree (tropics and subtropics) to 120 degrees (the poles).; Temporal_Resolution=<span class="hlt">daily</span>; Temporal_Resolution_Range=<span class="hlt">daily</span>].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+strategy&pg=2&id=EJ961917','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+strategy&pg=2&id=EJ961917"><span id="translatedtitle">Mastering Social and Organization Goals: Strategy Use by Two Children with Asperger Syndrome during Cognitive Orientation to <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Occupational Performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rodger, Sylvia; Vishram, Alysha</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Preliminary data supports the effectiveness of Cognitive Orientation to (<span class="hlt">daily</span>) Occupational Performance (CO-OP) for children with Asperger syndrome (AS). Children with AS often experience social and organizational difficulties spanning <span class="hlt">daily</span> occupations. This case study explored the pattern of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Strategies and Domain-Specific Strategies</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20850268','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20850268"><span id="translatedtitle">Whole-abdomen radiotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma using twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> fractionation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Liauw, Stanley L.; Yeh, Alexander M.; Morris, Christopher G.; Olivier, Kenneth R.; Mendenhall, Nancy Price . E-mail: mendenan@shands.ufl.edu</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Purpose: To report the tolerability and efficacy of twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> whole-abdomen <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> (WAI) for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Methods and Materials: Of 123 patients treated for NHL with WAI, 37% received previous chemotherapy, 28% received WAI as part of comprehensive lymphatic <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> (CLI), and 32% received WAI for palliation. The median dose to the whole abdomen was 25.0 Gy, followed by a median tumor boost of 9.8 Gy in 58 patients. Fractionation was 1.0 Gy once <span class="hlt">daily</span> (54%) or 0.8 Gy twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> (46%). Blood counts were measured weekly. Results: At a median follow-up of 4.3 years, local control was 72% and overall survival was 55% at 5 years. Median time of WAI was 42 days for once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> treatment and 32 days for twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> treatment. Patients receiving twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> WAI did not have a significantly higher rate of acute side effects (e.g., nausea, diarrhea, platelet or red blood cell toxicity). Overall, acute thrombocytopenia was the most frequent side effect of treatment; 24 of 96 patients (25%) with available hematologic data had Grade 3+ toxicity. There was no acute Grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity and no late small bowel obstruction. Multiple regression indicated that patients with four or less involved sites and disease size {<=}6 cm had improved local control and overall survival. Conclusions: Twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> WAI using 0.8 Gy/fraction does not appear to have any greater toxicity compared with once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> treatment using 1 Gy/fraction. Small doses per fraction (0.8-1 Gy/fx) are effective, tolerated well in the acute setting, and associated with a low rate of late toxicity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=company+AND+leadership&pg=2&id=EJ597527','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=company+AND+leadership&pg=2&id=EJ597527"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Fluency.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tosti, Donald T.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Defines <span class="hlt">global</span> fluency as a facility with cultural behaviors that help an organization thrive in an ever-changing <span class="hlt">global</span> business environment; and discusses business culture, <span class="hlt">global</span> culture, an example of a change effort at a <span class="hlt">global</span> company, leadership values, company values, and defining <span class="hlt">global</span> values and practices. (Author/LRW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=week&pg=4&id=EJ959374','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=week&pg=4&id=EJ959374"><span id="translatedtitle">Adolescent <span class="hlt">Daily</span> and General Maladjustment: Is There Reactivity to <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Repeated Measures Methodologies?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nishina, Adrienne</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The present study examined whether repeated exposure to <span class="hlt">daily</span> surveys about negative social experiences predicts changes in adolescents' <span class="hlt">daily</span> and general maladjustment, and whether question content moderates these changes. Across a 2-week period, 6th-grade students (N = 215; mode age = 11) completed 5 <span class="hlt">daily</span> reports tapping experienced or…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.8887R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.8887R"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes to the temporal distribution of <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rajah, Kailash; O'Leary, Tess; Turner, Alice; Petrakis, Gabriella; Leonard, Michael; Westra, Seth</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Changes to the temporal distribution of <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation were investigated using a data set of 12,513 land-based stations from the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Historical Climatology Network. The distribution of precipitation was measured using the Gini index (which describes how uniformly precipitation is distributed throughout a year) and the annual number of wet days. The Mann-Kendall test and a regression analysis were used to assess the direction and rate of change to both indices. Over the period of 1976-2000, East Asia, Central America, and Brazil exhibited a decrease in the number of both wet and light precipitation days, and eastern Europe exhibited a decrease in the number of both wet and moderate precipitation days. In contrast, the U.S., southern South America, western Europe, and Australia exhibited an increase in the number of both wet and light precipitation days. Trends in both directions were field significant at the <span class="hlt">global</span> scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17512594','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17512594"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> intake of 4-nonylphenol in Taiwanese.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lu, Yu-Yu; Chen, Mei-Lien; Sung, Fung-Chang; Wang, Paulus Shyi-Gang; Mao, I-Fang</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>Alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEO), alkylphenols combined with ethylene oxide, are a class of nonionic surfactants. APEO have been widely used for industrial, agricultural and household applications, and are biodegraded to more persistent and estrogen-active products, namely, nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), butylphenol (BP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP(1)EO) and nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP(2)EO). This study determined NP levels in commonly consumed foodstuffs to assess <span class="hlt">daily</span> intake of NP in a Taiwanese population. This study analyzes 318 of samples from 25 types of commonly consumed foodstuffs in northern, central, southern and eastern regions of Taiwan and estimates <span class="hlt">daily</span> intake of NP in 466 subjects. Moreover, <span class="hlt">daily</span> NP intake for 3915 additional subjects was estimated by analyzing data from the Nutrition and health survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT). The foodstuff samples were analyzed for five alkylphenol compounds simultaneously by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Additionally, the average compositions of typical foods consumed in Taiwan were investigated. In combination with alkylphenol levels in these foodstuffs, <span class="hlt">daily</span> intake of NP in Taiwanese was calculated. The average <span class="hlt">daily</span> intake of NP for the 466 subjects was 28.04+/-25.32 microg/day. Estimated <span class="hlt">daily</span> intake of NP, based on NP levels in this study as well as the NAHSIT data, was 31.40 microg/day. Rice was the most commonly consumed source of NP, the proportion was 21.46% among <span class="hlt">daily</span> intake of NP and the following were aquatic products and livestock, which percentage were 17.97% and 17.38%, respectively. Additionally, oysters had the highest NP levels (235.8+/-90.7 ng/g) in four regions of Taiwan, followed by salmon (123.8+/-116.2 ng/g). This study suggested that the average <span class="hlt">daily</span> NP intake in Taiwan is 4-fold and 8.5-fold higher than <span class="hlt">daily</span> intake in Germany and New Zealand, respectively and rice was the major source of NP intake. PMID:17512594</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17002070','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17002070"><span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Daily</span> life activities following cerebrovascular infarct].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pradat-Diehl, Pascale; Peskine, Anne</p> <p>2006-09-15</p> <p>Cerebro-vascular disease is the first cause of handicap in France. Disabilities in <span class="hlt">daily</span> life activities are due to motor, visual and cognitive impairments following a stroke. Difficulties arise while grooming, getting dressed, eating, moving around ... the WHO presents with a new classification of functioning, that has been followed by a recent law in France. The aim is to place the handicapped citizen in <span class="hlt">daily</span> life and not just to list his/her deficiencies. Rehabilitation after stroke has to establish functional objectives early so as to include <span class="hlt">daily</span> life goals in re-education. PMID:17002070</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002431.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002431.htm"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Irradiated</span> foods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... it reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes, and to control insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5227815','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5227815"><span id="translatedtitle">Gamma <span class="hlt">irradiators</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cuda, J.; McKinnon, R.G. ); Baker, P.G. )</p> <p>1989-02-01</p> <p>The commercial use of gamma radiation to sterilize medical equipment and supplies began in the late 1950s. This article describes the basic technology and design aspects of commercial <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> facilities. It explains the safety features and interlocks which protect workers, the public, and the environment from radiation and radioactive material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A41B3041L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A41B3041L"><span id="translatedtitle">Stochastic Simulation of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Solar Radiation from Sunshine Duration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lockart, N.; Kavetski, D.; Franks, S. W.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Solar radiation is a key component of the energy balance used for estimating evaporation. As solar radiation is not widely measured, many empirical models have been developed to estimate solar radiation using sunshine hours (SSH) data. Most of these models only provide deterministic estimates of monthly solar radiation and do not provide an estimate of the uncertainty in the predictions. This study developed five stochastic models which use <span class="hlt">daily</span> SSH data to produce probabilistic simulations of solar radiation, and can be used to estimate historical <span class="hlt">daily</span> radiation. The predictive uncertainty due to the timing of the SSH during the day (estimated using Monte Carlo simulation), as well as due to external errors (such as the variability in cloud type and atmospheric composition), were considered. The developed models differ in their parameterisation of the direct and diffuse components of the solar radiation, using either no scaling, linear or quadratic scaling of the radiation by the <span class="hlt">daily</span> SSH fraction to account for cloud attenuation. For each model the simulated solar radiation was compared with the observed radiation. The performance of the five models was compared and the models were found to perform similarly well, with an average error of approximately 9% for all locations studied. The results suggest that the uncertainty due to the timing of the SSH does not dominate predictive errors in <span class="hlt">global</span> radiation. Rather the external uncertainty is the dominant source of predictive error in the radiation estimates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011Ap%26SS.334..317P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011Ap%26SS.334..317P"><span id="translatedtitle">Time variation analysis of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> Forbush decrease indices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Patra, Sankar Narayan; Ghosh, Koushik; Panja, Subhash Chandra</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>In the present paper we have analyzed the <span class="hlt">daily</span> Forbush decrease indices from January 1, 1967 to December 31, 2003. First filtering the time series by Simple Exponential Smoothing, we have applied Scargle Method of Periodogram on the processed time series in order to search for its time variation. Study exhibits periodicities around 174, 245, 261, 321, 452, 510, 571, 584, 662, 703, 735, 741, 767, 774, 820, 970, 1062, 1082, 1489, 1715, 2317, 2577, 2768, 3241 and 10630 days with confidence levels higher than 90%. Some of these periods are significantly similar to the observed periodicities of other solar activities, like solar filament activity, solar electron flare occurrence, solar-flare rate, solar proton events, solar neutrino flux, solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, cosmic ray intensity and flare, spectrum of the sunspot, solar wind, southern coronal hole area and solar cycle, which may suggest that the Forbush decrease behaves similarly to these solar activities and these activities may have a common origin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1414019W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1414019W"><span id="translatedtitle">Homogenization of Chinese <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Surface Air Temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wenhui, X.; Quingxiang, L.; Wang, X. L.; Su, Y.; Yani, Z.; Lijuan, C.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Extreme climate events have large potential of impacts on the society and economy. However, analysis of long-term changes in climate extremes need to use homogeneous time series of high resolution climatic data (e.g., <span class="hlt">daily</span> or sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span>), to diminish non-climatic influences. Thus, more and more attention has been drawn to the development of high quality <span class="hlt">daily</span> climatic data. Since both temporal and spatial variations are much larger in <span class="hlt">daily</span> data than in the corresponding monthly or annual data, it is important and yet more difficult to choose a reference series for homogenization of <span class="hlt">daily</span> data. We tested and compared different methods to select reference series. The reference series that leads to the best match of detected changepoints with metadata information is selected and used to perform homogeneity test for data time series from stations within the grid box. Specifically, we divided the whole country into 2.5-by-2.5 degree lat-long grid boxes. The time series of the averages of observations at all stations in each grid box was considered to be the series representing the climatic variations/changes in each grid box. We calculated the correlation coefficient of annual data series at each station with the average series of annual data in each grid box, and chose the five stations of highest correlations. Then, we obtained the <span class="hlt">daily</span> difference series between each chosen station and the average series in each grid box, and applied the PMTred method to test the homogeneity of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> difference series, We chose the homogeneous station as the reference station for testing inhomogeneities in other station's series in the grid box, using the PMTred method. In addition to testing the <span class="hlt">daily</span> series, we also tested the corresponding annual and monthly series. We adjusted for change points that are identified in both <span class="hlt">daily</span> and monthly/annual series and also supported by metadata. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> maximum and minimum temperatures recorded at 822 Chinese stations were tested in this study. The results show that site relocations are the main source of inhomogeneity. The impacts of inhomogeneities on the estimates of climate trends and extremes were assessed. The resulting <span class="hlt">daily</span> data set is also compared with a previous version of homogenized temperature data set.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25505031','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25505031"><span id="translatedtitle">Vestibular loss disrupts <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm in rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martin, T; Mauvieux, B; Bulla, J; Quarck, G; Davenne, D; Denise, P; Philoxne, B; Besnard, S</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Hypergravity disrupts the circadian regulation of temperature (Temp) and locomotor activity (Act) mediated through the vestibular otolithic system in mice. In contrast, we do not know whether the anatomical structures associated with vestibular input are crucial for circadian rhythm regulation at 1 G on Earth. In the present study we observed the effects of bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) on the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of Temp and Act in semipigmented rats. Our model of vestibular lesion allowed for selective peripheral hair cell degeneration without any other damage. Rats with BVL exhibited a disruption in their <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms (Temp and Act), which were replaced by a main ultradian period (? <20 h) for 115.8 68.6 h after vestibular lesion compared with rats in the control group. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> rhythms of Temp and Act in rats with BVL recovered within 1 wk, probably counterbalanced by photic and other nonphotic time cues. No correlation was found between Temp and Act <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms after vestibular lesion in rats with BVL, suggesting a direct influence of vestibular input on the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Our findings support the hypothesis that the vestibular system has an influence on <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm homeostasis in semipigmented rats on Earth, and raise the question of whether <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms might be altered due to vestibular pathology in humans. PMID:25505031</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4679468','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4679468"><span id="translatedtitle">Factors influencing quit attempts among male <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers in China✩</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhao, Luhua; Song, Yang; Xiao, Lin; Palipudi, Krishna; Asma, Samira</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background China has the largest population of smokers in the world, yet the quit rate is low. We used data from the 2010 <span class="hlt">Global</span> Adult Tobacco Survey China to identify factors influencing quit attempts among male Chinese <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers. Methods The study sample included 3303 male <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers. To determine the factors that were significantly associated with making a quit attempt, we conducted logistic regression analyses. In addition, mediation anal yses were carried out to investigate how the intermediate association among demographics (age, education, urbanicity) and smoking related variables affected making a quit attempt. Results An estimated 11.0% of male <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers tried to quit smoking in the 12 months prior to the survey. Logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age (15–24 years), being advised to quit by a health care provider (HCP) in the past 12 months, lower cigarette cost per pack, monthly or less frequent exposure to smoking at home, and awareness of the harms of tobacco use were significantly associated with making a quit attempt. Additional mediation analyses showed that having knowledge of the harm of tobacco, exposure to smoking at home, and having been advised to quit by an HCP were mediators of making a quit attempt for other independent variables. Conclusion Evidence-based tobacco control measures such as conducting educational campaigns on the harms of tobacco use, establishing smoke-free policies at home, and integrating tobacco cessation advice into primary health care services can increase quit attempts and reduce smoking among male Chinese <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers. PMID:26441296</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513756V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513756V"><span id="translatedtitle">Parallel measurements to study inhomogeneities in <span class="hlt">daily</span> data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Venema, Victor; Aguilar, Enric; Auchmann, Renate; Auer, Ingebor; Brandsma, Theo; Chimani, Barbara; Gilabert, Alba; Mestre, Olivier; Toreti, Andrea</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> datasets have become a focus of climate research because they are essential for studying the variability and extremes in weather and climate. However, all long observational climate records are usually affected by changes due to nonclimatic factors and looking at the known physical causes of inhomogeneities, one would even expect that many causes especially affect the tails of the distribution. Fortunately, the number of national and regional homogenized <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature datasets is increasing, but still many <span class="hlt">daily</span> datasets are not homogenized or limited to adjustments on the mean of the distribution. In this literature review we investigate the physical causes of inhomogeneities and how they affect the distribution with respect to its mean and its tails. We review what is known about changes in the distribution from parallel measurements with historical measurement setups. We discuss the state of the art in the homogenization of the distribution and provide an overview of the quality of available datasets that are often used for studies on changes in extremes and of well-homogenized dataset. As expected, this review shows that the tails are even more affected by changes in monitoring practices than the means. Given the strong interest in studying changes in variability and extreme weather and the strong inhomogeneity in the raw data, the homogenization of <span class="hlt">daily</span> data and the development of better methods should have a high research priority. This research would be much facilitated by a <span class="hlt">global</span> reference database with parallel measurements. The climate community, and especially those involved in homogenization, bias correction and the evaluation of uncertainties, should take an active role to foster the compilation of such reference database.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19496987','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19496987"><span id="translatedtitle">Reconstruction of solar spectral surface UV <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> using radiative transfer simulations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lindfors, Anders; Heikkil, Anu; Kaurola, Jussi; Koskela, Tapani; Lakkala, Kaisa</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>UV radiation exerts several effects concerning life on Earth, and spectral information on the prevailing UV radiation conditions is needed in order to study each of these effects. In this paper, we present a method for reconstruction of solar spectral UV <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> at the Earth's surface. The method, which is a further development of an earlier published method for reconstruction of erythemally weighted UV, relies on radiative transfer simulations, and takes as input (1) the effective cloud optical depth as inferred from pyranometer measurements of <span class="hlt">global</span> radiation (300-3000 nm); (2) the total ozone column; (3) the surface albedo as estimated from measurements of snow depth; (4) the total water vapor column; and (5) the altitude of the location. Reconstructed <span class="hlt">daily</span> cumulative spectral <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> at Jokioinen and Sodankyl in Finland are, in general, in good agreement with measurements. The mean percentage difference, for instance, is mostly within +/-8%, and the root mean square of the percentage difference is around 10% or below for wavelengths over 310 nm and <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum solar zenith angles (SZA) less than 70 degrees . In this study, we used pseudospherical radiative transfer simulations, which were shown to improve the performance of our method under large SZA (low Sun). PMID:19496987</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdSpR..51.1727K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdSpR..51.1727K"><span id="translatedtitle">Prediction of clear-sky biologically effective erythematic radiation (EER) From <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation (250-2800 nm) at Cairo, Egypt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khalil, Samy A.; Shaffie, A. M.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>The hourly and <span class="hlt">daily</span> measured clear-sky <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation (G) and biologically important effective erythematic radiation (EER) incident on a horizontal surface at Cairo, Egypt (latitude 30 05? N & Longitude 31 15? E), during the period from January 1995 to December 2005 are used in this paper. The relationship between <span class="hlt">daily</span> integrated totals of EER and the <span class="hlt">daily</span> totals of broadband <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation (250-2800 nm) is established. The temporal variability of the percentage ratio of the total <span class="hlt">daily</span> erythema to total <span class="hlt">daily</span> broadband solar <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> (EER/G) is determined. The monthly and the seasonal averages of the extraterrestrial UVB solar radiation, Mesurad and estmated UVB solar radiation and clearness index KtUVB of UVB radiation are discussed. The average monthly mean variation of slant ozone (Z) and UVB transmission (KtUVB) at the present work are found. The two variables show an opposite seasonal behavior, and the average monthly of slant ozone column and UVB transmission values shows the relationship between them in a clearer way than those of <span class="hlt">daily</span> values. The estimated values of UVB solar radiation a good agreement with the measured values of the UVB solar radiation, the difference between the estimated and measured values of UVB solar radiation varies from 1.2% to 2.8%. The effect of the annual cycles of solar zenith angle (SZA) and total column ozone (TCO) on the ratios (EER/G) are presented and the correction factors are determined for removal of the ozone cycle. The seasonal variability of EER/G is also discussed. The effect of the annual cycles of solar zenith angle (SZA) and total column ozone (TCO) on the ratios (EER/G) is presented and the correction factors are determined for removal of the ozone cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3914662','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3914662"><span id="translatedtitle">Associations among <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Stressors and Salivary Cortisol: Findings from the National Study of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Experiences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stawski, Robert S.; Cichy, Kelly E.; Piazza, Jennifer R.; Almeida, David M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>While much research has focused on linking stressful experiences to emotional and biological reactions in laboratory settings, there is an emerging interest in extending these examinations to field studies of <span class="hlt">daily</span> life. The current study examined day-to-day associations among naturally-occurring <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors and salivary cortisol in a national sample of adults from the second wave of the National Study of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Experiences (NSDE). A sample of 1,694 adults (Age=57, Range=33–84; 44% male) completed telephone interviews detailing their stressors and emotions on eight consecutive evenings. Participants also provided saliva samples upon waking, 30 minutes post-waking, before lunch and before bed, on four consecutive interview days resulting in 5,995 days of interview/cortisol data. Analyses revealed three main findings. First, cortisol AUC was significantly higher on stressor days compared to stressor-free days, particularly for arguments and overloads at home, suggesting that <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors are associated with increased cortisol output, but that not all <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors have such an influence. Second, individuals reporting a greater frequency of stressor days also exhibited a steeper diurnal cortisol slope. Finally, <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressor-cortisol associations were unaltered after adjustment for <span class="hlt">daily</span> negative affect and physical symptoms. Our discussion focuses on the influence of naturally-occurring <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors on <span class="hlt">daily</span> cortisol and the role of <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary approaches for studying healthy cortisol responses to psychosocial stressors outside of traditional laboratory settings. PMID:23856186</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15282906','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15282906"><span id="translatedtitle">Affect- and self-based models of relationships between <span class="hlt">daily</span> events and <span class="hlt">daily</span> well-being.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nezlek, John B; Plesko, Rebecca M</p> <p>2003-05-01</p> <p>The present study examined affect- self-based explanatory models of relationships between <span class="hlt">daily</span> events and <span class="hlt">daily</span> well-being. Twice a week for up to 10 weeks, participants described the events that occurred each day and provided measures of their <span class="hlt">daily</span> affect, self-esteem, and depressogenic thinking. Participants also provided trait-level measures of affect, depression, and self-esteem. Measures of <span class="hlt">daily</span> well-being representing each model covaried jointly and independently with <span class="hlt">daily</span> negative and positive events. Positive events buffered the effects of negative events on <span class="hlt">daily</span> self-esteem and <span class="hlt">daily</span> depressogenic thinking, whereas there was no buffering effect for <span class="hlt">daily</span> affect. More depressed people were more reactive to positive events, and those higher in trait PA were less reactive to negative events. Buffering effects for self-esteem were pronounced for those with lower trait self-esteem, and buffering effects for <span class="hlt">daily</span> depressogenic adjustment were now more pronounced for those with higher trait negative affect. The results suggest that affect- and self-based models provide complementary perspectives on relationships between psychological well-being and <span class="hlt">daily</span> events. PMID:15282906</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5317497','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5317497"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> warning, <span class="hlt">global</span> warming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Benarde, M.A. )</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>This book provides insights into the formidable array of issues which, in a warmer world, could impinge upon every facet of readers lives. It examines climatic change and long-term implications of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming for the ecosystem. Topics include the ozone layer and how it works; the greenhouse effect; the dangers of imbalance and its effects on human and animal life; disruptions to the basic ecology of the planet; and the real scientific evidence for and against aberrant climatic shifts. The author also examines workable social and political programs and changes that must be instituted to avoid ecological disaster.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H43A1300R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H43A1300R"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of Quantile Regression for Statistical Downscaling of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Precipitation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rasmussen, P.; Tareghian, R.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Statistical downscaling is often used in climate change studies to bridge the gap between the resolution of <span class="hlt">global</span> climate models and the resolution required in applications, as well as to resolve issues with model biases. Conventional linear regression models have been extensively used for this purpose. In the context of statistical downscaling, it involves the development of relationships between for example <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and large-scale variables that are presumably well represented in <span class="hlt">global</span> climate models. However, linear regression models have a number of potential shortcomings. For example, the best prediction of high, low, and medium precipitation may require use of different subsets of predictor variables, something that cannot be accomplished with traditional regression models. The error distribution may not be Gaussian, even after some transformation of variables, and the error variance may not be independent of predictors. We address these shortcomings through the use of linear quantile regression. While traditional regression models predict the mean value in the conditional distribution, quantile regression predicts user-selected quantiles in the conditional distribution. By developing quantile regression models for a range of quantile levels, one can obtain an accurate representation of the conditional distribution corresponding to given values of the predictors, and a downscaled <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation value can be obtained by sampling from the conditional distribution established in this way. The issue of selecting predictor variables for quantile regression is not as straightforward as for traditional regression models. We address this issue through Bayesian model averaging, implemented using the Gibbs sampler combined with stochastic search techniques. The suitability of the approach is evaluated and compared to the traditional regression model, using climate station data from Manitoba and data from the NCEP/NCAR <span class="hlt">Global</span> Reanalysis. While in some cases quantile regression produces results that are fairly similar to those obtained from conventional linear regression, there are a number of instances where downscaling based on quantile regression outperforms the traditional method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=250326','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=250326"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> canopy interception from satellite observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A new methodology for retrieving rainfall interception rates from multi satellite observations is presented. The approach makes use of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> productof the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) as driving data and applies Gash’s analytical model to derive interception rates at <span class="hlt">global</span> sc...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Urbanization&pg=6&id=EJ839706','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Urbanization&pg=6&id=EJ839706"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> and the Experiences of Aging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fry, Christine L.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> is a product of urbanization and economic intensification which has escalated since the 1970s. <span class="hlt">Globalized</span> markets have created many of the features of modern life including consumerism, increased cultural homogeneity, increased social polarization, erosion of the sovereignty of nation states, and delocalization of <span class="hlt">daily</span> life. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=EROSION+AND+FACTORS&pg=2&id=EJ839706','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=EROSION+AND+FACTORS&pg=2&id=EJ839706"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> and the Experiences of Aging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fry, Christine L.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> is a product of urbanization and economic intensification which has escalated since the 1970s. <span class="hlt">Globalized</span> markets have created many of the features of modern life including consumerism, increased cultural homogeneity, increased social polarization, erosion of the sovereignty of nation states, and delocalization of <span class="hlt">daily</span> life. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=male+AND+female+AND+energy&pg=3&id=EJ690204','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=male+AND+female+AND+energy&pg=3&id=EJ690204"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Experiences of Emotions and Social Contexts of Securely and Insecurely Attached Young Adults</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Torquati, Julia C.; Raffaelli, Marcela</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This study examined <span class="hlt">daily</span> emotions and social contexts of young adults who differed in <span class="hlt">global</span> attachment style (secure vs. insecure). Sixty-nine college students (41% male, 59% female) completed self-report measures of attachment and provided time-sampling data on moods, companionship, and activities using the experience sampling method. Secure (n</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2077057','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2077057"><span id="translatedtitle">Adipogenesis is inhibited by brief, <span class="hlt">daily</span> exposure to high-frequency, extremely low-magnitude mechanical signals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rubin, C. T.; Capilla, E.; Luu, Y. K.; Busa, B.; Crawford, H.; Nolan, D. J.; Mittal, V.; Rosen, C. J.; Pessin, J. E.; Judex, S.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Obesity, a <span class="hlt">global</span> pandemic that debilitates millions of people and burdens society with tens of billions of dollars in health care costs, is deterred by exercise. Although it is presumed that the more strenuous a physical challenge the more effective it will be in the suppression of adiposity, here it is shown that 15 weeks of brief, <span class="hlt">daily</span> exposure to high-frequency mechanical signals, induced at a magnitude well below that which would arise during walking, inhibited adipogenesis by 27% in C57BL/6J mice. The mechanical signal also reduced key risk factors in the onset of type II diabetes, nonesterified free fatty acid and triglyceride content in the liver, by 43% and 39%, respectively. Over 9 weeks, these same signals suppressed fat production by 22% in the C3H.B66T congenic mouse strain that exhibits accelerated age-related changes in body composition. In an effort to understand the means by which fat production was inhibited, <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> mice receiving bone marrow transplants from heterozygous GFP+ mice revealed that 6 weeks of these low-magnitude mechanical signals reduced the commitment of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into adipocytes by 19%, indicating that formation of adipose tissue in these models was deterred by a marked reduction in stem cell adipogenesis. Translated to the human, this may represent the basis for the nonpharmacologic prevention of obesity and its sequelae, achieved through developmental, rather than metabolic, pathways. PMID:17959771</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B41D0423F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B41D0423F"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> albedo estimation and comparison to MCD43 product</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Franch, B.; Vermote, E.; Sobrino, J. A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Land surface broadband albedo is among the main radiative uncertainties in current climate modelling. An accuracy requirement of 5% and a <span class="hlt">daily</span> temporal resolution is suggested by the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Climate Observing System for albedo characterization at spatial and temporal scales compatible with climate studies. Satellite remote sensing provides the only practical way of producing high-quality <span class="hlt">global</span> albedo data sets with high spatial and temporal resolutions. For view-ilumination geometries such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), in order to retrieve the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) parameters and, consequently, the albedo, a period of sequential measurement is needed to accumulate sufficient observations. This is used to derive the MODIS BRDF/Albedo product (MCD43), which consider a composite period of 16 days with a resulting temporal resolution of 8 days. Looking for an improvement in the albedo temporal resolution that mitigated the assumption of a stable target, Vermote et al. (2009) presented the VJB method that assumes that the BRDF shape variations throughout a year are limited and linked to the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). This method retains the highest temporal resolution (<span class="hlt">daily</span>, cloud cover permitting). The purpose of this work is to compare the MCD43 product with the VJB method through the albedo. Additionally, we present and study a method based on the VJB assumption, the 5param Rsqr. In this study we focus our analysis on <span class="hlt">daily</span> MODIS CMG Collection 6 data from both Aqua and Terra satellites over Europe from 2002 until 2011. Figure 1 shows the percentage of the total RMSE of the VJB and the 5param Rsqr method against the MCD43 product. They display that southern latitudes present lower errors while they increase for northern latitudes and mountainous areas. Comparing the methods, the VJB presents errors higher than 15% in 8.2% of total land pixels while they suppose 6.9% of pixels when using the 5param Rsqr. We obtain an overall RMSE of 5% when using the VJB and 5.1% for the 5param Rsqr method. Since both methods meet the absolute requirement of 5% accuracy we conclude that they have an equivalent performance in deriving the albedo to the MODIS product with the advantage of <span class="hlt">daily</span> temporal resolution. We demonstrate then that a simple four (or five) parameter NDVI-scaled model performs as well as a more complex model with many more degrees of freedom. Additionally, we propose the 5param Rsqr method as an alternative to the VJB method due to its decrease data processing time reducing it 44%. Figure 1. Percentage RMSE of the VJB (right) and 5param Rsqr (left) against the MCD43 product.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22105962','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22105962"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> thermal predictions of the AGR-1 experiment with gas gaps varying with time</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hawkes, G.; Sterbentz, J.; Maki, J.; Pham, B.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>A new <span class="hlt">daily</span> as-run thermal analysis was performed at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) test experiment number one at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This thermal analysis incorporates gas gaps changing with time during the <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> experiment. The purpose of this analysis was to calculate the <span class="hlt">daily</span> average temperatures of each compact to compare with experimental results. Post <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> examination (PIE) measurements of the graphite holder and fuel compacts showed the gas gaps changed from the beginning of life. The control temperature gas gap and the fuel compact - graphite holder gas gaps were modeled with a linear change from the original fabrication gap dimensions to the end of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> measurements. A steady-state thermal analysis was performed for each <span class="hlt">daily</span> calculation with the commercial finite element heat transfer code ABAQUS. These new thermal predictions more closely match the experimental data taken during the experiment than previous analyses. Results are presented comparing normalized compact average temperatures to normalized log(R/B) Kr-85m. The R/B term is the measured release rate divided by the predicted birth rate for the isotope Kr-85m. Correlations between these two normalized values are presented. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1054296','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1054296"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Thermal Predictions of the AGR-1 Experiment with Gas Gaps Varying with Time</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Grant Hawkes; James Sterbentz; John Maki; Binh Pham</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>A new <span class="hlt">daily</span> as-run thermal analysis was performed at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) test experiment number one at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This thermal analysis incorporates gas gaps changing with time during the <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> experiment. The purpose of this analysis was to calculate the <span class="hlt">daily</span> average temperatures of each compact to compare with experimental results. Post <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> examination (PIE) measurements of the graphite holder and fuel compacts showed the gas gaps varying from the beginning of life. The control temperature gas gap and the fuel compact – graphite holder gas gaps were linearly changed from the original fabrication dimensions, to the end of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> measurements. A steady-state thermal analysis was performed for each <span class="hlt">daily</span> calculation. These new thermal predictions more closely match the experimental data taken during the experiment than previous analyses. Results are presented comparing normalized compact average temperatures to normalized log(R/B) Kr-85m. The R/B term is the measured release rate divided by the predicted birth rate for the isotope Kr-85m. Correlations between these two normalized values are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22612649','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22612649"><span id="translatedtitle">The correspondence of <span class="hlt">daily</span> and retrospective PTSD reports among female victims of sexual assault.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Simpson, Tracy L; Moore, Sally A; Varra, Alethea A; Kaysen, Debra L</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Research addressing the association between <span class="hlt">daily</span> and retrospective symptom reports suggests that retrospective reports are typically inflated. The present study examined the association between <span class="hlt">daily</span> posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom reports over 1 month and a corresponding retrospective report (PTSD Checklist [PCL]; Weathers et al., 1993) for both total scores and symptom clusters. The authors hypothesized that greater PTSD symptom instability and greater depression would be associated with poorer agreement between <span class="hlt">daily</span> and retrospective reports. Data were collected from 132 female college students who were sexually assaulted. Multilevel modeling indicated very strong agreement between mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> and retrospective reports for total scores and symptom clusters, with pseudo-R2 ranging from .55 to .77. Depression symptoms did not moderate this association, but <span class="hlt">daily</span>-retrospective agreement was lowest for the avoidance cluster, which was also the most unstable. Finally, retrospective recall for each symptom cluster showed acceptable specificity to the corresponding <span class="hlt">daily</span> symptom clusters. Overall, these findings suggest that retrospective memories for <span class="hlt">global</span> PTSD symptoms and symptom clusters, as assessed by the PCL, are consistent with <span class="hlt">daily</span> reports over a 1-month period. Implications for clinical assessment methodology are discussed. PMID:22612649</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3660399','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3660399"><span id="translatedtitle">The Correspondence of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> and Retrospective PTSD Reports Among Female Victims of Sexual Assault</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Simpson, Tracy L.; Moore, Sally A.; Varra, Alethea A.; Kaysen, Debra L.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Research addressing the association between <span class="hlt">daily</span> and retrospective symptom reports suggests that retrospective reports are typically inflated. The current study examined the association between <span class="hlt">daily</span> PTSD symptom reports over one month and a corresponding retrospective report (PTSD Checklist [PCL]; Weathers et al., 1993) for both total scores and symptom clusters. We hypothesized that greater PTSD symptom instability and greater depression would be associated with poorer <span class="hlt">daily</span>-retrospective agreement. Data were collected from 132 female college students who were sexually assaulted. Multilevel modeling indicated very strong agreement between mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> and retrospective reports for total scores and symptom clusters, with pseudo-R2 ranging from .55 to .77. Depression symptoms did not moderate this association, but <span class="hlt">daily</span>-retrospective agreement was lowest for the avoidance cluster, which was also the most unstable. Finally, retrospective recall for each symptom cluster showed acceptable specificity to the corresponding <span class="hlt">daily</span> symptom clusters. Overall, these findings suggest that retrospective memories for <span class="hlt">global</span> PTSD symptoms and symptom clusters, as assessed by the PCL, are consistent with <span class="hlt">daily</span> reports over a one month period. Implications for clinical assessment methodology are discussed. PMID:22612649</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED309119.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED309119.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Longstreet, Wilma S., Ed.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>This issue contains an introduction ("The Promise and Perplexity of <span class="hlt">Globalism</span>," by W. Longstreet) and seven articles dedicated to exploring the meaning of <span class="hlt">global</span> education for today's schools. "<span class="hlt">Global</span> Education: An Overview" (J. Becker) develops possible definitions, identifies objectives and skills, and addresses questions and issues in this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+business+AND+meaning&pg=3&id=ED428216','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+business+AND+meaning&pg=3&id=ED428216"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> HRD.