Sample records for global daily irradiation

  1. The frequency distribution of daily global irradiation at Kumasi

    SciTech Connect

    Akuffo, F.O.; Brew-Hammond, A. (Univ. of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana))

    1993-02-01

    Cumulative frequency distribution curves (CDC) for daily global irradiation on the horizontal produced by Liu and Jordan in 1963 have until recently been considered to have universal validity. Results obtained by Saunier et al. in 1987 and Ideriah and Suleman in 1989 for two tropical locations, Ibadan in Nigeria and Bangkok in Thailand, respectively, have thrown into question the universal validity of the Liu and Jordan generalized CDC. Saunier et al., in particular, showed that their results disagreed with the generalized CDC mainly because of differences in the values of the maximum clearness index (Kmax), as well as the underlying probability density functions. Consequently, they proposed two expressions for determining Kmax and probability densities in tropical locations. This paper presents the results of statistical analysis of daily global irradiation for Kumasi, Ghana, also a tropical location. The results show that the expressions of Saunier et al. provide a better description of the observations than the generalized CDC and, in particular, the empirical equation for Kmax may be valid for Kumasi. Furthermore, the results show that the values of the minimum clearness index (Kmin) for Kumasi are much higher than the generally accepted value of 0.05 for overcast sky conditions. A comparison of the results for Kumasi and Ibadan shows that there is satisfactory agreement when the values of Kmax and Kmin are comparable; in cases where there are discrepancies in the Kmax and Kmin values, the CDC also disagree. 13 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Eugene, Or. 1998 Daily Global Irradiance 1 31 61 91 121 151 181 211 241 271 301 331 361

    E-print Network

    Oregon, University of

    Eugene, Or. 1998 Daily Global Irradiance 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 1 31 61 91 121 151 181 211 241 271 301 331 361 Year Day GlobalIrradianceWhr/m2 perDay Eugene, Or. 1998 Daily Beam Day BeamIrradianceWhr/m2 perDay #12;Eugene, Or. 1998 Daily Diffuse Irradiance 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8

  3. Parameterisation of a global daily weather generator for terrestrial ecosystem modelling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D Friend

    1998-01-01

    Many global ecological models require globally-gridded daily weather data, but such data are not directly available from the current global network of weather stations. A method is described whereby a stochastic daily weather generator is parameterised to operate at the half-degree scale for the earth's terrestrial surface. The weather generator simulates 24 h shortwave irradiance, precipitation, maximum and minimum temperatures,

  4. Global Daily Reference ET Modeling and Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senay, G. B.; Verdin, J. P.; Lietzow, R.

    2005-12-01

    Accurate and reliable Evapotranspiration (ET) data sets are crucial in regional water and energy balance studies. Due to the complex instrumentation requirements, actual ET values are generally estimated from reference ET values by adjustment factors using coefficients for water stress and vegetation conditions, commonly referred to as crop coefficients. Until recently, the modeling of reference ET has been solely based on important weather variables collected from weather stations that are generally located on selected agro-climatic locations. Since 2000, NOAA's Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) has been producing 6-hourly climate parameter data sets of the input meteorological variables used to calculate daily reference ET for the whole globe at 1 degree spatial resolution. USGS at the Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) has been producing daily reference ET since 2000 and the results have been used for a variety of models for drought and stream flow monitoring all over the world in an operational basis. With the increasing availability of station-based reference ET estimates over the internet, we evaluated the GDAS-based reference ET estimates using data from the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS). Daily CMIS reference ET estimates from over 120 stations were compared with GDAS-based reference ET at different spatial and temporal scales using the 2004 data. Despite the large difference in spatial scale (point vs ~100 km grid) between the two data sets, the correlations between station-based ET and GDAS-ET were very high, exceeding 0.90 on a daily-basis to more than 0.98 on time scales of over 10 days. The effect of elevation in the reference ET estimation at a coarse spatial scale was also investigated. Both the temporal and spatial correspondences in trend/pattern and magnitudes between the two data sets were satisfactory, suggesting the reliability of using GDAS parameter based reference ET for regional water and energy balance studies in many parts of the world.

  5. Reconstruction of daily solar UV irradiation from 1893 to 2002 in Potsdam, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junk, Jürgen; Feister, Uwe; Helbig, Alfred

    2007-08-01

    Long-term records of solar UV radiation reaching the Earth’s surface are scarce. Radiative transfer calculations and statistical models are two options used to reconstruct decadal changes in solar UV radiation from long-term records of measured atmospheric parameters that contain information on the effect of clouds, atmospheric aerosols and ground albedo on UV radiation. Based on earlier studies, where the long-term variation of daily solar UV irradiation was derived from measured global and diffuse irradiation as well as atmospheric ozone by a non-linear regression method [Feister et al. (2002) Photochem Photobiol 76:281 293], we present another approach for the reconstruction of time series of solar UV radiation. An artificial neural network (ANN) was trained with measurements of solar UV irradiation taken at the Meteorological Observatory in Potsdam, Germany, as well as measured parameters with long-term records such as global and diffuse radiation, sunshine duration, horizontal visibility and column ozone. This study is focussed on the reconstruction of daily broad-band UV-B (280 315 nm), UV-A (315 400 nm) and erythemal UV irradiation (ER). Due to the rapid changes in cloudiness at mid-latitude sites, solar UV irradiance exhibits appreciable short-term variability. One of the main advantages of the statistical method is that it uses doses of highly variable input parameters calculated from individual spot measurements taken at short time intervals, which thus do represent the short-term variability of solar irradiance.

  6. Modeling monthly mean variation of the solar global irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vindel, J. M.; Polo, J.; Zarzalejo, L. F.

    2015-01-01

    The monthly mean variation of the solar global reaching the Earth's surface has been characterized at a global level by a regression model. This model considers the monthly variation itself (to different horizons and even the maximum annual variation) as the study variable, and it is applied without using data corresponding to measured meteorological variable. Two explicative variables have been used, the variation of the extraterrestrial irradiation and the variation of the clear sky global horizontal irradiation. The work has been carried out from datasets including average global daily solar irradiation for each month of the year measured on the ground. The model quality has been proven to be very dependent of the temporal variation considered, in such a way that higher variations, that is to say, higher distances between months, lead to an improvement in the model outcomes.

  7. A daily global mesoscale ocean eddy dataset from satellite altimetry

    PubMed Central

    Faghmous, James H.; Frenger, Ivy; Yao, Yuanshun; Warmka, Robert; Lindell, Aron; Kumar, Vipin

    2015-01-01

    Mesoscale ocean eddies are ubiquitous coherent rotating structures of water with radial scales on the order of 100?kilometers. Eddies play a key role in the transport and mixing of momentum and tracers across the World Ocean. We present a global daily mesoscale ocean eddy dataset that contains ~45 million mesoscale features and 3.3 million eddy trajectories that persist at least two days as identified in the AVISO dataset over a period of 1993–2014. This dataset, along with the open-source eddy identification software, extract eddies with any parameters (minimum size, lifetime, etc.), to study global eddy properties and dynamics, and to empirically estimate the impact eddies have on mass or heat transport. Furthermore, our open-source software may be used to identify mesoscale features in model simulations and compare them to observed features. Finally, this dataset can be used to study the interaction between mesoscale ocean eddies and other components of the Earth System.

  8. Reproducibility of mantle irradiation with daily imaging films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard W. Taylor Jr.; Nancy Price Mendenhall; Rodney R. Million

    1990-01-01

    Daily mantle imaging films were reviewed to evaluate the accuracy of daily treatments for 28 de novo patients with Hodgkin's disease treated with curative intent between September 1978 and September 1983. Each film was compared with the original simulation film by three independent observers. Each observer graded each film for accuracy in the superior mediastinal, axillary, and inferior mediastinal areas

  9. Correlations for direct normal and global horizontal irradiation on a French Mediterranean site

    SciTech Connect

    Louche, A.; Notton, G.; Poggi, P.; Simonnot, G. (Universite de Corse-CNRS, Ajaccio (France))

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish some correlations on direct normal and global horizontal irradiation for a Mediterranean site. The correlations have been developed for monthly mean values, daily and hourly values of irradiation data. The authors have used linear or polynomial regressions between energetical ratio and sunshine duration. For the monthly means and the daily values, the ratio I/I{sub M} fits very well the sunshine duration while, for hourly values, they express I{sub h}/I{sub o,h} as a function of H{sub h}/H{sub o,h}. In all cases, these correlations are, for this Mediterranean site, in good accordance with experimental data. Nevertheless, a study for other locations has to be developed.

  10. Global Monthly and Daily Precipitation Analysis for the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP): Global and Regional Variations and Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George; Curtis, Scott; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The 22 year, monthly, globally complete precipitation analysis of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP/GEWEX) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and the four year (1997-present) daily GPCP analysis are described in terms of the data sets and analysis techniques used in their preparation. These analyses are then used to study global and regional variations and trends during the 22 years and the shorter-time scale events that constitute those variations. The GPCP monthly data set shows no significant trend in global precipitation over the twenty years, unlike the positive trend in global surface temperatures over the past century. The global trend analysis must be interpreted carefully, however, because the inhomogeneity of the data set makes detecting a small signal very difficult, especially over this relatively short period. The relation of global (and tropical) total precipitation and ENSO (El Nino and Southern Oscillation) events is quantified with no significant signal when land and ocean are combined. In terms of regional trends 1979 to 2000 the tropics have a distribution of regional rainfall trends that has an ENSO-like pattern with features of both the El Nino and La Nina. This feature is related to a possible trend in the frequency of ENSO events (either El Nino or La Nina) over the past 20 years. Monthly anomalies of precipitation are related to ENSO variations with clear signals extending into middle and high latitudes of both hemispheres. The El Nino and La Nina mean anomalies are near mirror images of each other and when combined produce an ENSO signal with significant spatial continuity over large distances. A number of the features are shown to extend into high latitudes. Positive anomalies extend in the Southern Hemisphere from the Pacific southeastward across Chile and Argentina into the south Atlantic Ocean. In the Northern Hemisphere the counterpart feature extends across the southern U.S. and Atlantic Ocean into Europe. In the Southern Hemisphere an anomaly feature is shown to spiral into the Antarctica land mass. The extremes of ENSO-related anomalies are also examined and indicate that globally, during both El Nino and La Nina, more extremes of precipitation (both wet and dry) occur than during the "neutral" regime, with the El Nino regime showing larger magnitudes. The distribution is different for the globe as a whole and when the area is restricted to just land. The recent (1998-present) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observations are also compared with the GPCP analyses and are evaluated with regard to improving the long-term GPCP data set.

  11. Daily estimates of the Earth's pole position with the global positioning system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulf J. Lindqwister; Adam P. Freedman; Geoffrey Blewitt

    1992-01-01

    Daily estimates of the Earth's pole position have been obtained with measurements from a worldwide network of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, obtained during the three week GIG'91 experiment in January- February, 1991. For this short-term study, the GPS based polar motion series agrees with the other space based geodetic techniques (Very Long Baseline Interferometry and Satellite Laser Ranging) to

  12. Global changes in seasonal means and extremes of precipitation from daily climate model data

    E-print Network

    Stoffelen, Ad

    Global changes in seasonal means and extremes of precipitation from daily climate model data Simone; published 12 January 2012. [1] We investigate simulated changes of seasonal precipitation maxima and means the seasonal precipitation maximum and the seasonal mean. Modeled precipitation data appear consistent

  13. Daily Variation in Global and Local DNA Methylation in Mouse Livers

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Lin; Ma, Shihong; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Tao; Zhou, Mengyi; Wang, Zhongqiu; Zhang, Jianfa

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is one of the best-characterized epigenetic modifications and has an important biological relevance. Here we showed that global DNA methylation level in mouse livers displayed a daily variation where the peak phases occurred during the end of the day and the lowest level at the beginning of the day in the light-dark or dark-dark cycles. Typical repeat sequence long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) had a similar methylation rhythm to global DNA. DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) and ratio of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) brought a relative forward daily variation to global DNA methylation, and the temporary change in ratio of SAM to SAH had no influence on the DNA methylation level. The rhythm of global DNA methylation was lost and DNA methylation level was increased in Per1-/-Per2-/- double knockout mice, which were in accordance with changes of Dnmt3a mRNA levels and its rhythm. Our results suggest that the daily variation in global DNA methylation was associated with the change of Dnmt3a expression rather than ratio of SAM to SAH. PMID:25689298

  14. Automated daily process for global ionospheric total electron content maps and satellite ocean altimeter ionospheric calibration based on Global Positioning System data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Iijima; I. L. Harris; C. M. Ho; U. J. Lindqwister; A. J. Mannucci; X. Pi; M. J. Reyes; L. C. Sparks; B. D. Wilson

    1999-01-01

    The accuracy of single-frequency ocean altimeters benefits from calibration of the total electron content (TEC) of the ionosphere below the satellite. Data from a global network of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers provides timely, continuous, and globally well-distributed measurements of ionospheric electron content. For several months we have been running a daily automatic Global Ionospheric Map process which inputs global

  15. Spatio-temporal interpolation of daily temperatures for global land areas at 1 km resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilibarda, Milan; Hengl, Tomislav; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Gräler, Benedikt; Pebesma, Edzer; Per?ec Tadi?, Melita; Bajat, Branislav

    2014-03-01

    Combined Global Surface Summary of Day and European Climate Assessment and Dataset daily meteorological data sets (around 9000 stations) were used to build spatio-temporal geostatistical models and predict daily air temperature at ground resolution of 1 km for the global land mass. Predictions in space and time were made for the mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures using spatio-temporal regression-kriging with a time series of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 8 day images, topographic layers (digital elevation model and topographic wetness index), and a geometric temperature trend as covariates. The accuracy of predicting daily temperatures was assessed using leave-one-out cross validation. To account for geographical point clustering of station data and get a more representative cross-validation accuracy, predicted values were aggregated to blocks of land of size 500×500 km. Results show that the average accuracy for predicting mean, maximum, and minimum daily temperatures is root-mean-square error (RMSE) =±2°C for areas densely covered with stations and between ±2°C and ±4°C for areas with lower station density. The lowest prediction accuracy was observed at high altitudes (>1000 m) and in Antarctica with an RMSE around 6°C. The model and predictions were built for the year 2011 only, but the same methodology could be extended for the whole range of the MODIS land surface temperature images (2001 to today), i.e., to produce global archives of daily temperatures (a next-generation http://WorldClim.org repository) and to feed various global environmental models.

  16. Reducing Noise in the MSU Daily Lower-Tropospheric Global Temperature Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, John R.; Spencer, Roy W.; McNider, Richard T.

    1996-01-01

    The daily global-mean values of the lower-tropospheric temperature determined from microwave emissions measured by satellites are examined in terms of their signal, noise, and signal-to-noise ratio. Daily and 30-day average noise estimates are reduced by almost 50% and 35%. respectively, by analyzing and adjusting (if necessary) for errors due to 1) missing data, 2) residual harmonics of the annual cycle unique to particular satellites, 3) lack of filtering, and 4) spurious trends. After adjustments, the decadal trend of the lower-tropospheric global temperature from January 1979 through February 1994 becomes -0.058 C. or about 0.03 C per decade cooler than previously calculated.

  17. Reducing Noise in the MSU Daily Lower-Tropospheric Global Temperature Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, John R.; Spencer, Roy W.; McNider, Richard T.

    1995-01-01

    The daily global-mean values of the lower-tropospheric temperature determined from microwave emissions measured by satellites are examined in terms of their signal, noise, and signal-to-noise ratio. Daily and 30-day average noise estimates are reduced by, almost 50% and 35%, respectively, by analyzing and adjusting (if necessary) for errors due to (1) missing data, (2) residual harmonics of the annual cycle unique to particular satellites, (3) lack of filtering, and (4) spurious trends. After adjustments, the decadal trend of the lower-tropospheric global temperature from January 1979 through February 1994 becomes -0.058 C, or about 0.03 C per decade cooler than previously calculated.

  18. Global reconstructed daily storm surge levels from the 20th century reanalysis (1871-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cid, Alba; Camus, Paula; Castanedo, Sonia; Mendez, Fernando; Medina, Raul

    2015-04-01

    The study of global patterns of wind and pressure gradients, and more specifically, their effect on the sea level variation (storm surge), is a key issue in the understanding of recent climate changes. The local effect of storm surges on coastal areas (zones particularly vulnerable to climate variability and changes in sea level), is also of great interest in, for instance, flooding risk assessment. Studying the spatial and temporal variability of storm surges from observations is a difficult task to accomplish since observations are not homogeneous in time and scarce in space, and moreover, their temporal coverage is limited. The development of a global storm surge database (DAC, Dynamic Atmospheric Correction by Aviso, Carrère and Lyard, 2003) fulfils the lack of data in terms of spatial coverage, but not regarding time extent since it only includes last couple of decades (1992-2014). In this work, we propose the use of the 20CR ensemble (Compo et al., 2011) which spans from 1871 to 2010 to statistically reconstruct storm surge at a global scale and for a long period of time. Therefore, the temporal and spatial variability of storm surges can be fully studied and with much less effort than performing a dynamical downscaling. The statistical method chosen to carry out the reconstruction is based on multiple linear regression between an atmospheric predictor and the storm surge level at daily scale (Camus et al., 2014). The linear regression model is calibrated and validated using daily mean sea level pressure fields (and gradients) from the ERA-interim reanalysis and daily maxima surges from DAC. The obtained daily database of maximum daily surges has allowed us to estimate global trends at a centennial scale and analyse the effect of the changing climate on storm surges during the 20th century. Hence, this work improves the knowledge on historical storm-surge conditions and provides helpful information to the community concern on marine climate evolution and coastal impacts. Camus, P., Méndez, F.J., Losada, I.J., Menéndez, M., Espejo, A., Pérez, A., Rueda, A., Guanche, Y. (2014). A method for finding the optimal predictor indices for local wave climate conditions. Ocean Dynamics, 64 (7), 1025-1038, doi: 10.1007/s10236-014-0737-2. Carrère, L., Lyard, F. (2003). Modeling the barotropic response of the global ocean atmospheric wind and pressure forcing - comparisons with observations. Geophysical Research Letters, 30 (6), 1275. Compo, G. P., et al. (2011). The Twentieth century reanalysis project, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 137, 1-28, doi:10.1002/qj.776.

  19. Prediction of global solar irradiance based on time series analysis: Application to solar thermal power plants energy production planning

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Luis; Marchante, Ruth; Cony, Marco [Investigaciones y Recursos Solares Avanzados (IrSOLaV), Tres Cantos 2 8045 (Spain); Zarzalejo, Luis F.; Polo, Jesus; Navarro, Ana [Energy Department, CIEMAT, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    Due to strong increase of solar power generation, the predictions of incoming solar energy are acquiring more importance. Photovoltaic and solar thermal are the main sources of electricity generation from solar energy. In the case of solar thermal energy plants with storage energy system, its management and operation need reliable predictions of solar irradiance with the same temporal resolution as the temporal capacity of the back-up system. These plants can work like a conventional power plant and compete in the energy stock market avoiding intermittence in electricity production. This work presents a comparisons of statistical models based on time series applied to predict half daily values of global solar irradiance with a temporal horizon of 3 days. Half daily values consist of accumulated hourly global solar irradiance from solar raise to solar noon and from noon until dawn for each day. The dataset of ground solar radiation used belongs to stations of Spanish National Weather Service (AEMet). The models tested are autoregressive, neural networks and fuzzy logic models. Due to the fact that half daily solar irradiance time series is non-stationary, it has been necessary to transform it to two new stationary variables (clearness index and lost component) which are used as input of the predictive models. Improvement in terms of RMSD of the models essayed is compared against the model based on persistence. The validation process shows that all models essayed improve persistence. The best approach to forecast half daily values of solar irradiance is neural network models with lost component as input, except Lerida station where models based on clearness index have less uncertainty because this magnitude has a linear behaviour and it is easier to simulate by models. (author)

  20. Validation and Development of the GPCP Experimental One-Degree Daily (1DD) Global Precipitation Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Bolvin, David T.; Einaud, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The One-Degree Daily (1DD) precipitation dataset has been developed for the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and is currently in beta test preparatory to release as an official GPCP product. The 1DD provides a globally-complete, observation-only estimate of precipitation on a daily 1 deg. x 1 deg. grid for the period 1997 through early 2000 (by the time of the conference). In the latitude band 40N-40S the 1DD uses the Threshold-Matched Precipitation Index (TMPI), a GPI-like IR product with the pixel-level T(sub b) threshold and (single) conditional rain rate determined locally for each month by the frequency of precipitation in the GPROF SSM/I product and by, the precipitation amount in the GPCP monthly satellite-gauge (SG) combination. Outside 40N-40S the 1DD uses a scaled TOVS precipitation estimate that has month-by-month adjustments based on the TMPI and the SG. Early validation results are encouraging. The 1DD shows relatively large scatter about the daily validation values in individual grid boxes, as expected for a technique that depends on cloud-sensing schemes such as the TMPI and TOVS. On the other hand, the time series of 1DD shows good correlation with validation in individual boxes. For example, the 1997-1998 time series of 1DD and Oklahoma Mesonet values in a grid box in northeastern Oklahoma have the correlation coefficient = 0.73. Looking more carefully at these two time series, the number of raining days for the 1DD is within 7% of the Mesonet value, while the distribution of daily rain values is very similar. Other tests indicate that area- or time-averaging improve the error characteristics, making the data set highly attractive to users interested in stream flow, short-term regional climatology, and model comparisons. The second generation of the 1DD product is currently under development; it is designed to directly incorporate TRMM and other high-quality precipitation estimates. These data are generally sparse because they are observed by low-orbit satellites, so a fair amount of work must be devoted to analyzing the effect of data boundaries. This work is laying, the groundwork for effective use of the NASA Global Precipitation Mission, which will have full Global coverage by low-orbit passive microwave satellites every three hours.

  1. The potential of different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques in daily global solar radiation modeling based on meteorological data

    SciTech Connect

    Behrang, M.A.; Assareh, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University, Dezful Branch (Iran); Ghanbarzadeh, A.; Noghrehabadi, A.R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz (Iran)

    2010-08-15

    The main objective of present study is to predict daily global solar radiation (GSR) on a horizontal surface, based on meteorological variables, using different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques. Daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation, and wind speed values between 2002 and 2006 for Dezful city in Iran (32 16'N, 48 25'E), are used in this study. In order to consider the effect of each meteorological variable on daily GSR prediction, six following combinations of input variables are considered: (I)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature and relative humidity as inputs and daily GSR as output. (II)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature and sunshine hours as inputs and daily GSR as output. (III)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity and sunshine hours as inputs and daily GSR as output. (IV)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and evaporation as inputs and daily GSR as output. (V)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and wind speed as inputs and daily GSR as output. (VI)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation and wind speed as inputs and daily GSR as output. Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) neural networks are applied for daily GSR modeling based on six proposed combinations. The measured data between 2002 and 2005 are used to train the neural networks while the data for 214 days from 2006 are used as testing data. The comparison of obtained results from ANNs and different conventional GSR prediction (CGSRP) models shows very good improvements (i.e. the predicted values of best ANN model (MLP-V) has a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) about 5.21% versus 10.02% for best CGSRP model (CGSRP 5)). (author)

  2. OPTIMAL NORMAL TISSUE SPARING in Craniospinal Axis Irradiation Using IMRT with Daily Intrafractionally Modulated Junction(s)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes M. A. M. Kusters; Rob J. W. Louwe; Peter G. M. van Kollenburg; Martina C. Kunze-Busch; Corrie E. M. Gidding; Erik J. van Lindert; Johannes H. A. M. Kaanders; Geert O. R. J. Janssens

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop a treatment technique for craniospinal irradiation using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with improved dose homogeneity at the field junction(s), increased target volume conformity, and minimized dose to the organs at risk (OARs). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Five patients with high-risk medulloblastoma underwent CT simulation in supine position. For each patient, an IMRT plan with daily intrafractionally modulated junction(s) was

  3. Global daily precipitation analysis for the validation of medium-range climate predictions (DAPACLIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietzsch, Felix; Andersson, Axel; Schröder, Marc; Ziese, Markus; Becker, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The Federal Ministry of Education and Research in Germany funds the research programme "Mittelfristige Klimaprognosen" (MiKlip) with the aim to create a model system that can provide reliable forecasts on climate and weather, including extreme weather events. It is of central importance for the development process of the Miklip system to validate the decadal prediction system based upon data and processes during the development stages. An essential part of the evaluation procedure will be the application of satellite derived datasets to assess the aspired model system with respect to atmospheric water cycle components including precipitation, clouds and related changes in the radiation budget. Within the MiKlip DAPACLIP project new precipitation products suitable for the evaluation of the MiKlip prediction system were developed in close contact with the modelling community. These new datasets are used to evaluate precipitation from global and regional decadal MiKlip hindcasts on a daily time scale, including the statistical analysis of extreme precipitation events. The DAPACLIP dataset covers the time period from 1988 to 2008. It is available in 1° and 2.5° resolution for global coverage as well as in 0.5° resolution for the European domain. The dataset consists of a combination of an in-situ based precipitation analysis of the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) and a new version of the satellite-derived Hamburg Ocean Atmospheric Parameters and fluxes from Satellite Data (HOAPS) precipitation analysis over ocean surfaces. Verification results from comparisons between the DAPACLIP dataset and different precipitation products and datasets over land and ocean will be shown. Here, APHRODITE, PACRAIN and TRMM 3B42 daily have been used as verification datasets. Furthermore we provide first results from the evaluation of MiKlip Decadal Prediction System historical runs and hindcasts. The evaluation focuses on precipitation intensity and frequency, e.g. in terms of drought and wet spells as well as the statistical distribution of precipitation events.

  4. Sub-daily resolution of earth rotation variations with Global Positioning System measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.; Marcus, Steven L.; Dickey, Jean O.

    1992-01-01

    Data from a worldwide Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking experiment have been used to determine variations in earth rotation (UT1-UTC) over a time period of three weeks. Kalman filtering and smoothing enabled changes in UT1-UTC over intervals of 2 to 24 hrs to be detected with the GPS data. Internal consistency checks and comparisons with other solutions from very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and satellite laser ranging (SLR) indicate that the GPS UT1-UTC estimates are accurate to about 2 cm. Comparison of GPS-estimated variations in UT1-UTC with 2-hr time resolution over 4 days with predicted variations computed from diurnal and semidiurnal oceanic tidal contributions strongly suggests that the observed periodic sub-daily variations of about 0.1 msec are largely of tidal origin.

  5. Global spectral irradiance variability and material discrimination at Boulder, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhihong; Healey, Glenn; Slater, David

    2003-03-01

    We analyze 7,258 global spectral irradiance functions over 0.4-2.2 microm that were acquired over a wide range of conditions at Boulder, Colorado, during the summer of 1997. We show that low-dimensional linear models can be used to capture the variability in these spectra over both the visible and the 0.4-2.2 microm spectral ranges. Using a linear model, we compare the Boulder data with the previous study of Judd et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1031 (1964)] over the visible wavelengths. We also examine the agreement of the Boulder data with a spectral database generated by using the MODTRAN 4.0 radiative transfer code. We use a database of 223 minerals to consider the effect of the spectral variability in the global spectral irradiance functions on hyperspectral material identification. We show that the 223 minerals can be discriminated accurately over the variability in the Boulder data with subspace projection techniques. PMID:12630837

  6. Estimating daily global solar radiation during the growing season in Northeast China using the Ångström-Prescott model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhengfang; Du, Haibo; Zhao, Dongsheng; Li, Ming; Meng, Xiangjun; Zong, Shengwei

    2012-05-01

    Daily global solar radiation is an important input required in most crop models. In the present study, a sunshine-based model, the Ångström-Prescott model, is employed to estimate daily global solar radiation on a horizontal surface during the growing season in Northeast China. Data from six control groups are used. The controls include the entire sequence, precipitation days, and non-precipitation days both during the growing season and year-round. Estimations are validated by comparing the calculated values with the corresponding measured values. The results indicate that estimating daily global solar radiation during the growing season using data only from the growing season is better than using year-round data. Classifying days with respect to precipitation and non-precipitation is also unnecessary. The performance on estimating daily global solar radiation during the growing season using the entire data in growing season performs best. A sunshine-based equation is obtained using our method to estimate growing season daily radiation for all meteorological stations in Northeast China. The approved approach is expected to be beneficial to crop models and other agricultural purposes.

  7. Effect of Estimated Daily Global Solar Radiation Data on the Results of Crop Growth Models

    PubMed Central

    Trnka, Miroslav; Eitzinger, Josef; Kapler, Pavel; Dubrovský, Martin; Semerádová, Daniela; Žalud, Zden ?k; Formayer, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    The results of previous studies have suggested that estimated daily global radiation (RG) values contain an error that could compromise the precision of subsequent crop model applications. The following study presents a detailed site and spatial analysis of the RG error propagation in CERES and WOFOST crop growth models in Central European climate conditions. The research was conducted i) at the eight individual sites in Austria and the Czech Republic where measured daily RG values were available as a reference, with seven methods for RG estimation being tested, and ii) for the agricultural areas of the Czech Republic using daily data from 52 weather stations, with five RG estimation methods. In the latter case the RG values estimated from the hours of sunshine using the Ångström-Prescott formula were used as the standard method because of the lack of measured RG data. At the site level we found that even the use of methods based on hours of sunshine, which showed the lowest bias in RG estimates, led to a significant distortion of the key crop model outputs. When the Ångström-Prescott method was used to estimate RG, for example, deviations greater than ±10 per cent in winter wheat and spring barley yields were noted in 5 to 6 per cent of cases. The precision of the yield estimates and other crop model outputs was lower when RG estimates based on the diurnal temperature range and cloud cover were used (mean bias error 2.0 to 4.1 per cent). The methods for estimating RG from the diurnal temperature range produced a wheat yield bias of more than 25 per cent in 12 to 16 per cent of the seasons. Such uncertainty in the crop model outputs makes the reliability of any seasonal yield forecasts or climate change impact assessments questionable if they are based on this type of data. The spatial assessment of the RG data uncertainty propagation over the winter wheat yields also revealed significant differences within the study area. We found that RG estimates based on diurnal temperature range or its combination with daily total precipitation produced a bias of to 30 per cent in the mean winter wheat grain yields in some regions compared with simulations in which RG values had been estimated using the Ångström-Prescott formula. In contrast to the results at the individual sites, the methods based on the diurnal temperature range in combination with daily precipitation totals showed significantly poorer performance than the methods based on the diurnal temperature range only. This was due to the marked increase in the bias in RG estimates with altitude, longitude or latitude of given region. These findings in our view should act as an incentive for further research to develop more precise and generally applicable methods for estimating daily RG based more on the underlying physical principles and/or the remote sensing approach.

  8. The calculated influence of atmospheric conditions on solar cell ISC under direct and global solar irradiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Calculations of the influence of atmospheric conditions on solar cell short-circuit current (Isc) are made using a recently developed computer model for solar spectral irradiance distribution. The results isolate the dependence of Isc on changes in the spectral irradiance distribution without the direct influence of the total irradiance level. The calculated direct normal irradiance and percent diffuse irradiance are given as a reference to indicate the expected irradiance levels. This method can be applied to the calibration of photovoltaic reference cells. Graphic examples are provided for amorphous silicon and monocrystalline silicon solar cells under direct normal and global normal solar irradiances.

  9. The calculated influence of atmospheric conditions on solar cell ISC under direct and global solar irradiances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Robert L.

    Calculations of the influence of atmospheric conditions on solar cell short-circuit current (Isc) are made using a recently developed computer model for solar spectral irradiance distribution. The results isolate the dependence of Isc on changes in the spectral irradiance distribution without the direct influence of the total irradiance level. The calculated direct normal irradiance and percent diffuse irradiance are given as a reference to indicate the expected irradiance levels. This method can be applied to the calibration of photovoltaic reference cells. Graphic examples are provided for amorphous silicon and monocrystalline silicon solar cells under direct normal and global normal solar irradiances.

  10. Homogenization of Daily Global Radiosonde Humidity Data: Vaisala RS92 Bias Correction and Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Zhang, L.; Dai, A.; Immler, F.; Sommer, M.; Vömel, H.

    2012-04-01

    A new statistical approach has been developed to homogenize historical records of daily tropospheric dew point depression (DPD) from radiosonde data (Dai et al. 2011). The adjusted-daily DPD using this approach shows no apparent discontinuities and has much smaller and spatially more coherent trends during 1973-2011 than the raw data. One of improvements can be made to the approach with quantitative bias information for specific sonde types. Such information will enable us to identify a segment with the most realistic DPD distribution, remove any biases in the DPD data over this segment, and then use it as the reference segment for the quantile based adjustment for each station. Vaisala RS92 radiosonde is the most widely used radiosonde type in the current global network (~30% of the stations), and its data are used as the reference segment for homogenization. One of the most significant biases in RS92 data is its daytime solar radiation dry bias (SRDB) due to the heating of the sensor boom. This study focuses on developing and validating an algorithm (referred as NCAR Radiation Bias Correction, NRBC) to correct the SRDB, which is applicable to operational radiosonde data archive. The method is based on a more complicated approach developed by the GCOS Reference Upper Air Network (GRUAN) community. The NRBC to RHs is a function of measured RH, temperature and solar radiation correction of the temperature sensor. The latter varies with pressure, season and the time of the day. The RH correction has a mean magnitude of ~2-4% in the lower and middle troposphere and increase to 6-8% in the upper troposphere. The uncertainty of the NRBC is also estimated and is within 2% with maximum values in the upper troposphere. The NRBC algorithm is evaluated by comparing with the ground-based GPS estimated precipitable water (PW). The NRBC leads to reduced biases in PW comparing with the GPS data and better agreements with GPS on PW diurnal cycle in phase, magnitude and its seasonal variations. The NRBC is applied to the radiosonde data from 1960 to 2010 at 65 stations. The raw DPD data with and without NRBC are homogenized using the methods in Dai et al. (2011). The NRBC results in consistently smaller DPD values throughout the time record in the homogenized data with NRBC than that without corrections, which would have potential impact on global reanalysis products when the homogenized daily data are assimilated into the reanalysis models. However, it has insignificant effects on the long-term trends. Dai, A., J. Wang, P.W. Thorne, D.E. Parker, L. Haimberger, and X.L. Wang, 2011: A new approach to homogenize daily radiosonde humidity data. J. Climate, 24, 965-991.

  11. Mapping daily evapotranspiration at field to global scales using geostationary and polar orbiting satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. C.; Kustas, W. P.; Norman, J. M.; Hain, C. R.; Mecikalski, J. R.; Schultz, L.; González-Dugo, M. P.; Cammalleri, C.; D'Urso, G.; Pimstein, A.; Gao, F.

    2010-08-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing of land-surface temperature (LST) provides valuable information about the sub-surface moisture status required for estimating evapotranspiration (ET) and detecting the onset and severity of drought. While empirical indices measuring anomalies in LST and vegetation amount (e.g., as quantified by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI) have demonstrated utility in monitoring ET and drought conditions over large areas, they may provide ambiguous results when other factors (soil moisture, advection, air temperature) are affecting plant stress. A more physically based interpretation of LST and NDVI and their relationship to sub-surface moisture conditions can be obtained with a surface energy balance model driven by TIR remote sensing. The Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model is a multi-sensor TIR approach to ET mapping, coupling a two-source (soil+canopy) land-surface model with an atmospheric boundary layer model in time-differencing mode to routinely and robustly map daily fluxes at continental scales and 5-10 km resolution using thermal band imagery and insolation estimates from geostationary satellites. A related algorithm (DisALEXI), spatially disaggregates ALEXI fluxes down to finer spatial scales using moderate resolution TIR imagery from polar orbiting satellites. An overview of this modeling approach is presented, along with strategies for fusing information from multiple satellite platforms and wavebands to map daily ET down to resolutions of 30 m. The ALEXI/DisALEXI model has potential for global applications by integrating data from multiple geostationary meteorological satellite systems, such as the US Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites, the European Meteosat satellites, the Chinese Fen-yung 2B series, and the Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellites. Work is underway to further evaluate multi-scale ALEXI implementations over the US, Europe and, Africa and other continents with geostationary satellite coverage.

  12. SYNOPTIC GLOBAL REMOTE SENSING OF LAND SURFACE VEGETATION: OVERVIEW OF DAILY DATA QUALITY, CHALLENGES, AND OPPORTUNITIES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreto-Munoz, A.; Didan, K.

    2009-12-01

    Continuous acquisition of global satellite imagery over the years has contributed to the creation of a long data record from AVHRR, MODIS, TM, SPOT VGT, and other sensors. These records account now for 30+ years, and as the archive grows, it becomes an invaluable source of data for many environmental related studies dealing with trends and changes from local to global scale. Synoptic global remote sensing provides a multitude of land surface state variables and serves as a major foundation for global change research. However, these records are inhibited with problems that need to be accounted for in order to understand the limits and improve the science results derived from these records. The presence of clouds, aerosols, spatial gaps, variable viewing geometry, inconsistent atmosphere corrections, multiple reprocessing, and different sensors characteristics, makes it difficult to obtain frequently high quality data everywhere and every time. Moreover, these issues are location and season dependent making it even more difficult to construct the consistent time series required to study change over time. To evaluate these records, we analyzed 30+ years (1981 to 1999 and 2000 to 2009) of daily global land surface measurements (CMG resolution) from AVHRR (N07, N09, N11 and N14) and MODIS (AQUA and TERRA, Collection 5, C5). We stratified the data based on land cover, latitudinal zone, and season and we examined the daily data quality, including cloud persistence, aerosol loads, data gaps, and an index of reliability that measures how likely an observation is acceptable for research. The aim was to generate aggregate maps of cloud distribution, aerosol levels distribution, and data reliability distribution in both time and space. This information was then converted into an uncertainty measure at the pixel level that indicates how suspect or significant a result could potentially be, depending on its location and season and consequently what geographic locations and times of year require additional post-processing to reduce the uncertainty of the results. Establishing the overall data quality should be the first step for a meaningful, accurate and successful change analysis. In general we observe that due to the sun angle and persistent snow and cloud cover that obscures the land surface, high latitude regions tend to have the poorest data quality throughout the year. Similarly, the tropics with their almost perpetual cloud cover and extensive thick aerosols during the burn season show a high percentage of poor data during most of the year. These two major biomes, rainforest and boreal forest, that are subject to intense anthropogenic and climate change pressure are the most challenging to study. New data processing and analysis techniques are then needed to lessen the impact of these problems, fill the spatial and temporal gaps in order to reduce the uncertainty of these results.

  13. Diffuse-to-global irradiance ratios extracted from MODIS aerosol product for paddy-rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A Yasinan; A Asmat

    2010-01-01

    The amount of radiation reaching the surface decreasing by the existence of atmospheric aerosols, hence increase the fraction of radiation by diffuse mechanism. The rate of photosynthesis in plants is significantly influenced by the amount and type of irradiance incident on the plants. The increasing of the ratio of diffuse irradiance to global irradiance can accelerate photosynthesis, thereby will increase

  14. Global horizontal irradiance clear sky models : implementation and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Hansen, Clifford W.; Reno, Matthew J.

    2012-03-01

    Clear sky models estimate the terrestrial solar radiation under a cloudless sky as a function of the solar elevation angle, site altitude, aerosol concentration, water vapor, and various atmospheric conditions. This report provides an overview of a number of global horizontal irradiance (GHI) clear sky models from very simple to complex. Validation of clear-sky models requires comparison of model results to measured irradiance during clear-sky periods. To facilitate validation, we present a new algorithm for automatically identifying clear-sky periods in a time series of GHI measurements. We evaluate the performance of selected clear-sky models using measured data from 30 different sites, totaling about 300 site-years of data. We analyze the variation of these errors across time and location. In terms of error averaged over all locations and times, we found that complex models that correctly account for all the atmospheric parameters are slightly more accurate than other models, but, primarily at low elevations, comparable accuracy can be obtained from some simpler models. However, simpler models often exhibit errors that vary with time of day and season, whereas the errors for complex models vary less over time.

  15. Assessment and management of interfractional variations in daily diagnostic-quality-CT guided prostate-bed irradiation after prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Feng; Ahunbay, Ergun; Lawton, Colleen; Allen Li, X., E-mail: ali@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To quantify interfractional anatomic variations and limitations of the current practice of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for prostate-bed patients and to study dosimetric benefits of an online adaptive replanning scheme that addresses the interfractional variations. Methods: Contours for the targets and organs at risk (OARs) from daily diagnostic-quality CTs acquired with in-room CT (CTVision, Siemens) were generated by populating the planning contours using an autosegmentation tool based on deformable registration (ABAS, Elekta) with manual editing for ten prostate-bed patients treated with postoperative daily CT-guided IMRT. Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) obtained by maximizing the overlap of contours for a structure between the daily and plan contours was used to quantify the organ deformation between the plan and daily CTs. Three interfractional-variation-correction schemes, the current standard practice of IGRT repositioning, a previously developed online adaptive RT (ART), and the full reoptimization, were applied to these daily CTs and a number of dose-volume quantities for the targets and organs at risk were compared for their effectiveness to account for the interfractional variations. Results: Large interfractional organ deformations in prostate-bed irradiation were seen. The mean DSCs for CTV, rectum, and bladder were 86.6 ± 5.1% (range from 61% to 97%), 77.3% ± 7.4% (range from 55% to 90%), and 75.4% ± 11.2% (range from 46% to 96%), respectively. The fractional and cumulative dose-volume quantities for CTV and PTV: V100 (volume received at least 100% prescription dose), and rectum and bladder: V{sub 45Gy} and V{sub 60Gy} (volume received at least 45 or 60 Gy), were compared for the repositioning, adaptive, reoptimization, and original plans. The fractional and cumulative dosimetric results were nearly the same. The average cumulative CTV V100 were 88.0%, 98.4%, 99.2%, and 99.3% for the IGRT, ART, reoptimization, and original plans, respectively. The corresponding rectal V{sub 45Gy} (V{sub 60Gy}) were 58.7% (27.3%), 48.1% (20.7%), 43.8% (16.1%), and 44.9% (16.8%). The results for bladder were comparable among three schemes. Paired two-tailed Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were performed and it was found that ART and reoptimization provide better target coverage and better OAR sparing, especially rectum sparing. Conclusions: The interfractional organ motions and deformations during prostate-bed irradiation are significant. The online adaptive replanning scheme is capable of effectively addressing the large organ deformation, resulting in cumulative doses equivalent to those originally planned.

  16. Reconstruction of six decades of daily total solar shortwave irradiation in the Iberian Peninsula using sunshine duration records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Román, Roberto; Bilbao, Julia; de Miguel, Argimiro

    2014-12-01

    Total global solar shortwave (G) irradiation and sunshine duration were recorded at nine Spanish stations located in the Iberian Peninsula. G irradiation under cloudless conditions was simulated by means of a radiative transfer model using satellite data as input. A method based on these cloudless simulations and sunshine duration records was developed to reconstruct G series. This model was validated against experimental data, providing a good agreement for cloudless skies (mean bias error of 0.4% and root mean square error of 5.8%). Monthly averages of modelled and measured G irradiation presented a mean bias error of 0.5% and a root mean square error of 3%. Differences between modelled and measured G irradiation were in agreement within the model uncertainties. The reconstruction model was applied to sunshine duration measurements, giving long-term G series at the nine locations. Monthly, seasonal, and annual G anomalies were calculated and analysed. Averaged series (using the nine locations) showed a statistically significant decrease in annual G from 1950 to the mid 1980s (-1.7%dc-1) together with a significant increase from the mid 1980s to 2011 (1.6%dc-1). The effect of uncertainty in the reconstructed series on statistically significant trends was studied.

  17. Modèle d'estimation de l'irradiation solaire globale d'une surface horizontale au sol à partir des images satellitaires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Mechaqrane; M. Chaoui-Roquaï; J. Buret-Bahraoui

    1993-01-01

    A physical model based on the radiative transfer equation in the earth-atmosphere system was used to estimate hourly and daily global solar irradiance on a horizontal surface from measurements in the Meteosat-2 satellite visible band (0.4-1.1 mum). In this model we only account for the Rayleigh scattering, the ozone and water vapor absorptions. This model was used for two moroccan

  18. Modeling Biases of Mean Air Temperature Averaged from Daily Maximum and Minimum Temperatures over Global Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhijun; Wang, Kaicun

    2015-04-01

    The true monthly mean temperature is defined as the integral of the continuous temperature measurements in a month(Td0), which is apparently different from the average of the maximum and minimum temperatures(Td1). Unfortunately, Td1 instead of Td0 has been widely used as the monthly mean temperature, which is an indicator of climate change and input parameters of various models. It has already been proved in some researches that the bias between Td0 and Td1 (Tbias=Td1-Td0) can not be ignored, in someplace it could even be very large. It is in great urgent to replace Td1 with the true monthly mean temperature Td0 to eliminate the impacts of the inaccurate monthly mean temperature in related researches. However, Td0 cannot be obtained directly for the lack of the historical observed hourly air temperature. In our study, a Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) based method is created firstly by now to calculate Tbias with the predictor of day length, DTR (Diurnal Temperature Range) and Td1. Then the historical Td0 can be obtained further based on the relationship between Td1 and Td0. The method performs very well with a R-square surpassing 0.57, in arid or semi-arid areas the mean R-square exceeding 0.76. The mean relative importance of day length, Td1 and DTR is 52.8%, 26.3% and 20.9%, respectively. The method can accurately reproduce temporal and spatial variability of the bias of mean air temperature calculated from daily maximum and minimum temperatures (Tmax and Tmin). It can be applied globally to model its long term variability, and provide a new approach to Td0.

  19. Artificial Neural Network models for estimating daily solar global UV, PAR and broadband radiant fluxes in an eastern Mediterranean site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacovides, C. P.; Tymvios, F. S.; Boland, J.; Tsitouri, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, simple Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models for estimating daily solar global broadband as well as solar spectral global UV and PAR radiant fluxes have been established. The data used in this analysis are global ultraviolet UV (GUV), global photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD-QP), broadband global radiant flux (Gh), extraterrestrial radiant flux (G0), air temperature (T), relative humidity (rh), sunshine duration (n), theoretical sunshine duration (N), precipitable water (w) and ozone column density (O3). By using different combinations of the above variables as inputs, numerous ANN-models have been developed. For each model, the output is the daily global GUV, QP and Gh solar radiant fluxes. Firstly, a set of 2 × 365 point (2 years) has been used for training each network-model, whereas a set of 365 point (1 year) has been engaged for testing and validating the ANN-models. It has been found that the ANN-models' accuracy depends on the parameters employed as well as spectral range considered. Comparisons between proposed ANN-models and conventional regression models revealed that the results of both methods are statistically significant. On closer examination of many error measures, though, it is clear that the ANN-models perform better overall. From this point of view, it turned out that the neural network technique is better suited further suggesting that the ANN methodology is a promising and a more accurate tool for estimating both broadband and spectral radiant fluxes.

  20. Optimal Normal Tissue Sparing in Craniospinal Axis Irradiation Using IMRT With Daily Intrafractionally Modulated Junction(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Kusters, Johannes M.A.M.; Louwe, Rob J.W.; Kollenburg, Peter G.M. van; Kunze-Busch, Martina C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Gidding, Corrie E.M. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lindert, Erik J. van [Department of Neurosurgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Janssens, Geert O.R.J., E-mail: g.janssens@rther.umcn.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To develop a treatment technique for craniospinal irradiation using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with improved dose homogeneity at the field junction(s), increased target volume conformity, and minimized dose to the organs at risk (OARs). Methods and Materials: Five patients with high-risk medulloblastoma underwent CT simulation in supine position. For each patient, an IMRT plan with daily intrafractionally modulated junction(s) was generated, as well as a treatment plan based on conventional three-dimensional planning (3DCRT). A dose of 39.6 Gy in 22 daily fractions of 1.8 Gy was prescribed. Dose-volume parameters for target volumes and OARs were compared for the two techniques. Results: The maximum dose with IMRT was <107% in all patients. V{sub <95} and V{sub >107} were <1 cm{sup 3} for IMRT compared with 3-9 cm{sup 3} for the craniospinal and 26-43 cm{sup 3} for the spinal-spinal junction with 3DCRT. These observations corresponded with a lower homogeneity index and a higher conformity index for the spinal planning target volume with IMRT. IMRT provided considerable sparing of acute and late reacting tissues. V{sub 75} for the esophagus, gastroesophageal junction, and intestine was 81%, 81%, and 22% with 3DCRT versus 5%, 0%, and 1% with IMRT, respectively. V{sub 75} for the heart and thyroid was 42% and 32% vs. 0% with IMRT. Conclusion: IMRT with daily intrafractionally modulated junction results in a superior target coverage and junction homogeneity compared with 3DCRT. A significant dose reduction can be obtained for acute as well as late-reacting tissues.

  1. Variability of daily winter wind speed distribution over Northern Europe during the past millennium in regional and global climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierstedt, S. E.; Hünicke, B.; Zorita, E.; Wagner, S.; Gómez-Navarro, J. J.