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>1997</p> <p></p> <p>This document contains four papers from a symposium on <span class="hlt">global</span> human resource development (HRD). "<span class="hlt">Globalization</span> of Human Resource Management (HRM) in Government: A Cross-Cultural Perspective" (Pan Suk Kim) relates HRM to national cultures and addresses its specific functional aspects with a unique dimension in a <span class="hlt">global</span> organization. "An</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=131652','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=131652"><span id="translatedtitle">TRENDS IN ANNUAL AND <span class="hlt">DAILY</span> PRECIPITATION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Annual precipitation in the Great Plains was generally higher during the last two decades of the 20th century. Corresponding changes in <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation amount, number of rainy days, and distribution throughout the year were investigated for Kingfisher in central Oklahoma. The number of rainy da...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=horoscopes&id=EJ620598','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=horoscopes&id=EJ620598"><span id="translatedtitle">Using <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Horoscopes To Demonstrate Expectancy Confirmation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Munro, Geoffrey D.; Munro, James E.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Describes a classroom demonstration that uses <span class="hlt">daily</span> horoscopes to show the effect that expectation can have on judgment. Addresses the preparation, procedure, and results of the demonstration, and student evaluations. States that the demonstration appears to be effective for teaching students about expectancy confirmation. (CMK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64896&keyword=panel+AND+spatial&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=56277391&CFTOKEN=88869125','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64896&keyword=panel+AND+spatial&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=56277391&CFTOKEN=88869125"><span id="translatedtitle">INTERPOLATING VANCOUVER'S <span class="hlt">DAILY</span> AMBIENT PM 10 FIELD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In this article we develop a spatial predictive distribution for the ambient space- time response field of <span class="hlt">daily</span> ambient PM10 in Vancouver, Canada. Observed responses have a consistent temporal pattern from one monitoring site to the next. We exploit this feature of the field b...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=5&pg=3&id=EJ984125','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=5&pg=3&id=EJ984125"><span id="translatedtitle">Big Ideas behind <span class="hlt">Daily</span> 5 and CAFE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Boushey, Gail; Moser, Joan</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Daily</span> 5 and CAFE were born out of The Sister's research and observations of instructional mentors, their intense desire to be able to deliver highly intentional, focused instruction to small groups and individuals while the rest of the class was engaged in truly authentic reading and writing, and their understanding that a one size fits all</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED119239.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED119239.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Newspaper Circulation and the Young Reader.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schweitzer, John C.</p> <p></p> <p>This study attempted to determine the factors involved in young persons' subscribing or nonsubscribing to one of the two local <span class="hlt">daily</span> morning newspapers in a metropolitan area. The sampling included 192 young persons living in apartment complexes, of whom 109 subscribed to at least one of the two newspapers. The results of the analysis of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title27-vol1-sec19-650.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title27-vol1-sec19-650.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">27 CFR 19.650 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> records.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> records. Each manufacturer of vinegar by the vaporizing... proof gallons of distilled spirits used in the manufacture of vinegar; (e) The wine gallons of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title27-vol1-sec19-650.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title27-vol1-sec19-650.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">27 CFR 19.650 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> records.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> records. Each manufacturer of vinegar by the vaporizing... proof gallons of distilled spirits used in the manufacture of vinegar; (e) The wine gallons of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title27-vol1-sec19-650.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title27-vol1-sec19-650.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">27 CFR 19.650 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> records.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> records. Each manufacturer of vinegar by the vaporizing... proof gallons of distilled spirits used in the manufacture of vinegar; (e) The wine gallons of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title27-vol1-sec19-650.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title27-vol1-sec19-650.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">27 CFR 19.650 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> records.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> records. Each manufacturer of vinegar by the vaporizing... proof gallons of distilled spirits used in the manufacture of vinegar; (e) The wine gallons of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title27-vol1-sec19-829.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title27-vol1-sec19-829.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">27 CFR 19.829 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> records.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Records § 19.829 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> records. Each manufacturer of vinegar by the vaporizing process shall keep accurate... spirits used in the manufacture of vinegar; (e) The wine gallons of vinegar produced; and (f) The...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10154823','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10154823"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> temperature and precipitation data for 223 USSR Stations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Razuvaev, V.N.; Apasova, E.G.; Martuganov, R.A.; Vose, R.S.; Steurer, P.M.</p> <p>1993-11-01</p> <p>On- May 23, 1972, the United States and the USSR established a bilateral initiative known as the Agreement on Protection of the Environment. Given recent interest in possible greenhouse gas-induced climate change, Working Group VIII (Influence of Environmental Changes on Climate) has become particularly useful to the scientific communities of both nations. Among its many achievements, Working Group VIII has been instrumental in the exchange of climatological information between the principal climate data centers of each country [i.e., the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) in Asheville, North Carolina, and the Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information in Obninsk, Russia]. Considering the relative lack of climate records previously available for the USSR, data obtained via this bilateral exchange are particularly valuable to researchers outside the former Soviet Union. To expedite the dissemination of these data, NOAA`s Climate and <span class="hlt">Global</span> Change Program funded the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) and NCDC to distribute one of the more useful archives acquired through this exchange: a 223-station <span class="hlt">daily</span> data set covering the period 1881-1989. This data set contains: (1) <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean, minimum, and maximum temperature data; (2) <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation data; (3) station inventory information (WMO No., name, coordinates, and elevation); (4) station history information (station relocation and rain gauge replacement dates); and (5) quality assurance information (i.e., flag codes that were assigned as a result of various data checks). The data set is available, free of charge, as a Numeric Data Package (NDP) from CDIAC. The NDP consists of 18 data files and a printed document which describes both the data files and the 223-station network in detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/380996','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/380996"><span id="translatedtitle">Examining the spring discontinuity in <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature ranges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schwartz, M.D.</p> <p>1996-04-01</p> <p>The atmosphere and biosphere both change rapidly throughout midlatitude spring. Many weather variables are modified during this season, including the diurnal temperature range (DTR). The mean DTR trend displays a discontinuity at the onset of spring characterized by a rapid increase for several weeks, followed by an abrupt leveling off. The trend then remains essentially flat throughout the remainder of the warm season. These DTR changes reflect the interactive role many weather variables play with surface-layer processes. Thus, diagnosing the causes of these variations may provide background information for numerous <span class="hlt">global</span> change analyses, as <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature data become increasingly available worldwide. The results of this study suggest that several factors (snow cover loss, more frequent southerly winds, and increased ceiling heights) are responsible for the initial rapid increase in the DTR. The second half of the discontinuity (subsequent leveling off) is connected with increased atmospheric moisture and coincides with the onset of plant transpiration. 14 refs., 5 figs, 2 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950033288&hterms=global+warming+temperature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bwarming%2Btemperature','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950033288&hterms=global+warming+temperature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bwarming%2Btemperature"><span id="translatedtitle">Variability in <span class="hlt">daily</span>, zonal mean lower-stratospheric temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Christy, John R.; Drouilhet, S. James, Jr.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Satellite data from the microwave sounding unit (MSU) channel 4, when carefully merged, provide <span class="hlt">daily</span> zonal anomalies of lower-stratosphere temperature with a level of precision between 0.01 and 0.08 C per 2.5 deg latitude band. <span class="hlt">Global</span> averages of these <span class="hlt">daily</span> zonal anomalies reveal the prominent warming events due to volcanic aerosol in 1982 (El Chichon) and 1991 (Mt. Pinatubo), which are on the order of 1 C. The quasibiennial oscillation (QBO) may be extracted from these zonal data by applying a spatial filter between 15 deg N and 15 deg S latitude, which resembles the meridional curvature. Previously published relationships between the QBO and the north polar stratospheric temperatures during northern winter are examined but were not found to be reproduced in the MSU4 data. Sudden stratospheric warmings in the north polar region are represented in the MSU4 data for latitudes poleward of 70 deg N. In the Southern Hemisphere, there appears to be a moderate relationship between total ozone concentration and MSU4 temperatures, though it has been less apparent in 1991 and 1992. In terms of empirical modes of variability, the authors find a strong tendency in EOF 1 (39.2% of the variance) for anomalies in the Northern Hemisphere polar regions to be counterbalanced by anomalies equatorward of 40 deg N and 40 deg S latitudes. In addition, most of the modes revealed significant power in the 15-20 day period band.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19536694','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19536694"><span id="translatedtitle">A grid for a precise analysis of <span class="hlt">daily</span> activities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wojtasik, V; Olivier, C; Lekeu, F; Quittre, A; Adam, S; Salmon, E</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Assessment of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living activities is essential in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Most current tools quantitatively assess overall ability but provide little qualitative information on individual difficulties. Only a few tools allow therapists to evaluate stereotyped activities and record different types of errors. We capitalised on the Kitchen Activity Assessment to design a widely applicable analysis grid that provides both qualitative and quantitative data on activity performance. A cooking activity was videotaped in 15 patients with dementia and assessed according to the different steps in the execution of the task. The evaluations obtained with our grid showed good correlations between raters, between versions of the grid and between sessions. Moreover, the degree of independence obtained with our analysis of the task correlated with the Kitchen Activity Assessment score and with a <span class="hlt">global</span> score of cognitive functioning. We conclude that assessment of a <span class="hlt">daily</span> living activity with this analysis grid is reproducible and relatively independent of the therapist, and thus provides quantitative and qualitative information useful for both evaluating and caring for demented patients. PMID:19536694</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7071585','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7071585"><span id="translatedtitle">Variability in <span class="hlt">daily</span>, zonal mean lower-stratospheric temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Christy, J.R. ); Drouilhet, S.J. Jr. )</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Satellite data from the microwave sounding unit (MSU) channel 4, when carefully merged, provide <span class="hlt">daily</span> zonal anomalies of lower-stratosphere temperature with a level of precision between 0.01[degrees] and 0.08[degrees]C per 2.5[degrees] latitude band. <span class="hlt">Global</span> averages of these <span class="hlt">daily</span> zonal anomalies reveal the prominent warming events due to volcanic aerosol in 1982 (El Chichon) and 1991 (Mt. Pinatubo), which are on the order of 1[degrees]C. The quasibiennel oscillation (QBO) may be extracted from these zonal data by applying a spatial filter between 15[degrees]N and 15[degrees]S latitude, which resembles the meridional curvature. Previously published relationships between the QBO and the north polar stratospheric temperatures during northern winter are examined but were not found to be reproduced in the MSU4 data. Sudden stratospheric warmings in the north polar region are represented in the MSU4 data for latitudes poleward of 70[degrees]N. In the Southern Hemisphere, there appears to be a moderate relationship between total ozone concentration and MSU4 temperatures, though it has been less apparent in 1991 and 1992. In terms of empirical modes of variability revealed significant power in the 15-20 day period band.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820042467&hterms=deficit+attention&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Ddeficit%2Battention','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820042467&hterms=deficit+attention&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Ddeficit%2Battention"><span id="translatedtitle">The effects of sunspots on solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hudson, H. S.; Silva, S.; Woodard, M.; Willson, R. C.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>It is pointed out that the darkness of a sunspot on the visible hemisphere of the sun will reduce the solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on the earth. Approaches are discussed for obtaining a crude estimate of the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> deficit produced by sunspots and of the total luminosity reduction for the whole <span class="hlt">global</span> population of sunspots. Attention is given to a photometric sunspot index, a <span class="hlt">global</span> measure of spot flux deficit, and models for the compensating flux excess. A model is shown for extrapolating visible-hemisphere spot areas to the invisible hemisphere. As an illustration, this extrapolation is used to calculate a very simple model for the reradiation necessary to balance the flux deficit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5362A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5362A"><span id="translatedtitle">Break Correction of Swiss <span class="hlt">Daily</span> and Sub-<span class="hlt">Daily</span> Temperature Series</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Auchmann, Renate; Kuglitsch, Franz; Toreti, Andrea; Brnnimann, Stefan</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Many applications in climate science require high-quality, long-term data at a high temporal resolution. However, such records are often affected by artificial breaks. The challenging task of homogenizing <span class="hlt">daily</span> and sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> data has only been partially addressed in recent years. Therefore, the number of available datasets providing homogeneous <span class="hlt">daily</span> and sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> series is still small compared to the volume of monthly or annual data. In this study, series of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum (Tmax), <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum (Tmin), morning (Tmorn), noon (Tnoon) and evening (Teve), and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean (Tmean) temperatures measured in 61 stations of the Swiss climate observation network were corrected for artificial breaks. The break detection for the above mentioned series was accomplished in a former study by using a combination of three different break detection methods. Here the previously determined breakpoints are corrected by applying the method of higher-order moments for autocorrelated data (HOMAD), which is an improved version of the higher-order moments method (HOM), providing an objective choice of regression parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26123473','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26123473"><span id="translatedtitle">Nowcasting <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum air and grass temperature.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Savage, M J</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Site-specific and accurate prediction of <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum temperatures 2 or 4h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured <span class="hlt">daily</span> minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient (b?=?2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured <span class="hlt">daily</span> minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> grass and grass-surface minima yielded increased RMSEs compared to those for air temperature at 2m. The sufficiently small RMSEs using the 2-h ahead nowcasts of the air temperature minimum, for the exponential model, demonstrate that the methodology used may be applied operationally but with increased errors for grass minimum temperature and the 4-h nowcasts. PMID:26123473</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJBm..tmp...80S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJBm..tmp...80S"><span id="translatedtitle">Nowcasting <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum air and grass temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Savage, M. J.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Site-specific and accurate prediction of <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured <span class="hlt">daily</span> minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient (b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured <span class="hlt">daily</span> minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> grass and grass-surface minima yielded increased RMSEs compared to those for air temperature at 2 m. The sufficiently small RMSEs using the 2-h ahead nowcasts of the air temperature minimum, for the exponential model, demonstrate that the methodology used may be applied operationally but with increased errors for grass minimum temperature and the 4-h nowcasts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm...60..183S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm...60..183S"><span id="translatedtitle">Nowcasting <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum air and grass temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Savage, M. J.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Site-specific and accurate prediction of <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured <span class="hlt">daily</span> minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured <span class="hlt">daily</span> minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> grass and grass-surface minima yielded increased RMSEs compared to those for air temperature at 2 m. The sufficiently small RMSEs using the 2-h ahead nowcasts of the air temperature minimum, for the exponential model, demonstrate that the methodology used may be applied operationally but with increased errors for grass minimum temperature and the 4-h nowcasts.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JVGR..176..141C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JVGR..176..141C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> monitoring of Ecuadorian volcanic degassing from space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carn, S. A.; Krueger, A. J.; Arellano, S.; Krotkov, N. A.; Yang, K.</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>We present <span class="hlt">daily</span> measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO 2) emissions from active volcanoes in Ecuador and southern Colombia between September 2004 and September 2006, derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA's EOS/Aura satellite. OMI is an ultraviolet/visible spectrometer with an unprecedented combination of spatial and spectral resolution, and <span class="hlt">global</span> coverage, that permits <span class="hlt">daily</span> measurements of passive volcanic degassing from space. We use non-interactive processing methods to automatically extract <span class="hlt">daily</span> SO 2 burdens and information on SO 2 sources from the OMI datastream. Maps of monthly average SO 2 vertical columns retrieved by OMI over Ecuador and S. Colombia are also used to illustrate variations in regional SO 2 loading and to pinpoint sources. The dense concentration of active volcanoes in Ecuador provides a stringent test of OMI's ability to distinguish SO 2 from multiple emitting sources. Our analysis reveals that Tungurahua, Reventador and Galeras were responsible for the bulk of the SO 2 emissions in the region in the timeframe of our study, with no significant SO 2 discharge detected from Sangay. At Galeras and Reventador, we conclude that OMI can detect variations in SO 2 release related to cycles of conduit sealing and degassing, which are a critical factor in hazard assessment. The OMI SO 2 data for Reventador are the most extensive sequence of degassing measurements available for this remote volcano, which dominated regional SO 2 production in June-August 2005. At Tungurahua, the OMI measurements span the waning stage of one eruptive cycle and the beginning of another, and we observe increasing SO 2 burdens in the months prior to explosive eruptions of the volcano in July and August 2006. Cumulative SO 2 loadings measured by OMI yield a total of ~ 1.16 Tg SO 2 emitted by volcanoes on mainland Ecuador/S. Colombia between September 2004 and September 2006; as much as 95% of this SO 2 may originate from non-eruptive degassing. Approximate apportionment of the total SO 2 loading indicates that ~ 40% originated from Tungurahua, with ~ 30% supplied by both Reventador and Galeras. These measurements of volcanic SO 2 degassing in Ecuador confirm OMI's potential as an effective, economical and risk-free tool for <span class="hlt">daily</span> monitoring of SO 2 emissions from hazardous volcanoes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24091110','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24091110"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimizing DAA management in <span class="hlt">daily</span> practice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Serfaty, Lawrence</p> <p>2013-09-30</p> <p>Despite the incontestable benefits of telaprevir and boceprevir-based triple therapy in patients infected with genotype 1, the practitioner faces a number of new challenges. In <span class="hlt">daily</span> clinical practice, a checklist approach may facilitate the management of triple therapy. Before initiation, several specific issues should be reviewed with the patient in order to optimize adherence and treatment outcome: potential drug to drug interaction, treatment duration and stopping rules, possible treatment outcomes, side effects, dose and administration with food advice, management of side effects. Because treatment failure is associated with the emergence of resistance-associated variants with reduced sensitivity to protease inhibitors, adherence is of major importance. In this setting, the role of educational nurse should be emphasized for the management of triple therapy in <span class="hlt">daily</span> clinical practice. PMID:24091110</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1704265','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1704265"><span id="translatedtitle">Antihypertensive efficacy of propranolol given twice <span class="hlt">daily</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>MacLeod, S M; Hamet, P; Kaplan, H; Larochelle, P; Nadeau, J; Ogilvie, R I; Rangno, R E; Ruedy, J; Sellers, E M; Ti, T Y</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The therapeutic efficacy of propranolol in four and two <span class="hlt">daily</span> doses was compared in 63 treated hypertensive patients in a multicentre trial. After 3 months of a stable diastolic blood pressure while receiving propranolol four times a day the patients were switched to a twice-a-day regimen, the drug being given at 8 am and 8 pm, with the same total <span class="hlt">daily</span> dose, for 3 more months. Blood pressures and heart rates were measured at 8 am, 12 noon, 4 pm and 8 pm at 4-week intervals. There were no significant changes in mean blood pressure after the change to the twice-a-day regimen, although some patients reported new side effects. Compliance appeared to be unaffected. PMID:391380</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6849205','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6849205"><span id="translatedtitle">Heavy metals in common foodstuff: <span class="hlt">Daily</span> intake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tsoumbaris, P.; Tsoukali-Papadopoulou, H. )</p> <p>1994-07-01</p> <p>Lately, toxic effects of some heavy metals (Pb, Cd) as well as desirable ones of some others (Ni, Mn, Zn) have been a field of thorough investigation. The main way of human body fortification in metals is through foodchain depending on the kind and quantity of the consumed food, according to dietary habits. The purpose of this study is the calculation of metals <span class="hlt">daily</span> intake through common foodstuff of Greek inhabitants. The calculation is based on results from quantitative analysis of Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn, and Zn in common foodstuff from the market of the city of Thessaloniki. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> food consumption data is derived from three sources: (a) answers to a questionnaire distributed to families of the city of Thessaloniki, (b) nutrition data provided by the Agricultural Bank of Greece and (c) nutrition data according to international bibliography.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986WRR....22..845M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986WRR....22..845M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Water Use in Nine Cities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maidment, David R.; Miaou, Shaw-Pin</p> <p>1986-06-01</p> <p>Transfer functions are used to model the short-term response of <span class="hlt">daily</span> municipal water use to rainfall and air temperature variations. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> water use data from nine cities are studied, three cities each from Florida, Pennsylvania, and Texas. The dynamic response of water use to rainfall and air temperature is similar across the cities within each State; in addition the responses of the Texas and Florida cities are very similar to one another while the response of the Pennsylvania cities is more sensitive to air temperature and less to rainfall. There is little impact of city size on the response functions. The response of water use to rainfall depends first on the occurrence of rainfall and second on its magnitude. The occurrence of a rainfall more than 0.05 in./day (0.13 cm/day) causes a drop in the seasonal component of water use one day later that averages 38% for the Texas cities, 42% for the Florida cities, and 7% for the Pennsylvania cities. In Austin, Texas, a spatially averaged rainfall series shows a clearer relationship with water use than does rainfall data from a single gage. There is a nonlinear response of water use to air temperature changes with no response for <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum air temperatures between 40° and 70°F (4-21°C) an increase in water use with air temperature beyond 70°F; above 85°-90°F (29°-32°C) water use increases 3-5 times more per degree than below that limit in Texas and Florida. The model resulting from these studies can be used for <span class="hlt">daily</span> water use forecasting and water conservation analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=family&pg=4&id=EJ967197','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=family&pg=4&id=EJ967197"><span id="translatedtitle">Racial Differences in Exposure and Reactivity to <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Family Stressors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cichy, Kelly E.; Stawski, Robert S.; Almeida, David M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Using data from the National Study of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Experiences, the authors examined racial differences in exposure and reactivity to <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors involving family members. Respondents included African American and European American adults age 34 to 84 (N = 1,931) who participated in 8 days of <span class="hlt">daily</span> interviews during which they reported on <span class="hlt">daily</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23918373','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23918373"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding metropolitan patterns of <span class="hlt">daily</span> encounters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W; Lee, Der-Horng; Huang, Xianfeng</p> <p>2013-08-20</p> <p>Understanding of the mechanisms driving our <span class="hlt">daily</span> face-to-face encounters is still limited; the field lacks large-scale datasets describing both individual behaviors and their collective interactions. However, here, with the help of travel smart card data, we uncover such encounter mechanisms and structures by constructing a time-resolved in-vehicle social encounter network on public buses in a city (about 5 million residents). Using a population scale dataset, we find physical encounters display reproducible temporal patterns, indicating that repeated encounters are regular and identical. On an individual scale, we find that collective regularities dominate distinct encounters' bounded nature. An individual's encounter capability is rooted in his/her <span class="hlt">daily</span> behavioral regularity, explaining the emergence of "familiar strangers" in <span class="hlt">daily</span> life. Strikingly, we find individuals with repeated encounters are not grouped into small communities, but become strongly connected over time, resulting in a large, but imperceptible, small-world contact network or "structure of co-presence" across the whole metropolitan area. Revealing the encounter pattern and identifying this large-scale contact network are crucial to understanding the dynamics in patterns of social acquaintances, collective human behaviors, and--particularly--disclosing the impact of human behavior on various diffusion/spreading processes. PMID:23918373</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5891359','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5891359"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> ecology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Southwick, C.H.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A general description of the earth as a biosphere is presented. Divergent views of near-future world scenarios are presented; the <span class="hlt">Global</span> 2000 report, and the analysis of Simon and Kahn. The basic principles and trends in <span class="hlt">global</span> ecology are outlined, and the basic pollution and environmental degradation problems are discussed. Humanistic considerations which affect <span class="hlt">global</span> ecology (population control, the effects of largescale nuclear war, and third-world socio-economics) are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4215556','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4215556"><span id="translatedtitle">A Double-Edged Sword: Race, <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Family Support Exchanges, and <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Well-Being</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cichy, Kelly E.; Stawski, Robert S.; Almeida, David M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This study contributes to research on race and family ties by exploring racial differences in the direct effects of family support exchanges on <span class="hlt">daily</span> well-being and the extent to which family support buffers/exacerbates stressor reactivity. African Americans and European Americans aged 34 to 84 (N = 1,931) from the National Study of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Experiences (NSDE) reported on family support exchanges (i.e., support received/support provided), <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors, and negative affect during 8 days of telephone interviews. On a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis, receiving family support was not associated with well-being, whereas providing family support was associated with compromised well-being among African Americans. As expected, receiving family support buffered reactivity to <span class="hlt">daily</span> tensions for both races, whereas providing emotional support to family exacerbated African Americans reactivity to <span class="hlt">daily</span> tensions. Together, our findings suggest that even after considering the benefits of receiving family support, providing family support takes an emotional toll on African Americans. PMID:25368438</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15729830','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15729830"><span id="translatedtitle">Health concerns regarding consumption of <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> food.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ashley, Bradford C; Birchfield, Patrick T; Chamberlain, Blake V; Kotwal, Russ S; McClellan, Scott F; Moynihan, Shannan; Patni, Shamim B; Salmon, Scott A; Au, William W</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>Food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> is being promoted as a simple process that can be used to effectively and significantly reduce food-borne illnesses around the world. However, a thorough review of the literature reveals a paucity of adequate research conducted to specifically address health concerns that may directly result from the consumption of <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> food. Consequently, there is considerable debate on the issue of health concerns from <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> food among international agencies and between different nations. This report presents a critical review of scientific data and recommendations from different agencies and consumer groups. The objective of this review is to provide the scientific community and the general public with a balanced discussion on <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> food from the viewpoint of an environmental or public health professional. As a result of this review, the authors conclude that current evidence does not exist to substantiate the support or unconditional endorsement of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> of food for consumption. In addition, consumers are entitled to their right of choice in the consumption of <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> versus un-<span class="hlt">irradiated</span> food. Different countries should further evaluate their local and <span class="hlt">global</span> risks and benefits prior to developing and recommending national and international food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> policies. PMID:15729830</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4104788','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4104788"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Analysis of Physical Activity and Satisfaction with Life in Emerging Adults</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Maher, Jaclyn P.; Doerksen, Shawna E.; Elavsky, Steriani; Hyde, Amanda L.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective Subjective well-being has well-established positive health consequences. During emerging adulthood, from ages 18 to 25 years, peoples <span class="hlt">global</span> evaluations of their well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life [SWL]) appear to worsen more than any other time in the adult lifespan, indicating that this population would benefit from strategies to enhance SWL. In these studies, we investigated top-down (i.e., time-invariant, trait-like) and bottom-up (i.e., time-varying, state-like) influences of physical activity (PA) on <span class="hlt">daily</span> SWL. Methods Two <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary studies lasting 8 days (N = 190) and 14 days (N = 63) were conducted with samples of emerging adults enrolled in college to evaluate relations between <span class="hlt">daily</span> PA and SWL while controlling for established and plausible top-down and bottom-up influences on SWL. Results In both studies, multilevel models indicated that people reported greater SWL on days when they were more active (a within-person, bottom-up effect). Top-down effects of PA were not significant in either study. These findings were robust when we controlled for competing top-down influences (e.g., sex, personality traits, self-esteem, body mass index, mental health symptoms, fatigue) and bottom-up influences (e.g., <span class="hlt">daily</span> self-esteem, <span class="hlt">daily</span> mental health symptoms, <span class="hlt">daily</span> fatigue). Conclusions We concluded that SWL was impacted by peoples <span class="hlt">daily</span> PA rather than their trait level of PA over time. These findings extend evidence that PA is a health behavior with important consequences for <span class="hlt">daily</span> well-being and should be considered when developing national policies to enhance SWL. PMID:23088171</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850016429&hterms=Food+safety&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DFood%2Bsafety','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850016429&hterms=Food+safety&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DFood%2Bsafety"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of <span class="hlt">Irradiated</span> Foods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brynjolfsson, A.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The safety of <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> foods is reviewed. Guidelines and regulations for processing <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> foods are considered. The radiolytic products formed in food when it is <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> and its wholesomeness is discussed. It is concluded that food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> processing is not a panacea for all problems in food processing but when properly used will serve the space station well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACPD...1223219R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACPD...1223219R"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of the Level-3 MODIS <span class="hlt">daily</span> aerosol optical depth in the context of surface solar radiation and numerical weather modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ruiz-Arias, J. A.; Dudhia, J.; Gueymard, C. A.; Pozo-Vzquez, D.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The Level-3 MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) product offers interesting features for surface solar radiation and numerical weather modeling applications. Remarkably, the Collection 5.1 dataset extends over more than a decade, and provides <span class="hlt">daily</span> values of AOD over a <span class="hlt">global</span> regular grid of 11 spatial resolution. However, most of the validation efforts so far have focused on Level-2 products (10-km, at original resolution) and only rarely on Level-3 (at aggregated spatial resolution of 11). In this contribution, we compare the Level-3 Collection 5.1 MODIS AOD dataset available since 2000 against observed <span class="hlt">daily</span> AOD values at 550 nm from more than 500 AERONET ground stations around the globe. One aim of this study is to check the advisability of this MODIS dataset for surface shortwave solar radiation calculations using numerical weather models. Overall, the mean error of the dataset is 0.03 (17%, relative to the mean ground-observed AOD), with a root mean square error of 0.14 (73%, relative to the same), albeit these values are found highly dependent on geographical region. For AOD values below about 0.3 the expected error is found very similar to that of the Level-2 product. However, for larger AOD values, higher errors are found. Consequently, we propose new functions for the expected error of the Level-3 AOD, as well as for both its mean error and its standard deviation. Additionally, we investigate the role of pixel count vis--vis the reliability of the AOD estimates. Our results show that a higher pixel count does not necessarily turn into a more reliable AOD estimate. Therefore, we recommend to verify this assumption in the dataset at hand if the pixel count is meant to be used. We also explore to what extent the spatial aggregation from Level-2 to Level-3 influences the total uncertainty in the Level-3 AOD. In particular, we found that, roughly, half of the error might be attributable to Level-3 AOD sub-pixel variability. Finally, we use a~radiative transfer model to investigate how the Level-3 AOD uncertainty propagates into the calculated direct normal (DNI) and <span class="hlt">global</span> horizontal (GHI) <span class="hlt">irradiances</span>. Overall, results indicate that, for Level-3 AODs smaller than 0.5, the induced uncertainty in DNI due to the AOD uncertainty alone is below 15% on average, and below 5% for GHI (for a solar zenith angle of 30. However, the uncertainty in AOD is highly spatially variable, and so is that in <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120011702','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120011702"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar Spectral <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> and Climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pilewskie, P.; Woods, T.; Cahalan, R.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Spectrally resolved solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> is recognized as being increasingly important to improving our understanding of the manner in which the Sun influences climate. There is strong empirical evidence linking total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> to surface temperature trends - even though the Sun has likely made only a small contribution to the last half-century's <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature anomaly - but the amplitudes cannot be explained by direct solar heating alone. The wavelength and height dependence of solar radiation deposition, for example, ozone absorption in the stratosphere, absorption in the ocean mixed layer, and water vapor absorption in the lower troposphere, contribute to the "top-down" and "bottom-up" mechanisms that have been proposed as possible amplifiers of the solar signal. New observations and models of solar spectral <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> are needed to study these processes and to quantify their impacts on climate. Some of the most recent observations of solar spectral variability from the mid-ultraviolet to the near-infrared have revealed some unexpected behavior that was not anticipated prior to their measurement, based on an understanding from model reconstructions. The atmospheric response to the observed spectral variability, as quantified in climate model simulations, have revealed similarly surprising and in some cases, conflicting results. This talk will provide an overview on the state of our understanding of the spectrally resolved solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, its variability over many time scales, potential climate impacts, and finally, a discussion on what is required for improving our understanding of Sun-climate connections, including a look forward to future observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910003179','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910003179"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Variability of the Sun</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Froehlich, Claus</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Direct measurements of the solar constant--the total <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at mean Sun-Earth distance--during the last ten years from satellites show variations over time scales from minutes to years and decades. At high frequencies the spectral power is determined by granulation, super- and mesogranulation. In the 5-minute range, moreover, it is dominated by power from the solar p-mode oscillations. Their power and frequencies change with time, yielding information about changes in the convection zone. During periods of several hours, the power is steadily increasing and may be partly due to solar gravity modes. The most important variance is in the range from days to several months and is related to the photospheric features of solar activity, decrease of the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> during the appearance of sunspots, and increasing by faculae and the magnetic network. Long-term modulation by the 11-year activity cycle are observed conclusively with the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> being higher during solar maximum. All these variations can be explained--at least qualitatively--by their manifestation on the photosphere. For the long-term changes, the simultaneous changes of the frequencies of solar p-mode oscillations suggest a more <span class="hlt">global</span> origin of the variations. Indeed, it seems that the observed <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> modulation is a true luminosity change with the magnetic cycle of the Sun.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750044107&hterms=global+warming+effect&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bwarming%2Beffect','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750044107&hterms=global+warming+effect&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bwarming%2Beffect"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent advances in satellite observations of solar variability and <span class="hlt">global</span> atmospheric ozone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Heath, D. F.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>A description is given of the temporal behavior of the sun as an ultraviolet variable star in relation to <span class="hlt">daily</span> zonal means of atmospheric ozone from the total amount to that above the 10-mb and 4-mb pressure levels. A significant correlation has been observed between enhancements in the ultraviolet solar <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> and terrestrial passages of the solar magnetic field sector boundary structure. However, it has not yet been possible to separate solar from the dynamical effects on the variability in the zonal means of ozone. Attention is given to <span class="hlt">global</span> changes in ozone which have been derived from the satellite observations in terms of season, solar variability, and major stratospheric disturbances such as stratospheric warmings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43..812D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43..812D"><span id="translatedtitle">Midlatitude <span class="hlt">daily</span> summer temperatures reshaped by soil moisture under climate change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Douville, H.; Colin, J.; Krug, E.; Cattiaux, J.; Thao, S.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Projected changes in <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperatures are highly model dependent, particularly in the summer midlatitudes where the spread in the response of heat waves represents a major obstacle for the design of adaptation strategies. Understanding the main reasons for such uncertainties is obviously a research priority. Here we use a set of <span class="hlt">global</span> atmospheric simulations to assess the contribution of the soil moisture feedback to changes in the full distribution of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum summer temperatures projected in the late 21st century. Results show that this feedback (i) accounts for up to one third of the mean increase in <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum temperatures, (ii) dominates changes in the shape of the distribution, and (iii) explains about half of the increase in the severity of heat waves over densely populated areas of the northern midlatitudes. A dedicated intercomparison project is therefore needed to assess and constrain land surface feedbacks in the new generation Earth System Models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613459P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613459P"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of synoptic weather patterns on solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variability in Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Parding, Kajsa; Hinkelman, Laura; Liepert, Beate; Ackerman, Thomas; Dagestad, Knut-Frode; Asle Olseth, Jan</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Solar radiation is important for many aspects of existence on Earth, including the biosphere, the hydrological cycle, and creatures living on the planet. Previous studies have reported decadal trends in observational records of surface shortwave (SW) <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> around the world, too strong to be caused by varying solar output. These observed decadal trends have been dubbed "solar dimming and brightening" and are believed to be related to changes in atmospheric aerosols and cloud cover. Because the observed solar variability coincides with qualitative air pollution histories, the dimming and brightening have become almost synonymous with shortwave attenuation by anthropogenic aerosols. However, there are indications that atmospheric circulation patterns have influenced the dimming and brightening in some regions, e.g., Alaska and Scandinavia. In this work, we focus on the role of atmospheric circulation patterns in modifying shortwave <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. An examination of European SW <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> data from the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) shows that while there are periods of predominantly decreasing (~1970-1985) and increasing (~1985-2007) SW <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, the changes are not spatially uniform within Europe and in a majority of locations not statistically significant. To establish a connection between weather patterns and sunshine, regression models of SW <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> are fitted using a <span class="hlt">daily</span> classification of European weather called Grosswetterlagen (GWL). The GWL reconstructions of shortwave <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> represent the part of the solar variability that is related to large scale weather patterns, which should be effectively separated from the influence of varying anthropogenic aerosol emissions. The correlation (R) between observed and reconstruced SW <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> is between 0.31 and 0.75, depending on station and season, all statistically significant (p<0.05, estimated with a bootstrap test). In central and eastern parts of Europe, the observed decadal SW variability is poorly represented by the GWL models, but in northern Europe, the GWL model recreates observed decadal solar variability well. This finding suggests that natural and/or anthropogenic variations in circulation patterns have influenced solar dimming and brightening to a higher degree in the north than in the rest of Europe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4267849','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4267849"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Spiritual Experiences and Adolescent Treatment Response</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>LEE, MATTHEW T.; VETA, PAIGE S.; JOHNSON, BYRON R.; PAGANO, MARIA E.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study is to explore changes in belief orientation during treatment and the impact of increased <span class="hlt">daily</span> spiritual experiences (DSE) on adolescent treatment response. One-hundred ninety-five adolescents court-referred to a 2-month residential treatment program were assessed at intake and discharge. Forty percent of youth who entered treatment as agnostic or atheist identified themselves as spiritual or religious at discharge. Increased DSE was associated with greater likelihood of abstinence, increased prosocial behaviors, and reduced narcissistic behaviors. Results indicate a shift in DSE that improves youth self-care and care for others that may inform intervention approaches for adolescents with addiction. PMID:25525291</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010005251','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010005251"><span id="translatedtitle">BOREAS TE-21 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Surface Meteorological Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kimball, John; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-21 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the meteorology of boreal forest areas. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> meteorological data were derived from half-hourly BOREAS tower flux (TF) and Automatic Meteorological Station (AMS) mesonet measurements collected in the Southern and Northern Study Areas (SSA and NSA) for the period of 01 Jan 1994 until 31 Dec 1994. The data were stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC43D1059M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC43D1059M"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of <span class="hlt">daily</span> versus monthly fire emissions on atmospheric model applications in the tropics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marlier, M. E.; Voulgarakis, A.; Faluvegi, G.; Shindell, D. T.; DeFries, R. S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Fires are widely used throughout the tropics to create and maintain areas for agriculture, but are also significant contributors to atmospheric trace gas and aerosol concentrations. However, the timing and magnitude of fire activity can vary strongly by year and ecosystem type. For example, frequent, low intensity fires dominate in African savannas whereas Southeast Asian peatland forests are susceptible to huge pulses of emissions during regional El Nio droughts. Despite the potential implications for modeling interactions with atmospheric chemistry and transport, fire emissions have commonly been input into <span class="hlt">global</span> models at a monthly resolution. Recognizing the uncertainty that this can introduce, several datasets have parsed fire emissions to <span class="hlt">daily</span> and sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> scales with satellite active fire detections. In this study, we explore differences between utilizing the monthly and <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">Global</span> Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) products as inputs into the NASA GISS-E2 composition climate model. We aim to understand how the choice of the temporal resolution of fire emissions affects uncertainty with respect to several common applications of <span class="hlt">global</span> models: atmospheric chemistry, air quality, and climate. Focusing our analysis on tropical ozone, carbon monoxide, and aerosols, we compare modeled concentrations with available ground and satellite observations. We find that increasing the temporal frequency of fire emissions from monthly to <span class="hlt">daily</span> can improve correlations with observations, predominately in areas or during seasons more heavily affected by fires. Differences between the two datasets are more evident with public health applications: <span class="hlt">daily</span> resolution fire emissions increases the number of days exceeding World Health Organization air quality targets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26121284','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26121284"><span id="translatedtitle">Personality, self-perceptions, and <span class="hlt">daily</span> variability in perceived usefulness among older adults.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Allen, Pamela M; Mejía, Shannon T; Hooker, Karen</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Age-based self-stereotyping is associated with a variety of long-term physical health and psychological well-being outcomes for older people. However, little is known about how older individuals' day-to-day experiences of functional limitations may be related to concurrent self-appraisals on dimensions representing negative age stereotypes. We examined how distal personality traits and <span class="hlt">global</span> self-perceptions of aging at baseline affect processing of <span class="hlt">daily</span> experiences relevant to age-based self-stereotyping over time. Data from the 100-day Internet-based Personal Understanding of Life and Social Experiences (PULSE) study (N = 98, age = 52 - 88) were used to examine the link between personality and self-perceptions of aging to differences in 2 age stereotype-relevant <span class="hlt">daily</span> experiences: cognitive limitations and variation in usefulness. Multilevel random coefficient models suggested that personality and self-perceptions of aging were associated with the level of usefulness and the frequency of reporting trouble concentrating during the study period. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> experiences of trouble concentrating were significantly associated with lower perceived usefulness on that day, and conscientiousness moderated this relationship. By linking personality and <span class="hlt">global</span> self-perceptions to <span class="hlt">daily</span> experiences, our findings contribute toward understanding self-stereotyping processes by which personality and perceptions may affect long-term outcomes. PMID:26121284</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4577095','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4577095"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Rhythms in Mobile Telephone Communication</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Aledavood, Talayeh; López, Eduardo; Roberts, Sam G. B.; Reed-Tsochas, Felix; Moro, Esteban; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Saramäki, Jari</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Circadian rhythms are known to be important drivers of human activity and the recent availability of electronic records of human behaviour has provided fine-grained data of temporal patterns of activity on a large scale. Further, questionnaire studies have identified important individual differences in circadian rhythms, with people broadly categorised into morning-like or evening-like individuals. However, little is known about the social aspects of these circadian rhythms, or how they vary across individuals. In this study we use a unique 18-month dataset that combines mobile phone calls and questionnaire data to examine individual differences in the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of mobile phone activity. We demonstrate clear individual differences in <span class="hlt">daily</span> patterns of phone calls, and show that these individual differences are persistent despite a high degree of turnover in the individuals’ social networks. Further, women’s calls were longer than men’s calls, especially during the evening and at night, and these calls were typically focused on a small number of emotionally intense relationships. These results demonstrate that individual differences in circadian rhythms are not just related to broad patterns of morningness and eveningness, but have a strong social component, in directing phone calls to specific individuals at specific times of day. PMID:26390215</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4685462','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4685462"><span id="translatedtitle">Typical noise exposure in <span class="hlt">daily</span> life</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Flamme, Gregory A.; Stephenson, Mark R.; Deiters, Kristy; Tatro, Amanda; VanGessel, Devon; Geda, Kyle; Wyllys, Krista; McGregor, Kara</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objective Identify the distribution of typical noise levels present in <span class="hlt">daily</span> life and identify factors associated with average sound levels. Design This was an observational study. Study sample Participants (N = 286) were 20 to 68 year old men and women, drawn from the general population of Kalamazoo County, Michigan . A total of 73 000 person-hours of noise monitoring were conducted. Results Median overall <span class="hlt">daily</span> average levels were 79 and 77 dBLeqA,8,equiv , with average levels exceeding EPA recommended levels for 70% of participants. Median levels were similar between the hours of 9 a.m. and 9 p.m., and varied little across days of the week. Gender, occupational classification, and history of occupational noise exposure were related to average noise levels, but age, educational attainment, and non-occupational noise exposures were not. Conclusions A large portion of the general population is exposed to noise levels that could result in long-term adverse effects on hearing. Gender and occupation were most strongly related to exposure, though most participants in this study had occupations that are not conventionally considered noisy. PMID:22264061</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000379','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000379"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of Irrigation on <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Extremes in the Coupled Climate System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Puma, Michael J.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Krakauer, Nir; Gentine, Pierre; Nazarenka, Larissa; Kelly, Maxwell; Wada, Yoshihide</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Widespread irrigation alters regional climate through changes to the energy and water budgets of the land surface. Within general circulation models, simulation studies have revealed significant changes in temperature, precipitation, and other climate variables. Here we investigate the feedbacks of irrigation with a focus on <span class="hlt">daily</span> extremes at the <span class="hlt">global</span> scale. We simulate <span class="hlt">global</span> climate for the year 2000 with and without irrigation to understand irrigation-induced changes. Our simulations reveal shifts in key climate-extreme metrics. These findings indicate that land cover and land use change may be an important contributor to climate extremes both locally and in remote regions including the low-latitudes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140002744&hterms=Atmosphere&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DAtmosphere','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140002744&hterms=Atmosphere&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DAtmosphere"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">Irradiances</span> Consistent With CERES-Derived Top-of-Atmosphere Shortwave and Longwave <span class="hlt">Irradiances</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kato, Seiji; Loeb, Norman G.; Rose, Fred G.; Doelling, David R.; Rutan, David A.; Caldwell, Thomas E.; Yu, Lisan; Weller, Robert A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The estimate of surface <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on a <span class="hlt">global</span> scale is possible through radiative transfer calculations using satellite-retrieved surface, cloud, and aerosol properties as input. Computed top-of-atmosphere (TOA) <span class="hlt">irradiances</span>, however, do not necessarily agree with observation-based values, for example, from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES). This paper presents amethod to determine surface <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> using observational constraints of TOA <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> from CERES. A Lagrange multiplier procedure is used to objectively adjust inputs based on their uncertainties such that the computed TOA <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> is consistent with CERES-derived <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> to within the uncertainty. These input adjustments are then used to determine surface <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> adjustments. Observations by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO), CloudSat, andModerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) that are a part of the NASA A-Train constellation provide the uncertainty estimates. A comparison with surface observations from a number of sites shows that the bias [root-mean-square (RMS) difference] between computed and observed monthlymean <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> calculated with 10 years of data is 4.7 (13.3) W/sq m for downward shortwave and 22.5 (7.1) W/sq m for downward longwave <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> over ocean and 21.7 (7.8) W m22 for downward shortwave and 21.0 (7.6) W/sq m for downward longwave <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> over land. The bias andRMS error for the downward longwave and shortwave <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> over ocean are decreased from those without constraint. Similarly, the bias and RMS error for downward longwave over land improves, although the constraint does not improve downward shortwave over land. This study demonstrates how synergetic use of multiple instruments (CERES,MODIS, CALIPSO, CloudSat, AIRS, and geostationary satellites) improves the accuracy of surface <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> computations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1414243','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1414243"><span id="translatedtitle">Immunosuppression by whole-body <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> and its effect on oedema in experimental cerebral ischaemia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Strachan, R D; Kane, P J; Cook, S; Chambers, I R; Clayton, C B; Mendelow, A D</p> <p>1992-09-01</p> <p>The effect of <span class="hlt">global</span> immunosuppression by sublethal whole body X-<span class="hlt">irradiation</span> on the development of cerebral oedema was assessed 24 h after right middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat. <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> produced a significant leukopenia and thrombocytopaenia, and significantly reduced cortical oedema when compared to non-<span class="hlt">irradiated</span> control animals. PMID:1414243</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21I..04S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21I..04S"><span id="translatedtitle">Need for Caution in Interpreting <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Temperature Extremes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sardeshmukh, P. D.; Compo, G. P.; Penland, C.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Given the substantial anthropogenic contribution to <span class="hlt">global</span> warming, it is tempting to seek an anthropogenic component in any unusual recent weather event, or more generally in any recent change in extreme weather statistics. We caution that such detection and attribution efforts may, however, lead to wrong conclusions if the distinctively skewed and heavy-tailed features of the probability distributions of <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather variations are not properly accounted for. Large deviations from the mean are far more common in such a non-Gaussian world than they are in a Gaussian world. In such a world, a mean climate shift is also generally accompanied by changes in the width and shape of the probability distribution. Consequently, even the sign of the changes in tail probabilities cannot be inferred unequivocally from the mean shift. These realities further complicate the establishment of significant changes in tail probabilities from historical records of limited length and accuracy. A possible solution is to exploit the fact that the salient non-Gaussian features of the observed distributions are captured in a general class of probability distributions introduced in the meteorological literature by Sardeshmukh and Sura (2009). These distributions, called Stochastically Generated Skewed (SGS) distributions (of which Gaussian distributions are special cases), are associated with modified forms of stochastically perturbed damped linear processes, and as such represent perhaps the simplest physically based non-Gaussian prototypes of the observed distributions. Importantly, the distribution of an SGS variable remains an SGS distribution under a mean climate shift. We show further that fitting SGS distributions to all <span class="hlt">daily</span> values in limited climate records yields extreme value distributions of block maxima with smaller sampling uncertainties than GEV distributions fitted to only the block maxima. Extreme value analysis based on SGS distributions thus provides an attractive alternative to that based on GEV or Generalized Pareto distributions, and can be used to assess changes not only in tail probabilities but the entire distribution. The procedure will be illustrated to assess changes in the observed distributions of <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature anomalies in several regions of the globe over the 1874 to 2010 period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25798721','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25798721"><span id="translatedtitle">Productive and counterproductive job crafting: A <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Demerouti, Evangelia; Bakker, Arnold B; Halbesleben, Jonathon R B</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The present study aims to uncover the way <span class="hlt">daily</span> job crafting influences <span class="hlt">daily</span> job performance (i.e., task performance, altruism, and counterproductive work behavior). Job crafting was conceptualized as "seeking resources," "seeking challenges," and "reducing demands" and viewed as strategies individuals use to optimize their job characteristics. We hypothesized that <span class="hlt">daily</span> job crafting relates to <span class="hlt">daily</span> job demands and resources (work pressure and autonomy), which consequently relate to <span class="hlt">daily</span> work engagement and exhaustion and ultimately to job performance. A sample of 95 employees filled in a quantitative diary for 5 consecutive working days (n occasions = 475). We predicted and found that <span class="hlt">daily</span> seeking resources was positively associated with <span class="hlt">daily</span> task performance because <span class="hlt">daily</span> autonomy and work engagement increased. In contrast, <span class="hlt">daily</span> reducing demands was detrimental for <span class="hlt">daily</span> task performance and altruism, because employees lower their <span class="hlt">daily</span> workload and consequently their engagement and exhaustion, respectively. Only <span class="hlt">daily</span> seeking challenges was positively (rather than negatively) associated with <span class="hlt">daily</span> counterproductive behavior. We conclude that employee job crafting can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on job performance. PMID:25798721</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/global_composite','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/global_composite"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Composite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-19</p> <p>article title:  MISR <span class="hlt">Global</span> Images See the Light of Day     View Larger Image ... than its nadir counterpart due to enhanced reflection of light by atmospheric particulates. MISR data are processed at the ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy...42.2691C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy...42.2691C"><span id="translatedtitle">How well are <span class="hlt">daily</span> intense rainfall events captured by current climate models over Africa?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crtat, Julien; Vizy, Edward K.; Cook, Kerry H.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The ability of state-of-the-art climate models to capture the mean spatial and temporal characteristics of <span class="hlt">daily</span> intense rainfall events over Africa is evaluated by analyzing regional climate model (RCM) simulations at 90- and 30-km along with output from four atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) and coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project 5. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> intense rainfall events are extracted at grid point scale using a 95th percentile threshold approach applied to all rainy days (i.e., <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall ?1 mm day-1) over the 1998-2008 period for which two satellite-derived precipitation products are available. Both RCM simulations provide similar results. They accurately capture the spatial and temporal characteristics of intense events, while they tend to overestimate their number and underestimate their intensity. The skill of AGCMs and AOGCMs is generally similar over the African continent and similar to previous <span class="hlt">global</span> climate model generations. The majority of the AGCMs and AOGCMs greatly overestimate the frequency of intense events, particularly in the tropics, generally fail at simulating the observed intensity, and systematically overestimate their spatial coverage. The RCM performs at least as well as the most accurate <span class="hlt">global</span> climate model, demonstrating a clear added value to general circulation model simulations and the usefulness of regional modeling for investigating the physics leading to intense events and their change under <span class="hlt">global</span> warming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy..tmp..193C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy..tmp..193C"><span id="translatedtitle">How well are <span class="hlt">daily</span> intense rainfall events captured by current climate models over Africa?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crtat, Julien; Vizy, Edward K.; Cook, Kerry H.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>The ability of state-of-the-art climate models to capture the mean spatial and temporal characteristics of <span class="hlt">daily</span> intense rainfall events over Africa is evaluated by analyzing regional climate model (RCM) simulations at 90- and 30-km along with output from four atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) and coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project 5. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> intense rainfall events are extracted at grid point scale using a 95th percentile threshold approach applied to all rainy days (i.e., <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall ?1 mm day-1) over the 1998-2008 period for which two satellite-derived precipitation products are available. Both RCM simulations provide similar results. They accurately capture the spatial and temporal characteristics of intense events, while they tend to overestimate their number and underestimate their intensity. The skill of AGCMs and AOGCMs is generally similar over the African continent and similar to previous <span class="hlt">global</span> climate model generations. The majority of the AGCMs and AOGCMs greatly overestimate the frequency of intense events, particularly in the tropics, generally fail at simulating the observed intensity, and systematically overestimate their spatial coverage. The RCM performs at least as well as the most accurate <span class="hlt">global</span> climate model, demonstrating a clear added value to general circulation model simulations and the usefulness of regional modeling for investigating the physics leading to intense events and their change under <span class="hlt">global</span> warming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2395M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2395M"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> evaporation from a small reservoir.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McGloin, Ryan; McGowan, Hamish; McJannet, David; Burn, Stewart</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Accurate quantification of evaporation from small water storages is essential for water management and is also required as input in some regional hydrological and meteorological models. <span class="hlt">Global</span> estimates of the number of small storages or lakes (< 0.1 kilometers) are estimated to be in the order of 300 million (Downing et al., 2006). However, direct evaporation measurements at small reservoirs using the eddy covariance or scintillometry techniques have been limited due to their expensive and complex nature. To correctly represent the effect that small water bodies have on the regional hydrometeorology, reliable estimates of sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> evaporation are necessary. However, evaporation modelling studies at small reservoirs have so far been limited to quantifying <span class="hlt">daily</span> estimates. In order to ascertain suitable methods for accurately modelling hourly evaporation from a small reservoir, this study compares evaporation results measured by the eddy covariance method at a small reservoir in southeast Queensland, Australia, to results from several modelling approaches using both over-water and land-based meteorological measurements. Accurate predictions of hourly evaporation were obtained by a simple theoretical mass transfer model requiring only over-water measurements of wind speed, humidity and water surface temperature. An evaporation model that was recently developed for use in small reservoir environments by Granger and Hedstrom (2011), appeared to overestimate the impact stability had on evaporation. While evaporation predictions made by the 1-dimensional hydrodynamics model, DYRESM (Dynamic Reservoir Simulation Model) (Imberger and Patterson, 1981), showed reasonable agreement with measured values. DYRESM did not show any substantial improvement in evaporation prediction when inflows and out flows were included and only a slighter better correlation was shown when over-water meteorological measurements were used in place of land-based measurements. Downing, J. A., Y. T. Prairie, J. J. Cole, C. M. Duarte, L. J. Tranvik, R. G. Striegl, W. H. McDowell, P. Kortelainen, N. F. Caraco, J. M. Melack and J. J. Middelburg (2006), The <span class="hlt">global</span> abundance and size distribution of lakes, ponds, and impoundments, Limnology and Oceanography, 51, 2388-2397. Granger, R.J. and N. Hedstrom (2011), Modelling hourly rates of evaporation from small lakes, Hydrological and Earth System Sciences, 15, doi:10.5194/hess-15-267-2011. Imberger, J. and J.C. Patterson (1981), Dynamic Reservoir Simulation Model - DYRESM: 5, In: Transport Models for Inland and Coastal Waters. H.B. Fischer (Ed.). Academic Press, New York, 310-361.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25706335','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25706335"><span id="translatedtitle">Stimulus control in intermittent and <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael S; Ferguson, Stuart G</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 29(4) of Psychology of Addictive Behaviors (see record 2015-33590-001). There was an error in the reported value in the Discussion section. The second sentence of the second paragraph should have read, "Notably, DS also showed strong stimulus control in this analysis, implying 85% accuracy in identifying smoking situations." This was a result of a transcription error. All versions of this article have been corrected.] Many adult smokers are intermittent smokers (ITS) who do not smoke <span class="hlt">daily</span>. Prior analyses have suggested that, compared with <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers (DS), ITS smoking was, on average, more linked to particular situations, such as alcohol consumption. However, such particular associations assessed in common across subjects may underestimate stimulus control over smoking, which may vary across persons, due to different conditioning histories. We quantify such idiographic stimulus control using separate multivariable logistic regressions for each subject to estimate how well the subject's smoking could be predicted from a panel of situational characteristics, without requiring that other subjects respond to the same stimuli. Subjects were 212 ITS (smoking 4-27 days/month) and 194 DS (5-30 cigarettes <span class="hlt">daily</span>). Using ecological momentary assessment, subjects monitored situational antecedents of smoking for 3 weeks, recording each cigarette in an electronic diary. Situational characteristics were assessed in a random subset of smoking occasions (n = 21,539), and contrasted with assessments of nonsmoking occasions (n = 26,930) obtained by beeping subjects at random. ITS showed significantly stronger stimulus control than DS across all context domains: mood, location, activity, social setting, consumption, smoking context, and time of day. Mood and smoking context showed the strongest influence on ITS smoking; food and alcohol consumption had the least influence. ITS smoking was under very strong stimulus control; significantly more so than DS, but DS smoking also showed considerable stimulus control. Stimulus control may be an important influence on maintaining smoking and making quitting difficult for all smokers, but especially among ITS. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25706335</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21548303','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21548303"><span id="translatedtitle">[Fractal characteristics of <span class="hlt">daily</span> discharge in different scales watersheds].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhao, Hui; Guo, Suo-Yan; Xie, Ming-Shu; Lei, Ting-Wu</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Based on the fractal theory and the long-term <span class="hlt">daily</span> discharge records, this paper analyzed the fractal characteristics of <span class="hlt">daily</span> discharge in mid-scale watershed (Wushui watershed) and small-scale watersheds (Zhenfu and Shuangxi watersheds). Under the same time scales and different threshold values of <span class="hlt">daily</span> runoff, the fractal characteristics of <span class="hlt">daily</span> discharge in the watersheds of different spatial scales and of same spatial scales were evident, and existed self-similarity. With the increase of the threshold values of <span class="hlt">daily</span> runoff, the fractal dimensions of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> discharge of different space-scale watersheds decreased gradually. The set of fractal dimensions of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> discharge in different space-scale watersheds tended to be saturated when the time scale was 120-150 days, and the critical threshold values of <span class="hlt">daily</span> runoff might appear when the time scale exceeded this number of days. PMID:21548303</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920037006&hterms=1083&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231083','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920037006&hterms=1083&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231083"><span id="translatedtitle">Variability of solar ultraviolet <span class="hlt">irradiance</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pap, J. M.; Donnelly, R. F.; Hudson, H. S.; Rottman, G. J.; Willson, R. C.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>A model of solar Lyman alpha <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> developed by multiple linear regression analysis, including the <span class="hlt">daily</span> values and 81-day running means of the full disk equivalent width of the Helium line at 1083 nm, predicts reasonably well both the short- and long-term variations observed in Lyman alpha. In contrast, Lyman alpha models calculated from the 10.7-cm radio flux overestimate the observed variations in the rising portion and maximum period of solar cycle, and underestimates them during solar minimum. Models are shown of Lyman alpha based on the He-line equivalent width and 10.7-cm radio flux for those time intervals when no satellite observations exist, namely back to 1974 and after April 1989, when the measurements of the Solar Mesosphere Satellite were terminated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2153442','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2153442"><span id="translatedtitle">The Revised Observed Tasks of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Living</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Diehl, Manfred; Marsiske, Michael; Horgas, Ann L.; Rosenberg, Adrienne; Saczynski, Jane S.; Willis, Sherry L.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The Revised Observed Tasks of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Living (OTDL-R), a performance-based test of everyday problem solving, was administered to a sample of community-dwelling older adults. The OTDL-R included nine tasks, representing medication use, telephone use, and financial management. The OTDL-R had a desirable range of difficulty and satisfactory internal consistency and showed a relatively invariant pattern of relations between measured tasks and the underlying latent dimensions they represent across White and non-White subsamples. The OTDL-R also correlated significantly with age, education, self-rated health, a paper-and-pencil measure of everyday problem solving, and measures of basic cognitive functioning. Thus, the OTDL-R is a reliable and valid objective measure of everyday problem solving that has great practical utility for assessing performance in diverse populations. PMID:18160968</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8477615','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8477615"><span id="translatedtitle">Brittle nails: response to <span class="hlt">daily</span> biotin supplementation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hochman, L G; Scher, R K; Meyerson, M S</p> <p>1993-04-01</p> <p>A recent study from Switzerland demonstrated a 25 percent increase in nail plate thickness in patients with brittle nails who received biotin supplementation. Analysis of all visits to a nail consultation practice over a six-month period revealed forty-four patients with this condition who had been prescribed the B-complex vitamin biotin. Of these, thirty-five who took <span class="hlt">daily</span> supplementation were subjectively evaluated. Twenty-two of thirty-five (63 percent) showed clinical improvement and thirteen (37 percent) reported no change in their condition. The results of this small, retrospective study suggest a positive response to biotin in the treatment of brittle nails in some patients. PMID:8477615</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23458698','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23458698"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of parental discipline in <span class="hlt">daily</span> life.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Passini, Christina Moses; Pihet, Sandrine; Favez, Nicolas; Schoebi, Dominik</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The use of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) for studying parenting has been rare. We examined the psychometric properties and structural validity of an EMA Parenting Scale based on 32 mothers' reports of their parenting over a period of 10 consecutive days, and explored the acceptance of the scale and compliance with the procedure. The results suggested that the EMA Parenting Scale was well accepted for the assessment of <span class="hlt">daily</span> parenting, and that it consistently captured the overreactive and lax dimensions of parenting across different episodes of child misbehavior. Moreover, multilevel analyses suggested that the scale was sensitive to change across different parenting episodes, and that it reliably assessed the dimensions at both the personal and situational levels. PMID:23458698</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4233117','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4233117"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> oral iron supplementation during pregnancy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Dowswell, Therese; Viteri, Fernando E</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Iron and folic acid supplementation has been the preferred intervention to improve iron stores and prevent anaemia among pregnant women, and it may also improve other maternal and birth outcomes. Objectives To assess the effects of <span class="hlt">daily</span> oral iron supplements for pregnant women, either alone or in conjunction with folic acid, or with other vitamins and minerals as a public health intervention. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (2 July 2012). We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (2 July 2012) and contacted relevant organisations for the identification of ongoing and unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised trials evaluating the effects of oral preventive supplementation with <span class="hlt">daily</span> iron, iron + folic acid or iron + other vitamins and minerals during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis We assessed the methodological quality of trials using standard Cochrane criteria. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data and conducted checks for accuracy. Main results We included 60 trials. Forty-three trials, involving more than 27,402 women, contributed data and compared the effects of <span class="hlt">daily</span> oral supplements containing iron versus no iron or placebo. Overall, women taking iron supplements were less likely to have low birthweight newborns (below 2500 g) compared with controls (8.4% versus 10.2%, average risk ratio (RR) 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68 to 0.97, 11 trials, 8480 women) and mean birthweight was 30.81 g greater for those infants whose mothers received iron during pregnancy (average mean difference (MD) 30.81; 95% CI 5.94 to 55.68, 14 trials, 9385 women). Preventive iron supplementation reduced the risk of maternal anaemia at term by 70% (RR 0.30; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.46, 14 trials, 2199 women) and iron deficiency at term by 57% (RR 0.43; 95% CI 0.27 to 0.66, seven trials, 1256 women). Although the difference between groups did not reach statistical significance, women who received iron supplements were more likely than controls to report side effects (25.3% versus 9.91%) (RR 2.36; 95% CI 0.96 to 5.82, 11 trials, 4418 women), particularly at doses 60 mg of elemental iron or higher. Women receiving iron were on average more likely to have higher haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations at term and in the postpartum period, but were at increased risk of Hb concentrations greater than 130g/L during pregnancy and at term. Twenty-three studies were conducted in countries that in 2011 had some malaria risk in parts of the country. In some of these countries/territories, malaria is present only in certain areas or up to a particular altitude. Only two of these reported malaria outcomes. There is no evidence that iron supplementation increases placental malaria. For some outcomes heterogeneity was higher than 50%. Authors’ conclusions Prenatal supplementation with <span class="hlt">daily</span> iron are effective to reduce the risk of low birthweight, and to prevent maternal anaemia and iron deficiency in pregnancy. Associated maternal side effects and particularly high Hb concentrations during pregnancy at currently used doses suggest the need to update recommendations on doses and regimens for routine iron supplementation. PMID:23235616</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009REDS..164..232C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009REDS..164..232C"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermoluminescence sensitivity of <span class="hlt">daily</span>-use materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Correcher, V.; Garcia-Guinea, J.; Rivera, T.</p> <p></p> <p>The thermoluminescence (TL) response of silicon-rich <span class="hlt">daily</span>-use materials, namely charoite (silicate gemstone), Spanish dental crown, phone chip and Spanish glass has been investigated. All the samples previously characterised by means of X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy associated with energy-dispersion and wavelength-dispersive spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence exhibit a reasonable sensitivity to ionising radiation. The preliminary results, based on their TL properties, allow us to speculate that these materials could be potentially of interest in situations where conventional dosimetric systems are not available. The dose dependence of the 400 nm TL emission of the studied samples displays a very good linearity in the range of 0.1-10 Gy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=264808','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=264808"><span id="translatedtitle">Verification of factors to estimate <span class="hlt">daily</span> milk yield from one milking of cows milked twice <span class="hlt">daily</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The objective of this research was to verify factors to predict <span class="hlt">daily</span> milk yield when milk is sampled once per d for cows milked twice (2x) per d. Milk weights for both milkings were recorded automatically by 30 herds and collected by Dairy Herd Improvement supervisors. Data was split into 2 subsets...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25511685','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25511685"><span id="translatedtitle">Dapagliflozin twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> or once <span class="hlt">daily</span>: effect on pharmacokinetics and urinary glucose excretion in healthy subjects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tang, W; Reele, S; Hamer-Maansson, J E; Parikh, S; de Bruin, T W A</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The primary objective of this single-centre, open-label crossover study (NCT01072578) was to assess the effect of dapagliflozin on the amount of glucose in the blood and urine in healthy volunteers when dapagliflozin was administered once a day (10?mg) versus twice a day (5?mg every 12?h) after 5?days of dosing. At steady state, the AUC(ss)???? (area under the dapagliflozin curve (0-24 hours) at steady state), C(ss,av) (average concentration at steady state) between dapagliflozin 5?mg twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> and 10?mg once <span class="hlt">daily</span> were similar AUC(ss)???? [5 mg bid, (458.0 (28.7)) and 10 mg qd, (470.0 (28.5))] and C(ss,av) [5 mg bid 18.8 (28.9)) and 10 mg qd, (19.6(28.5))], but minimum and maximum plasma levels of dapagliflozin differed significantly. Percent inhibition of renal glucose reabsorption (%IRGRA) and total urinary glucose excretion over 24?h were similar for both doses. The relationship between the mean dapagliflozin concentration and %IRGRA and the total urinary glucose excreted was well described by a maximum effect model. The results indicate that dapagliflozin may be used for either once <span class="hlt">daily</span> or twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> administration. PMID:25511685</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=african+AND+family&id=EJ967197','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=african+AND+family&id=EJ967197"><span id="translatedtitle">Racial Differences in Exposure and Reactivity to <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Family Stressors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cichy, Kelly E.; Stawski, Robert S.; Almeida, David M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Using data from the National Study of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Experiences, the authors examined racial differences in exposure and reactivity to <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors involving family members. Respondents included African American and European American adults age 34 to 84 (N = 1,931) who participated in 8 days of <span class="hlt">daily</span> interviews during which they reported on daily…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title27-vol1-sec19-736.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title27-vol1-sec19-736.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">27 CFR 19.736 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> production records.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> production records..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Production Account 19.736 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> production records. (a) Spirits production. Each proprietor shall maintain <span class="hlt">daily</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title1-vol1-sec6-1.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title1-vol1-sec6-1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 6.1 - Index to <span class="hlt">daily</span> issues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Index to <span class="hlt">daily</span> issues. 6.1 Section 6.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES 6.1 Index to <span class="hlt">daily</span> issues. Each <span class="hlt">daily</span> issue of the Federal Register shall be appropriately indexed....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title1-vol1-sec6-3.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title1-vol1-sec6-3.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 6.3 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> lists of parts affected.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true <span class="hlt">Daily</span> lists of parts affected. 6.3 Section 6.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES 6.3 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> lists of parts affected. (a) Each <span class="hlt">daily</span> issue of the Federal Register shall carry...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title1-vol1-sec6-3.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title1-vol1-sec6-3.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 6.3 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> lists of parts affected.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> lists of parts affected. 6.3 Section 6.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES 6.3 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> lists of parts affected. (a) Each <span class="hlt">daily</span> issue of the Federal Register shall carry...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title1-vol1-sec6-1.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title1-vol1-sec6-1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 6.1 - Index to <span class="hlt">daily</span> issues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Index to <span class="hlt">daily</span> issues. 6.1 Section 6.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES 6.1 Index to <span class="hlt">daily</span> issues. Each <span class="hlt">daily</span> issue of the Federal Register shall be appropriately indexed....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title1-vol1-sec6-3.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title1-vol1-sec6-3.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 6.3 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> lists of parts affected.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> lists of parts affected. 6.3 Section 6.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES 6.3 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> lists of parts affected. (a) Each <span class="hlt">daily</span> issue of the Federal Register shall carry...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title1-vol1-sec6-3.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title1-vol1-sec6-3.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 6.3 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> lists of parts affected.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true <span class="hlt">Daily</span> lists of parts affected. 6.3 Section 6.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES 6.3 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> lists of parts affected. (a) Each <span class="hlt">daily</span> issue of the Federal Register shall carry...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title1-vol1-sec6-1.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title1-vol1-sec6-1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 6.1 - Index to <span class="hlt">daily</span> issues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Index to <span class="hlt">daily</span> issues. 6.1 Section 6.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES 6.1 Index to <span class="hlt">daily</span> issues. Each <span class="hlt">daily</span> issue of the Federal Register shall be appropriately indexed....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title1-vol1-sec6-1.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title1-vol1-sec6-1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 6.1 - Index to <span class="hlt">daily</span> issues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Index to <span class="hlt">daily</span> issues. 6.1 Section 6.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES 6.1 Index to <span class="hlt">daily</span> issues. Each <span class="hlt">daily</span> issue of the Federal Register shall be appropriately indexed....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title1-vol1-sec6-1.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title1-vol1-sec6-1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 6.1 - Index to <span class="hlt">daily</span> issues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Index to <span class="hlt">daily</span> issues. 6.1 Section 6.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES 6.1 Index to <span class="hlt">daily</span> issues. Each <span class="hlt">daily</span> issue of the Federal Register shall be appropriately indexed....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title1-vol1-sec6-3.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title1-vol1-sec6-3.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 6.3 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> lists of parts affected.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> lists of parts affected. 6.3 Section 6.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES 6.3 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> lists of parts affected. (a) Each <span class="hlt">daily</span> issue of the Federal Register shall carry...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol1-sec330-3.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol1-sec330-3.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">20 CFR 330.3 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> rate of compensation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> rate of compensation. 330.3 Section 330.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DETERMINATION OF <span class="hlt">DAILY</span> BENEFIT RATES § 330.3 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> rate of compensation. (a) Definition....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110023008','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110023008"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional Model Nesting Within GFS <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Forecasts Over West Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Druyan, Leonard M.; Fulakeza, Matthew; Lonergan, Patrick; Worrell, Ruben</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The study uses the RM3, the regional climate model at the Center for Climate Systems Research of Columbia University and the NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies (CCSR/GISS). The paper evaluates 30 48-hour RM3 weather forecasts over West Africa during September 2006 made on a 0.5 grid nested within 1 <span class="hlt">Global</span> Forecast System (GFS) <span class="hlt">global</span> forecasts. September 2006 was the Special Observing Period #3 of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA). Archived GFS initial conditions and lateral boundary conditions for the simulations from the US National Weather Service, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration were interpolated four times <span class="hlt">daily</span>. Results for precipitation forecasts are validated against Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite estimates and data from the Famine Early Warning System (FEWS), which includes rain gauge measurements, and forecasts of circulation are compared to reanalysis 2. Performance statistics for the precipitation forecasts include bias, root-mean-square errors and spatial correlation coefficients. The nested regional model forecasts are compared to GFS forecasts to gauge whether nesting provides additional realistic information. They are also compared to RM3 simulations driven by reanalysis 2, representing high potential skill forecasts, to gauge the sensitivity of results to lateral boundary conditions. Nested RM3/GFS forecasts generate excessive moisture advection toward West Africa, which in turn causes prodigious amounts of model precipitation. This problem is corrected by empirical adjustments in the preparation of lateral boundary conditions and initial conditions. The resulting modified simulations improve on the GFS precipitation forecasts, achieving time-space correlations with TRMM of 0.77 on the first day and 0.63 on the second day. One realtime RM3/GFS precipitation forecast made at and posted by the African Centre of Meteorological Application for Development (ACMAD) in Niamey, Niger is shown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=140593','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=140593"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and feedback inhibition of photosynthesis at elevated carbon dioxide concentration in Brassica oleracea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The fundamental cause of down-regulation of photosynthesis at elevated carbon dioxide concentration is thought to be a slower rate of utilization of carbohydrates than their stimulated rate of production, but there are few studies directly supporting this idea. We hypothesized that down-regulation w...