    2015-04-01

    We analyse the variability of the probability distribution of daily wind speed in wintertime over Northern and Central Europe in a series of global and regional climate simulations covering the last centuries, and reanalysis products covering approximately the last 60 years. The focus of the study lies in identifying the link between the variations in the wind speed distribution to the regional near-surface temperature, to the meridional temperature gradient and to the North Atlantic Oscillation. The climate simulations comprise three simulations, each conducted with a global climate model that includes a different version of the atmospheric model ECHAM. Two of these global simulations have been regionalised with the regional climate models MM5 and CCLM. The reanalysis products are the global NCEP/NCAR meteorological reanalysis version 1 and a regional reanalysis conducted with a regional atmospheric model driven at its domain boundaries by the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Our main result is that the link between the daily wind distribution and the regional climate drivers is strongly model dependent. The global models tend to behave similarly, although they show some discrepancies. The two regional models also tend to behave similarly to each other, but surprisingly the results derived from each regional model strongly deviates from the results derived from its driving global model. The links between wind speed and large-scale drivers derived from the reanalysis data sets overall tend to resemble those of the global models. In addition, considering multi-centennial time scales, we find in two global simulations a long term tendency for the probability distribution of daily wind speed to widen through the last centuries. The cause for this widening is likely the effect of the deforestation prescribed in these simulations. We conclude that no clear systematic relationship between the mean temperature, the temperature gradient and/or the North Atlantic Oscillation, with the daily wind speed statistics can be inferred from these simulations. The understanding of past and future changes in the distribution of wind speeds, and thus of wind speed extremes, will require a~detailed analysis of the representation of the interaction between large-scale and small-scale dynamics.

  2. A Global Record of Daily Landscape Freeze-Thaw Status from Satellite Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimball, J. S.; Kim, Y.; Colliander, A.; McDonald, K. C.

    2011-12-01

    The freeze-thaw (FT) parameter from satellite microwave remote sensing quantifies the predominant landscape frozen or thawed state and is closely linked to surface energy budget and hydrologic activity, seasonal vegetation growth dynamics and terrestrial carbon budgets. A global Earth System Data Record (ESDR) of daily landscape FT status (FT-ESDR) was developed using a temporal change classification of 37 GHz brightness temperature (Tb) series from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), and encompassing land areas where seasonal frozen temperatures influence ecosystem processes. A consistent, long-term (>30 yr) FT record was created by ensuring cross-sensor consistency through pixel-wise adjustment of the SMMR Tb record based on empirical analyses of overlapping SMMR and SSM/I measurements. The product is designed to determine the FT status of the composite landscape vegetation-snow-soil medium with sufficient accuracy to characterize frozen temperature constraints to surface water mobility, vegetation productivity and land-atmosphere CO2 fluxes. A multi-tier product validation is applied using in situ temperature and tower carbon flux measurements, and other satellite FT retrievals. The FT-ESDR record shows mean annual spatial classification accuracies of 91 (+/-8.6) and 84 (+/-9.3) percent for PM and AM overpass retrievals relative to surface air temperature measurements from global weather stations. Other comparisons against spatially dense temperature observations from an Alaska ecological transect reveal satellite sensor frequency dependence and variable FT sensitivity to surface air, vegetation, soil and snow properties. Other satellite sensor retrievals, including AMSR-E and SMOS show similar FT classification accuracies, but variable sensitivity to different landscape elements. Sensor FT classification differences reflect differences in microwave frequency, footprint resolution and satellite overpass timing. Herein we discuss FT-ESDR uncertainty issues, including satellite retrieval gaps, and coarse spatial and temporal sampling relative to landscape FT heterogeneity. We discuss plans for analyzing error sources related to FT-ESDR assembly, including uncertainties associated with remote sensing data, algorithms and cross-product harmonization. We also discuss plans for enhanced FT retrievals and uncertainty analyses, including data assimilation methods for merging synergistic data from multiple sensors and frequencies for improved FT classification accuracy and uncertainty assessment. The FT-ESDR documentation will include a detailed algorithm error budget and descriptions of associated product uncertainties, including detailed data quality flags for every grid cell. These activities support the proposed NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, which will provide operational FT products with L-band sensitivity and improved resolution of FT patterns and temporal dynamics. Portions of this work were conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  3. Evaluation of an innovative sensor for measuring global and diffuse irradiance, and sunshine duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muneer, Tariq; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wood, John

    2002-03-01

    Delta-T Device Limited of Cambridge, UK have developed an integrated device which enables simultaneous measurement of horizontal global and diffuse irradiance as well as sunshine status at any given instance in time. To evaluate the performance of this new device, horizontal global and diffuse irradiance data were simultaneously collected from Delta-T device and Napier University's CIE First Class daylight monitoring station. To enable a cross check a Kipp & Zonen CM11 global irradiance sensor has also been installed in Currie, south-west Edinburgh. Sunshine duration data have been recorded at the Royal Botanical Garden, Edinburgh using their Campbell-Stokes recorder. Hourly data sets were analysed and plotted within the Microsoft Excel environment. Using the common statistical measures, Root Mean Square Difference (RMSD) and Mean Bias Difference (MBD) the accuracy of measurements of Delta-T sensor's horizontal global and diffuse irradiance, and sunshine duration were investigated. The results show a good performance on the part of Delta-T device for the measurement of global and diffuse irradiance. The sunshine measurements were found to have a lack of consistency and accuracy. It is argued herein that the distance between the respective sensors and the poor accuracy of Campbell-Stokes recorder may be contributing factors to this phenomenon.

  4. Validation of models for global irradiance on inclined planes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Feuremann; A. Zemel

    1992-01-01

    The accuracy of models to estimate irradiance on inclined planes is tested by comparing the predictions to measurements taken with four instruments of various tilt and azimuth angles in Sede Boqer, Israel. The three models investigated are: the Perez model, Hay's anisotropic model, and the isotropic model. The Perez model is found to perform significantly better than the other two,

  5. Global surface mass time variations by using a two-step inversion for cumulating daily satellite gravity information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramillien, Guillaume; Frappart, Frappart; Seoane, Lucia

    2015-04-01

    We propose a new method to produce time series of global maps of surface mass variations by progressive integration of daily geopotential variations measured by orbiting satellites. In the case of the GRACE mission (2002 - 2012), these geopotential variations can be determined from very accurate inter-satellite K-Band Range Rate (KBRR) measurements of 5-second daily orbits. In particular, the along-track gravity contribution of hydrology is extracted by removing de-aliasing models for static field, atmosphere, oceans mass variations (including periodical tides), as well as polar movements. Our determination of surface mass sources consists of two successive dependent Kalman filter stages. The first one consists of reducing the satellite-based potential anomalies by adjusting the longest spatial wavelengths (i.e., low-degree spherical harmonics less than 5-6). In the second stage, the residual potential anomalies from the previous stage are used to recover surface mass density changes - in terms of Equivalent-Water Height (EWH) - over a global network of juxtaposed triangular elements. These surface tiles of ~40,000 km x km are imposed to be identical and homogeneously-distributed over the terrestrial sphere, however they can be adapted to the local geometry of the surface mass. Our global approach was tested by inverting simulated hydrology-related geopotential data, and successfully applied to estimate time-varying surface mass densities from real GRACE-based residuals. This strategy of combined Kalman filter-type inversions can also be useful for exploring the possibility of reaching better time and space resolutions for hydrology, that would be hopefully brought by future low altitude geodetic missions.

  6. Estimation of daily global solar radiation as a function of routine meteorological data in Mediterranean areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza, Francisco Javier; Yebra, María Lorenzo

    2015-06-01

    Solar radiation is the main responsible of many processes of the biophysical environment. Temperature changes, snow melt dynamics, carbon sequestration, evaporation from soils, plants, and open water bodies are explained by the amount of radiation received in a surface. Lack of direct observations and insufficient record length limit the ability to use global solar radiation information for resource use management and planning. Based on the general equation of Bristow and Campbell, we propose a modification that allows us to better represent atmospheric transmissivity as a function of routine meteorological variables and improve estimates of global solar radiation in Mediterranean and semi arid areas. The improved Bristow-Campbell model (IBC) is easy to use in any location where measurements of temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity are available, and present a simple solution that can be used as proxy for relative humidity in case that variable is not been measured.

  7. A New Perspective on Recent Global Warming: Asymmetric Trends of Daily Maximum and Minimum Temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip D. Jones; Richard W. Knight; George Kukla; Neil Plummer; Vyacheslav Razuvayev; Kevin P. Gallo; Janette Lindseay; Robert J. Charlson; Thomas C. Peterson

    1993-01-01

    Monthly mean maximum and minimum temperatures for over 50% (10%) of the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere landmass, accounting for 37% of the global landmass, indicate that the rise of the minimum temperature has occurred at a rate three times that of the maximum temperature during the period 1951-90 (0.84°C versus 0.28°C). The decrease of the diurnal temperature range is approximately equal

  8. Daily estimates of the earth's pole position with the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindqwister, Ulf J.; Freedman, Adam P.; Blewitt, Geoffrey

    1992-01-01

    Daily estimates of the earth's pole position have been obtained with measurements from a worldwide network of GPS receivers, obtained during the three week GIG '91 experiment in January-February 1991. For this short-term study, the GPS based polar motion series agrees with the other space based geodetic techniques (Very Long Baseline Interferometry and Satellite Laser Ranging) to about 0.4 mas rms, after the removal of mean biases of order 1-3 mas. The small error in day-to-day variability is not sensitive to the fiducial strategy used, nor are fiducial sites even necessary for monitoring high frequency pole position variability. The small biases indicate that the applied reference frames of the three geodetic techniques are nearly aligned, that the GPS fiducial errors are small, and that systematic errors in GPS are also small (of order 5 ppb). A well determined reference frame is necessary for monitoring the long-term stability of polar motion and for separating it from other long-term signals such as tectonic motion and internal systematic errors.

  9. Simulation Study of Effects of Solar Irradiance and Sea Surface Temperature on Monsoons and Global Circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sud, Y. C.; Walker, G. K.; Mehta, V.; Lau, W. K.-M.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A recent version of the GEOS 2 GCM was used to isolate the roles of the annual cycles of solar irradiation and/or sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) on the simulated circulation and rainfall. Four 4-year long integrations were generated with the GCM. The first integration, called Control Case, used daily-interpolated SSTs from a 30 year monthly SST climatology that was obtained from the analyzed SST-data, while the solar irradiation at the top of the atmosphere was calculated normally at hourly intervals. The next two cases prescribed the SSTs or the incoming solar irradiance at the top of the atmosphere at their annual mean values, respectively while everything else was kept the same as in the Control Case. In this way the influence of the annual cycles of both external forcings was isolated.

  10. VARIABILITY IN GLOBAL AND DIRECT IRRADIATION SERIES GENERATION: SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Fernández-Peruchena, Lourdes Ramirez, Manuel Blanco, Ana Bernardos Dr, Solar Thermal Energy Department The synthetic generation of hourly global horizontal irradiation (GHI) series allows the estimation of solar. Introduction To fulfill present needs in concentrating solar power systems, many design and simulation codes

  11. Solar total irradiance variations and the global sea surface temperature record

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George C. Reid

    1991-01-01

    The record of globally averaged sea surface temperature (SST) over the past 130 years shows a highly significant correlation with the envelope of the 11-year cycle of solar activity over the same period. This correlation could be explained by a variation in the sun's total irradiance (the solar constant) that is in phase with the solar-cycle envelope, supporting and updating

  12. Sub-daily periodicities in the results of local monitoring using global navigation satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaftan, Vladimir; Ustinov, Alexander

    Nowadays the more attention is focused on the continuous monitoring by using of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) in the study and control of stability of engineering structures and natural objects. The diurnal and semi-diurnal oscillations take place in high frequency GNSS observation. These waves are caused by the presence of the high frequency periodicities in changes of all geospheres, but also in systematic errors of GNSS techniques. Thus the diurnal variations are already found in the coordinates of global and regional networks of CORS stations. They are often related with the influence of Earth's diurnal tides. The purpose of this study is to examine the periodic variations in coordinate increments of local monitoring networks of engineering structures and the earth's surface. But in this case the tidal changes have a small influence because of the relative proximity of the network control points. Results of static GNSS observations in the local network with the control vectors baselines from 170 m to 4.3 km of length were used for the analysis of periodicities. The hourly time series of baseline components of the length of two months were analyzed. Three qualitatively different methods were applied: wavelet transformation (Morlet wavelet function), fast Fourier transformation (FFT), and sequential analysis of the dominant harmonics (dominant analysis) for the more sure detection of hidden periodicities. The results of determination of oscillation spectrum were obtained by the three methods mentioned above. For all baselines their good mutual agreement were obtained. Diurnal and semi-diurnal waves are mainly and the most vividly appeared in the horizontal components, in the height’s component there are also other periodicity of the high and low frequencies. The oscillation’s amplitude reaches 4 mm. It is necessary to clarify the nature of the observed oscillations, which will be the main subject of the following more detailed studies. It is important, since the cause of the detected periodic oscillations can be the real changes, such as temperature deformation of engineering structures as well as the changes connected with the influence of systematic errors of GNSS measurements for example. The obtained results lead to the following conclusions. - In the results of GNSS geodynamic monitoring of engineering structures and objects on the earth surface the stable oscillatory components with periods of 1 and 0.5 days, and amplitudes up to 4 mm are found. - Further analysis of the reasons of identified oscillations that may be caused by the real change of monitored objects and as well as systematic errors of measurement GNSS is required.

  13. Changes in sub-daily precipitation extremes in a global climate model with super-parameterization under CO2 warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairoutdinov, Marat; Zhou, Xin

    2015-04-01

    Virtually all of the projections for future change of extreme precipitation statistics under CO2 warming have been made using global climate models (GCMs) in which clouds and, in particular, convective cloud systems are not explicitly resolved, but rather parameterized. In our study, a different kind of a GCM, a super-parameterized Community Atmosphere Model (SP-CAM), is employed. In SP-CAM, all the conventional cloud parameterizations are replaced with a small-domain cloud resolving model (CRM), called super-parameterization (SP). The SP is embedded in each grid column of the host GCM. The resolution of each embedded CRM is 4 km, which is generally sufficient to explicitly represent deep convection, which is mostly responsible for extreme precipitation events. In this study, we use the SP-CAM to contrast to the present and to conventional climate model, CAM, the sub-daily extreme precipitation statistics in response to the sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) and CO2 levels as projected for the end of 21st century in response to the IPCC AR5 RCP8.5 emission scenario. Different mechanisms for extreme precipitation changes are discussed.

  14. Two estimation methods for monthly mean hourly total irradiation on tilted surfaces from monthly mean daily horizontal irradiation from solar radiation data of Ajaccio, Corsica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Notton; M. Muselli; A. Louche

    1996-01-01

    The sizing of a photovoltaic or a thermal solar system is generally based on monthly mean values of daily solar radiation on tilted surfaces. Many authors have demonstrated that it will be better to use monthly mean values of hourly radiation, particularly taking into account the Sun's position and to predict long-term performances of solar systems. (Liu and Jordan, 1963;

  15. Model for correcting global solar irradiance measured with rotating shadowband radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Hongyan; Chong, Wei; Sha, Yizhuo; Lv, Wenhua

    2012-04-01

    Global horizontal irradiance (GHI) measured with rotating shadowband radiometer (RSR) is not accurate enough due to thermal sensitivity and nonuniform spectral response of the photovoltaic detector equipped inside. The purpose of this work is to develop a multiple regressive model to correct the errors posed by the temperature and spectrum. The ratio of the reference global horizontal irradiance (RGHI) to the RSR measured GHI is defined as correction factor, based on which, the model is built via device temperature, air mass, and solar zenith angle. Evaluated from various statistical tests such as coefficient of correlation R2, mean bias deviation, root mean square deviation, t-statistic, skewness, and kurtosis, results show that the corrected RSR GHI can be comparable with the high-quality RGHI, which indicates the validity of the model.

  16. Error analysis of global satellite precipitation products using daily gauged observations over the upper central Blue Nile Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahlu, Dejene; Moges, Semu; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Hailu, Dereje

    2015-04-01

    Water resource assessment, planning and management in Africa are often constrained due to lack of reliable spatio-temporal rainfall data. Satellite and global reanalysis products are steadily growing and offering useful alternative datasets of rainfall globally. Aim of this paper is to examine the error characteristics of the main available global satellite precipitation products with the view to improve the reliability of wet season (June to September) rainfall datasets over the upper Blue Nile Basin in Ethiopia. The study utilized six satellite derived precipitation datasets at 0.25-deg spatial grid size and daily temporal resolution:1) the near real-time (3B42_RT) and gauge adjusted (3B42_V7) products of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), 2) gauge adjusted and unadjusted Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN) products and 3) the gauge adjusted and un-adjusted product of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Prediction Center Morphing technique (CMORPH) over the period of 2000 to 2013. The historical daily rainfall data sets are chosen for the same period from 64 gauging stations which are within a mountainous area of about 45,000 km2. The elevation of gauges used in this error study ranged from 1800 to 3000 meters above sea level. The error analysis utilized statistical techniques of missed rainfall volume fraction (MRV), falsely detected rainfall volume fraction (FRV), mean relative error (MRE), bias ratio (Bias), coefficient of variation of error (CVE) and the trends of the error metrics with respect to elevation. The three error metrics, MRE, Bias and CVE are further examined for five rainfall thresholds associated with different percentile categories (2nd, 20th, 50th, 80th and 98th) . Results show that CMORPH has relatively lower MRV (~1.5 %) than the TRMM and PERSIANN products (10 -13 %.). Non-gauge adjusted PERSIANN gave slightly higher percentage of FRV (13%) than the other satellite rainfall products (10 to 11 %). Among the six satellite rainfall products only adjusted PERSIANN overestimated gauge precipitation whereas, adjusted CMORPH exhibited relatively better estimation bias (0.92) followed by 3B42_V7 (0.85), 3B42_RT (0.78), non-adjusted CMORPH (0.77) and adjusted-PERSIANN (0.76). Bias showed increase underestimation with increase in rainfall threshold for all rainfall products. The results from coefficient of variation of error statistics also showed higher spreads of error for adjusted PERSIANN (CVE=2.2). The other five products gave CVE between1.25 and 1.39 whereas, the non-adjusted CMORPH gave the lowest error spread (CVE=1.25). The spread of the errors is negative correlated to rainfall magnitude. Generally, no significant relationship is observed between gauge rainfall elevation and the error metrics. We have observed that among the six satellite rainfall products the adjusted CMORPH has relatively better potential to improve rainfall estimate over the region. However, for higher rainfall amounts, particularly above the 50th percentile threshold non-adjusted PERSIANN performed better than the others.

  17. Splenic irradiation in the treatment of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia or myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia. Results of daily and intermittent fractionation with and without concomitant hydroxyurea

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H. Jr.; McKeough, P.G.; Desforges, J.; Madoc-Jones, H.

    1986-09-15

    Seventeen patients with either chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) or myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MMM) received 24 courses of splenic irradiation at this institution from 1973 to 1982. Eleven of the 17 patients had received prior chemotherapy. Patients were treated with /sup 60/Co gamma rays or 6 MV photons. The fraction size ranged from 15 to 100 rad and the total dose per treatment course from 15 to 650 rad, with the exception of one patient who received 1650 rad. Fourteen of 19 courses (71%) given for splenic pain yielded significant subjective relief while 17 of 26 courses given for splenomegaly obtained at least 50% regression of splenic size. Blood counts were carefully monitored before each treatment to limit hematologic toxicity. From this experience, the authors conclude that splenic irradiation effectively palliates splenic pain and reverses splenomegaly in the majority of patients with CML and MMM. Intermittent fractionation (twice or thrice weekly) is more convenient for the patient, appears to be as effective as daily treatment, and may be associated with less hematologic toxicity. Preliminary results of concurrent treatment with splenic irradiation and oral hydroxyurea show promise and warrant further study.

  18. Quantitative Assessment of the Integrated Response in Global Heat and Moisture Budgets to Changing Solar Irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Warren B.; Cayan, Daniel R.; Dettinger, Michael; Sharber, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Earlier, we found time sequences of basin- and global-average upper ocean temperature (that is, diabatic heat storage above the main pycnocline) for 40 years from 1955-1994 and of sea surface temperature for 95 years from 1900-1994 associated with changes in the Sun's radiative forcing on decadal and interdecadal timescales, lagging by 10 deg.- 30 deg. of phase and confined to the upper 60-120 m. Yet, the observed changes in upper ocean temperature (approx. 0.1 K) were approximately twice those expected from the Stefan-Boltzmann black-body radiation law for the Earth's surface, with phase lags (0 deg. to 30 deg. of phase) much shorter than the 90 deg. phase shift expected as well. Moreover, White et al. (1997, 1998) found the Earth's global decadal mode in covarying SST and SLP anomalies phase locked to the decadal signal in the Sun's irradiance. Yet, Allan (2000) found this decadal signal also characterized by patterns similar to those observed on biennial and interannual time scales; that is, the Troposphere Biennial Oscillation (TBO) and the El Nino and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This suggested that small changes in the Sun's total irradiance could excite this global decadal mode in the Earth's ocean-atmosphere-terrestrial system similar to those excited internally on biennial and interannual period scales. This is a significant finding, proving that energy budget models (that is, models based on globally-averaged radiation balances) yield unrealistic responses. Thus, the true response must include positive and negative feedbacks in the Earth's ocean-atmosphere-terrestrial system as its internal mode (that is, the natural mode of the system) respond in damped resonance to quasi-periodic decadal changes in the Sun's irradiance. Moreover, these responses are not much different from those occurring internally on biennial and interannual period scales.

  19. Improvement of domain wall conduit properties in cobalt nanowires by global gallium irradiation.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Ramón, L; Fernández-Pacheco, A; Córdoba, R; Magén, C; Rodríguez, L A; Petit, D; Cowburn, R P; Ibarra, M R; De Teresa, J M

    2013-08-30

    Applications based on the movement of domain walls (DWs) in magnetic nanowires (NWs) require a good DW conduit behavior, i.e. a significant difference between DW nucleation and propagation fields. In this work, we have systematically studied how this property evolves in cobalt NWs grown by focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) as a function of global gallium irradiation, for irradiation doses up to 1.24 × 10(17) ions cm(-2). Whereas for high doses the DW conduit is lost, below 6.42 × 10(15) ions cm(-2) the difference between the two fields increases with irradiation, becoming up to ?9 times larger than for non-irradiated wires, due to a strong increase in the nucleation field, while the propagation field remains approximately constant. This behavior stems from two effects. The first effect is a decrease in the magnetic volume of the parasitic halo around the NW, typically present in FEBID nanostructures, leading to the disappearance of weak nucleation centers. The second effect is the formation of a 20 nm outer shell with Co crystals about twice the size of those forming the NW core, causing a net increase of the local magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The results presented here are important for the potential use of magnetic NWs grown by FEBID in DW-based devices, and might also be of interest for magnetic NWs fabricated by other techniques. PMID:23899474

  20. Twice-daily fractionation of external irradiation with brachytherapy and chemotherapy in carcinoma of the cervix with positive para-aortic lymph nodes: phase II study of the radiation therapy oncology group 92-10

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Perry W Grigsby; J. D Lu; David G Mutch; Robert Y Kim; Patricia J Eifel

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of twice-daily external irradiation to the pelvis and para-aortics with brachytherapy and concurrent chemotherapy for carcinoma of the cervix with positive para-aortic lymph nodes.Methods and Materials: This study was designed to administer twice-daily radiation doses of 1.2 Gy to the pelvis and para-aortics at 4- to 6-h

  1. Seasonal and geographical variation of Linke turbidity factor and its effect on global horizontal irradiance estimation: UAE case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eissa, Y. A.; Ghedira, H.

    2011-12-01

    In a clear-sky condition, solar radiation travelling through the Earth's atmosphere encounters atmospheric attenuation caused by several factors. Scattering of solar radiation is mainly caused by air molecules, water vapor, water droplets and dust. On the other hand, the absorption of solar radiation is usually related to the presence of O3, water vapor and CO2 layers in the upper atmosphere. Linke turbidity factor (TL) is commonly used to model the attenuation of solar radiation in the atmosphere. TL is the key parameter used in the Heliosat model, which is developed to estimate the global horizontal irradiance (GHI) at the surface of the earth. TL is calculated by the following equation: T_L=?/?_R where ? is the optical thickness of the whole atmosphere, and ?R is the optical thickness of the Rayleigh atmosphere, i.e. the clear and dry atmosphere. The problem with TL is its dependence on the air mass (m). Therefore, TL is normalized to an air mass of 2 in order to reduce the daily variance. In this study, the monthly TL(m=2) is computed over 7 ground-based stations available in the UAE (figure 1). Spatial and temporal analysis was performed to assess the seasonal and the geographical distribution of TL over the UAE. The computed TL(m=2) values are then applied in the Heliosat model to compare between the measured and modeled GHI values. The model treats the atmospheric and cloud transmittances separately. First, clear-sky direct normal irradiance (DNI) and diffused horizontal irradiance (DHI) values are computed using TL(m=2), solar zenith angle, air mass, sun-earth distance correction, solar constant and the Rayleigh optical depth, from that the clear-sky GHI is determined. Next, the cloud index is derived from the HRV channel available from the SEVIRI instrument, and from that the cloud transmission is computed. The product of the cloud transmission and the clear-sky GHI produces the modeled GHI. The comparison between TL calculated over the seven stations show higher turbidity for the 4 inland stations (stations 4-7) in the summer compared to coastal and near-coastal stations (stations 1-3). This difference could be explained by the high dust generation in desert areas surrounding inland stations, in summer dry and hot weather. A preliminary comparison has been performed between the modeled and the measured GHI values over four inland stations (stations 4-7). The obtained results show RMSE and r2 values ranging between 16.7-18% and 0.95-0.96, respectively.

  2. Global and diffuse solar irradiance modelling over north-western Europe using MAR regional climate model : validation and construction of a 30-year climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaumet, Julien; Doutreloup, Sébastien; Fettweis, Xavier; Erpicum, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Solar irradiance modelling is crucial for solar resource management, photovoltaic production forecasting and for a better integration of solar energy in the electrical grid network. For those reasons, an adapted version of the Modèle Atmospheric Regional (MAR) is being developed at the Laboratory of Climatology of the University of Liège in order to provide high quality modelling of solar radiation, wind and temperature over north-western Europe. In this new model version, the radiation scheme has been calibrated using solar irradiance in-situ measurements and CORINE Land Cover data have been assimilated in order to improve the modelling of 10 m wind speed and near-surface temperature. In this study, MAR is forced at its boundary by ERA-40 reanalysis and its horizontal resolution is 10 kilometres. Diffuse radiation is estimated using global radiation from MAR outputs and a calibrated version of Ruiz-Arias et al., (2010) sigmoid model. This study proposes to evaluate the method performance for global and diffuse radiation modelling at both the hourly and daily time scale using data from the European Solar Radiation Atlas database for the weather stations of Uccle (Belgium) and Braunschweig (Germany). After that, a 30-year climatology of global and diffuse irradiance for the 1981-2010 period over western Europe is built. The created data set is then analysed in order to highlight possible regional or seasonal trends. The validity of the results is then evaluated after comparison with trends found in in-situ data or from different studies from the literature.

  3. The diffuse-to-global and diffuse-to-direct-beam spectral irradiance ratios as turbidity indexes in an urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaskaoutis, Dimitris G.; Kambezidis, Harry D.

    2009-02-01

    Continuous measurements of solar spectral radiation using the Multi-filter Rotating Shadow Band Radiometer (MFRSR) are performed at the Actinometric Station of the National Observatory of Athens (ASNOA). The present study utilizes three clear-sky days of continuous observations, from local sunrise to local sunset, in order to investigate the daily variation of the radiation components (diffuse, global and direct-beam) as well as their ratios (diffuse-to-global, DGR, and diffuse-to-direct-beam, DDR) under different atmospheric conditions. Both ratios have received great scientific interest, especially for investigating solar irradiance modifications under various atmospheric conditions, aerosol load and optical properties. Apart from this, the present study shows that the DDR can constitute a measure of atmospheric turbidity when it is determined at longer wavelengths, while the DGR cannot. The effect of the solar zenith angle (SZA) on both ratios is significant at the shorter wavelengths with varying sensitivities depending on the aerosol field and sun elevation. The present study confirms the results obtained by previous solar irradiance measurements in Athens and also those computed via radiative transfer codes and sheds light on the scientific knowledge of the use of spectral DDR as an atmospheric turbidity index.

  4. Total skin electron irradiation treatment for mycosis fungoides with a new alternate daily treatment schedule to minimize radiation-associated toxicity: a preliminary experience.

    PubMed

    Parida, D K; Verma, K K; Rath, G K

    2009-07-01

    Conventional total skin electron irradiation (TSEI) for mycosis fungoides (MF) causes radiation toxicity, requiring treatment interruptions that prolong the treatment period, making patient compliance poor. We evaluated an alternate daily treatment schedule of TSEI, using a high dose rate (HDR) to minimize radiation toxicity and shorten the treatment duration. Four patients (aged 45-73 years with MF duration of 7-22 months) were treated by TSEI using HDR. The treatment was given on 5 days/week for 2 weeks followed by treatment on alternate days to deliver a total dose of 36 Gy. All the patients completed treatment in 10 weeks and had complete remission. Radiation toxicity was much less common with this schedule, requiring no treatment interruption. All the patients were until in remission after 60-84 months of follow-up. This schedule of TSEI treatment caused minimal radiation toxicity and allowed completion of treatment over a shorter period, giving good clinical remission and prolonged disease-free survival. PMID:19508473

  5. Total ozone column, water vapour and aerosol effects on erythemal and global solar irradiance in Marsaxlokk, Malta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilbao, Julia; Román, Roberto; Yousif, Charles; Mateos, David; de Miguel, Argimiro

    2014-12-01

    Observations of erythemal (UVER; 280-400 nm) and total solar shortwave irradiance (SW; 305-2800 nm), total ozone column (TOC), water vapour column (w), aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent (?) were carried out at Marsaxlokk, in south-east Malta. These measurements were recorded during a measurement campaign between May and October 2012, aimed at studying the influence of atmospheric compounds on solar radiation transfer through the atmosphere. The effects of TOC, AOD and w on UVER and SW (global, diffuse and direct) irradiance were quantified using irradiance values under cloud-free conditions at different fixed solar zenith angles (SZA). Results show that UVER (but not SW) irradiance correlates well with TOC. UVER variations ranged between -0.24% DU-1 and -0.32% DU-1 with all changes being statistically significant. Global SW irradiance varies with water vapour column between -2.44% cm-1 and -4.53% cm-1, these results proving statistically significant and diminishing when SZA increases. The irradiance variations range between 42.15% cm-1 and 20.30% cm-1 for diffuse SW when SZA varies between 20° and 70°. The effect of aerosols on global UVER is stronger than on global SW. Aerosols cause a UVER reduction of between 28.12% and 52.41% and a global SW reduction between 13.46% and 41.41% per AOD550 unit. Empirical results show that solar position plays a determinant role, that there is a negligible effect of ozone on SW radiation, and stronger attenuation by aerosol particles in UVER radiation.

  6. Investigation of the effect of contrails on global irradiance and solar energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihs, Philipp; Rennhofer, Marcus; Baumgartner, Dietmar; Wagner, Jochen; Laube, Wolfgang; Gadermaier, Josef

    2013-04-01

    In the present study we investigate the effect of contrails on global shortwave radiation and on Photovoltaic module performance. This investigation is performed using continuous hemispherical fish eye photographs of the sky, diffuse and direct shortwave measurements and short circuit current measurements of a-Si, c-Si and CdTe PV modules. These measurements have been performed at the solar observatory Kanzelhöhe (1540 m.a.s.l) located in the southern part of Austria during a period of one and half year. The time resolution of the measurements is one minute, which allows to accurately follow the formation-eventually the disappearance- or the movement of the contrails in the sky. Using the fish eye photographs we identified clear sky days with a high contrail persistence. We especially look at situations where the contrails were shading the sun. Results show that contrails shading the sun may reduce the global radiation by up to 60%. In general we however observe that during days with a high contrail persistence the diffuse irradiance is slightly increased. Finally a statistic of the contrail persistence during the period of measurement is presented and conclusions as to the relevance for the solar energy production are drawn.

  7. Improvements and Extension to a Global Earth System Data Record of Daily Landscape Freeze-Thaw Status Determined from Satellite Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Kimball, J. S.; Du, J.; Glassy, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    A global satellite microwave Earth System Data Record of daily landscape freeze-thaw status (FT-ESDR) has been commonly used to quantify cold temperature impacts on productivity, phenology, evapotranspiration and the terrestrial carbon cycle. Overlapping 37 GHz, vertically polarized brightness temperature (Tb) measurements from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) were integrated to produce a temporally consistent and continuous global daily FT data record from 1979 to 2012 and derived at 25-km pixel resolution. In this study, we develop and evaluate FT-ESDR enhancements, including expanded record length and spatial coverage, alternate algorithm calibrations, and a finer scale FT classification. A larger global domain is evaluated that encompasses all land areas affected by seasonally frozen temperatures, including urban, snow-ice dominant, barren, and permafrost landscapes. The FT retrieval is obtained using a seasonal threshold algorithm (STA) that classifies daily Tb changes in relation to frozen and non-frozen Tb reference states on a per-pixel basis. STA sensitivity to FT reference states is evaluated and alternative ancillary data are applied for defining Tb reference conditions, including surface temperatures from global reanalysis and MODIS land surface temperature (LST) seasonal climatology. The resulting FT record shows mean annual spatial classification accuracies of 92 and 86 percent for PM and AM overpass retrievals relative to in-situ temperature measurements. Despite the larger domain and longer record, the new FT-ESDR showed a 1-3 percent spatial classification accuracy improvement over previous FT-ESDR versions. Areas with enhanced accuracy include the Central USA, Central Asia, and North and Central Europe. Sub-grid land surface spatial heterogeneity effects on the aggregate FT retrievals are also assessed to refine FT-ESDR data quality metrics. The results of this study are being applied for continuing FT-ESDR production and utility enhancements, and to inform development of similar FT algorithms and products from the NASA SMAP mission. This study was funded under the NASA MEaSUREs program.

  8. Could the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance be blamed for the global warming? A new effect may exist

    E-print Network

    Chen, Jilong; Zhao, Juan; Zheng, Yujun

    2014-01-01

    Whether natural factors could interpret the rise of the Earth's surface temperature is still controversial. Though numerous recent researches have reported apparent correlations between solar activity and the Earth's climate, solar activity has encountered a big problem when describing the rapid global warming after 1970s. Our investigation shows the good positive correlations between the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance (280-400 nm) and the Earth's surface temperature both in temporal and spatial variations by analyzing the global surface Ultraviolet irradiance (280-400 nm) and global surface temperature data from 1980-1999. The rise of CO$_2$ cannot interpret the good positive correlations, and we could even get an opposite result to the good correlations when employing the rise of CO$_2$ to describe the relation between them. Based on the good positive correlations, we suggest a new effect, named "Highly Excited Water Vapor" (HEWV) effect, which can interpret how the Sun influences the Earth's surfac...

  9. External Beam Accelerated Partial-Breast Irradiation Using 32 Gy in 8 Twice-Daily Fractions: 5-Year Results of a Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Pashtan, Itai M. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Recht, Abram [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ancukiewicz, Marek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Brachtel, Elena [Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Abi-Raad, Rita F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); D'Alessandro, Helen A. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Levy, Antonin; Wo, Jennifer Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hirsch, Ariel E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kachnic, Lisa A. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Goldberg, Saveli [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Specht, Michelle; Gadd, Michelle; Smith, Barbara L. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Powell, Simon N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Taghian, Alphonse G., E-mail: ataghian@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: External beam accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is an increasingly popular technique for treatment of patients with early stage breast cancer following breast-conserving surgery. Here we present 5-year results of a prospective trial. Methods and Materials: From October 2003 through November 2005, 98 evaluable patients with stage I breast cancer were enrolled in the first dose step (32 Gy delivered in 8 twice-daily fractions) of a prospective, multi-institutional, dose escalation clinical trial of 3-dimensional conformal external beam APBI (3D-APBI). Median age was 61 years; median tumor size was 0.8 cm; 89% of tumors were estrogen receptor positive; 10% had a triple-negative phenotype; and 1% had a HER-2-positive subtype. Median follow-up was 71 months (range, 2-88 months; interquartile range, 64-75 months). Results: Five patients developed ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), for a 5-year actuarial IBTR rate of 5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1%-10%). Three of these cases occurred in patients with triple-negative disease and 2 in non-triple-negative patients, for 5-year actuarial IBTR rates of 33% (95% CI, 0%-57%) and 2% (95% CI, 0%-6%; P<.0001), respectively. On multivariable analysis, triple-negative phenotype was the only predictor of IBTR, with borderline statistical significance after adjusting for tumor grade (P=.0537). Conclusions: Overall outcomes were excellent, particularly for patients with estrogen receptor-positive disease. Patients in this study with triple-negative breast cancer had a significantly higher IBTR rate than patients with other receptor phenotypes when treated with 3D-APBI. Larger, prospective 3D-APBI clinical trials should continue to evaluate the effect of hormone receptor phenotype on IBTR rates.

  10. Validation of the NSRDB-SUNY global horizontal irradiance in California

    SciTech Connect

    Nottrott, Anders; Kleissl, Jan [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Satellite derived global horizontal solar irradiance (GHI) from the SUNY modeled dataset in the National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) was compared to measurements from 27 weather stations in California during the years 1998-2005. The statistics of spatial and temporal differences between the two datasets were analyzed and related to meteorological phenomena. Overall mean bias errors (MBE) of the NSRDB-SUNY indicated a GHI overprediction of 5%, which is smaller than the sensor accuracy of ground stations. However, at coastal sites, year-round systematic positive MBEs in the NSRDB-SUNY data up to 18% were observed and monthly MBEs increased up to 54% in the summer months during the morning. These differences were explained by a tendency for the NSRDB-SUNY model to overestimate GHI under cloudy conditions at the coast during summer mornings. A persistent positive evening MBE which was independent of site location and cloudiness occurred at all stations and was explained by an error in the time-shifting method applied in the NSRDB-SUNY. A correction method was derived for these two errors to improve the accuracy of the NSRDB-SUNY data in California. (author)

  11. Spatial Estimation of Sub-Hour Global Horizontal Irradiance Based on Official Observations and Remote Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Corea, Federico-Vladimir; Manso-Callejo, Miguel-Angel; Moreno-Regidor, María-Pilar; Velasco-Gómez, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    This study was motivated by the need to improve densification of Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) observations, increasing the number of surface weather stations that observe it, using sensors with a sub-hour periodicity and examining the methods of spatial GHI estimation (by interpolation) with that periodicity in other locations. The aim of the present research project is to analyze the goodness of 15-minute GHI spatial estimations for five methods in the territory of Spain (three geo-statistical interpolation methods, one deterministic method and the HelioSat2 method, which is based on satellite images). The research concludes that, when the work area has adequate station density, the best method for estimating GHI every 15 min is Regression Kriging interpolation using GHI estimated from satellite images as one of the input variables. On the contrary, when station density is low, the best method is estimating GHI directly from satellite images. A comparison between the GHI observed by volunteer stations and the estimation model applied concludes that 67% of the volunteer stations analyzed present values within the margin of error (average of ±2 standard deviations). PMID:24732102

  12. Modelling the fate of nonylphenolic compounds in the Seine River--part 2: assessing the impact of global change on daily concentrations.

    PubMed

    Cladière, Mathieu; Bonhomme, Céline; Vilmin, Lauriane; Gasperi, Johnny; Flipo, Nicolas; Habets, Florence; Tassin, Bruno

    2014-01-15

    This study aims at modelling the daily concentrations of nonylphenolic compounds such as 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO) and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NP1EC) within the Seine River downstream of Paris City for over a year, firstly in the present state (year 2010) and for years 2050 and 2100 in order to assess the consequences of global change on the fate of nonylphenolic compounds in the Seine river. Concentrations were first simulated for the year 2010 and compared to monthly measured values downstream of Paris. To achieve this goal, the hydrodynamic and biogeochemical model, ProSe, was updated to simulate the fate of 4-NP, NP1EO and NP1EC. The Seine upstream and Oise River (tributaries of the Seine River) concentrations are estimated according to concentrations-flow relationships. For Seine Aval wastewater treatment plant (SA-WWTP), the concentrations are considered constant and the median values of 11 campaigns are used. The biodegradation kinetics of 4-NP, NP1EO and NP1EC in the Seine River were deduced from the results of the companion paper. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient indicates a good efficiency to simulate the concentrations of 4-NP, NP1EC and NP1EO over an entire year. Eight scenarios were built to forecast the impacts of global warming (flow decrease), population growth (SA-WWTP flow increase) and optimisation of wastewater treatment (improvement of the quality of effluents) on annual concentrations of 4-NP, NP1EO and NP1EC at Meulan by 2050 and 2100. As a result, global warming and population growth may increase the concentrations of 4-NP, NP1EC and NP1EO, especially during low-flow conditions, while the optimisation of wastewater treatment is an efficient solution to balance the global change by reducing WWTP outflows. PMID:24095968

  13. Dependence on latitude of the relation between the diffuse fraction of solar radiation and the radiation and the ratio of global-to-extraterrestrial radiation for monthly average daily values

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Soler

    1990-01-01

    An approach for the prediction of the monthly average daily diffuse radiation, {bar H}{sub d}, was proposed by Page in 1961. The Page method is based on the use of the linear correlation {bar H}{sub d}\\/{bar H} = c + d{bar H}\\/{bar H}{sub o}, where {bar H} and {bar H}{sub o} are, respectively, the monthly average daily values of global

  14. Estimation of confidence intervals of global horizontal irradiance obtained from a weather prediction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtake, Hideaki; Gari da Silva Fonseca, Joao, Jr.; Takashima, Takumi; Oozeki, Takashi; Yamada, Yoshinori

    2014-05-01

    Many photovoltaic (PV) systems have been installed in Japan after the introduction of the Feed-in-Tariff. For an energy management of electric power systems included many PV systems, the forecast of the PV power production are useful technology. Recently numerical weather predictions have been applied to forecast the PV power production while the forecasted values invariably have forecast errors for each modeling system. So, we must use the forecast data considering its error. In this study, we attempted to estimate confidence intervals for hourly forecasts of global horizontal irradiance (GHI) values obtained from a mesoscale model (MSM) de-veloped by the Japan Meteorological Agency. In the recent study, we found that the forecasted values of the GHI of the MSM have two systematical forecast errors; the first is that forecast values of the GHI are depended on the clearness indices, which are defined as the GHI values divided by the extraterrestrial solar irradiance. The second is that forecast errors have the seasonal variations; the overestimation of the GHI forecasts is found in winter while the underestimation of those is found in summer. The information of the errors of the hourly GHI forecasts, that is, confidence intervals of the forecasts, is of great significance for planning the energy management included a lot of PV systems by an electric company. On the PV systems, confidence intervals of the GHI forecasts are required for a pinpoint area or for a relatively large area control-ling the power system. For the relatively large area, a spatial-smoothing method of the GHI values is performed for both the observations and forecasts. The spatial-smoothing method caused the decline of confidence intervals of the hourly GHI forecasts on an extreme event of the GHI forecast (a case of large forecast error) over the relatively large area of the Tokyo electric company (approximately 68 % than for a pinpoint forecast). For more credible estimation of the confidence intervals, it is required to consider the location of the installed PV systems or its capacity over the region.

  15. A web service for controlling the quality of measurements of global solar irradiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Geiger; L. Diabaté; L. Ménard; L. Wald

    2002-01-01

    The control of the quality of irradiation data is often a prerequisite to their further processing. Though data are usually controlled by meteorological offices, the sources are so numerous that the user often faces time-series of measurements containing questionable values. As customers of irradiation data, we established our own procedures to screen time-series of measurements. Since this problem of quality

  16. Calculated solar cell Isc sensitivity to atmospheric conditions under direct and global irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterwald, C. R.

    Using a new solar spectral irradiation computer model, a procedure has been devised which allows the calculation of short-circuit current (Isc) sensitivity to atmospheric variables. This procedure, which has applications for photovoltaic reference cell calibrations, clearly shows the Isc sensitivity to spectral distribution changes without the influence of the total irradiance level. Example outputs are presented for four different solar cell types.

  17. A Comparison Between Heliosat-2 and Artificial Neural Network Methods for Global Horizontal Irradiance Retrievals over Desert Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghedira, H.; Eissa, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Global horizontal irradiance (GHI) retrievals at the surface of any given location could be used for preliminary solar resource assessments. More accurately, the direct normal irradiance (DNI) and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) are also required to estimate the global tilt irradiance, mainly used for fixed flat plate collectors. Two different satellite-based models for solar irradiance retrievals have been applied over the desert environment of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Both models employ channels of the SEVIRI instrument, onboard the geostationary satellite Meteosat Second Generation, as their main inputs. The satellite images used in this study have a temporal resolution of 15-min and a spatial resolution of 3-km. The objective of this study is to compare between the GHI retrieved using the Heliosat-2 method and an artificial neural network (ANN) ensemble method over the UAE. The high-resolution visible channel of SEVIRI is used in the Heliosat-2 method to derive the cloud index. The cloud index is then used to compute the cloud transmission, while the cloud-free GHI is computed from the Linke turbidity factor. The product of the cloud transmission and the cloud-free GHI denotes the estimated GHI. A constant underestimation is observed in the estimated GHI over the dataset available in the UAE. Therefore, the cloud-free DHI equation in the model was recalibrated to fix the bias. After recalibration, results over the UAE show a root mean square error (RMSE) value of 10.1% and a mean bias error (MBE) of -0.5%. As for the ANN approach, six thermal channels of SEVIRI were used to estimate the DHI and the total optical depth of the atmosphere (?). An ensemble approach is employed to obtain a better generalizability of the results, as opposed to using one single weak network. The DNI is then computed from the estimated ? using the Beer-Bouguer-Lambert law. The GHI is computed from the DNI and DHI estimates. The RMSE for the estimated GHI obtained over an independent dataset over the UAE is 7.2% and the MBE is +1.9%. The results obtained by the two methods have shown that both the recalibrated Heliosat-2 and the ANN ensemble methods estimate the GHI at a 15-min resolution with high accuracy. The advantage of the ANN ensemble approach is that it derives the GHI from accurate DNI and DHI estimates. The DNI and DHI estimates are valuable when computing the global tilt irradiance. Also, accurate DNI estimates are beneficial for preliminary site selection for concentrating solar powered plants.

  18. Methodological aspects of a pattern-scaling approach to produce global fields of monthly means of daily maximum and minimum temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremser, S.; Bodeker, G. E.; Lewis, J.

    2014-01-01

    A Climate Pattern-Scaling Model (CPSM) that simulates global patterns of climate change, for a prescribed emissions scenario, is described. A CPSM works by quantitatively establishing the statistical relationship between a climate variable at a specific location (e.g. daily maximum surface temperature, Tmax) and one or more predictor time series (e.g. global mean surface temperature, Tglobal) - referred to as the "training" of the CPSM. This training uses a regression model to derive fit coefficients that describe the statistical relationship between the predictor time series and the target climate variable time series. Once that relationship has been determined, and given the predictor time series for any greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, the change in the climate variable of interest can be reconstructed - referred to as the "application" of the CPSM. The advantage of using a CPSM rather than a typical atmosphere-ocean global climate model (AOGCM) is that the predictor time series required by the CPSM can usually be generated quickly using a simple climate model (SCM) for any prescribed GHG emissions scenario and then applied to generate global fields of the climate variable of interest. The training can be performed either on historical measurements or on output from an AOGCM. Using model output from 21st century simulations has the advantage that the climate change signal is more pronounced than in historical data and therefore a more robust statistical relationship is obtained. The disadvantage of using AOGCM output is that the CPSM training might be compromised by any AOGCM inadequacies. For the purposes of exploring the various methodological aspects of the CPSM approach, AOGCM output was used in this study to train the CPSM. These investigations of the CPSM methodology focus on monthly mean fields of daily temperature extremes (Tmax and Tmin). The methodological aspects of the CPSM explored in this study include (1) investigation of the advantage gained in having five predictor time series over having only one predictor time series, (2) investigation of the time dependence of the fit coefficients and (3) investigation of the dependence of the fit coefficients on GHG emissions scenario. Key conclusions are (1) overall, the CPSM trained on simulations based on the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 emissions scenario is able to reproduce AOGCM simulations of Tmax and Tmin based on predictor time series from an RCP 4.5 emissions scenario; (2) access to hemisphere average land and ocean temperatures as predictors improves the variance that can be explained, particularly over the oceans; (3) regression model fit coefficients derived from individual simulations based on the RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5 emissions scenarios agree well over most regions of the globe (the Arctic is the exception); (4) training the CPSM on concatenated time series from an ensemble of simulations does not result in fit coefficients that explain significantly more of the variance than an approach that weights results based on single simulation fits; and (5) the inclusion of a linear time dependence in the regression model fit coefficients improves the variance explained, primarily over the oceans.