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/577162','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/577162"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> warming, <span class="hlt">global</span> research, and <span class="hlt">global</span> governing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Preining, O.</p> <p>1997-12-31</p> <p>The anticipated dangers of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming can be mitigated by reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, especially CO{sub 2}. To reach acceptable, constant levels within the next couple of centuries it might be necessary to accept stabilization levels higher than present ones, The annual CO{sub 2} emissions must be reduced far below today`s values. This is a very important result of the models discussed in the 1995 IPCC report. However, any even very modest scenario for the future must take into account a substantial increase in the world population which might double during the 21st century, There is a considerable emission reduction potential of the industrialized world due to efficiency increase, However, the demand for energy services by the growing world population will, inspite of the availability of alternative energy resources, possibly lead to a net increase in fossil fuel consumption. If the climate models are right, and the science community believes they are, we will experience a <span class="hlt">global</span> warming of the order of a couple of degrees over the next century; we have to live with it. To be prepared for the future it is essential for us to use new research techniques embracing not only the familiar fields of hard sciences but also social, educational, ethical and economic aspects, We must find a way to build up the essential intellectual capacities needed to deal with these kinds of general problems within all nations and all societies. But this is not Although, we also have to find the necessary dynamical and highly flexible structures for a <span class="hlt">global</span> governing using tools such as the environmental regime. The first step was the Framework Convention On Climate Change, UN 1992; for resolution of questions regarding implementations the Conference of the Parties was established.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.8009R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.8009R"><span id="translatedtitle">Relationship between <span class="hlt">daily</span> atmospheric circulation patterns and <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation over Iran</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Raziei, Tayeb; Bordi, Isabella; Santos, Joo. A.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The present study investigates the relationship between large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns and precipitation over Iran. On the basis of the location of the dominant centres of action, large-scale <span class="hlt">daily</span> atmospheric circulation maps have been classified into twelve circulation patterns (CPs) by applying PCA to the 500 hPa geopotential height fields coupled with the K-means clustering technique. To link <span class="hlt">daily</span> CPs to <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation variability over Iran we used <span class="hlt">daily</span> gridded precipitation dataset with 0.5 0.5 degree spatial resolution, provided by Asian Precipitation-Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of the Water Resources (APHRODITE's Water Resources). For this purpose we computed the Performance Index (PI) for <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation at 638 regularly spaced grids over the country with 0.5 0.5 degree spatial resolution. The PI index provides a measure of the relative contribution of a given CP to the total precipitation amount. Results suggest that statistically significant relationship exist between the identified CPs and precipitation occurrences over Iran. We found that most CPs have minor contribution to precipitation occurrences over Iran. However, two out of the 12 identified CPs are responsible for precipitation occurrences over the majority portion of the target area, while some others may contribute to precipitation occurrences in some parts of the country. On the basis of the obtained results the identified CPs can be categorized into precipitation produce CPs and dry weather CPs. The results also demonstrate the influencing areas corresponding to each precipitation producing CP by which it is possible to characterize the precipitation regime over the target area. Key words: Weather types, Principal Component Analysis, Cluster Analysis, Atmospheric Circulation Patterns, PI, Precipitation, Iran.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A33A0122R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A33A0122R"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment and ground-based correction of the Level-3 MODIS <span class="hlt">daily</span> aerosol optical depth: Implications in the context of surface solar radiation prediction and numerical weather modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ruiz-Arias, J. A.; Dudhia, J.; Pozo-Vazquez, D.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The Level-3 MODIS (L3M) aerosol optical depth (AOD) product offers interesting features for surface solar radiation and numerical weather modeling applications. However, most of the validation efforts so far have been focused on Level-2 (L2M) products and only rarely on L3M. We compare the Collection 5.1 L3M AOD (Terra dataset) available since 2000 against observed <span class="hlt">daily</span> AOD values at 550 nm from more than 500 AERONET ground stations. The aim is to check the advisability of this dataset for surface solar radiation calculations using numerical weather models. Overall, the mean error (ME) is 0.03 (17%, relative to the mean observed AOD), with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.14 (73%), albeit these values are found highly dependent on geographical region. For AOD values above about 0.3 the expected error (EE) is found higher than that of the L2M product. We propose specific parameterizations for the EE of the L3M AOD, as well as for both its ME and its standard deviation. We also found that, roughly, half of the uncertainty of the L3M AOD dataset might be attributable to its sub-pixel variability. Finally, we used a radiative transfer model to investigate how the L3M AOD uncertainty propagates into the direct normal (DNI) and <span class="hlt">global</span> horizontal (GHI) <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> evaluation. Overall, for AODs smaller than 0.5, the induced uncertainty in DNI due to AOD alone is below 15% on average, and below 5% for GHI (for a solar zenith angle of 30 degrees). But the uncertainty in AOD is highly spatially variable, so is that in <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. These results suggest the necessity of a correction method to reduce the bias of the L3M AOD. Ground-based AOD measurements can be also used in a data fusion procedure. We present the results of a preliminary study using optimal interpolation of L3M <span class="hlt">daily</span> AOD data based on <span class="hlt">daily</span> AERONET AOD measurements in the US in the period since June to August 2009. The method removes the data gaps in the original dataset, assesses the spatial distribution of uncertainty and corrects the resultant gridded-AOD based on point-wise ground measurements. Overall, based on a cross-validation procedure, the method was able to reduce the ME from 0.013 (9%) to -0.002 (-2%), the RMSE from 0.084 (59%) to 0.070 (49%) and increase the correlation coefficient from 10% to 92%. Fig 1 shows the time series of the mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> AOD for the original (blue) and the data-fused (red) datasets over the study region. The methodology shall allow creating an accurate and long-term gridded-AOD database suitable to be ingested in numerical weather models so that the effect in the atmospheric system of AOD and its <span class="hlt">daily</span> variability can be better assessed. Such a dataset is crucial for DNI calculations at surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4567011','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4567011"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of once <span class="hlt">daily</span> radiotherapy to 60 Gy and twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> radiotherapy to 45 Gy for limited stage small-cell lung cancer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Han, Dan; Hao, Shaoyu; Tao, Cheng; Zhao, Qian; Wei, Yumei; Song, Zhengzheng; Li, Baosheng</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background This study was designed to compare toxicities, disease control, and survival outcomes for limited disease small-cell lung cancer (LD-SCLC) treated with once <span class="hlt">daily</span> (QD) versus twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> (BID) radiotherapy. Methods All of the patients received four to six cycles of platinum plus etoposide. In the QD group, <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> was given via conventional radiotherapy with a dose of 60 Gy at 2 Gy per once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> fraction. In the BID group, the dose was 45 Gy at 1.5 Gy per twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> fraction. Results Data from a total of 143 LD-SCLC patients treated at the Shandong Cancer Hospital & Institute were retrospectively analyzed. Statistically significant differences were found in the rates of both grade 2 or higher esophagitis (P = 0.036) and pneumonitis (P = 0.043) between QD and BID groups, respectively. Grade 3 esophagitis occurred in 6% of patients receiving QD and 19% of those receiving BID therapy. The median overall survival (OS) of all patients was 30.4 months: 29.5 months for QD therapy, and 31.4 months for BID therapy. The two-year OS rate was 43.3% for QD therapy, and 48.8% for BID therapy. The two-year locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS) rate was 45% versus 63.4% for the QD group versus the BID group, respectively. Conclusions Pneumonitis was more common in the QD group, and esophagitis was more common in the BID group. Although there were no significant differences in OS and LRFS between the QD and BID groups, there was a trend toward improved local control in the BID group. PMID:26445614</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5245376','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5245376"><span id="translatedtitle">Commercial food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Black, E.F.; Libby, L.M.</p> <p>1983-06-01</p> <p>Food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> is discussed. <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> exposes food to gamma rays from a cobalt-60 or a cesium-137 source, or to high-energy electrons emitted by an electron accelerator. A major advantage is that food can be packaged either before or after treatment. FDA regulations with regard to <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> are discussed. Comments on an 'Advance Notice' on <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>, published by the FDA in 1981 are summarized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC13H0770H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC13H0770H"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent Declines in Northern Hemisphere Winter <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Temperature Variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hausfather, Z.; Mosher, S.; Rohde, R. A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>There is considerable uncertainty regarding the expected change in short-term temperature variability in a warming world. As the earth warms, local weather may become more variable, less variable, or stay about the same. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> surface station temperature data compiled by Berkeley Earth spanning the period from 1960 to present is used to examine spatial trends in short-term varaibility by decomposing station data into a longer-term trend, an average seasonal cycle, changes over time in the seasonal cycle, and residual variability. We find statistically significant declines in Nothern Hemisphere winter maximum temperature variability, with much of the observed decline concentrated in the past 15 years in high-latitude areas. Fall variability has also declined over the period examined, but these declines appear to be more modest. Spring and summer variability have no identifiable significant trends <span class="hlt">globally</span>, though there are a few areas with notable increases. For the most part, weather variability appears to have changed little due to recent warming, with the likely exception of decreased variability in regions and months where snow accumulation is plausible. Potential correlations with changes in snow cover and sea ice extent are examined, and the implications of potential inhomogenities in the source data are explored.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25255987','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25255987"><span id="translatedtitle">Photophysiology and <span class="hlt">daily</span> primary production of a temperate symbiotic gorgonian.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ferrier-Pagès, C; Reynaud, S; Béraud, E; Rottier, C; Menu, D; Duong, G; Gévaert, F</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Gorgonians are one of the most important benthic components of tropical and temperate areas, and play a fundamental role as ecosystem engineers. Although <span class="hlt">global</span> warming and pollution increasingly threaten them, the acquisition of nutrients, which is a key process in fitness and stress resistance, has been poorly investigated in such species. This study has thus used an advanced in situ incubation chamber for the first time with gorgonians, to assess the <span class="hlt">daily</span> acquisition of nutrients and the photophysiology of the Mediterranean symbiotic species, Eunicella singularis. The xanthophyll cycle was assessed in parallel. This work has revealed that E. singularis presents a different functioning than the Mediterranean symbiotic corals. This gorgonian indeed relies on both autotrophy and heterotrophy in summer to optimize its energetic budget, while corals mainly shift to autotrophy for their respiratory needs and tissue growth. In addition, although E. singularis lives in the same depths/locations, and harbours the same symbiont genotype than the corals, the photosynthetic performances of their respective symbionts are significantly different. Indeed, E. singularis acquired 2-3 times less autotrophic carbon from its symbionts than corals, but maintained a positive carbon budget by reducing respiration rates, and by presenting maximal photosynthetic rates throughout the day, suggesting a very efficient light utilization. Almost no photoinhibition was observed under very high light levels, because of the induction of a xanthophyll photoprotection process. These results help understanding why gorgonians often dominate many benthic ecosystems. PMID:25255987</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AAS...21422801L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AAS...21422801L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Programs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Russo, P.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>IYA2009 is a <span class="hlt">global</span> collaboration between almost 140 nations and more than 50 international organisations sharing the same vision. Besides the common brand, mission, vision and goals, IAU established eleven cornerstones programmes to support the different IYA2009 stakeholder to organize events, activities under a common umbrella. These are <span class="hlt">global</span> activities centred on specific themes and are aligned with IYA2009's main goals. Whether it is the support and promotion of women in astronomy, the preservation of dark-sky sites around the world or educating and explaining the workings of the Universe to millions, the eleven Cornerstones are key elements in the success of IYA2009. However, the process of implementing <span class="hlt">global</span> projects across cultural boundaries is challenging and needs central coordination to preserve the pre-established goals. During this talk we will examine the ups and downs of coordinating such a project and present an overview of the principal achievements for the Cornerstones so far.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014LatJP..51...44B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014LatJP..51...44B"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> covering material for biocells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bendere, R.; Smigins, R.; Medne, O.; Berzina-Cimdina, L.; Rugele, K.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Bioreactor landfilling, with the acceptance of landfill Directive 1999/31/EC has lost its actuality in European Union; at the same time, this method can still be used for acceleration of biowaste degradation and biogas production. One of the possibilities to reduce the disposal of biowaste is to use biocells for its anaerobic pre-treatment before landfilling. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> filling up of such a cell requires isolation of the main volume to limit gas emissions, reduce smells, etc. Bioprocesses that are of the utmost importance for biocell treatment are often not taken into account in selection of materials to be used as <span class="hlt">daily</span> landfill covers. Based on physical, chemical and biological methods the investigations have been carried out into different covering materials offered in the market, with identification of parameters that are the most important for <span class="hlt">daily</span> covering the biocells. It is found that the materials fitted best this purpose should be of biological origin and consist of small bio-particles with large surface, without the inhibitors of anaerobic processes such as sulphuric compounds. Bioreaktoru pielietošana atkritumu uzglabāšanas sfērā, sakarā ar Direktīvas 1999/31/EC pieņemšanu, ir zaudējusi savu aktualitāti, taču šī metode vēl joprojām var tikt izmantota bioatkritumu noārdīšanai un biogāzes ražošanai. Viena no iespējām kā samazināt bioatkritumu izvietošanu ir biošūnu izmantošana bioatkritumu anaerobai pirmsapstrādei pirms to noglabāšanas. Šūnas piepildīšana ikdienā prasa nepieciešamību izolēt lielāko tās daļu, lai samazinātu gāzes emisiju, smakas, utt. Materiāli, kas ikdienā tiek izmantoti atkritumu pārklāšanai, nepietiekami ietekmē bioprocesus, kas pamatā ir galvenais biošūnas izmantošanas mērķis. Šajā sakarā ir veikta dažādu tirdzniecībā pieejamu pārklājuma materiālu izpēte, pielietojot virkni fizikālo, ķīmisko un bioloģisko metožu, un nosakot svarīgākos parametrus, kas ir būtiski šo materiālu izmantošanai ikdienā kā biošūnas pārklājumu. Pētījumu rezultātā noteikts, ka visatbilstošākie ir materiāli ar bioloģisko izcelsmi, sastāvoši no mazām bio daļiņām ar lielu laukumu bez anaerobo procesu inhibitoriem, piemēram, sēra komponentēm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4108601','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4108601"><span id="translatedtitle">Drinking-to-Cope Motivation and Negative Mood–Drinking Contingencies in a <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Diary Study of College Students</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>O’Hara, Ross E; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective: This study examined whether <span class="hlt">global</span> drinking-to-cope (DTC) motivation moderates negative mood–drinking contingencies and negative mood–motivation contingencies at the <span class="hlt">daily</span> level of analysis. Method: Data came from a <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary study of college student drinking (N = 1,636; 53% female; Mage = 19.2 years). Fixed-interval models tested whether <span class="hlt">global</span> DTC motivation moderated relations between <span class="hlt">daily</span> negative mood and that evening’s drinking and episodic DTC. Time-to-drink models examined whether <span class="hlt">global</span> DTC motivation moderated the effects of weekly negative mood on the immediacy of drinking and DTC in the weekly cycle. Results: More evening drinking occurred on days characterized by relatively higher anxiety or anger, and students were more likely to report DTC on days when they experienced greater sadness. However, only the <span class="hlt">daily</span> Anxiety × <span class="hlt">Global</span> DTC Motivation interaction for number of drinks consumed was consistent with hypotheses. Moreover, students reported drinking, heavy drinking, and DTC earlier in weeks characterized by relatively higher anxiety or anger, but no hypothesized interactions with <span class="hlt">global</span> DTC motivation were found. Conclusions: Results indicate that negative mood is associated with increased levels of drinking and drinking for coping reasons among college students but that the strength of these relations does not differ by <span class="hlt">global</span> levels of DTC motivation. These findings raise the possibility that <span class="hlt">global</span> DTC measures are insufficient for examining within-person DTC processes. Further implications of these results are discussed, including future directions that may determine the circumstances under which, and for whom, DTC occurs. PMID:24988259</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22447288','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22447288"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparative study of the bactericidal activity and <span class="hlt">daily</span> disinfection housekeeping surfaces by a new portable pulsed UV radiation device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Umezawa, Kazuo; Asai, Satomi; Inokuchi, Sadaki; Miyachi, Hayato</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> cleaning and disinfecting of non-critical surfaces in the patient-care areas are known to reduce the occurrence of health care-associated infections. However, the conventional means for decontamination of housekeeping surfaces of sites of frequent hand contact such as manual disinfection using ethanol wipes are laborious and time-consuming in <span class="hlt">daily</span> practice. This study evaluated a newly developed portable pulsed ultraviolet (UV) radiation device for its bactericidal activity in comparison with continuous UV-C, and investigated its effect on the labor burden when implemented in a hospital ward. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin-resistant A. baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Bacillus cereus were <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> with pulsed UV or continuous UV-C. Pulsed UV and continuous UV-C required 5 and 30 s of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>, respectively, to attain bactericidal activity with more than 2Log growth inhibition of all the species. The use of pulsed UV in <span class="hlt">daily</span> disinfection of housekeeping surfaces reduced the working hours by half in comparison to manual disinfection using ethanol wipes. The new portable pulsed UV radiation device was proven to have a bactericidal activity against critical nosocomial bacteria, including antimicrobial-resistant bacteria after short <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>, and was thus found to be practical as a method for disinfecting housekeeping surfaces and decreasing the labor burden. PMID:22447288</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26890490','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26890490"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> rhythmicity of high affinity copper transport.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Perea-García, Ana; Sanz, Amparo; Moreno, Joaquín; Andrés-Bordería, Amparo; de Andrés, Sonia Mayo; Davis, Amanda M; Huijser, Peter; Davis, Seth J; Peñarrubia, Lola</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>A differential demand for copper (Cu) of essential cupro-proteins that act within the mitochondrial and chloroplastal electronic transport chains occurs along the <span class="hlt">daily</span> light/dark cycles. This requires a fine-tuned spatiotemporal regulation of Cu delivery, becoming especially relevant under non-optimal growth conditions. When scarce, Cu is imported through plasma membrane-bound high affinity Cu transporters (COPTs) whose coding genes are transcriptionally induced by the SPL7 transcription factor. Temporal homeostatic mechanisms are evidenced by the presence of multiple light- and clock-responsive regulatory cis elements in the promoters of both SPL7 and its COPT targets. A model is presented here for such temporal regulation that is based on the synchrony between the basal oscillatory pattern of SPL7 and its targets, such as COPT2. Conversely, Cu feeds back to coordinate intracellular Cu availability on the SPL7-dependent regulation of further Cu acquisition. This occurs via regulation at COPT transporters. Moreover, exogenous Cu affects several circadian-clock components, such as the timing of GIGANTEA transcript abundance. Together we propose that there is a dynamic response to Cu that is integrated over diurnal time to maximize metabolic efficiency under challenging conditions. PMID:26890490</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SoPh..290.2709S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SoPh..290.2709S"><span id="translatedtitle">When <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Sunspot Births Become Positively Correlated</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shapoval, Alexander; Le Mouël, Jean-Louis; Shnirman, Mikhail; Courtillot, Vincent</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>We study the first differences w(t) of the International Sunspot Number (ISSN) <span class="hlt">daily</span> series for the time span 1850 - 2013. The one-day correlations ρ1 between w(t) and w(t+1) are computed within four-year sliding windows and are found to shift from negative to positive values near the end of Cycle 17 ({˜} 1945). They remain positive during the last Grand Maximum and until {˜} 2009, when they fall to zero. We also identify a prominent regime change in {˜} 1915, strengthening previous evidence of major anomalies in solar activity at this date. We test an autoregressive process of order 1 (AR(1)) as a model that can reproduce the high-frequency component of ISSN: we compute ρ1 for this AR(1) process and find that it is negative. Positive values of ρ1 are found only if the process involves positive correlation: this leads us to suggest that the births of successive spots are positively correlated during the last Grand Maximum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/923436','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/923436"><span id="translatedtitle">TRENDS IN ESTIMATED MIXING DEPTH <span class="hlt">DAILY</span> MAXIMUMS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M</p> <p>2007-11-12</p> <p>Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential temperature and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26067371','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26067371"><span id="translatedtitle">Egocentric <span class="hlt">daily</span> activity recognition via multitask clustering.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yan, Yan; Ricci, Elisa; Liu, Gaowen; Sebe, Nicu</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Recognizing human activities from videos is a fundamental research problem in computer vision. Recently, there has been a growing interest in analyzing human behavior from data collected with wearable cameras. First-person cameras continuously record several hours of their wearers' life. To cope with this vast amount of unlabeled and heterogeneous data, novel algorithmic solutions are required. In this paper, we propose a multitask clustering framework for activity of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living analysis from visual data gathered from wearable cameras. Our intuition is that, even if the data are not annotated, it is possible to exploit the fact that the tasks of recognizing everyday activities of multiple individuals are related, since typically people perform the same actions in similar environments, e.g., people working in an office often read and write documents). In our framework, rather than clustering data from different users separately, we propose to look for clustering partitions which are coherent among related tasks. In particular, two novel multitask clustering algorithms, derived from a common optimization problem, are introduced. Our experimental evaluation, conducted both on synthetic data and on publicly available first-person vision data sets, shows that the proposed approach outperforms several single-task and multitask learning methods. PMID:26067371</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED404222.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED404222.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McCoubrey, Sharon</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This theme issue focuses on topics related to <span class="hlt">global</span> issues. (1) "Recycling for Art Projects" (Wendy Stephenson) gives an argument for recycling in the art classroom; (2) "Winds of Change: Tradition and Innovation in Circumpolar Art" (Bill Zuk and Robert Dalton) includes profiles of Alaskan Yupik artist, Larry Beck, who creates art from recycled</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/global_albedo','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/global_albedo"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Albedo</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-19</p> <p>... and longwave reradiation. These images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) provide <span class="hlt">global</span>, seasonal summaries of a ... have albedo near zero. The DHR refers to the amount of spectral radiation reflected into all upward directions through an imaginary ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70043845','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70043845"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>U.S. Geological Survey</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Global</span> change is a relatively new area of scientific study using research from many disciplines to determine how Earth systems change, and to assess the influence of human activity on these changes. This teaching packet consists of a poster and three activity sheets. In teaching these activities four themes are important: time, change, cycles, and Earth as home.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7012939','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7012939"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> militarization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wallensteen, P.; Galtung, J.; Portales, C.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the titles are: Military Formations and Social Formations: A Structural Analysis; <span class="hlt">Global</span> Conflict Formations: Present Developments and Future Directions; War and the Power of Warmakers in Western Europe and Elsewhere, 1600-1980; and The Urban Type of Society and International War.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Global+AND+warming+AND+pollution&pg=3&id=EJ391198','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Global+AND+warming+AND+pollution&pg=3&id=EJ391198"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hileman, Bette</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>States the foundations of the theory of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. Describes methodologies used to measure the changes in the atmosphere. Discusses steps currently being taken in the United States and the world to slow the warming trend. Recognizes many sources for the warming and the possible effects on the earth. (MVL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+heating&id=EJ484206','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+heating&id=EJ484206"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Eichman, Julia Christensen; Brown, Jeff A.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Presents information and data on an experiment designed to test whether different atmosphere compositions are affected by light and temperature during both cooling and heating. Although flawed, the experiment should help students appreciate the difficulties that researchers face when trying to find evidence of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. (PR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993STIN...9513645K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993STIN...9513645K"><span id="translatedtitle">Welding <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> stainless steel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kanne, W. R., Jr.; Chandler, G. T.; Nelson, D. Z.; Franco-Ferreira, E. A.</p> <p></p> <p>Conventional welding processes produced severe underbead cracking in <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> stainless steel containing 1 to 33 appm helium from n,a reactions. A shallow penetration overlay technique was successfully demonstrated for welding <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> stainless steel. The technique was applied to <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> 304 stainless steel that contained 10 appm helium. Surface cracking, present in conventional welds made on the same steel at the same and lower helium concentrations, was eliminated. Underbead cracking was minimal compared to conventional welding methods. However, cracking in the <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> material was greater than in tritium charged and aged material at the same helium concentrations. The overlay technique provides a potential method for repair or modification of <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> reactor materials.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2746422','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2746422"><span id="translatedtitle">Object Perception Impairments Predict Instrumental Activities of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Living Dependence in Alzheimer's Disease</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>JEFFERSON, ANGELA L.; BARAKAT, LAMIA P.; GIOVANNETTI, TANIA; PAUL, ROBERT H.; GLOSSER, GUILA</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This study examined the contribution of object perception and spatial localization to functional dependence among Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Forty patients with probable AD completed measures assessing verbal recognition memory, working memory, object perception, spatial localization, semantic knowledge, and <span class="hlt">global</span> cognition. Primary caregivers completed a measure of activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living (ADLs) that included instrumental and basic self-care subscales (i.e., IADLs and BADLs, respectively). Stepwise multiple regressions revealed that <span class="hlt">global</span> cognition accounted for significant portions of variance among the ADL total, IADL, and BADL scores. However, when <span class="hlt">global</span> cognition was removed from the model, object perception was the only significant cognitive predictor of the ADL total and IADL subscale scores, accounting for 18.5% and 19.3% of the variance, respectively. When considering multiple cognitive components simultaneously, object perception and the integrity of the inferotemporal cortex is important in the completion of functional abilities in general and IADLs in particular among AD patients. PMID:16822730</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4121248','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4121248"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Converting Tacrolimus Formulation from Twice-<span class="hlt">Daily</span> to Once-<span class="hlt">Daily</span> in Liver Transplantation Recipients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Thorat, Ashok; Chou, Hong-Shiue; Lee, Chen-Fang; Soong, Ruey-Shyang; Wu, Ting-Jung; Lee, Wei-Chen</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Typically, tacrolimus is administrated twice <span class="hlt">daily</span>. Prolonged-release tacrolimus is the once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> formulation and may be more convenient for patients. Experience with the administration of the once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> formulation is still limited. This study enrolled 210 liver transplant recipients who had stable liver function and converted tacrolimus from a twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> to once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> formulation on a 1?mg to 1?mg basis. Among 210 patients, seven patients (3.3%) were withdrawn from the once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> formulation due to allergy and fatigue. For the other patients, the trough concentration after converting to the once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> formulation was lower than that of the twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> formulation. Liver enzymes were mildly elevated in 3 months after formulation conversion and serum creatinine and uric acid were mildly decreased. Seven patients (3.4%) had clinical suspicion of acute rejection after the formulation conversion and three of them were caused by nonadherence. 155 patients (76.4%) experienced a more convenient life with an increase of social activity. Forty-seven patients (23.2%) experienced the convenience of once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> formulation during overseas trips. In conclusion, tacrolimus can be safely converted from the twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> to the once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> formulation for most stable liver recipients. Acute rejection may occur in a minority of patients during formulation conversion and should be carefully monitored. PMID:25121091</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12008862','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12008862"><span id="translatedtitle">Twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> and once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> nedocromil sodium 2% ophthalmic solution for the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alexander, Michael; Allegro, Stacey; Hicks, Angela</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>In this 8-week open-label, prospective study, 30 patients with grass pollen allergy and ocular itching instilled nedocromil sodium 2% ophthalmic solution twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> for a 5-day baseline period, followed by once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> dosing thereafter. Physicians assessed clinical signs after the twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> period and after weeks 1 and 3 of the once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> period; patients rated ocular symptoms <span class="hlt">daily</span>. Use of specified rescue medication was permitted. Symptom scores for ocular itching, stinging, redness, swelling, burning, tearing, and light sensitivity did not differ significantly between the dosage periods. Scores for erythema, edema, conjunctival injection, and the entire conjunctiva decreased slightly during once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> administration; discharge scores were unchanged. Of the 20 patients who used rescue medication, only 5 increased their usage by more than two doses per week during the once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> period. Eighty-three percent of patients were willing to continue the once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen during the next allergy season. Physicians rated overall control of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis with once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> administration as "good" or "moderate" in 100% of the patients; 93% of patients applied those ratings themselves. Nedocromil sodium 2% ophthalmic solution instilled once <span class="hlt">daily</span> maintains control of symptoms in patients who are established on a twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen. PMID:12008862</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=globalization&pg=2&id=EJ1009637','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=globalization&pg=2&id=EJ1009637"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> and the "Identity Remix" among Urban Adolescents in India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rao, Mrinalini A.; Berry, Ruhi; Gonsalves, Ayesha; Hastak, Yogita; Shah, Mukti; Roeser, Robert W.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This study examined adolescents' perceptions of cultural change and identity development during an age of <span class="hlt">globalization</span> in India. Analyses of data from 1497 Indian, urban, middle-class 12-15-year-olds (46% girls) revealed that these youth were aware of changes in their <span class="hlt">daily</span> lives due to <span class="hlt">globalization</span> and evaluated such changes in a pragmatic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=corruption&pg=5&id=EJ1022674','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=corruption&pg=5&id=EJ1022674"><span id="translatedtitle">Children as <span class="hlt">Global</span> Citizens: A Socratic Approach to Teaching Character</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Helterbran, Valeri R.; Strahler, Brianna R.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Educators around the world are being challenged to promote positive <span class="hlt">global</span> citizenship skills in the face of <span class="hlt">daily</span> news concerning widespread discord, dissonance, injustice, and corruption. This article describes a Socratic approach to developing <span class="hlt">global</span> citizenship. Recognizing the central role of teachers in educating future generations of a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=india&pg=7&id=EJ1009637','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=india&pg=7&id=EJ1009637"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> and the "Identity Remix" among Urban Adolescents in India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rao, Mrinalini A.; Berry, Ruhi; Gonsalves, Ayesha; Hastak, Yogita; Shah, Mukti; Roeser, Robert W.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This study examined adolescents' perceptions of cultural change and identity development during an age of <span class="hlt">globalization</span> in India. Analyses of data from 1497 Indian, urban, middle-class 12-15-year-olds (46% girls) revealed that these youth were aware of changes in their <span class="hlt">daily</span> lives due to <span class="hlt">globalization</span> and evaluated such changes in a pragmatic…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7086876','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7086876"><span id="translatedtitle">Distribution of <span class="hlt">global</span> insolation over Pakistan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Raja, I.A.; Twidell, J.W. )</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>There are only five observatories measuring <span class="hlt">global</span> insolation in Pakistan, which cannot represent the solar climate of the country. However 37 observatories, distributed fairly well over the entire country, record sunshine. Therefore insolation-sunshine empirical equations are developed to estimate <span class="hlt">global</span> insolation over Pakistan. Three neighboring observatories for which the insolation-sunshine records are available are also included in the study. Monthly and yearly maps are constructed, for <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> insolation, based on data for 40 locations. The isolines are compared with the results obtained in India and with world solar insolation maps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26494423','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26494423"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> burden of COPD.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>López-Campos, José Luis; Tan, Wan; Soriano, Joan B</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>It is estimated that the world population will reach a record 7.3 billion in 2015, and the high burden of chronic conditions associated with ageing and smoking will increase further. Respiratory diseases in general receive little attention and funding in comparison with other major causes of <span class="hlt">global</span> morbidity and mortality. In particular, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been a major public health problem and will remain a challenge for clinicians within the 21st century. Worldwide, COPD is in the spotlight, since its high prevalence, morbidity and mortality create formidable challenges for health-care systems. This review emphasizes the magnitude of the COPD problem from a clinician's standpoint by drawing extensively from the new findings of the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Burden of Disease study. Updated, distilled information on the population distribution of COPD is useful for the clinician to help provide an appreciation of the relative impact of COPD in <span class="hlt">daily</span> practice compared with other chronic conditions, and to allocate minimum resources in anticipation of future needs in care. Despite recent trends in reduction of COPD standardized mortality rates and some recent successes in anti-smoking efforts in a number of Western countries, the overarching demographic impact of ageing in an ever-expanding world population, joined with other factors such as high rates of smoking and air pollution in Asia, will ensure that COPD will continue to pose an ever-increasing problem well into the 21st century. PMID:26494423</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=children+AND+internet+AND+positive&pg=3&id=EJ834679','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=children+AND+internet+AND+positive&pg=3&id=EJ834679"><span id="translatedtitle">Panwapa: <span class="hlt">Global</span> Kids, <span class="hlt">Global</span> Connections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Berson, Ilene R.; Berson, Michael J.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Panwapa, created by the Sesame Street Workshop of PBS, is an example of an initiative on the Internet designed to enhance students' learning by exposing them to <span class="hlt">global</span> communities. Panwapa means "Here on Earth" in Tshiluba, a Bantu language spoken in the Democratic Republic of Congo. At the Panwapa website, www.panwapa.org, children aged four to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3397B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3397B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming And Meltwater</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bratu, S.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>In order to find new approaches and new ideas for my students to appreciate the importance of science in their <span class="hlt">daily</span> life, I proposed a theme for them to debate. They had to search for <span class="hlt">global</span> warming information and illustrations in the media, and discuss the articles they found in the classroom. This task inspired them to search for new information about this important and timely theme in science. I informed my students that all the best information about <span class="hlt">global</span> warming and meltwater they found would be used in a poster that would help us to update the knowledge base of the Physics laboratory. I guided them to choose the most eloquent images and significant information. Searching and working to create this poster, the students arrived to better appreciate the importance of science in their <span class="hlt">daily</span> life and to critically evaluate scientific information transmitted via the media. In the poster we created, one can find images, photos and diagrams and some interesting information: <span class="hlt">Global</span> warming refers to the rising average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans and its projected evolution. In the last 100 years, the Earth's average surface temperature increased by about 0.8 °C with about two thirds of the increase occurring over just the last three decades. Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and scientists are more than 90% certain most of it is caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuel. They indicate that during the 21st century the <span class="hlt">global</span> surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 2.9 °C for the lowest emissions scenario and 2.4 to 6.4 °C for the highest predictions. An increase in <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, and potentially result in expansion of subtropical deserts. Warming is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing decrease of glaciers, permafrost and sea ice. Other likely effects of the warming include more frequent occurrences of extreme weather events including heat waves, droughts and heavy rainfall events, species extinctions due to shifting temperature regimes, and changes in agricultural yields. Meltwater is the water released by the melting of snow or ice, including glacial ice and ice shelves in the oceans. Meltwater is often found in the ablation zone of glaciers, where the rate of snow cover is reduced. In a report published in June 2007, the United Nations Environment Program estimated that <span class="hlt">global</span> warming could lead to 40% of the world's population being affected by the loss of glaciers, snow and the associated meltwater in Asia. This is one of many activities of the physics laboratory that the students of our high school are involved in.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005MmSAI..76.1015N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005MmSAI..76.1015N"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> warming: solar variability and energy consumption</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nigro, A.; Pagano, A.; Zuccarello, F.</p> <p></p> <p>Recent measurements support evidence for short-term <span class="hlt">global</span> warming of the earth's surface. The average trend of the earth's surface anomaly as a function of the time was fitted by a simple thermodynamical model including short-term variation of the solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> as well as anthropogenic forcing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ui&pg=2&id=EJ889844','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ui&pg=2&id=EJ889844"><span id="translatedtitle">Going <span class="hlt">Global</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Boulard, Garry</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In a move to increase its out-of-state and international student enrollment, officials at the University of Iowa are stepping up their <span class="hlt">global</span> recruitment efforts--even in the face of criticism that the school may be losing sight of its mission. The goal is to increase enrollment across the board, with both in-state as well as out-of-state and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230974','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230974"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Arrays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-02-23</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Global</span> Arrays (GA) toolkit provides an efficient and portable ?shared-memory? programming interface for distributed-memory computers. Each process in a MIMD parallel program can asynchronously access logical blocks of physically distributed dense multi-dimensional arrays, without need for explicit cooperation by other processes. Unlike other shared-memory environments, the GA model exposes to the programmer the non-uniform memory access (NUMA) characteristics of the high performance computers and acknowledges that access to a remote portion of the shared data is slower than to the local portion. The locality information for the shared data is available, and a direct access to the local portions of shared data is provided. <span class="hlt">Global</span> Arrays have been designed to complement rather than substitute for the message-passing programming model. The programmer is free to use both the shared-memory and message-passing paradigms in the same program, and to take advantage of existing message-passing software libraries. <span class="hlt">Global</span> Arrays are compatible with the Message Passing Interface (MPI).