  19. Advanced chemistry-transport modeling and observing systems allow daily air quality observations, short-term forecasts, and real-time analyses of air quality at the global and

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Advanced chemistry-transport modeling and observing systems allow daily air quality observations, short-term forecasts, and real-time analyses of air quality at the global and European scales control measures that could be taken for managing such episodes, European-scale air quality forecasting

  20. Splenic irradiation in the treatment of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia or myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia. Results of daily and intermittent fractionation with and without concomitant hydroxyurea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry Wagner; Paul G. McKeough; Jane Desforges; Hywel Madoc-Jones

    1986-01-01

    Seventeen patients with either chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) or myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MMM) received 24 courses of splenic irradiation at this institution from 1973 to 1982. Eleven of the 17 patients had received prior chemotherapy. Patients were treated with ⁶°Co gamma rays or 6 MV photons. The fraction size ranged from 15 to 100 rad and the total dose

  1. Constitution Daily

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Everyone could use a bit of the Constitution added to their daily lives, and this website more than delivers on its promise to deliver "smart conversation about the Constitution". Constitution Daily is an experimental blog edited by the National Constitution Center (NCC) in Philadelphia, and commentary here can include conversations about student privacy rights, the Second Amendment, and the activities of Congress. Visitors can click on the "Issues" section to dive into topic areas that include civility and privacy. After looking at each topic area, visitors can look at an interactive timeline that arranges comments, posts, and discussion on the subject. The site also contains some nice polls, and information about upcoming events at the NCC.

  2. DAILY LIVING ACTIVITIES (DLA) FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT Beyond Global Assessment of Functioning: Ensuring Valid Scores and Consistent Utilization for Healthcare Report Cards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willa S. Presmanes

    The Daily Living Activities (DLA) Functional Assessment is a functional assessment, proven to be reliable and valid, designed to assess what daily living areas are impacted by mental illness or disability. The assessment tool quickly identifies where outcomes are needed so clinicians can address those functional deficits on individualized service plans. The DLA is intended to be used by all

  3. COMPARISON AND FITTING OF SEVERAL GLOBAL-TO-BEAM IRRADIANCE MODELS IN SPAIN

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    related to beam solar radiation. The market situation of solar technologies and the premium prices Gastón 1 , Carlos Fernadez 1 , José Luis Torres 2 , Manuel A. Silva 3 , Lourdes Ramírez 1 1 Solar Thermal irradiance, model comparison, solar radiation. 1. Introduction Nowadays, there is a growing need of data

  4. Global solar radiation measurements in Maceió, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Leonaldo De Souza; Rosilene Mendonça Nicácio; Marcos Antonio Lima Moura

    2005-01-01

    This work focuses on the variability of the global solar radiation over the area of Maceió (9°40?S, 35°42?W, 127m), located in Northeastern State of Alagoas, Brazil, during the1997–1999 period. Solar radiation variability was evaluated on 5min, hourly, daily, monthly and seasonal scales. The results showed that the maximum values of the hourly global solar irradiation, Hgh, in the dry (September–February)

  5. Narrowband filter radiometer for ground-based measurements of global ultraviolet solar irradiance and total ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Petkov, Boyan; Vitale, Vito; Tomasi, Claudio; Bonafe, Ubaldo; Scaglione, Salvatore; Flori, Daniele; Santaguida, Riccardo; Gausa, Michael; Hansen, Georg; Colombo, Tiziano

    2006-06-20

    The ultraviolet narrowband filter radiometer (UV-RAD) designed by the authors to take ground-based measurements of UV solar irradiance, total ozone, and biological dose rate is described, together with the main characteristics of the seven blocked filters mounted on it, all of which have full widths at half maxima that range 0.67 to 0.98 nm. We have analyzed the causes of cosine response and calibration errors carefully to define the corresponding correction terms, paying particular attention to those that are due to the spectral displacements of the filter transmittance peaks from the integer wavelength values. The influence of the ozone profile on the retrieved ozone at large solar zenith angles has also been examined by means of field measurements. The opportunity of carrying out nearly monochromatic irradiance measurements offered by the UV-RAD allowed us to improve the procedure usually followed to reconstruct the solar spectrum at the surface by fitting the computed results, using radiative transfer models with field measurements of irradiance. Two long-term comparison campaigns took place, showing that a mean discrepancy of+0.3% exists between the UV-RAD total ozone values and those given by the Brewer no. 63 spectroradiometer and that mean differences of+0.3% and-0.9% exist between the erythemal dose rates determined with the UV-RAD and those obtained with the Brewer no. 63 and the Brewer no. 104 spectroradiometers, respectively.

  6. Geiger M., Diabat L., Mnard L., Wald L., 2002. A web service for controlling the quality of measurements of global solar irradiation. Solar Energy, Vol. 73, No 6, pp. 475-480

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of measurements of global solar irradiation. Solar Energy, Vol. 73, No 6, pp. 475-480 Copyright Ecole des Mines de, Centre d'Energétique, Ecole des Mines de Paris, BP 207, 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex, France. Tel.: +33 with some expectations based upon the extraterrestrial irradiation and a simulation of the irradiation

  7. Modlisation de l'irradiation solaire globale l'aide de processus Arma : application la prediction faible pas de temps (horaire),

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    845- Modélisation de l'irradiation solaire globale à l'aide de processus Arma : application à la habitat). Les modèles utilisés sont de type Arma. La variable est tout d'abord centrée et normalisée et). We use Arma process. The variable is first transformed into a reduced variable and we analyse

  8. Comparison of Direct Normal Irradiance Derived from Silicon and Thermopile Global Hemispherical Radiation Detectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D. R.

    2010-01-01

    Concentrating solar applications utilize direct normal irradiance (DNI) radiation, a measurement rarely available. The solar concentrator industry has begun to deploy numerous measurement stations to prospect for suitable system deployment sites. Rotating shadowband radiometers (RSR) using silicon photodiodes as detectors are typically deployed. This paper compares direct beam estimates from RSR to a total hemispherical measuring radiometer (SPN1) multiple fast thermopiles. These detectors simultaneously measure total and diffuse radiation from which DNI can be computed. Both the SPN1 and RSR-derived DNI are compared to DNI measured with thermopile pyrheliometers. Our comparison shows that the SPN1 radiometer DNI estimated uncertainty is somewhat greater than, and on the same order as, the RSR DNI estimates for DNI magnitudes useful to concentrator technologies.

  9. Comparison of direct normal irradiance derived from silicon and thermopile global hemispherical radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Daryl R.

    2010-08-01

    Concentrating solar applications utilize direct normal irradiance (DNI) radiation, a measurement rarely available. The solar concentrator industry has begun to deploy numerous measurement stations to prospect for suitable system deployment sites. Rotating shadowband radiometers (RSR) using silicon photodiodes as detectors are typically deployed. This paper compares direct beam estimates from RSR to a total hemispherical measuring radiometer (SPN1) multiple fast thermopiles. These detectors simultaneously measure total and diffuse radiation from which DNI can be computed. Both the SPN1 and RSR-derived DNI are compared to DNI measured with thermopile pyrheliometers. Our comparison shows that the SPN1 radiometer DNI estimated uncertainty is somewhat greater than, and on the same order as, the RSR DNI estimates for DNI magnitudes useful to concentrator technologies.

  10. Inter-daily variability of a strong thermally-driven wind system over the Atacama Desert of South America: synoptic forcing and short-term predictability using the GFS global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques-Coper, Martín; Falvey, Mark; Muñoz, Ricardo C.

    2014-07-01

    Crucial aspects of a strong thermally-driven wind system in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile during the extended austral winter season (May-September) are studied using 2 years of measurement data from the Sierra Gorda 80-m meteorological mast (SGO, 22° 56' 24? S; 69° 7' 58? W, 2,069 m above sea level (a.s.l.)). Daily cycles of atmospheric variables reveal a diurnal (nocturnal) regime, with northwesterly (easterly) flow and maximum mean wind speed of 8 m/s (13 m/s) on average. These distinct regimes are caused by pronounced topographic conditions and the diurnal cycle of the local radiative balance. Wind speed extreme events of each regime are negatively correlated at the inter-daily time scale: High diurnal wind speed values are usually observed together with low nocturnal wind speed values and vice versa. The associated synoptic conditions indicate that upper-level troughs at the coastline of southwestern South America reinforce the diurnal northwesterly wind, whereas mean undisturbed upper-level conditions favor the development of the nocturnal easterly flow. We analyze the skill of the numerical weather model Global Forecast System (GFS) in predicting wind speed at SGO. Although forecasted wind speeds at 800 hPa do show the diurnal and nocturnal phases, observations at 80 m are strongly underestimated by the model. This causes a pronounced daily cycle of root-mean-squared error (RMSE) and bias in the forecasts. After applying a simple Model Output Statistics (MOS) post-processing, we achieve a good representation of the wind speed intra-daily and inter-daily variability, a first step toward reducing the uncertainties related to potential wind energy projects in the region.

  11. Inhomogeneities in daily data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venema, Victor; Aguilar, Enric; Auchmann, Renate; Auer, Ingeborg; Brandsma, Theo; Chimani, Barbara; Gilabert, Alba; Mestre, Olivier; Toreti, Andrea; Vertacnik, Gregor

    2015-04-01

    Daily datasets have become a focus of climate research because they are essential for studying the variability and extremes in weather and climate. However, long observational climate records are usually affected by changes due to nonclimatic factors, resulting in inhomogeneities in the time series. Looking at the known physical causes of these inhomogeneities, one may expect that the tails of the distribution are especially affected. Although the number of national and regional homogenized daily temperature datasets is increasing, inhomogeneities affecting the tails of the distribution are often not or insufficiently taken into account. In this literature review we investigate the physical causes of inhomogeneities and how they affect the distribution with respect to its mean and its tails. We review what is known about changes in the distribution from existing historical parallel measurements. We discuss effects of the state-of-the-art homogenization methods on the temperature distribution. Finally, we provide an overview of the quality of available daily datasets that are often used for studies on changes in extremes and additionally describe well-homogenized regional datasets. As expected, this review provides evidence that the tails of the distribution are generally more affected by non-climatic changes than the means. This is a problem because the question to which extent daily homogenization methods can reduce those effects is insufficiently studied and most available methods are focused on temperature only. More specifically, it is advised to study whether the current deterministic correction methods should be succeeded by stochastic methods. Concerning the large scale available daily datasets, many of them are not homogenized (with respect to the distribution), whereas the number of national and regional homogenized datasets is strongly growing. Given the strong interest in studying changes in weather variability and extremes and the existence of often large inhomogeneities in the raw data, the homogenization of daily data and the development of better methods should have a high research priority. This research would be much facilitated by a global reference database with parallel measurements. The climate community, and especially those involved in homogenization, bias correction and the evaluation of uncertainties, should take an active role to foster the compilation of such a reference database. We have started an initiative collecting parallel datasets, which is an expert team of the International Surface Temperature Initiative. Its aims will be explained and its progress will be presented.

  12. Estimation of global solar UV index from UV-B irradiance measured with a narrow-band UV-B radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshita, Shu; Sasaki, Masako

    2005-08-01

    The global solar UV index is an indicator for notifying the level of harmful solar ultraviolet radiation reaching the surface of the earth and the general public. It was proposed by the WHO/WMO/UNEP/ICNIRP and was standardized by the CIE in 2003. This index is derived from the product of the spectral solar UV irradiance from 250 to 400 nm and the CIE standard of reference erythema spectrum. For calculation of the UV index, the measurement of spectral solar UV irradiance is needed. Spectral radiometry is the best method of measurement of solar UV irradiance, however spectral radiometers are cost prohibitive. On the other hand, a narrow-band solar UV-B radiometer is widely used for measurement of solar UV-B irradiance in the world. The Tokai Solar Radiation Monitoring Network, and the UV Monitoring Network-Japan performed by the National Institute for Environmental Studies are two examples of monitoring networks using narrow-band solar UV-B radiometer in Japan. In this paper an estimation method of the UV index from the measured UV-B irradiance with the narrow-band UV-B radiometer.

  13. The Second Physical Therapy Summit on Global Health: developing an action plan to promote health in daily practice and reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases.

    PubMed

    Dean, Elizabeth; de Andrade, Armele Dornelas; O'Donoghue, Grainne; Skinner, Margot; Umereh, Gloria; Beenen, Paul; Cleaver, Shaun; Afzalzada, DelAfroze; Delaune, Mary Fran; Footer, Cheryl; Gannotti, Mary; Gappmaier, Ed; Figl-Hertlein, Astrid; Henderson, Bobbie; Hudson, Megan K; Spiteri, Karl; King, Judy; Klug, Jerry L; Laakso, E-Liisa; LaPier, Tanya; Lomi, Constantina; Maart, Soraya; Matereke, Noel; Meyer, Erna Rosenlund; M'kumbuzi, Vyvienne R P; Mostert-Wentzel, Karien; Myezwa, Hellen; Olsén, Monika Fagevik; Peterson, Cathy; Pétursdóttir, Unnur; Robinson, Jan; Sangroula, Kanchan; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin; Tan, Bee Yee; Tschoepe, Barbara A; Bruno, Selma; Mathur, Sunita; Wong, Wai Pong

    2014-05-01

    Based on indicators that emerged from The First Physical Therapy Summit on Global Health (2007), the Second Summit (2011) identified themes to inform a global physical therapy action plan to integrate health promotion into practice across the World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT) regions. Working questions were: (1) how well is health promotion implemented within physical therapy practice; and (2) how might this be improved across five target audiences (i.e. physical therapist practitioners, educators, researchers, professional body representatives, and government liaisons/consultants). In structured facilitated sessions, Summit representatives (n?=?32) discussed: (1) within WCPT regions, what is working and the challenges; and (2) across WCPT regions, what are potential directions using World Café(TM) methodology. Commonalities outweighed differences with respect to strategies to advance health-focused physical therapy as a clinical competency across regions and within target audiences. Participants agreed that health-focused practice is a professional priority, and a strategic action plan was needed to develop it as a clinical competency. The action plan and recommendations largely paralleled the principles and objectives of the World Health Organization's non-communicable diseases action plan. A third Summit planned for 2015 will provide a mechanism for follow-up to evaluate progress in integrating health-focused physical therapy within the profession. PMID:24252072

  14. The signature of atmospheric tides in sub-daily variations of Earth rotation as unveiled by globally-gridded atmospheric angular momentum functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, M.; Böhm, J.; Salstein, D. A.; Schuh, H.

    2012-12-01

    Thermally-driven atmospheric tides provide a small but distinct contribution to shortperiod variations of Earth rotation parameters (ERP). The effect of diurnal and semi-diurnal tides, commonly denoted as S1 and S2, respectively, is in the range of 2 - 10 uas for polar motion and 2 - 10 uas for changes in length-of-day (LOD). Even though ocean tides represent a much more dominant driving agent for ERP fluctuations at short time scales, high-frequency atmospheric effects are non-negligible, particularly given the prospective measurement accuracy of space geodetic techniques. However, previous studies, such as Brzezinski et al. (2002), de Viron et al. (2005) or Schindelegger et al. (2011), have been noticeably inconclusive on the exact amplitude and phase values of S1 and S2 atmospheric excitation signals. This study aims at shedding light on the origin of these uncertainties with respect to the axial component of Earth's rotation vector by investigating times series of atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) functions that are given on global grids and computed from three-hourly meteorological data of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The signature of diurnal and semi-diurnal atmospheric tides is clearly visible in the gridded axial AAM functions, revealing a distinct spatial and temporal phase difference between pressure and wind tidal constituents of about ± ?. It is shown that due to this counterbalance and the explicit axisymmetric spatial structure of S1 and S2, the net effect in sub-diurnal AAM (which is calculated from the global sum of gridded AAM functions) is always a small quantity, particularly sensitive to minor differences between the analysis fields of numerical weather models.

  15. Validation of a method to estimate direct normal irradiance of UVA and PAR bands from global horizontal measurements for cloudless sky conditions in Valencia, Spain, by a measurement campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, María-Antonia; Boscà, José V.

    2011-01-01

    A method is proposed to provide measurement of direct normal solar irradiance of bands with wavelength ranges (315-400 nm, 400-700 nm) from measurements of global horizontal band irradiance for cloudless sky conditions in Valencia. Global and normal direct irradiance data for every air mass were obtained by applying the SMART2 model to the atmosphere of Valencia. The direct normal to global irradiance ratio was parameterized versus the relative optical air mass. A measurement campaign of global horizontal and diffuse irradiance of UVA and PAR bands was carried out in Valencia, after which, the inferred direct normal irradiance was compared with those provided by the method. The result of the comparison shows that the method is acceptably accurate. The proposed model tends to underestimate the direct normal irradiance of the UVA band by 6%, although for values below 25 W/m2 the model overestimates the direct irradiance by 6%, while for values above 25 W/m2 the model underestimates it by 10%. The other two error estimators used ranging from 11% to 15% are similar in the defined interval measurements in relation to the whole UVA band. Regarding the PAR band, the model overestimates the direct normal irradiance of the PAR band by only 2.2%. With this, the results of the PAR band are more conclusive, as it has been found that for direct normal irradiance values higher than 280 W/m2 the MBE error is almost zero and the other two estimator errors are small, about 5%.

  16. Daily exercise routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Patrick L.; Amoroso, Michael T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on daily exercise routines are presented. Topics covered include: daily exercise and periodic stress testings; exercise equipment; physiological monitors; exercise protocols; physiological levels; equipment control; control systems; and fuzzy logic control.

  17. Estimations of the Global Distribution and Time Series of UV Noontime Irradiance (305, 310, 324, 380 nm, and Erythemal) from TOMS and SeaWiFS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J.

    2004-01-01

    The amount of UV irradiance reaching the Earth's surface is estimated from the measured cloud reflectivity, ozone, aerosol amounts, and surface reflectivity time series from 1980 to 1992 and 1997 to 2000 to estimate changes that have occurred over a 21-year period. Recent analysis of the TOMS data shows that there has been an apparent increase in reflectivity (decrease in W) in the Southern Hemisphere that is related to a calibration error in EP-TOMS. Data from the well-calibrated SeaWiFS satellite instrument have been used to correct the EP-TOMS reflectivity and UV time series. After correction, some of the local trend features seen in the N7 time series (1980 to 1992) have been continued in the combined time series, but the overall zonal average and global trends have changed. In addition to correcting the EP-TOMS radiance calibration, the use of SeaWiFS cloud data permits estimation of UV irradiance at higher spatial resolution (1 to 4 km) than is available from TOMS (100 km) under the assumption that ozone is slowly varying over a scale of 100 km. The key results include a continuing decrease in cloud cover over Europe and North America with a corresponding increase in UV and a decrease in UV irradiance near Antarctica.

  18. Worldwide forecast of the biologically effective UV radiation: UV index and daily dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalwieser, Alois W.; Schauberger, Guenther; Janouch, Michal; Nunez, Manuel; Koskela, Tapani; Berger, Daniel; Karamanian, Gabriel; Prosek, Pavel; Laska, Kamil

    2002-01-01

    Since October 1995 a global daily forecast of the UV index and the daily dose, as the irradiance of the biologically effective ultraviolet radiation, for clear sky is calculated. The Austrian model as well as the input parameters are described. By connecting the daily dose with the sensitivity of the photobiological skin types, a recommendation is given to select an appropriate sun protection factor of a sunscreen to avoid overexposure of the skin. The validation of the Austrian forecast model is done by long-term measurements of the biologically effective ultraviolet radiation. Measurements were taken from 6 different sites at 4 continents (Antarctica, Australia, America and Europe) covering the latitudinal range from 67 degree(s)N to 60 degree(s)S. By using the underestimation as criteria in the sense of radiation protection, the Austrian model shows less than 12% underestimation over the whole period for the UV index and less than 10% for the daily dose. The evaluation shows further that the forecast of the daily dose is much more influenced by the attenuation due to clouds than the UV index.

  19. Accurate modeling of spectral fine-structure in Earth radiance spectra measured with the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rutger van Deelen; Otto P. Hasekamp; Jochen Landgraf

    2007-01-01

    We present what we believe to be a novel approach to simulating the spectral fine structure (<1 nm) in measurements of spectrometers such as the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME). GOME measures the Earth's radiance spectra and daily solar irradiance spectra from which a reflectivity spectrum is commonly extracted. The high-frequency structures contained in such a spectrum are, apart from

  20. Prediction of global solar irradiance based on time series analysis: Application to solar thermal power plants energy production planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Martin; Ruth Marchante; Marco Cony; Luis F. Zarzalejo; Jesus Polo; Ana Navarro

    2010-01-01

    Due to strong increase of solar power generation, the predictions of incoming solar energy are acquiring more importance. Photovoltaic and solar thermal are the main sources of electricity generation from solar energy. In the case of solar thermal energy plants with storage energy system, its management and operation need reliable predictions of solar irradiance with the same temporal resolution as

  1. Your Health Daily

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Your Health Daily offers daily updates on health and medical news in a well-organized and easy-to-use format. Provided by The New York Times Syndicate, Your Health Daily includes news, features, analysis and columns from a variety of news sources in the United States, Asia and Europe, including Medical Tribune News Service. Users can browse the latest news or choose from 15 "Common Topics" for articles of personal interest. A database of past medical and health articles is available and searchable by topic or keyword. The site provides links to other NYT Syndicate services such as Computer News Daily and TimesFax.

  2. Global Increase in UV Irradiance during the Past 30 Years (1979-2008) Estimated from Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Jay R.

    2010-01-01

    Zonal average ultraviolet irradiance (flux ultraviolet, F(sub uv)) reaching the Earth's surface has significantly increased since 1979 at all latitudes except the equatorial zone. Changes are estimated in zonal average F(sub uv) caused by ozone and cloud plus aerosol reflectivity using an approach based on Beer's law for monochromatic and action spectrum weighted irradiances. For four different cases, it is shown that Beer's Law leads to a power law form similar to that applied to erythemal action spectrum weighted irradiances. Zonal and annual average increases in F(sub uv) were caused by decreases in ozone amount from 1979 to 1998. After 1998, midlatitude annual average ozone amounts and UV irradiance levels have been approximately constant. In the Southern Hemisphere, zonal and annual average UV increase is partially offset by tropospheric cloud and aerosol transmission decreases (hemispherical dimming), and to a lesser extent in the Northern Hemisphere. Ozone and 340 nm reflectivity changes have been obtained from multiple joined satellite time series from 1978 to 2008. The largest zonal average increases in F(sub uv) have occurred in the Southern Hemisphere. For clear-sky conditions at 50 S, zonal average F(sub uv) changes are estimated (305 nm, 23%; erythemal, 8.5%; 310 nm, 10%; vitamin D production, 12%). These are larger than at 50 N (305 nm, 9%; erythemal, 4%; 310 nm, 4%; vitamin D production, 6%). At the latitude of Buenos Aires, Argentina (34.6 S), the clear-sky Fuv increases are comparable to the increases near Washington, D. C. (38.9 N): 305 nm, 9% and 7%; erythemal, 6% and 4%; and vitamin D production, 7% and 5%, respectively.

  3. Technical and economical system comparison of photovoltaic and concentrating solar thermal power systems depending on annual global irradiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Volker Quaschning

    2004-01-01

    Concentrating solar thermal power and photovoltaics are two major technologies for converting sunlight to electricity. Variations of the annual solar irradiation depending on the site influence their annual efficiency, specific output and electricity generation cost. Detailed technical and economical analyses performed with computer simulations point out differences of solar thermal parabolic trough power plants, non-tracked and two-axis-tracked PV systems. Therefore,

  4. UV-B radiation amplification factor determined based on the simultaneous observation of total ozone and global spectral irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ito, T.; Sakoda, Y.; Matsubara, K.; Kajihara, R.; Uekubo, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Shitamichi, M.; Ueno, T.; Ito, M.

    1994-01-01

    The Japan Meteorological Agency started the spectral observation of solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiance on 1 January 1990 at Tateno, Aerological Observatory in Tsukuba (35 deg N, 140 deg E). The observation has been carried out using the Brewer spectrophotometer for the wavelengths from 290 to 325 nm with a 0.5 nm interval every hour from 30 minutes before sunrise to 30 minutes after sunset throughout a year. Because of remarkable similarity within observed spectra, an observed spectrum can be expressed by a simple combination of a reference spectrum and two parameters expressing the deformation of the observed spectrum from the reference. By use of the relation between one of the deformation parameters and the total ozone simultaneously observed with the Dobson spectrophotometer, the possible increase of UV irradiance due to ozone depletion is estimated. For damaging UV, the irradiance possibly increases about 19 percent with the ozone depletion of 10 percent at noon throughout the year in the northern midlatitudes. DUV at noon on the summer solstice possibly increases about 5.6 percent with the ozone depletion of 10 m atm-cm for all latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere.

  5. Global Predictions

    E-print Network

    Swyden, Courtney

    2006-01-01

    in their county. ?The drought index is based on a daily water balance, where a drought factor is calculated with precipitation and soil moisture,? Srinivasan said. Global Predictions Story by Courtney Swyden Global Predictions Lab uses advanced technologies... created every day by the lab and used by the forest service, county commissioners and others. Using computer technology and satellites, the lab currently focuses on three core spatial technologies? GIS, global positioning systems (GPS) and remote...

  6. Evaluation of errors made in solar irradiance estimation due to averaging the Angstrom turbidity coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calinoiu, Delia-Gabriela; Stefu, Nicoleta; Paulescu, Marius; Trif-Tordai, Gavril?; Mares, Oana; Paulescu, Eugenia; Boata, Remus; Pop, Nicolina; Pacurar, Angel

    2014-12-01

    Even though the monitoring of solar radiation experienced a vast progress in the recent years both in terms of expanding the measurement networks and increasing the data quality, the number of stations is still too small to achieve accurate global coverage. Alternatively, various models for estimating solar radiation are exploited in many applications. Choosing a model is often limited by the availability of the meteorological parameters required for its running. In many cases the current values of the parameters are replaced with daily, monthly or even yearly average values. This paper deals with the evaluation of the error made in estimating global solar irradiance by using an average value of the Angstrom turbidity coefficient instead of its current value. A simple equation relating the relative variation of the global solar irradiance and the relative variation of the Angstrom turbidity coefficient is established. The theoretical result is complemented by a quantitative assessment of the errors made when hourly, daily, monthly or yearly average values of the Angstrom turbidity coefficient are used at the entry of a parametric solar irradiance model. The study was conducted with data recorded in 2012 at two AERONET stations in Romania. It is shown that the relative errors in estimating global solar irradiance (GHI) due to inadequate consideration of Angstrom turbidity coefficient may be very high, even exceeding 20%. However, when an hourly or a daily average value is used instead of the current value of the Angstrom turbidity coefficient, the relative errors are acceptably small, in general less than 5%. All results prove that in order to correctly reproduce GHI for various particular aerosol loadings of the atmosphere, the parametric models should rely on hourly or daily Angstrom turbidity coefficient values rather than on the more usual monthly or yearly average data, if currently measured data is not available.

  7. CCD fiber optic spectrometer for the measurement of spectral irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, J. U.; McArthur, L. J. B.; Halliwell, D.; Poissant, Y.; Pelland, S.

    2010-08-01

    Recent technological advancements have made CCD spectrometers an increasingly suitable alternative to traditional monochromator-based instrumentation. The authors have developed instrumentation for the near instantaneous measurement of spectral global, direct, diffuse, reflected and southward-tilted irradiances. The system uses an AvaSpec2048TEC-2 - a dual channel thermo-electric-cooled fiber optic spectrometer from Avantes Inc. Each channel has a 2048-pixel linear array detector and the system achieves a spectral resolution of 0.0007 ?m (FWHM) over the range 0.241-1.1 ?m. The system also includes sensor heads, fiber optic cables and a multiplexer. Two types of sensor heads have been developed: a pyrheliometer configuration for direct beam, and a pyranometer configuration for global, diffuse, reflected and tilted measurements. Calibration uses a system of standard light sources. Cosine errors inherent to the spectralon diffusers have been characterized and corrections are applied to data from each sensor head. Accuracy of global irradiance is examined by comparing measurements against global photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (0.395 - 0.695 ?m) from Eppley red and green dome pyranometers. PAR daily totals (MJ/m2/day) and one minute averages (W/m2) are compared for 35 days in 2009 and daily totals are within +/- 10% from June to October.

  8. Managing Daily Life

    MedlinePLUS

    Managing Daily Life Environmental accessibility As the person with Duchenne starts to have more problems moving around, consider making changes in ... such as wider doorways and ramps, can make life easier once the person with Duchenne cannot climb ...

  9. Daily Life with Glaucoma

    MedlinePLUS

    Daily Life with Glaucoma email Send this article to a friend by filling out the fields below: Your name: ... and comforting. Don't let glaucoma limit your life Don’t let glaucoma limit your life. You ...

  10. Shaundra Bryant Daily

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-09-18

    In this video from Science City, Shaundra Bryant Daily, an electrical engineer, describes a software program she developed to help girls reflect on their emotions, and how her two passions—science and dance—are connected.

  11. Daily Food Plan

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Peterson

    2011-09-18

    Students will find daily food recommendations based upon their age, weight, height, and activity level. Standard 2 Objective1: a,b,c It is helpful to have a guide that can give us directions on the type and quantity of foods we should eat daily. Lets first view the basics of our food groups. Click the Food Group Basics link below and see if you can answer the questions provided. Food Group Basics What is the ...

  12. Inferring Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance From Sunspot Areas Only

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. Preminger; S. R. Walton

    2004-01-01

    We show that daily sunspot area can be used in simple models to reconstruct daily variations in total or spectral solar irradiance. The models assume that all solar irradiance fluctuations can be traced back to the emergence of sunspots on the solar disk. Cotemporal data for irradiance and sunspot area are analysed to extract a detailed impulse response function that

  13. Toothbrushing: Do It Daily.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Offers a practical guide for promoting daily toothbrushing in young children. Discusses the importance of proper dental care, explains the causes of tooth decay, describes proper dental care for infants and young children, recommends materials and teaching methods, and discusses visits to the dentist and the benefits of fluoride for dental health.…

  14. NOAA Daily Weather Maps

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hydrometeorological Prediction Center

    2011-01-01

    The charts on this website are the principal charts of the former Weather Bureau publication, "Daily Weather Map." They are the Surface Weather Map, the 500-Millibar Height Contours chart, the Highest and Lowest Temperatures chart, and the Precipitation Areas and Amounts chart. For each day, simple charts are arranged on a single page. These charts are the surface analysis of pressure and fronts, color shading, in ten degree intervals,of maximum and minimum temperature, 500-Millibar height contours, and color shaded 24-hour total precipitation. These charts act as links to their respective Daily Weather Map charts. All charts are derived from the operational weather maps prepared at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, National Weather Service.

  15. MODIS-derived daily PAR simulation from cloud-free images and its validation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liangfu Chen; Yanhua Gao; Lei Yang; Qinhuo Liu; Xingfa Gu; Guoliang Tian

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a MODIS-derived daily PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) simulation model from cloud-free image over land surface has been developed based on Bird and Riordan’s model. In this model, the total downwelling spectral surface irradiance is divided into two parts: one is beam irradiance, and another is diffuse irradiance. The attenuation of solar beam irradiance comprises scattering by the

  16. USIA: Daily Washington File

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    United States Information Agency.

    1999-01-01

    The United States Information Agency's daily news and information service prepares official texts, policy statements and interpretive material, features, and byline articles for transmission to United States Information Service (USIS) offices in 211 locations around the world for distribution to government officials, media, academics and other interested persons. Select "Current Issues and Events" for current news organized by geographic region or topic. Many of these items are translated by USIA into French, Spanish, and now Russian. The "Latest Items in English" section under Current Issues contains all USIS news items produced in the preceding 48 hours, regardless of topic or geographic focus.

  17. Math in Daily Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    What are your odds of hitting it big at the casino? Should you buy or lease a car? How much will you have when you retire? All of these questions involve math, and this latest addition to the Annenberg Media Projects Learner Online site (described in the September 12, 1997 Scout Report) explores the use of basic mathematical concepts in daily decision-making. The exhibit is divided into several topical sections exploring probability and gambling, compound interest and credit cards, population growth, geometry in the home, and ratios and recipes. In addition to an overview of the topic, each section offers several links to selected related sites and online tools, and two feature interactive learning activities.

  18. AstronomyDaily.Com

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Astronomy Daily.Com offers real time astronomical data tailored to the viewer's location and time zone. The personalized front page presents a chart of tonight's sky. Diagrams allow users to view the planets in their orbits. Educators and students can find images of today's moon and its phase on the calendar, plus data dealing with its current position and its physical and orbital characteristics. Phil Harrington, a supervisor at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, provides two monthly articles; the first assesses a phenomenon in the sky that can be observed with binoculars and the second discusses a phenomenon in the Deep Sky. Viewers can also participate in many discussion forums with other interested astronomers. Although users are required to register in order to view the customized site, no personal identification is requested. This site is also reviewed in the October 3, 2003 NSDL Physical Sciences Report.

  19. Egypt Daily.com

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Part of the World News network, Egypt Daily.com provides a wealth of links to frequently updated news stories dealing primarily with Egypt. From the homepage, users can click on any number of recent items gathered from a variety of different sources, including the BBC, ABC News, Arabic News, and CNN. The archive of news items stretches back several weeks, and news items are also arranged thematically into sections dealing with the economy, tourism, and technology on the site's main page. The site also features a number of helpful links, such as those leading to English-language news resources for the Arabic-speaking world and to online newspapers in Arabic. The site is rounded out by a list of online travel guides for those seeking to plan a trip to Egypt or other parts of North Africa.

  20. ArchDaily

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Billed as the "world's most visited architecture website,� ArchDaily is a treasure trove of materials on new building projects, architectural trends, design matters, and competitions. Along the top of its homepage, visitors can delve into areas that include News, Articles, Materials, Software, and Interviews. This last area is a great place to start as it includes fabulous conversations with notables such as Jeanne Gang, Jean-Louis Cohen, and Andreas G. Gjertsen. Moving along, the Materials section offers specific technical information on equipment, finishes, installation techniques, and structural work. The Projects area contains information on new and compelling works, such as the Soundcloud Headquarters in Berlin and the Bagnoli Futura in Italy.

  1. Chronic Daily Headache.

    PubMed

    Couch, James R.

    2003-11-01

    The therapy of chronic daily headache (CDH) is complex and involves a combination of drugs, supportive psychotherapy, nondrug therapy, "tender-loving care," and "tough love." CDH is a chronic problem with exacerbations and remissions. Patients with CDH often manifest mood disorders, and recognition and treatment of these problems is a key component of success. The use of preventative antimigraine therapy is a major component of treatment of this condition. Patients with exacerbations may need judicious short courses of medications that can produce medication-overuse headache. Patients may switch to another physician to get opiates or other pain relief medications. The patient may later realize this mistake and return to the physician. Use of patient "contracts," in which the patient agrees not to take more than a prescribed amount of restricted medication or seek it elsewhere, may be helpful. In this area, there is no standard patient or standard therapeutic regimen. The treatment plan must be individualized for each patient. Taking a little extra time to talk with patients and discuss medications, procedures, and goals and objectives may pay bigger dividends in the therapeutic relationship later in the course of treatment. PMID:14516524

  2. Daily rainfall domains in Mallorca

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Sumner; C. Ramis; J. A. Guijarro

    1995-01-01

    A Pearson Product Moment Correlation matrix for four years of daily rainfall from 96 sites on the island of Mallorca has been used to derive and map correlation fields and construct composite correlation fields for different parts of the island based on previously defined daily rainfall affinity areas. Significant variations in rainfall organisation over the island are revealed. These reflect

  3. Daily Egyptian Diversity News Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Developed as part of the online collections at Southern Illinois University-Carbondale's Morris Library, the Daily Egyptian Diversity News Index provides historical insight into the campus climate at this unique school. In 2006, Dr. Seymour Bryson, the associate chancellor for diversity, teamed up with several other colleagues to identify articles in the Daily Egyptian (the University's student newspaper) related to the university's historic minority campus populations. The project entailed surveying microfilm and creating searchable transcripts for online access. Currently, the online archive contains over 1,400 items from the Daily Egyptian, and content includes pieces on African American members of the homecoming court, student activists, musical groups, and student government.

  4. Unravelling daily human mobility motifs

    E-print Network

    Schneider, Christian M.

    Human mobility is differentiated by time scales. While the mechanism for long time scales has been studied, the underlying mechanism on the daily scale is still unrevealed. Here, we uncover the mechanism responsible for ...

  5. Recent Trends in Global Ocean Chlorophyll

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson; Casey, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    Recent analyses of SeaWiFS data have shown that global ocean chlorophyll has increased more than 5% since 1998. The North Pacific ocean basin has increased nearly 19%. To understand the causes of these trends we have applied the newly developed NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Assimilation Model (OBAM), which is driven in mechanistic fashion by surface winds, sea surface temperature, atmospheric iron deposition, sea ice, and surface irradiance. The mode1 utilizes chlorophyll from SeaWiFS in a daily assimilation. The model has in place many of the climatic variables that can be expected to produce the changes observed in SeaWiFS data. Ths enables us to diagnose the model performance, the assimilation performance, and possible causes for the increase in chlorophyll.

  6. The predictive value of daily vs. retrospective well-being judgments in relationship stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigehiro Oishi; Helen W. Sullivan

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the role of daily and retrospective judgments of well-being and relationship satisfaction in relationship longevity. Participating couples completed a 14-day diary report of well-being and relationship satisfaction. After the daily diary survey, they evaluated the 14-day period. Participants also rated their global relationship satisfaction at that time. Retrospective judgments of daily well-being predicted later relationship status

  7. Irradiation of Food, Current Legislation Framework, and Detection of Irradiated Foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rayna Stefanova; Nikola V. Vasilev; Stefan L. Spassov

    2010-01-01

    The review covers description of food irradiation process, the current status of global legislation background in the field\\u000a of irradiated foodstuffs, and the state of detection methods up-to-date available based on physical, chemical, biological,\\u000a and microbiological changes in irradiated foods. Special emphasis was put on European Standards for the detection of irradiated\\u000a foods adopted by the European Committee for Standardization,

  8. NO2 and HCHO photolysis frequencies from irradiance measurements in Thessaloniki, Greece

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Topaloglou; S. Kazadzis; A. F. Bais; M. Blumthaler; B. Schallhart; D. Balis

    2005-01-01

    An empirical approach for the retrieval of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde (HCHO) photolysis frequencies from measurements of global irradiance is presented in this work. Four months of synchronous measurements of actinic flux and global irradiance performed in Thessaloniki, Greece by a Bentham spectroradiometer were used to extract polynomials for the conversion of global irradiance to photolysis frequencies [J(NO2) and

  9. Global Hydrology Resource Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration provides data ingest, archive, and distribution services for the Global Hydrology and Climate Center (GHCC). Eight categories of online data are available to download using FTP. These include MSFC SSM/I Brightness Temperature, MSFC SSM/I Daily Gridded Products, and MSU Daily/Monthly Anomalies/Annual Cycle Temperatures-Limb90. The entire database can be viewed through HyDRO, the Hydrologic Data search, Retrieval, and Order system. Note that some data is restricted to Earth Observing System (EOS) affiliated investigators.

  10. Global Hydrology Resource Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    The Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration provides data ingest, archive, and distribution services for the Global Hydrology and Climate Center (GHCC). Eight categories of online data are available to download using FTP. These include MSFC SSM/I Brightness Temperature, MSFC SSM/I Daily Gridded Products, and MSU Daily/Monthly Anomalies/Annual Cycle Temperatures-Limb90. The entire database can be viewed through HyDRO, the Hydrologic Data search, Retrieval, and Order system. Note that some data is restricted to Earth Observing System (EOS) affiliated investigators.

  11. Outdoor continuous culture of Porphyridium cruentum in a tubular photobioreactor: quantitative analysis of the daily cyclic variation of culture parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Rebolloso Fuentes; J. L. Garc??a Sánchez; J. M. Fernández Sevilla; F. G. Acién Fernández; J. A. Sánchez Pérez; E. Molina Grima

    1999-01-01

    The present work reports on the daily cyclic variation of oxygen generation rates, carbon consumption rates, photosynthetic activities, growth rates and biochemical composition of the biomass in a pilot plant continuous outdoor culture of the microalgae Porphyridium cruentum. A linear relationship between the external irradiance and the average irradiance inside the culture was found. In addition, the oxygen generation and

  12. Daily Hemodialysis: A Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rita S. Suri; Gihad E. Nesrallah; Rahul Mainra; Amit X. Garg; Robert M. Lindsay; Tom Greene; John T. Daugirdas

    Several studies have reported improved outcomes with daily hemodialysis (DHD), but the strength of this evidence has not been evaluated. The published evidence on DHD was synthesized and its quality rated to inform need and sample size calculations for a randomized trial. Citations were identified in MEDLINE and EMBASE using validated search strategies. Dialysis journals that were not indexed and

  13. Telemedicine in neurosurgical daily practice.

    PubMed

    Schulmeyer, F J; Brawanski, A

    1999-01-01

    Telemedicine has been in daily practice at our neurosurgical department for five years. In our experience the standard personal computer-based telemedicine systems Medicom and especially RADO Look are reliable, easy to use, and of high quality performance. Telemedicine makes possible better patient management at regional hospitals and the avoidance of patient transports. Therefore treatment costs in neurosurgical patients can be highly reduced. PMID:10747528

  14. Enhancement of the MODIS Daily Snow Albedo Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Wang, Zhuosen; Riggs, George A.

    2009-01-01

    The MODIS daily snow albedo product is a data layer in the MOD10A1 snow-cover product that includes snow-covered area and fractional snow cover as well as quality information and other metadata. It was developed to augment the MODIS BRDF/Albedo algorithm (MCD43) that provides 16-day maps of albedo globally at 500-m resolution. But many modelers require daily snow albedo, especially during the snowmelt season when the snow albedo is changing rapidly. Many models have an unrealistic snow albedo feedback in both estimated albedo and change in albedo over the seasonal cycle context, Rapid changes in snow cover extent or brightness challenge the MCD43 algorithm; over a 16-day period, MCD43 determines whether the majority of clear observations was snow-covered or snow-free then only calculates albedo for the majority condition. Thus changes in snow albedo and snow cover are not portrayed accurately during times of rapid change, therefore the current MCD43 product is not ideal for snow work. The MODIS daily snow albedo from the MOD10 product provides more frequent, though less robust maps for pixels defined as "snow" by the MODIS snow-cover algorithm. Though useful, the daily snow albedo product can be improved using a daily version of the MCD43 product as described in this paper. There are important limitations to the MOD10A1 daily snow albedo product, some of which can be mitigated. Utilizing the appropriate per-pixel Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDFs) can be problematic, and correction for anisotropic scattering must be included. The BRDF describes how the reflectance varies with view and illumination geometry. Also, narrow-to-broadband conversion specific for snow on different surfaces must be calculated and this can be difficult. In consideration of these limitations of MOD10A1, we are planning to improve the daily snow albedo algorithm by coupling the periodic per-pixel snow albedo from MCD43, with daily surface ref|outanoom, In this paper, we compare a daily version of MCD43B3 with the daily albedo from MOD10A1. and MCD43B3 with a 16-day average of MOD10A1, over Greenland. We also discuss some near-future planned enhancements to MOD10A1.

  15. Implication of global environmental changes on chemical toxicity-effect of water temperature, pH, and ultraviolet B irradiation on acute toxicity of several pharmaceuticals in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungkon; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Pan-Gyi; Lee, Chulwoo; Choi, Kyunghee; Choi, Kyungho

    2010-04-01

    Global environmental change poses emerging environmental health challenges throughout the world. One of such threats could be found in chemical safety in aquatic ecosystem. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of several environmental factors, such as water pH, temperature and ultraviolet light on the toxicity of pharmaceutical compounds in water, using freshwater invertebrate Daphnia magna. Seven pharmaceuticals including ibuprofen, acetaminophen, lincomycin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline and sulfathiazole were chosen as test compounds based on their frequent detection in water. The experimental conditions of environmental parameters were selected within the ranges that could be encountered in temperate environment, i.e., water temperature (15, 21, and 25 degrees C), pH (7.4, 8.3, and 9.2), and UV-B light intensity (continuous irradiation of 15.0 microW/cm(2)). For acetaminophen, enrofloxacin and sulfathiazole, decrease in water pH generally led to increase of acute lethal toxicity, which could be explained by the unionized fraction of pharmaceuticals. Increase of water temperature enhanced the acute toxicity of the acetaminophen, enrofloxacin and chlortetracycline, potentially due to alteration in toxicokinetics of chemicals as well as impact on physiological mechanisms of the test organism. The presence of UV-B light significantly increased the toxicity of sulfathiazole, which could be explained by photo-modification of this chemical that lead to oxidative stress. Under the UV light, however, acute toxicity of enrofloxacin decreased, which might be due to photo-degradation. Since changing environmental conditions could affect exposure and concentration-response profile of environmental contaminants, such conditions should be identified and evaluated in order to better manage ecosystem health under changing global environment. PMID:19936919

  16. Daily Lesson Plan: Diagnosing Delusions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This New York Times Learning Network Daily Lesson Plan explores the dangers of widespread medical myths. Designed for grades 6-8 and 9-12, the lesson focuses on a NYT article about "a particular medical myth and how it has prevented some lung cancer patients from receiving treatment." Story link and discussion questions are provided. Students then conduct research and develop educational pamphlets on the topic for a neat interdisciplinary way to demonstrate their understanding of the issue. Extension activities, vocabulary words, and Web links are all included.

  17. REL3.0 SW DAILY LOCAL

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-07-09

    REL3.0 SW DAILY LOCAL Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release 3.0 GEWEX Shortwave Daily Local Time Data in Native grid binary format   News:  ... Temporal Resolution:  Daily from 3-hourly Local Sun time values File Format:  BINARY Tools:  ...

  18. Hibernation and daily torpor minimize mammalian extinctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiser, Fritz; Turbill, Christopher

    2009-10-01

    Small mammals appear to be less vulnerable to extinction than large species, but the underlying reasons are poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that almost all (93.5%) of 61 recently extinct mammal species were homeothermic, maintaining a constant high body temperature and thus energy expenditure, which demands a high intake of food, long foraging times, and thus exposure to predators. In contrast, only 6.5% of extinct mammals were likely heterothermic and employed multi-day torpor (hibernation) or daily torpor, even though torpor is widespread within more than half of all mammalian orders. Torpor is characterized by substantial reductions of body temperature and energy expenditure and enhances survival during adverse conditions by minimizing food and water requirements, and consequently reduces foraging requirements and exposure to predators. Moreover, because life span is generally longer in heterothermic mammals than in related homeotherms, heterotherms can employ a ‘sit-and-wait’ strategy to withstand adverse periods and then repopulate when circumstances improve. Thus, torpor is a crucial but hitherto unappreciated attribute of small mammals for avoiding extinction. Many opportunistic heterothermic species, because of their plastic energetic requirements, may also stand a better chance of future survival than homeothermic species in the face of greater climatic extremes and changes in environmental conditions caused by global warming.

  19. Total Maximum Daily Load Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides this informative resource on Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL). A term used to discuss water quality, TMDL refers to "a calculation of the maximum amount of a pollutant that a water body can receive and still meet water quality standards." The TMDL Program Website offers background information on TMDLs (including FAQs), a National Overview of Impaired Waters in the US, and two standard presentations on TMDLs (HTML and Power Point). The heart of the site, however, is the interactive map of the US, which allows users access to each state's TMDL Program. Within each state, watershed names and maps, as well as source information (Water body, Parameter of Concern, Priority for TMDL Development), are provided.

  20. The Daily Palette Digital Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-10

    Every day, the staff members at the Daily Palette Digital Collection at the University of Iowa Libraries put up a new artwork by a different Iowa artist. Since the project was launched in 2004, the collection has profiled over 1,000 artists working in the fine arts, literature, video, and the performing arts. Visitors can scroll through the Highlights of Collection section near the bottom of the page for a taste of the very intriguing offerings here. The Subcollections area includes areas like Iowa Writes, Iowa on Stage, and Iowa at 30 Frames per second. This last area has 11 rather intriguing short films, including "Body Beasts," "Back of the Mike," and "Alternative Forms of Energy." Also, Iowa Writes includes over 700 poems, including "Ode to Thresher" and "16th Avenue, Cedar Rapids."

  1. Brown Daily Herald Digital Archive

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Since 1891, the Brown Daily Herald has chronicled "political protest, athletic wins and losses, curricular changes, and students' initiative." Recently, Brown University's Center for Digital Initiatives and the Herald began working together to create this digital archive of the paper. On the site, visitors can learn more about the digitization project, sign up to be part of their LinkedIn group, and also take a look at their online store. Using the archive is quite simple, and visitors are encouraged to view specific issues by year or month, and they can also use a search engine to look for news coverage of particular interest. One rather compelling feature of the site is that returned search results include the page or story in question, along with thumbnails of the other pages in the issues on the bottom of the screen.

  2. Corticosteroid replacement therapy: twice or thrice daily?

    PubMed

    Groves, R W; Toms, G C; Houghton, B J; Monson, J P

    1988-09-01

    Although glucocorticoid replacement is conventionally administered twice daily, the pharmacokinetics of hydrocortisone would predict very low levels of plasma cortisol by mid-afternoon. This study compared plasma cortisol day profiles in 7 hypoadrenal patients while on twice daily and thrice daily hydrocortisone replacement. The twice daily regimen was associated with very low levels of cortisol at 16.00 and 18.00 h. This was eliminated by administering the same total dose in a thrice daily regimen. Furthermore, estimates of 'well-being' by visual analogue scale correlated significantly with simultaneous plasma cortisol levels and 5 of the patients expressed a preference for the thrice daily regimen. The findings suggest that thrice daily glucocorticoid replacement therapy should be adopted routinely. PMID:3184107

  3. Corticosteroid replacement therapy: twice or thrice daily?

    PubMed Central

    Groves, R W; Toms, G C; Houghton, B J; Monson, J P

    1988-01-01

    Although glucocorticoid replacement is conventionally administered twice daily, the pharmacokinetics of hydrocortisone would predict very low levels of plasma cortisol by mid-afternoon. This study compared plasma cortisol day profiles in 7 hypoadrenal patients while on twice daily and thrice daily hydrocortisone replacement. The twice daily regimen was associated with very low levels of cortisol at 16.00 and 18.00 h. This was eliminated by administering the same total dose in a thrice daily regimen. Furthermore, estimates of 'well-being' by visual analogue scale correlated significantly with simultaneous plasma cortisol levels and 5 of the patients expressed a preference for the thrice daily regimen. The findings suggest that thrice daily glucocorticoid replacement therapy should be adopted routinely. PMID:3184107

  4. Irradiated foods

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes and for the control of insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

  5. Mastering Social and Organization Goals: Strategy Use by Two Children with Asperger Syndrome during Cognitive Orientation to Daily Occupational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodger, Sylvia; Vishram, Alysha

    2010-01-01

    Preliminary data supports the effectiveness of Cognitive Orientation to (daily) Occupational Performance (CO-OP) for children with Asperger syndrome (AS). Children with AS often experience social and organizational difficulties spanning daily occupations. This case study explored the pattern of Global Strategies and Domain-Specific Strategies…

  6. Flexibility in daily travel routines causes regional variation in bird migration speed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond H. G. Klaassen; Roine Strandberg; Mikael Hake; Thomas Alerstam

    2008-01-01

    We used novel Global Positioning System-based satellite telemetry to reconstruct daily time budgets on travelling days of\\u000a a long-distance migrant, the Osprey Pandion haliaetus, to reveal how landscape affects migratory performance. We compared daily travel routines between the Ospreys’ passage of\\u000a Europe and the Sahara. In Europe, where feeding habitat is abundant, Ospreys fed both before–after flights and during interruptions,

  7. Whole-abdomen radiotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma using twice-daily fractionation

    SciTech Connect

    Liauw, Stanley L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Yeh, Alexander M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clarian Health Methodist-IU-Riley Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Morris, Christopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Olivier, Kenneth R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Mendenhall, Nancy Price [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States)]. E-mail: mendenan@shands.ufl.edu

    2006-12-01

    Purpose: To report the tolerability and efficacy of twice-daily whole-abdomen irradiation (WAI) for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Methods and Materials: Of 123 patients treated for NHL with WAI, 37% received previous chemotherapy, 28% received WAI as part of comprehensive lymphatic irradiation (CLI), and 32% received WAI for palliation. The median dose to the whole abdomen was 25.0 Gy, followed by a median tumor boost of 9.8 Gy in 58 patients. Fractionation was 1.0 Gy once daily (54%) or 0.8 Gy twice daily (46%). Blood counts were measured weekly. Results: At a median follow-up of 4.3 years, local control was 72% and overall survival was 55% at 5 years. Median time of WAI was 42 days for once-daily treatment and 32 days for twice-daily treatment. Patients receiving twice-daily WAI did not have a significantly higher rate of acute side effects (e.g., nausea, diarrhea, platelet or red blood cell toxicity). Overall, acute thrombocytopenia was the most frequent side effect of treatment; 24 of 96 patients (25%) with available hematologic data had Grade 3+ toxicity. There was no acute Grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity and no late small bowel obstruction. Multiple regression indicated that patients with four or less involved sites and disease size {<=}6 cm had improved local control and overall survival. Conclusions: Twice-daily WAI using 0.8 Gy/fraction does not appear to have any greater toxicity compared with once-daily treatment using 1 Gy/fraction. Small doses per fraction (0.8-1 Gy/fx) are effective, tolerated well in the acute setting, and associated with a low rate of late toxicity.

  8. Volcanic Effects on Turbidity and Irradiances and Their Dependence on Surface Wind Direction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryznar, Edward

    1987-02-01

    Solar irradiances, atmospheric turbidity and meteorological variables measured at the University of Michigan are analyzed to determine effects of the 30 m wind direction on irradiance and turbidity changes caused by the El Chichón volcanic cloud. Results for the period with the largest volcanic effects, from 26 October 1982 through mid-June 1983, are compared with results for the same eight-month period in 1979-80, 1980-81, 1981-82 and 1983-84.Effects of boundary-layer turbidity for winds from southerly directions occasionally masked effects of the stratospheric volcanic cloud on solar irradiances and sunphotometer estimates of Angström turbidity parameters. As a result, volcanic effects could be quantified most reliably for winds only from northerly directions. The largest changes occurred with 30 m winds from the north-northwest octant, for which the volcanic cloud caused the average 500 nm aerosol optical depth to increase from 0.15 to 0.28, the turbidity coefficient to increase from 0.08 to 0.17, and the wavelength exponent to decrease from near unity to 0.6. The ratio of diffuse-to-direct solar irradiance increased from 0.10 to 0.21.For winds from southerly directions, average turbidity was larger and more variable, and irradiance and turbidity changes due to the volcanic cloud were smaller. The smallest changes occurred with 30 in winds from the east-southeast octant, for which the cloud caused the optical depth to increase from 0.29 to 0.31, the turbidity coefficient to increase from 0.09 to 0.16, and the wavelength exponent to decrease from 1.3 to 0.9. The ratio of diffuse-to-direct irradiance increased from 0.15 to 0.22.Daily totals of solar irradiances for 22 cloudless days from 26 October 1982 to 8 June 1983 showed the following average percentage changes from average conditions caused by the cloud: direct normal, 24; diffuse, +87; global, 5; global spectral (630-2800 nm), 1; and south-facing 42.3°-inclined, 5.

  9. Irradiation Information

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Food Safety Consortium (FSC) is a federally created consortium consisting of researchers from the University of Arkansas, Iowa State University and Kansas State University. The FSC conducts research in poultry, beef, and pork production. This site contains summary articles from the FDA, the Washington Times, the Los Angeles Times, the Chicago Tribune, and newsletter articles from the FSC. Previously approved for use on poultry and fruits and vegetables in the US, irradiation can kill disease-causing bacteria like Salmonella and Escherichia coli 0157:H7 (discussed in the Scout Report for Science and Engineering's In the News section, September 17, 1997), and molds and funguses that cause rot. With recent US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval, irradiation can now be used to process red meat (e.g., beef, pork, lamb, and byproducts). The process involves exposing food to a source of radiation such as gamma rays from radioactive cobalt 60, cesium 137, or x-rays. No radioactive material is added to the product, and the technique is routinely used on grains and spices, as well as for sterilizing disposable medical devices. In spite of a number of tests conducted over the last 30 years substantiating its safety, irradiation has not gained widespread public acceptance in the US. This is largely due to the public's general fear of processes utilizing radiation. Supporters of the technology claim that it will virtually eliminate food-borne illness in the US, while skeptics feel that technology such as steam treatment can accomplish adequate sterilization without the purported risks and public concern associated with irradiation.

  10. Global / globalizing cities.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, B S

    1999-01-01

    Along with the rise in research on globalization, the concept of globalization has become a subject to a more critical scrutiny. While majority agree that it represents a serious challenge to the state-centrist assumptions of most previous social science, doubts about its newness, inevitability and epoch-making qualities are also being raised. Others argue that the globalization literature neglects issues of social regulation by the nation-state, while some critics view it as a discourse drawn upon to legitimize particular political and economic agendas. Debates focus on metropolitan manifestations and impacts. Moving from this background, the paper presents three sociospatial urban configurations that have emerged in the literature. Alongside attempts at identifying globalizing cities and transnational urban networks as new theoretical subjects, another significant vein in the literature focuses on the complex forces of globalization and the production of new urban spaces in these cities. In addition, economic conceptions of globalization is now being pushed beyond adding sociocultural or sociopolitical dimensions and argue instead for the need to theorize globalization as a discursive formation. The global city as a discursive category conjures up imaginary concepts of high modernity, megadevelopment, 21st century urbanity. However, it is noted that the way forward is to focus on the distinctive ways in which urban actors engage in specific processes of economic and social reflexivity. There exists an urgent task for theorizations of the global city, which weave together historical, economic, cultural, sociopolitical and discursive dimensions. PMID:12296126

  11. Daily Stressors in Primary Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Trianes, María V.; Escobar, Milagros; Blanca, María J.; Muñoz, Ángela M.

    2015-01-01

    Daily stress can have a bearing on children's emotional and academic development. This study aimed to assess daily stressors and to determine their prevalence among primary education students, taking into account their gender, academic year, social adaptation, and the school location. A sample of 7,354 Spanish schoolchildren aged between 6…

  12. Stochastic Modelling of Daily Rainfall sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Buishand

    1977-01-01

    Rainfall series of different climatic regions were analysed with the aim of generating daily rainfall sequences. A survey of the data is given in I, 1. When analysing daily rainfall sequences one must be aware of the following points:a. Seasonality. Because of seasonal variation of features of the rainfall process the analysis is done for each month or season separately

  13. Bayesian Adaptive Trading with a Daily Cycle

    E-print Network

    Almgren, Robert F.

    Bayesian Adaptive Trading with a Daily Cycle Robert Almgren and Julian Lorenz July 28, 2006 Abstract Standard models of algorithmic trading neglect the presence of a daily cycle. We construct a model in which the trader uses infor- mation from observations of price evolution during the day to con

  14. Techniques for Daily Living: Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooldridge, Lillian; And Others

    Presented are specific guides concerning techniques for daily living which were developed by the child care staff at the Illinois Braille and Sight Saving School. The guides are designed for cottage parents of the children, who may have both visual and other handicaps, and show what daily living skills are necessary and appropriate for the…

  15. Adolescent Daily and General Maladjustment: Is There Reactivity to Daily Repeated Measures Methodologies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishina, Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined whether repeated exposure to daily surveys about negative social experiences predicts changes in adolescents' daily and general maladjustment, and whether question content moderates these changes. Across a 2-week period, 6th-grade students (N = 215; mode age = 11) completed 5 daily reports tapping experienced or…

  16. When Daily Deal Services Meet Twitter: Understanding Twitter as a Daily Deal Marketing Platform

    E-print Network

    Chung, Chin-Wan

    When Daily Deal Services Meet Twitter: Understanding Twitter as a Daily Deal Marketing Platform, Yuseong-gu Daejeon, Korea +82-42-350-7837 chungcw@kaist.edu ABSTRACT Twitter, a microblogging service Twitter for marketing purpose; daily deal providers such as Groupon and LivingSocial are not only engaged

  17. Time variation analysis of the daily Forbush decrease indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Sankar Narayan; Ghosh, Koushik; Panja, Subhash Chandra

    2011-08-01

    In the present paper we have analyzed the daily Forbush decrease indices from January 1, 1967 to December 31, 2003. First filtering the time series by Simple Exponential Smoothing, we have applied Scargle Method of Periodogram on the processed time series in order to search for its time variation. Study exhibits periodicities around 174, 245, 261, 321, 452, 510, 571, 584, 662, 703, 735, 741, 767, 774, 820, 970, 1062, 1082, 1489, 1715, 2317, 2577, 2768, 3241 and 10630 days with confidence levels higher than 90%. Some of these periods are significantly similar to the observed periodicities of other solar activities, like solar filament activity, solar electron flare occurrence, solar-flare rate, solar proton events, solar neutrino flux, solar irradiance, cosmic ray intensity and flare, spectrum of the sunspot, solar wind, southern coronal hole area and solar cycle, which may suggest that the Forbush decrease behaves similarly to these solar activities and these activities may have a common origin.

  18. Urban tree influences on ultraviolet irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heisler, Gordon M.; Grant, Richard H.; Gao, Wei

    2002-01-01

    Many of the effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on people and their environment--damage to various materials, survival of insects and microbial pathogens, growth of vegetation, and adverse or beneficial effects on human health--are modified by the presence of trees. Human epidemiological investigations generally consider exposure as given by indices of UVR irradiance on horizontal surfaces in the open. Though many people are exposed to UVR while reclining at a beach or swimming pool, thus experiencing irradiance on essentially horizontal surfaces in the open, exposure to UVR during daily routines in urban areas may also be important in affecting human health. Tree influences on UVR irradiance, particularly in the UVB, can differ substantially from influences on the visible portion of the solar spectrum. Trees greatly reduce UVB irradiance in their shade when they obscure both the sun and sky. Where trees obscure the sun but leave much of the sky in view, UVB irradiance will be greater than suggested by the visible shadow. In small sunny areas near trees that block much of the sky from view, UVB irradiance is reduced substantially, whereas visible irradiance may be nearly as great or slightly greater than in the open.

  19. ERP time series with daily and sub-daily resolution determined from CONT05

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artz, T.; Böckmann, S.; Nothnagel, A.; Tesmer, V.

    2007-07-01

    From time to time, continuous VLBI campaigns take place under the direction of the IVS. Even though these observations are continuous over two weeks, the standard VLBI analysis procedure leads to independent daily datasets. In this paper, an alternative approach is presented to estimate earth rotation parameters with different temporal resolutions. By stacking the single sessions to a two-weekly solution on the normal equation level, a consistent time series is produced over the whole CONT05 period. Stacked parameters are station positions which are estimated in a 'global' approach and borders of time dependent parameters e.g. zenith wet delay. Analysis of the correlation matrix of estimated parameters gives an impression of the dependencies between them. Furthermore, it is demonstrated how these dependencies depend on the type of datum used. E.g. correlations between earth rotation parameters (ERP) and tropospheric zenith delay of certain VLBI sites have been detected. The ERP time series resulting from the stacking approach turned out to be more consistent over the fortnightly time span. In particular, time series of hourly ERP exhibit a better behaviour at the session boundaries, since the discrepancies at session borders due to poorly determined intervals is minimized.

  20. Tomotherapy: implications on daily workload and scheduling patients based on three years' institutional experience.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, T; Czajka, E; Bak, B; Kazmierska, J; Skorska, M; Ryczkowski, A; Adamczyk, M; Jodda, A

    2014-06-01

    Helical tomotherapy (HT) was introduced at the Greater Poland Cancer Centre (GPCC) in April 2009. Retrospective analysis included data from the treatments performed for the first 656 patients treated with HT between May 2009 and May 2012 at the GPCC. In order to evaluate the implications on daily workload and scheduling of patients, stepwise regression and time analysis for each component of the overall treatment time, such as positioning, imaging, registration, and irradiation were performed. A detailed analysis included: (1) learning curves and optimized time needed for positioning and registration; (2) relation between irradiation time and parameters used for plan creation; and (3) average time of daily imaging. The irradiation component has the highest influence on the overall treatment time (R = 0.911). The lowest influence was observed for the imaging (R = 0.670). The learning curve for positioning was 7 months while the reduction of the average daily time needed for registration was observed even after two years. The irradiation time strongly depends on the planning parameters. Changing the pitch from 0.215 to 0.287 for pelvic cancer cases decreased the average daily beam-on time per patient by about 2 minutes. Similar changes for head and neck reduced this time by 1.3 minutes. The limitation in the usage of 1 cm field width only for complex cases, lower than 10 cm in the cranio-caudal direction, reduced the beam-on time per patient by 2 minutes. The average overall treatment time decreased from 21.5 minutes per patient in the first year of the HT usage to 13.8 minutes per patient in current practice. Our current practice shows that for a group of patients including mainly those with pelvis and head and neck cancers, the HT treatment takes approximately 15 minutes per patient allowing 40 patients to be treated within 10 hours. PMID:24066951

  1. Deconstructive Globalization: Universalism, Globality, Diversity+

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Deconstructive Globalization: Universalism, Globality, Diversity+ Alain-Marc Rieu* + * Professor of Globalization alternative to Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri's perspective in Empire (Cambridge: Harvard the world and opening a major transition. The first process is identified as Globalization, it concerns

  2. Safer Food with Irradiation 

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Britta; Vestal, Andy; Van Laanen, Peggy

    2003-01-21

    This publication answers questions about food irradiation and how it helps prevent foodborne illnesses. Included are explanations of how irradiation works and its benefits. Irradiation is a safe method of preserving food quality and ensuring its...

  3. Development of an approach for generation of temporally complete daily nadir MODIS reflectance time series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junchang Ju; David P. Roy; Yanmin Shuai; Crystal Schaaf

    2010-01-01

    Consistent, spatially and temporally complete reflectance time series are required for reliable terrestrial monitoring. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), like other polar-orbiting wide field of view satellite sensors, can provide global observations on a nearly daily basis, but the sparseness of valid observations due to cloud, residual atmospheric effects, and sensor anomalies, may result in gaps in the derived

  4. Forecasting of preprocessed daily solar radiation time series using neural networks

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Forecasting of preprocessed daily solar radiation time series using neural networks Christophe prediction of global solar radiation on a horizontal surface. First results are promising with nRMSE ~ 21 methodology has been validated on a 1.175 kWc mono-Si PV power grid. Six prediction methods (ANN, clear sky

  5. Daily Thermal Predictions of the AGR-1 Experiment with Gas Gaps Varying with Time

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Hawkes; James Sterbentz; John Maki; Binh Pham

    2012-06-01

    A new daily as-run thermal analysis was performed at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) test experiment number one at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This thermal analysis incorporates gas gaps changing with time during the irradiation experiment. The purpose of this analysis was to calculate the daily average temperatures of each compact to compare with experimental results. Post irradiation examination (PIE) measurements of the graphite holder and fuel compacts showed the gas gaps varying from the beginning of life. The control temperature gas gap and the fuel compact – graphite holder gas gaps were linearly changed from the original fabrication dimensions, to the end of irradiation measurements. A steady-state thermal analysis was performed for each daily calculation. These new thermal predictions more closely match the experimental data taken during the experiment than previous analyses. Results are presented comparing normalized compact average temperatures to normalized log(R/B) Kr-85m. The R/B term is the measured release rate divided by the predicted birth rate for the isotope Kr-85m. Correlations between these two normalized values are presented.

  6. Daily thermal predictions of the AGR-1 experiment with gas gaps varying with time

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkes, G.; Sterbentz, J.; Maki, J.; Pham, B. [Idaho National Laboratory, MS 3870, 2525 Fremont (United States)

    2012-07-01

    A new daily as-run thermal analysis was performed at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) test experiment number one at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This thermal analysis incorporates gas gaps changing with time during the irradiation experiment. The purpose of this analysis was to calculate the daily average temperatures of each compact to compare with experimental results. Post irradiation examination (PIE) measurements of the graphite holder and fuel compacts showed the gas gaps changed from the beginning of life. The control temperature gas gap and the fuel compact - graphite holder gas gaps were modeled with a linear change from the original fabrication gap dimensions to the end of irradiation measurements. A steady-state thermal analysis was performed for each daily calculation with the commercial finite element heat transfer code ABAQUS. These new thermal predictions more closely match the experimental data taken during the experiment than previous analyses. Results are presented comparing normalized compact average temperatures to normalized log(R/B) Kr-85m. The R/B term is the measured release rate divided by the predicted birth rate for the isotope Kr-85m. Correlations between these two normalized values are presented. (authors)

  7. Water: Meeting Your Daily Fluid Needs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov . Nutrition for Everyone Nutrition Topics Share Compartir Water: Meeting Your Daily Fluid Needs Ever notice how ... drink more fluids. Where do I get the water I need? Most of your water needs are ...

  8. P5.60B DERIVATION OF DAYLIGHT AND SOLAR IRRADIANCE DATA FROM SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS

    E-print Network

    Heinemann, Detlev

    . Fontoynont (ENTPE Vaulx-en-Velin, France) L. Wald (Ecole des Mines, Sophia-Antipolis, France) H. G. Beyer global irradiance under a clear sky Iclear (Bourges, 1979). Instead, here the extraterrestrial global

  9. Associations among Daily Stressors and Salivary Cortisol: Findings from the National Study of Daily Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Stawski, Robert S.; Cichy, Kelly E.; Piazza, Jennifer R.; Almeida, David M.

    2013-01-01

    While much research has focused on linking stressful experiences to emotional and biological reactions in laboratory settings, there is an emerging interest in extending these examinations to field studies of daily life. The current study examined day-to-day associations among naturally-occurring daily stressors and salivary cortisol in a national sample of adults from the second wave of the National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE). A sample of 1,694 adults (Age=57, Range=33–84; 44% male) completed telephone interviews detailing their stressors and emotions on eight consecutive evenings. Participants also provided saliva samples upon waking, 30 minutes post-waking, before lunch and before bed, on four consecutive interview days resulting in 5,995 days of interview/cortisol data. Analyses revealed three main findings. First, cortisol AUC was significantly higher on stressor days compared to stressor-free days, particularly for arguments and overloads at home, suggesting that daily stressors are associated with increased cortisol output, but that not all daily stressors have such an influence. Second, individuals reporting a greater frequency of stressor days also exhibited a steeper diurnal cortisol slope. Finally, daily stressor-cortisol associations were unaltered after adjustment for daily negative affect and physical symptoms. Our discussion focuses on the influence of naturally-occurring daily stressors on daily cortisol and the role of daily diary approaches for studying healthy cortisol responses to psychosocial stressors outside of traditional laboratory settings. PMID:23856186

  10. Vestibular loss disrupts daily rhythm in rats.

    PubMed

    Martin, T; Mauvieux, B; Bulla, J; Quarck, G; Davenne, D; Denise, P; Philoxène, B; Besnard, S

    2015-02-01

    Hypergravity disrupts the circadian regulation of temperature (Temp) and locomotor activity (Act) mediated through the vestibular otolithic system in mice. In contrast, we do not know whether the anatomical structures associated with vestibular input are crucial for circadian rhythm regulation at 1 G on Earth. In the present study we observed the effects of bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) on the daily rhythms of Temp and Act in semipigmented rats. Our model of vestibular lesion allowed for selective peripheral hair cell degeneration without any other damage. Rats with BVL exhibited a disruption in their daily rhythms (Temp and Act), which were replaced by a main ultradian period (? <20 h) for 115.8 ± 68.6 h after vestibular lesion compared with rats in the control group. Daily rhythms of Temp and Act in rats with BVL recovered within 1 wk, probably counterbalanced by photic and other nonphotic time cues. No correlation was found between Temp and Act daily rhythms after vestibular lesion in rats with BVL, suggesting a direct influence of vestibular input on the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Our findings support the hypothesis that the vestibular system has an influence on daily rhythm homeostasis in semipigmented rats on Earth, and raise the question of whether daily rhythms might be altered due to vestibular pathology in humans. PMID:25505031

  11. A new model of total solar irradiance based on sunspot areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dora G. Preminger; Stephen R. Walton

    2005-01-01

    We show that daily sunspot area can be used in a simple model to reconstruct daily variations in the total solar irradiance, S. The model assumes that all fluctuations in S are correlated with the emergence of sunspots on the solar disk. Cotemporal data for S and sunspot area are analysed to extract the finite impulse response function that describes

  12. Modeling Solar Spectral Irradiance and Total Magnetic Flux Using Sunspot Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dora G. Preminger; Stephen R. Walton

    2006-01-01

    We show that daily sunspot areas can be used in a simple, single parameter model to reconstruct daily variations in several other solar parameters, including solar spectral irradiance and total magnetic flux. The model assumes that changes in any given parameter can be treated mathematically as the response of the system to the emergence of a sunspot. Using cotemporal observational

  13. A simple method to estimate global radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Supit; R. R. van Kappel

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a method to provide estimates of daily global radiation as input for the Crop Growth Monitoring System of the European Union, from meteorological observations transmitted via the Global Telecommunication System for locations where sunshine duration observations are not available and hence the Ångström, or any other sunshine duration based method, cannot be

  14. Global canopy interception from satellite observations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new methodology for retrieving rainfall interception rates from multi satellite observations is presented. The approach makes use of the daily productof the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) as driving data and applies Gash’s analytical model to derive interception rates at global sc...

  15. Evaluation of Algorithms to estimate Daily Evapotranspiration from Instantaneous Measurements under All-sky Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Zhaojie; Jia, Li; Menenti, Massimo

    2014-03-01

    Instantaneous EvapoTranspiration (ET) can be estimated using a single set of instantaneous observations by polar orbiting satellites during the day. Daily, weekly or monthly total ET is required for hydrological studies and water resources assessment. This requires daily total ET regardless of cloud cover. The daily total ET is usually determined assuming that the evaporative fraction (EF) remains constant during at least the central hours of the day and that the product of EF times the daily total net radiation gives a satisfactory estimate of daily total ET. The impact of cloud cover is rarely discussed. In this paper, we used data collected at two experimental sites in the Heihe River basin in northwestern China: Arou with grassland in an alpine region and Yingke with agricultural crops in a semi-arid region. Two methods were evaluated to determine daily total ET with instantaneous observations: a) self-conservation of evaporative fraction (EF_const); b) assuming the diurnal course of ET is the same sinusoidal function of the time of the instantaneous observation as the solar irradiance (Rs) (ET-Rs). Daily ET calculated with the two methods were evaluated against observed daily values. The results showed that these assumptions did not hold and the accuracy of ET estimates obtained with either method was reduced by: a) diurnal variation of ET and b) the time lag between ET and net radiation under clear skies. Larger errors occurred when applying both methods under cloudy conditions during the growing season, while in the remaining part of the year the impact of cloud cover was lower.

  16. SORCE Solar Irradiance Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratz, C. K.; Knapp, B. G.; Fontenla, J. M.; Rottman, G. J.; Woods, T. N.; Harder, J. W.; Kopp, G.; McClintock, W. E.; Snow, M.

    2005-05-01

    The SORCE Science Data System produces Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) and Spectral Solar Irradiance (SSI) data products on a daily basis, which are formulated using measurements from the four primary instruments on board the SORCE spacecraft. The TIM instrument provides measurements of the TSI, whereas the SIM, SOLSTICE, and XPS instruments collectively provide measurements of the solar irradiance spectrum from 1 nm to 3000 nm (excluding 31-115nm, which is covered by the TIMED SEE experiment). The Science Data System utilizes raw spacecraft and instrument telemetry, calibration data, and other ancillary information to produce a variety of data products that have been corrected for all known instrumental and operational factors. Since launch of the SORCE spacecraft in January 2003, science processing algorithms have continued to mature, and "Level 3" data products are routinely being produced and delivered to the public via the SORCE web site and the Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). This poster provides an overview of the SORCE data processing system, summarizes the present state of the processing algorithms and the quality of the current SORCE data products, and provides details on how to access SORCE science data.

  17. SORCE Solar Irradiance Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratz, C. K.; Knapp, B. G.; Fontenla, J. M.; Rottman, G. J.; Woods, T. N.; Harder, J. W.; Kopp, G.; McClintock, W. E.; Snow, M.

    2005-12-01

    The SORCE Science Data System produces Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) and Spectral Solar Irradiance (SSI) data products on a daily basis, which are formulated using measurements from the four primary instruments on board the SORCE spacecraft. The TIM instrument provides measurements of the TSI, whereas the SIM, SOLSTICE, and XPS instruments collectively provide measurements of the solar irradiance spectrum from 1 nm to 2700 nm (excluding 31-115 nm, which is measured by the TIMED SEE experiment). The Science Data System utilizes raw spacecraft and instrument telemetry, calibration data, and other ancillary information to produce a variety of data products that have been corrected for all known instrumental and operational factors. Since launch of the SORCE spacecraft in January 2003, science processing algorithms have continued to mature, and "Level 3" data products are routinely being produced and delivered to the public via the SORCE web site and the Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). This poster provides an overview of the SORCE data processing system, summarizes the present state of the processing algorithms and future plans, describes the quality of the current SORCE data products, and provides details on how to access SORCE science data. The NPOESS TSIS instrument package will also include TIM and SIM instruments, having direct flight heritage from the SORCE mission, and will produce data products similar to those produced by the existing SORCE Science Data System.

  18. [Radiotherapy combined with daily administration of low dose cisplatin for head and neck cancer].

    PubMed

    Hinohira, Y; Yumoto, E; Takahashi, H; Mori, T; Kawamura, T; Takechi, T

    1996-04-01

    Radiotherapy combined with daily administration of low-dose cisplatin (CDDP) was applied to 12 cases with head and neck cancer. They consisted of 12 carcinomas, occurring in the epipharynx (3 cases), mesopharynx (3), oral cavity (1), larynx (3) and parasinuses (2). The total response rate (CR + PR) was 83.3%. There was a remarkable effect in reducing tumor size, particularly on patients with laryngeal or epipharyngeal carcinoma. Severe mucositis with ulcers as a side effect was seen in eight cases after the irradiation of 20 to 30 Gy. Six of them tolerated a full dose of irradiation, but CDDP administration was stopped except in one case. To continue the CDDP administration in cases having irradiation of over 40 Gy, it is necessary to reduce the frequency of CDDP administration and/or to give post-irradiative hydration with 500 ml saline. When this combination therapy is used as a preoperative treatment, daily administration should be continued. Incidence of nausea or vomiting was not so frequent and they could be easily controlled by a serotonin-antagonist. Leukopenia was not severe. PMID:8678513

  19. A comparison of daily CT localization to a daily ultrasound-based system in prostate cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Lattanzi; Shawn McNeeley; Wayne Pinover; Eric Horwitz; Indra Das; Timothy E Schultheiss; Gerald E Hanks

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Daily CT localization has been demonstrated to be a precise method of correcting radiation field placement by reducing setup and organ motion variations to facilitate dose escalation in prostate carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of daily ultrasound-guided localization utilizing daily CT as a standard. The relatively simple computer-assisted ultrasound-based system is

  20. Use of Irradiated Foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1985-01-01

    The safety of irradiated foods is reviewed. Guidelines and regulations for processing irradiated foods are considered. The radiolytic products formed in food when it is irradiated and its wholesomeness is discussed. It is concluded that food irradiation processing is not a panacea for all problems in food processing but when properly used will serve the space station well.

  1. Globalization Nationalized

    E-print Network

    Mazlish, Bruce

    Globalism and globalization have been seen as competitors to other allegiances, namely regionalism and nationalism. A look at recent efforts at reconceptualizing global history in China, Korea and the U.S., however, suggests ...

  2. Poultry irradiation: For hygiene\\/safety and market?life enhancement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George G. Giddings; Michelle Marcotte

    1991-01-01

    The irradiation of fresh, raw poultry and of further?processed poultry products has been the subject of research, testing, and evaluation since the late 1940s, along with red meat and other food irradiation applications. An enormous bank of information on all aspects of poultry irradiation has been developed over this period, through what has been a truly global effort. This review

  3. TRENDS IN DIRECT NORMAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE IN OREGON FROM 1979-2003 Laura Riihimaki

    E-print Network

    Oregon, University of

    increasing [4] The global dimming studies primarily analyzed global irradiance data while this analysis uses suggest that here, at least, global dimming does not seem to be occurring; rather, the summers are getting recent studies which find decreasing trends in global radiation data worldwide. The data analysis

  4. MathMastery.com: Daily Brains

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    Six days a week, a new math problem is posted on this Web site to intrigue and challenge grade school students. Each Daily Brain has a different theme, considering some mathematical perspective of science, history, geography, and more. After solving the problem, or for a little help, students can look at a step-by-step solution that is also posted online. All old Daily Brains are kept in an archive, and as of May 2003, they numbered around 400. The problems are mostly intended for students between fourth and sixth grades.

  5. Short communication RadEst3.00: software to estimate daily radiation data from commonly available meteorological variables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcello Donatelli; Gianni Bellocchi; Fioravante Fontana

    RadEst3.00 estimates and evaluates daily global solar radiation values at given latitudes. Radiation is calculated as the product of the atmospheric transmissivity of radiation times the radiation outside the earth atmosphere. Four models estimate the atmospheric transmissivity, based on the daily temperature range. Model parameters can be fitted over one or more years of data by iterative procedures. Graphical and

  6. Testis development and daily sperm output in guinea-fowl raised under constant daily photoperiods

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Testis development and daily sperm output in guinea-fowl raised under constant daily photoperiods J was consistent with the observations on testis weights. Under neither photoschedule was a correlation found in the guinea-fowl. The present paper describes for the first time changes in testis weight and sperm output

  7. Damage to Human Hair Caused by Repeated Bleaching Combined with Daily Weathering during Daily Life Activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Masukawa; Hisashi Tsujimura; H. Tanamachi; H. Narita; Genji Imokawa

    2004-01-01

    Background: Although it is well known that chemical oxidation with alkaline hydrogen peroxide damages human hair, little is known about the effects of bleaching during daily life activities which may alter hair components. Objective: To determine the effects of bleaching combined with daily weathering on lipids and amino acids in hair. Methods: Levels of lipids and amino acids were analyzed

  8. Solar irradiance short wave radiation users guide. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Martinolich, P.; Arnone, R.A.

    1995-05-19

    Solar irradiance for short wave radiation (400-700 nm) at the sea surface can be calculated using inputs obtained from satellite systems and model estimates. The short wave solar irradiance is important for estimating the surface heating that occurs in the near surface and estimating the available irradiance for biological growth in the upper ocean. The variability of the solar irradiance is believed to have significant influence on the global carbon cycle. This users guide provides an understanding of the models and operational procedures for using the software and understanding the results.

  9. Covering Religion News at Daily Newspapers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddenbaum, Judith M.

    A study surveyed the religion news reporters at daily newspapers in all circulation classes to assess the current state of the religion beat. Mail surveys were completed by 141 newspapers. Information concerning the following areas was solicited: (1) demographic characteristics (respondent's age, sex, religious preference), (2) staffing…

  10. INTERPOLATING VANCOUVER'S DAILY AMBIENT PM 10 FIELD

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this article we develop a spatial predictive distribution for the ambient space- time response field of daily ambient PM10 in Vancouver, Canada. Observed responses have a consistent temporal pattern from one monitoring site to the next. We exploit this feature of the field b...

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A PROTOTYPE ALTERNATIVE DAILY COVER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl D. Bishop; Susan G. MacKay; Zeomatrix Orono; Michael A. Bilodeau

    Alternative Daily Covers, or ADC's, are primarily valued for their ability to conserve airspace by reducing the soil cover needed for landfills. ADCs fall into two major categories: tarps and spray-on materials. The various spray-on ADCs include foam, mulch, and slurries which harden after application. Each of these alternatives provides adequate cover while freeing up hundreds of cubic yards of

  12. 2011 Daily Fire Log Date & Time

    E-print Network

    Boyce, Richard L.

    /19/2011 0827 Welcome Ctr Parking Garage Unintentional-- Vehicle Fire Engine compartment of parked vehicle--Closed Comments: Engine compartment of parked vehicle was on fire; no injuries. Report #: 2011-00496 Reported: 102011 Daily Fire Log Fire Log Report # Date & Time Occurred General Location Nature of the Fire

  13. Daily Reporting Rainfall Station CAPE YORK RIVERS

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    Daily Reporting Rainfall Station CAPE YORK RIVERS Manual Heavy Rainfall Station Manual River Station Telemetry Rainfall Station Telemetry River Station Revised: Nov 2011 MAP 919.1 FLOOD WARNING River Pormpuraaw Kowanyama Southwell Croydon Yappar R Blackbull Siding M itchellR StaatenR Dorunda TM

  14. Migrating Songbirds Recalibrate Their Magnetic Compass Daily

    E-print Network

    Murphy, Troy G.

    Migrating Songbirds Recalibrate Their Magnetic Compass Daily from Twilight Cues William W. Cochran, the same individuals migrated northward again. We suggest that birds orient with a magnetic compass­3) after a voyage of up to 25,000 km (4, 5). Migratory songbirds can orient on the basis of compass

  15. Your Future in Daily Newspapers. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Newspaper Publishers Association Foundation, Washington, DC.

    The purpose of this booklet is to examine the nature and growing responsibilities of the daily newspaper in an era of ferment and change. It is intended primarily as an instructive guide to upperclassmen in high school, where career decisions begin to take shape, but it is also of value to college students and researchers. Career opportunities on…

  16. National Institutes of Health Daily Food List

    Cancer.gov

    DAILY FOOD LIST PARTICIPANT ID HERE NOTIFICATION TO RESPONDENT OF ESTIMATED BURDEN Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 5 minutes per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information.

  17. Daily prostate targeting using implanted radiopaque markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dale Litzenberg; Laura A Dawson; Howard Sandler; Martin G Sanda; Daniel L McShan; Randall K Ten Haken; Kwok L Lam; Kristy K Brock; James M Balter

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: A system has been implemented for daily localization of the prostate through radiographic localization of implanted markers. This report summarizes an initial trial to establish the accuracy of patient setup via this system.Methods and Materials: Before radiotherapy, three radiopaque markers are implanted in the prostate periphery. Reference positions are established from CT data. Before treatment, orthogonal radiographs are acquired.

  18. TRENDS IN ANNUAL AND DAILY PRECIPITATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annual precipitation in the Great Plains was generally higher during the last two decades of the 20th century. Corresponding changes in daily precipitation amount, number of rainy days, and distribution throughout the year were investigated for Kingfisher in central Oklahoma. The number of rainy da...

  19. INVEST IN YOUR BONES Daily Activities

    E-print Network

    INVEST IN YOUR BONES Daily Activities Leaflet 3 Another osteoporosis prevention step to decrease lifestyle. Let's see how you can do that. If you have osteoporosis, follow carefully the activity program. Remember the following about osteoporosis: is largely preventable and treatable is a serious

  20. Modeling and Forecasting Electric Daily Peak Loads

    E-print Network

    Abdel-Aal, Radwan E.

    such as neural networks. With such techniques, the user does not need to explicitly specify the modelModeling and Forecasting Electric Daily Peak Loads Using Abductive Networks R. E. Abdel techniques including neural networks have been used for this purpose. This paper proposes the alternative

  1. Air pollution and daily mortality in Rome, Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Michelozzi; F. Forastiere; D. Fusco; C. A. Perucci; B. Ostro; C. Ancona; G. Pallotti

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the relation between several daily indicators of air pollution (particulates and gases) and daily mortality in the metropolitan area of Rome and in the central part of the city. METHODS: Time series analysis. The associations between daily concentrations of pollutants (particles, SO2, NO2, CO, O3) recorded by five fixed monitors and daily total mortality in the period

  2. Racial Differences in Exposure and Reactivity to Daily Family Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cichy, Kelly E.; Stawski, Robert S.; Almeida, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the National Study of Daily Experiences, the authors examined racial differences in exposure and reactivity to daily stressors involving family members. Respondents included African American and European American adults age 34 to 84 (N = 1,931) who participated in 8 days of daily interviews during which they reported on daily…

  3. Global Warming Kid's Site

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set up this site to teach kids about global warming, climate change, and climatology, as well as environmentally friendly habits that benefit the earth. The site allows students and educators to approach ecological issues from various perspectives. Global Warming (What it is) is an introduction to current climatological change. Other resources such as Climate and Weather and What is the Climate System? provide overviews of such climatological phenomena as the water cycle, greenhouse gasses, and climatological change over the world's history. Finally, socially and environmentally conscious resources such as So What's the BIG DEAL? and We CAN Make a Difference discuss how changes in our daily lives can affect our impact on the earth's climate. The site also has games, animations modeling climatological activity, and recommendations for educators interested in using the site.

  4. The interpersonal process model of intimacy in marriage: a daily-diary and multilevel modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Rovine, Michael J

    2005-06-01

    This study used daily reports of interactions in marriage to examine predictions from the conceptualization of intimacy as the outcome of an interpersonal process. Both partners of 96 married couples completed daily diaries assessing self-disclosure, partner disclosure, perceived partner responsiveness, and intimacy on each of 42 consecutive days. Multivariate multilevel modeling revealed that self-disclosure and partner disclosure both significantly and uniquely contributed to the contemporaneous prediction of intimacy. Perceived partner responsiveness partially mediated the effects of self-disclosure and partner disclosure on intimacy. Global marital satisfaction, relationship intimacy, and demand-withdraw communication were related to daily levels of intimacy. Implications for the importance of perceived partner responsiveness in the intimacy process for married partners are discussed. PMID:15982109

  5. Nasopharyngeal Radium Irradiation (NRI)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CDC to assess the health risks associated with nasopharyngeal radium irradiation. This treatment was an accepted medical ... a workshop on "The Public Health Response to Nasopharyngeal Radium Irradiation." It brought together a diverse group ...

  6. Influence of daily versus monthly fire emissions on atmospheric model applications in the tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlier, M. E.; Voulgarakis, A.; Faluvegi, G.; Shindell, D. T.; DeFries, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Fires are widely used throughout the tropics to create and maintain areas for agriculture, but are also significant contributors to atmospheric trace gas and aerosol concentrations. However, the timing and magnitude of fire activity can vary strongly by year and ecosystem type. For example, frequent, low intensity fires dominate in African savannas whereas Southeast Asian peatland forests are susceptible to huge pulses of emissions during regional El Niño droughts. Despite the potential implications for modeling interactions with atmospheric chemistry and transport, fire emissions have commonly been input into global models at a monthly resolution. Recognizing the uncertainty that this can introduce, several datasets have parsed fire emissions to daily and sub-daily scales with satellite active fire detections. In this study, we explore differences between utilizing the monthly and daily Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) products as inputs into the NASA GISS-E2 composition climate model. We aim to understand how the choice of the temporal resolution of fire emissions affects uncertainty with respect to several common applications of global models: atmospheric chemistry, air quality, and climate. Focusing our analysis on tropical ozone, carbon monoxide, and aerosols, we compare modeled concentrations with available ground and satellite observations. We find that increasing the temporal frequency of fire emissions from monthly to daily can improve correlations with observations, predominately in areas or during seasons more heavily affected by fires. Differences between the two datasets are more evident with public health applications: daily resolution fire emissions increases the number of days exceeding World Health Organization air quality targets.

  7. Inteligent estimation of daily evapotranspiration susing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifan, H.; Dehghani, A. A.

    2009-04-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is one of the parameters in water resources management which is attractive for design of irrigation systems. Due to interaction between meteorology parameter, there are nonlinear relations for assessing the evapotraqnspiration. Artifical neural networks are innovative approaches for estimation and prediction by using learning concept. In this study, by using the daily data of Gorgan synoptical station in Golestan province/ Iran the multilayer perceptron with back propagation learning rule was trained. Five different ANN models comprision various combinations of daily climate variable, i. e. air temperature, sunshine, wind speed and humidity was developed to evaluate degree of effect of each input variables on ET. A comparison is made between the estimated provide by ANN models and ET-values estimated by FAO-Penman-Monteith (F-P-M) method. The results show that ANN models perform better than experimental relation. Keyword : Evapotranspiration, Artifical neural network, Penman-Manteith, Gorgan.

  8. Heavy metals in common foodstuff: Daily intake

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoumbaris, P.; Tsoukali-Papadopoulou, H. (Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece))

    1994-07-01

    Lately, toxic effects of some heavy metals (Pb, Cd) as well as desirable ones of some others (Ni, Mn, Zn) have been a field of thorough investigation. The main way of human body fortification in metals is through foodchain depending on the kind and quantity of the consumed food, according to dietary habits. The purpose of this study is the calculation of metals daily intake through common foodstuff of Greek inhabitants. The calculation is based on results from quantitative analysis of Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn, and Zn in common foodstuff from the market of the city of Thessaloniki. The daily food consumption data is derived from three sources: (a) answers to a questionnaire distributed to families of the city of Thessaloniki, (b) nutrition data provided by the Agricultural Bank of Greece and (c) nutrition data according to international bibliography.

  9. Daily Routine Classification from Mobile Phone Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katayoun Farrahi; Daniel Gatica-perez

    2008-01-01

    The automatic analysis of real-life, long-term behavior and dynamics of individuals and groups from mobile sensor data constitutes\\u000a an emerging and challenging domain. We present a framework to classify people’s daily routines (defined by day type, and by\\u000a group affiliation type) from real-life data collected with mobile phones, which include physical location information (derived\\u000a from cell tower connectivity), and social

  10. Daily urinary excretion of bisphenol A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chikako Arakawa; Kayumi Fujimaki; Jun Yoshinaga; Hideki Imai; Shigeko Serizawa; Hiroaki Shiraishi

    2004-01-01

    Objectives  Concerns over dietary exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor, have been raised because BPA is contained in\\u000a resins and plastics commonly used for the preservation of food and beverages. The purpose of the present study was to assess\\u000a daily intake levels of BPA in a group of male subjects by measuring total urinary BPA (free BPA plus BPA

  11. Conserved Daily Transcriptional Programs in Carica papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Zdepski; Wenqin Wang; Henry D. Priest; Faraz Ali; Maqsudul Alam; Todd C. Mockler; Todd P. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Most organisms have internal circadian clocks that mediate responses to daily environmental changes in order to synchronize\\u000a biological functions to the correct times of the day. Previous studies have focused on plants found in temperate and sub-tropical\\u000a climates, and little is known about the circadian transcriptional networks of plants that typically grow under conditions\\u000a with relatively constant day lengths and

  12. Daily Water Use in Nine Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidment, David R.; Miaou, Shaw-Pin

    1986-06-01

    Transfer functions are used to model the short-term response of daily municipal water use to rainfall and air temperature variations. Daily water use data from nine cities are studied, three cities each from Florida, Pennsylvania, and Texas. The dynamic response of water use to rainfall and air temperature is similar across the cities within each State; in addition the responses of the Texas and Florida cities are very similar to one another while the response of the Pennsylvania cities is more sensitive to air temperature and less to rainfall. There is little impact of city size on the response functions. The response of water use to rainfall depends first on the occurrence of rainfall and second on its magnitude. The occurrence of a rainfall more than 0.05 in./day (0.13 cm/day) causes a drop in the seasonal component of water use one day later that averages 38% for the Texas cities, 42% for the Florida cities, and 7% for the Pennsylvania cities. In Austin, Texas, a spatially averaged rainfall series shows a clearer relationship with water use than does rainfall data from a single gage. There is a nonlinear response of water use to air temperature changes with no response for daily maximum air temperatures between 40° and 70°F (4-21°C) an increase in water use with air temperature beyond 70°F; above 85°-90°F (29°-32°C) water use increases 3-5 times more per degree than below that limit in Texas and Florida. The model resulting from these studies can be used for daily water use forecasting and water conservation analysis.

  13. Temporal accumulations of extreme daily meantemperature anomalies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Domonkos

    2001-01-01

    Summary  ?Statistical characteristics of accumulated extreme low and high daily mean temperatures have been investigated for Hungary.\\u000a Temperature extremes over periods of a few weeks were studied using 96-year temperature records. Temperature is defined as\\u000a extreme in the lowest or highest five percent of the empirical distribution of anomalies. Recurrence frequencies of extreme\\u000a anomalies were computed at 1, 2,…, 75 days

  14. Understanding metropolitan patterns of daily encounters.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W; Lee, Der-Horng; Huang, Xianfeng

    2013-08-20

    Understanding of the mechanisms driving our daily face-to-face encounters is still limited; the field lacks large-scale datasets describing both individual behaviors and their collective interactions. However, here, with the help of travel smart card data, we uncover such encounter mechanisms and structures by constructing a time-resolved in-vehicle social encounter network on public buses in a city (about 5 million residents). Using a population scale dataset, we find physical encounters display reproducible temporal patterns, indicating that repeated encounters are regular and identical. On an individual scale, we find that collective regularities dominate distinct encounters' bounded nature. An individual's encounter capability is rooted in his/her daily behavioral regularity, explaining the emergence of "familiar strangers" in daily life. Strikingly, we find individuals with repeated encounters are not grouped into small communities, but become strongly connected over time, resulting in a large, but imperceptible, small-world contact network or "structure of co-presence" across the whole metropolitan area. Revealing the encounter pattern and identifying this large-scale contact network are crucial to understanding the dynamics in patterns of social acquaintances, collective human behaviors, and--particularly--disclosing the impact of human behavior on various diffusion/spreading processes. PMID:23918373

  15. Correlation of solar irradiance and atmospheric temperature variations derived from spacecraft radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Bolden, William C.; Gibson, M. A.; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.

    1992-01-01

    Long-term changes in the mean global atmospheric temperature and the total solar irradiance were examined utilizing 1979-1989 spacecraft measurements. Outgoing longwave radiation at the top of the atmosphere was employed to infer global atmospheric temperatures. Evidence was determined that indicates the global temperatures should decline in the 1990-1997 period as the magnitude of the incoming solar irradiance declines with decreasing solar magnetic activity.

  16. Global Health

    Cancer.gov

    NCI is confronting the global burden of cancer by creating sustainable international partnerships, supporting programs that address global gaps in research and scientific training, and disseminating information and best practices that drive improvements in cancer research and cancer control.