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230974-global-arrays','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230974-global-arrays"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Arrays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/">Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-02-23</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Global</span> Arrays (GA) toolkit provides an efficient and portable “shared-memory” programming interface for distributed-memory computers. Each process in a MIMD parallel program can asynchronously access logical blocks of physically distributed dense multi-dimensional arrays, without need for explicit cooperation by other processes. Unlike other shared-memory environments, the GA model exposes to the programmer the non-uniform memory access (NUMA) characteristics of the high performance computers and acknowledges that access to a remote portion of the sharedmore » data is slower than to the local portion. The locality information for the shared data is available, and a direct access to the local portions of shared data is provided. <span class="hlt">Global</span> Arrays have been designed to complement rather than substitute for the message-passing programming model. The programmer is free to use both the shared-memory and message-passing paradigms in the same program, and to take advantage of existing message-passing software libraries. <span class="hlt">Global</span> Arrays are compatible with the Message Passing Interface (MPI).« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16274445','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16274445"><span id="translatedtitle">Distinguishing affective and non-affective reactions to <span class="hlt">daily</span> events.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nezlek, John B</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>The study of <span class="hlt">daily</span> events has been dominated by a focus on affective reactions to <span class="hlt">daily</span> events. Although informative, this research needs to be complemented by research on non-affective and cognitive reactions to events. Although <span class="hlt">daily</span> events are certainly related to how people feel, they are also related to how people think, particularly about themselves. The present article presents the results of a series of studies examining relationships between <span class="hlt">daily</span> events and both affective and non-affective states. These results suggest that although affective and non-affective reactions to <span class="hlt">daily</span> events may covary (e.g., when people feel badly, they may think more poorly about themselves and vice versa), this covariation is not perfect. Non-affective states covary with <span class="hlt">daily</span> events above and beyond the covariation between events and affect, and affective states covary with events above and beyond the covariation between events and non-affective states. PMID:16274445</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26200849','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26200849"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Interpersonal and Affective Dynamics in Personality Disorder.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wright, Aidan G C; Hopwood, Christopher J; Simms, Leonard J</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>In this naturalistic study, the authors adopt the lens of interpersonal theory to examine between- and within-person differences in dynamic processes of <span class="hlt">daily</span> affect and interpersonal behaviors among individuals (N = 101) previously diagnosed with personality disorders who completed <span class="hlt">daily</span> diaries over the course of 100 days. Dispositional ratings of interpersonal problems and measures of <span class="hlt">daily</span> stress were used as predictors of <span class="hlt">daily</span> shifts in interpersonal behavior and affect in multilevel models. Results indicate that ?40%-50% of the variance in interpersonal behavior and affect is due to <span class="hlt">daily</span> fluctuations, which are modestly related to dispositional measures of interpersonal problems but strongly related to <span class="hlt">daily</span> stress. The findings support conceptions of personality disorders as a dynamic form of psychopathology involving the individuals interacting with and regulating in response to the contextual features of their environment. PMID:26200849</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24107710','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24107710"><span id="translatedtitle">The role of locus of control in <span class="hlt">daily</span> life.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ryon, Holly S; Gleason, Marci E J</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Conceived of as a stable trait, locus of control has been linked with psychological and physical health outcomes. We investigated whether locus of control operates as a state variable, whether variation in <span class="hlt">daily</span> locus of control is associated with anxiety and stressful events, and whether it predicts <span class="hlt">daily</span> health behaviors and symptoms. Using a <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary study of pregnant couples, we found <span class="hlt">daily</span> variation in locus of control was predicted by <span class="hlt">daily</span> hassles and anxiety such that high same-day and previous-day anxiety and hassles were associated with reports of lower levels of control. Furthermore, <span class="hlt">daily</span> locus of control was positively associated with positive health behaviors and predicted negative health symptoms. These results provide evidence for a social learning perspective on the development and maintenance of individuals' sense of control and suggest that locus of control should be considered both a state- and trait-level construct in future research. PMID:24107710</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4511964','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4511964"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Interpersonal and Affective Dynamics in Personality Disorder</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wright, Aidan G.C.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Simms, Leonard J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this naturalistic study we adopt the lens of interpersonal theory to examine between-and within-person differences in dynamic processes of <span class="hlt">daily</span> affect and interpersonal behaviors among individuals (N = 101) previously diagnosed with personality disorders who completed <span class="hlt">daily</span> diaries over the course of 100 days. Dispositional ratings of interpersonal problems and measures of <span class="hlt">daily</span> stress were used as predictors of <span class="hlt">daily</span> shifts in interpersonal behavior and affect in multilevel models. Results indicate that ~40%–50% of the variance in interpersonal behavior and affect is due to <span class="hlt">daily</span> fluctuations, which are modestly related to dispositional measures of interpersonal problems but strongly related to <span class="hlt">daily</span> stress. The findings support conceptions of personality disorders as a dynamic form of psychopathology involving the individuals interacting with and regulating in response to the contextual features of their environment. PMID:26200849</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=257647','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=257647"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Evapotranspiration at Field to <span class="hlt">Global</span> Scales using Geostationary and Polar Orbiting Satellite Imagery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing of land-surface temperature (LST) provides valuable information about the sub-surface moisture status required for estimating evapotranspiration (ET) and detecting the onset and severity of drought. While empirical indices measuring anomalies in LST and vegetati...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1130373','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1130373"><span id="translatedtitle">GSOD Based <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">Global</span> Mean Surface Temperature and Mean Sea Level Air Pressure (1982-2011)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p>Xuan Shi, Dali Wang</p> <p>2014-05-05</p> <p>This data product contains all the gridded data set at 1/4 degree resolution in ASCII format. Both mean temperature and mean sea level air pressure data are available. It also contains the GSOD data (1982-2011) from NOAA site, contains station number, location, temperature and pressures (sea level and station level). The data package also contains information related to the data processing methods</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.4825W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.4825W"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean land surface albedo from MODIS data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Dongdong; Liang, Shunlin; He, Tao; Yu, Yunyue; Schaaf, Crystal; Wang, Zhuosen</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Land surface albedo (LSA) is an important component of the surface radiation budget. For calculation of the surface shortwave net radiation budget, temporal mean albedo is more important than instantaneous albedo. Although Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) albedo products have been extensively validated, little effort has been made to evaluate the accuracy of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean albedo from MODIS. In this study, we calculate <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean albedo from MODIS data using a direct method and a look-up table (LUT) method. Comparison with in situ albedo measured at 27 field stations shows that both methods can estimate <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean albedo with high accuracy. The root-mean-square error (RMSE) of snow-free <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean albedo retrieved by the LUT method and the direct method is 0.033 and 0.034, respectively. Over the 12 spatially representative stations, RMSE of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean albedo is 0.022 and 0.023 by the LUT and direct approach, respectively. Simply using the local noon albedo value as a surrogate of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean albedo leads to overestimation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> shortwave net radiation. By using the data of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean albedo, the bias in estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> shortwave net radiation can be reduced by 2.8 W/m2 with the direct method and 2.6 W/m2 with the LUT method, compared to the use of local noon albedo.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950005971','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950005971"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar influences on <span class="hlt">global</span> change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Monitoring of the Sun and the Earth has yielded new knowledge essential to this debate. There is now no doubt that the total radiative energy from the Sun that heats the Earth's surface changes over decadal time scales as a consequence of solar activity. Observations indicate as well that changes in ultraviolet radiation and energetic particles from the Sun, also connected with the solar activity, modulate the layer of ozone that protects the biosphere from the solar ultraviolet radiation. This report reassesses solar influences on <span class="hlt">global</span> change in the light of this new knowledge of solar and atmospheric variability. Moreover, the report considers climate change to be encompassed within the broader concept of <span class="hlt">global</span> change; thus the biosphere is recognized to be part of a larger, coupled Earth system. Implementing a program to continuously monitor solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> over the next several decades will provide the opportunity to estimate solar influences on <span class="hlt">global</span> change, assuming continued maintenance of observations of climate and other potential forcing mechanisms. In the lower atmosphere, an increase in solar radiation is expected to cause <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. In the stratosphere, however, the two effects produce temperature changes of opposite sign. A monitoring program that would augment long term observations of tropospheric parameters with similar observations of stratospheric parameters could separate these diverse climate perturbations and perhaps isolate a greenhouse footprint of climate change. Monitoring <span class="hlt">global</span> change in the troposphere is a key element of all facets of the United States <span class="hlt">Global</span> Change Research Program (USGCRP), not just of the study of solar influences on <span class="hlt">global</span> change. The need for monitoring the stratosphere is also important for <span class="hlt">global</span> change research in its own right because of the stratospheric ozone layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP21B1990G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP21B1990G"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in distribution of <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature and precipitation between the Late Maunder Minimum and the 2nd half of the 20th century: A regional model study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gomez-Navarro, J. J.; Wagner, S.; Zorita, E.; Montavez, J. P.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Climate models are an important tool to get insight of the response of climate to changes to external forcings and to evaluate the role of internal variability. Their suitability to simulate climate changes can be addressed by comparing paleoclimate simulations and reconstructions of past climates. In this contribution we focus on the simulated changes of the probability distribution (PDF) of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean temperature and precipitation in two periods of the past millennium in Europe. These simulated changes will eventually be used for comparisons with reconstructions of the frequency of extremes. For this purpose, a simulation performed with the Regional Climate Model MM5 driven at the domain boundaries by the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Circulation Model ECHO-G was analysed. The regional domain encompasses Europe and the horizontal resolution of the regional model was 45 km. Both simulations consider three sources of external forcings related to changes in Total Solar <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> (TSI), volcanic events and greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations. The distribution of <span class="hlt">daily</span> series of temperature and precipitation have been obtained for several subareas of Europe for a recent period (1950-1990), influenced by the presence of additional anthropogenic GHGs, and compared with the period of the Late Maunder Minimum (LMM, 1675-1715) characterized by low TSI and enhanced volcanic activity. Results indicate that although the regional model is tightly driven by the <span class="hlt">global</span> model in terms of mean values, the shape of the PDFs can be significantly modified and improved with respect to observations in the regional model simulations. However, despite an obvious difference in the recent period with respect to the LMM, in terms on changes in external forcings, the shape of the PDFs hardly changes between these two periods. This indicates that the variations in simulated climate of the past millennium can be characterized by slowly changing mean values but with stable shape of the PDFs for temperature and precipitation. However, because changes in external forcings over the past millennium have been much smaller than the projected changes for the end of this century, especially for anthropogenic GHGs, this conclusion may not prove true for the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6144858','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6144858"><span id="translatedtitle">Plant responses to UV-B <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> are modified by UV-A <span class="hlt">irradiation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Middleton, E.M.; Teramura, A.H. Univ. of Maryland, College Park )</p> <p>1993-06-01</p> <p>The increasing UV-B radiation (0.28-0.32 [mu]m) reaching the earth's surface is an important concern. Plant response in artificial UV-B <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> studies has been difficult to assess, especially regarding photosynthetic pigments, because the fluorescent lamps also produce UV-A (0.32-0.40[mu]m) radiation which is involved with blue light in pigment synthesis. Both UV-A and UV-B <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> were controlled in two glasshouse experiments conducted under relatively high PPFD (> 1300[mu]mol m[sup [minus]2] s[sup [minus]1]) at two biologically effective <span class="hlt">daily</span> UV-B <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> (10.7 and 14.1 kJ m[sup [minus]2]); UV-A <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> were matched in Controls ([approximately]5, 9 kJ m[sup [minus]2]). Normal, chlorophyll-deficient, and flavonoid-deficient isolines of soybean cultivar, Clark, were utilized. Many growth/ pigment variables exhibited a statistically significant interaction between light quality and quantity: in general, UV-A radiation moderated the damaging effects of UV-B radiation. Regression analyses demonstrated that a single negative function related photosynthetic efficiency to carotenoid Content (r[sup 2] =0.73, P[le]0.001), implying a [open quotes]cost[close quotes] in maintaining carotenoids for photoprotection. A stomatal limitation to photosynthesis was verified and carotenoid content was correlated with UV-B absorbing compound levels, in UV-B <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> plants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23092623','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23092623"><span id="translatedtitle">Analyzing UV-B narrowband solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>: comparison with erythemal and vitamin D production <span class="hlt">irradiances</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sola, Yolanda; Lorente, Jernimo; Oss, Albert</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The heliotherapy and the phototherapy are mainly focused on taking benefit of the therapeutic effects of the ultraviolet (UV) <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on different skin diseases. The use of UV-B narrowband lamps, with emissions centered at 311 nm, has spread out among the dermatologist community because of its high therapeutic effect in comparison with its low erythema dose. For cloudless sun exposure, the balance of solar erythemal and solar narrowband (NB)-equivalent <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> depends on several factors such as the solar zenith angle (SZA), the total ozone column (TOC) and the altitude. For SZA below 55, the ratio of solar UV-B narrowband and erythemal <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> increases with the SZA whereas the ratio of vitamin D production and erythemal <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> decreases with the SZA with the maximum around midday. Furthermore, the solar NB ratio also increases with the TOC because the shorter wavelengths of the erythemal action spectrum are more affected by the ozone absorption processes. Considering the <span class="hlt">daily</span> variations of the ratio between narrowband and erythemal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, sun exposures avoiding midday hours are recommended in order to prevent negative side-effects. However to accumulate great NB doses and sufficient vitamin D in winter months is difficult because the time exposures may be longer than the day duration. PMID:23092623</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4208812','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4208812"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of Personality on <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Life Emotional Processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Komulainen, Emma; Meskanen, Katarina; Lipsanen, Jari; Lahti, Jari Marko; Jylhä, Pekka; Melartin, Tarja; Wichers, Marieke; Isometsä, Erkki; Ekelund, Jesper</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Personality features are associated with individual differences in <span class="hlt">daily</span> emotional life, such as negative and positive affectivity, affect variability and affect reactivity. The existing literature is somewhat mixed and inconclusive about the nature of these associations. The aim of this study was to shed light on what personality features represent in <span class="hlt">daily</span> life by investigating the effect of the Five Factor traits on different <span class="hlt">daily</span> emotional processes using an ecologically valid method. The Experience Sampling Method was used to collect repeated reports of <span class="hlt">daily</span> affect and experiences from 104 healthy university students during one week of their normal lives. Personality traits of the Five Factor model were assessed using NEO Five Factor Inventory. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze the effect of the personality traits on <span class="hlt">daily</span> emotional processes. Neuroticism predicted higher negative and lower positive affect, higher affect variability, more negative subjective evaluations of <span class="hlt">daily</span> incidents, and higher reactivity to stressors. Conscientiousness, by contrast, predicted lower average level, variability, and reactivity of negative affect. Agreeableness was associated with higher positive and lower negative affect, lower variability of sadness, and more positive subjective evaluations of <span class="hlt">daily</span> incidents. Extraversion predicted higher positive affect and more positive subjective evaluations of <span class="hlt">daily</span> activities. Openness had no effect on average level of affect, but predicted higher reactivity to <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors. The results show that the personality features independently predict different aspects of <span class="hlt">daily</span> emotional processes. Neuroticism was associated with all of the processes. Identifying these processes can help us to better understand individual differences in <span class="hlt">daily</span> emotional life. PMID:25343494</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21372266','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21372266"><span id="translatedtitle">Bystander Effects Induced by Medium From <span class="hlt">Irradiated</span> Cells: Similar Transcriptome Responses in <span class="hlt">Irradiated</span> and Bystander K562 Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Herok, Robert; Konopacka, Maria; Polanska, Joanna; Swierniak, Andrzej; Rogolinski, Jacek; Jaksik, Roman; Hancock, Ronald; Rzeszowska-Wolny, Joanna</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Purpose: Cells exposed to ionizing radiation release factors that induce deoxyribonucleic acid damage, chromosomal instability, apoptosis, and changes in the proliferation rate of neighboring unexposed cells, phenomena known as bystander effects. This work analyzes and compares changes in <span class="hlt">global</span> transcript levels induced by direct <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> and by bystander effects in K562 (human erythroleukemia) cells. Methods and Materials: Cells were X-<span class="hlt">irradiated</span> with 4 Gy or transferred into culture medium collected from cells 1 h after <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> (<span class="hlt">irradiation</span>-conditioned medium). <span class="hlt">Global</span> transcript profiles were assessed after 36 h of growth by use of Affymetrix microarrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) and the kinetics of change of selected transcripts by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results: The level of the majority (72%) of transcripts changed similarly (increase, decrease, or no change) in cells grown in <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>-conditioned medium or <span class="hlt">irradiated</span>, whereas only 0.6% showed an opposite response. Transcript level changes in bystander and <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> cells were significantly different from those in untreated cells grown for the same amount of time and were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for selected genes. Signaling pathways in which the highest number of transcripts changed in both conditions were found in the following groups: neuroactive ligand-receptor, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Janus Kinase-Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (JAK-STAT) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) In control cells more transcripts were downregulated than in <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> and bystander cells with transcription factors YBX1 and STAT5B, heat shock protein HSPA1A, and ribonucleic acid helicase DDX3X as examples. Conclusions: The transcriptomes of cells grown in medium from X-<span class="hlt">irradiated</span> cells or directly <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> show very similar changes. Signals released by <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> cells may cause changes in the transcriptome of neighboring cells that sustain their survival.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25899711','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25899711"><span id="translatedtitle">Memantine extended release (28 mg once <span class="hlt">daily</span>): a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Plosker, Greg L</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Memantine is an uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that is a well-established treatment option for moderate to severe dementia of the Alzheimer's type, either alone or in combination with cholinesterase inhibitors. The immediate-release (IR) formulations of memantine (tablets and oral solution) have been available in numerous countries, including the USA, for more than a decade and are administered orally twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> at a maximum recommended total <span class="hlt">daily</span> dosage of 20mg/day. The memantine extended-release (ER) (Namenda XR()) 28mg once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> capsule formulation was approved in the USA in 2010 and became available more recently. The potential advantages of memantine ER over the IR formulation include a more convenient dosage regimen and lower pill burden that may improve adherence to therapy; also, memantine ER capsules may be opened and the contents sprinkled on applesauce for patients who have difficulty swallowing. Memantine ER provides a higher total <span class="hlt">daily</span> dosage than the recommended memantine IR regimen and pharmacokinetic data indicate greater exposure with the ER formulation, but the clinical implications of this are unclear, as the two formulations have not been assessed in a comparative clinical trial. The efficacy of memantine ER 28mg once <span class="hlt">daily</span> was demonstrated in a large, multinational, phase III trial, which showed that the addition of memantine ER to ongoing oral cholinesterase inhibitors improved key outcomes compared with cholinesterase inhibitor monotherapy, including measures of cognition and <span class="hlt">global</span> status, which were the co-primary endpoints of the study. The most common adverse events were headache, diarrhoea and dizziness. PMID:25899711</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1414026C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1414026C"><span id="translatedtitle">RMAWGEN: A software project for a <span class="hlt">daily</span> Multi-Site Weather Generator with R</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cordano, E.; Eccel, E.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The modeling in in climate change applications for agricultural or hydrological purposes often requires <span class="hlt">daily</span> time-series of precipitation and temperature. This is the case of downscaled series from monthly or seasonal predictions of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Climate Models (GCMs). This poster presents a software project, the R package RMAWGEN (R Multi-Sites Auto-regressive Weather GENerator), to generate <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature and precipitation time series in several sites by using the theory of vectorial auto-regressive models (VAR). The VAR model is used because it is able to maintain the temporal and spatial correlations among the several series. In particular, observed time series of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation are used to calibrate the parameters of a VAR model (saved as "GPCAvarest2" or "varest2" classes, which inherit the "varest" S3 class defined in the package vars [Pfaff, 2008]). Therefore the VAR model, coupled with monthly mean weather variables downscaled by GCM predictions, allows to generate several stochastic <span class="hlt">daily</span> scenarios. The structure of the package consists in functions that transform precipitation and temperature time series into Gaussian-distributed random variables through deseasonalization and Principal Component Analysis. Then a VAR model is calibrated on transformed time series. The time series generated by VAR are then inversely re-transformed into precipitation and/or temperature series. An application is included in the software package as an example; it is presented by using a dataset with <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather time series recorded in 59 different sites of Trentino (Italy) and its neighborhoods for the period 1958-2007. The software is distributed as a Free Software with General Public License (GPL) and is available on CRAN website (http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/RMAWGEN/index.html)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15853455','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15853455"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Globalizing</span> biosecurity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Atlas, Ronald M; Reppy, Judith</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>A harmonized international regime that enhances biosecurity is needed to reduce the risk of bioterrorism. Like other security regimes, this will entail mutually reinforcing strands, which need to include: enactment of legally binding control of access to dangerous pathogens, transparency for sanctioned biodefense programs, technology transfer and assistance to developing countries to jointly advance biosafety and biosecurity, <span class="hlt">global</span> awareness of the dual-use dilemma and the potential misuse of science by terrorists, and development of a <span class="hlt">global</span> ethic of compliance. To work, this effort must be undertaken collectively, utilizing the international and regional institutions that already have a role to play in providing safety and security. Most notably, it must grow in a top-down manner from the Biological Weapons Convention accord, in which States Parties have agreed to ban the development of biological weapons, and in a bottom-up manner from the scientific and health communities, which are engaged in the research and public health efforts that must be protected against misuse-especially involving the World Health Organization. PMID:15853455</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=routines+AND+performance&pg=3&id=EJ799416','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=routines+AND+performance&pg=3&id=EJ799416"><span id="translatedtitle">What Impact Does Developmental Coordination Disorder Have on <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Routines?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Summers, Janet; Larkin, Dawne; Dewey, Deborah</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In order to understand how age and motor difficulties impact on <span class="hlt">daily</span> routines, this qualitative investigation used focus groups and in-depth interviews with Australian and Canadian parents to examine the <span class="hlt">daily</span> routines of younger (5 to 7 years of age) and older children (8 to 9 years of age) with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sponge&pg=5&id=ED164212','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sponge&pg=5&id=ED164212"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Curriculum Guide, Year II, Weeks 1-10.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.</p> <p></p> <p>Spanning two years, the program set forth in the <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Curriculum Guide for preschool Spanish-speaking children is essentially a language maintenance model in which Spanish is used as a means to develop basic concepts, skills and attitudes. This guide gives <span class="hlt">daily</span> lesson plans for the first ten weeks of the second year. Each lesson, written in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=developmental+AND+Coordination+AND+disorder&pg=6&id=EJ799416','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=developmental+AND+Coordination+AND+disorder&pg=6&id=EJ799416"><span id="translatedtitle">What Impact Does Developmental Coordination Disorder Have on <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Routines?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Summers, Janet; Larkin, Dawne; Dewey, Deborah</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In order to understand how age and motor difficulties impact on <span class="hlt">daily</span> routines, this qualitative investigation used focus groups and in-depth interviews with Australian and Canadian parents to examine the <span class="hlt">daily</span> routines of younger (5 to 7 years of age) and older children (8 to 9 years of age) with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..65..171M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..65..171M"><span id="translatedtitle">Which metric of ambient ozone to predict <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moshammer, Hanns; Hutter, Hans-Peter; Kundi, Michael</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>It is well known that ozone concentration is associated with <span class="hlt">daily</span> cause specific mortality. But which ozone metric is the best predictor of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> variability in mortality? We performed a time series analysis on <span class="hlt">daily</span> deaths (all causes, respiratory and cardiovascular causes as well as death in elderly 65+) in Vienna for the years 1991-2009. We controlled for seasonal and long term trend, day of the week, temperature and humidity using the same basic model for all pollutant metrics. We found model fit was best for same day variability of ozone concentration (calculated as the difference between <span class="hlt">daily</span> hourly maximum and minimum) and hourly maximum. Of these the variability displayed a more linear dose-response function. Maximum 8 h moving average and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean value performed not so well. Nitrogen dioxide (<span class="hlt">daily</span> mean) in comparison performed better when previous day values were assessed. Same day ozone and previous day nitrogen dioxide effect estimates did not confound each other. Variability in <span class="hlt">daily</span> ozone levels or peak ozone levels seem to be a better proxy of a complex reactive secondary pollutant mixture than <span class="hlt">daily</span> average ozone levels in the Middle European setting. If this finding is confirmed this would have implications for the setting of legally binding limit values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol1-sec330-2.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol1-sec330-2.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">20 CFR 330.2 - Computation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> benefit rate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> benefit rate, such increase will apply to days of unemployment or days of sickness in... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> benefit rate. 330.2 Section 330.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=defining+AND+advertising&id=ED228680','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=defining+AND+advertising&id=ED228680"><span id="translatedtitle">Rich News: Metropolitan <span class="hlt">Dailies</span> and the Urban Poor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Draper, Mary Jo</p> <p></p> <p>The migration of people from cities to suburbs, new patterns of advertising, a less homogeneous and unified readership, and increasing competition from other media have produced tremendous pressures on <span class="hlt">daily</span> newspapers. In responding to these pressures, metropolitan <span class="hlt">dailies</span> are turning from "hard" to "soft" news, away from their poorer urban…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol16/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol16-sec75-45.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol16/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol16-sec75-45.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 75.45 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> quality assurance criteria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> quality assurance criteria. 75... (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Alternative Monitoring Systems § 75.45 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> quality assurance... that such tests are unnecessary for providing quality-assured data....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol16/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol16-sec75-45.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol16/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol16-sec75-45.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 75.45 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> quality assurance criteria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> quality assurance criteria. 75... (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Alternative Monitoring Systems § 75.45 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> quality assurance... that such tests are unnecessary for providing quality-assured data....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol17/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol17-sec75-45.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol17/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol17-sec75-45.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 75.45 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> quality assurance criteria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> quality assurance criteria. 75... (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Alternative Monitoring Systems § 75.45 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> quality assurance... that such tests are unnecessary for providing quality-assured data....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol17/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol17-sec75-45.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol17/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol17-sec75-45.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 75.45 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> quality assurance criteria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> quality assurance criteria. 75... (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Alternative Monitoring Systems § 75.45 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> quality assurance... that such tests are unnecessary for providing quality-assured data....</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol17/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol17-sec75-45.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol17/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol17-sec75-45.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 75.45 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> quality assurance criteria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> quality assurance criteria. 75... (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Alternative Monitoring Systems § 75.45 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> quality assurance... that such tests are unnecessary for providing quality-assured data....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=135049','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=135049"><span id="translatedtitle">GENERATING REPRESENTATIVE SEQUENCES OF <span class="hlt">DAILY</span> PRECIPITATION FOR AGRICULTURAL SIMULATIONS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Uniform random numbers are often used in chain-dependent <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation models to simulate the stochastic component of <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation. This study shows that relatively short sequences of uniform random numbers, often involved in practical water resources and agricultural applications, are...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol3-sec59-301.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol3-sec59-301.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 59.301 - Mandatory <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reporting for Lambs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mandatory <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reporting for Lambs. 59.301 Section 59... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Lamb Reporting 59.301 Mandatory <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reporting for Lambs. (a) In... prices for lambs (per hundredweight) established on that day as F.O.B. feedlot or delivered at the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol3-sec59-301.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol3-sec59-301.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 59.301 - Mandatory <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reporting for Lambs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mandatory <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reporting for Lambs. 59.301 Section 59... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Lamb Reporting 59.301 Mandatory <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reporting for Lambs. (a) In... prices for lambs (per hundredweight) established on that day as F.O.B. feedlot or delivered at the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol3-sec59-301.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol3-sec59-301.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 59.301 - Mandatory <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reporting for Lambs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mandatory <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reporting for Lambs. 59.301 Section 59... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Lamb Reporting 59.301 Mandatory <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reporting for Lambs. (a) In... prices for lambs (per hundredweight) established on that day as F.O.B. feedlot or delivered at the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol3-sec59-301.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol3-sec59-301.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 59.301 - Mandatory <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reporting for Lambs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reporting for Lambs. 59.301 Section 59... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Lamb Reporting 59.301 Mandatory <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reporting for Lambs. (a) In... prices for lambs (per hundredweight) established on that day as F.O.B. feedlot or delivered at the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol3-sec59-301.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol3-sec59-301.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 59.301 - Mandatory <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reporting for Lambs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mandatory <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reporting for Lambs. 59.301 Section 59... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Lamb Reporting 59.301 Mandatory <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reporting for Lambs. (a) In... prices for lambs (per hundredweight) established on that day as F.O.B. feedlot or delivered at the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2013-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2013-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 890.5050 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 <span class="hlt">Daily</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2014-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2014-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 890.5050 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 <span class="hlt">Daily</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2012-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2012-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 890.5050 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 <span class="hlt">Daily</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 890.5050 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 <span class="hlt">Daily</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 890.5050 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 <span class="hlt">Daily</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/index.php/cfn/article/view/675','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/index.php/cfn/article/view/675"><span id="translatedtitle">Long <span class="hlt">daily</span> movements of wolves (Canis lupus) during pup raising</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Mech, L. David; Cluff, H. Dean</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Wolves, Canis lupus, on Ellesmere Island traveled a <span class="hlt">daily</span> round-trip distance of 40.2 km from their den to a landfill during July 2008, plus an undetermined distance hunting after leaving the landfill. Although long travels by Wolves are well known, this appears to be the first documentation of long <span class="hlt">daily</span> movements by Wolves rearing pups.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Human+AND+classification+AND+table&pg=5&id=EJ908341','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Human+AND+classification+AND+table&pg=5&id=EJ908341"><span id="translatedtitle">The Determinants of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tseng, Mei-Hui; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Lu, Lu; Huang, Chien-Yu</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to identify determinants of <span class="hlt">daily</span> function in a population-based sample of children with cerebral palsy (CP). The study took into consideration factors from the entire scope of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). Furthermore, the determinants of <span class="hlt">daily</span> function were examined from</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title30-vol1-sec77-1403.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title30-vol1-sec77-1403.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 77.1403 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> examination of hoisting equipment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> examination of hoisting equipment. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Personnel Hoisting § 77.1403 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> examination of hoisting equipment. Hoists and... automatic controls and brakes required under § 77.1401. (Sec. 101, Federal Mine Safety and Health Act...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title30-vol1-sec77-1403.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title30-vol1-sec77-1403.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 77.1403 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> examination of hoisting equipment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> examination of hoisting equipment. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Personnel Hoisting § 77.1403 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> examination of hoisting equipment. Hoists and... automatic controls and brakes required under § 77.1401. (Sec. 101, Federal Mine Safety and Health Act...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title30-vol1-sec77-1403.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title30-vol1-sec77-1403.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 77.1403 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> examination of hoisting equipment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> examination of hoisting equipment. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Personnel Hoisting § 77.1403 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> examination of hoisting equipment. Hoists and... automatic controls and brakes required under § 77.1401. (Sec. 101, Federal Mine Safety and Health Act...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title30-vol1-sec77-1403.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title30-vol1-sec77-1403.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 77.1403 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> examination of hoisting equipment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> examination of hoisting equipment. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Personnel Hoisting § 77.1403 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> examination of hoisting equipment. Hoists and... automatic controls and brakes required under § 77.1401. (Sec. 101, Federal Mine Safety and Health Act...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title30-vol1-sec77-1403.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title30-vol1-sec77-1403.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 77.1403 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> examination of hoisting equipment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> examination of hoisting equipment. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Personnel Hoisting § 77.1403 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> examination of hoisting equipment. Hoists and... automatic controls and brakes required under § 77.1401. (Sec. 101, Federal Mine Safety and Health Act...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title26-vol16/pdf/CFR-2012-title26-vol16-sec44-4403-1.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title26-vol16/pdf/CFR-2012-title26-vol16-sec44-4403-1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">26 CFR 44.4403-1 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> record.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> record. 44.4403-1 Section 44.4403-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES TAXES ON WAGERING; EFFECTIVE JANUARY 1, 1955 Tax on Wagers 44.4403-1 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> record. Every person liable for tax under section 4401 shall...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED393042.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED393042.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The Role of Religion in Coping with <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Hassles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Belavich, Timothy G.</p> <p></p> <p>This study examined the role of religion in coping with <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors. Specifically, <span class="hlt">daily</span> hassles, religious and nonreligious coping, Positive and Negative Affect, and Depression were assessed in a sample of college students (n=222). It was expected that religious coping would predict adjustment over and above the effects of nonreligious coping</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24800802','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24800802"><span id="translatedtitle">Experiential avoidance and well-being: a <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Machell, Kyla A; Goodman, Fallon R; Kashdan, Todd B</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Experiential avoidance (EA) is a regulatory strategy characterised by efforts to control or avoid unpleasant thoughts, feelings and bodily sensations. Most studies of EA have used trait measures without considering the effects of EA on psychological functioning in naturalistic settings. To address this gap, we used <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary methodology to examine the influence of EA of anxiety on everyday well-being. For two weeks, 89 participants provided <span class="hlt">daily</span> reports of EA, positive and negative affect, enjoyment of <span class="hlt">daily</span> events and meaning in life (MIL). <span class="hlt">Daily</span> EA predicted higher negative affect, lower positive affect, less enjoyment of <span class="hlt">daily</span> events (exercising, eating food and listening to music) and less MIL. The effect of EA on positive affect was not accounted for by the amount of negative affect experienced. Our <span class="hlt">daily</span> measure of EA was a stronger predictor of <span class="hlt">daily</span> well-being than a traditional trait measure (The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire). Taken together, results offer insights into the adverse effects of EA on <span class="hlt">daily</span> well-being and suggest that EA is a context-specific regulatory strategy that might be best captured using a state-dependent measure. PMID:24800802</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=targeting+AND+market&pg=7&id=ED228680','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=targeting+AND+market&pg=7&id=ED228680"><span id="translatedtitle">Rich News: Metropolitan <span class="hlt">Dailies</span> and the Urban Poor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Draper, Mary Jo</p> <p></p> <p>The migration of people from cities to suburbs, new patterns of advertising, a less homogeneous and unified readership, and increasing competition from other media have produced tremendous pressures on <span class="hlt">daily</span> newspapers. In responding to these pressures, metropolitan <span class="hlt">dailies</span> are turning from "hard" to "soft" news, away from their poorer urban</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=birth+AND+order&pg=6&id=EJ908341','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=birth+AND+order&pg=6&id=EJ908341"><span id="translatedtitle">The Determinants of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tseng, Mei-Hui; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Lu, Lu; Huang, Chien-Yu</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to identify determinants of <span class="hlt">daily</span> function in a population-based sample of children with cerebral palsy (CP). The study took into consideration factors from the entire scope of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). Furthermore, the determinants of <span class="hlt">daily</span> function were examined from…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=prosthetic&pg=6&id=ED143189','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=prosthetic&pg=6&id=ED143189"><span id="translatedtitle">Manual of Alternative Procedures: Activities of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Living.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McCormack, James E.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>Intended for teachers and others providing services for moderately and severely physically and/or mentally handicapped children and young adults, the manual presents strategies, procedures, and task analyses for training in <span class="hlt">daily</span> living skills. Section I provides an overview of tactics for teaching activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living (ADL) skills,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010018486','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010018486"><span id="translatedtitle">Extending the Precipitation Map Offshore Using <span class="hlt">Daily</span> and 3-Hourly Combined Precipitation Estimates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Bolvin, David T.; Curtis, Scott; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>One of the difficulties in studying landfalling extratropical cyclones along the Pacific Coast is the lack of antecedent data over the ocean, including precipitation. Recent research on combining various satellite-based precipitation estimates opens the possibility of realistic precipitation estimates on a <span class="hlt">global</span> 1 deg. x 1 deg. latitude-longitude grid at the <span class="hlt">daily</span> or even 3-hourly interval. The goal in this work is to provide quantitative precipitation estimates that correctly represent the precipitation- related variables in the hydrological cycle: surface accumulations (fresh-water flux into oceans), frequency and duration statistics, net latent heating, etc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890059304&hterms=deficit+attention&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Ddeficit%2Battention','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890059304&hterms=deficit+attention&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Ddeficit%2Battention"><span id="translatedtitle">Photometric measurements of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variations due to sunspots</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chapman, G. A.; Herzog, A. D.; Laico, D. E.; Lawrence, J. K.; Templer, M. S.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A photometric telescope constructed to obtain photometric sunspot areas and deficits on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis is described. Data from this Cartesian full disk telescope (CFDT) are analyzed with attention given to the period between June 4 and June 17, 1985 because of the availability of overlapping sunspot area and <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> deficit data from high-resolution digital spectroheliograms made with the San Fernando Observatory 28 cm vacuum solar telescope and spectroheliograph. The CFDT sunspot deficits suggest a substantial <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> contribution from faculae and active region plage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5556681','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5556681"><span id="translatedtitle">Photometric measurements of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variations due to sunspots</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chapman, G.A.; Herzog, A.D.; Laico, D.E.; Lawrence, J.K.; Templer, M.S. )</p> <p>1989-08-01</p> <p>A photometric telescope constructed to obtain photometric sunspot areas and deficits on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis is described. Data from this Cartesian full disk telescope (CFDT) are analyzed with attention given to the period between June 4 and June 17, 1985 because of the availability of overlapping sunspot area and <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> deficit data from high-resolution digital spectroheliograms made with the San Fernando Observatory 28 cm vacuum solar telescope and spectroheliograph. The CFDT sunspot deficits suggest a substantial <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> contribution from faculae and active region plage. 23 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMED42A..03S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMED42A..03S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> teaching of <span class="hlt">global</span> seismology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stein, S.; Wysession, M.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Our recent textbook, Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes, & Earth Structure (Blackwell, 2003) is used in many countries. Part of the reason for this may be our deliberate attempt to write the book for an international audience. This effort appears in several ways. We stress seismology's long tradition of <span class="hlt">global</span> data interchange. Our brief discussions of the science's history illustrate the contributions of scientists around the world. Perhaps most importantly, our discussions of earthquakes, tectonics, and seismic hazards take a <span class="hlt">global</span> view. Many examples are from North America, whereas others are from other areas. Our view is that non-North American students should be exposed to North American examples that are type examples, and that North American students should be similarly exposed to examples elsewhere. For example, we illustrate how the Euler vector geometry changes a plate boundary from spreading, to strike-slip, to convergence using both the Pacific-North America boundary from the Gulf of California to Alaska and the Eurasia-Africa boundary from the Azores to the Mediterranean. We illustrate diffuse plate boundary zones using western North America, the Andes, the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and the East Africa Rift. The subduction zone discussions examine Japan, Tonga, and Chile. We discuss significant earthquakes both in the U.S. and elsewhere, and explore hazard mitigation issues in different contexts. Both comments from foreign colleagues and our experience lecturing overseas indicate that this approach works well. Beyond the specifics of our text, we believe that such a <span class="hlt">global</span> approach is facilitated by the international traditions of the earth sciences and the world youth culture that gives students worldwide common culture. For example, a video of the scene in New Madrid, Missouri that arose from a nonsensical earthquake prediction in 1990 elicits similar responses from American and European students.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6596938','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6596938"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of local allograft <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> following renal transplantation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Halperin, E.C.; Delmonico, F.L.; Nelson, P.W.; Shipley, W.U.; Cosimi, A.B.</p> <p>1984-07-01</p> <p>Over a 10 year period, 67 recipients of 71 renal allografts received graft <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> following the diagnosis of rejection. The majority of kidneys were treated with a total dose of 600 rad, 150 rad per fraction, in 4 <span class="hlt">daily</span> fractions. Fifty-three kidneys were <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> following the failure of standard systemic immunosuppression and maximally tolerated antirejection measures to reverse an episode of acute rejection. Twenty-two (42%) of these allografts were noted to have stable (i.e. no deterioration) or improved function 1 month following the treatment with <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>. Eleven (21%) of these allografts maintained function 1 year following transplantation. Biopsies were obtained of 41 allografts. Of the 24 renal allografts with predominantly cellular rejection, 10 (42%) had the process reversed or stabilized at 1 month following <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>. Five (21%) of these allografts were functioning at 1 year following <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>. Rejection was reversed or stabilized in 6 of 17 (35%) allografts at 1 month when the histologic features of renal biopsy suggested predominantly vascular rejection. Local graft <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> has helped maintain a limited number of allografts in patients whose rejection has failed to respond to systemic immunosuppression. <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> may also benefit patients with ongoing rejection in whom further systemic immunosuppression is contra-indicated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6613683','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6613683"><span id="translatedtitle">Perspective on food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1987-02-01</p> <p>Recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> treatment for fruit, vegetables and pork has stimulated considerable discussion in the popular press on the safety and efficacy of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> processing of food. This perspective is designed to summarize the current scientific information available on this issue.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865384','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865384"><span id="translatedtitle">Comminuting <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> ferritic steel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Bauer, Roger E.; Straalsund, Jerry L.; Chin, Bryan A.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Disclosed is a method of comminuting <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> components.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1134121','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1134121"><span id="translatedtitle">Indoor and Outdoor Spectroradiometer Intercomparison for Spectral <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Measurement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Habte, A.; Andreas, A.; Ottoson, L.; Gueymard, C.; Fedor, G.; Fowler, S.; Peterson, J.; Naranen, R.; Kobashi, T.; Akiyama, A.; Takagi, S.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>This report details the <span class="hlt">global</span> spectral <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> intercomparison using spectroradiometers that was organized by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. The intercomparison was performed both indoors and outdoors on September 17, 2013. Five laboratories participated in the intercomparison using 10 spectroradiometers, and a coordinated measurement setup and a common platform were employed to compare spectral <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> under both indoor and outdoor conditions. The intercomparison aimed to understand the performance of the different spectroradiometers and to share knowledge in making spectral <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements. This intercomparison was the first of its kind in the United States.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.4116T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.4116T"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimizing <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> estimates for coastal and inland water imaging spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thompson, David R.; Seidel, Felix C.; Gao, Bo Cai; Gierach, Michelle M.; Green, Robert O.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Mouroulis, Pantazis</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Next generation orbital imaging spectrometers, with advanced <span class="hlt">global</span> remote sensing capabilities, propose to address outstanding ocean science questions related to coastal and inland water environments. These missions require highly accurate characterization of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> in the critical 380-600 nm spectral range. However, the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> in this spectral region is temporally variable and difficult to measure directly, leading to considerable variance between different models. Here we optimize an <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> estimate using data from the NASA airborne Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM), leveraging spectrally smooth in-scene targets. We demonstrate improved retrievals for both PRISM and the Next Generation Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMGC21A..08B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMGC21A..08B"><span id="translatedtitle">How do GCMs represent <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum temperatures in La Plata Basin?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bettolli, M. L.; Penalba, O. C.; Krieger, P. A.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>This work focuses on southern La Plata Basin region which is one of the most important agriculture and hydropower producing regions worldwide. Extreme climate events such as cold and heat waves and frost events have a significant socio-economic impact. It is a big challenge for <span class="hlt">global</span> climate models (GCMs) to simulate regional patterns, temporal variations and distribution of temperature in a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis. Taking into account the present and future relevance of the region for the economy of the countries involved, it is very important to analyze maximum and minimum temperatures for model evaluation and development. This kind of study is aslo the basis for a great deal of the statistical downscaling methods in a climate change context. The aim of this study is to analyze the ability of the GCMs to reproduce the observed <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum temperatures in the southern La Plata Basin region. To this end, <span class="hlt">daily</span> fields of maximum and minimum temperatures from a set of 15 GCMs were used. The outputs corresponding to the historical experiment for the reference period 1979-1999 were obtained from the WCRP CMIP5 (World Climate Research Programme Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5). In order to compare <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature values in the southern La Plata Basin region as generated by GCMs to those derived from observations, <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum temperatures were used from the gridded dataset generated by the Claris LPB Project ("A Europe-South America Network for Climate Change Assessment and Impact Studies in La Plata Basin"). Additionally, reference station data was included in the study. The analysis was focused on austral winter (June, July, August) and summer (December, January, February). The study was carried out by analyzing the performance of the 15 GCMs , as well as their ensemble mean, in simulating the probability distribution function (pdf) of maximum and minimum temperatures which include mean values, variability, skewness, et c, and regional patterns. The results indicate that models are able to reproduce the full range of summer and winter maximum and minimum temperature values, although the inter-model dispersion is high. Most models reproduce fairly well the differences between <span class="hlt">daily</span> summer and <span class="hlt">daily</span> winter temperature distributions, however GCMs tend to smooth the extreme values. The largest differences are found for winter minimum temperature values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1128528','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1128528"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> Creep in Graphite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William</p> <p>2014-03-13</p> <p>An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12747163','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12747163"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> gamesmanship.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>MacMillan, Ian C; van Putten, Alexander B; McGrath, Rita Gunther</p> <p>2003-05-01</p> <p>Competition among multinationals these days is likely to be a three-dimensional game of <span class="hlt">global</span> chess: The moves an organization makes in one market are designed to achieve goals in another in ways that aren't immediately apparent to its rivals. The authors--all management professors-call this approach "competing under strategic interdependence," or CSI. And where this interdependence exists, the complexity of the situation can quickly overwhelm ordinary analysis. Indeed, most business strategists are terrible at anticipating the consequences of interdependent choices, and they're even worse at using interdependency to their advantage. In this article, the authors offer a process for mapping the competitive landscape and anticipating how your company's moves in one market can influence its competitive interactions in others. They outline the six types of CSI campaigns--onslaughts, contests, guerrilla campaigns, feints, gambits, and harvesting--available to any multiproduct or multimarket corporation that wants to compete skillfully. They cite real-world examples such as the U.S. pricing battle Philip Morris waged with R.J. Reynolds--not to gain market share in the domestic cigarette market but to divert R.J. Reynolds's resources and attention from the opportunities Philip Morris was pursuing in Eastern Europe. And, using data they collected from their studies of consumer-products companies Procter & Gamble and Unilever, the authors describe how to create CSI tables and bubble charts that present a graphical look at the competitive landscape and that may uncover previously hidden opportunities. The CSI mapping process isn't just for <span class="hlt">global</span> corporations, the authors explain. Smaller organizations that compete with a portfolio of products in just one national or regional market may find it just as useful for planning their next business moves. PMID:12747163</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005RPPh...68.1343H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005RPPh...68.1343H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> warming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Houghton, John</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>'<span class="hlt">Global</span> warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, <span class="hlt">global</span> warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=negative+AND+impact&pg=7&id=EJ936186','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=negative+AND+impact&pg=7&id=EJ936186"><span id="translatedtitle">Adaptation to <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Stress among Mothers of Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Positive Affect</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ekas, Naomi V.; Whitman, Thomas L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Raising a child with an autism spectrum disorder is a challenging experience that can impact maternal well-being. Using a <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary methodology, this study investigates (1) the relationship between stress and negative affect, and (2) the role of <span class="hlt">daily</span> positive affect as a protective factor in the stress and negative affect relationship. Results…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=stress+AND+wellbeing&pg=7&id=EJ936186','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=stress+AND+wellbeing&pg=7&id=EJ936186"><span id="translatedtitle">Adaptation to <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Stress among Mothers of Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Positive Affect</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ekas, Naomi V.; Whitman, Thomas L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Raising a child with an autism spectrum disorder is a challenging experience that can impact maternal well-being. Using a <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary methodology, this study investigates (1) the relationship between stress and negative affect, and (2) the role of <span class="hlt">daily</span> positive affect as a protective factor in the stress and negative affect relationship. Results</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26031560','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26031560"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating the Diurnal Cycle and <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Insolation of Ultraviolet and Photosynthetically Active Radiation at the Sea Surface.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuwahara, Victor S; Taguchi, Satoru</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Accurate determination of the diurnal variability and <span class="hlt">daily</span> insolation of surface (0(+) ) and subsurface (0(-) ) <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> are essential to estimate several physical, chemical and biological processes occurring at the surface layer of marine environments. Natural downwelling PAR and spectral UVR were examined on eight occasions at 0(+) and 0(-) to refine empirical models, particularly in the UVR spectrum. The diurnal variability in UVR and PAR were wavelength dependent and were modeled by a sinusoidal equation. The best fit for PAR at 0(+) and 0(-) was the sinusoid power of n=2 and n=2.5, respectively. In the UVR spectrum, sinusoids increased as wavelengths decreased ranging from n=2-5. Higher n values in the UV-B spectrum suggest sharper increase/decrease near sunrise and sunset hours, ultimately reducing the final value of <span class="hlt">daily</span> insolation at specified wavelengths. Calculated <span class="hlt">daily</span> insolation of UV-B/(UV-A+PAR) ratio suggests that photoinhibition from exposure to UV-B occurs within a shorter biologically effective day length than PAR, and is high during summer and low during winter. These results suggest that biogeochemical calculations based on diurnal models of <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements would benefit from accurate solar noon references and wavelength specificity, particularly in the UVR spectrum. PMID:26031560</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040081225&hterms=chlorophyll&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dchlorophyll','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040081225&hterms=chlorophyll&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dchlorophyll"><span id="translatedtitle">Patterns and Variability in <span class="hlt">Global</span> Ocean Chlorophyll: Satellite Observations and Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gregg, Watson</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Recent analyses of SeaWiFS data have shown that <span class="hlt">global</span> ocean chlorophyll has increased more than 4% since 1998. The North Pacific ocean basin has increased nearly 19%. These trend analyses follow earlier results showing decadal declines in <span class="hlt">global</span> ocean chlorophyll and primary production. To understand the causes of these changes and trends we have applied the newly developed NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Assimilation Model (OBAM), which is driven in mechanistic fashion by surface winds, sea surface temperature, atmospheric iron deposition, sea ice, and surface <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. The model utilizes chlorophyll from SeaWiFS in a <span class="hlt">daily</span> assimilation. The model has in place many of the climatic variables that can be expected to produce the changes observed in SeaWiFS data. This enables us to diagnose the model performance, the assimilation performance, and possible causes for the increase in chlorophyll. A full discussion of the changes and trends, possible causes, modeling approaches, and data assimilation will be the focus of the seminar.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A34C..01K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A34C..01K"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of CERES surface <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kato, S.; Loeb, N. G.; Rose, F. G.; Rutan, D. A.; Doelling, D.; Radkevich, A.; Ham, S. H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Understanding the surface radiation budget is important for several reasons. At the <span class="hlt">global</span> and large temporal scales, it should balance with the sum of surface latent and sensible heat fluxes and ocean heating. At regional scales, it is an indispensable boundary condition for ocean or snow models or any other models that need energy input to the surface. NASA's Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project provides surface <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> data products for a range of temporal and spatial scales computed using a radiative transfer model initialized using satellite-derived cloud and aerosol properties. Other inputs to the radiative transfer model include temperature and humidity profiles from NASA <span class="hlt">Global</span> Modeling and Assimilation Office's (GMAO) reanalysis. The CERES team uses more than 80 surface observation sites located over land and ocean to evaluate computed <span class="hlt">irradiances</span>. When computed monthly 1 by 1 gridded mean downward <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> are compared with 10 years of observed <span class="hlt">irradiances</span>, the bias averaged over all land and ocean sites are, respectively, -1.7 Wm-2 and 4.7 Wm-2 for shortwave and -1.0 Wm-2 and -2.0 Wm-2 for longwave. The shortwave agreement is significantly better than other satellite-based surface <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> products. One of reasons for the better agreement is careful treatment of diurnal cycle of clouds by merging 3-hourly geostationary satellite-derived cloud properties. In addition, computed surface <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variability shows a remarkable agreement with observed variability. However, these data sets have their shortcomings. The uncertainty in nighttime surface longwave <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> over polar regions is larger than that of other regions primarily due to the difficulty of cloud detection and large uncertainties in skin temperature and near-surface temperature and humidity. The large uncertainty in polar region surface <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> hampers, for example, investigation of surface radiation budget changes in response to changes in sea ice extent. In this presentation, we present an evaluation of the current CERES products and discuss ways these products can be improved in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.2658D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.2658D"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of different models to estimate the <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation on inclined surface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Demain, C.; Journe, M.; Bertrand, C.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Global</span> and diffuse solar radiation intensities are, in general, measured on horizontal surfaces, whereas stationary solar conversion systems (both flat plate solar collector and solar photovoltaic) are mounted on inclined surface to maximize the amount of solar radiation incident on the collector surface. Consequently, the solar radiation incident measured on a tilted surface has to be determined by converting solar radiation from horizontal surface to tilted surface of interest. This study evaluates the performance of 14 models transposing 10 minutes, hourly and <span class="hlt">daily</span> diffuse solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> from horizontal to inclined surface. Solar radiation data from 8 months (April to November 2011) which include diverse atmospheric conditions and solar altitudes, measured on the roof of the radiation tower of the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium in Uccle (Longitude 4.35, Latitude 50.79) were used for validation purposes. The individual model performance is assessed by an inter-comparison between the calculated and measured solar <span class="hlt">global</span> radiation on the south-oriented surface tilted at 50.79 using statistical methods. The relative performance of the different models under different sky conditions has been studied. Comparison of the statistical errors between the different radiation models in function of the clearness index shows that some models perform better under one type of sky condition. Putting together different models acting under different sky conditions can lead to a diminution of the statistical error between <span class="hlt">global</span> measured solar radiation and <span class="hlt">global</span> estimated solar radiation. As models described in this paper have been developed for hourly data inputs, statistical error indexes are minimum for hourly data and increase for 10 minutes and one day frequency data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4593207','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4593207"><span id="translatedtitle">Once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> dose regimen of ribavirin is interchangeable with a twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> dose regimen: randomized open clinical trial</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Balk, Jiska M; Haenen, Guido RMM; Koc, Özgür M; Peters, Ron; Bast, Aalt; van der Vijgh, Wim JF; Koek, Ger H</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background The combination of ribavirin (RBV) and pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) is effective in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection. Reducing the frequency of RBV intake from twice to once a day will improve compliance and opens up the opportunity to combine RBV with new and more specific direct-acting agents in one pill. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile of RBV in a once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> to twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen. The secondary aim was to determine tolerability as well as the severity and differences in side effects of both treatment regimens. Methods In this randomized open-label crossover study, twelve patients with chronic type 1 hepatitis C infection and weighing more than 75 kg were treated with 180 µg of PEG-IFN weekly and 1,200 mg RBV <span class="hlt">daily</span> for 24 weeks. The patients received RBV dosed as 1,200 mg once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> for 12 weeks followed by RBV dosed as 600 mg twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> for 12 weeks, or vice versa. In addition to the pharmacokinetic profile, the hematological profile and side effects were recorded. The RBV concentrations in plasma were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results Eight of twelve patients completed the study. Neither the time taken for RBV to reach peak plasma concentration nor the AUC0-last (adjusted for difference in dose) was significantly different between the two groups (P>0.05). Furthermore, the once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen did not give more side effects than the twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen (P>0.05). No significant differences in the hematological profile were observed (P>0.05). Conclusion The standard twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> RBV regimen is interchangeable with the once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen. The once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen will improve compliance and opens the opportunity to combine RBV with other drugs dosed once a day, in a single pill. PMID:26445557</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp...37T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp...37T"><span id="translatedtitle">Extreme <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation: the case of Serbia in 2014</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tošić, Ivana; Unkašević, Miroslava; Putniković, Suzana</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The extreme <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation in Serbia was examined at 16 stations during the period 1961-2014. Two synoptic situations in May and September of 2014 were analysed, when extreme precipitation was recorded in western and eastern Serbia, respectively. The synoptic situation from 14 to 16 May 2014 remained nearly stationary over the western and central Serbia for the entire period. On 15 May 2014, the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall broke previous historical records in Belgrade (109.8 mm), Valjevo (108.2 mm) and Loznica (110 mm). Precipitation exceeded 200 mm in 72 h, producing the most catastrophic floods in the recent history of Serbia. In Negotin (eastern Serbia), <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation of 161.3 mm was registered on 16 September 2014, which was the maximum value recorded during the period 1961-2014. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum in 2014 was registered at 6 out of 16 stations. The total annual precipitation for 2014 was the highest for the period 1961-2014 at almost all stations in Serbia. A non-significant positive trend was found for all precipitation indices: annual <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum precipitation, the total precipitation in consecutive 3 and 5 days, the total annual precipitation, and number of days with at least 10 and 20 mm of precipitation. The generalised extreme value distribution was fitted to the annual <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum precipitation. The estimated 100-year return levels were 123.4 and 147.4 mm for the annual <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum precipitation in Belgrade and Negotin, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16144252','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16144252"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiance caching for efficient <span class="hlt">global</span> illumination computation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krivnek, Jaroslav; Gautron, Pascal; Pattanaik, Sumanta; Bouatouch, Kadi</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we present a ray tracing-based method for accelerated <span class="hlt">global</span> illumination computation in scenes with low-frequency glossy BRDFs. The method is based on sparse sampling, caching, and interpolating radiance on glossy surfaces. In particular, we extend the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> caching scheme proposed by Ward et al. to cache and interpolate directional incoming radiance instead of <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. The incoming radiance at a point is represented by a vector of coefficients with respect to a hemispherical or spherical basis. The surfaces suitable for interpolation are selected automatically according to the roughness of their BRDF. We also propose a novel method for computing translational radiance gradient at a point. PMID:16144252</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JGR...105.5059K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JGR...105.5059K"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of <span class="hlt">daily</span> UV doses estimated from Nimbus 7/TOMS measurements and ground-based spectroradiometric data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kalliskota, Sari; Kaurola, Jussi; Taalas, Petteri; Herman, Jay R.; Celarier, Edward A.; Krotkov, Nikolay A.</p> <p>2000-02-01</p> <p>During recent years, methods have been developed for estimating UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> reaching the Earth's surface using satellite-measured backscattered UV radiances. The NASA-developed method is based on radiative transfer calculations and satellite measurements of parameters affecting UV radiation: extraterrestrial solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, atmospheric ozone, cloud reflectivity, aerosol amounts, and ground albedo. In this work a comparison is made between <span class="hlt">daily</span> UV erythemal doses estimated from Nimbus-7/TOMS measurements (from 1991 to May 1993) and those calculated from ground-based spectroradiometer data. Three stations operated by the National Science Foundation were chosen for this comparison: Ushuaia, Argentina (for 573 days), Palmer, Antarctica (for 450 days), and San Diego, California, (for 149 days). These stations were selected to illustrate the differences between ground-based measurements using the same type of instrument, SUV-100 double monochromator spectroradiometers, and satellite estimates of surface UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> under three different environmental conditions (mountains and snow, nearly continuous snow cover, and midlatitude urban sea level conditions). Averaging the measured and TOMS-estimated doses over periods from 1 week to 1 month improves the agreement. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> or monthly mean bias increases during months when there is snow/ice on the surface. TOMS has a larger estimate of the UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> by 25% at San Diego (no snow), in agreement with the summer-month analysis of Toronto <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> [Herman et al., 1999]. TOMS underestimates the average <span class="hlt">daily</span>-UV dose at Ushuaia (monthly mean bias of -13%) and at Palmer (-35%) consistent with snow/ice with cloud effects not being properly accounted for in the TOMS algorithm. When the reflectivity at all three sites is low (no snow), the TOMS <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> estimate is larger than the SUV-100 measurements consistent with previously analyzed Brewer data at Toronto. The effects of local fog or clouds smaller than the satellite field of view and undetected UV-absorbing aerosols near the ground are discussed. In addition to uncertainties in radiometric calibrations of the spectrometers, none of the SUV-100 data are corrected for deviations of diffuser-transmittance from true cosine response.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.9515H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.9515H"><span id="translatedtitle">Multivariate stochastic generation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> streamflows considering climate change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haberlandt, Uwe</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>For the optimal planning and derivation of operation rules for multi-purpose reservoir systems very long time series of <span class="hlt">daily</span> streamflows are required. Stochastic streamflow models can provide these data. While stochastic generation of monthly time series is state of the art, the synthesis of <span class="hlt">daily</span> flows at multiple sites is still a challenging task. Recently, nonparametric k - nearest neighbor resampling techniques have been applied successfully for the generation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> streamflows at multiple sites. The objective of this study to employ k-nn resampling for the simulation of multivariate <span class="hlt">daily</span> streamflows under changed climate conditions. Observed <span class="hlt">daily</span> streamflows are resampled conditioned on observed and simulated climate variables from regional climate models considering past and future scenarios. The resampling is done in a three step-procedure: 1) annual or biannual flows for an index station representing the flow sum over all considered gauges are generated; 2) the flow sum is spatially disaggregated by resampling station flow proportions from observed data; 3) the individual annual/ biannual flows for all gauges are temporally disaggregated to <span class="hlt">daily</span> data by resampling <span class="hlt">daily</span> flow proportions. The method is applied for a reservoir system in the Harz mountains in Germany comprising five streamflow gauges with long <span class="hlt">daily</span> observations. Climate data from observations and from the regional climate models REMO and WETTREG are used for conditioning. The method is parsimonious, easy to understand and very fast. It simulates all observed statistics well and provides significant change signals concerning future flows. Problems are the restricted ability of the technique to model values not seen in the observations, which however concern only single extreme <span class="hlt">daily</span> and monthly values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870023306&hterms=sasC&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DsasC','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870023306&hterms=sasC&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DsasC"><span id="translatedtitle">The Mg 280-nm doublet as a monitor of changes in solar ultraviolet <span class="hlt">irradiance</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Heath, D. F.; Schlesinger, B. M.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> data gathered with the Nimbus 7 spacecraft from 1978-1985 are compared with atmospheric MG 289-nm doublet emission line data to evaluate the possibility of using the rotational line data to calculate the total solar UV input. The satellite instrumentation is described, including the calibration equipment and procedures. The spacecraft records solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> once per day and the remainder of the time records <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> scattered by the atmosphere. The measured <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> are converted to equivalent brightness temperatures, which can be interpolated for specific layers of the atmosphere. Sample <span class="hlt">daily</span> data are provided to illustrate the correlation between variations in the Mg-II core radiation and the soalr UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. Techniques are defined for correcting for periodic variations in instrument performance to quantify long-term solar UV radiance variations. Using the atmospheric Mg-II doublet radiation for measuring soalr UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> is concluded of value for characterizing the effects of solar radiation on the atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1819212','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1819212"><span id="translatedtitle">Ovarian <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> and prednisone therapy following surgery and radiotherapy for carcinoma of the breast.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Meakin, J. W.; Allt, W. E.; Beale, F. A.; Brown, T. C.; Bush, R. S.; Clark, R. M.; Fitzpatrick, P. J.; Hawkins, N. V.; Jenkin, R. D.; Pringle, J. F.; Reid, J. G.; Rider, W. D.; Hayward, J. L.; Bulbrook, R. D.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Following mastectomy, patients with operable breast cancer underwent postoperative <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> of the chest wall and regional lymph nodes. They were then assigned at random to receive no further therapy, ovarian <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> (2000 rads in 5 days) or ovarian <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> in the same dosage plus prednisone, 7.5 mg <span class="hlt">daily</span>. A total of 705 patients received the randomly assigned treatment and were followed for up to 10 years. In premenopausal patients who received ovarian <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> the recurrence of breast cancer was delayed and survival prolonged, but not significantly. In premenopausal women aged 45 years or more ovarian <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> plus prednisone therapy significantly delayed the recurrence of breast cancer (P = 0.02) and prolonged survival (P = 0.02); the survival expectancy of these patients was similar to that of the general population of the same age from the third year after the cancer operation. No value was demonstrated for ovarian <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> with or without prednisone therapy in postmenopausal patients. PMID:376074</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SGeo...35.1251Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SGeo...35.1251Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> GRACE Gravity Field and Numerical Water Storage Models for De-aliasing of Satellite Gravimetry Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zenner, L.; Bergmann-Wolf, I.; Dobslaw, H.; Gruber, T.; Gntner, A.; Wattenbach, M.; Esselborn, S.; Dill, R.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Reducing aliasing effects of insufficiently modelled high-frequent, non-tidal mass variations of the atmosphere, the oceans and the hydrosphere in gravity field models derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission is the topic of this study. The signal content of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> GRACE gravity field model series (ITG-Kalman) is compared to high-frequency bottom pressure variability and terrestrially stored water variations obtained from recent numerical simulations from an ocean circulation model (OMCT) and two hydrological models (WaterGAP <span class="hlt">Global</span> Hydrology Model, Land Surface Discharge Model). Our results show that <span class="hlt">daily</span> estimates of ocean bottom pressure from the most recent OMCT simulations and the <span class="hlt">daily</span> ITG-Kalman solutions are able to explain up to 40 % of extra-tropical sea-level variability in the Southern Ocean. In contrast to this, the <span class="hlt">daily</span> ITG-Kalman series and simulated continental total water storage variability largely disagree at periods below 30 days. Therefore, as long as no adequate hydrological model will become available, the <span class="hlt">daily</span> ITG-Kalman series can be regarded as a good initial proxy for high-frequency mass variations at a <span class="hlt">global</span> scale. As a second result of this study, based on monthly solutions as well as <span class="hlt">daily</span> observation residuals, it is shown that applying this GRACE-derived de-aliasing model supports the determination of the time-variable gravity field from GRACE data and the subsequent geophysical interpretation. This leads us to the recommendation that future satellite concepts for determining mass variations in the Earth system should be capable of observing higher frequeny signals with sufficient spatial resolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ApJ...677..723C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ApJ...677..723C"><span id="translatedtitle">A Model for the Total Solar <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Based on Active Region Decay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crouch, A. D.; Charbonneau, P.; Beaubien, G.; Paquin-Ricard, D.</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>We present a model for the total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. The model takes the observed location, timing, and area of emerging active regions as input and produces a time-evolving size distribution of magnetic structures over the solar surface. We assume that the bright magnetic structures (faculae), which counteract the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> deficit caused by sunspots, consist of the products of active region decay. We simulate the decay process as a combination of fragmentation and boundary erosion of large-scale magnetic structures. The model has several adjustable parameters that control the decay processes and the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> contribution from the quiet Sun and the small-scale magnetic elements that are produced during the decay process. We use a genetic algorithm to estimate these parameters by fitting to the observed <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and <span class="hlt">daily</span> sunspot area time series over the 1978-2007 time interval. Given the simplifications associated with the model, the resultant parameter values are well constrained within the imposed ranges. In addition, the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and <span class="hlt">daily</span> sunspot area time series produced by the best-fit models agree very well with the observations, although the sunspot area fits tend to perform better than the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> fits. However, it is evident that the model is neglecting a significant source of excess brightness, which manifests itself in two ways. First, the optimal values for the lifetime and intensity contrast of the bright, small-scale flux elements are both larger than expected. Second, the synthetic <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> consistently underestimates the observations during the ascending phase of a cycle, despite the <span class="hlt">daily</span> sunspot area fitting the observations quite well during these times. We also show that this genetic forward modeling approach can be used to detect a long-term trend of decadal timescale in the quiet-Sun <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. Assuming a constant quiet-Sun <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, we reconstruct the total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> over the 1874-1978 time interval, for which observational data of emerging active regions are available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/9713','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/9713"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Irradiation</span>-Induced Nanostructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Birtcher, R.C.; Ewing, R.C.; Matzke, Hj.; Meldrum, A.; Newcomer, P.P.; Wang, L.M.; Wang, S.X.; Weber, W.J.</p> <p>1999-08-09</p> <p>This paper summarizes the results of the studies of the <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>-induced formation of nanostructures, where the injected interstitials from the source of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> are not major components of the nanophase. This phenomena has been observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in a number of intermetallic compounds and ceramics during high-energy electron or ion <span class="hlt">irradiations</span> when the ions completely penetrate through the specimen. Beginning with single crystals, electron or ion <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> in a certain temperature range may result in nanostructures composed of amorphous domains and nanocrystals with either the original composition and crystal structure or new nanophases formed by decomposition of the target material. The phenomenon has also been observed in natural materials which have suffered <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> from the decay of constituent radioactive elements and in nuclear reactor fuels which have been <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> by fission neutrons and other fission products. The mechanisms involved in the process of this nanophase formation are discussed in terms of the evolution of displacement cascades, radiation-induced defect accumulation, radiation-induced segregation and phase decomposition, as well as the competition between <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>-induced amorphization and recrystallization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJBm...59..377K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJBm...59..377K"><span id="translatedtitle">Contribution of <span class="hlt">daily</span> and seasonal biorhythms to obesity in humans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Witowski, Janusz</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>While the significance of obesity as a serious health problem is well recognized, little is known about whether and how biometerological factors and biorhythms causally contribute to obesity. Obesity is often associated with altered seasonal and <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythmicity in food intake, metabolism and adipose tissue function. Environmental stimuli affect both seasonal and <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms, and the latter are under additional control of internal molecular oscillators, or body clocks. Modifications of clock genes in animals and changes to normal <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms in humans (as in shift work and sleep deprivation) result in metabolic dysregulation that favours weight gain. Here, we briefly review the potential links between biorhythms and obesity in humans.