  17. Southern California Permanent GPS Geodetic Array: Error analysis of daily position estimates and site velocities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Zhang; Yehuda Bock; Hadley Johnson; Peng Fang; Simon Williams; Joachim Genrich; Shimon Wdowinski; Jeff Behr

    1997-01-01

    We analyze time series of daily positions estimated from data collected by 10 continuously monitoring Global Positioning System (GPS) sites in southern California during the 19-month period between the June 28, 1992 (MW=7.3), Landers and January 17, 1994 (MW=6.7), Northridge earthquakes. Each time series exhibits a linear tectonic signal and significant colored noise. Spectral power at frequencies in the range

  18. Global HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on global human resource development (HRD). "Globalization of Human Resource Management (HRM) in Government: A Cross-Cultural Perspective" (Pan Suk Kim) relates HRM to national cultures and addresses its specific functional aspects with a unique dimension in a global organization. "An…

  19. Global Warming

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This article provides a brief discussion of the issues surrounding global warming. Topics include greenhouse gas emissions, the possible consequences of global warming, and debates among proponents and opponents about whether global warming is indeed happening and whether it represents a danger to the planet.

  20. Development of Sub-Daily Intensity Duration Frequency (IDF) Curves for Major Urban Areas in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, H.; Mishra, V.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme precipitation events disrupt urban transportation and cause enormous damage to infrastructure. Urban areas are fast responding catchments due to significant impervious surface. Stormwater designs based on daily rainfall data provide inadequate information. We, therefore, develop intensity-duration-frequency curves using sub-daily (1 hour to 12 hour) rainfall data for 57 major urban areas in India. While rain gage stations data from urban areas are most suitable, but stations are unevenly distributed and their data have gaps and inconsistencies. Therefore, we used hourly rainfall data from the Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), which provides a long term data (1979 onwards). Since reanalysis products have uncertainty associated with them we need to enhance their accuracy before their application. We compared daily rain gage station data obtained from Global Surface Summary of Day Data (GSOD) available for 65 stations for the period of 2000-2010 with gridded daily rainfall data provided by Indian Meteorological Department (IMD). 3-hourly data from NOAA/Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH), Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN), and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) were aggregated to daily for comparison with GSOD station data . TMPA is found to be best correlated with GSOD data. We used TMPA data to correct MERRA's hourly precipitation, which were applied to develop IDF curves. We compared results with IDF curves from empirical methods and found substantial disparities in the existing stormwater designs in India.

  1. Global morphology of infrasound propagation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas P. Drob; J. M. Picone; M. Garcés

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric sound waves in the 0.02-10 Hz region, also known as infrasound, exhibit long-range global propagation characteristics. Measurable infrasound is produced around the globe on a daily basis by a variety of natural and man-made sources. As a result of weak classical attenuation (~0.01 dB km-1 at 0.1 hz), these acoustic signals can propagate thousands of kilometers in tropospheric, stratospheric,

  2. Global morphology of infrasound propagation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas P. Drob; J. M. Picone; M. Garcés

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric sound waves in the 0.02–10 Hz region, also known as infrasound, exhibit long-range global propagation characteristics. Measurable infrasound is produced around the globe on a daily basis by a variety of natural and man-made sources. As a result of weak classical attenuation (?0.01 dB km?1 at 0.1 hz), these acoustic signals can propagate thousands of kilometers in tropospheric, stratospheric,

  3. Interfractional Target Variations for Partial Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ahunbay, Ergun E., E-mail: eahunbay@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Robbins, Jared; Christian, Robert; Godley, Andrew; White, Julia; Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: In this work, we quantify the interfractional variations in the shape of the clinical target volume (CTV) by analyzing the daily CT data acquired during CT-guided partial breast irradiation (PBI) and compare the effectiveness of various repositioning alignment strategies considered to account for the variations. Methods and Materials: The daily CT data for 13 breast cancer patients treated with PBI in either prone (10 patients) or supine (3 patients) with daily kV CT guidance using CT on Rails (CTVision, Siemens, Malvern, PA) were analyzed. For approximately 25 points on the surface of the CTV, deformation vectors were calculated by means of deformable image registration and verified by visual inspection. These were used to calculate the distances along surface normals (DSN), which directly related to the required margin expansions for each point. The DSN values were determined for seven alignment methods based on volumetric imaging and also two-dimensional projections (portal imaging). Results: The margin expansion necessary to cover 99% of all points for all days was 2.7 mm when utilizing the alignment method based on deformation field data (the best alignment method). The center-of-mass based alignment yielded slightly worse results (a margin of 4.0 mm), and shifts obtained by operator placement (7.9 mm), two-dimensional-based methods (7.0-10.1 mm), and skin marks (13.9 mm) required even larger margin expansions. Target shrinkage was evident for most days by the negative values of DSN. Even with the best alignment, the range of DSN values could be as high as 7 mm, resulting in a large amount of normal tissue irradiation, unless adaptive replanning is employed. Conclusion: The appropriate alignment method is important to minimize the margin requirement to cover the significant interfractional target deformations observed during PBI. The amount of normal tissue unnecessarily irradiated is still not insignificant, and can be minimized if adaptive radiotherapy is applied.

  4. Identification of Proteins Secreted into the Medium by Human Lymphocytes Irradiated in Vitro with or Without Adaptive Environments

    PubMed Central

    Rithidech, Kanokporn Noy; Lai, Xianyin; Honikel, Louise; Reungpatthanaphong, Paiboon; Witzmann, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence to support the hypothesis of adaptive response, a phenomenon in which protection arises from a low-dose radiation (<0.1 Gy) against damage induced by subsequent exposure to high-dose radiation. The molecular mechanisms underlying such protection are poorly understood. The goal of this study was to fill this knowledge gap. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics was used to characterize global protein expression profiles in the medium collected from human lymphocyte cultures given sham irradiation (0 Gy) or a priming low dose of 0.03 Gy 137Cs ? rays 4 h prior to a challenging dose of 1 Gy 137Cs ? rays. Adaptive response was determined by decreased micronucleus frequencies in lymphocytes receiving low dose irradiation prior to high dose irradiation compared to those receiving only high dose irradiation. Adaptive response was found in these experiments. Proteomic analysis of media revealed: (a) 55 proteins with similar abundance in both groups; (b) 23 proteins in both groups, but 7 of them were high abundance in medium with adaptive environment, while 16 high abundance proteins were in medium without adaptive environment; (c) 17 proteins in medium with adaptive environment only; and (d) 8 proteins in medium without adaptive environment only. The results provide a foundation for improving understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with the beneficial effects of low dose radiation that, in turn, will have an important impact on radiation risk estimation. Hence, these studies are highly relevant to radiation protection due to an increased use of low dose radiation in daily life (e.g., medical diagnosis or airport safety) or an unavoidable exposure to low level background radiation. PMID:22134077

  5. Polynomial cointegration tests of anthropogenic impact on global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beenstock, M.; Reingewertz, Y.; Paldor, N.

    2012-07-01

    We use statistical methods for nonstationary time series to test the anthropogenic interpretation of global warming (AGW), according to which an increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations raised global temperature in the 20th century. Specifically, the methodology of polynomial cointegration is used to test AGW since during the observation period (1880-2007) global temperature and solar irradiance are stationary in 1st differences whereas greenhouse gases and aerosol forcings are stationary in 2nd differences. We show that although these anthropogenic forcings share a common stochastic trend, this trend is empirically independent of the stochastic trend in temperature and solar irradiance. Therefore, greenhouse gas forcing, aerosols, solar irradiance and global temperature are not polynomially cointegrated. This implies that recent global warming is not statistically significantly related to anthropogenic forcing. On the other hand, we find that greenhouse gas forcing might have had a temporary effect on global temperature.

  6. Solar UV radiation modulates daily production and DNA damage of marine bacterioplankton from a productive upwelling zone (36°S), Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaudia L. Hernández; Renato A. Quiñones; Giovanni Daneri; María E. Farias; E. Walter Helbling

    2007-01-01

    In upwelling ecosystems, such as the Humboldt Current system (HCS) off Concepción, the effects of solar radiation on bacterioplankton incorporation rates have been related to previous light acclimation and responses to irradiance. In this paper, we study the daily effect of Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR, 400–700 nm) and ultraviolet radiation UVR (280–400 nm) on bacterial secondary production (BSP). We also considered the

  7. Adipogenesis is inhibited by brief, daily exposure to high-frequency, extremely low-magnitude mechanical signals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. T. Rubin; E. Capilla; Y. K. Luu; B. Busa; H. Crawford; D. J. Nolan; V. Mittal; C. J. Rosen; J. E. Pessin; S. Judex

    2007-01-01

    Obesity, a global pandemic that debilitates millions of people and burdens society with tens of billions of dollars in health care costs, is deterred by exercise. Although it is presumed that the more strenuous a physical challenge the more effective it will be in the suppression of adiposity, here it is shown that 15 weeks of brief, daily exposure to

  8. Deriving a light use efficiency model from eddy covariance flux data for predicting daily gross primary production across biomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenping Yuan; Shuguang Liu; Guangsheng Zhou; Guoyi Zhou; Larry L. Tieszen; Dennis Baldocchi; Christian Bernhofer; Henry Gholz; Allen H. Goldstein; Michael L. Goulden; David Y. Hollinger; Yueming Hu; Beverly E. Law; Paul C. Stoy; Timo Vesala; Steven C. Wofsy

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative simulation of gross primary production (GPP) at various spatial and temporal scales has been a major challenge in quantifying the global carbon cycle. We developed a light use efficiency (LUE) daily GPP model from eddy covariance (EC) measurements. The model, called EC-LUE, is driven by only four variables: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), air

  9. A comparative study of the bactericidal activity and daily disinfection housekeeping surfaces by a new portable pulsed UV radiation device.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, Kazuo; Asai, Satomi; Inokuchi, Sadaki; Miyachi, Hayato

    2012-06-01

    Daily cleaning and disinfecting of non-critical surfaces in the patient-care areas are known to reduce the occurrence of health care-associated infections. However, the conventional means for decontamination of housekeeping surfaces of sites of frequent hand contact such as manual disinfection using ethanol wipes are laborious and time-consuming in daily practice. This study evaluated a newly developed portable pulsed ultraviolet (UV) radiation device for its bactericidal activity in comparison with continuous UV-C, and investigated its effect on the labor burden when implemented in a hospital ward. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin-resistant A. baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Bacillus cereus were irradiated with pulsed UV or continuous UV-C. Pulsed UV and continuous UV-C required 5 and 30 s of irradiation, respectively, to attain bactericidal activity with more than 2Log growth inhibition of all the species. The use of pulsed UV in daily disinfection of housekeeping surfaces reduced the working hours by half in comparison to manual disinfection using ethanol wipes. The new portable pulsed UV radiation device was proven to have a bactericidal activity against critical nosocomial bacteria, including antimicrobial-resistant bacteria after short irradiation, and was thus found to be practical as a method for disinfecting housekeeping surfaces and decreasing the labor burden. PMID:22447288

  10. iDailyDiary 3.1

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-01-01

    The most intimate of all prose may be in fact the world of the personal diary. In the digital age, diaries can be placed online for full disclosure or kept in a secretive file on a computer desktop. With this program, visitors can keep a diary that contains various image files, such as animated GIFs or different icons. Users can also create as many diaries as they want, and they may also enter links to other diary pages. This version of iDailyDiary 3.1 is compatible with computers running Windows 95 and newer.

  11. Daily Lesson Plan: Thirsty for Drought Relief

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anderson, Bridget.

    2003-01-01

    In this Daily Lesson Plan from the New York Times Learning Network, students explore a variety of drought-related issues and research possible courses of action as part of a "drought preparedness taskforce." Based on New York Times coverage of drought in Arizona (story link provided), this exercise offers an active, interdisciplinary way to learn about water conservation and the ecological and economic effects of drought. Designed for grades 6-8 or 9-12, this exercise can be completed in one class period. The site includes useful Web links and a printer-friendly version of the lesson plan. Free registration is required.

  12. BOREAS TE-21 Daily Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimball, John; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-21 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the meteorology of boreal forest areas. Daily meteorological data were derived from half-hourly BOREAS tower flux (TF) and Automatic Meteorological Station (AMS) mesonet measurements collected in the Southern and Northern Study Areas (SSA and NSA) for the period of 01 Jan 1994 until 31 Dec 1994. The data were stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  13. Solar Irradiance Data Products at the LASP Interactive Solar IRradiance Datacenter (LISIRD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware Dewolfe, A.; Wilson, A.; Lindholm, D. M.; Pankratz, C. K.; Snow, M. A.; Woods, T. N.

    2010-12-01

    The Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) has developed the LASP Interactive Solar IRradiance Datacenter (LISIRD) to provide access to a comprehensive set of solar irradiance measurements. LISIRD has recently been updated to serve many new datasets and models, including data from SORCE, UARS-SOLSTICE, SME, and TIMED-SEE, and model data from the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM). The user interface emphasizes web-based interactive visualizations, allowing users to explore and compare this data before downloading it for analysis. The data provided covers a wavelength range from soft X-ray (XUV) at 0.1 nm up to the near infrared (NIR) at 2400 nm, as well as wavelength-independent Total Solar Irradiance (TSI). Combined data from the SORCE, TIMED-SEE, UARS-SOLSTICE, and SME instruments provide continuous coverage from 1981 to the present, while Lyman-alpha measurements, FISM daily data, and TSI models date from the 1940s to the present. LISIRD will also host Glory TSI data as part of the SORCE data system. This poster provides an overview of the LISIRD system, summarizes the data sets currently available, describes future plans and capabilities, and provides details on how to access solar irradiance data through LISIRD’s interfaces.

  14. Plant responses to UV-B irradiation are modified by UV-A irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, E.M.; Teramura, A.H. (NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States) Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States))

    1993-06-01

    The increasing UV-B radiation (0.28-0.32 [mu]m) reaching the earth's surface is an important concern. Plant response in artificial UV-B irradiation studies has been difficult to assess, especially regarding photosynthetic pigments, because the fluorescent lamps also produce UV-A (0.32-0.40[mu]m) radiation which is involved with blue light in pigment synthesis. Both UV-A and UV-B irradiances were controlled in two glasshouse experiments conducted under relatively high PPFD (> 1300[mu]mol m[sup [minus]2] s[sup [minus]1]) at two biologically effective daily UV-B irradiances (10.7 and 14.1 kJ m[sup [minus]2]); UV-A irradiances were matched in Controls ([approximately]5, 9 kJ m[sup [minus]2]). Normal, chlorophyll-deficient, and flavonoid-deficient isolines of soybean cultivar, Clark, were utilized. Many growth/ pigment variables exhibited a statistically significant interaction between light quality and quantity: in general, UV-A radiation moderated the damaging effects of UV-B radiation. Regression analyses demonstrated that a single negative function related photosynthetic efficiency to carotenoid Content (r[sup 2] =0.73, P[le]0.001), implying a [open quotes]cost[close quotes] in maintaining carotenoids for photoprotection. A stomatal limitation to photosynthesis was verified and carotenoid content was correlated with UV-B absorbing compound levels, in UV-B irradiated plants.

  15. Global Warming

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Schultz

    2007-12-03

    Use the links below to complete your research. The Heat Over Global Warming God and Global Warming Robert Redford: Business Warming Up to Environment Emission Impossible? Senator Stepping Up on Climate Control Interview: Bill McKibben Climate Change and the Media Senate Hearings Five Questions with Environmental Writer Tom Philpott Home Grown Oil, Politics Bribes E2: Energy The Greens Online NewsHour: The Global Warming Debate NewsHour Extra: Global Warming Linked to Humans NewsHour Extra: Global Warming Fears Lead to Ratification of the Kyoto Protocol Frontline: Doubters of Global Warming Journey to Planet Earth: The State of the Planet: Global Warming What s Up With the Weather? Some of the below resources were found in the book Global Warming : Opposing Viewpoints (available in the MRC) The Heritage Foundation - Global Warming Rainforest Alliance Doing a global warming search in this website will result in a list of various articles Sierra Club - homepage eLibrary (Proquest) is now available through the

  16. Modelling sub-daily evaporation from a small reservoir.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGloin, Ryan; McGowan, Hamish; McJannet, David; Burn, Stewart

    2013-04-01

    Accurate quantification of evaporation from small water storages is essential for water management and is also required as input in some regional hydrological and meteorological models. Global estimates of the number of small storages or lakes (< 0.1 kilometers) are estimated to be in the order of 300 million (Downing et al., 2006). However, direct evaporation measurements at small reservoirs using the eddy covariance or scintillometry techniques have been limited due to their expensive and complex nature. To correctly represent the effect that small water bodies have on the regional hydrometeorology, reliable estimates of sub-daily evaporation are necessary. However, evaporation modelling studies at small reservoirs have so far been limited to quantifying daily estimates. In order to ascertain suitable methods for accurately modelling hourly evaporation from a small reservoir, this study compares evaporation results measured by the eddy covariance method at a small reservoir in southeast Queensland, Australia, to results from several modelling approaches using both over-water and land-based meteorological measurements. Accurate predictions of hourly evaporation were obtained by a simple theoretical mass transfer model requiring only over-water measurements of wind speed, humidity and water surface temperature. An evaporation model that was recently developed for use in small reservoir environments by Granger and Hedstrom (2011), appeared to overestimate the impact stability had on evaporation. While evaporation predictions made by the 1-dimensional hydrodynamics model, DYRESM (Dynamic Reservoir Simulation Model) (Imberger and Patterson, 1981), showed reasonable agreement with measured values. DYRESM did not show any substantial improvement in evaporation prediction when inflows and out flows were included and only a slighter better correlation was shown when over-water meteorological measurements were used in place of land-based measurements. Downing, J. A., Y. T. Prairie, J. J. Cole, C. M. Duarte, L. J. Tranvik, R. G. Striegl, W. H. McDowell, P. Kortelainen, N. F. Caraco, J. M. Melack and J. J. Middelburg (2006), The global abundance and size distribution of lakes, ponds, and impoundments, Limnology and Oceanography, 51, 2388-2397. Granger, R.J. and N. Hedstrom (2011), Modelling hourly rates of evaporation from small lakes, Hydrological and Earth System Sciences, 15, doi:10.5194/hess-15-267-2011. Imberger, J. and J.C. Patterson (1981), Dynamic Reservoir Simulation Model - DYRESM: 5, In: Transport Models for Inland and Coastal Waters. H.B. Fischer (Ed.). Academic Press, New York, 310-361.

  17. 27 CFR 555.127 - Daily summary of magazine transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 true Daily summary of magazine transactions. 555.127 Section...Reports § 555.127 Daily summary of magazine transactions. In taking the...summary transactions to be kept at each magazine of an approved storage...

  18. 27 CFR 555.127 - Daily summary of magazine transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 true Daily summary of magazine transactions. 555.127 Section...Reports § 555.127 Daily summary of magazine transactions. In taking the...summary transactions to be kept at each magazine of an approved storage...

  19. 30 CFR 77.1906 - Hoists; daily inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1906 Hoists; daily inspection. (a) Hoists used to transport persons shall be inspected daily....

  20. 30 CFR 77.1906 - Hoists; daily inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1906 Hoists; daily inspection. (a) Hoists used to transport persons shall be inspected daily....

  1. 30 CFR 77.1906 - Hoists; daily inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1906 Hoists; daily inspection. (a) Hoists used to transport persons shall be inspected daily....

  2. 30 CFR 77.1906 - Hoists; daily inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1906 Hoists; daily inspection. (a) Hoists used to transport persons shall be inspected daily....

  3. How Much Food from the Protein Group Is Needed Daily?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... eat depends on age, sex, and level of physical activity. Most Americans eat enough food from this group, but need to make leaner and more varied selections of these foods. Recommended daily amounts are shown in the chart. Daily ...

  4. DISCOVERAQ Daily Observational Status Date: 9 July 2011

    E-print Network

    DISCOVERAQ Daily Observational Status Date: 9 July 2011 Status definitions: Green = Full HUBeltsville #12;HU-BELTSVILLE (Daily) Observational Status Date: 07/08/11 Status definitions: Green some logistics PTU ........ Aerosol Spectrometer ........ O3 ........ Aerosols Status Comment AMS

  5. 7 CFR 59.301 - Mandatory Daily Reporting for Lambs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory Daily Reporting for Lambs. 59.301 Section 59.301 Agriculture...INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Lamb Reporting § 59.301 Mandatory Daily Reporting for...

  6. Children's and parents' daily stressful events and psychological symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerard A. Banez; Bruce E. Compas

    1990-01-01

    Associations of children's daily stressful events and their parents' daily hassles and psychological symptoms with children's emotional\\/behavioral problems were examined in a sample of fourth- and fifth-grade children and their parents. Correlational analyses indicated that children's self-reports of depressive symptoms were associated with children's daily stressors and mothers' daily hassles, and children's selfreports of anxiety symptoms were associated with children's

  7. Psychophysiological correlates of flow during daily activities.

    PubMed

    Gaggioli, Andrea; Cipresso, Pietro; Serino, Silvia; Riva, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Flow is an optimal experience characterized by the perception of high challenges and high skills, positive affect, complete absorption in the activity carried out and intrinsic motivation. Although much research has examined the psychological features of flow, little is known about its biological underpinnings. The present study aimed at contributing to this gap by investigating the psychophysiological correlates of flow experience during daily routines. To this end, 15 university students took part in an experience sampling study, in which they provided real-time information on daily activities and associated experience while cardiac activity was monitored. After seven days of observation, 32 flow events were identified among 10 participants. A multilevel regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between optimal experience and specific cardiovascular indexes. In particular, the experience of flow was associated with increased heart rate and increased LF/HF ratio, suggesting relative sympathetic enhancement. These findings are in line with those obtained by previous related studies and indicate the feasibility of investigating physiological correlates of subjective experience in ecological contexts. PMID:23792845

  8. Brooklyn Daily Eagle Online, 1841-1902

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-01-01

    Sometimes referred to as "the borough of homes and churches," Brooklyn has long been an urban community that has captured the attention of the United States and the rest of the world. For over a century, the Brooklyn Daily Eagle chronicled the community's history while under the reins of a host of well-regarded editors, including Walt Whitman. This Web site, which is a collaboration between the Brooklyn Public Library and the Institute of Museum and Library Services, brings over seventy years of this paper online for viewing by the Web-browsing public. The Web site includes an introduction to the paper's history over its long tenure as Brooklyn's main daily paper, as well as a timeline of important changes to the paper's format, layout, and content organization. What is perhaps most remarkable about this online archive is that the entire run from 1841 to 1902 can be searched by keyword, date, and content type. It is important to note that this current archive is a beta release, and that, at certain times (until the main release in the summer of 2003), certain features may not be always available. Regardless of this fact, this is an excellent resource for urban historians and researchers.

  9. Pain-related catastrophizing: a daily process study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith A Turner; Lloyd Mancl; Leslie A Aaron

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the extent to which individuals vary versus remain stable in their pain-related catastrophizing, or to which catastrophizing is associated with pain and related problems on a daily basis. We used daily electronic interviews to examine the: (1) reliability and validity of a brief daily catastrophizing measure; (2) stability of catastrophizing; (3) patient characteristics associated with catastrophizing;

  10. Photometric measurements of solar irradiance variations due to sunspots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, G. A.; Herzog, A. D.; Laico, D. E.; Lawrence, J. K.; Templer, M. S.

    1989-01-01

    A photometric telescope constructed to obtain photometric sunspot areas and deficits on a daily basis is described. Data from this Cartesian full disk telescope (CFDT) are analyzed with attention given to the period between June 4 and June 17, 1985 because of the availability of overlapping sunspot area and irradiance deficit data from high-resolution digital spectroheliograms made with the San Fernando Observatory 28 cm vacuum solar telescope and spectroheliograph. The CFDT sunspot deficits suggest a substantial irradiance contribution from faculae and active region plage.

  11. Spore dosimetry of solar UV radiation: applications to monitoring of daily irradiance and personal exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Munakata; K. Makita; D. Bolsée; D. Gillotay; G. Horneck

    2000-01-01

    Environmental UV radiation can be quantified using spore dosimetry, which measures the inactivation of repair-deficient Bacillus subtilis spores dried on a membrane filter. The system exhibits highly selective sensitivity to UV radiation, not being affected by various environmental adversities, such as high and low temperature and humidity. Biologically-effective dose rate and cumulative dose of ambient radiation are measurable under various

  12. Daily Irradiance and Feedback Inhibition of Photosynthesis at Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentration in Brassica oleracea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Bunce; R. C. Sicher

    2003-01-01

    The fundamental cause of down-regulation of photosynthesis at elevated carbon dioxide concentration (EC) is thought to be a slower rate of utilization of saccharides than their stimulated rate of production, but there are few studies directly supporting this idea under field conditions. We hypothesized that within Brassica oleracea, down-regulation would not occur in kohlrabi because it has a large sink

  13. Daily irradiance and feedback inhibition of photosynthesis at elevated carbon dioxide concentration in Brassica oleracea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fundamental cause of down-regulation of photosynthesis at elevated carbon dioxide concentration is thought to be a slower rate of utilization of carbohydrates than their stimulated rate of production, but there are few studies directly supporting this idea. We hypothesized that down-regulation w...

  14. Secure Web Application Development and Global Regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Bradley Glisson; L. Milton Glisson; Ray Welland

    2007-01-01

    The World Wide Web (WWW) has been predominantly responsible for instigating radical paradigm transformations in today's global information rich civilizations. Many societies have basic operational economical components that depend on Web enabled systems in order to support daily commercial activities. The acceptance of E-commerce as a valid channel for conducting business coupled with societal integration and dependence on Web enabled

  15. Ruminative self-focus in daily life: associations with daily activities and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Takano, Keisuke; Sakamoto, Shinji; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2013-08-01

    The present study examined the situations and conditions in which ruminative self-focus is less likely to occur in daily life. Previous researchers have described a mood-brightening effect of depression, where depressed individuals exhibit greater positive emotional reactivity to positive daily events than do nondepressed individuals. To better understand this paradoxical effect, we investigated the moderating role of depression in the relationship between daily activities and ruminative thinking. Forty-one Japanese undergraduates (9 women and 32 men) recorded their thought contents and the type and subjective appraisals of activities that they engaged in 8 times a day for a week at semirandom intervals. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that subjectively pleasant activities were associated with improved mood states and reduced ruminative thinking. However, some of these associations were moderated by depressive symptoms, suggesting that individuals with higher levels of depression showed a greater reduction of ruminative thinking during pleasant activities. These results imply that daily activities are important for reducing rumination, particularly for individuals with higher levels of depression, and that the brightening effect of depression is evident for cognitive as well as emotional activities. The cognitive basis of this paradoxical effect is discussed. PMID:23527502

  16. Verification of factors to estimate daily milk yield from one milking of cows milked twice daily

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to verify factors to predict daily milk yield when milk is sampled once per d for cows milked twice (2x) per d. Milk weights for both milkings were recorded automatically by 30 herds and collected by Dairy Herd Improvement supervisors. Data was split into 2 subsets...

  17. Optimizing irradiance estimates for coastal and inland water imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, David R.; Seidel, Felix C.; Gao, Bo Cai; Gierach, Michelle M.; Green, Robert O.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Mouroulis, Pantazis

    2015-05-01

    Next generation orbital imaging spectrometers, with advanced global remote sensing capabilities, propose to address outstanding ocean science questions related to coastal and inland water environments. These missions require highly accurate characterization of solar irradiance in the critical 380-600 nm spectral range. However, the irradiance in this spectral region is temporally variable and difficult to measure directly, leading to considerable variance between different models. Here we optimize an irradiance estimate using data from the NASA airborne Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM), leveraging spectrally smooth in-scene targets. We demonstrate improved retrievals for both PRISM and the Next Generation Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer.

  18. Indoor and Outdoor Spectroradiometer Intercomparison for Spectral Irradiance Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Habte, A.; Andreas, A.; Ottoson, L.; Gueymard, C.; Fedor, G.; Fowler, S.; Peterson, J.; Naranen, R.; Kobashi, T.; Akiyama, A.; Takagi, S.

    2014-05-01

    This report details the global spectral irradiance intercomparison using spectroradiometers that was organized by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. The intercomparison was performed both indoors and outdoors on September 17, 2013. Five laboratories participated in the intercomparison using 10 spectroradiometers, and a coordinated measurement setup and a common platform were employed to compare spectral irradiances under both indoor and outdoor conditions. The intercomparison aimed to understand the performance of the different spectroradiometers and to share knowledge in making spectral irradiance measurements. This intercomparison was the first of its kind in the United States.

  19. Modeling Solar Spectral Irradiance and Total Magnetic Flux Using Sunspot Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dora G. Preminger; Stephen R. Walton

    2006-01-01

    We show that daily sunspot areas can be used in a simple, single parameter model to reconstruct daily variations in several\\u000a other solar parameters, including solar spectral irradiance and total magnetic flux. The model assumes that changes in any\\u000a given parameter can be treated mathematically as the response of the system to the emergence of a sunspot. Using cotemporal\\u000a observational

  20. Globalization and the "Identity Remix" among Urban Adolescents in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Mrinalini A.; Berry, Ruhi; Gonsalves, Ayesha; Hastak, Yogita; Shah, Mukti; Roeser, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' perceptions of cultural change and identity development during an age of globalization in India. Analyses of data from 1497 Indian, urban, middle-class 12-15-year-olds (46% girls) revealed that these youth were aware of changes in their daily lives due to globalization and evaluated such changes in a pragmatic…

  1. Council on Foreign Relations: Daily Analysis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    The Council on Foreign Relations produces an impressive array of background papers, online debates, op-ed pieces, and articles every year. International relations gurus, policy pundits, and members of the public benefit widely from these works, and those persons who haven't looked over the Council's "Daily Analysis" yet, may wish to do so now. Here visitors can read analytical briefs written by staff members on issues of the day, complete with links to "the news, analysis, commentary, and primary source materials that put the facts in context." The briefs are arranged chronologically, and recent pieces include "Is Brain Drain Good For Africa?", "China's Olympic Moment", and "Picking Presidents and Foreign Policy". These briefs are a great way to get acquainted with important news developments from around the world, and it's easy to see how educators might want to draw on the site as a resource for political science or international relations courses.

  2. Daily activity of Tabanidae in the Caucasus.

    PubMed

    Chvála, M

    1979-02-01

    The daily activity of Tabanidae (Diptera) was studied in the submountain region of the East Caucasus, district Ismailly, NE Azerbaijan SSR at an altitude 900--1000 m. Tabanidae were collected by the unbaited canopy trap on 8 and 12 July 1976. Females were active from 9 a. m. to 7 p. m., the diurnal biting activity is characterized by a one peak curve with a conspicuous peak of activity between 4 p. m. and 6 p. m. It is suggested that the temperature, relative humidity and the thermic mountain wind are the decisive factors influencing the late afternoon peak of activity. Mating activity of Tabanus unifasciatus at sunrise and of Philipomyia aprica at sunset were observed. PMID:156514

  3. Climatology: Contrails reduce daily temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travis, David J.; Carleton, Andrew M.; Lauritsen, Ryan G.

    2002-08-01

    The potential of condensation trails (contrails) from jet aircraft to affect regional-scale surface temperatures has been debated for years, but was difficult to verify until an opportunity arose as a result of the three-day grounding of all commercial aircraft in the United States in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Here we show that there was an anomalous increase in the average diurnal temperature range (that is, the difference between the daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperatures) for the period 11-14 September 2001. Because persisting contrails can reduce the transfer of both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation and so reduce the daily temperature range, we attribute at least a portion of this anomaly to the absence of contrails over this period.

  4. Polynomial cointegration tests of anthropogenic impact on global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beenstock, M.; Reingewertz, Y.; Paldor, N.

    2012-11-01

    We use statistical methods for nonstationary time series to test the anthropogenic interpretation of global warming (AGW), according to which an increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations raised global temperature in the 20th century. Specifically, the methodology of polynomial cointegration is used to test AGW since during the observation period (1880-2007) global temperature and solar irradiance are stationary in 1st differences, whereas greenhouse gas and aerosol forcings are stationary in 2nd differences. We show that although these anthropogenic forcings share a common stochastic trend, this trend is empirically independent of the stochastic trend in temperature and solar irradiance. Therefore, greenhouse gas forcing, aerosols, solar irradiance and global temperature are not polynomially cointegrated, and the perceived relationship between these variables is a spurious regression phenomenon. On the other hand, we find that greenhouse gas forcings might have had a temporary effect on global temperature.

  5. Safer Food with Irradiation (Spanish) 

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Britta; Vestal, Andy; Van Laanen, Peggy

    2003-01-21

    This publication answers questions about food irradiation and how it helps prevent foodborne illnesses. Included are explanations of how irradiation works and its benefits. Irradiation is a safe method of preserving food quality and ensuring its...

  6. Evaluation of CERES surface irradiance products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, S.; Loeb, N. G.; Rose, F. G.; Rutan, D. A.; Doelling, D.; Radkevich, A.; Ham, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the surface radiation budget is important for several reasons. At the global and large temporal scales, it should balance with the sum of surface latent and sensible heat fluxes and ocean heating. At regional scales, it is an indispensable boundary condition for ocean or snow models or any other models that need energy input to the surface. NASA's Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project provides surface irradiance data products for a range of temporal and spatial scales computed using a radiative transfer model initialized using satellite-derived cloud and aerosol properties. Other inputs to the radiative transfer model include temperature and humidity profiles from NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office's (GMAO) reanalysis. The CERES team uses more than 80 surface observation sites located over land and ocean to evaluate computed irradiances. When computed monthly 1° by 1° gridded mean downward irradiances are compared with 10 years of observed irradiances, the bias averaged over all land and ocean sites are, respectively, -1.7 Wm-2 and 4.7 Wm-2 for shortwave and -1.0 Wm-2 and -2.0 Wm-2 for longwave. The shortwave agreement is significantly better than other satellite-based surface irradiance products. One of reasons for the better agreement is careful treatment of diurnal cycle of clouds by merging 3-hourly geostationary satellite-derived cloud properties. In addition, computed surface irradiance variability shows a remarkable agreement with observed variability. However, these data sets have their shortcomings. The uncertainty in nighttime surface longwave irradiance over polar regions is larger than that of other regions primarily due to the difficulty of cloud detection and large uncertainties in skin temperature and near-surface temperature and humidity. The large uncertainty in polar region surface irradiances hampers, for example, investigation of surface radiation budget changes in response to changes in sea ice extent. In this presentation, we present an evaluation of the current CERES products and discuss ways these products can be improved in the future.

  7. Irradiation Creep in Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

    2014-03-13

    An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

  8. Daily Plasmodium yoelii infective mosquito bites do not generate protection or suppress previous immunity against the liver stage

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Human populations that are naturally subjected to Plasmodium infection do not acquire complete protection against the liver stage of this parasite despite prolonged and frequent exposure. However, sterile immunity against Plasmodium liver stage can be achieved after repeated exposure to radiation attenuated sporozoites. The reasons for this different response remain largely unknown, but a suppressive effect of blood stage Plasmodium infection has been proposed as a cause for the lack of liver stage protection. Methods Using Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL, the response generated in mice subjected to daily infective bites from normal or irradiated mosquitoes was compared. The effect of daily-infected mosquito bites on mice that were previously immunized against P. yoelii liver stage was also studied. Results It was observed that while the bites of normal infected mosquitoes do not generate strong antibody responses and protection, the bites of irradiated mosquitoes result in high levels of anti-sporozoite antibodies and protection against liver stage Plasmodium infection. Exposure to daily infected mosquito bites did not eliminate the protection acquired previously with a experimental liver stage vaccine. Conclusions Liver stage immunity generated by irradiated versus normal P. yoelii infected mosquitoes is essentially different, probably because of the blood stage infection that follows normal mosquito bites, but not irradiated. While infective mosquito bites do not induce a protective liver stage response, they also do not interfere with previously acquired liver stage protective responses, even if they induce a complete blood stage infection. Considering that the recently generated anti-malaria vaccines induce only partial protection against infection, it is encouraging that, at least in mouse models, immunity is not negatively affected by subsequent exposure and infection with the parasite. PMID:21501513

  9. INTRODUCTION TO GLOBALIZATION

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Jeffrey A.

    INTRODUCTION TO GLOBALIZATION INTRODUCTION TO GLOBALIZATION Workshops of Social Sciences A Global Connect Publication University of California, Irvine GLOBALIZATION & INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Volume 1 ­ Introduction to Globalization 1 #12;GLOBALSCOPE Globalization & International

  10. Social constraints on disclosure predict daily well-being in couples coping with early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pasipanodya, Elizabeth C; Parrish, Brendt P; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Cohen, Lawrence H; Siegel, Scott D; Graber, Elana C; Belcher, Amber J

    2012-08-01

    According to the social-cognitive processing model (Lepore, 2001), social constraints on disclosure can limit an individual's ability to communicate openly with others and consequently have negative effects on psychological adjustment, especially in the context of stressful experiences such as the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. The goal of the present study was to examine the influence of social constraints on daily event sharing, individual well-being, and relationship well-being in couples coping with breast cancer. Forty-five patients recently diagnosed and treated for early stage breast cancer and their spouses reported perceptions of spousal constraints on patient disclosure and completed a 7-day electronic diary. Analyses revealed that patient-reported social constraints, independent of the spouse's report, were linked to reduced patient sharing of both cancer-related and other important daily events. Patient and spouse perceptions of social constraints, independent of their shared consensus, predicted reduced daily individual well-being indexed by self-esteem and negative affect, as well as reduced daily relationship well-being indexed by relationship happiness and intimacy. Moreover, many of the aforementioned effects on daily well-being remained after controlling for global marital quality. Overall, these findings reveal that individual perceptions of social constraints have a negative influence on both patient and spouse daily well-being outcomes. PMID:22686265

  11. Global Composite

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  MISR Global Images See the Light of Day     View Larger Image ... both oblique angles are observing the Earth in "forward scattering", particularly at high latitudes. Forward scattering occurs when you ...

  12. Global Economy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for Global Geography Education

    Module covering the conceptual framework and case studies on economic globalization. The module is primarily expositive but includes some interactive sections for checking factual understanding and user submitted interactive projects which are available with a (free) registration.

  13. Irradiation-Induced Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Birtcher, R.C.; Ewing, R.C.; Matzke, Hj.; Meldrum, A.; Newcomer, P.P.; Wang, L.M.; Wang, S.X.; Weber, W.J.

    1999-08-09

    This paper summarizes the results of the studies of the irradiation-induced formation of nanostructures, where the injected interstitials from the source of irradiation are not major components of the nanophase. This phenomena has been observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in a number of intermetallic compounds and ceramics during high-energy electron or ion irradiations when the ions completely penetrate through the specimen. Beginning with single crystals, electron or ion irradiation in a certain temperature range may result in nanostructures composed of amorphous domains and nanocrystals with either the original composition and crystal structure or new nanophases formed by decomposition of the target material. The phenomenon has also been observed in natural materials which have suffered irradiation from the decay of constituent radioactive elements and in nuclear reactor fuels which have been irradiated by fission neutrons and other fission products. The mechanisms involved in the process of this nanophase formation are discussed in terms of the evolution of displacement cascades, radiation-induced defect accumulation, radiation-induced segregation and phase decomposition, as well as the competition between irradiation-induced amorphization and recrystallization.

  14. Intercomparison of solar UV direct irradiance spectral measurements at Izana in June 2005

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bais; M. Blumthaler; A. Webb; G. Seckmeyer; S. Thiel; S. Kazadzis; A. Redondas; R. Kift; N. Kouremeti; B. Schallhart; R. Schmitt; D. Pissulla; J. P. Diaz; O. Garcia; A. M. Diaz Rodriguez; A. Smedley

    2005-01-01

    Spectral measurements of direct solar ultraviolet irradiance are very important for many applications in the field of atmospheric sciences. Despite its usefulness, few UV monitoring sites include such measurements in their regular observational programs. Standardization of measurement methodologies and calibration techniques is required in order to reach the quality standard of global irradiance measurements. This study presents preliminary results from

  15. Chaos and scaling in daily river flow

    E-print Network

    M. De Domenico; M. Ali Ghorbani

    2011-04-07

    Adequate knowledge of the nature of river flow process is crucial for proper planning and management of our water resources and environment. This study attempts to detect the salient characteristics of flow dynamics of the Karoon River in Iran. Daily discharge series observed over a period of six years (1999-2004) is analyzed to examine the chaotic and scaling characteristics of the flow dynamics. The presence of chaos is investigated through the correlation dimension and Lyapunov exponent methods, while the Hurst exponent and R\\'enyi dimension analyses are performed to explore the scaling characteristics. The low correlation dimension ($2.60 \\pm 0.07$) and the positive largest Lyapunov exponent ($0.014 \\pm 0.001$) suggest the presence of low-dimensional chaos; they also imply that the flow dynamics are dominantly governed by three variables and can be reliably predicted up to 48 days (i.e. prediction horizon). Results from the Hurst exponent and R\\'enyi dimension analyses reveal the multifractal character of the flow dynamics, with persistent and anti-persistent behaviors observed at different time scales.

  16. Egocentric Daily Activity Recognition via Multitask Clustering.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Ricci, Elisa; Liu, Gaowen; Sebe, Nicu

    2015-10-01

    Recognizing human activities from videos is a fundamental research problem in computer vision. Recently, there has been a growing interest in analyzing human behavior from data collected with wearable cameras. First-person cameras continuously record several hours of their wearers' life. To cope with this vast amount of unlabeled and heterogeneous data, novel algorithmic solutions are required. In this paper, we propose a multitask clustering framework for activity of daily living analysis from visual data gathered from wearable cameras. Our intuition is that, even if the data are not annotated, it is possible to exploit the fact that the tasks of recognizing everyday activities of multiple individuals are related, since typically people perform the same actions in similar environments, e.g., people working in an office often read and write documents). In our framework, rather than clustering data from different users separately, we propose to look for clustering partitions which are coherent among related tasks. In particular, two novel multitask clustering algorithms, derived from a common optimization problem, are introduced. Our experimental evaluation, conducted both on synthetic data and on publicly available first-person vision data sets, shows that the proposed approach outperforms several single-task and multitask learning methods. PMID:26067371

  17. An efficient physically based parameterization to derive surface solar irradiance based on satellite atmospheric products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jun; Tang, Wenjun; Yang, Kun; Lu, Ning; Niu, Xiaolei; Liang, Shunlin

    2015-05-01

    Surface solar irradiance (SSI) is required in a wide range of scientific researches and practical applications. Many parameterization schemes are developed to estimate it using routinely measured meteorological variables, since SSI is directly measured at a very limited number of stations. Even so, meteorological stations are still sparse, especially in remote areas. Remote sensing can be used to map spatiotemporally continuous SSI. Considering the huge amount of satellite data, coarse-resolution SSI has been estimated for reducing the computational burden when the estimation is based on a complex radiative transfer model. On the other hand, many empirical relationships are used to enhance the retrieval efficiency, but the accuracy cannot be guaranteed out of regions where they are locally calibrated. In this study, an efficient physically based parameterization is proposed to balance computational efficiency and retrieval accuracy for SSI estimation. In this parameterization, the transmittances for gases, aerosols, and clouds are all handled in full band form and the multiple reflections between the atmosphere and surface are explicitly taken into account. The newly proposed parameterization is applied to estimate SSI with both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) atmospheric and land products as inputs. These retrievals are validated against in situ measurements at the Surface Radiation Budget Network and at the North China Plain on an instantaneous basis, and moreover, they are validated and compared with Global Energy and Water Exchanges-Surface Radiation Budget and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project-flux data SSI estimates at radiation stations of China Meteorological Administration on a daily mean basis. The estimation results indicates that the newly proposed SSI estimation scheme can effectively retrieve SSI based on MODIS products with mean root-mean-square errors of about 100 Wm- 1 and 35 Wm- 1 on an instantaneous and daily mean basis, respectively.

  18. Gamma irradiation facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Naoyuki

    A review is presented on the status and problem of gamma irradiation facilities for radiation processing. Requirements for the radioisotope source in the radiation processing and its comparison with electron accelerator are discussed. The gamma radioisotope source has speciality in the process of thicker products and source design, though it is inferior on the cost of radiation output. Problems on irradiation facilities such as storage and transportation of the source, the damage of materials used, and dosimetry are discussed. The gamma irradiation facilities for the radiation processing in Japan are introduced.

  19. Quantifying the relevance of local blockings for temperature extremes on sub-daily to daily time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfahl, S.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric blockings can influence near-surface temperature, on the one hand by inducing circulation anomalies, on the other hand since they are associated with clear-sky conditions, which can lead to anomalies in the surface radiation budget. The latter is due to subsiding motions and the deflection of low pressure systems. In this study, it is quantified how relevant these effects are locally (at the location of the blocking) for the occurrence of sub-daily and daily temperature extremes, based on ERA-Interim reanalysis data in the Northern Hemisphere for the period 1989-2009. Blockings are identified from the reanalysis dataset as negative anomalies of the vertically integrated potential vorticity (PV) between 150 hPa and 500 hPa with a lifetime longer than 5 days. The threshold for the identification of the PV anomalies is varied between -1.3 PVU and -0.7 PVU in order to distinguish between strong and weaker blocking systems. Temperature extremes are identified at each grid point if the six-hourly maximum (minimum) temperature exceeds (falls below) its local 99% (1%) percentile. For investigating extremes on longer time scales, the temperature time series are smoothed with a 1- or 3-day running mean before identifying the extremes. Finally, a blocking is assumed to be locally related to a temperature extreme if both occur simultaneously at the same grid point. The percentage of temperature extremes coinciding with a blocking is then quantified at every grid point. The percentage of hot temperature extremes associated with a strong blocking reaches maxima of more than 50% over southern Greenland and Quebec and around 30% over Northern Europe and Asia, exceeding the climatological blocking frequency by about a factor of 5. The spatial patterns of this percentage are similar if the smoothed time series are used, but the maxima are increased up to 70%. If also weaker blockings are considered, in the order of 80% of the six-hourly hot extremes coincide with such systems in large regions in northern Eurasia and North America. On the contrary, cold temperature extremes are generally associated with a reduced (rather than increased) local blocking frequency. The strong linkage of hot temperature extremes and blockings found here is relevant for investigating changes of such extremes with global warming. It indicates that not only the rising average temperature, but also variations in blocking dynamics may be crucial for local changes of hot extreme events in mid to high latitudes. General circulation models, in order to realistically reproduce the extreme events and their potential changes, have to be able to also simulate atmospheric blockings in a realistic manner.

  20. A Method for Calculating Reference Evapotranspiration on Daily Time Scales

    E-print Network

    Farmer, William

    Measures of reference evapotranspiration are essential for applications of agricultural management and water resources engineering. Using numerous esoteric variables, one can calculate daily reference evapotranspiration ...

  1. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily activity assist device. (a) Identification....

  2. Estimating daily mean land surface albedo from MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dongdong; Liang, Shunlin; He, Tao; Yu, Yunyue; Schaaf, Crystal; Wang, Zhuosen

    2015-05-01

    Land surface albedo (LSA) is an important component of the surface radiation budget. For calculation of the surface shortwave net radiation budget, temporal mean albedo is more important than instantaneous albedo. Although Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) albedo products have been extensively validated, little effort has been made to evaluate the accuracy of daily mean albedo from MODIS. In this study, we calculate daily mean albedo from MODIS data using a direct method and a look-up table (LUT) method. Comparison with in situ albedo measured at 27 field stations shows that both methods can estimate daily mean albedo with high accuracy. The root-mean-square error (RMSE) of snow-free daily mean albedo retrieved by the LUT method and the direct method is 0.033 and 0.034, respectively. Over the 12 spatially representative stations, RMSE of daily mean albedo is 0.022 and 0.023 by the LUT and direct approach, respectively. Simply using the local noon albedo value as a surrogate of daily mean albedo leads to overestimation of daily shortwave net radiation. By using the data of daily mean albedo, the bias in estimating daily shortwave net radiation can be reduced by 2.8 W/m2 with the direct method and 2.6 W/m2 with the LUT method, compared to the use of local noon albedo.

  3. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily activity assist device. (a) Identification....

  4. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily activity assist device. (a)...

  5. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily activity assist device. (a)...

  6. 21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily activity assist device. (a)...

  7. Linking person and context in the daily stress process.

    PubMed

    Caspi, A; Bolger, N; Eckenrode, J

    1987-01-01

    In this study we combined daily diary data with interview data to investigate individual differences in the impact of stressful daily events on mood. Using a sample of 96 women in an urban community, we examined perceived neighborhood quality and major life events as possibly potentiating the effects of stressful daily events, and we viewed social supports as potentially buffering this daily process. Results confirmed that the presence of chronic ecologic stress (neighborhood perceptions) exacerbated the immediate effects of stressful daily events on mood and also increased the likelihood of enduring effects of daily stressors on next day's mood. Contrary to expectations, previous exposure to major life events decreased the impact of stressful daily events. The availability of social supports, although not buffering the impact of stressful daily events on mood, did mitigate the enduring effects of these events on next day's mood. This study also presents a method for analyzing daily time-series data, while correcting for potential problems of autocorrelated error terms. As such, this study represents a significant advance over previous analytic approaches to time-series data in the study of the stress process. PMID:3820071

  8. Global healthy backpack initiatives.

    PubMed

    Jayaratne, Kapila; Jacobs, Karen; Fernando, Dulitha

    2012-01-01

    Schoolbag use by children is a global common concern.. Children carry school books and other amenities in their school bags. Global evidence indicates that daily load carried by school children may have negative health implications. Backpack as a school bag model, is the healthiest way of load carriage for school children. Several initiatives have been launched world over to minimize unhealthy consequences resulting from schoolbags. Based on a situation analysis, Sri Lanka implemented a national healthy schoolbag campaign by joint efforts of Ministries of Health and Education. Actions were contemplated on; strategies for bag weight reduction, introduction of an ergonomically modeled schoolbag and bag behaviour change. New strategies were introduced with awareness campaigns to policy makers, bag manufacturers, parents, teachers and children. Four million schoolchildren benefitted. In 2000, the backpack strategy of "Pack it Light, Wear it Right" was started as a public health initiative in the United States by the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA). Over the last eleven years, thousands of occupational therapy practitioners and students participated in educational programs and outreach activities. In 2004, modeled after the success AOTA initiative, the Icelandic Occupational Therapy Association launched a national backpack awareness initiative. This article shares examples of practices that could be implemented in any context to the promote health of children. PMID:22317612

  9. Food irradiation in perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henon, Y. M.

    1995-02-01

    Food irradiation already has a long history of hopes and disappointments. Nowhere in the world it plays the role that it should have, including in the much needed prevention of foodborne diseases. Irradiated food sold well wherever consumers were given a chance to buy them. Differences between national regulations do not allow the international trade of irradiated foods. While in many countries food irradiation is still illegal, in most others it is regulated as a food additive and based on the knowledge of the sixties. Until 1980, wholesomeness was the big issue. Then the "prerequisite" became detection methods. Large amounts of money have been spent to design and validate tests which, in fact, aim at enforcing unjustified restrictions on the use of the process. In spite of all the difficulties, it is believed that the efforts of various UN organizations and a growing legitimate demand for food safety should in the end lead to recognition and acceptance.

  10. Daily exposure to dust alters innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Sahlander, Karin; Larsson, Kjell; Palmberg, Lena

    2012-01-01

    Pig farmers are exposed to organic material in pig barns on a daily basis and have signs of an ongoing chronic airway inflammation and increased prevalence of chronic inflammatory airway diseases, predominantly chronic bronchitis. Interestingly, the inflammatory response to acute exposure to organic dust is attenuated in farmers. The aim of the study was to closer characterize innate immunity features in blood and airways in farmers and in naïve, non-exposed, controls. The expression of pattern recognition receptors (TLR2, TLR4 and CD14) whose ligands are abundant in pig barn dust and adhesion proteins (CD11b, CD62L and CD162L) on blood and sputum neutrophils in pig farmers and soluble TLR2 and CD14 (sTLR2 and sCD14) in blood and sputum were assessed in pig farmers and previously unexposed controls. The release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from blood cells stimulated with LPS ex vivo was measured in the absence and presence of anti-ST2. We also examined, in a separate study population, serum levels of soluble ST2 (sST2), before and after exposure in a pig barn and a bronchial LPS challenge. Farmers had signs of ongoing chronic inflammation with increased number of blood monocytes, and decreased expression of CD62L and CD162 on blood neutrophils. Farmers also had lower levels of sTLR2 and sCD14 in sputum and reduced expression of CD14 on sputum neutrophils than controls. Exposure to organic dust and LPS induced increase of serum sST2 in controls but not in farmers. In conclusion, farmers have signs of local and systemic inflammation associated with altered innate immunity characteristics. PMID:22355383

  11. Extending the Precipitation Map Offshore Using Daily and 3-Hourly Combined Precipitation Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Bolvin, David T.; Curtis, Scott; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    One of the difficulties in studying landfalling extratropical cyclones along the Pacific Coast is the lack of antecedent data over the ocean, including precipitation. Recent research on combining various satellite-based precipitation estimates opens the possibility of realistic precipitation estimates on a global 1 deg. x 1 deg. latitude-longitude grid at the daily or even 3-hourly interval. The goal in this work is to provide quantitative precipitation estimates that correctly represent the precipitation- related variables in the hydrological cycle: surface accumulations (fresh-water flux into oceans), frequency and duration statistics, net latent heating, etc.

  12. Global Grocery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This fun Web site is part of OLogy, where kids can collect virtual trading cards and create projects with them. Here, they take a behind-the-scenes look at the biodiversity that's part of the many things they eat and use daily. The site opens by asking kids a series of questions to get them thinking about the ingredients in common foods and products. Then it takes them to a well-stocked kitchen, where they can mouse over everything from chocolate chip cookies and coffee to cough drops and cold medicine to learn about the origins of key ingredients.

  13. IRRADIANCE MAPS APPLIED FOR THE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF PV SYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    Heinemann, Detlev

    2005.A comparison of satellite-derived hourly irradiance data with ground measurements on a monthly information on the spatial structure of the radiation field. An assessment of the end use accuracy-connected PV systems. DATA USED Hourly time series from ground and satellite-derived horizontal global

  14. Uncertainty of measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Bernhard; G. Seckmeyer

    1999-01-01

    Most investigations on the nature and effects of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation at the Earth's surface require measurements of high accuracy combined with well-defined procedures to assess their quality. Here we present a general evaluation of all relevant errors and uncertainties associated with measurements of spectral global irradiance in the UV. The uncertainties are quantified in terms of dependence of

  15. The Global Sun Temperature Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website created by Stevens Institute of Technology and the Center for Innovation in Engineering and Science Education (CIESE) allows students from around the world to work together to determine how average daily temperatures and hours of sunlight change with distance from the equator. Upper elementary, middle, and high school students can participate in the Global Sun Temperature Project from March 18 to June 3, 2005. Educators can find project information, lesson plans, and implementation assistance. Participants can submit their project data, pictures, and final reports. If interested parties miss the May 6th registration deadline, check out the website to discover future runs.

  16. The Effect of Personality on Daily Life Emotional Processes

    PubMed Central

    Komulainen, Emma; Meskanen, Katarina; Lipsanen, Jari; Lahti, Jari Marko; Jylhä, Pekka; Melartin, Tarja; Wichers, Marieke; Isometsä, Erkki; Ekelund, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Personality features are associated with individual differences in daily emotional life, such as negative and positive affectivity, affect variability and affect reactivity. The existing literature is somewhat mixed and inconclusive about the nature of these associations. The aim of this study was to shed light on what personality features represent in daily life by investigating the effect of the Five Factor traits on different daily emotional processes using an ecologically valid method. The Experience Sampling Method was used to collect repeated reports of daily affect and experiences from 104 healthy university students during one week of their normal lives. Personality traits of the Five Factor model were assessed using NEO Five Factor Inventory. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze the effect of the personality traits on daily emotional processes. Neuroticism predicted higher negative and lower positive affect, higher affect variability, more negative subjective evaluations of daily incidents, and higher reactivity to stressors. Conscientiousness, by contrast, predicted lower average level, variability, and reactivity of negative affect. Agreeableness was associated with higher positive and lower negative affect, lower variability of sadness, and more positive subjective evaluations of daily incidents. Extraversion predicted higher positive affect and more positive subjective evaluations of daily activities. Openness had no effect on average level of affect, but predicted higher reactivity to daily stressors. The results show that the personality features independently predict different aspects of daily emotional processes. Neuroticism was associated with all of the processes. Identifying these processes can help us to better understand individual differences in daily emotional life. PMID:25343494

  17. Blood irradiation: Rationale and technique

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.C. (Savannah Regional Center for Cancer Care, Memorial Medical Center, GA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Upon request by the local American Red Cross, the Savannah Regional Center for Cancer Care irradiates whole blood or blood components to prevent post-transfusion graft-versus-host reaction in patients who have severely depressed immune systems. The rationale for blood irradiation, the total absorbed dose, the type of patients who require irradiated blood, and the regulations that apply to irradiated blood are presented. A method of irradiating blood using a linear accelerator is described.

  18. Global Warming And Meltwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratu, S.

    2012-04-01

    In order to find new approaches and new ideas for my students to appreciate the importance of science in their daily life, I proposed a theme for them to debate. They had to search for global warming information and illustrations in the media, and discuss the articles they found in the classroom. This task inspired them to search for new information about this important and timely theme in science. I informed my students that all the best information about global warming and meltwater they found would be used in a poster that would help us to update the knowledge base of the Physics laboratory. I guided them to choose the most eloquent images and significant information. Searching and working to create this poster, the students arrived to better appreciate the importance of science in their daily life and to critically evaluate scientific information transmitted via the media. In the poster we created, one can find images, photos and diagrams and some interesting information: Global warming refers to the rising average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans and its projected evolution. In the last 100 years, the Earth's average surface temperature increased by about 0.8 °C with about two thirds of the increase occurring over just the last three decades. Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and scientists are more than 90% certain most of it is caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuel. They indicate that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 2.9 °C for the lowest emissions scenario and 2.4 to 6.4 °C for the highest predictions. An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, and potentially result in expansion of subtropical deserts. Warming is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing decrease of glaciers, permafrost and sea ice. Other likely effects of the warming include more frequent occurrences of extreme weather events including heat waves, droughts and heavy rainfall events, species extinctions due to shifting temperature regimes, and changes in agricultural yields. Meltwater is the water released by the melting of snow or ice, including glacial ice and ice shelves in the oceans. Meltwater is often found in the ablation zone of glaciers, where the rate of snow cover is reduced. In a report published in June 2007, the United Nations Environment Program estimated that global warming could lead to 40% of the world's population being affected by the loss of glaciers, snow and the associated meltwater in Asia. This is one of many activities of the physics laboratory that the students of our high school are involved in.

  19. Total solar irradiance monitors, space instruments for measuring total solar irradiance on FY-3 satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongrui; Wang, Yupeng; Ye, Xin; Wang, Kai; Yang, Dongjun; Fang, Wei; Li, Huiduan

    2014-11-01

    Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) has been recorded daily by Total Solar Irradiance Monitors (TSIM) with overlapping measurements on FY-3 (Feng Yun-3) series satellites since 2008. Instrument descriptions, operation in space and flight performance of three TSIMs are presented in this paper. TSI is measured by electrical substitution radiometers integrated in TSIM, with traceability to SI. TSIM/FY-3A and TSIM/FY-3B share nearly the same design. Since TSIM/FY-3A and TSIM/FY-3B have no pointing system, the Sun is only observed when the Sunlight sweeps TSIM's field-of-view and TSI measurements are influenced inevitably by solar pointing errors. TSIM/FY-3C, a radiometer package was constructed with a pointing system for solar tracking in order to achieve accurate solar pointing. TSIM/FY-3C was sent into orbit in September 2013 onboard FY-3C satellite. Daily TSI measurements have been performed by TSIM/FY-3C with autonomous accurate solar tracking for 1 year. TSIM/FY-3C is in a good instrument health according to its on-orbit data.

  20. Rate of loss of irradiated polyglactin 910 (Vicryl Rapide) from the mouth: a prospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. K. McCaul; J. Bagg; W. M. M. Jenkins

    2000-01-01

    We aimed to find out how long irradiated polyglactin 910 (Vicryl Rapide) remained in the oral tissues and to investigate the effect of chlorhexidine mouthwash on absorption time and bacterial growth on sutures. Twenty-one volunteers each had two Vicryl Rapide sutures placed intraorally under local anaesthesia. Ten of these subjects used chlorhexidine mouthwash twice daily. After 7 days, one suture

  1. ASSESSMENT OF IMMUNE FUNCTION DEVELOPMENT IN MICE IRRADIATED IN UTERO WITH 2450-MHZ MICROWAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groups of time-bred pregnant mice were irradiated with 2450-MHz microwaves at an incident power density of 28 mW/sq. cm. for 100 min daily from day 6 to day 18 of pregnancy. The average specific absorption rate (SAR) was 16.5 W/kg. Two experiments were performed under these condi...

  2. Global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    The earth seems to be getting warmer, but scientists are unsure about the rate and extent of this trend. GAO found that the administration has not established a national policy, defined agency role and interagency relationships, or provided adequate guidance to agencies on how to address the global warming issue. This report states that U.S. administration policy so far has concentrated on doing the scientific research needed to reduce any uncertainty about the timing and threat of global warming. The United States has also focused on assuming a leading international role in formulating policy responses aimed at limiting or adapting to world climate change.

  3. Solar influences on global change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Monitoring of the Sun and the Earth has yielded new knowledge essential to this debate. There is now no doubt that the total radiative energy from the Sun that heats the Earth's surface changes over decadal time scales as a consequence of solar activity. Observations indicate as well that changes in ultraviolet radiation and energetic particles from the Sun, also connected with the solar activity, modulate the layer of ozone that protects the biosphere from the solar ultraviolet radiation. This report reassesses solar influences on global change in the light of this new knowledge of solar and atmospheric variability. Moreover, the report considers climate change to be encompassed within the broader concept of global change; thus the biosphere is recognized to be part of a larger, coupled Earth system. Implementing a program to continuously monitor solar irradiance over the next several decades will provide the opportunity to estimate solar influences on global change, assuming continued maintenance of observations of climate and other potential forcing mechanisms. In the lower atmosphere, an increase in solar radiation is expected to cause global warming. In the stratosphere, however, the two effects produce temperature changes of opposite sign. A monitoring program that would augment long term observations of tropospheric parameters with similar observations of stratospheric parameters could separate these diverse climate perturbations and perhaps isolate a greenhouse footprint of climate change. Monitoring global change in the troposphere is a key element of all facets of the United States Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), not just of the study of solar influences on global change. The need for monitoring the stratosphere is also important for global change research in its own right because of the stratospheric ozone layer.

  4. SCIENTIFIC NOTE Variations in daily quality assurance dosimetry from device

    E-print Network

    Yu, K.N.

    SCIENTIFIC NOTE Variations in daily quality assurance dosimetry from device levelling, feet are effective tools for analysis of daily dosimetry including flatness, symmetry, energy, field size and central these backscattering effects. Keywords Radiotherapy Á Quality assurance Á Dosimetry Á X-rays Introduction Radiotherapy

  5. Parenting Daily Hassles, Child Temperament, and Social Adjustment in Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplan, Robert J.; Bowker, Anne; Cooper, Suzanne M.

    2003-01-01

    Explored relations between child temperament, parenting daily hassles, and children's social adjustment in preschool. Found that parenting daily hassles predicted child externalizing problems beyond the contribution of child temperament characteristics. Child temperament interacted with parenting hassles in predicting adjustment outcomes. Child…

  6. The Determinants of Daily Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Mei-Hui; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Lu, Lu; Huang, Chien-Yu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify determinants of daily function in a population-based sample of children with cerebral palsy (CP). The study took into consideration factors from the entire scope of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). Furthermore, the determinants of daily function were examined from…

  7. Manual of Alternative Procedures: Activities of Daily Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, James E.; And Others

    Intended for teachers and others providing services for moderately and severely physically and/or mentally handicapped children and young adults, the manual presents strategies, procedures, and task analyses for training in daily living skills. Section I provides an overview of tactics for teaching activities of daily living (ADL) skills,…

  8. 27 CFR 555.127 - Daily summary of magazine transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Daily summary of magazine transactions. 555.127 Section...Reports § 555.127 Daily summary of magazine transactions. In taking the inventory...summary transactions to be kept at each magazine of an approved storage...

  9. 27 CFR 555.127 - Daily summary of magazine transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Daily summary of magazine transactions. 555.127 Section...Reports § 555.127 Daily summary of magazine transactions. In taking the inventory...summary transactions to be kept at each magazine of an approved storage...

  10. 27 CFR 555.127 - Daily summary of magazine transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Daily summary of magazine transactions. 555.127 Section...Reports § 555.127 Daily summary of magazine transactions. In taking the inventory...summary transactions to be kept at each magazine of an approved storage...

  11. Changes in North American extremes derived from daily weather data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas C. Peterson; Xuebin Zhang; Manola Brunet-India; Jorge Luis Vázquez-Aguirre

    2008-01-01

    Detailed homogeneity assessments of daily weather observing station data from Canada, the United States, and Mexico enabled analysis of changes in North American extremes starting in 1950. The approach used a number of indices derived from the daily data, primarily based on the number of days per year that temperature or precipitation observations were above or below percentile thresholds. Station

  12. What Impact Does Developmental Coordination Disorder Have on Daily Routines?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Janet; Larkin, Dawne; Dewey, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    In order to understand how age and motor difficulties impact on daily routines, this qualitative investigation used focus groups and in-depth interviews with Australian and Canadian parents to examine the daily routines of younger (5 to 7 years of age) and older children (8 to 9 years of age) with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder…

  13. STABILITY OR REGULARITY OF THE DAILY TRAVEL TIME IN LYON?

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    STABILITY OR REGULARITY OF THE DAILY TRAVEL TIME IN LYON? ­ APPLICATION OF A DURATION MODEL Iragaël approaches; Travel time budget; Zahavi's hypothesis. Abstract: Escaping unidimensional analysis limits variable and permits to test the dependence of daily travel times on elapsed time. In the perspective

  14. Unsupervised multilingual concept discovery from daily online news extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jenq-Haur Wang

    2010-01-01

    Web syndication technologies help us easily aggregate daily news from diverse sources. However, the huge amount of information makes us more difficult to read let alone digest and focus on the most important events. Therefore, we need an efficient way of news extraction and mining. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised approach to multilingual concept discovery from daily online

  15. Rich News: Metropolitan Dailies and the Urban Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Mary Jo

    The migration of people from cities to suburbs, new patterns of advertising, a less homogeneous and unified readership, and increasing competition from other media have produced tremendous pressures on daily newspapers. In responding to these pressures, metropolitan dailies are turning from "hard" to "soft" news, away from their poorer urban…

  16. When Opportunity Knocks: Integrating Language Arts and the Daily Calendar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddle, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    With daily classroom schedules jammed with many concepts and skills to cover, integrating subjects whenever possible offers some relief. Primary classrooms can use their daily calendar time to integrate language arts and math. This teaching approach includes the use of word walls, interactive writing, journaling, and other effective teaching…

  17. Capturing daily urban rhythms: The use of location aware technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Krygsman; Tom de Jong; Peter Schmitz

    Daily activities and travel often follow a natural rhythm or flow that is structured by the fixed spatial and temporal constraints. The work and home location act as pegs that define individual's activity space and it is within these spaces that activities and travel behaviour are believed to be habitual and recurring. Aggregating such individual behaviour leads to so-called daily

  18. Executive Function, Intellectual Decline and Daily Living Skills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert P. Hart; Melanie K. Bean

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the cognitive changes associated with compromised daily living skills in elderly individuals is important for making appropriate recommendations about the capacity for independent functioning. To this end, we retrospectively examined data from 92 elderly individuals presenting with cognitive decline who were administered measures of executive functioning, general intelligence, and daily living skills. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine

  19. 26 CFR 44.4403-1 - Daily record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...horse race, the daily record shall show separately the gross amount of each class or type of wagers (straight bets, parlays, “if” bets, etc.) accepted on each horse in the race. Similarly, in the case of the numbers game, the daily...

  20. 26 CFR 44.4403-1 - Daily record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...horse race, the daily record shall show separately the gross amount of each class or type of wagers (straight bets, parlays, “if” bets, etc.) accepted on each horse in the race. Similarly, in the case of the numbers game, the daily...

  1. 26 CFR 44.4403-1 - Daily record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...horse race, the daily record shall show separately the gross amount of each class or type of wagers (straight bets, parlays, “if” bets, etc.) accepted on each horse in the race. Similarly, in the case of the numbers game, the daily...

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Sequentiality of Daily Life Physiology: An Automatized

    E-print Network

    Fontecave-Jallon, Julie

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Sequentiality of Daily Life Physiology: An Automatized Segmentation Approach J on the hypotheses that (1) a physiological organization exists inside each activity of daily life and (2) the pattern of evolution of physiological variables is characteristic of each activity, pattern changes should

  3. Daily rhythmicity in nutrient content of asinine milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Piccione; F. Fazio; G. Caola; R. Refinetti

    2008-01-01

    Asinine (donkey) milk has been proposed as an alternative to bovine (cow) milk for consumption by human infants who are allergic to bovine milk proteins. To expand the current knowledge of asinine lactation, we investigated daily rhythmicity in the concentration of major constituents of asinine milk. We observed no daily rhythmicity in somatic cell count and pH but observed robust

  4. The Effect of Holidays on Hotel Daily Revenue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred J. DeMicco; Yan Lin; Ling Liu; Lídia Rejtõ; Srikanth Beldona; Diccon Bancroft

    2006-01-01

    The holiday effect phenomenon has been studied in industry sectors such as securities, retail, and so on. Literature is devoid of a purposeful study specific to the hospitality industry that evaluates the economic impact of holidays on the hotel industry. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of holidays on hotel daily revenue. Using daily occupancy data

  5. 26 CFR 44.4403-1 - Daily record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...horse race, the daily record shall show separately the gross amount of each class or type of wagers (straight bets, parlays, “if” bets, etc.) accepted on each horse in the race. Similarly, in the case of the numbers game, the daily...

  6. Predicting Daily Net Radiation Using Minimum Climatological Data1

    E-print Network

    Predicting Daily Net Radiation Using Minimum Climatological Data1 S. Irmak, M.ASCE2 ; A. Irmak3 ; J for predicting daily Rn have been widely used. However, when the paucity of detailed climatological data , and RH data for all locations. It was concluded that both proposed equations are simple, reliable

  7. New Gridded Daily Rainfall Data For The Sahel Introduction

    E-print Network

    Feigon, Brooke

    New Gridded Daily Rainfall Data For The Sahel Introduction Rainfall in the Sahel, West Africa, suggesting a change in the rainfall regime (Hulme, 2001). In order to create a spatiially homogenous daily rainfall dataset suitable for unbiased statistical analysis, a gridded dataset has been created using

  8. Daily Reference Evapotranspiration Estimation using Linear Regression and ANN Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallikarjuna, P.; Jyothy, S. A.; Sekhar Reddy, K. C.

    2012-12-01

    The present study investigates the applicability of linear regression and ANN models for estimating daily reference evapotranspiration (ET0) at Tirupati, Nellore, Rajahmundry, Anakapalli and Rajendranagar regions of Andhra Pradesh. The climatic parameters influencing daily ET0 were identified through multiple and partial correlation analysis. The daily temperature, wind velocity, relative humidity and sunshine hours mostly influenced the study area in the daily ET0 estimation. Linear regression models in terms of the climatic parameters influencing the region and, optimal neural network architectures considering these influencing climatic parameters as input parameters were developed. The models' performance in the estimation of ET0 was evaluated with that estimated by FAO-56 Penman-Montieth method. The regression models showed a satisfactory performance in the daily ET0 estimation for the regions selected for the present study. The optimal ANN (4,4,1) models, however, consistently showed an improved performance over regression models.

  9. Global Warming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hileman, Bette

    1989-01-01

    States the foundations of the theory of global warming. Describes methodologies used to measure the changes in the atmosphere. Discusses steps currently being taken in the United States and the world to slow the warming trend. Recognizes many sources for the warming and the possible effects on the earth. (MVL)

  10. Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoubrey, Sharon

    1994-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on topics related to global issues. (1) "Recycling for Art Projects" (Wendy Stephenson) gives an argument for recycling in the art classroom; (2) "Winds of Change: Tradition and Innovation in Circumpolar Art" (Bill Zuk and Robert Dalton) includes profiles of Alaskan Yupik artist, Larry Beck, who creates art from recycled…

  11. Global Seeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudelli, William

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: This essay is a part of a special issue that emerges from a year-long faculty seminar at Teachers College, Columbia University. The seminar's purpose has been to examine in fresh terms the nexus of globalization, education, and citizenship. Participants come from diverse fields of research and practice, among them art…

  12. Global morphology of infrasound propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drob, Douglas P.; Picone, J. M.; GarcéS, M.

    2003-11-01

    Atmospheric sound waves in the 0.02-10 Hz region, also known as infrasound, exhibit long-range global propagation characteristics. Measurable infrasound is produced around the globe on a daily basis by a variety of natural and man-made sources. As a result of weak classical attenuation (˜0.01 dB km-1 at 0.1 hz), these acoustic signals can propagate thousands of kilometers in tropospheric, stratospheric, and lower thermospheric ducts. To model this propagation accurately, detailed knowledge of the background atmospheric state variables, the global winds and temperature fields from the ground to ˜170 km, is required. For infrasound propagation calculations, we have developed a unique atmospheric specification system (G2S) that is capable of providing this information. Using acoustic ray tracing methods and detailed G2S atmospheric specifications, we investigate the major aspects of the spatiotemporal variability of infrasound propagation characteristics.

  13. A. EQUIPMENT AVAILABLE FOR RENTAL All prices are daily rate. Weekly rental is three times the daily rate.

    E-print Network

    Bordenstein, Seth

    A. EQUIPMENT AVAILABLE FOR RENTAL All prices are daily rate. Weekly rental is three times the daily sponsored by an Arts and Science department are eligible for a 25% discount on equipment rental. C. EQUIPMENT USE AT TSS/Media Center Some equipment may be used at TSS for a fee of $10.00 per hour. D

  14. Moral purpose, economic incentive and global trade : why new business models are needed

    E-print Network

    Samel, Hiram M

    2006-01-01

    Globalization has occurred in various forms over the past century, yet only recently has it become daily news. This evolving process has created numerous underlying tensions that are not well understood. While western ...

  15. ORNL irradiation creep facility

    SciTech Connect

    Reiley, T.C.; Auble, R.L.; Beckers, R.M.; Bloom, E.E.; Duncan, M.G.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shannon, R.H.

    1980-09-01

    A machine was developed at ORNL to measure the rates of elongation observed under irradiation in stressed materials. The source of radiation is a beam of 60 MeV alpha particles from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC). This choice allows experiments to be performed which simulate the effects of fast neutrons. A brief review of irradiation creep and experimental constraints associated with each measurement technique is given. Factors are presented which lead to the experimental choices made for the Irradiation Creep Facility (ICF). The ICF consists of a helium-filled chamber which houses a high-precision mechanical testing device. The specimen to be tested must be thermally stabilized with respect to the temperature fluctuations imposed by the particle beam which passes through the specimen. Electrical resistance of the specimen is the temperature control parameter chosen. Very high precision in length measurement and temperature control are required to detect the small elongation rates relevant to irradiation creep in the test periods available (approx. 1 day). The apparatus components and features required for the above are presented in some detail, along with the experimental procedures. The damage processes associated with light ions are discussed and displacement rates are calculated. Recent irradiation creep results are given, demonstrating the suitability of the apparatus for high resolution experiments. Also discussed is the suitability of the ICF for making high precision thermal creep measurements.

  16. Making The Daily-updated Synoptic Map Of HMI Line-of-sight Magnetogram Cooperating With The HARP module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Keiji; Liu, Y.; Sun, X.; Turmon, M. J.; HMI Team

    2012-05-01

    The synoptic map of the magnetogram is widely used for the global coronal modeling, and the daily or more frequently updated maps help enhance understanding of the solar corona and interplanetary space, especially the space weather related topics. The daily-updated synoptic map is made by superimposing the latest meridional bin of the full disk data to the map. In the HMI data pipeline, the width of the bin is chosen 80 degrees in longitude around the central meridian. A problem occurs when the boundary of the bin happens to separate the bipolar pair of the strong field: The updated part of the synoptic map may have magnetic flux unbalanced, then, the global map will have unbalanced flux and the models of the global corona, such as the PFSS, will give wrong solution. To avoid this problem, one choice is to include all (or exclude all) of the bipolar pair. The HARP, HMI Active Region Patch, will be automatically and routinely monitoring the HMI magnetogram data and recognizing the Active Region, therefore, the HARP will help minimize such unbalance of the magnetic field. In this presentation, we will show the daily updated maps and the outputs of the coronal models, the PFSS and MHD, with the new maps,compare with the other coronal observations such as SDO/AIA images.

  17. Validation of Daily Reference Evapotranspiration Estimates from Newly Available Data Assimilation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemu, H.; Senay, G. B.

    2010-12-01

    Different sources of atmospheric parameters and land surface flux data are currently available for environmental monitoring and agroclimatological applications. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Authority’s (NOAA) National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) has been producing global data assimilation data (GDAS) at 100km (1-degree) resolution that contains a range of atmospheric parameters since 2000. The newly available North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) produces atmospheric parameters at 12 to 15 km (0.125-degree) resolution for the Conterminous United States (CONUS). Estimates of daily Reference Evapotranspiration (ETo) from NLDAS and USGS-EROS generated global daily ETo data from GDAS using the FAO Penman-Monteith model from 2006 - 2007 are evaluated against ETo estimated from 74 stations of the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) and from 115 stations of the Oklahoma Meteorological Network (Mesonet). The results indicate that GDAS-forced ETo estimates show good results over inland areas but show lower accuracies in coastal areas owing to their coarse resolution. NLDAS-forced ETo provides high-resolution ETo and thus avoids the coastal area problem. Over inland areas however, ETo estimates from both assimilation products demonstrate high correlation with gauge data. The results indicate the potential of these datasets for agroclimatological applications particularly in data-scarce regions.

  18. Global energy and global precipitation

    E-print Network

    in global mean precipitation of 4%-14%. (if your range is different compute the impact). Geo-engineering through solar radiation management · Aim of Geo-engineering is to balance forcing from Greenhouse gasesxpre-industrial (1120 ppm) but use geo-engineering (-8 W/m2) to keep the temperature change to zero

  19. Optimization of an artificial neural network dedicated to the multivariate forecasting of daily global radiation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    height class [Octa] tS , ydS , Stationary time series (clear sky index) for the day d and the year y Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) which are a popular artificial intelligence technique in the forecasting

  20. GSOD Based Daily Global Mean Surface Temperature and Mean Sea Level Air Pressure (1982-2011)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Xuan Shi, Dali Wang

    This data product contains all the gridded data set at 1/4 degree resolution in ASCII format. Both mean temperature and mean sea level air pressure data are available. It also contains the GSOD data (1982-2011) from NOAA site, contains station number, location, temperature and pressures (sea level and station level). The data package also contains information related to the data processing methods

  1. Summer mean daily air temperature extremes in Central Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednorz, Ewa; Kolendowicz, Leszek

    2013-08-01

    Summer mean daily temperature extremes in Svalbard Lufthavn (Central Spitsbergen) in the period 1975-2010 and daily pressure patterns and directions of air circulation conducive to their occurrence were analyzed. Positive (negative) extremes of daily mean temperatures in the summer were determined as higher (lower) than or equal to the value of the 90th (10th) percentile. The annual number of selected days shows a great year-to-year variability, although the annual number of extremely low mean daily temperature (?1.3 °C) was decreasing in the 1976-2010 period, with a rate of about 4 days per decade. At the same time, the number of days with extremely high mean daily temperatures (?8.2 °C) was increasing with a rate of about 2 days per decade. The summer pressure patterns and the air circulation conditions have an impact on the occurrence of the air mean daily temperature extremes. Namely, anticyclones spreading east to the Svalbard Archipelago, accompanied by the Icelandic Low, cause the air inflow from the southerly direction and positive mean daily temperature extremes. A cyclonal system spreading east or southeast towards the archipelago, together with a high-pressure ridge over the North Atlantic, indicates the northern air flow and negative mean daily temperature extremes in summer. The results obtained in this study prove that the summer air temperature in the Atlantic region of the Arctic is partly controlled by air circulation, and despite the intensity and stability of the summer cyclones and anticyclones being weaker than in the winter, their position strongly determines the occurrence of mean daily temperature extremes in the summer.

  2. Global Patterns

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Federica Raia

    Students working in groups are initially assigned to one of the data setâexpert groups. Students identify and describe patterns both on spatial and temporal scales. Students write a report on the patterns observed and the research question they raised and then formulate a hypothesis using the distribution of the other data sets used by the other groups. Students are then asked to form new groups where at least one expert on each data set is present. Students are then asked to work with all the data sets, describing global patterns and connections among different phenomena measured on local, regional and global scales. They choose one specific pattern and write a report. This activity has been modified from the GLOBE Earth System Posters. See the activities to accompany the 2007 GLOBE poster for the GLOBE activity description (activities 1-5).

  3. Time series ARIMA models for daily price of palm oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariff, Noratiqah Mohd; Zamhawari, Nor Hashimah; Bakar, Mohd Aftar Abu

    2015-02-01

    Palm oil is deemed as one of the most important commodity that forms the economic backbone of Malaysia. Modeling and forecasting the daily price of palm oil is of great interest for Malaysia's economic growth. In this study, time series ARIMA models are used to fit the daily price of palm oil. The Akaike Infromation Criterion (AIC), Akaike Infromation Criterion with a correction for finite sample sizes (AICc) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) are used to compare between different ARIMA models being considered. It is found that ARIMA(1,2,1) model is suitable for daily price of crude palm oil in Malaysia for the year 2010 to 2012.

  4. Contribution of daily and seasonal biorhythms to obesity in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Witowski, Janusz

    2015-04-01

    While the significance of obesity as a serious health problem is well recognized, little is known about whether and how biometerological factors and biorhythms causally contribute to obesity. Obesity is often associated with altered seasonal and daily rhythmicity in food intake, metabolism and adipose tissue function. Environmental stimuli affect both seasonal and daily rhythms, and the latter are under additional control of internal molecular oscillators, or body clocks. Modifications of clock genes in animals and changes to normal daily rhythms in humans (as in shift work and sleep deprivation) result in metabolic dysregulation that favours weight gain. Here, we briefly review the potential links between biorhythms and obesity in humans.

  5. Comparison of once daily versus twice daily olmesartan in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Yukinao; Suzuki, Anna; Mugishima, Koji; Sumi, Yuichiro; Otsuka, Yusuke; Otsuka, Tomoyuki; Ohno, Dai; Murasawa, Tsuneo; Tsuruoka, Shuichi

    2013-01-01

    Background The effects of olmesartan (OLM) on blood pressure and kidney function in Japanese patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) were compared between 20 mg twice daily (BID) and 40 mg once daily (QD) treatments. Methods The subjects were Japanese CKD patients with concurrent hypertension who had been treated with OLM 20 mg BID for at least 3 months on an outpatient basis (n=39). After a change in the treatment regimen to 40 mg OLM QD (after breakfast), blood pressure (BP) (n=39), morning home BP (n=13), estimated glomerular filtration rate (n=39), and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (n=17) were monitored for 2 months. Results No significant change in office (mean ± standard deviation [SD] [mmHg], 143.9 ± 18.8/75.7 ± 12.0 to 141.6 ± 16.1/74.7 ± 11.7, not significant [ns]) or early morning home (mean ± SD [mmHg], 133.8 ± 15.9/71.2 ± 11.5 to 133.8 ± 13.9/74.5 ± 10.5, ns) BP was observed 2 months after the change in dose. The estimated glomerular filtration rate increased significantly (mean ± SD, 49.0 ± 28.0 to 51.8 ± 27.0, P<0.05), whereas urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio did not change significantly (mean ± SD, 0.551 ± 0.445 to 0.364 ± 0.5194, ns). Conclusion High-dose OLM administered BID and QD had similar effects on outpatient and early morning home BP in CKD patients, suggesting that the BID regimen can be safely changed to a QD regimen. For CKD patients with hypertension requiring continuous long-term treatment, the possibility that the QD regimen might bring a greater therapeutic effect was suggested. However, recognizing the best blood pressure control level for a CKD patient is still a matter of debate, and should ideally be personalized. PMID:24143121

  6. LISIRD: Where to go for Solar Irradiance Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, A.; Pankratz, C. K.; Lindholm, D. M.; Snow, M.; Knapp, B.; Woodraska, D.; Templeman, B.; Woods, T.; Eparvier, F.; Fontenla, J.; Harder, J.; Bill, M.

    2008-12-01

    LASP, the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, has been providing web access to solar irradiance measurements, reference spectra, composites and model data covering the solar spectrum from .1 to 2400 nm through LISIRD, the LASP Interactive Solar IRradiance Datacenter. No single instrument can measure the solar spectral irradiance from X-rays to the IR, but the ensemble of LASP instruments can. LISIRD uses a single interface to provide easy, logical access to a variety of mission data, merged in time and wavelength. Daily space weather measurements are available, including total solar irradiance (TSI), Lyman Alpha (121 nm), Magnesium II Index (280 nm), He II (30.4 nm), FE XVI (33.5 nm), and the FUV continuum (145 to 165 nm). More recently, LISIRD has recently added the Whole Heliosphere Interval (WHI) Solar Irradiance time series, which provides a quiet sun reference spectra for the period of April 10-16 of 2008. LISIRD also recently added a composite solar spectral irradiance product over the range of 120 to 400 nm for the time period from November 8, 1978 to August 1, 2005. This product, created by Mathew Deland at SSAI, merges data from six different satellites into a single SSI product. And, we are currently adding a time series for daily solar spectral irradiance from 1950 to 2006, created by Judith Lean of the Naval Research Lab. This product adjusts observed irradiance for a given wavelength with parameters that represent known sources of variability at that wavelength. LISIRD remains committed to improving data access in a variety of ways. We are planning and developing a means for the broader community of scientists to easily determine data availability for a particular date range without having to know mission or instrument details. Improved data subsetting will allow users to request only the time range or spectra that users need, making data management generally easier. We expect to continue to enhance our data offerings. Future vision for LISIRD also includes integration of improved data visualization and analysis tools. We welcome contributions from solar science community members who wish to share data and tools they have developed. We also expect to integrate LISIRD with the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) and other relevant Virtual Observatories (VOs) for a more integrated and complete user experience. We are actively seeking input and feedback to improve LISIRD from interested users of this data. Towards this end we have provided a survey at our website and to AGU attendees. Those who use LISIRD and provide feedback will have the opportunity to help steer LISIRD development. Let us know what you would like to see and we will try to make it happen!

  7. Measuring and modeling solar irradiance on vertical surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, E.L.; Stoffel, T.L.; Bird, R.E.

    1986-07-01

    This report presents the first evaluations of 5 algorithms for converting global horizontal and direct normal solar irradiance components to global irradiance on tilted surfaces using measurements from the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) at SERI. High resolution (15-min) measurements from 8 thermopile radiometers oriented vertically in the 4 cardinal directions were available for a 169-day period ending 31 December 1984. Concurrent measurements of global horizontal and direct normal solar irradiance components were also used. The pyranometers used were intercompared on horizontal, north-facing, and south-facing vertical orientations. The conversion algorithms each attempt to account for the very complex atmospheric interactions with incoming solar radiation. The sky and ground radiance contributions to tilted surface are assumed to be isotropic, anisotropic, or a combination of the two depending on the algorithm. Results from the analysis of measurements on vertical surfaces for 22 July through 4 September indicate a general overestimate (18% to 46.5%) of solar irradiance on north-facing surfaces by all 5 of the algorithms. The best agreement with measured data was demonstrated for south-facing surfaces where all but one algorithm were within the present measurement by as much as 23% of the observed 15-min data.

  8. Irradiation Stability of Carbon Nanotubes 

    E-print Network

    Aitkaliyeva, Assel

    2010-01-14

    Ion irradiation of carbon nanotubes is a tool that can be used to achieve modification of the structure. Irradiation stability of carbon nanotubes was studied by ion and electron bombardment of the samples. Different ion ...

  9. Salt plays an important role in our daily lives. True, salt makes our food tastier, but perhaps its most significant role is as an ingredient in

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    Salt plays an important role in our daily lives. True, salt makes our food tastier, but perhaps its, or the concentration of salt at the ocean's surface, gives scientists vital information on global ocean circulation changes, so does salinity! Ocean salinity is affected by the water cycle. As salt water evaporates

  10. Development of the Contentment with Life Assessment Scale (CLAS): Using Daily Life Experiences to Verify Levels of Self-Reported Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavallee, Loraine F.; Hatch, P. Maurine; Michalos, Alex C.; McKinley, Tara

    2007-01-01

    On average, Anglo-Americans report that they are satisfied with their lives, but their global evaluations tend to deviate from their daily experiences (e.g., Oishi [2002, "Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin" 28(10), 1398-1406]). We explored the hypothesis that the average life satisfaction of Anglo-Americans is better characterized as…

  11. Development and analysis of a 12-year daily 1-km forest fire dataset across North America from NOAA\\/AVHRR data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruiliang Pu; Zhanqing Li; Peng Gong; Ivan Csiszar; Robert Fraser; Wei-Min Hao; Shobha Kondragunta; Fuzhong Weng

    2007-01-01

    Fires in boreal and temperate forests play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. While forest fires in North America (NA) have been surveyed extensively by U.S. and Canadian forest services, most fire records are limited to seasonal statistics without information on temporal evolution and spatial expansion. Such dynamic information is crucial for modeling fire emissions. Using the daily

  12. IAB Shop Rental Rates VEHICLES/SIZE HRLY DAILY WEEKLY

    E-print Network

    Ickert-Bond, Steffi

    IAB Shop Rental Rates FY2010 VEHICLES/SIZE HRLY DAILY WEEKLY Monthly $ PER MILE Sedan/ Escort 5/IAB Director. * * * * IAB does not rent vehicles to external users. IAB Shop Labor and Supply Rates Service

  13. Possible daily variation in the color of the blue ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Postma; D. Spitzer

    1982-01-01

    Possible daily variations in the color of the blue ocean are inferred from the variations in the particulate organic carbon concentrations in an ocean layer (0-50 m) which should alter the respected refractance of incident solar radiation. (AIP)

  14. 20 CFR 330.2 - Computation of daily benefit rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Computation of daily benefit rate. 330.2 Section 330.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT...

  15. 20 CFR 330.2 - Computation of daily benefit rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Computation of daily benefit rate. 330.2 Section 330.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE...

  16. 30 CFR 77.1403 - Daily examination of hoisting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...of hoisting equipment. Hoists and elevators shall be examined daily and such examinations...limited to, the following: (a) Elevators. (1) A visual examination of...sheaves; (2) An examination of the elevator for loose, missing or defective...

  17. 30 CFR 77.1403 - Daily examination of hoisting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...of hoisting equipment. Hoists and elevators shall be examined daily and such examinations...limited to, the following: (a) Elevators. (1) A visual examination of...sheaves; (2) An examination of the elevator for loose, missing or defective...

  18. 30 CFR 77.1403 - Daily examination of hoisting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...of hoisting equipment. Hoists and elevators shall be examined daily and such examinations...limited to, the following: (a) Elevators. (1) A visual examination of...sheaves; (2) An examination of the elevator for loose, missing or defective...

  19. DAILY NEWS SCIENZA Addio al fisico Paolo Budinich

    E-print Network

    ), che lo omaggerà il prossimo 20 novembre nel proprio Welcome Day. (Credit per la foto: Wikipedia) Addio al fisico Paolo Budinich - Wired.it http://daily.wired.it/news/scienza/2013/11/15/budinich-morto

  20. An Examination of Daily Information Needs and Sharing Opportunities

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    An Examination of Daily Information Needs and Sharing Opportunities David Dearman1 , Melanie Kellar Canada {dearman, khai}@cs.toronto.edu 2 Google Inc. 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway Mountain View, CA 94043 USA

  1. Racial Differences in Exposure and Reactivity to Daily Family Stressors.

    PubMed

    Cichy, Kelly E; Stawski, Robert S; Almeida, David M

    2012-06-01

    Using data from the National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE), this study examined racial differences in exposure and reactivity to daily stressors involving family members. Respondents included African American and European American adults aged 34 to 84 (N = 1,931) who participated in 8 days of daily interviews where they reported on daily stressors, affect, and physical health symptoms. Results revealed racial similarities in family stressor exposure. Both races were also emotionally reactive to family arguments and family network events (i.e., events that happen to a family member), whereas African Americans were more physically reactive to family arguments. For African Americans, reactivity to family arguments endured; the increased negative affect and physical symptoms associated with family arguments lasted into the next day. Findings provide evidence for racial similarities and differences, suggesting that family relationships are universally stressful, whereas the negative effects of family stressors are more enduring among African Americans. PMID:23543937

  2. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zeala...

  3. Update on meat irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.G. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The irradiation of meat and poultry in the United States is intended to eliminate pathogenic bacteria from raw product, preferably after packaging to prevent recontamination. Irradiation will also increase the shelf life of raw meat and poultry products approximately two to three times the normal shelf life. Current clearances in the United States are for poultry (fresh or frozen) at doses from 1.5 to 3.0 kGy and for fresh pork at doses from 0.3 to 1.0 kGy. A petition for the clearance of all red meat was submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in July 1994. The petition is for clearances of fresh meat at doses from 1.5 to 4.5 kGy and for frozen meat at {approximately}2.5 to 7.5 kGy. Clearance for red meat is expected before the end of 1997. There are 28 countries that have food irradiation clearances, of which 18 countries have clearances for meat or poultry. However, there are no uniform categories or approved doses for meat and poultry among the countries that could hamper international trade of irradiated meat and poultry.

  4. Uniform high irradiance source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunde, A. R.; Fortini, A.; Buchele, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    New 50 Kw xenon short arc lamp mounted within elliptical collector provides irradiance levels up to 4.4 x 10 to the 7th power watts/sq m with non-uniformity ratio of 3.30. Energy mixer or light pipe between lamp source and target improves non-uniformity to required ratio.

  5. Phytosanitary applications of irradiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytosanitary treatments are used to disinfest agricultural commodities of quarantine pests so the commodities can be shipped across quarantine barriers to trade. Ionizing irradiation is a promising treatment that is increasing in use. Almost 19,000 tons of sweet potatoes and several fruits, plus ...

  6. Combination processes in food irradiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Thakur; R. K. Singh

    1995-01-01

    Irradiation is emerging as a potential method of food preservation. It is being used to extend the shelf life of raw and processed foods in many countries worldwide. Like all other methods of food preservation, irradiation has a number of limitations. Irradiation, when used alone, can cause the development of undesirable sensory and chemical changes in some foods, depending on

  7. Children’s Daily Routines During Kindergarten Transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leah K. Wildenger; Laura Lee McIntyre; Barbara H. Fiese; Tanya L. Eckert

    2008-01-01

    Routines are an important feature of family life and functioning in families with young children. Common daily routines such\\u000a as dinnertime, bedtime, and waking activities are powerful organizers of family behavior and may be instrumental to children\\u000a and families during times of transition, such as elementary school entry. Daily routines were examined in 132 families with\\u000a children entering kindergarten. Although

  8. Brief communication: Calabria daily rainfall from 1970 to 2006

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Federico; L. Pasqualoni; E. Avolio; C. Bellecci

    2010-01-01

    This brief communication introduces a new quality-controlled precipitation database for Calabria, shows the precipitation trend for the period considered, and correlates daily rainfall with some common teleconnection patterns. The database consists of daily accumulated precipitation collected by 61 rain gauges from 1 January 1970 to 31 December 2006. The 37-year trend in yearly rainfall shows a decrease of 4.7 mm\\/y,

  9. Daily imaging scheduling of an Earth observation satellite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-cheng Lin; Da-yin Liao; Chung-yang Liu; Yong-yao Lee

    2005-01-01

    This work presents the development of a daily imaging scheduling system for a low-orbit, Earth observation satellite. The daily imaging scheduling problem of satellite considers various imaging requests with different reward opportunities, changeover efforts between two consecutive imaging tasks, cloud-coverage effects, and the availability of the spacecraft resource. It belongs to a class of single-machine scheduling problems with salient features

  10. 75 FR 42399 - Orders Finding That the PJM WH Real Time Peak Daily Contract, PJM WH Real Time Off-Peak Daily...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ...Time Off-Peak Daily Contract and PJM WH Day Ahead LMP Peak Daily Contract Offered for...Daily (``ODP'') contract and PJM WH Day Ahead LMP Peak Daily (``PDA'') contract...of the CEA that averaged five trades per day or more over the most recent calendar...

  11. INTRODUCTION TO GLOBALIZATION

    E-print Network

    Loudon, Catherine

    INTRODUCTION TO GLOBALIZATION INTRODUCTION TO GLOBALIZATION Workshops,Presentations,&LiteracyExercises TeacherEdition2014 SchoolofSocialSciences UniversityofCalifornia·Irvine #12;#12;GLOBALSCOPE A Global Connect Publication School of Social Sciences University of California, Irvine GLOBALIZATION

  12. global warming's six indias

    E-print Network

    Haller, Gary L.

    global warming's six indias: An Audience Segmentation Analysis #12;Global Warming's Six Indias 1............................................................................................................................................20 2. Global Warming Beliefs and Attitudes................................................................................ 21 Knowledge about global warming varies widely by group

  13. Solar variability in irradiance and oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Jeff R.

    1995-01-01

    The signature of the solar cycle appears in helioseismic frequencies and splittings. It is known that the changing outer superadiabatic region of the sun is responsible for this. The deeper solar-cycle mechanism from the surface changes, and, in particular, how magnetic fields perturb the global modes, the solar irradiance and the luminosity, is discussed. The irradiance and helioseismic changes are described. The interpretation of seismic and photometric data is discussed, considering current one-dimensional models and phenomenology. It is discussed how the long term solar-cycle luminosity effect could be caused by changes occurring near the base of the convection zone (CZ). It is shown that a thin toroidal flux sheath at the top of the radiative zone changed the thermal stratification immediately below the CZ over a solar-cycle timescale in two ways: the temperature of the magnetized fluid becomes hotter than the surrounding fluid, and the temperature gradient steepens above the magnetized region. The testing of CZ dynamics and extension of numerical experiments to global scales are considered.