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20930697','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20930697"><span id="translatedtitle">Photoprotection in moisturizers and <span class="hlt">daily</span>-care products.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Seite, S; Fourtanier, A; Rougier, A</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>During usual <span class="hlt">daily</span> activities, an appropriate protection against solar UV exposure should prevent clinical, cellular and molecular changes potentially leading to photoaging. In skin areas regularly exposed to sun, UV-damage is superimposed to tissue degeneration resulting from chronological aging. It is, therefore, important to know if moisturizers and <span class="hlt">daily</span>-care products containing UVA absorbers combined with UVB ones are able to prevent these skin damages. This review will summarize clinical studies evaluating this topic. These studies demonstrate that broad-spectrum protection in moisturizers or <span class="hlt">daily</span>-care products can prevent the "silent" sub-erythemal cumulative effects of UVR from inadvertent sun exposure. PMID:20930697</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1643..283A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1643..283A"><span id="translatedtitle">Time series ARIMA models for <span class="hlt">daily</span> price of palm oil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ariff, Noratiqah Mohd; Zamhawari, Nor Hashimah; Bakar, Mohd Aftar Abu</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Palm oil is deemed as one of the most important commodity that forms the economic backbone of Malaysia. Modeling and forecasting the <span class="hlt">daily</span> price of palm oil is of great interest for Malaysia's economic growth. In this study, time series ARIMA models are used to fit the <span class="hlt">daily</span> price of palm oil. The Akaike Infromation Criterion (AIC), Akaike Infromation Criterion with a correction for finite sample sizes (AICc) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) are used to compare between different ARIMA models being considered. It is found that ARIMA(1,2,1) model is suitable for <span class="hlt">daily</span> price of crude palm oil in Malaysia for the year 2010 to 2012.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E1658K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E1658K"><span id="translatedtitle">23rd Solar Cycle in <span class="hlt">global</span> response in composition of the atmosphere between the ground and 90 km : 3D simulations with CHARM model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krivolutsky, Alexei A.</p> <p></p> <p>The response in ozone and other chemical species of the Earths atmosphere have been simulated with new version of three-dimentional photochemical <span class="hlt">global</span> transport model CHARM (CHemical Atmospheric Research Model), developed at the Laboratory for Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics of Central Aerological Observatory. Model describes the interaction between 40 chemical species involved in 140 photochemical reactions. Family technique is used for solving kinetic part of the model equations and Prathers scheme used to describe advection. 3D <span class="hlt">global</span> wind components and temperature field (<span class="hlt">daily</span> averaged) calculated by GCM ARM (Atmospheric Research Model) were used in simulations. Solar cycle signal in UV solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variations measured from space (SIM and other instruments) has been introduced in the model. External forcing used in numerical scenario described unusual features of 23rd solar cycle: long and deep its minima. So that, the amplitude of external signal (max-min) was really more than in previous cycles. The results of simulations showed <span class="hlt">global</span> structure of ozone response, which is mostly positive. At the same time the regions of negative ozone changes at high latitudes exist. The response of tropospheric ozone was also found around the equator. NOy <span class="hlt">global</span> changes responsible for negative ozone response is also presented. This work was supported by Russian Science Foundation for Basic Research (grant N 13-05-0105213).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGeod..89..259R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGeod..89..259R"><span id="translatedtitle">Sequential estimation of surface water mass changes from <span class="hlt">daily</span> satellite gravimetry data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramillien, G. L.; Frappart, F.; Gratton, S.; Vasseur, X.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>We propose a recursive Kalman filtering approach to map regional spatio-temporal variations of terrestrial water mass over large continental areas, such as South America. Instead of correcting hydrology model outputs by the GRACE observations using a Kalman filter estimation strategy, regional 2-by-2 degree water mass solutions are constructed by integration of <span class="hlt">daily</span> potential differences deduced from GRACE K-band range rate (KBRR) measurements. Recovery of regional water mass anomaly averages obtained by accumulation of information of <span class="hlt">daily</span> noise-free simulated GRACE data shows that convergence is relatively fast and yields accurate solutions. In the case of cumulating real GRACE KBRR data contaminated by observational noise, the sequential method of step-by-step integration provides estimates of water mass variation for the period 2004-2011 by considering a set of suitable a priori error uncertainty parameters to stabilize the inversion. Spatial and temporal averages of the Kalman filter solutions over river basin surfaces are consistent with the ones computed using <span class="hlt">global</span> monthly/10-day GRACE solutions from official providers CSR, GFZ and JPL. They are also highly correlated to in situ records of river discharges (70-95 %), especially for the Obidos station where the total outflow of the Amazon River is measured. The sparse <span class="hlt">daily</span> coverage of the GRACE satellite tracks limits the time resolution of the regional Kalman filter solutions, and thus the detection of short-term hydrological events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920006214','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920006214"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> trends</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Megie, G.; Chanin, M.-L.; Ehhalt, D.; Fraser, P.; Frederick, J. F.; Gille, J. C.; Mccormick, M. P.; Schoebert, M.; Bishop, L.; Bojkov, R. D.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Measuring trends in ozone, and most other geophysical variables, requires that a small systematic change with time be determined from signals that have large periodic and aperiodic variations. Their time scales range from the day-to-day changes due to atmospheric motions through seasonal and annual variations to 11 year cycles resulting from changes in the sun UV output. Because of the magnitude of all of these variations is not well known and highly variable, it is necessary to measure over more than one period of the variations to remove their effects. This means that at least 2 or more times the 11 year sunspot cycle. Thus, the first requirement is for a long term data record. The second related requirement is that the record be consistent. A third requirement is for reasonable <span class="hlt">global</span> sampling, to ensure that the effects are representative of the entire Earth. The various observational methods relevant to trend detection are reviewed to characterize their quality and time and space coverage. Available data are then examined for long term trends or recent changes in ozone total content and vertical distribution, as well as related parameters such as stratospheric temperature, source gases and aerosols.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17841800','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17841800"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> cooling?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Damon, P E; Kunen, S M</p> <p>1976-08-01</p> <p>The world's inhabitants, including Scientists, live primarily in the Northern Hemisphere. It is quite natural to be concerned about events that occur close to home and neglect faraway events. Hence, it is not surprising that so little attention has been given to the Southern Hemisphere. Evidence for <span class="hlt">global</span> cooling has been based, in large part, on a severe cooling trend at high northern latitudes. This article points out that the Northern Hemisphere cooling trend appears to be out of phase with a warming trend at high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. The data are scanty. We cannot be sure that these temperature fluctuations are be not the result of natural causes. How it seems most likely that human activity has already significantly perturbed the atmospheric weather system. The effect of particulate matter pollution should be most severe in the highly populated and industrialized Northern Hemisphere. Because of the rapid diffusion of CO(2) molecules within the atmosphere, both hemispheres will be subject to warming due to the atmospheric (greenhouse) effect as the CO(2) content of the atmosphere builds up from the combustion of fossil fuels. Because of the differential effects of the two major sources of atmospheric pollution, the CO(2) greenhouse effect warming trend should first become evident in the Southern Hemisphere. The socioeconomic and political consequences of climate change are profound. We need an early warning system such as would be provided by a more intensive international world weather watch, particularly at high northern and southern latitudes. PMID:17841800</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JASTP.105...39N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JASTP.105...39N"><span id="translatedtitle">Technique to produce <span class="hlt">daily</span> estimates of the migrating diurnal tide using TIMED/SABER and EOS Aura/MLS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nguyen, Vu; Palo, S. E.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>A technique to explicitly compute the day-to-day variability of the migrating diurnal tide (DW1) between 20 km and 80 km on a <span class="hlt">global</span> scale is presented and analyzed. Our method employs temperature data from two satellite instruments: the MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) instrument on the EOS (Earth Observing System) Aura spacecraft and the SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) instrument on the TIMED (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics) spacecraft. By taking advantage of the four <span class="hlt">daily</span> solar local time measurements from the two instruments, a least squares fit representing the DW1 is constructed. Consequently, the <span class="hlt">daily</span> zonal mean, DW1 amplitude and phase are all estimated on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis. Before the implementation of our technique, a comparative analysis between the instrument data sets is conducted. The analysis reveals temperature biases of up to 10 K, which are removed to improve our estimates. To evaluate performance, our method is applied to a model atmosphere constructed from tidal fields obtained from the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Scale Wave Model (GSWM). Performance results indicate that the DW1 is most effectively extracted from the background atmosphere and other tidal components when each latitude circle is well sampled and the local time sampling is evenly spaced. A comparison of our results to the GSWM and past observations support the conclusion that our method produces <span class="hlt">daily</span> estimates of the DW1 that can be utilized for scientifically useful investigations of short term tidal variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5514160','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5514160"><span id="translatedtitle">Alaskan Commodities <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zarling, J.P.; Swanson, R.B.; Logan, R.R.; Das, D.K.; Lewis, C.E.; Workman, W.G.; Tumeo, M.A.; Hok, C.I.; Birklid, C.A.; Bennett, F.L.</p> <p>1988-12-01</p> <p>The ninety-ninth US Congress commissioned a six-state food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> research and development program to evaluate the commercial potential of this technology. Hawaii, Washington, Iowa, Oklahoma and Florida as well as Alaska have participated in the national program; various food products including fishery products, red meats, tropical and citrus fruits and vegetables have been studied. The purpose of the Alaskan study was to review and evaluate those factors related to the technical and economic feasibility of an <span class="hlt">irradiator</span> in Alaska. This options analysis study will serve as a basis for determining the state's further involvement in the development of food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> technology. 40 refs., 50 figs., 53 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.H31B1002A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.H31B1002A"><span id="translatedtitle">Validation of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reference Evapotranspiration Estimates from Newly Available Data Assimilation Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alemu, H.; Senay, G. B.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Different sources of atmospheric parameters and land surface flux data are currently available for environmental monitoring and agroclimatological applications. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Authority’s (NOAA) National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) has been producing <span class="hlt">global</span> data assimilation data (GDAS) at 100km (1-degree) resolution that contains a range of atmospheric parameters since 2000. The newly available North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) produces atmospheric parameters at 12 to 15 km (0.125-degree) resolution for the Conterminous United States (CONUS). Estimates of <span class="hlt">daily</span> Reference Evapotranspiration (ETo) from NLDAS and USGS-EROS generated <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">daily</span> ETo data from GDAS using the FAO Penman-Monteith model from 2006 - 2007 are evaluated against ETo estimated from 74 stations of the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) and from 115 stations of the Oklahoma Meteorological Network (Mesonet). The results indicate that GDAS-forced ETo estimates show good results over inland areas but show lower accuracies in coastal areas owing to their coarse resolution. NLDAS-forced ETo provides high-resolution ETo and thus avoids the coastal area problem. Over inland areas however, ETo estimates from both assimilation products demonstrate high correlation with gauge data. The results indicate the potential of these datasets for agroclimatological applications particularly in data-scarce regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H53G0940Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H53G0940Z"><span id="translatedtitle">A New Method to estimate <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Tropical Cyclone Precipitation from the GHCND Rain Gauges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, L.; Quiring, S. M.; Guikema, S. D.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Tropical Cyclone Precipitation (TCP) contributes a large portion of very extreme hydrological events. An accurate estimation of a long term TCP climatology is an essential to understand how it varies in the past and will change in the future. The <span class="hlt">Global</span> Historical Climatology Network (GHCND) provides a <span class="hlt">global</span> coverage of territorial surface <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather observations with a reasonable spatial density. In this study, we will develop a new method to estimate the TCP from the GHCND <span class="hlt">daily</span> rain observations and other TC Track information. We will focus on all historical storms impacted the North America Continent (from both the Atlantic and the Pacific Sides) in this study. The new method will consider major factors that influence the estimation accuracy, including the variations in spatial density of rain gauges, sizes and the forward speed of storms, and high wind speeds causing the underestimate of precipitation by the rain bucket. We will provide both the point estimation at the rain gauge and gridded product at 0.25 degree. The gridded product will be finally validated by the precipitation estimation from TRMM. We will make tests and tune this method to optimally fit the available historical observations, so it can be applied for other regions in the world in the future. Key Words: Tropical Cyclone, Precipitation, New Estimation Method</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24809488','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24809488"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling and forecasting <span class="hlt">daily</span> movement of ambient air mean PM?.? concentration based on the elliptic orbit model with weekly quasi-periodic extension: a case study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Zong-chang</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Nowadays, the issue of air pollution has continuously been a <span class="hlt">global</span> public health concern. Modeling and forecasting <span class="hlt">daily</span> movement of ambient air mean PM2.5 concentration is an increasingly important task as it is intimately associated with human health that the air pollution has unignorable negative effects in reducing air quality, damaging environment, even causing serious harm to health. It is demonstrated that <span class="hlt">daily</span> movement of mean PM?.? concentration approximately exhibits weekly cyclical variations as <span class="hlt">daily</span> particle pollution in the air is largely influenced by human <span class="hlt">daily</span> activities. Then, based on weekly quasi-periodic extension for <span class="hlt">daily</span> movement of mean PM?.? concentration, the called elliptic orbit model is proposed to describe its movement. By mapping <span class="hlt">daily</span> movement of mean PM?.? concentration as one time series into the polar coordinates, each 7-day movement is depicted as one elliptic orbit. Experimental result and analysis indicate workability and effectiveness of the proposed method. Here we show that with the weekly quasi-periodic extension, <span class="hlt">daily</span> movements of mean PM?.? concentration at the given monitoring stations in Xiangtan of China are well described by the elliptic orbit model, which provides a vivid description for modeling and prediction <span class="hlt">daily</span> movement of mean PM?.? concentration in a concise and intuitive way. PMID:24809488</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14722822','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14722822"><span id="translatedtitle">Chronic <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache: a rational approach to a challenging problem.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gladstone, Jonathan; Eross, Eric; Dodick, David</p> <p>2003-09-01</p> <p>Chronic <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache (CDH) is a significant public health problem with 3 to 5% of the population worldwide experiencing <span class="hlt">daily</span> or near-<span class="hlt">daily</span> headaches. Patients with CDH can be particularly challenging, and clinicians require a systematic approach to help guide investigations and management. The revised 2004 International Headache Society Classification Criteria introduces formalized criteria for several CDH disorders including chronic migraine and medication overuse headache as well as new <span class="hlt">daily</span> persistent headache, hemicrania continua, hypnic headache, and SUNCT syndrome. Medication overuse is common in patients with CDH who present to physicians. Familiarity and comfort with drug-withdrawal and detoxification strategies is therefore essential. Patients with chronic migraine and chronic cluster experience significant disability and diminished quality of life. The ability to manage these patients effectively is a rewarding clinical experience. PMID:14722822</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=newspaper+AND+science&pg=7&id=EJ588573','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=newspaper+AND+science&pg=7&id=EJ588573"><span id="translatedtitle">What Is in the <span class="hlt">Daily</span> News? Problem-Solving Opportunities!</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Silbey, Robyn</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Presents an example of a problem-solving opportunity found in a <span class="hlt">daily</span> newspaper. Illustrates how the newspaper can supply problem-solving opportunities with connections to language arts, social studies, and science. (ASK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=140923&keyword=TMDL+AND+analysis&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=56404353&CFTOKEN=31168523','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=140923&keyword=TMDL+AND+analysis&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=56404353&CFTOKEN=31168523"><span id="translatedtitle">TOTAL MAXIMUM <span class="hlt">DAILY</span> LOAD (TMDL) PROJECTS: JUNE 2004 - SEPT. 2005</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Total Maximum <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Load (TMDL) activities include a field investigation and a subsequent field investigation report with data generated from the field study. The data is used to establish pollutant discharge limits for various categories of pollutants (nutrients, toxics, sedime...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157461.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157461.html"><span id="translatedtitle">1 in 3 Americans Drinks Sugary Soda or Juice <span class="hlt">Daily</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... 157461.html 1 in 3 Americans Drinks Sugary Soda or Juice <span class="hlt">Daily</span>: CDC These beverages linked to ... of Americans drink at least one sugar-laden soda or juice every day, federal health officials report. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title26-vol16/pdf/CFR-2010-title26-vol16-sec44-4403-1.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title26-vol16/pdf/CFR-2010-title26-vol16-sec44-4403-1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">26 CFR 44.4403-1 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> record.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... case of the numbers game, the <span class="hlt">daily</span> record shall show the gross amount of each class or type of wager accepted on each number. For additional provisions relating to records, see section 6001 and § 44.6001-1....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e4cA0QY-DIE','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e4cA0QY-DIE"><span id="translatedtitle">AMSR2 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Arctic Sea Ice - 2014 - Duration: 33 seconds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In this animation, the <span class="hlt">daily</span> Arctic sea ice and seasonal land cover change progress through time, from March 21, 2014 through the 3rd of August, 2014. Over the water, Arctic sea ice changes from da...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title26-vol16/pdf/CFR-2013-title26-vol16-sec44-4403-1.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title26-vol16/pdf/CFR-2013-title26-vol16-sec44-4403-1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">26 CFR 44.4403-1 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> record.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... case of the numbers game, the <span class="hlt">daily</span> record shall show the gross amount of each class or type of wager accepted on each number. For additional provisions relating to records, see section 6001 and 44.6001-1....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title26-vol16/pdf/CFR-2011-title26-vol16-sec44-4403-1.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title26-vol16/pdf/CFR-2011-title26-vol16-sec44-4403-1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">26 CFR 44.4403-1 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> record.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... case of the numbers game, the <span class="hlt">daily</span> record shall show the gross amount of each class or type of wager accepted on each number. For additional provisions relating to records, see section 6001 and 44.6001-1....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns/hivprep/index.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns/hivprep/index.html"><span id="translatedtitle">CDC Vital Signs: <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Pill Can Prevent HIV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Article 2 Science Clips <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Pill Can Prevent HIV Reaching people who could benefit from PrEP Language: ... Problem Many people at very high risk for HIV infection are not getting PrEP. PrEP is for ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMIN13C3648L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMIN13C3648L"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of VIIRS <span class="hlt">daily</span> BRDF/Albedo product using in situ measurement of SURFRAD sites and MODIS V006 <span class="hlt">daily</span> BRDF/Albedo product</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Y.; Wang, Z.; Sun, Q.; Schaaf, C.; Roman, M. O.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Surface albedo is defined as the ratio of upwelling to downwelling radiative flux. It's important for understanding the <span class="hlt">global</span> energy budget. Remote sensing albedo products provide <span class="hlt">global</span> time continuous coverage to help capture <span class="hlt">global</span> energy variability and change. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi-NPP satellite, launched on October 28, 2011, is aiming to provide continues data record with the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), which has been providing Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF)/Albedo product since 2000. By utilizing the same approach that was used for the most recently V006 <span class="hlt">daily</span> MODIS BRDF/Albedo product, VIIRS has the ability to keep providing products for research and operational users. Validating albedo product of VIIRS using in situmeasured albedo can assure the quality for land surface climate and biosphere models, and comparing with MODIS product can assure time continues of BRDF/albedo product. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> BRDF/Albedo product still uses 16-day period multispectral, cloud-cleared, atmospherically-corrected surface reflectances to fit the Ross-Thick/Li-Sparse-Reciprocal semi-empirical BRDF model. But the multiday observations are also weighted based on proximity to the production date in order to emphasis on that individual day. Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD) was established in 1993 through the support of NOAA's Office of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Programs. In situ albedo was driven from downwelling and upwelling radiative flux measured from the towers. Fraction of diffuse sky light was calculated using the direct and diffuse solar recorded in the data. It was further used to translate VIIRS, MODIS black sky and white sky albedos into actual albedo at local solar noon. Results show that VIIRS, MODIS and in situ albedo agree well at SURFARD spatially representative sites. While the VIIRS surface reflectance, snow, and cloud algorithms are still undergoing revision, the result shows that VIIRS can provide comparable albedo products with MODIS. The accuracy of both products can meet the requirement for climate and biosphere models. In situ albedo also can be gained from Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN), FLUXNET and Long Term Ecological Research network (LTER) etc., which will be used in future validation work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2417917','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2417917"><span id="translatedtitle">Twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> cimetidine does not increase gastric bacterial flora.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bourne, J. T.; Mountford, R. A.; Barry, R. E.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Thirty patients with peptic ulcer (20 duodenal, 10 gastric) underwent glucose-hydrogen (H2) breath tests before and after 6 weeks treatment with cimetidine, 400 mg twice <span class="hlt">daily</span>. For the group as a whole, basal breath H2 and integrated H2 output over a 2.5 hr test period was unchanged by cimetidine treatment. We conclude that there was no evidence of significant gastric bacterial colonization following twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> cimetidine treatment. PMID:6462995</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9404338','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9404338"><span id="translatedtitle">Derivation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> values used for nutrition labeling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pennington, J A; Hubbard, V S</p> <p>1997-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Values (DVs) are the <span class="hlt">daily</span> dietary intake standards used for nutrition labeling. Information on the derivation of DVs is important for dietetics professionals and nutrition educators who use DVs to educate and instruct patients and students about diet planning and evaluation and about adherence to modified diets. The first <span class="hlt">daily</span> intake standards for nutrition labeling were established in 1973 and were referred to as the US Recommended <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Allowances (US RDAs). They were based on the 1968 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) developed by the National Academy of Sciences. These intake standards were mandatory for 8 and optional for 12 food components on nutrition labels. Regulations revising the <span class="hlt">daily</span> intake standards for nutrition labeling were published in 1993. The new standards included Reference <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Intakes (RDIs) for 19 food components and <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reference Values (DRVs) for 8 food components. The RDIs were based on the 1973 US RDAs, and the DRVs were based on consensus recommendations. On the nutrition label, the RDIs and DRVs are referred to as DVs. Percent DVs are mandatory on nutrition labels for 10 food components and optional for 16 food components. In 1995, DVs were established by regulation for 6 additional food components; these DVs are optional for nutrition labels. The DVs established in 1995 were based on information from the 1980 and 1989 revisions of the RDAs and Estimated Safe and Adequate <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Dietary Intakes. Currently, percent DVs are mandatory on nutrition labels for 10 food components and optional for 22. Optional percent DVs become mandatory if claims are made about the food components or if the food components are added to the food through fortification or as food additives. PMID:9404338</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AAS...22020716H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AAS...22020716H"><span id="translatedtitle">Making The <span class="hlt">Daily</span>-updated Synoptic Map Of HMI Line-of-sight Magnetogram Cooperating With The HARP module</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hayashi, Keiji; Liu, Y.; Sun, X.; Turmon, M. J.; HMI Team</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>The synoptic map of the magnetogram is widely used for the <span class="hlt">global</span> coronal modeling, and the <span class="hlt">daily</span> or more frequently updated maps help enhance understanding of the solar corona and interplanetary space, especially the space weather related topics. The <span class="hlt">daily</span>-updated synoptic map is made by superimposing the latest meridional bin of the full disk data to the map. In the HMI data pipeline, the width of the bin is chosen 80 degrees in longitude around the central meridian. A problem occurs when the boundary of the bin happens to separate the bipolar pair of the strong field: The updated part of the synoptic map may have magnetic flux unbalanced, then, the <span class="hlt">global</span> map will have unbalanced flux and the models of the <span class="hlt">global</span> corona, such as the PFSS, will give wrong solution. To avoid this problem, one choice is to include all (or exclude all) of the bipolar pair. The HARP, HMI Active Region Patch, will be automatically and routinely monitoring the HMI magnetogram data and recognizing the Active Region, therefore, the HARP will help minimize such unbalance of the magnetic field. In this presentation, we will show the <span class="hlt">daily</span> updated maps and the outputs of the coronal models, the PFSS and MHD, with the new maps,compare with the other coronal observations such as SDO/AIA images.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhST..118..223C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhST..118..223C"><span id="translatedtitle">Stability of ?-<span class="hlt">Irradiated</span> Carmine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cosentino, Hlio M.; Fontenele, Rinaldo S.; DelMastro, Nlida L.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Carmine is a dye used mainly for coloring food products and galenicals but also in inks. As food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> is becoming a regular treatment for food preservation, it is desirable to have a proper knowledge about the radiation sensitivity of additives that can be included in the food formula. The aim of this work was to establish the radiation stability of carmine against Co-60 gamma radiation. Samples of 50% pure carmine powder as well as 50%, 10% and 5% aqueous solutions were <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> in a Gammacell 220, dose rate of about 5.2 kGy/h, with doses of 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 kGy. Spectrophotometric readings at 494 nm show a slight decrease of the absorbance as a function of dose: Samples <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> with 4 and 32 kGy retained 95% and 90% of absorbance of the unirradiated samples respectively. These results indicate a rather good stability of carmine against ?-<span class="hlt">irradiation</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6284092','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6284092"><span id="translatedtitle">Economics of food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Deitch, J.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>This article examines the cost competitiveness of the food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> process. An analysis of the principal factors--the product, physical plant, <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> source, and financing--that impact on cost is made. Equations are developed and used to calculate the size of the source for planned product throughput, efficiency factors, power requirements, and operating costs of sources, radionuclides, and accelerators. Methods of financing and capital investment are discussed. A series of tables show cost breakdowns of sources, buildings, equipment, and essential support facilities for both a cobalt-60 and a 10-MeV electron accelerator facility. Additional tables present <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> costs as functions of a number of parameters--power input, source size, dose, and hours of annual operation. The use of the numbers in the tables are explained by examples of calculations of the <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> costs for disinfestation of grains and radicidation of feed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JNuM..307.1655P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JNuM..307.1655P"><span id="translatedtitle">The ARBOR <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petersen, C.; Shamardin, V.; Fedoseev, A.; Shimansky, G.; Efimov, V.; Rensman, J.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> project 'ARBOR', for 'Associated Reactor <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> in BOR 60', includes 150 mini-tensile/low cycle fatigue specimens and 150 mini-Charpy (KLST) specimens of nine different RAFM steels. Specimens began <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> on 22 November 2000 in an specially designed <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> rig in BOR 60, in a fast neutron flux (>0.1 MeV) of 1.810 15 n/cm 2 s and with direct sodium cooling at a temperature less than 340 C. Tensile, low cycle fatigue and Charpy specimens of the following materials are included: EUROFER 97, F82H mod., OPTIFER IVc, EUROFER 97 with different boron contents, ODS-EUROFER 97, as well as EUROFER 97 electron-beam welded and reference bulk material, from NRG, Petten.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2650501','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2650501"><span id="translatedtitle">Once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> Dosing of Gentamicin in Obstetrics and Gynecology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>WARD, KRISTY; THEILER, REGAN N.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Gentamicin, an aminoglycoside with broad antimicrobial activity, is commonly used in both obstetrics and gynecology. Traditional dosing regimens for gentamicin have called for 3 times <span class="hlt">daily</span> dosing, but recent insights into the pharmacodynamics of the drug have led to multiple studies of once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> dosing regimens. Many studies have demonstrated efficacy, safety, and economy of the 24-hour dosing interval, resulting in recommendations that this become the standard for aminoglycoside administration. However, because of the unique considerations for drug administration in pregnant and postpartum women, the once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> dosing regimens have not been widely adopted. Additional studies in pregnant and postpartum women have demonstrated therapeutic noninferiority, no increase in adverse events, and significant cost savings with once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> dosing versus 3 times <span class="hlt">daily</span> dosing of gentamicin. We review the literature and present rationale based on multiple-controlled studies supporting single-<span class="hlt">daily</span> dosing of gentamicin, 5?mg/kg/d actual body weight, for many common obstetrics-gynecology infections. PMID:18677142</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4362843','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4362843"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Physical Activity and Alcohol Use Across the Adult Lifespan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Conroy, David E.; Ram, Nilam; Pincus, Aaron L.; Coffman, Donna L.; Lorek, Amy E.; Rebar, Amanda L.; Roche, Michael J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective In contrast to proposals that physical activity (PA) can be a substitute for alcohol use, people who engage in greater overall PA generally consume more alcohol on average than less-active peers. Acknowledging that both PA and alcohol use vary considerably from day-to-day, this study evaluated whether established associations reflect <span class="hlt">daily</span> behavioral coupling within-person, are an artifact of procedures that aggregate behavior over time, or both. Methods A lifespan sample of 150 adults (aged 1989 years) completed three 21-day measurement bursts of a <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary study. At the end of each day, they reported on their PA and alcohol consumption. Data were analyzed in a negative binomial multilevel regression. Results As expected, both behaviors exhibited limited between-person variation. After controlling for age, sex, and seasonal and social calendar influences, <span class="hlt">daily</span> deviations in PA were significantly associated with <span class="hlt">daily</span> total alcohol use. Once the within-person process linking PA and alcohol use was controlled, usual PA and total alcohol use were not associated. Conclusions The established between-person association linking PA and alcohol use reflects the aggregation of a <span class="hlt">daily</span> process that unfolds within-people over time. Further work is needed to identify mediators of this <span class="hlt">daily</span> association and to evaluate causality, as well as to investigate these relations in high-risk samples. PMID:25222084</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3261434','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3261434"><span id="translatedtitle">ELPIS-JP: a dataset of local-scale <span class="hlt">daily</span> climate change scenarios for Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Iizumi, Toshichika; Semenov, Mikhail A.; Nishimori, Motoki; Ishigooka, Yasushi; Kuwagata, Tsuneo</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We developed a dataset of local-scale <span class="hlt">daily</span> climate change scenarios for Japan (called ELPIS-JP) using the stochastic weather generators (WGs) LARS-WG and, in part, WXGEN. The ELPIS-JP dataset is based on the observed (or estimated) <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather data for seven climatic variables (<span class="hlt">daily</span> mean, maximum and minimum temperatures; precipitation; solar radiation; relative humidity; and wind speed) at 938 sites in Japan and climate projections from the multi-model ensemble of <span class="hlt">global</span> climate models (GCMs) used in the coupled model intercomparison project (CMIP3) and multi-model ensemble of regional climate models form the Japanese downscaling project (called S-5-3). The capability of the WGs to reproduce the statistical features of the observed data for the period 19812000 is assessed using several statistical tests and quantilequantile plots. Overall performance of the WGs was good. The ELPIS-JP dataset consists of two types of <span class="hlt">daily</span> data: (i) the transient scenarios throughout the twenty-first century using projections from 10 CMIP3 GCMs under three emission scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1) and (ii) the time-slice scenarios for the period 20812100 using projections from three S-5-3 regional climate models. The ELPIS-JP dataset is designed to be used in conjunction with process-based impact models (e.g. crop models) for assessment, not only the impacts of mean climate change but also the impacts of changes in climate variability, wet/dry spells and extreme events, as well as the uncertainty of future impacts associated with climate models and emission scenarios. The ELPIS-JP offers an excellent platform for probabilistic assessment of climate change impacts and potential adaptation at a local scale in Japan. PMID:22291226</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5126171','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5126171"><span id="translatedtitle">Total lymphoid <span class="hlt">irradiation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.</p> <p>1983-05-01</p> <p>Total lymphoid <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.4975Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.4975Q"><span id="translatedtitle">An efficient physically based parameterization to derive surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> based on satellite atmospheric products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qin, Jun; Tang, Wenjun; Yang, Kun; Lu, Ning; Niu, Xiaolei; Liang, Shunlin</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (SSI) is required in a wide range of scientific researches and practical applications. Many parameterization schemes are developed to estimate it using routinely measured meteorological variables, since SSI is directly measured at a very limited number of stations. Even so, meteorological stations are still sparse, especially in remote areas. Remote sensing can be used to map spatiotemporally continuous SSI. Considering the huge amount of satellite data, coarse-resolution SSI has been estimated for reducing the computational burden when the estimation is based on a complex radiative transfer model. On the other hand, many empirical relationships are used to enhance the retrieval efficiency, but the accuracy cannot be guaranteed out of regions where they are locally calibrated. In this study, an efficient physically based parameterization is proposed to balance computational efficiency and retrieval accuracy for SSI estimation. In this parameterization, the transmittances for gases, aerosols, and clouds are all handled in full band form and the multiple reflections between the atmosphere and surface are explicitly taken into account. The newly proposed parameterization is applied to estimate SSI with both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) atmospheric and land products as inputs. These retrievals are validated against in situ measurements at the Surface Radiation Budget Network and at the North China Plain on an instantaneous basis, and moreover, they are validated and compared with <span class="hlt">Global</span> Energy and Water Exchanges-Surface Radiation Budget and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project-flux data SSI estimates at radiation stations of China Meteorological Administration on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean basis. The estimation results indicates that the newly proposed SSI estimation scheme can effectively retrieve SSI based on MODIS products with mean root-mean-square errors of about 100 Wm- 1 and 35 Wm- 1 on an instantaneous and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean basis, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFMSH52A0496K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFMSH52A0496K"><span id="translatedtitle">Phase Sensitive Detection for the SORCE Total <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Monitor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kopp, G.; Lawrence, G.; Rottman, G.; Woods, T.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>The Total <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Monitor (TIM) on the SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) will measure the total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (TSI). The TIM will report four TSI measurements <span class="hlt">daily</span>, continuing the current 24-year record of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> through SORCE's goal 5-year mission life. This instrument was designed to achieve a relative standard uncertainty (1 ? precision) of 100 parts per million (ppm) and a precision and long-term uncertainty of 10 ppm/year. The major innovation the TIM brings to spaceborne TSI measurements is phase sensitive detection. This new instrument was designed from the ground up with the primary consideration being low-noise performance at the shutter fundamental, minimizing parasitic effects at and in-phase with the instrument's shutter. The DSP-controlled thermal balance and this phase sensitive detection method reduce sensitivity to thermal fluctuations and noise, enabling the instrument's high precision. We describe in detail here the phase sensitive detection algorithm used for the TIM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25123049','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25123049"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> torpor and hibernation in birds and mammals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ruf, Thomas; Geiser, Fritz</p> <p>2014-08-15</p> <p>Many birds and mammals drastically reduce their energy expenditure during times of cold exposure, food shortage, or drought, by temporarily abandoning euthermia, i.e. the maintenance of high body temperatures. Traditionally, two different types of heterothermy, i.e. hypometabolic states associated with low body temperature (torpor), have been distinguished: <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor, which lasts less than 24 h and is accompanied by continued foraging, versus hibernation, with torpor bouts lasting consecutive days to several weeks in animals that usually do not forage but rely on energy stores, either food caches or body energy reserves. This classification of torpor types has been challenged, suggesting that these phenotypes may merely represent extremes in a continuum of traits. Here, we investigate whether variables of torpor in 214 species (43 birds and 171 mammals) form a continuum or a bimodal distribution. We use Gaussian-mixture cluster analysis as well as phylogenetically informed regressions to quantitatively assess the distinction between hibernation and <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor and to evaluate the impact of body mass and geographical distribution of species on torpor traits. Cluster analysis clearly confirmed the classical distinction between <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor and hibernation. Overall, heterothermic endotherms tend to be small; hibernators are significantly heavier than <span class="hlt">daily</span> heterotherms and also are distributed at higher average latitudes (?35) than <span class="hlt">daily</span> heterotherms (?25). Variables of torpor for an average 30 g heterotherm differed significantly between <span class="hlt">daily</span> heterotherms and hibernators. Average maximum torpor bout duration was >30-fold longer, and mean torpor bout duration >25-fold longer in hibernators. Mean minimum body temperature differed by ?13C, and the mean minimum torpor metabolic rate was ?35% of the basal metabolic rate (BMR) in <span class="hlt">daily</span> heterotherms but only 6% of BMR in hibernators. Consequently, our analysis strongly supports the view that hibernators and <span class="hlt">daily</span> heterotherms are functionally distinct groups that probably have been subject to disruptive selection. Arguably, the primary physiological difference between <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor and hibernation, which leads to a variety of derived further distinct characteristics, is the temporal control of entry into and arousal from torpor, which is governed by the circadian clock in <span class="hlt">daily</span> heterotherms, but apparently not in hibernators. PMID:25123049</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHyd..535..547X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHyd..535..547X"><span id="translatedtitle">Models for estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall erosivity in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xie, Yun; Yin, Shui-qing; Liu, Bao-yuan; Nearing, Mark A.; Zhao, Ying</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The rainfall erosivity factor (R) represents the multiplication of rainfall energy and maximum 30 min intensity by event (EI30) and year. This rainfall erosivity index is widely used for empirical soil loss prediction. Its calculation, however, requires high temporal resolution rainfall data that are not readily available in many parts of the world. The purpose of this study was to parameterize models suitable for estimating erosivity from <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall data, which are more widely available. One-minute resolution rainfall data recorded in sixteen stations over the eastern water erosion impacted regions of China were analyzed. The R-factor ranged from 781.9 to 8258.5 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 y-1. A total of 5942 erosive events from one-minute resolution rainfall data of ten stations were used to parameterize three models, and 4949 erosive events from the other six stations were used for validation. A threshold of <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall between days classified as erosive and non-erosive was suggested to be 9.7 mm based on these data. Two of the models (I and II) used power law functions that required only <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall totals. Model I used different model coefficients in the cool season (Oct.