  14. Albedo-enhanced maximum UV irradiance--measured on surfaces oriented normal to the sun.

    PubMed

    Philipona, R; Schilling, A; Schmucki, D

    2001-04-01

    UV radiation measured on normal-to-the-sun-oriented surfaces can show significantly higher global UV irradiance values compared to measurements on horizontal receivers. The direct component is amplified by the inverse cosine of the zenith angle, but over surfaces with high local albedo this accounts for only about half of the signal rise of global irradiance. The signal rise of the diffuse component, however, is strongly related to local albedo and solar elevation, which is demonstrated by 2 years of measurements of direct, diffuse, global, reflected and global normal-to-the-sun erythemal effective UV irradiance (UVery). Global UVery signal rises, on normal-to-the-sun-oriented versus horizontal receivers, of up to 65% were measured on fresh snow and solar elevation angles below 30 degrees. An empirical expression has been deduced from the measurements relating the ratio of normal-to-the-sun versus horizontal measurements of global UVery to surface albedo and solar elevation. This allows one to calculate the maximum global UVery irradiance levels which are to be expected on normal-to-the-sun-oriented surfaces with respect to horizontal measurements or model calculations. PMID:11332031

  15. Extreme total solar irradiance due to cloud enhancement at sea level of the NE Atlantic coast of Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rubén D. Piacentini; Graciela M. Salum; Naum Fraidenraich; Chigueru Tiba

    2011-01-01

    Extraterrestrial total solar irradiance, usually called Solar Constant, is attenuated by the atmosphere in different proportions, depending mainly on solar zenith angle and altitude of the measurement point. In this work, it is presented very high and extreme horizontal plane measurements of global solar irradiance that in some days overpassed the Solar Constant corrected by the actual Sun–Earth distance (CSC).

  16. Once-daily tazarotene gel versus twice-daily fluocinonide cream in the treatment of plaque psoriasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Lebwohl; Ernest Ast; Jeffrey P. Callen; Stanley I. Cullen; Steven R. Hong; Carol L. Kulp-Shorten; Nicholas J. Lowe; Tania J. Phillips; Theodore Rosen; David I. Wolf; Janine M. Quell; John Sefton; John C. Lue; John R. Gibson; Roshantha A. S. Chandraratna

    1998-01-01

    Background: A new class of topical receptor-selective acetylenic retinoids, the first of which is tazarotene, has been developed. Objective: Our purpose was to compare the safety, efficacy, and duration of therapeutic effect of 12 weeks of once-daily tazarotene 0.1% and 0.05% gel with that of twice-daily fluocinonide 0.05% cream in the treatment of patients with plaque psoriasis. Methods: Three hundred

  17. Global Jurist The Global Legal Standards Report

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Global Jurist The Global Legal Standards Report Volume 9, Issue 3 2009 Article 2 AT THE END OF THE END OF HISTORY. GLOBAL LEGAL STANDARDS. PART OF THE SOLUTION OR PART OF THE PROBLEM? IUC Independent Policy Report: At the End of the End of History - Global Legal Standards: Part of the Solution or Part

  18. Global Jurist The Global Legal Standards Report

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Global Jurist The Global Legal Standards Report Volume 9, Issue 3 2009 Article 1 AT THE END OF THE END OF HISTORY. GLOBAL LEGAL STANDARDS. PART OF THE SOLUTION OR PART OF THE PROBLEM? Executive Summary - IUC Independent Policy Report: At the End of the End of History IUC Global Legal Standards Research

  19. Magnitude of Interfractional Vaginal Cuff Movement: Implications for External Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Daniel J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Michaletz-Lorenz, Martha [Department of Education and Training, Elekta, Maryland Heights, MO (United States); Goddu, S. Murty [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Grigsby, Perry W., E-mail: pgrigsby@wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Division of Nuclear Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To quantify the extent of interfractional vaginal cuff movement in patients receiving postoperative irradiation for cervical or endometrial cancer in the absence of bowel/bladder instruction. Methods and Materials: Eleven consecutive patients with cervical or endometrial cancer underwent placement of three gold seed fiducial markers in the vaginal cuff apex as part of standard of care before simulation. Patients subsequently underwent external irradiation and brachytherapy treatment based on institutional guidelines. Daily megavoltage CT imaging was performed during each external radiation treatment fraction. The daily positions of the vaginal apex fiducial markers were subsequently compared with the original position of the fiducial markers on the simulation CT. Composite dose-volume histograms were also created by summing daily target positions. Results: The average ({+-} standard deviation) vaginal cuff movement throughout daily pelvic external radiotherapy when referenced to the simulation position was 16.2 {+-} 8.3 mm. The maximum vaginal cuff movement for any patient during treatment was 34.5 mm. In the axial plane the mean vaginal cuff movement was 12.9 {+-} 6.7 mm. The maximum vaginal cuff axial movement was 30.7 mm. In the craniocaudal axis the mean movement was 10.3 {+-} 7.6 mm, with a maximum movement of 27.0 mm. Probability of cuff excursion outside of the clinical target volume steadily dropped as margin size increased (53%, 26%, 4.2%, and 1.4% for 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 cm, respectively.) However, rectal and bladder doses steadily increased with larger margin sizes. Conclusions: The magnitude of vaginal cuff movement is highly patient specific and can impact target coverage in patients without bowel/bladder instructions at simulation. The use of vaginal cuff fiducials can help identify patients at risk for target volume excursion.

  20. Immunosuppression and organ transplantation tolerance using total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Slavin, S.; Strober, S.; Fuks, Z.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1980-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is a method which delivers irradiation daily in fractionated doses (200 rads) to lymphoid organs while shielding bones, lungs, and the majority of the gastrointestinal tract. TLI is lymphocytopenic in mice, rats, dogs, and humans, and both T cells and B cells are eliminated from the circulation. TLI permits establishment of specific and long-lasting tolerance to alloantigens. Permanent acceptance of allogeneic bone marrow cells without graft-versus-host disease was achieved in rats and dogs across major histocompatibility barriers. Recipients were tolerant to allografts of skin, hearts, and kidney from animals syngeneic to marrow donors or to organs from the marrow donor. This approach may be suitable for pancreas transplantation in diabetes.

  1. [Protective and reactivating effect of the protein exometabolite on yeast cells inactivated by the ultraviolet irradiation].

    PubMed

    Vorob'eva, L I; Khodzhaev, E Iu

    2010-01-01

    It has been shown that Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces lactis, and Candida utilis strains produce the protein exometabolites, which has a protective and reactivating effect on the ultraviolet irradiated yeast cells. The protective effect of the preliminary ultraviolet irradiated (activated) protein exometabolite of all strains increased 2-3 times, though its reactivating activity did not change. Yarrowia lipolytica yeast cells, isolated from the areas with the high daily irradiation, and Endomyces magnusii, the obligate fungi parasites, were characterized by the highest ultraviolet tolerance in comparison with the other strains. However, they did not produce the exometabolites with the antistress effect. Luteococcus casei reactivating factor demonstrated protective and reactivating cross-action in relation to the ultraviolet irradiated S. cerevisiae, K. lactis, and C. utilis cells and were inactive in relation to Y. lipolytica and E. magnusii. Using killer and nonkiller S. cerevisiae strain, it has been shown that the peptide exometabolite accumulation was not associated with toxin production. PMID:20391763

  2. Identification of irradiated foods

    SciTech Connect

    Morehouse, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    A reliable method is needed to determine if foods have been irradiated and are in compliance with respect to the allowable absorbed radiation dose. Several approaches for the identification of irradiated foods are under development worldwide. These include measurement of o-tyrosine, radiolytically generated hydrocarbons from lipids and chemiluminescence or thermoluminescence, and the use of electron spin resonance (ESR) to measure free radicals trapped in calcified tissues. This paper describes the efforts being undertaken at the FDA to develop analytical procedures to monitor and identify foods that have been treated with ionizing radiation. In particular, it focuses on the use of an ESR approach to measure radiation-induced free radicals trapped in calcified tissues and the use of a capillary gas chromatography (GC)-based procedure to determine radiolytically generated hydrocarbons formed by the radiolysis of lipids in various foods.

  3. Cochlear Implant Outcomes: A Comparison between Irradiated and Non-irradiated Ears

    PubMed Central

    Soh, Jie Min; D'Souza, Vishal Deepak; Sarepaka, Gopal Krishna; Ng, Win Nie; Ong, Chun Suan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Radiotherapy for head and neck tumors is known to potentially induce sensorineural hearing loss, which is possibly due to damage to the cochlear and/or auditory pathways. Since the success of cochlear implantation depends on a functional auditory nerve, this paper aims to study the hearing outcomes of cochlear implantation in irradiated ears. Methods A retrospective study of cochlear implant recipients from our institution who had previously received radiotherapy for head and neck cancers was performed. A control group with cochlear implants who did not receive radiotherapy was recruited. A review of case records, speech discrimination scores (SDS), and a validated subjective questionnaire in the form of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) was administered to the study group who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Global and category scores in both groups were averaged and statistically compared via non-inferiority (NI) testing. Results With the control group (n=8) as the reference, the -?NI was defined, and a one-tailed lower 95% confidence interval was used for the irradiated group (n=8). The APHAB degree of improvement (%) results were as follows: global, 28.9% (19.32%, -?NI=16.3%); ease of communication, 67.0% (58.36%, -?NI=37.5%); background noise, 53.2% (44.14%, -?NI=26.8%); reverberation, 41.7% (28.85%, -?NI=32.7%); and aversiveness, -46.2% (-67.80%, -?NI=-56.9%). The SDS was 66.9% (56.02%, -?NI=51.0%). From the results, lower 95% confidence interval limits of global APHAB, SDS, ease of communication, and background noise scores of the irradiated group were within the defined -?NI boundary and hence are not inferior to the control. The categories of reverberation and aversiveness could not be proven, however. Conclusion This study demonstrated marked improvements in hearing measured both objectively and subjectively. The overall hearing outcomes after cochlear implantation for post-irradiated patients were not worse than patients who have had no prior irradiation to ear structures. PMID:22701157

  4. Detection of irradiated food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. G. Hein; T. J. Simat; H. Steinhart

    2000-01-01

    o-Tyrosine is proposed as a marker for the identification of irradiated protein-rich food. The disadvantages of most of the\\u000a published methods are insufficient selectivity and the relatively high values of o-tyrosine in unirradiated samples. A method for the analysis of non-protein-bound o-tyrosine in common shrimps is presented here. The procedure involves the homogenization of fresh shrimps followed by solvent\\u000a precipitation

  5. Pollutant roses for daily averaged ambient air pollutant concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosemans, Guido; Kretzschmar, Jan; Mensink, Clemens

    Pollutant roses are indispensable tools to identify unknown (fugitive) sources of heavy metals at industrial sites whose current impact exceeds the target values imposed for the year 2012 by the European Air Quality Daughter Directive 2004/207/EC. As most of the measured concentrations of heavy metals in ambient air are daily averaged values, a method to obtain high quality pollutant roses from such data is of practical interest for cost-effective air quality management. A computational scheme is presented to obtain, from daily averaged concentrations, 10° angular resolution pollutant roses, called PRP roses, that are in many aspects comparable to pollutant roses made with half-hourly concentrations. The computational scheme is a ridge regression, based on three building blocks: ordinary least squares regression; outlier handling by weighting based on expected values of the higher percentiles in a lognormal distribution; weighted averages whereby observed values, raised to a power m, and daily wind rose frequencies are used as weights. Distance measures are used to find the optimal value for m. The performance of the computational scheme is illustrated by comparing the pollutant roses, constructed with measured half-hourly SO 2 data for 10 monitoring sites in the Antwerp harbour, with the PRP roses made with the corresponding daily averaged SO 2 concentrations. A miniature dataset, made up of 7 daily concentrations and of half-hourly wind directions assigned to 4 wind sectors, is used to illustrate the formulas and their results.

  6. The quality of experience in adolescents' daily lives: developmental perspectives.

    PubMed

    Delle Fave, A; Bassi, M

    2000-08-01

    The authors analyzed the pattern of experience fluctuation in adolescents' daily activities. Italian high school students (N = 120; 16-20 years of age) were tested with the experience sampling method, a technique based on on-line sampling of daily life and experience. A total of 4,794 forms were gathered and analyzed by means of a model for the study of experience fluctuations. Among daily activities, studying at home, doing classwork, watching television, and having structured leisure were selected as the focus of analysis on the basis of their frequency and meaning in the adolescents' lives. Results showed that (a) daily activities have unique experiential profiles, (b) engagement may be used as an index of long-term commitment to a given activity, (c) studying at home and doing classwork share this basic component and can foster behavioral development, (d) structured leisure can play an edifying role at the short-term level for a socially integrated transition to adulthood, and (e) watching television is associated with lack of goals and engagement and is a source of apathy. The results (a) shed light on the role of daily life experience in shaping individual development and (b) provide suggestions for educational and psychosocial intervention in adolescence. PMID:10950201

  7. A simple technic for predicting daily maintenance dose of warfarin.

    PubMed

    Williams, D B; Karl, R C

    1979-04-01

    Warfarin anticoagulation data from forty-seven patients studied retrospectively was used to develop an algorithm for predicting daily maintenance dose of warfarin. A plot of prothrombin time versus cumulative warfarin loading dose was made for each of the forty-seven patients and the aera under the curve (AREA) measured from the baseline prothrombin time to a prothrombin time of 20 seconds. A linear correlation between the established daily maintenance dose of warfarin and AREA was derived regression analysis: Daily maintenance dose (mg/day) = 0.0465 x (AREA) + 1.5. The correlation was then used to predict daily maintenance dose in twenty-four patients studied prospectively. The mean prothrombin time for a seven day stabilization period after loading for all patients in the prospective study was 21.5 +/- 2.2 seconds and the seven day mean prothrombin time for each patient fell between 19 and 24 seconds. The results of the prospective study indicate that this technic is useful in the early, accurate prediction of a daily maintenance dose of warfarin. PMID:426209

  8. Long-term trends and extremes in observed daily precipitation and near surface air temperature in the Philippines for the period 1951-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinco, Thelma A.; de Guzman, Rosalina G.; Hilario, Flaviana D.; Wilson, David M.

    2014-08-01

    Observed daily precipitation and near surface air temperature data from 34 synoptic weather stations in the Philippines for the period 1951-2010 were subjected to trend analysis which revealed an overall warming tendency compared to the normal mean values for the period 1961-1990. This warming trend can be observed in the annual mean temperatures, daily minimum mean temperatures and to a lesser extent, daily maximum mean temperatures. Precipitation and temperature extremes for the period 1951-2010 were also analysed relative to the mean 1961-1990 baseline values. Some stations (Cotabato, Iloilo, Laoag and Tacloban,) show increases in both frequency and intensity of extreme daily rainfall events which are significant at the 95% level with none of the stations showing decreasing trends. The frequency of daily temperature maximum above the 99th percentile (hot days) and nights at the 1st percentile (cold nights) suggests that both days and nights in particular are becoming warmer. Such indicators of a warming trend and increase in extreme events in the Philippines are discussed in the context of similar national, regional (Asia Pacific) and global studies. The relevance of such empirically based climatology studies, particularly for nations such as the Philippines which are increasingly vulnerable to the multiple impacts of global climate change, is also considered.

  9. Diffuse, global and extra-terrestrial solar radiation for Singapore

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. N. A. Hawlader

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, equations have been developed to estimate diffuse fraction of the hourly, daily and monthly global insolation on a horizontal surface. These correlations are expressed in terms of Kd, the ratio of diffuse-to-total radiation, and KT, the clearness index. The hourly correlation equations, show a fairly similar trend to that of Orgill and Hollands (1) and Spencer (5)

  10. Improved global sea surface temperature analyses using optimum interpolation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard W. Reynolds; Thomas M. Smith

    1994-01-01

    The new NOAA operational global sea surface temperature (SST) analysis is described. The analyses use 7 days of in situ (ship and buoy) and satellite SST. These analyses are produced weekly and daily using optimum interpolation (OI) on a 1[degrees] grid. The OI technique requires the specification of data and analysis error statistics. These statistics are derived and show that

  11. Ionospheric total electron content: Global and hemispheric climatology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Lean; R. R. Meier; J. M. Picone; J. T. Emmert

    2011-01-01

    A new general linear model of the climatology of the ionosphere's total electron content (TEC) is described, accounting simultaneously for the influences of solar and geomagnetic activity, oscillations at four frequencies and a secular trend. The model captures more than 98% of the variance in the daily averaged, global TEC derived from GPS observations during the 16 years from 1995

  12. Effective Accuracy of Satellite-Derived Hourly Irradiances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenka, A.; Perez, R.; Seals, R.; Renné, D.

    Estimates of hourly global irradiance based on geostationary satellite data with a resolution of several (2 to 10) kilometres reproduce ground-measured values with a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of typically 20% to 25%. The different components of this RMSE have been enumerated by several authors but, due to the lack of adequate measurements, their respective importance is not well settled. In the present study we attempt to quantify these components from a practical point of view, that is from the point of view of users having to rely on time/site specific irradiance data. We conclude that the intrinsic, or ``effective'' RMSE is more along the line of 12%. This effective RMSE is the measure of the methodological imprecision (satellite-to-irradiance conversion models). The remaining part of the overall RMSE is the amount by which spatially averaged satellite-derived estimates are, by their very nature, bound to differ from ground-measured local insolation.

  13. Optimum irradiance distribution of concentrated sunlight for photovoltaic energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benítez, Pablo; Mohedano, Rubén

    1999-04-01

    The irradiance distribution on a concentration photovoltaic cell that produces maximum conversion efficiency has been found with the tools of Variational Calculus. The analysis is two dimensional and can be applied to a comb-like double busbar solar cell illuminated by a line-focus concentrator. The optimum distribution is, in general, nonuniform, and depends on the internal parameters of the solar cell: the higher the contribution of the grid to the global cell series resistance, the lower the uniformity of the optimum irradiance distribution. In practical cases, the efficiency for uniform illumination is close to that of the optimum, but in the latter the irradiance close to the busbar may be noticeable higher than the average.

  14. FDA perspective on food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pauli, G.H.

    1994-12-31

    The Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) monitors the safety of food irradiation. A few limited uses are regulated, and occasionally CFSAN receives a petition for a new use. Despite extensive studies (more than 400) showing the safety of food irradiation, a cloud of suspicion continues to hang over this issue in the mind of the public. People perceive food irradiation and direct body irradiation as having similar implications. Food irradiation is banned in two states in the United States. Food is irradiated for the following purposes: delay of ripening, prevention of sprouting, eradication of pests and sterilization, and allowing commodities to be stored unrefrigerated for long periods of time. The dosage depends on the purpose of the irradiation. Radiolytic products are formed during irradiation and during storage afterward. Most of these products are also formed during conventional preservation. In 1980, CFSAN, then the Bureau of Foods, introduced the term unique radiolytic products for compounds not identified in foods after conventional processing. Although the existence of URPs was never proven chemically, the term has caused anxiety. Irradiation of foods in the commercially useful range does not generate radioactivity above natural background. Because radiolytic products formed from beef, chicken, and pork are primarily the same, irradiated foods of similar food groups may be evaluated generically.

  15. SDI: Solar Dome Instrument for Solar Irradiance Monitoring Tao Liu1, Ankur U. Kamthe1, Varick L. Erickson1, Carlos F. M. Coimbra2 and Alberto E. Cerpa1

    E-print Network

    Cerpa, Alberto E.

    SDI: Solar Dome Instrument for Solar Irradiance Monitoring Tao Liu1, Ankur U. Kamthe1, Varick L data for ground solar irradiance (direct normal and global irradiance) is a major obstacle for the de- velopment of adequate policies to promote and take advan- tage of existing solar technologies. Although

  16. Comparison of OMI ozone and UV irradiance data with ground-based measurements at two French sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Buchard; C. Brogniez; F. Auriol; B. Bonnel; J. Lenoble; A. Tanskanen; B. Bojkov; P. Veefkind

    2008-01-01

    Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), launched in July 2004, is dedicated to the monitoring of the Earth's ozone, air quality and climate. OMI provides among other things the total column of ozone (TOC), the surface ultraviolet (UV) irradiance at several wavelengths, the erythemal dose rate and the erythemal daily dose. The main objective of this work is to validate OMI data

  17. Factors Associated with Growth in Daily Smoking among Indigenous Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Whitbeck, Les B.; Hartshorn, Kelley J. Sittner; McQuillan, Julia; Crawford, Devan M.

    2012-01-01

    North American Indigenous adolescents smoke earlier, smoke more, and are more likely to become regular smokers as adults than youth from any other ethnic group yet we know very little about their early smoking trajectories. We use multilevel growth modeling across five waves of data from Indigenous adolescents (aged 10 to 13 years at Wave 1) to investigate factors associated with becoming a daily smoker. Several factors, including number of peers who smoked at Wave 1 and meeting diagnostic criteria for major depressive episode and conduct disorder were associated with early daily smoking. Only age and increases in the number of smoking peers were associated with increased odds of becoming a daily smoker. PMID:23794792

  18. Associations of Subjective Social Status with Nondaily and Daily Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Buchanan, Taneisha S.; Nguyen, Nga; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To explore associations between subjective social status (SSS) and smoking level among 2274 adult current smokers. Methods Associations were investigated using a covariate-adjusted proportional odds cumulative logit model. Moderation (via race/ethnicity or sex) and mediation (via depressive symptoms, social/emotional support, or life satisfaction) were explored in additional models. Results Higher SSS was associated with greater likelihood of nondaily versus light daily or moderate/ heavy daily smoking (p = .017). Life satisfaction partially mediated the association of SSS and smoking level (p = .003). Conclusions Higher SSS was associated with greater likelihood of nondaily relative to light daily or moderate to heavy smoking, potentially via greater life satisfaction. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24629553

  19. Muscle Activity and Inactivity Periods during Normal Daily Life

    PubMed Central

    Tikkanen, Olli; Haakana, Piia; Pesola, Arto J.; Häkkinen, Keijo; Rantalainen, Timo; Havu, Marko; Pullinen, Teemu; Finni, Taija

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that not only the lack of physical activity, but also prolonged times of sedentary behaviour where major locomotor muscles are inactive, significantly increase the risk of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to provide details of quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity and activity during normal daily life of ordinary people. Eighty-four volunteers (44 females, 40 males, 44.1±17.3 years, 172.3±6.1 cm, 70.1±10.2 kg) were measured during normal daily life using shorts measuring muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity (recording time 11.3±2.0 hours). EMG was normalized to isometric MVC (EMGMVC) during knee flexion and extension, and inactivity threshold of each muscle group was defined as 90% of EMG activity during standing (2.5±1.7% of EMGMVC). During normal daily life the average EMG amplitude was 4.0±2.6% and average activity burst amplitude was 5.8±3.4% of EMGMVC (mean duration of 1.4±1.4 s) which is below the EMG level required for walking (5 km/h corresponding to EMG level of about 10% of EMGMVC). Using the proposed individual inactivity threshold, thigh muscles were inactive 67.5±11.9% of the total recording time and the longest inactivity periods lasted for 13.9±7.3 min (2.5–38.3 min). Women had more activity bursts and spent more time at intensities above 40% EMGMVC than men (p<0.05). In conclusion, during normal daily life the locomotor muscles are inactive about 7.5 hours, and only a small fraction of muscle's maximal voluntary activation capacity is used averaging only 4% of the maximal recruitment of the thigh muscles. Some daily non-exercise activities such as stair climbing produce much higher muscle activity levels than brisk walking, and replacing sitting by standing can considerably increase cumulative daily muscle activity. PMID:23349681

  20. Statistical procedures for evaluating daily and monthly hydrologic model predictions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coffey, M.E.; Workman, S.R.; Taraba, J.L.; Fogle, A.W.

    2004-01-01

    The overall study objective was to evaluate the applicability of different qualitative and quantitative methods for comparing daily and monthly SWAT computer model hydrologic streamflow predictions to observed data, and to recommend statistical methods for use in future model evaluations. Statistical methods were tested using daily streamflows and monthly equivalent runoff depths. The statistical techniques included linear regression, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, nonparametric tests, t-test, objective functions, autocorrelation, and cross-correlation. None of the methods specifically applied to the non-normal distribution and dependence between data points for the daily predicted and observed data. Of the tested methods, median objective functions, sign test, autocorrelation, and cross-correlation were most applicable for the daily data. The robust coefficient of determination (CD*) and robust modeling efficiency (EF*) objective functions were the preferred methods for daily model results due to the ease of comparing these values with a fixed ideal reference value of one. Predicted and observed monthly totals were more normally distributed, and there was less dependence between individual monthly totals than was observed for the corresponding predicted and observed daily values. More statistical methods were available for comparing SWAT model-predicted and observed monthly totals. The 1995 monthly SWAT model predictions and observed data had a regression Rr2 of 0.70, a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.41, and the t-test failed to reject the equal data means hypothesis. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient and the R r2 coefficient were the preferred methods for monthly results due to the ability to compare these coefficients to a set ideal value of one.

  1. Ocular hypotensive efficacy and safety of once daily carteolol alginate

    PubMed Central

    Demailly, P.; Allaire, C.; Trinquand, C.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM—Carteolol is a ? adrenoceptor antagonist used topically to reduce intraocular pressure, typically twice daily. In an effort to provide a once daily dosing regimen, carteolol was formulated with 1% alginic acid. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of carteolol alginate solution in comparison with standard carteolol solution.?METHODS—This was a double masked, parallel group, multicentre study. Patients with ocular hypertension or open angle glaucoma (n=235) were randomly assigned to receive either carteolol alginate four times daily or standard carteolol solution, twice daily. The masking was maintained through the use of a vehicle in the evening for the alginate group. Patients were evaluated at baseline, 15, 60, and 120 days.?RESULTS—At 0900 (presumed trough) on day 60, mean reductions in intraocular pressure (IOP) from baseline were 6.09 (SD 2.97) and 6.09 (3.18) mm Hg for the standard carteolol and alginate, respectively. At 1100 (presumed peak), mean reductions were 6.51 (2.53) and 6.47 (2.76) mm Hg, respectively. Results were similar at other times (day 15 and day 120). The most common side effect was transient stinging on instillation of drops, which did not differ significantly between groups. There were no differences of note in other ocular or systemic signs or symptoms.?CONCLUSION—The new alginate formulation of carteolol 2% given once daily was as effective as standard carteolol 2% given twice daily with no meaningful differences regarding safety.?? PMID:11466245

  2. Global Biodiversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nations around the world have recognized biodiversity as one of the most pressing ecological issues of our time. Declining biodiversity over recent decades has prompted the formation of international coalitions and national biodiversity programs. This Topic in Depth explores the work of both international and national efforts to increase global biodiversity. The first site presents an archived report from the Convention on Biological Diversity, an international organization formed by many world nations after the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. This first edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook report, published in 2001, was created to provide a status summary, and an analysis of Convention objectives. It is expected that a second edition will be published this year presenting more recent data and analysis (1). Explore Biodiversity is an innovative project involving a team of scientists and filmmakers working to document the diminishing biological diversity of our planet. The hip Explore website shares beautiful images, videos, and information from expeditions to Hawaii, Mexico, and Alaska (2). The third site, from the Australian Government's Department of the Environment and Heritage, discusses biodiversity in Australia. The site contains sections regarding Migratory Species; Conservation and Regional Planning; Invasive Species; and Biodiversity Hotspots--to name a few (3). The fourth website presents the Belgian Biodiversity Platform (4), which is "an integrated network of people and institutions funded by the Belgian Federal Science Policy to facilitate dialogue and collaboration between scientists in Belgium and abroad, in the field of biological diversity." From the Nepalese Government's Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, the fifth site presents information about biodiversity programs in Nepal. The site contains sections about Forests, National Parks, Plant Resources, and the Ministry's National Biodiversity Unit (5). The final website presents the Centre for Marine Biodiversity (CMB), a Canada-based organization that was established in 2000 to promote scientific support of marine biodiversity. The CMB website contains research reports, links to several databases, links to various identification guides, and a photo gallery with some nice underwater images (6).

  3. Fish Consumption, Sleep, Daily Functioning, and Heart Rate Variability

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Anita L.; Dahl, Lisbeth; Olson, Gina; Thornton, David; Graff, Ingvild E.; Frøyland, Livar; Thayer, Julian F.; Pallesen, Staale

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study investigated the effects of fatty fish on sleep, daily functioning and biomarkers such as heart rate variability (HRV), vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) in red blood cells. Moreover the relationship among sleep, daily functioning, HRV, vitamin D status, and levels of EPA+DHA was investigated. Methods: Ninety-five male forensic patients from a secure forensic inpatient facility in the USA were randomly assigned into a Fish or a Control group. The Fish group received Atlantic salmon three times per week from September to February, and the Control group was provided an alternative meal (e.g., chicken, pork, beef), but with the same nutritional value as their habitual diet, three times per week during the same period. Sleep (sleep latency, sleep efficiency, actual sleep time, and actual wake time), self-perceived sleep quality and daily functioning, as well as vitamin D status, EPA+DHA, and HRV, were assessed pre- and post-intervention period. Results: There was a significant increase in sleep latency from pre- to post-test in the Control group. The Fish group reported better daily functioning than the Control group during post-test. Fish consumption throughout the wintertime had also an effect on resting HRV and EPA+DHA, but not on vitamin D status. However, at post-test, the vitamin D status in the Fish group was still closer to the level regarded as optimal compared to the Control group. Vitamin D status correlated negatively with actual wake time and positively with sleep efficiency during pre-test, as well as positively with daily functioning and sleep quality during post-test. Finally, HRV correlated negatively with sleep latency and positively with daily functioning. Conclusions: Fish consumption seemed to have a positive impact on sleep in general and also on daily functioning, which may be related to vitamin D status and HRV. Citation: Hansen AL, Dahl L, Olson G, Thornton D, Graff IE, Frøyland L, Thayer JF, Pallesen S. Fish consumption, sleep, daily functioning, and heart rate variability. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(5):567-575. PMID:24812543

  4. CCD fiber optic spectrometer for the measurement of spectral irradiance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. U. Morley; L. J. B. McArthur; D. Halliwell; Y. Poissant; S. Pelland

    2010-01-01

    Recent technological advancements have made CCD spectrometers an increasingly suitable alternative to traditional monochromator-based instrumentation. The authors have developed instrumentation for the near instantaneous measurement of spectral global, direct, diffuse, reflected and southward-tilted irradiances. The system uses an AvaSpec2048TEC-2 - a dual channel thermo-electric-cooled fiber optic spectrometer from Avantes Inc. Each channel has a 2048-pixel linear array detector and the

  5. Daily rhythm of aggregation in the haematophagous bug Triatoma infestans (Heteroptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Minoli, S A; Baraballe, S; Lorenzo Figueiras, A N

    2007-06-01

    Triatomine bugs show a temporal modulation of many activities. Here, we analyse the daily modulation of the aggregation behaviour of Triatoma infestans larvae and its chronobiological basis. In the laboratory, groups of six bugs were released over an experimental arena during six consecutive days, where their aggregation behaviour was quantified every hour. When submitted to a 12/12 h photoperiod (L/D), the larvae of T. infestans exhibited a cyclic pattern of aggregation with a 24 h period, evincing the existence of a daily rhythm of aggregation in this species. Bugs exhibited the maximum aggregation tendency at the end of the scotophase (7:00 h), moment in which they naturally search for refuges. The minimum aggregation (i.e. maximal dispersion) was observed during the last part of the photophase and beginning of the scotophase (15:00 to 1:00 h). This cyclic pattern disappeared when constant conditions of illumination (L/L) or darkness (D/D) were imposed to the bugs, suggesting the absence of an endogenous circadian control of this behaviour. Insects submitted to L/L and D/D photoperiods presented lower global levels of aggregation than those submitted to L/D conditions. The lack of an endogenous control and the relevance of light cycles as a synchronization signal are discussed as the temporal modulation of this behaviour might play an important role in the nocturnal habits of this species. PMID:17612764

  6. Daily dispersion model calculations of the Kuwait oil fire smoke plume

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, J.S.; Foster, C.S.; Foster, K.T.; Sullivan, T.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Baskett, R.L.; Nasstrom, J.S.; Schalk, W.W. III (EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States)); Greenly, G.D. (IT Corp., Irvine, CA (United States))

    1992-03-26

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) provided daily forecasts of the position and spatial character of the Kuwait oil fire smoke plume to the NSF-coordinated research aircraft missions in the Persian Gulf. ARAC also provided daily plume dispersion products to various nations in the Persian Gulf region under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization for a period of nearly 5 months. Forecasted three dimensional winds were provided to ARAC from the US Air Force Global Weather Central's Relocatable Wind Model (RWM). The RWM winds were spaced approximately 90 km in the horizontal and were located at the surface, 1000 ft., 2000 ft, 5000 ft and every 5000 ft up to 30,000 ft elevation. The forecast periods were 0, 6, 24, and 36 hours from both 0000 and 1200 UTC. A wind field model (MATHEW) corrected for terrain influences on the wind. The smoke plume was dispersed using a three dimensional particle-in-cell code (ADPIC) with buoyant plume rise capability. Multiple source locations were used to represent the burning oil fields. Improved estimates of the source term and emission factors for the smoke were incorporated into the ADPIC calculations as the field measurement data were made available.

  7. Daily dispersion model calculations of the Kuwait oil fire smoke plume

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, J.S.; Foster, C.S.; Foster, K.T.; Sullivan, T.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Baskett, R.L.; Nasstrom, J.S.; Schalk, W.W. III [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States); Greenly, G.D. [IT Corp., Irvine, CA (United States)

    1992-03-26

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) provided daily forecasts of the position and spatial character of the Kuwait oil fire smoke plume to the NSF-coordinated research aircraft missions in the Persian Gulf. ARAC also provided daily plume dispersion products to various nations in the Persian Gulf region under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization for a period of nearly 5 months. Forecasted three dimensional winds were provided to ARAC from the US Air Force Global Weather Central`s Relocatable Wind Model (RWM). The RWM winds were spaced approximately 90 km in the horizontal and were located at the surface, 1000 ft., 2000 ft, 5000 ft and every 5000 ft up to 30,000 ft elevation. The forecast periods were 0, 6, 24, and 36 hours from both 0000 and 1200 UTC. A wind field model (MATHEW) corrected for terrain influences on the wind. The smoke plume was dispersed using a three dimensional particle-in-cell code (ADPIC) with buoyant plume rise capability. Multiple source locations were used to represent the burning oil fields. Improved estimates of the source term and emission factors for the smoke were incorporated into the ADPIC calculations as the field measurement data were made available.

  8. Exogenous model of global tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalenda, Pavel; Wandrol, Ivo; Kopf, Tomáš; Frydrýšek, Karel; Neumann, Libor; Procházka, Václav; Ost?ihanský, Lubor

    2014-05-01

    We present a new model of lithosphere-plates movement based on three pillars: 1) The thermoelastic wave, which was described first of all by Berger (1975), 2) The ratcheting mechanism, which was described for asphalt buckling and/or lithosphere evolution by J. Croll (2006, 2007), and 3) the solar irradiance energy, as quantified by IPCC (2007). The thermal wave, which is generated by solar irradiance on the surface, penetrates into depth, and subsurface rocks are expanded. The deformation spreads to the surrounding of expanded rocks and to the depths. Such elastic wave is called thermoelastic wave and has dominant periods of one day, one year, (short) climate periods (AMO, PDO and other oscillations), Milankovich periods (14000 - 120000 years) and longer climate periods. This deformation concerns prevalently the continental lithosphere and not lithosphere covered by ocean or thick layers of unconsolidated sediments. This non-uniform deformation of continental and/or oceanic plates leads to opening of the cracks, faults and/or rifts during the period of continental contraction. The ratchets can fulfil such free spaces and openings. During the next period of continental expansion, such faults, cracks or rifts cannot reach the same positions as before, which leads to increasing stress, which accumulates on the discontinuities especially between continental and oceanic crust (Kalenda et al. 2012). Such process can accumulate a portion of the solar energy reaching the solid surface rocks. Then we can explain the whole energy budget of seismic and volcanic activity (1022 J/year) only by solar irradiance. Only 4 % of total solar irradiance of the Earth's surface (1024 J/year) is enough to cover all budget of lithosphere plate movement. No other resources are necessary. Because this new model of the lithosphere plate movement is not accepted at that moment by the mainstream, it is necessary to publish it in the section Geoethics, as a one of the examples of the behaviour of the Science as a whole. References Berger, J. (1975): A Note on Thermoelastic Strains and Tilts, 1975, J. Geophys.Res., 80, pp. 274-277. Croll, J.G.A. (2006): From asphalt to the Arctic: new insights into thermo-mechanical ratcheting processes. III Int. Conf. On Computational Mechanics. Lisbon, Portugal, 5-8 June. Croll, J.G.A. (2007): A new hypothesis for Earth lithosphere evolution. New Concepts in Global Tectonics Newsletter, no. 45, December, 2007, 34-51. IPCC (2007): IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007 (AR4). http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_and_data_reports.shtml Kalenda P. et al. (2012): Tilts, global tectonics and earthquake prediction. SWB, London, 247pp.

  9. Effectiveness and safety of a long-acting, once-daily, two-phase release formulation of methylphenidate (Ritalin(®) LA) in school children under daily practice conditions.

    PubMed

    Haertling, Fabian; Mueller, Beate; Bilke-Hentsch, Oliver

    2015-06-01

    Long-acting (LA) preparations of methylphenidate allow for once-daily dosing; however, pharmacokinetics may vary and depend on food intake. The objective was to evaluate effectiveness of a two-phase release formulation (Ritalin(®) LA) under daily practice conditions. This was a prospective, multicenter, observational study in Germany. Eligibility and dosing were determined by the physician based on the drug label. Outcomes included changes over 3 months of treatment in assessments of effect duration, clinical global impression (CGI), and quality of life (ILK). In 101 sites, 262 patients (197 boys, 63 girls, and two unknown) with a mean age of 10.9 years were enrolled; 50 were treated for the first time; 212 switched medication to Ritalin(®) LA. After 3 months, CGI improved in 59.4 % of patients, and well-being overall was rated as good by 61.0 % of parents and 63.7 % of children. Based on parents' assessment, the proportion of children suffering from strong disease burden decreased from 40.7 to 15.1 %. In 123 insufficient responders to previous ADHD medications, benefit from Ritalin(®) LA was above average and effect duration was significantly prolonged as compared to pretreatment. Overall, 28 patients (10.7 %) had treatment-related adverse events with one case being serious; 23 patients (8.8 %) discontinued therapy, 7 (2.7 %) due to poor treatment response; and 212 patients (81 %) continued treatment beyond the study. In line with clinical trial data, Ritalin(®) LA provides significant benefit also under routine practice conditions. PMID:25346231

  10. QUESTIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING

    E-print Network

    QUESTIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING ¥IS IT REAL? ¥IS IT IMPORTANT? ¥WHAT IS IT DUE TO? ¥HOW MUCH MORE in the atmosphere, giving Earth its temperate climate. Global Atmosphere, Global Warming GLOBAL TEMPERATURE TRENDÕt a cure for global warming! Aerosols only last a short while in the atmosphere, they would have

  11. Improvement of therapeutic index for brain tumors with daily image guidance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Image-guidance maximizes the therapeutic index of brain irradiation by decreasing setup uncertainty. As dose-volume data emerge defining the tolerance of critical normal structures responsible for neuroendocrine function and neurocognition, minimizing clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) expansion of targets near these structures potentially lessens long-term toxicity. Methods We reviewed the treatment records of 29 patients with brain tumors, with a total of 517 fractions analyzed. The CTV was uniformly expanded by 3 mm to create the PTV for all cases. We determined the effect of patient specific factors (prescribed medications, weight gain, tumor location) and image-guidance technique on setup uncertainty and plotted the mean +/- standard deviation for each factor. ANOVA was used to determine significance between these factors on setup uncertainty. We determined the impact of applying the initial three fraction variation as custom PTV-expansion on dose to normal structures. Results The initial 3 mm margin encompassed 88% of all measured shifts from daily imaging for all fractions. There was no difference (p?=?n.s.) in average setup uncertainty between CBCT or kV imaging for all patients. Vertical, lateral, longitudinal, and 3D shifts were similar (p?=?n.s.) between days 1, 2, and 3 imaging and later fractions. Patients prescribed sedatives experienced increased setup uncertainty (p?Daily imaging allows application of individualized CTV expansion to reduce dose to OAR responsible for neurocognition, learning, and neuroendocrine function below doses shown to correlate with long-term morbidity. The demonstrated reduction in dose to OAR in this study has implications for quality of life and provides the motivation to pursue custom PTV expansion. PMID:24295338

  12. Phase I Study of Daily Irinotecan as a Radiation Sensitizer for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Fouchardiere, Christelle de la, E-mail: delafo@lyon.fnclcc.f [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Lyon-Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); Negrier, Sylvie [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Lyon-Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); Labrosse, Hugues [Department of Surgery, Infirmerie Protestante, Lyon (France); Martel Lafay, Isabelle [Department of Radiation Therapy, University of Lyon-Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); Desseigne, Francoise [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Lyon-Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); Meeus, Pierre [Department of Surgery, University of Lyon-Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); Tavan, David [Department of Gastrointestinal Medicine, Infirmerie Protestante, Lyon (France); Petit-Laurent, Fabien [Department of Gastrointestinal Medicine, Centre Hospitalier, Villefranche-sur-Saone (France); Rivoire, Michel [Department of Surgery, University of Lyon-Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); Perol, David [Department of Biostatistics, University of Lyon-Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); Carrie, Christian [Department of Radiation Therapy, University of Lyon-Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France)

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: The study aimed to determine the maximum tolerated dose of daily irinotecan given with concomitant radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Methods and Materials: Between September 2000 and March 2008, 36 patients with histologically proven unresectable pancreas adenocarcinoma were studied prospectively. Irinotecan was administered daily, 1 to 2 h before irradiation. Doses were started at 6 mg/m{sup 2} per day and then escalated by increments of 2 mg/m{sup 2} every 3 patients. Radiotherapy was administered in 2-Gy fractions, 5 fractions per week, up to a total dose of 50 Gy to the tumor volume. Inoperability was confirmed by a surgeon involved in a multidisciplinary team. All images and responses were centrally reviewed by radiologists. Results: Thirty-six patients were enrolled over a period of 8 years through eight dose levels (6 mg/m{sup 2} to 20 mg/m{sup 2} per day). The maximum tolerated dose was determined to be 18 mg/m{sup 2} per day. The dose-limiting toxicities were nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, dehydration, and hypokalemia. The median survival time was 12.6 months with a median follow-up of 53.8 months. The median progression-free survival time was 6.5 months, and 4 patients (11.4%) with very good responses could undergo surgery. Conclusions: The maximum tolerated dose of irinotecan is 18 mg/m{sup 2} per day for 5 weeks. Dose-limiting toxicities are mainly gastrointestinal. Even though efficacy was not the aim of this study, the results are very promising, with a median survival time of 12.6 months.

  13. Prophylactic neck irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rabuzzi, D.D.; Chung, C.T.; Sagerman, R.H.

    1980-08-01

    Treatment of subclinical cervical metastases from advanced squamous carcinomas of the nasopharynx, oropharynx, oral cavity, hypopharynx, and larynx remains contentious. Watchful waiting, elective neck surgery, and more recently, neck irradiation all have their advocates. The possibility of sterilization of the neck showing no clinical signs of metastasis has been especially appealing in concept. With this in mind, and by use of an external high-dose megavoltage technique, radiation therapy was used in 152 patients with clinically negative necks at the Upstate Medical Center from 1968 to 1977. Lymph node failures were extremely low (4%) when wide-field radiation ports were used and the primary lesion controlled.

  14. Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis with unfractionated heparin in the hospitalized medical patient: the case for thrice daily over twice daily dosing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles E. Mahan; Mario Pini; Alex C. Spyropoulos

    2010-01-01

    For venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention in the hospitalized medical patient, no head-to-head trials have been performed\\u000a of unfractionated heparin (UFH) 5,000 U subcutaneously thrice (i.e. q8 h or TID) daily versus twice daily (q12 h or BID).\\u000a Several meta-analyses have been undertaken in attempts to determine whether one regimen may be more beneficial for safety\\u000a and efficacy. Currently, not all international guidelines include

  15. Trends in Ocean Irradiance using a Radiative Model Forced with Terra Aerosols and Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson; Casey, Nancy; Romanou, Anastasia

    2010-01-01

    Aerosol and cloud information from MODIS on Terra provide enhanced capability to understand surface irradiance over the oceans and its variability. These relationships can be important for ocean biology and carbon cycles. An established radiative transfer model, the Ocean-Atmosphere Spectral Irradiance Model (OASIM) is used to describe ocean irradiance variability on seasonal to decadal time scales. The model is forced with information on aerosols and clouds from the MODIS sensor on Terra and Aqua. A 7-year record (2000-2006) showed no trends in global ocean surface irradiance or photosynthetic available irradiance (PAR). There were significant (P<0.05) negative trends in the Mediterranean Sea, tropical Pacific) and tropical Indian Oceans, of -7.0, -5.0 and -2.7 W/sq m respectively. Global interannual variability was also modest. Regional interannual variability was quite large in some ocean basins, where monthly excursions from climatology were often >20 W/sq m. The trends using MODIS data contrast with results from OASIM using liquid water path estimates from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). Here, a global trend of -2 W/sq m was observed, largely dues to a large negative trend in the Antarctic -12 W/sq m. These results suggest the importance of the choice of liquid water path data sets in assessments of medium-length trends in ocean surface irradiance. The choices also impact the evaluation of changes in ocean biogeochemistry.

  16. Testing for non-linearity in daily sterling exchange rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Brooks

    1996-01-01

    A number of tests for non-linear dependence in time series are presented and implemented on a set of 10 daily sterling exchange rates covering the entire post- Bretton- Woods era until the present day. Irrefutable evidence of non-linearity is shown in many of the series, but most of this dependence can apparently be explained by reference to the GARCH family

  17. NEAT-o-Games: Exertion Interface Interwoven in Daily Life

    E-print Network

    NEAT-o-Games: Exertion Interface Interwoven in Daily Life Konstantinos Kazakos Computational.james@mayo.edu Abstract This paper describes research that aims to encourage physical activity through a novel pervasive the cellular network. Winners are declared every day and players with an excess of activity points can spend

  18. Predictions of Future Daily Behaviors: A Further Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, C. Neil

    The present study is a continuation of a series of studies dealing with predictions of future daily behaviors. Because of the finite nature of time, people have to make choices among activities, bearing in mind the duration of such activities. The dimension of "discretion", which deals specifically with the duration of time a person spends on an…

  19. Fostering Activities of Daily Living by Intact Nursing Home Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Charles E.; Glaister, Judy; Brown, Alston; Phillips, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    We assessed effectiveness of four education programs in providing nursing assistants with ability to produce a therapeutic milieu supportive of intact residents' activities of daily living, positive self-esteem and mood: (1) a combination of Orem's Systems of Nursing Care and Skinner's Applied Behavioral Analysis, (2) Applied Behavioral Analysis,…

  20. Modeling daily stem water content by artificial neural network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hailan Wang; Ye Tian; Yandong Zhao

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to model the daily stem water content with neural network. The output voltage of stem water content sensor changed as time series. In order to ensure the accuracy of the model, coefficients sc and eg must be adjusted with the RBF NN input vector changed. The dimensions of input vectors were grouped from 2,

  1. Robust optimization for total maximum daily load allocations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanbing Jia; Teresa B. Culver

    2006-01-01

    The determination of the pollutant load distribution among different pollutant sources in a watershed is a critical step in total maximum daily load (TMDL) development. Under current TMDL practices, TMDL allocations are typically determined through a trial-and-error approach of reducing pollutant loadings until a watershed simulation model predicts that water quality standards will be met given a margin of safety.

  2. A Comparison of Graduate and Professional Students: Their Daily Stressors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Shelton; And Others

    The stressful effects of advanced academic training were examined in a comparison of six graduate and professional programs at Vanderbilt University. The focus was on the nonacademic, daily stressors and negative mood states of 152 students in medicine, business, divinity, graduate department of religion, and two graduate psychology departments.…

  3. Forecasting of daily total atmospheric ozone in Isfahan.

    PubMed

    Yazdanpanah, H; Karimi, M; Hejazizadeh, Z

    2009-10-01

    A neural network combined to an artificial neural network model is used to forecast daily total atmospheric ozone over Isfahan city in Iran. In this work, in order to forecast the total column ozone over Isfahan, we have examined several neural networks algorithms with different meteorological predictors based on the ozone-meteorological relationships with previous day's ozone value. The meteorological predictors consist of temperatures (dry and dew point) and geopotential heights at standard levels of 100, 50, 30, 20 and 10 hPa with their wind speed and direction. These data together with previous day total ozone forms the input matrix of the neural model that is based on the back propagation algorithm (BPA) structure. The output matrix is the daily total atmospheric ozone. The model was build based on daily data from 1997 to 2004 obtained from Isfahan ozonometric station data. After modeling these data we used 3 year (from 2001 to 2003) of daily total ozone for testing the accuracy of model. In this experiment, with the final neural network, the total ozone are fairly well predicted, with an Agreement Index 76%. PMID:18843548

  4. Water Rights Analysis Package (WRAP) Daily Modeling System

    E-print Network

    Wurbs, R.; Hoffpauir, R.