-Apr.) and warm season (May-Sept.), and Model II was fitted with a sinusoidal curve of seasonal variation. Both Model I and Model II estimated the erosivity index for average annual, yearly, and half-month temporal scales reasonably well, with the symmetric mean absolute percentage error MAPEsym ranging from 10.8% to 32.1%. Model II predicted slightly better than Model I. However, the prediction efficiency for the <span class="hlt">daily</span> erosivity index was limited, with the symmetric mean absolute percentage error being 68.0% (Model I) and 65.7% (Model II) and Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency being 0.55 (Model I) and 0.57 (Model II). Model III, which used the combination of <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall amount and <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum 60-min rainfall, improved predictions significantly, and produced a Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency for <span class="hlt">daily</span> erosivity index prediction of 0.93. Thus <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall data was generally sufficient for estimating annual average, yearly, and half-monthly time scales, while sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> data was needed when estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> erosivity values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4351926','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4351926"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> torpor and hibernation in birds and mammals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>RUF, THOMAS; GEISER, FRITZ</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Many birds and mammals drastically reduce their energy expenditure during times of cold exposure, food shortage, or drought, by temporarily abandoning euthermia, i.e., the maintenance of high body temperatures. Traditionally, two different types of heterothermy, i.e., hypometabolic states associated with low body temperatures (torpor), have been distinguished: <span class="hlt">Daily</span> torpor, which lasts less than 24 h and is accompanied by continued foraging, versus hibernation, with torpor bouts lasting consecutive days to several weeks in animals that usually do not forage but rely on energy stores, either food caches or body energy reserves. This classification of torpor types has been challenged however, suggesting that these phenotypes may merely represent the extremes in a continuum of traits. Here, we investigate whether variables of torpor in 214 species, 43 birds and 171 mammals form a continuum or a bimodal distribution. We use Gaussian-mixture cluster analysis as well as phylogenetically informed regressions to quantitatively assess the distinction between hibernation and <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor and to evaluate the impact of body mass and geographical distribution of species on torpor traits. Cluster analysis clearly confirmed the classical distinction between <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor and hibernation. Overall, heterothermic endotherms are small on average, but hibernators are significantly heavier than <span class="hlt">daily</span> heterotherms and also are distributed at higher average latitudes (~35°) than <span class="hlt">daily</span> heterotherms (~25°). Variables of torpor for an average 30-g heterotherm differed significantly between <span class="hlt">daily</span> heterotherms and hibernators. Average maximum torpor bout duration was >30-fold longer, and mean torpor bout duration >25-fold longer in hibernators. Mean minimum body temperature differed by ~13°C, and the mean minimum torpor metabolic rate was ~35% of the BMR in <span class="hlt">daily</span> heterotherms but only 6% of basal metabolic rate in hibernators. Consequently, our analysis strongly supports the view that hibernators and <span class="hlt">daily</span> heterotherms are functionally distinct groups that probably have been subject to disruptive selection. Arguably, the primary physiological difference between <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor and hibernation, which leads to a variety of derived further distinct characteristics, is the temporal control of entry into and arousal from torpor, which is governed by the circadian clock in <span class="hlt">daily</span> heterotherms, but apparently not in hibernators. PMID:25123049</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6168307','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6168307"><span id="translatedtitle">Blood <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>: Rationale and technique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lewis, M.C. )</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Upon request by the local American Red Cross, the Savannah Regional Center for Cancer Care <span class="hlt">irradiates</span> whole blood or blood components to prevent post-transfusion graft-versus-host reaction in patients who have severely depressed immune systems. The rationale for blood <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>, the total absorbed dose, the type of patients who require <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> blood, and the regulations that apply to <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> blood are presented. A method of <span class="hlt">irradiating</span> blood using a linear accelerator is described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000RaPC...57..257D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000RaPC...57..257D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> of cane sugar spirit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Souza, M. D. C. A.; Del Mastro, N. L.</p> <p>2000-03-01</p> <p>The present study deals with the effect of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> on the gas-chromatographic profile of <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> cane sugar spirit <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> in glass containers in the presence of oak chops with doses of 0-10 kGy. Volatile constituents were analyzed in a CG gas chromatographer with a flame ionization detector using a Megabore CG-745 column. The results are discussed considering the contribution of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> to the quality of the spirit and the contribution of the <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> oak wood.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17268571','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17268571"><span id="translatedtitle">Accurate modeling of spectral fine-structure in Earth radiance spectra measured with the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Ozone Monitoring Experiment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Deelen, Rutger; Hasekamp, Otto P; Landgraf, Jochen</p> <p>2007-01-10</p> <p>We present what we believe to be a novel approach to simulating the spectral fine structure (<1 nm) in measurements of spectrometers such as the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME). GOME measures the Earth's radiance spectra and <span class="hlt">daily</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> spectra from which a reflectivity spectrum is commonly extracted. The high-frequency structures contained in such a spectrum are, apart from atmospheric absorption, caused by Raman scattering and by a shift between the solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and the Earth's radiance spectrum. Normally, an a priori high-resolution solar spectrum is used to simulate these structures. We present an alternative method in which all the required information on the solar spectrum is retrieved from the GOME measurements. We investigate two approaches for the spectral range of 390-400 nm. First, a solar spectrum is reconstructed on a fine spectral grid from the GOME solar measurement. This approach leads to undersampling errors of up to 0.5% in the modeling of the Earth's radiance spectra. Second, a combination of the solar measurement and one of the Earth's radiance measurement is used to retrieve a solar spectrum. This approach effectively removes the undersampling error and results in residuals close to the GOME measurement noise of 0.1%. PMID:17268571</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411175G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411175G"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling of <span class="hlt">global</span> surface air temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gusakova, M. A.; Karlin, L. N.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>A model to assess a number of factors, such as total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, albedo, greenhouse gases and water vapor, affecting climate change has been developed on the basis of Earth's radiation balance principle. To develop the model solar energy transformation in the atmosphere was investigated. It's a common knowledge, that part of the incoming radiation is reflected into space from the atmosphere, land and water surfaces, and another part is absorbed by the Earth's surface. Some part of outdoing terrestrial radiation is retained in the atmosphere by greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide) and water vapor. Making use of the regression analysis a correlation between concentration of greenhouse gases, water vapor and <span class="hlt">global</span> surface air temperature was obtained which, it is turn, made it possible to develop the proposed model. The model showed that even smallest fluctuations of total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> intensify both positive and negative feedback which give rise to considerable changes in <span class="hlt">global</span> surface air temperature. The model was used both to reconstruct the <span class="hlt">global</span> surface air temperature for the 1981-2005 period and to predict <span class="hlt">global</span> surface air temperature until 2030. The reconstructions of <span class="hlt">global</span> surface air temperature for 1981-2005 showed the models validity. The model makes it possible to assess contribution of the factors listed above in climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4229132','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4229132"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Self-Disclosure and Sleep in Couples</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kane, Heidi S.; Slatcher, Richard B.; Reynolds, Bridget M.; Repetti, Rena L.; Robles, Theodore F.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective An emerging literature provides evidence for the association between romantic relationship quality and sleep, an important factor in health and well-being. However, we still know very little about the specific relationship processes that affect sleep behavior. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine how self-disclosure, an important relational process linked to intimacy, relationship satisfaction and health, is associated with sleep behavior. Method As part of a larger study of family processes, wives (n=46) and husbands (n=38) from 46 cohabiting families completed 56 days of <span class="hlt">daily</span> diaries. Spouses completed evening diaries assessing <span class="hlt">daily</span> self-disclosure, relationship satisfaction, and mood and morning diaries assessing the prior night's sleep. Multilevel modeling was used to explore the effects of both <span class="hlt">daily</span> variation in and average levels across the 56 days of self-disclosure on sleep. Results <span class="hlt">Daily</span> variation in self-disclosure predicted sleep outcomes for wives, but not for husbands. On days when wives self-disclosed more to their spouses than their average level, their subjective sleep quality and sleep efficiency that night improved. Furthermore, <span class="hlt">daily</span> self-disclosure buffered the negative effect of <span class="hlt">daily</span> negative mood on sleep latency for wives, but not husbands. In contrast, higher average levels of self-disclosure predicted less waking during the night for husbands, but not for wives. Conclusion The association between self-disclosure and sleep is one mechanism by which <span class="hlt">daily</span> relationship functioning may influence health and well-being. Gender may play a role in how self-disclosure is associated with sleep. PMID:25068453</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E1066T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E1066T"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar UV <span class="hlt">Irradiances</span> and Associated Issues for the Atmosphere and Ionosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tobiska, W.</p> <p></p> <p>Several new solar proxies have been developed in the past year as the beginning of a second generation solar UV modeling and forecasting capability. These proxies help characterize the energy input into operational space physics models that provide information content on the neutral thermosphere and ionosphere. Between 1999-2000, a full solar spectrum was developed (SOLAR2000) for use in numerical atmospheric and ionospheric models relevant to climatological studies and the E10.7 index was produced for empirical thermospheric and ionospheric model applications. In 20012002, new proxies have been derived including a sunspot number, Rsn, for use by operational HF radio ray-trace algorithms and the Qeuv thermospheric heating rate for use by the aeronomy community to compare airglow-derived versus solar-derived upper atmosphere heating. The Peuv heat production term has also been developed as an index for comparing solar heating to joule heating on a <span class="hlt">global</span> scale. The S(t) index is the integrated solar spectrum used for solar radiation pressure calculations related to spacecraft attitude control. Finally, the Tinf is the exospheric temperature that is provided for long-term climate change studies. Second generation modeling and forecasting is in development and includes higher cadence solar input information beyond <span class="hlt">daily</span> flux values where solar flare characterization will soon become reality. The second generation forecasting is also incorporating improved algorithms ranging from wavelet transforms to solar dynamo theory in order to specify solar variability on seven time scales from nowcast and 72-hour forecast to 5 solar cycle estimation. These new proxies are derivatives of the SOLAR2000 model whose solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> specification is compliant with the developing ISO draft standard WD 21348 for Determining Solar <span class="hlt">Irradiances</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9395106','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9395106"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> effects on microhardness of fluoridated and non-fluoridated bovine dentin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kielbassa, A M; Beetz, I; Schendera, A; Hellwig, E</p> <p>1997-10-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> on microhardness of dentin. Dentin blocks from the cervical region of bovine incisors were treated as follows: (1) no <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>; (2) <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> of specimens up to 60 Gy (2 Gy/day, 5 days/week); (3) no <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>, but fluoridation of specimens for 5 min/d; (4) <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> of specimens and <span class="hlt">daily</span> fluoridation. Knoop hardness number (KHN) of the control specimens was 62.63+/-14.75 (mean+/-SD). This was significantly different from the <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> dentin samples (8.74+/-2.59 KHN). Hardness of the fluoridated dentin specimens was 11.19+/-1.95 KHN in the non-<span class="hlt">irradiated</span> group and 10.03+/-2.76 KHN in the <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> groups, respectively. Within the limitations of an in vitro study, it is concluded that dentin is severely affected by <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>. This could be an explanation for the frequently observed side-effects of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> like loss of enamel, gap formation at the amelodentinal junction, and caries of the cervical region. Fluoridation with acidic gels decreases microhardness of dentin surface, and does not prevent softening due to radiation, when saliva is absent. PMID:9395106</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JASTP.137...58S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JASTP.137...58S"><span id="translatedtitle">Mathematical links between optimum solar collector tilts in isotropic sky for intercepting maximum solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stanciu, Dorin; Stanciu, Camelia; Paraschiv, Ioana</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The paper presents a mathematical modeling of the optimum tilt for solar collectors for intercepting maximum solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (power density), at different geographical locations, periods of time and different base-ground types. The solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> received by the collector is estimated based on isotropic sky analysis models, namely Hottel & Woertz model and Liu & Jordan model. The optimum value for the tilt is considered for maximum hourly and respectively <span class="hlt">daily</span> noon incident solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. This paper emphasizes the mathematical link between the optima computed under the two considered models assumptions. Also the ground reflectance factor influence on the optimum tilt difference between considered models is presented related to latitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10092956','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10092956"><span id="translatedtitle">Once <span class="hlt">daily</span> aminoglycoside therapy. Is it less toxic than multiple <span class="hlt">daily</span> doses and how should it be monitored?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barclay, M L; Kirkpatrick, C M; Begg, E J</p> <p>1999-02-01</p> <p>After 50 years of clinical experience with the aminoglycoside agents, there is continuing debate over the most appropriate administration regimen for these drugs. In recent years, once <span class="hlt">daily</span> administration has been used increasingly, in the hope of both improving efficacy and reducing toxicity. At least 30 controlled clinical trials have compared once versus conventional multiple <span class="hlt">daily</span> administration. Efficacy was assessed in some, but not all, studies using clinical and/or bacteriological cure. Toxicity was generally determined using rather nonsensitive end-points such as measurement of serum creatinine for nephrotoxicity and clinically detectable hearing loss for ototoxicity. The results of individual clinical trials and subsequent meta-analyses have been variable. However, 5 of 9 meta-analyses found clinical efficacy to be significantly better with once <span class="hlt">daily</span> administration, and in 3 of the 9 there were significantly less nephrotoxicity with once <span class="hlt">daily</span> administration. The results were not significant for ototoxicity in any of the meta-analyses. There is debate about how therapeutic drug monitoring should be performed, and whether it is still required with once <span class="hlt">daily</span> administration. Previous experience with the aminoglycosides, especially in patients with impaired drug clearance caused by renal impairment, suggests that monitoring is still prudent. Results from the once <span class="hlt">daily</span> administration trials appear to support this. Various methods of monitoring and dose adjustment have been proposed. The most common is to measure a 24-hour trough concentration and to adjust the dose to maintain the trough concentration below a value of 2, 1 or 0.5 mg/L. However, this method allows for greater total aminoglycoside exposure than has been permitted with conventional dosages, increasing the likelihood of toxicity in patients with impaired aminoglycoside clearance. Other methods measure drug concentrations at a time-point or points within the dose interval (when the concentration is still measurable), and adjust the dose according to concentration-time curve nomograms or to a target area under the concentration-time curve. This allows the use of higher doses in those with high drug clearance. Furthermore, in patients with impaired clearance, drug exposure is limited to the same extent as, or less than, that with conventional multiple <span class="hlt">daily</span> administration. To date no controlled trials have compared methods of dose-individualisation. In summary, in addition to a slight overall improvement in efficacy, once <span class="hlt">daily</span> administration has resulted in a small reduction in nephrotoxicity. In the studies using more sensitive measures of toxicity, the differences in toxicity were greater, strengthening the case for once <span class="hlt">daily</span> administration. Therapeutic drug monitoring is probably required with once <span class="hlt">daily</span> administration. Methods which use mid-dosage interval concentrations to gauge drug exposure would seem to be preferable over trough concentration measurement. PMID:10092956</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9264E..04W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9264E..04W"><span id="translatedtitle">Total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> monitors, space instruments for measuring total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on FY-3 satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Hongrui; Wang, Yupeng; Ye, Xin; Wang, Kai; Yang, Dongjun; Fang, Wei; Li, Huiduan</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Total Solar <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> (TSI) has been recorded <span class="hlt">daily</span> by Total Solar <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Monitors (TSIM) with overlapping measurements on FY-3 (Feng Yun-3) series satellites since 2008. Instrument descriptions, operation in space and flight performance of three TSIMs are presented in this paper. TSI is measured by electrical substitution radiometers integrated in TSIM, with traceability to SI. TSIM/FY-3A and TSIM/FY-3B share nearly the same design. Since TSIM/FY-3A and TSIM/FY-3B have no pointing system, the Sun is only observed when the Sunlight sweeps TSIM's field-of-view and TSI measurements are influenced inevitably by solar pointing errors. TSIM/FY-3C, a radiometer package was constructed with a pointing system for solar tracking in order to achieve accurate solar pointing. TSIM/FY-3C was sent into orbit in September 2013 onboard FY-3C satellite. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> TSI measurements have been performed by TSIM/FY-3C with autonomous accurate solar tracking for 1 year. TSIM/FY-3C is in a good instrument health according to its on-orbit data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=neutral+AND+alcohol&id=EJ786986','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=neutral+AND+alcohol&id=EJ786986"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of the Contentment with Life Assessment Scale (CLAS): Using <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Life Experiences to Verify Levels of Self-Reported Life Satisfaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lavallee, Loraine F.; Hatch, P. Maurine; Michalos, Alex C.; McKinley, Tara</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>On average, Anglo-Americans report that they are satisfied with their lives, but their <span class="hlt">global</span> evaluations tend to deviate from their <span class="hlt">daily</span> experiences (e.g., Oishi [2002, "Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin" 28(10), 1398-1406]). We explored the hypothesis that the average life satisfaction of Anglo-Americans is better characterized as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.G21A0436B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.G21A0436B"><span id="translatedtitle">Twenty-Two Years of Combined GPS <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Coordinate Time Series and Derived Parameters: Implications for ITRF</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bock, Y.; Kedar, S.; Moore, A. W.; Fang, P.; Liu, Z.; Owen, S. E.; Squibb, M. B.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The NASA-funded "Solid Earth Science ESDR System (SESES)" MEaSUREs project publishes long-term Earth Science Data Records (ESDRs), the result of a combined solution of independent <span class="hlt">daily</span> JPL (GIPSY-OASIS software) and SIO (GAMIT software) GPS analyses, using a common source of metadata from the SOPAC database. The project has now produced up to twenty-two years of consistent, calibrated and validated ESDR products for over 3200 GPS stations from Western North America, other plate boundaries, and <span class="hlt">global</span> networks made available through the GPS Explorer data portal and NASA's CDDIS archive. The combined solution of <span class="hlt">daily</span> coordinate time series uses SOPAC h-files and JPL STACOV files as input to the st_filter software. The combined time series are then fit with the analyze_tseri software for <span class="hlt">daily</span> positions/displacements, secular velocities, coseismic and postseismic displacements, as well as annual and semi-annual signatures and non-coseismic offsets due primarily to equipment (antenna) changes. Published uncertainties for the estimated parameters take into account temporal noise in the <span class="hlt">daily</span> coordinate time series. The resulting residual coordinate time series with typical <span class="hlt">daily</span> RMS values of 1.5-4.0 mm in the horizontal and 4.0-8.0 mm in the vertical can then can be mined for other signals such as transient deformation associated with earthquake tremor and slip (ETS) and hydrological effects. As part of this process we have catalogued and characterized coseismic displacements due to more than 80 earthquakes affecting over hundreds of regional and <span class="hlt">global</span> stations, as well as significant postseismic deformation for the larger events. The larger events can affect stations 1000's of km from the earthquake epicenters and thus significantly affect the positions of stations used in defining the reference frame. We discuss the implications and contributions of our ongoing analysis to the long-term maintenance of the international terrestrial reference frame.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5135718','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5135718"><span id="translatedtitle">ORNL <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> creep facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reiley, T.C.; Auble, R.L.; Beckers, R.M.; Bloom, E.E.; Duncan, M.G.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shannon, R.H.</p> <p>1980-09-01</p> <p>A machine was developed at ORNL to measure the rates of elongation observed under <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> in stressed materials. The source of radiation is a beam of 60 MeV alpha particles from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC). This choice allows experiments to be performed which simulate the effects of fast neutrons. A brief review of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> creep and experimental constraints associated with each measurement technique is given. Factors are presented which lead to the experimental choices made for the <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> Creep Facility (ICF). The ICF consists of a helium-filled chamber which houses a high-precision mechanical testing device. The specimen to be tested must be thermally stabilized with respect to the temperature fluctuations imposed by the particle beam which passes through the specimen. Electrical resistance of the specimen is the temperature control parameter chosen. Very high precision in length measurement and temperature control are required to detect the small elongation rates relevant to <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> creep in the test periods available (approx. 1 day). The apparatus components and features required for the above are presented in some detail, along with the experimental procedures. The damage processes associated with light ions are discussed and displacement rates are calculated. Recent <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> creep results are given, demonstrating the suitability of the apparatus for high resolution experiments. Also discussed is the suitability of the ICF for making high precision thermal creep measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AMTD....4..873W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AMTD....4..873W"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> from SCIAMACHY measurements: algorithm and validation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, P.; Stammes, P.; Mueller, R.</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>Broadband surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> (SSI) are, for the first time, derived from SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY) satellite measurements. The retrieval algorithm, called FRESCO (Fast REtrieval Scheme for Clouds from Oxygen A band) SSI, is similar to the Heliosat method. In contrast to the standard Heliosat method, the cloud index is replaced by the effective cloud fraction derived from the FRESCO cloud algorithm. The MAGIC (Mesoscale Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Code) algorithm is used to calculate clear-sky SSI. The SCIAMACHY SSI product is validated against the <span class="hlt">globally</span> distributed BSRN (Baseline Surface Radiation Network) measurements and compared with the ISCCP-FD (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project Flux Dataset) surface shortwave downwelling fluxes (SDF). For one year of data in 2008, the mean difference between the instantaneous SCIAMACHY SSI and the hourly mean BSRN <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> is -4 W m-2(-1%) with a standard deviation of 101 W m-2 (20%). The mean difference between the <span class="hlt">globally</span> monthly mean SCIAMACHY SSI and ISCCP-FD SDF is less than -12 W m-2 (-2%) for every month in 2006 and the standard deviation is 62 W m-2 (12%). The correlation coefficient is 0.93 between SCIAMACHY SSI and BSRN <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> and is greater than 0.96 between SCIAMACHY SSI and ISCCP-FD SDF. The evaluation results suggest that the SCIAMACHY SSI product achieves similar mean bias error and root mean square error as the surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> derived from polar orbiting satellites with higher spatial resolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AMT.....4..875W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AMT.....4..875W"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> from SCIAMACHY measurements: algorithm and validation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, P.; Stammes, P.; Mueller, R.</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>Broadband surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> (SSI) are, for the first time, derived from SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY) satellite measurements. The retrieval algorithm, called FRESCO (Fast REtrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A band) SSI, is similar to the Heliosat method. In contrast to the standard Heliosat method, the cloud index is replaced by the effective cloud fraction derived from the FRESCO cloud algorithm. The MAGIC (Mesoscale Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Code) algorithm is used to calculate clear-sky SSI. The SCIAMACHY SSI product is validated against <span class="hlt">globally</span> distributed BSRN (Baseline Surface Radiation Network) measurements and compared with ISCCP-FD (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project Flux Dataset) surface shortwave downwelling fluxes (SDF). For one year of data in 2008, the mean difference between the instantaneous SCIAMACHY SSI and the hourly mean BSRN <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> is -4 W m-2 (-1 %) with a standard deviation of 101 W m-2 (20 %). The mean difference between the <span class="hlt">globally</span> monthly mean SCIAMACHY SSI and ISCCP-FD SDF is less than -12 W m-2 (-2 %) for every month in 2006 and the standard deviation is 62 W m-2 (12 %). The correlation coefficient is 0.93 between SCIAMACHY SSI and BSRN <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> and is greater than 0.96 between SCIAMACHY SSI and ISCCP-FD SDF. The evaluation results suggest that the SCIAMACHY SSI product achieves similar mean bias error and root mean square error as the surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> derived from polar orbiting satellites with higher spatial resolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1070K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1070K"><span id="translatedtitle">Exogenous model of <span class="hlt">global</span> tectonics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kalenda, Pavel; Wandrol, Ivo; Kopf, Tom; Frydrek, Karel; Neumann, Libor; Prochzka, Vclav; Ost?ihansk, Lubor</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>We present a new model of lithosphere-plates movement based on three pillars: 1) The thermoelastic wave, which was described first of all by Berger (1975), 2) The ratcheting mechanism, which was described for asphalt buckling and/or lithosphere evolution by J. Croll (2006, 2007), and 3) the solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> energy, as quantified by IPCC (2007). The thermal wave, which is generated by solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on the surface, penetrates into depth, and subsurface rocks are expanded. The deformation spreads to the surrounding of expanded rocks and to the depths. Such elastic wave is called thermoelastic wave and has dominant periods of one day, one year, (short) climate periods (AMO, PDO and other oscillations), Milankovich periods (14000 - 120000 years) and longer climate periods. This deformation concerns prevalently the continental lithosphere and not lithosphere covered by ocean or thick layers of unconsolidated sediments. This non-uniform deformation of continental and/or oceanic plates leads to opening of the cracks, faults and/or rifts during the period of continental contraction. The ratchets can fulfil such free spaces and openings. During the next period of continental expansion, such faults, cracks or rifts cannot reach the same positions as before, which leads to increasing stress, which accumulates on the discontinuities especially between continental and oceanic crust (Kalenda et al. 2012). Such process can accumulate a portion of the solar energy reaching the solid surface rocks. Then we can explain the whole energy budget of seismic and volcanic activity (1022 J/year) only by solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. Only 4 % of total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> of the Earth's surface (1024 J/year) is enough to cover all budget of lithosphere plate movement. No other resources are necessary. Because this new model of the lithosphere plate movement is not accepted at that moment by the mainstream, it is necessary to publish it in the section Geoethics, as a one of the examples of the behaviour of the Science as a whole. References Berger, J. (1975): A Note on Thermoelastic Strains and Tilts, 1975, J. Geophys.Res., 80, pp. 274-277. Croll, J.G.A. (2006): From asphalt to the Arctic: new insights into thermo-mechanical ratcheting processes. III Int. Conf. On Computational Mechanics. Lisbon, Portugal, 5-8 June. Croll, J.G.A. (2007): A new hypothesis for Earth lithosphere evolution. New Concepts in <span class="hlt">Global</span> Tectonics Newsletter, no. 45, December, 2007, 34-51. IPCC (2007): IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007 (AR4). http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_and_data_reports.shtml Kalenda P. et al. (2012): Tilts, <span class="hlt">global</span> tectonics and earthquake prediction. SWB, London, 247pp.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004RaPC...71..501F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004RaPC...71..501F"><span id="translatedtitle">Current status of information transfer activity on food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> and consumer attitudes in Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Furuta, Masakazu</p> <p>2004-09-01</p> <p>For the purpose of public education of radiation and radiation-related technology towards school kids and their parents through efficient information transfer, ''RADIATION FAIR—the relationship between <span class="hlt">daily</span> life and radiation" has been successfully held at Kintetsu Department Store, one of the major departmental stores in downtown Osaka, the second largest city in Japan during summer vacation in every August for 19 years. Currently various <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> products available in our <span class="hlt">daily</span> life including <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> potatoes and spices were displayed together with explanatory panels and attractions. The number of participants has increased every year and constantly exceeded 20,000 in recent years. This activity has become a good medium for the consumer to recognize the quality of the <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> potatoes which has been distributed in the market since 1974, and <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> spices, the next candidate for the clearance under examination by Japanese government. Taking advantage of this opportunity, we have demonstrated toward the participants that <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>-decontaminated spices are superior to conventional heat-treated ones in aromatic quality as well as conducting survey of the visitor's feeling on radiation and <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> foods. These activities would be potentially effective to facilitate public acceptance of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> decontamination of spices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JApMe..44.1315T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JApMe..44.1315T"><span id="translatedtitle">Generating Multiyear Gridded <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Rainfall over New Zealand.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tait, Andrew; Turner, Richard</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> rainfall totals are a key input for hydrological models that are designed to simulate water and pollutant flow through both soil and waterways. Within New Zealand there are large areas and many river catchments where no long-term rainfall observations exist. A method for estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall over the whole of New Zealand on a 5-km grid is described and tested over a period from January 1985 to April 2002. Improvement over a spatial interpolation method was gained by scaling high-elevation rainfall estimates using simulated mesoscale model rainfall surfaces that are generated for short periods in 1994 and 1996. This method is judged to produce reasonable and useful estimates of <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26524483','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26524483"><span id="translatedtitle">Regulation of experienced and anticipated regret in <span class="hlt">daily</span> decision making.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bjälkebring, Pär; Västfjäll, Daniel; Svenson, Ola; Slovic, Paul</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Decisions were sampled from 108 participants during 8 days using a web-based diary method. Each day participants rated experienced regret for a decision made, as well as forecasted regret for a decision to be made. Participants also indicated to what extent they used different strategies to prevent or regulate regret. Participants regretted 30% of decisions and forecasted regret in 70% of future decisions, indicating both that regret is relatively prevalent in <span class="hlt">daily</span> decisions but also that experienced regret was less frequent than forecasted regret. In addition, a number of decision-specific regulation and prevention strategies were successfully used by the participants to minimize regret and negative emotions in <span class="hlt">daily</span> decision making. Overall, these results suggest that regulation and prevention of regret are important strategies in many of our <span class="hlt">daily</span> decisions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26524483</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NHESS..15..617B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NHESS..15..617B"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial distribution of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation concentration index in Algeria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Benhamrouche, A.; Boucherf, D.; Hamadache, R.; Bendahmane, L.; Martin-Vide, J.; Teixeira Nery, J.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>In this paper, the spatial and temporal distribution of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation concentration index (CI) in Algeria (south Mediterranean Sea) has been assessed. CI is an index related to the rainfall intensity and erosive capacity; therefore, this index is of great interest for studies on torrential rainfall and floods. Forty-two <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall series based on high-quality and fairly regular rainfall records for the period from 1970 to 2008 were used. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation CI results allowed the identification of three climate zones: the northern country, characterized by coastal regions with CI values between 0.59 and 0.63; the highlands, with values between 0.57 and 0.62, except for the region of Biskra (CI = 0.70); and the southern region of the country, with high rainfall concentrations with values between 0.62 and 0.69.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NHESD...2.2709B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NHESD...2.2709B"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial distribution of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation concentration index in Algeria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boucherf, D.; Benhamrouche, A.; Hamadache, R.; Bendahmane, L.; Martin-Vide, J.; Teixeira Nery, J.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>In this paper, the spatial and temporal distribution of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation concentration index (CI) in Algeria (South Mediterranean Sea) has been assessed. Forty-two <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall series based on high quality and fairly regular rainfall records for the period from 1970 to 2008 were used. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation concentration index results allowed identifying three climatic zones: the northern country, characterized by coastal regions with CI values between 0.59 and 0.63, the highlands, with values between 0.57 and 0.62 (average of 0.61), except for the area of Biskra (CI = 0.70), and the southern region of the country, with high rainfall concentrations, with values between 0.62 and 0.69. CI is an index related to the rainfall intensity and erosive capacity; therefore, this index has great interest for studies on torrential rainfall and floods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1548155','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1548155"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">daily</span> oral omeprazole on 24 hour intragastric acidity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Walt, R P; Gomes, M D; Wood, E C; Logan, L H; Pounder, R E</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Twenty four hour intragastric acidity was measured in nine patients with duodenal ulcer before and after one week of treatment with oral omeprazole 30 mg <span class="hlt">daily</span>, a drug that inhibits gastric secretion by inhibition of parietal cell H+K+ adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase). Omeprazole virtually eliminated intragastric acidity in all patients: the median 24 hour intragastric pH rose from 1.4 to 5.3 and the mean hourly hydrogen ion activity fell from 38.50 to 1.95 mmol(mEq)/1 (p less than 0.001). This inhibition of 24 hour intragastric acidity is more profound than that previously reported with either cimetidine 1 g <span class="hlt">daily</span> or ranitidine 300 mg <span class="hlt">daily</span>. PMID:6407676</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3960294','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3960294"><span id="translatedtitle">Associations of Subjective Social Status with Nondaily and <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Smoking</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Buchanan, Taneisha S.; Nguyen, Nga; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Objectives To explore associations between subjective social status (SSS) and smoking level among 2274 adult current smokers. Methods Associations were investigated using a covariate-adjusted proportional odds cumulative logit model. Moderation (via race/ethnicity or sex) and mediation (via depressive symptoms, social/emotional support, or life satisfaction) were explored in additional models. Results Higher SSS was associated with greater likelihood of nondaily versus light <span class="hlt">daily</span> or moderate/ heavy <span class="hlt">daily</span> smoking (p = .017). Life satisfaction partially mediated the association of SSS and smoking level (p = .003). Conclusions Higher SSS was associated with greater likelihood of nondaily relative to light <span class="hlt">daily</span> or moderate to heavy smoking, potentially via greater life satisfaction. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24629553</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910068669&hterms=Energetics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DEnergetics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910068669&hterms=Energetics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DEnergetics"><span id="translatedtitle">Energetics of <span class="hlt">global</span> ocean tides from Geosat altimetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cartwright, David E.; Ray, Richard D.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The present paper focuses on resonance and energetics of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> tides, especially in the southern ocean, the distribution of gravitational power input of <span class="hlt">daily</span> and half-<span class="hlt">daily</span> tides, and comparison with other estimates of <span class="hlt">global</span> dissipation rates. The present <span class="hlt">global</span> tidal maps, derived from Geosat altimetry, compare favorably with ground truth data at about the same rms level as the models of Schwiderski (1983), and are slightly better in lunar than in solar tides. Diurnal admittances clearly show Kelvin wave structure in the southern ocean and confirm the resonant mode of Platzman (1984) at 28.5 + or - 0.1 hr with an apparent Q of about 4. Driving energy is found to enter dominantly in the North Pacific for the <span class="hlt">daily</span> tides and is strongly peaked in the tropical oceans for the half-<span class="hlt">daily</span> tides. <span class="hlt">Global</span> rates of working on all major tide constituents except S2 agree well with independent results from analyses of gravity through satellite tracking. Comparison at S2 is improved by allowing for the air tide in gravitational results but suggests deficiencies in all solar tide models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NIMPA.730..101D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NIMPA.730..101D"><span id="translatedtitle">The Birmingham <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> Facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dervan, P.; French, R.; Hodgson, P.; Marin-Reyes, H.; Wilson, J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>At the end of 2012 the proton <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> facility at the CERN PS [1] will shut down for two years. With this in mind, we have been developing a new ATLAS scanning facility at the University of Birmingham Medical Physics cyclotron. With proton beams of energy approximately 30 MeV, fluences corresponding to those of the upgraded Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) can be reached conveniently. The facility can be used to <span class="hlt">irradiate</span> silicon sensors, optical components and mechanical structures (e.g. carbon fibre sandwiches) for the LHC upgrade programme. <span class="hlt">Irradiations</span> of silicon sensors can be carried out in a temperature controlled cold box that can be scanned through the beam. The facility is described in detail along with the first tests carried out with mini (1×1 cm2) silicon sensors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=49855&keyword=rf+AND+microwave&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=45782912&CFTOKEN=33538159','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=49855&keyword=rf+AND+microwave&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=45782912&CFTOKEN=33538159"><span id="translatedtitle">GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF MICE OFFSPRING AFTER <span class="hlt">IRRADIATION</span> IN UTERO WITH 2,450-MHZ MICROWAVES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Mice offspring <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> in utero with 2,450-MHz radio-frequency (RF) radiation at 0 or 28 mW/cm. sq. (whole-body averaged specific absorption rate = 0 or 16.5 W/kg) for 100 minutes <span class="hlt">daily</span> on days 6 through 17 of gestation were evaluated for maturation and development on days 1, ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=51430&keyword=killer&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=58217959&CFTOKEN=63775448','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=51430&keyword=killer&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=58217959&CFTOKEN=63775448"><span id="translatedtitle">ASSESSMENT OF IMMUNE FUNCTION DEVELOPMENT IN MICE <span class="hlt">IRRADIATED</span> IN UTERO WITH 2450-MHZ MICROWAVES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Groups of time-bred pregnant mice were <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> with 2450-MHz microwaves at an incident power density of 28 mW/sq. cm. for 100 min <span class="hlt">daily</span> from day 6 to day 18 of pregnancy. The average specific absorption rate (SAR) was 16.5 W/kg. Two experiments were performed under these condi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23949604','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23949604"><span id="translatedtitle">Inorganic arsenic in the Japanese diet: <span class="hlt">daily</span> intake and source.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oguri, Tomoko; Yoshinaga, Jun; Tao, Hiroaki; Nakazato, Tetsuya</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The concentrations of arsenic (As) species in 19 food composites prepared from 159 food items purchased in Shizuoka city, Japan, were determined (1) to estimate total <span class="hlt">daily</span> intake of inorganic As (InAs) and some organic As species and (2) to determine food contributing to total <span class="hlt">daily</span> InAs intake. As analysis included extraction of As species with a synthetic gastric juice (0.07mol/L HCl+0.01% pepsin) from food composite and high-performance liquid chromatography-high efficiency photo-oxidation-hydride generation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. InAs was detected in 9 of 19 food composites at a concentration of 0.423-450ng As/g fresh-weight. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> intake of InAs from cereals was greatest (13?g/person/day) followed by algae (5.7?g/person/day), and the intake from the two categories constituted 90% of the total <span class="hlt">daily</span> InAs intake of adults (21?g/person/day on a bioaccessible-fraction basis and 24?g/person/day on a content basis). Analysis of individual food items showed that rice and hijiki contributed virtually 100% of InAs from cereals and algae, respectively. The present survey indicated that InAs from rice and hijiki consumption contributed to total <span class="hlt">daily</span> InAs intake and consequently to significant cancer risk of the general Japanese population. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> intake of some organic forms of As and their contributing food categories was also estimated. PMID:23949604</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027139','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027139"><span id="translatedtitle">Statistical procedures for evaluating <span class="hlt">daily</span> and monthly hydrologic model predictions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Coffey, M.E.; Workman, S.R.; Taraba, J.L.; Fogle, A.W.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The overall study objective was to evaluate the applicability of different qualitative and quantitative methods for comparing <span class="hlt">daily</span> and monthly SWAT computer model hydrologic streamflow predictions to observed data, and to recommend statistical methods for use in future model evaluations. Statistical methods were tested using <span class="hlt">daily</span> streamflows and monthly equivalent runoff depths. The statistical techniques included linear regression, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, nonparametric tests, t-test, objective functions, autocorrelation, and cross-correlation. None of the methods specifically applied to the non-normal distribution and dependence between data points for the <span class="hlt">daily</span> predicted and observed data. Of the tested methods, median objective functions, sign test, autocorrelation, and cross-correlation were most applicable for the <span class="hlt">daily</span> data. The robust coefficient of determination (CD*) and robust modeling efficiency (EF*) objective functions were the preferred methods for <span class="hlt">daily</span> model results due to the ease of comparing these values with a fixed ideal reference value of one. Predicted and observed monthly totals were more normally distributed, and there was less dependence between individual monthly totals than was observed for the corresponding predicted and observed <span class="hlt">daily</span> values. More statistical methods were available for comparing SWAT model-predicted and observed monthly totals. The 1995 monthly SWAT model predictions and observed data had a regression Rr2 of 0.70, a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.41, and the t-test failed to reject the equal data means hypothesis. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient and the R r2 coefficient were the preferred methods for monthly results due to the ability to compare these coefficients to a set ideal value of one.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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