    2012-10-01

    Frequency Analyses ????????????????????.?????? 106 Frequency Analysis Variables ????..???????????..?????? 108 HEC-SSP Statistical Software Package ?????????????????...? 110 Flood Frequency Analysis ??????????????????????...? 111 Chapter 7 Daily... Example 7.2 .......................... 155 7.24 TABLES Output TOU File for Flood Control Example 7.2 ........................................... 161 7.25 Flood Frequency Table of Naturalized Flow at Control Point WacoL Developed with the HEC-SSP...

  5. The Strategic Attitude: Integrating Strategic Planning into Daily University Worklife

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickmeyer, Nathan

    2004-01-01

    Chief financial officers in today's universities are so busy with the challenges of day-to-day management that strategic thinking often takes a back seat. Planning for strategic change can go a long way toward streamlining the very daily tasks that obscure the "big picture." Learning how to integrate strategic thinking into day-to-day management…

  6. The Impact of Daily Extra Credit Quizzes on Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined whether offering daily extra credit quizzes predicted exam performance in an advanced psychology course (n = 36). Results revealed that extra credit performance was a strong predictor of exam performance, above and beyond gender, college grade point average, and ACT scores. In addition, results suggested that nearly half of the…

  7. The Lay Assessment of Subclinical Depression in Daily Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias R. Mehl

    2006-01-01

    This study examined how laypersons assess subclinical depression in others on the basis of information about their daily lives. For 2 days, 96 participants were tracked with the Electronically Activated Recorder, a naturalistic observation method that samples ambient sounds from participants' momentary environments. Judges rated participants' levels of depression after listening to the sampled ambient sounds. Participants' depressive symptoms were

  8. The Preuss School UCSD Daily Bulletin A Day

    E-print Network

    Russell, Lynn

    - Math, D103 Middle School Lunch Time Math Tutoring - Monday, A202 High School Lunch Time Math Tutoring - Middle School Awards Program, Walton Center, 2:30pm - Summer School Meeting, Walton Center, 4:00pm - HighThe Preuss School UCSD Daily Bulletin A Day June 11, 2012 After School Tutoring - Science, C102

  9. The Preuss School UCSD Daily Bulletin A Day

    E-print Network

    Russell, Lynn

    Middle School Lunch and plan to stay after school if you are taking the following afternoon tests Field. Sports Day is a day where all students, both middle and high school, play against each otherThe Preuss School UCSD Daily Bulletin ­ A Day May 11, 2012 After School Tutoring - Science, C201

  10. The Preuss School UCSD Daily Bulletin A Day

    E-print Network

    Russell, Lynn

    - Math, D102, D103 - Spanish, D203 - English, E203 Middle School Lunch Time Math Tutoring - Monday, A202 in before you enter the test room. 3. Take Middle School Lunch and plan to stay after school if youThe Preuss School UCSD Daily Bulletin ­ A Day May 09, 2012 After School Tutoring - Science, A103

  11. The Preuss School UCSD Daily Bulletin A Day

    E-print Network

    Russell, Lynn

    to the Greater San Diego Science and Engineering Fair this week - all three were winners! Jennifer Hernandez (9thThe Preuss School UCSD Daily Bulletin ­ A Day March 26, 2012 After School Tutoring -Science, C102 - Monday thru Friday, D102 New Items Science Winners: Congratulations to all three of our students who went

  12. Psychosocial influences on blood pressure during daily life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A Carels; Andrew Sherwood; James A Blumenthal

    1998-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring allows frequent non-invasive blood pressure (BP) recordings in a variety of settings. Emerging evidence suggests that ABP is a better predictor of cardiovascular morbidity than clinic BP. Ambulatory blood pressure is influenced by a variety of physical, psychological and behavioral factors that comprise an individual's daily life. The present article reviews psychosocial research relating ABP

  13. Health Psychology Cancer Survivors' Responses to Daily Stressors

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    of the occurrence and impact of stressful events, affect, and physical symptoms. Salivary cortisol was sampled four associated with everyday living. The impact of daily stressors on quality of life concerns and cortisol times per day, and indices of awakening response (cortisol awakening response), diurnal slope

  14. Personality pathology and daily aspects of marital functioning.

    PubMed

    South, Susan C

    2014-04-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are associated with a host of interpersonal problems, including unstable and dysfunctional romantic relationships. In previous research, PD symptoms have been linked to one's own and spouse's self-reported level of marital satisfaction and marital conflict. The current study extends on this work by examining whether Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) PD criteria would predict aspects of daily marital functioning. A total of 99 newlywed couples (N = 198) recruited from the community were assessed for PD symptoms using a self-report measure and subsequently completed a 6-day diary protocol. Multilevel modeling was used to examine the association of PD symptoms with three major aspects of daily functioning: overall relationship sentiment, serious conflicts with one's spouse, and quality of interactions. Results indicated that PD symptoms significantly predicted aspects of all three measures of daily functioning. The individual PDs generally showed the greatest associations with aspects of conflict. Paranoid, schizoid, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive PD scores were significantly negatively related to overall relationship sentiment whereas Cluster A and Cluster C PD scores negatively predicted various daily interaction behaviors. Findings provide insight into the mechanisms that might explain the associations between PD symptoms and overall measures of relationship functioning. PMID:24364502

  15. Models of Deafness: Cochlear Implants in the Australian Daily Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Des

    2005-01-01

    This article examined a database of Australian daily newspapers on the terms cochlear implant and deaf children to investigate how journalists and columnists report competing models of deafness: as either "medical" (deafness is a condition to be cured) or "sociocultural" (deafness provides a way of life to be lived). The results from the cochlear…

  16. Skeletal Adaptation to Daily Activity: A Biochemical Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert T.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Musculoskeletal forces generated by normal daily activity on Earth maintain the functional and structural properties of muscle and bone throughout most of one's adult life. A reduction in the level of cumulative daily loading caused by space flight, bed rest or spinal cord injury induces rapid muscle atrophy, functional changes in muscle, and bone resorption in regions subjected to the reduced loading. Bone cells in culture and bone tissue reportedly respond to a wide variety of non-mechanical and mechanical stimuli ranging, from electromagnetic fields, and hormones to small amplitude, high frequency vibrations, fluid flow, strain rate, and stress/strain magnitude. However, neither the transduction mechanism that transforms the mechanical input into a muscle or bone metabolic response nor the characteristics, of the loading history that directly or indirectly stimulates the cell is known. Identifying the factors contributing to the input stimulus will have a major impact on the design of effective countermeasures for long duration space flight. This talk will present a brief overview of current theories of bone remodeling and functional adaptation to mechanical loading. Work from our lab will be presented from the perspective of daily cumulative loading on Earth and its relationship to bone density and structure. Our objective is to use the tibia and calcaneus as model bone sites of cortical and cancellous bone adaptation, loaded daily by musculoskeletal forces in equilibrium with the ground reaction force. All materials that will be discussed are in the open scientific literature.

  17. Impaired daily glucocorticoid rhythm in Per1 Brd mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Dallmann; Chadi Touma; Rupert Palme; Urs Albrecht; Stephan Steinlechner

    2006-01-01

    Biological clocks have evolved in all kinds of organisms in order to anticipate and adjust to the daily light–dark cycle. Within the last decade, the molecular machinery underlying the circadian system was unraveled. In the present study, the impact of the loss of the Per1 or Per2 genes, key components of the core clock oscillator, on body mass, food and

  18. Daily Weather from Monthly Averages -- Hocus Pocus, or Useful Tool?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Just how much can you legitimately extract from monthly statistics of daily weather parameters? In this paper we present the utility and limitations of a simple weather generator (CLIGEN) which has over 750 registered users, most of whom are international. CLIGEN's 4,000-plus station files of mont...

  19. DAILY STREAMFLOW - VIRGINIA PORTION OF THE ALBEMARLE-PAMLICO ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Daily mean discharge data from the U.S. Geological Survey (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis-w/VA) for gaging stations within the Virginia portion of the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuary watershed. Record dates vary by gaging station. Data for each station are located in a text file named ...

  20. Predictors of Daily Blood Glucose Monitoring in Appalachian Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffle, Holly; Ware, Lezlee J.; Ruhil, Anirudh V. S.; Hamel-Lambert, Jane; Denham, Sharon A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine factors contributing to successful diabetes self-management in Appalachia, as evidenced by daily blood glucose monitoring. Methods: A telephone survey (N = 3841) was conducted to assess health status and health care access. The current investigation is limited to the subset of this sample who report having diabetes (N =…

  1. Daily Changes in the Phosphoproteome of the Dinoflagellate Lingulodinium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bolin Liu; Samuel Chun-Lap Lo; Daniel P. Matton; B. Franz Lang; David Morse

    The dinoflagellate Lingulodinium has a large number of daily rhythms, many of which have no biochemical correlates. We examined the possibility that changes in protein phosphorylation may mediate some of the rhythmic changes by comparing proteins prepared from midday (LD6) and midnight (LD18) cultures. We used two different methods, one a 2D gel protocol in which phosphoproteins were identified after

  2. Daily Reporting Rainfall Station DAWSON RIVER Manual River Station

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    Daily Reporting Rainfall Station DAWSON RIVER Manual River Station Telemetry Rainfall Station Springdale TM Mooga Hills TM Dawson R Waddy Brae TM Roma Tindara TM Robinson Ck Yuleba Wallumbilla Pine Hills Bridge Barakula Bawnduggie TM Auburn R Chinchilla Glenwood Beruna Wombalano Ballon TM Beckers TM Dawson

  3. "STOP Regain": Are There Negative Effects of Daily Weighing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Rena R.; Tate, Deborah F.; Gorin, Amy A.; Raynor, Hollie A.; Fava, Joseph L.; Machan, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Several recent studies suggest that daily weighing is important for long-term weight control, but concerns have been raised about possible adverse psychological effects. The "STOP Regain" clinical trial provides a unique opportunity to examine this issue both cross-sectionally and prospectively. Successful weight losers (N = 314) were randomly…

  4. The Preuss School UCSD Daily Bulletin B Day

    E-print Network

    Russell, Lynn

    The Preuss School UCSD Daily Bulletin ­ B Day April 12, 2012 After School Tutoring - Math, D202 - Science, B103 High School Lunch Time Math Tutoring - Monday thru Friday, D102 Activities - High School) Origami Contest: April 9, 2012-April 27, 2012. Do you enjoy creating Origami Figures? Now you have

  5. The Preuss School UCSD Daily Bulletin B Day

    E-print Network

    Russell, Lynn

    The Preuss School UCSD Daily Bulletin ­ B Day February 28, 2012 After School Tutoring - Science, C speech contest winners: 1st Place: Mohamed Hussein 2nd Place: Amaris Tang 3rd Place: Amara Tang Mohamed will go on to compete at the district level speech contest next month. (3/2 Ms. Resendez) Preuss Soccer

  6. The Preuss School UCSD Daily Bulletin A Day

    E-print Network

    Russell, Lynn

    The Preuss School UCSD Daily Bulletin ­ A Day February 27, 2012 After School Tutoring - Science, C to our Rotary 4-way test speech contest winners: 1st Place: Mohamed Hussein 2nd Place: Amaris Tang 3rd Place: Amara Tang Mohamed will go on to compete at the district level speech contest next month. (3/3 Ms

  7. The Preuss School UCSD Daily Bulletin B Day

    E-print Network

    Russell, Lynn

    The Preuss School UCSD Daily Bulletin ­ B Day May 03, 2012 After School Tutoring - Math, D202 - Science, B103 High School Lunch Time Math Tutoring - Monday thru Friday, D102 Activities -Yearbook Pre CONTEST WINNERS!!!! 1st place - Michelle Ros 12th grade 2nd place - Diego Hernandez 6th grade 3rd place

  8. The Preuss School UCSD Daily Bulletin B Day

    E-print Network

    Russell, Lynn

    The Preuss School UCSD Daily Bulletin ­ B Day May 04, 2012 After School Tutoring - Science, C201 Basketball Courts, 4:10PM New Items None Reminders ANNOUNCING THE ORIGAMI CONTEST WINNERS!!!! 1st place for tutoring, you must sign up before the last block of the day. Students may not be on campus without

  9. The Preuss School UCSD Daily Bulletin B Day

    E-print Network

    Russell, Lynn

    The Preuss School UCSD Daily Bulletin ­ B Day March 06, 2012 After School Tutoring - Science, C101 congratulations to senior Linda Lam, who won the "Deans List" award for her promotion of Science & Technology Contest - Due 3/9/12 (3/9 Ms. Resendez) BEST MOMS CONTEST Sponsored by Time Warner Cable: ALL PREUSS

  10. The Preuss School UCSD Daily Bulletin B Day

    E-print Network

    Russell, Lynn

    The Preuss School UCSD Daily Bulletin ­ B Day May 01, 2012 After School Tutoring - Science, C101, C CONTEST WINNERS!!!! 1st place - Michelle Ros, 12th grade 2nd place - Diego Hernandez, 6th grade 3rd place the last block of the day. Students may not be on campus without supervision after school. (05/11 Mr

  11. The Preuss School UCSD Daily Bulletin A Day

    E-print Network

    Russell, Lynn

    The Preuss School UCSD Daily Bulletin ­ A Day March 09, 2012 After School Tutoring - Science, C201 at this rate if order is placed by Friday, March 9. (03/09 Mr. Ensberg) BEST MOMS CONTEST Sponsored by Time with their student and family members will be honored at an awards luncheon on Mother's Day weekend. The winners

  12. The Preuss School UCSD Daily Bulletin A Day

    E-print Network

    Russell, Lynn

    The Preuss School UCSD Daily Bulletin ­ A Day May 02, 2012 After School Tutoring - Science, A103 THE ORIGAMI CONTEST WINNERS!!!! 1st place - Michelle Ros 12th grade 2nd place - Diego Hernandez 6th grade 3rd-activities bus is limited. If you are staying for tutoring, you must sign up before the last block of the day

  13. Negative consequences associated with dependence in daily cannabis users

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison Looby; Mitch Earleywine

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cannabis is the most widely consumed illicit substance in America, with increasing rates of use. Some theorists tend to link frequency of use with cannabis dependence. Nevertheless, fewer than half of daily cannabis users meet DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis dependence. This study seeks to determine whether the negative aspects associated with cannabis use can be explained by a proxy

  14. A daily weather generator for use in climate change studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. G. Kilsby; P. D. Jones; A. Burton; A. C. Ford; H. J. Fowler; C. Harpham; P. James; A. Smith; R. L. Wilby

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a weather generator for use in climate impact assessments of agricultural and water system man- agement. The generator produces internally consistent series of meteorological variables including: rainfall, temperature, humidity, wind, sun- shine, as well as derivation of potential evapotranspiration. The system produces series at a daily time resolution, using two stochastic models in series:

  15. Chaos based Analytical techniques for daily extreme hydrological observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. W. Ng; W. C. Lennox

    2007-01-01

    Daily streamflows; Mutual information; Embedding dimension; Hurst coefficient Summary The existence of outliers in data sets affects the decision-making process related to design, operation, and management of water resources. Insufficient informa- tion on outliers limits our understanding and predictive ability of such extreme hydrologic phenomena. Hydrologic systems are complex and dynamic in nature where current state and future evolutions depend

  16. Discontinuous daily temperatures in the WATCH forcing data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rust, Henning; Kruschke, Tim; Dobler, Andreas; Fischer, Madlen; Ulbrich, Uwe

    2015-04-01

    The WATCH forcing data sets have been created to support the use of hydrological and land surface models for the assessment of the water cycle within climate change studies. They are based on ECMWF reanalysis products (ERA-40 or ERA-Interim) with temperature (among other variables) adjusted such that their monthly means match the monthly temperature data set from the Climatic Research Unit. To this end, daily minimum, maximum and mean temperatures within one calendar month have been subjected to a correction involving monthly means of the respective month. As these corrections can be largely different for adjacent months this procedure is potentially leading to unplausible differences in daily temperatures across the boundaries of calendar months. We analyze day-to-day temperature fluctuations within and across months and find that across months differences are significantly larger, mostly in the tropics and frigid zones. Average across-months differences in daily mean temperature are typically between 10% to 40% larger than their corresponding average within-months temperature differences. However, regions with differences up to 200% can be found in the tropical Africa. Daily maximum and minimum temperatures are affected in the same regions but in a less sever way.

  17. Advertising and the Rise of Free Daily Newspapers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEAN J. GABSZEWICZ; DIDIER LAUSSEL; NATHALIE SONNAC

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a model of the daily newspaper industry in order to provide a tentative explanation for the rise of free newspapers. This explanation is based on the growth of net advertising revenues per reader, i.e. of the difference between advertising revenue per reader and unit printing cost. Our analysis explains why the new entrant chooses to enter as

  18. Does convective dialysis therapy applied daily approach renal blood purification?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    INGRID LEDEBO

    2001-01-01

    Does convective dialysis therapy applied daily approach renal blood purification? Outcome studies in dialysis have generally failed to show an impact of changes in membrane flux or bio-compatibility, and only dose increases up to a certain level have been shown to improve survival significantly. However, to see an effect of a potentially improved dialysis treatment, all available factors that make

  19. The Preuss School UCSD Daily Bulletin "B" Day

    E-print Network

    Blanco, Philip R.

    The Preuss School UCSD Daily Bulletin "B" Day Friday, January 11, 2013 MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. DAY starts Monday, January, 14th. See Library for details. (1/11 Ms. Nance and Ms, Gonzalez) Martin Luther? On Sunday, January 20th UC San Diego is holding its 32nd annual Martin Luther King Jr. Day parade. The event

  20. Discourse, Teacher Identity, and the Implementation of Daily Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Daniel B.; Melnychuk, Nancy E.

    2008-01-01

    The intent of this article is to generate thought and discussion about Alberta Education's Daily Physical Activity (DPA) initiative. Compelling reasons as to why the implementation process may be considered problematic are presented as the role and influence of institutional discourse in the implementation of new programming is explored. Through a…

  1. Turnover and Mobility: A Management Problem for Small Dailies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharp, Marty

    A study examined the effects of employee turnover (employees who were fired, laid off, retired, or left for other reasons) and mobility (employees who left one newspaper to work for another newspaper or other journalism medium) on small daily newspapers (under 25,000 circulation). The study surveyed 300 newsroom editors and 600 reporters (with a…

  2. Using Your Daily Newspaper to Teach Math to Slow Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Mee Quai P.

    One of a series prepared by the Hawaii Newspaper Agency, this teaching guide offers ideas on using the daily newspaper to teach mathematics to slow learners. Classroom activities include teaching students how to shop for bargains through newspaper advertisements, how to compute batting averages in baseball, how to write a check after adding up the…

  3. Mining events and new name translations from online daily news

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wai Lam; Pik-Shan Cheung; Ruizhang Huang

    2004-01-01

    We develop a system for mining events and unseen name translations from online daily Web news. This system first automatically discovers bilingual events by analyzing the content of the news stories. The discovered event can be treated as comparable bilingual news and can be used for generating name candidates. A name matching algorithm is developed to discover new unseen name

  4. SNORKEL PRO-66 DAILY INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE CHECKLIST

    E-print Network

    Gelfond, Michael

    Check fuel gauge 2 Fuel tank cap Visually inspect (installation) 3 Engine oil Check dipstick (betweenSNORKEL PRO-66 DAILY INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE CHECKLIST ITEM SERVICE REQUIRED 1 Engine fuel level level (in contact with filler neck) 8 Hydraulic Oil Check oil level (between lines on gauge) 9 Hydraulic

  5. Stochastic daily precipitation model with a heavy-tailed component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neykov, N. M.; Neytchev, P. N.; Zucchini, W.

    2014-09-01

    Stochastic daily precipitation models are commonly used to generate scenarios of climate variability or change on a daily timescale. The standard models consist of two components describing the occurrence and intensity series, respectively. Binary logistic regression is used to fit the occurrence data, and the intensity series is modeled using a continuous-valued right-skewed distribution, such as gamma, Weibull or lognormal. The precipitation series is then modeled using the joint density, and standard software for generalized linear models can be used to perform the computations. A drawback of these precipitation models is that they do not produce a sufficiently heavy upper tail for the distribution of daily precipitation amounts; they tend to underestimate the frequency of large storms. In this study, we adapted the approach of Furrer and Katz (2008) based on hybrid distributions in order to correct for this shortcoming. In particular, we applied hybrid gamma-generalized Pareto (GP) and hybrid Weibull-GP distributions to develop a stochastic precipitation model for daily rainfall at Ihtiman in western Bulgaria. We report the results of simulations designed to compare the models based on the hybrid distributions and those based on the standard distributions. Some potential difficulties are outlined.

  6. PREDICTING DAILY NET RADIATION USING MINIMUM CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Net radiation (Rn) is a key variable for computing reference evapotranspiration and is a driving force in many other physical and biological processes. The procedures outlined in the Food and Agriculture Organization Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 56 for predicting daily Rn have been widely used....

  7. Negative consequences associated with dependence in daily cannabis users

    PubMed Central

    Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch

    2007-01-01

    Background Cannabis is the most widely consumed illicit substance in America, with increasing rates of use. Some theorists tend to link frequency of use with cannabis dependence. Nevertheless, fewer than half of daily cannabis users meet DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis dependence. This study seeks to determine whether the negative aspects associated with cannabis use can be explained by a proxy measure of dependence instead of by frequency of use. Results Over 2500 adult daily cannabis users completed an Internet survey consisting of measures of cannabis and other drug use, in addition to measures of commonly reported negative problems resulting from cannabis use. We compared those who met a proxy measure of DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis dependence (N = 1111) to those who did not meet the criteria (N = 1770). Cannabis dependent subjects consumed greater amounts of cannabis, alcohol, and a variety of other drugs. They also had lower levels of motivation, happiness, and satisfaction with life, with higher levels of depression and respiratory symptoms. Conclusion Although all of our subjects reported daily use, only those meeting proxy criteria for cannabis dependence reported significant associated problems. Our data suggest that dependence need not arise from daily use, but consuming larger amounts of cannabis and other drugs undoubtedly increases problems. PMID:17214886

  8. Cultural Orientations, Daily Activities, and Adjustment in Mexican American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Susan M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Cansler, Emily

    2009-01-01

    The links between youth's daily activities and adjustment and the role of cultural practices and values in these links were studied in 469 youth from 237 Mexican American families. In home interviews, data on mothers', fathers', and two adolescent-age siblings' cultural practices (language use, social contacts) and values (for familism, for…

  9. Estimating autotrophic respiration in streams using daily metabolism data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knowing the fraction of gross primary production (GPP) that is immediately respired by autotrophs and their closely associated heterotrophs (ARf) is necessary to understand the trophic base and carbon spiraling in streams. We show a means to estimate ARf from daily metabolism da...

  10. Rehabilitation and analysis of Canadian daily precipitation time series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Mekis; William D. Hogg

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this project was to develop adjustment procedures to use daily resolution data to generate high quality time series of precipitation and to perform regional trend analyses on the resulting datasets. A total of 69 locations, most with data covering the period 1900–96 were used. Data availability in much of the Canadian Arctic was restricted to 1948–96. By

  11. Daily Living Skills: A Manual for Educating Visually Impaired Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Gail, Ed.

    The manual contains rationales, general approaches, and specific procedures for educators and parents to use in teaching daily living skills to visually impaired students. Detailed suggestions are given with regard to learning objectives for blind or partially sighted children, age levels, and instructional adaptations for developing competency in…

  12. Daily mortality and air pollutants: findings from Köln, Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Spix; H E Wichmann

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: For the APHEA study, the short term effects of air pollutants on human health were investigated in a comparable way in various European cities. Daily mortality was used as one of the health effects indicators. This report aims to demonstrate the steps in epidemiological model building in this type of time series analysis aimed at detecting

  13. In League: Global Warming And Globalization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allissa Beth Cloer

    2008-01-01

    What relationship exists between the phenomena of global warming and globalization? How can a small grassroots organization promote green living and cultural food traditions through environmental education?\\u000aExamination of the relationship between global warming and globalization has required a process of basic research of pre-written texts; resulting in a theoretical analysis on selected journalism within this field of research. The

  14. A 47-Year Daily Gridded Precipitation Dataset for Asia Based on a Dense Network of Rain Gauges -APHRODITE project-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatagai, A. I.; Yasutomi, N.; Hamada, A.; Kamiguchi, K.; Arakawa, O.

    2009-12-01

    A daily gridded precipitation dataset for 1961-2007 is created by collecting rain gauge observation data across Asia through the activities of the Asian Precipitation--Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards the Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE) project. We have already released APHRODITE’s daily gridded precipitation (APHRO_V0902) product for 1961-2004 (Yatagai et al., 2009), and our number of valid stations was between 5000 and 12,000, representing 2.3 to 4.5 times the data available through the Global Telecommunication System network, which were used for most daily grid precipitation products. APHRO_V0902 is the only long-term (1961 onward) continental-scale daily product that contains a dense network of daily rain gauge data for Asia including the Himalayas and mountainous areas in the Middle East. The product has already contributed to studies such as the evaluation of Asian water resources, diagnosis of climate change, statistical downscaling, and verification of numerical model simulation and high-resolution precipitation estimates using satellites. We are currently improving quality control (QC) schemes and interpolation algorithms, and make continuous efforts in data collection. In addition, we have undertaken capacity building activities, such as training seminars by inviting researchers/programmers from some Asian meteorological organizations who provided the observation data for us. Furthermore, we feed the errata (QC) information back to the above organizations and/or data centers. The next version of the algorithm will be fixed in December 2009 (APHRO_V0912), and we will update the product up to 2007. Our progress and advantage of the next products will be shown at the AGU fall meeting in 2009.

  15. Global Research Collaborations

    E-print Network

    i Global Research Collaborations Merrill Series on The Research Mission..............................................................................................36 Director, Christopher S. Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri Think Globally ..............................................................................................81 Provost, University of Missouri The Global Land Grant University: What Does That Mean

  16. ALS Global Agroecosystems -Draft 1 Global Agroecosystems

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    ALS Global Agroecosystems - Draft 1 Global Agroecosystems ALS 5XXX (This course is also taught at the undergraduate level as ALS 4XXX) INSTRUCTORS: Dr. Diane Rowland, Associate Professor, University of Florida and timely global issue in agroecology and effectively communicate in video format. CLASS FORMAT Three 50

  17. Comparison between satellite and instrumental solar irradiance data at the city of Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markonis, Yannis; Dimoulas, Thanos; Atalioti, Athina; Konstantinou, Charalampos; Kontini, Anna; Pipini, Magdalini-Io; Skarlatou, Eleni; Sarantopoulos, Vasilis; Tzouka, Katerina; Papalexiou, Simon; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we examine and compare the statistical properties of satellite and instrumental solar irradiance data at the capital of Greece, Athens. Our aim is to determine whether satellite data are sufficient for the requirements of solar energy modelling applications. To this end we estimate the corresponding probability density functions, the auto-correlation functions and the parameters of some fitted simple stochastic models. We also investigate the effect of sample size to the variance in the temporal interpolation of daily time series. Finally, as an alternative, we examine if temperature can be used as a better predictor for the daily irradiance non-seasonal component instead of the satellite data. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

  18. Monitoring Daily Evapotranspiration in California Vineyards Using Landsat 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. C.; Semmens, K. A.; Kustas, W. P.; Gao, F.; Alfieri, J. G.; McKee, L.; Prueger, J. H.; Hain, C.; Cammalleri, C.

    2014-12-01

    In California's Central Valley, due to competing demands for limited water resources, it is critical to monitor evaporative water loss and crop conditions at both individual field scales and over larger areas in support of water management decisions. This is particularly important for viticulture because grape vines must be maintained under highly controlled conditions in order to maximize production of quality fruit. Thus, regular high resolution temporal monitoring of hundreds of acres is required, a task only efficiently achieved with satellite remote sensing, combining multiple earth observations. In this research, we evaluate the utility of a multi-scale system for monitoring evapotranspiration (ET) and crop water stress applied over two vineyard sites near Lodi, California during the 2013 growing season. The system employs a data fusion methodology (STARFM: Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflective Fusion Model) combined with multi-scale ET modeling (ALEXI: Atmosphere Land Exchange Inverse Model) to compute daily 30 m resolution ET. ALEXI ET fluxes (4 km resolution, daily) are integrated with ET fluxes from Landsat 8 thermal data (30 m resolution, ~16 day) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data (1 km resolution, daily). The high spatial resolution Landsat retrievals are then fused with high temporal frequency MODIS data using STARFM to produce daily estimates of crop water use that resolve within field variation in ET for individual vineyards. Estimates of daily ET generated in two fields of Pinot Noir vines of different maturity agreed well with ground-based flux measurements collected within each field with relative errors of about 15%. Spatial patterns of cumulative ET correspond to yield estimates and indicate areas of variable crop moisture, condition, and yield within the vineyards that could require additional management strategies due to variation in soil type/texture, nutrient conditions and other environmental factors.

  19. Estimation et Cartographie de la Composante Globale du Rayonnement Solaire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Mefti; M. Y. Bouroubi

    1999-01-01

    The object of this work is the presentation of an approach for the estimate of global irradiation, by clear sky and average sky, applicable to the whole of the Algerian territory. Approach which takes account of the nature of the Algerian network of measurements, characterised by a low density of radiometric stations (7 stations) distributed on a surface of approximately

  20. Ethnic Identity and the Daily Psychological Well-Being of Adolescents from Mexican and Chinese Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Yip, Tiffany; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Witkow, Melissa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2006-01-01

    Protective effects of ethnic identity on daily psychological well-being were examined in a sample of 415 ninth graders from Mexican and Chinese backgrounds. Utilizing daily diary assessments and multilevel modeling, adolescents with a greater regard for their ethnic group exhibited greater levels of daily happiness and less daily anxiety averaged…

  1. Changes to Sub-daily Rainfall Patterns in a Future Climate Seth Westra

    E-print Network

    Evans, Jason

    Changes to Sub-daily Rainfall Patterns in a Future Climate Seth Westra School of Civil.mehrotra@unsw.edu.au; a.sharma@unsw.edu.au This paper describes an algorithm for disaggregating daily rainfall into sub-daily rainfall `fragments' (continuous fine-resolution rainfall sequences whose total depth sums to the daily

  2. Low Doses of Gamma-Irradiation Induce an Early Bystander Effect in Zebrafish Cells Which Is Sufficient to Radioprotect Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Sandrine; Malard, Véronique; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Davin, Anne-Hélène; Armengaud, Jean; Foray, Nicolas; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2014-01-01

    The term “bystander effect” is used to describe an effect in which cells that have not been exposed to radiation are affected by irradiated cells though various intracellular signaling mechanisms. In this study we analyzed the kinetics and mechanisms of bystander effect and radioadaptation in embryonic zebrafish cells (ZF4) exposed to chronic low dose of gamma rays. ZF4 cells were irradiated for 4 hours with total doses of gamma irradiation ranging from 0.01–0.1 Gy. In two experimental conditions, the transfer of irradiated cells or culture medium from irradiated cells results in the occurrence of DNA double strand breaks in non-irradiated cells (assessed by the number of ?-H2AX foci) that are repaired at 24 hours post-irradiation whatever the dose. At low total irradiation doses the bystander effect observed does not affect DNA repair mechanisms in targeted and bystander cells. An increase in global methylation of ZF4 cells was observed in irradiated cells and bystander cells compared to control cells. We observed that pre-irradiated cells which are then irradiated for a second time with the same doses contained significantly less ?-H2AX foci than in 24 h gamma-irradiated control cells. We also showed that bystander cells that have been in contact with the pre-irradiated cells and then irradiated alone present less ?-H2AX foci compared to the control cells. This radioadaptation effect is significantly more pronounced at the highest doses. To determine the factors involved in the early events of the bystander effect, we performed an extensive comparative proteomic study of the ZF4 secretomes upon irradiation. In the experimental conditions assayed here, we showed that the early events of bystander effect are probably not due to the secretion of specific proteins neither the oxidation of these secreted proteins. These results suggest that early bystander effect may be due probably to a combination of multiple factors. PMID:24667817

  3. Low doses of gamma-irradiation induce an early bystander effect in zebrafish cells which is sufficient to radioprotect cells.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Sandrine; Malard, Véronique; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Davin, Anne-Hélène; Armengaud, Jean; Foray, Nicolas; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2014-01-01

    The term "bystander effect" is used to describe an effect in which cells that have not been exposed to radiation are affected by irradiated cells though various intracellular signaling mechanisms. In this study we analyzed the kinetics and mechanisms of bystander effect and radioadaptation in embryonic zebrafish cells (ZF4) exposed to chronic low dose of gamma rays. ZF4 cells were irradiated for 4 hours with total doses of gamma irradiation ranging from 0.01-0.1 Gy. In two experimental conditions, the transfer of irradiated cells or culture medium from irradiated cells results in the occurrence of DNA double strand breaks in non-irradiated cells (assessed by the number of ?-H2AX foci) that are repaired at 24 hours post-irradiation whatever the dose. At low total irradiation doses the bystander effect observed does not affect DNA repair mechanisms in targeted and bystander cells. An increase in global methylation of ZF4 cells was observed in irradiated cells and bystander cells compared to control cells. We observed that pre-irradiated cells which are then irradiated for a second time with the same doses contained significantly less ?-H2AX foci than in 24 h gamma-irradiated control cells. We also showed that bystander cells that have been in contact with the pre-irradiated cells and then irradiated alone present less ?-H2AX foci compared to the control cells. This radioadaptation effect is significantly more pronounced at the highest doses. To determine the factors involved in the early events of the bystander effect, we performed an extensive comparative proteomic study of the ZF4 secretomes upon irradiation. In the experimental conditions assayed here, we showed that the early events of bystander effect are probably not due to the secretion of specific proteins neither the oxidation of these secreted proteins. These results suggest that early bystander effect may be due probably to a combination of multiple factors. PMID:24667817

  4. Global Century IMPORTANT NOTICE

    E-print Network

    Chu, Xi

    Building a University for the Global Century 2012-2013 catalog 1 #12;IMPORTANT NOTICE This document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Global Public Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 History

  5. Stress Buffering Effects of Daily Spousal Support on Women's Daily Emotional and Physical Experiences in the Context of Breast Cancer Concerns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tina M. Gremore; Donald H. Baucom; Laura S. Porter; Jennifer S. Kirby; David C. Atkins; Francis J. Keefe

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether the relationship between daily spousal support and daily psychological and physical outcomes varied as a function of level of breast cancer related concern (stress buffering model). Design: Ninety-five women with early stage breast cancer completed daily reports of emotional and physical experiences and satisfaction with spousal support for 30 days. Women also rated problems dealing

  6. Derivation of factors to estimate daily milk yield from one milking of cows milked three times daily

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to derive factors to predict daily milk yield when milk is sampled once per d for cows milked three times (3x) per d. Milk weights for all three milkings were recorded automatically by 8 herds and collected by Dairy Herd Improvement supervisors on test-day. Following edits, 196,725...

  7. Derivation of factors to estimate daily fat, protein, and somatic cell score from one milking of cows milked twice daily

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to derive factors to predict daily fat (F) and protein (P) yield or somatic cell score (SCS) when milk is sampled once for cows milked twice per d. Milk samples were collected for each milking on test-day by Dairy Herd Improvement personnel from herds recording milking times and m...

  8. Providing vitamin D to confined sheep by oral supplementation vs ultraviolet irradiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hidiroglou; K. Karpinski

    1989-01-01

    Serial vitamin D3 (D3) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25 OH D3) concentrations of plasma were measured in confined, shorn sheep that had either been supplemented with vitamin D3 (50 micrograms\\/d) or exposed daily to ultraviolet irradiation (UVI). In the sheep administered D3 orally, plasma D3 increased continuously until d 35. This was followed by small fluctuations of the plasma D3 concentrations

  9. Cosmic Rays and Global Warming

    E-print Network

    T. Sloan; A W Wolfendale

    2007-06-28

    It has been claimed by others that observed temporal correlations of terrestrial cloud cover with `the cosmic ray intensity' are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim to look for evidence to corroborate it. So far we have not found any and so our tentative conclusions are to doubt it. Such correlations as appear are more likely to be due to the small variations in solar irradiance, which, of course, correlate with cosmic rays. We estimate that less than 15% of the 11-year cycle warming variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the warming over the last 35 years is due to this cause.

  10. Cosmic Rays and Global Warming

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, T. [Physics Department, University of Lancaster, Lancaster, UK (United Kingdom); Wolfendale, A. W. [Physics Department, Durham University, Durham (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-24

    Some workers have claimed that the observed temporal correlations of (low level) terrestrial cloud cover with the cosmic ray intensity changes, due to solar modulation, are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim in some detail. So far, we have not found any evidence in support and so our conclusions are to doubt it. From the absence of corroborative evidence we estimate that less than 15% at the 95% confidence level, of the 11-year cycle warming variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the warming over the last 43 years is due to this cause. The origin of the correlation itself is probably the cycle of solar irradiance although there is, as yet, no certainty.

  11. Food Irradiation for Produce Safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A research priority for the produce industry is the development of an effective, safe and commercially applicable kill step. Irradiation is a nonthermal process that has been shown to inactivate human pathogens from fruits and vegetables. Irradiation treatment at 1.0 kGy can reduce the surface popul...

  12. Forecasting solar extreme and far ultraviolet irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henney, C. J.; Hock, R. A.; Schooley, A. K.; Toussaint, W. A.; White, S. M.; Arge, C. N.

    2015-03-01

    A new method is presented to forecast the solar irradiance of selected wavelength ranges within the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and far ultraviolet (FUV) bands. The technique is similar to a method recently published by Henney et al. (2012) to predict solar 10.7 cm (2.8 GHz) radio flux, abbreviated F10.7, utilizing advanced predictions of the global solar magnetic field generated by a flux transport model. In this and the previous study, we find good correlation between the absolute value of the observed photospheric magnetic field and selected EUV/FUV spectral bands. By evolving solar magnetic maps forward 1 to 7 days with a flux transport model, estimations of the Earth side solar magnetic field distribution are generated and used to forecast irradiance. For example, Pearson correlation coefficient values of 0.99, 0.99, and 0.98 are found for 1 day, 3 day, and 7 day predictions, respectively, of the EUV band from 29 to 32 nm. In the FUV, for example, the 160 to 165 nm spectral band, correlation values of 0.98, 0.97, and 0.96 are found for 1 day, 3 day, and 7 day predictions, respectively. In the previous study, the observed F10.7 signal is found to correlate well with strong magnetic field (i.e., sunspot) regions. Here we find that solar EUV and FUV signals are significantly correlated with the weaker magnetic fields associated with plage regions, suggesting that solar magnetic indices may provide an improved indicator (relative to the widely used F10.7 signal) of EUV and FUV nonflaring irradiance variability as input to ionospheric and thermospheric models.

  13. APHRODITE: Constructing a Long-term Daily Gridded Precipitation Dataset for Asia Based on a Dense Network of Rain Gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatagai, A.; Yasutomi, N.; Hamada, A.; Kitoh, A.; Kamiguchi, K.; Arakawa, O.

    2012-04-01

    A daily gridded precipitation dataset for the period 1951-2007 was created by collecting and analyzing rain-gauge observation data across Asia through the activities of the Asian Precipitation - Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE's water resources) project. APHRODITE's daily gridded precipitation is presently the only long-term continental-scale high-resolution daily product. Our product is based on data collected at 5000 to 12,000 stations, which represents 2.3 to 4.5 times the data available through the Global Telecommunication System (GTS) network that are used for most daily gridded precipitation products. Hence, the APHRODITE project has substantially improved the depiction of the areal distribution and variability of precipitation around the Himalayas, Southeast Asia and mountainous regions of the Middle East. The APHRODITE project now contributes to studies such as the determination of Asian monsoon precipitation change, evaluation of water resources, verification of high-resolution model simulations and satellite precipitation estimates, and improvement of forecasts. We released APHRO_V1101 datasets for Monsoon Asia, the Middle East and Russia (on 0.5 × 0.5 degree and 0.25 × 0.25 degree grids) and the APHRO_JP_V1005 dataset for Japan (on a 0.05 × 0.05 degree grid) on the website (http://www.chikyu.ac.jp/precip/ and http://aphrodite.suiri.tsukuba.ac.jp/). The major differences of APHRO_V1101 to that of the previous version (APHRO_V1003R1) are 1) improved quality control (QC) scheme and more input data (Belarus, Bhutan, South Korea, Saudi Arabia, Thailand, Taiwan and E-Obs). We are developing a daily gridded temperature dataset for Asia and a flag to discriminate between rain and snow will be added to the APHRODITE daily precipitation product. The combination of daily mean temperature, precipitation and rain/snow information in this high-resolution gridded format would be useful as input to river-flow models, crop models and many other situations where water resources must be estimated.

  14. Development of a Global Fire Weather Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, R. D.; Spessa, A. C.; Aziz, N. A.; Camia, A.; Cantin, A.; Carr, R.; de Groot, W. J.; Dowdy, A. J.; Flannigan, M. D.; Manomaiphiboon, K.; Pappenberger, F.; Tanpipat, V.; Wang, X.

    2015-06-01

    The Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System is the mostly widely used fire danger rating system in the world. We have developed a global database of daily FWI System calculations, beginning in 1980, called the Global Fire WEather Database (GFWED) gridded to a spatial resolution of 0.5° latitude by 2/3° longitude. Input weather data were obtained from the NASA Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), and two different estimates of daily precipitation from rain gauges over land. FWI System Drought Code calculations from the gridded data sets were compared to calculations from individual weather station data for a representative set of 48 stations in North, Central and South America, Europe, Russia, Southeast Asia and Australia. Agreement between gridded calculations and the station-based calculations tended to be most different at low latitudes for strictly MERRA-based calculations. Strong biases could be seen in either direction: MERRA DC over the Mato Grosso in Brazil reached unrealistically high values exceeding DC = 1500 during the dry season but was too low over Southeast Asia during the dry season. These biases are consistent with those previously identified in MERRA's precipitation, and they reinforce the need to consider alternative sources of precipitation data. GFWED can be used for analyzing historical relationships between fire weather and fire activity at continental and global scales, in identifying large-scale atmosphere-ocean controls on fire weather, and calibration of FWI-based fire prediction models.

  15. Development of AM 1.5 global measurement procedures and international cell measurement round robin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Mueller

    1985-01-01

    The development of the capability for measurement under global irradiance spectral distribution is reported. The airmass 1.5 global measurement procedure is given. Also given is the procedure and justification for using the large area pulsed solar simulator (LAPSS). The status of the international round robin of reference cell measurements managed by the Commission of European Communities (CEC) is described.

  16. LISIRD: LASP Interactive Solar Irradiance Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindholm, D. M.; Wilson, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) at the University of Colorado Boulder has been involved in numerous space-borne missions to directly measure and understand the variability of the Sun's energy output and its impact on global climate change. The LASP Interactive Solar Irradiance Data Center (LISIRD) provides a web site with interactive graphics to explore, subset, and download these and other solar related datasets. The LISIRD collections include observations of total and spectral irradiance with coverage from the X-ray to the infrared from projects such as SME, UARS SOLSTICE, SNOE, TIMED SEE, SORCE, and SDO EVE plus a growing number of related data products, proxies, and models. The LISIRD data services are backed by the LaTiS data server which presents a unified RESTful web service interface to slice, dice, and perform select server-side operations as the data are dynamically streamed to files of your desired format or directly into your code or analysis tools. Come see the data products and services that LISIRD has available and help us to improve them to better meet your needs.

  17. Validation of daily increments in otoliths of northern squawfish larvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wertheimer, R.H.; Barfoot, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Otoliths from laboratory-reared northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, larvae were examined to determine the periodicity of increment deposition. Increment deposition began in both sagittae and lapilli after hatching. Reader counts indicated that increment formation was daily in sagittae of 1-29-day-old larvae. However, increment counts from lapilli were significantly less than the known ages of northern squawfish larvae, possibly because some increments were not detectable. Otolith readability and age agreement among readers were greatest for young (<11 days) northern squawfish larvae. This was primarily because a transitional zone of low-contrast material began forming in otoliths of 8-11-day-old larvae and persisted until approximately 20 days after hatching. Formation of the transition zone appeared to coincide with the onset of exogenous feeding and continued through yolk sac absorption. Our results indicate that aging wild-caught northern squawfish larvae using daily otolith increment counts is possible.

  18. On the adaptive daily forecasting of seismic aftershock hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimian, Hossein; Jalayer, Fatemeh; Asprone, Domenico; Lombardi, Anna Maria; Marzocchi, Warner; Prota, Andrea; Manfredi, Gaetano

    2013-04-01

    Post-earthquake ground motion hazard assessment is a fundamental initial step towards time-dependent seismic risk assessment for buildings in a post main-shock environment. Therefore, operative forecasting of seismic aftershock hazard forms a viable support basis for decision-making regarding search and rescue, inspection, repair, and re-occupation in a post main-shock environment. Arguably, an adaptive procedure for integrating the aftershock occurrence rate together with suitable ground motion prediction relations is key to Probabilistic Seismic Aftershock Hazard Assessment (PSAHA). In the short-term, the seismic hazard may vary significantly (Jordan et al., 2011), particularly after the occurrence of a high magnitude earthquake. Hence, PSAHA requires a reliable model that is able to track the time evolution of the earthquake occurrence rates together with suitable ground motion prediction relations. This work focuses on providing adaptive daily forecasts of the mean daily rate of exceeding various spectral acceleration values (the aftershock hazard). Two well-established earthquake occurrence models suitable for daily seismicity forecasts associated with the evolution of an aftershock sequence, namely, the modified Omori's aftershock model and the Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) are adopted. The parameters of the modified Omori model are updated on a daily basis using Bayesian updating and based on the data provided by the ongoing aftershock sequence based on the methodology originally proposed by Jalayer et al. (2011). The Bayesian updating is used also to provide sequence-based parameter estimates for a given ground motion prediction model, i.e. the aftershock events in an ongoing sequence are exploited in order to update in an adaptive manner the parameters of an existing ground motion prediction model. As a numerical example, the mean daily rates of exceeding specific spectral acceleration values are estimated adaptively for the L'Aquila 2009 aftershock catalog. The parameters of the modified Omori model are estimated in an adaptive manner using the Bayesian updating based on the aftershock events that had already taken place at each day elapsed and using the Italian generic sequence (Lolli and Gasperini 2003) as prior information. For the ETAS model, the real-time daily forecast of the spatio-temporal evolution of the L'Aquila sequence provided for the Italian Civil Protection for managing the emergency (Marzocchi and Lombardi, 2009) is utilized. Moreover, the parameters of the ground motion prediction relation proposed by Sabetta and Pugliese (1996) are updated adaptively and on a daily basis using Bayesian updating based on the ongoing aftershock sequence. Finally, the forecasted daily rates of exceeding (first-mode) spectral acceleration values are compared with observed rates of exceedance calculated based on the wave-forms that have actually taken place. References Jalayer, F., Asprone, D., Prota, A., Manfredi, G. (2011). A decision support system for post-earthquake reliability assessment of structures subjected to after-shocks: an application to L'Aquila earthquake, 2009. Bull. Earthquake Eng. 9(4) 997-1014. Jordan, T.H., Chen Y-T., Gasparini P., Madariaga R., Main I., Marzocchi W., Papadopoulos G., Sobolev G., Yamaoka K., and J. Zschau (2011). Operational earthquake forecasting: State of knowledge and guidelines for implementation, Ann. Geophys. 54(4) 315-391, doi 10.4401/ag-5350. Lolli, B., and P. Gasperini (2003). Aftershocks hazard in Italy part I: estimation of time-magnitude distribution model parameters and computation of probabilities of occurrence. Journal of Seismology 7(2) 235-257. Marzocchi, W., and A.M. Lombardi (2009). Real-time forecasting following a damaging earthquake, Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L21302, doi: 10.1029/2009GL040233. Sabetta F., A. Pugliese (1996) Estimation of response spectra and simulation of nonstationary earthquake ground motions. Bull Seismol Soc Am 86(2) 337-352.

  19. Arts Journal: The Daily Digest of Arts & Cultural Journalism

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Edited by Douglas McLennan, formerly an arts columnist and arts reporter with the Seattle Post-Intelligencer and the Seattle Weekly, Arts Journal is a daily digest of some of the best online arts and cultural journalism. Each weekday beginning at 5AM PST, McLennan examines and posts stories from over 180 English-language newspapers, magazines, and publications featuring writing about arts and culture. These are grouped under eight categories: Top Stories, Dance, Art Issues, Media, Music, Arts People, Publishing, Theater, and Visual Arts. Each Monday, the site also posts a weekly Arts Beat column, an annotated summary of the week's best stories. Users can subscribe to receive Arts Beat for free by email. This amazing resource for current news of the arts will appeal to a broad range of users and quickly find a prominent spot in their collection of daily news bookmarks.

  20. [Articles on medicine in Austrian daily newspapers (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kunze, M; Herberg, D

    1980-03-15

    Nine Austrian daily newspapers were screened for articles dealing with medical items. 634 relevant articles were collected within three months comprising more than 10 square meters of printed pages. Most frequent were "informations about health aspects" (34%), "health politics and economy" (24%) and "medical science and technique" (13%). Compared to other subjects in daily newspapers the chance of being recognized and red is relatively small for articles on medicine related reports. Due to their reading habits female, older and lower social class people are less likely informed by the newspapers involved in the study. Thus the different knowledge levels of various subgroups of the population may be partly caused by differences in publishing and reading habits. PMID:7395244