These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Eugene, Or. 1998 Daily Global Irradiance 1 31 61 91 121 151 181 211 241 271 301 331 361  

E-print Network

Eugene, Or. 1998 Daily Global Irradiance 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 1 31 61 91 121 151 181 211 241 271 301 331 361 Year Day GlobalIrradianceWhr/m2 perDay Eugene, Or. 1998 Daily Beam Day BeamIrradianceWhr/m2 perDay #12;Eugene, Or. 1998 Daily Diffuse Irradiance 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8

Oregon, University of

2

Markov processes and Zipf's law in daily solar irradiation at earth's surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sequences of two consecutive days of solar irradiation (global horizontal and direct normal) have been studied here by different approaches. The frequency vs. rank relationships have been analyzed as an attempt to explore whether the Zifp's law is fulfilled, yielding to a partial fulfillment and observing that a good logarithmic fit can be applied to the data in the whole range. In addition, the pdfs of increments in two consecutive daily irradiation values are also studied, showing a relationship between persistence and the coefficients of the logarithmic fit. Finally, it has been shown that a Markov process can represent properly sequences of two consecutive daily irradiation values, for both global horizontal and direct normal components. Thus, synthetic series can be generated by Markov chains for characterizing daily global and direct irradiation.

Vindel, J. M.; Polo, J.

2014-01-01

3

Global daily reference evapotranspiration modeling and evaluation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Accurate and reliable evapotranspiration (ET) datasets are crucial in regional water and energy balance studies. Due to the complex instrumentation requirements, actual ET values are generally estimated from reference ET values by adjustment factors using coefficients for water stress and vegetation conditions, commonly referred to as crop coefficients. Until recently, the modeling of reference ET has been solely based on important weather variables collected from weather stations that are generally located in selected agro-climatic locations. Since 2001, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) has been producing six-hourly climate parameter datasets that are used to calculate daily reference ET for the whole globe at 1-degree spatial resolution. The U.S. Geological Survey Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science has been producing daily reference ET (ETo) since 2001, and it has been used on a variety of operational hydrological models for drought and streamflow monitoring all over the world. With the increasing availability of local station-based reference ET estimates, we evaluated the GDAS-based reference ET estimates using data from the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS). Daily CIMIS reference ET estimates from 85 stations were compared with GDAS-based reference ET at different spatial and temporal scales using five-year daily data from 2002 through 2006. Despite the large difference in spatial scale (point vs. ???100 km grid cell) between the two datasets, the correlations between station-based ET and GDAS-ET were very high, exceeding 0.97 on a daily basis to more than 0.99 on time scales of more than 10 days. Both the temporal and spatial correspondences in trend/pattern and magnitudes between the two datasets were satisfactory, suggesting the reliability of using GDAS parameter-based reference ET for regional water and energy balance studies in many parts of the world. While the study revealed the potential of GDAS ETo for large-scale hydrological applications, site-specific use of GDAS ETo in complex hydro-climatic regions such as coastal areas and rugged terrain may require the application of bias correction and/or disaggregation of the GDAS ETo using downscaling techniques. ?? 2008 American Water Resources Association.

Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.P.; Lietzow, R.; Melesse, Assefa M.

2008-01-01

4

Modeling monthly mean variation of the solar global irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monthly mean variation of the solar global reaching the Earth's surface has been characterized at a global level by a regression model. This model considers the monthly variation itself (to different horizons and even the maximum annual variation) as the study variable, and it is applied without using data corresponding to measured meteorological variable. Two explicative variables have been used, the variation of the extraterrestrial irradiation and the variation of the clear sky global horizontal irradiation. The work has been carried out from datasets including average global daily solar irradiation for each month of the year measured on the ground. The model quality has been proven to be very dependent of the temporal variation considered, in such a way that higher variations, that is to say, higher distances between months, lead to an improvement in the model outcomes.

Vindel, J. M.; Polo, J.; Zarzalejo, L. F.

2015-01-01

5

Hematopoietic tissue repair under chronic low daily dose irradiation.  

PubMed

The capacity of the hematopoietic system to repair constantly accruing cellular damage under chronic, low daily dose gamma irradiation is essential for the maintenance of a functional hematopoietic system, and, in turn, long term survival. In certain individuals, however, such continuous cycles of damage and repair provide an essential inductive environment for selected types of hematopathologies, e.g., myeloid leukemia (ML). In our laboratory we have been studying temporal and causal relationships between hematopoietic capacity, associated repair functions, and propensities for hematologic disease in canines under variable levels of chronic radiation stress (0.3-26.3 cGy d-1). Results indicate that the maximum exposure rate tolerated by the hematopoietic system is highly individual-specific (three major responding subgroups identified) and is based largely on the degree to which repair capacity, and, in turn, hematopoietic restoration, is augmented under chronic exposure. In low-tolerance individuals (prone to aplastic anemia, subgroup 1), the failure to augment basic repair functions seemingly results in a progressive accumulation of genetic and cellular damage within vital progenitorial marrow compartments (particularly marked within erythroid compartments) that results in loss of reproductive capacity and ultimately in collapse of the hematopoietic system. The high-tolerance individuals (radioaccomodated and either prone- or not prone to ML, subgroup 2 & 3) appear to minimize the accumulating damage effect of daily exposures by extending repair functions, which preserves reproductive integrity and fosters regenerative hematopoietic responses. As the strength of the regenerative response manifests the extent of repair augmentation, the relatively strong response of high- tolerance individuals progressing to patent ML suggests an insufficiency of repair quality rather than repair quantity. The kinetics of these repair-mediated, regenerative hematopoietic responses within the major subgroups are under study and should provide useful insights into the nature of hematopoietic accommodation (or its failure) under greatly extended periods of chronic, low-daily-dose ionizing radiation exposure. PMID:11538990

Seed, T M

1996-01-01

6

Hematopoietic tissue repair under chronic low daily dose irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capacity of the hematopoietic system to repair constantly accruing cellular damage under chronic, low daily dose gamma irradiation is essential for the maintenance of a functional hematopoietic system, and, in turn, long term survival. In certain individuals, however, such continuous cycles of damage and repair provide an essential inductive environment for selected types of hematopathologies, e.g., myeloid leukemia (ML). In our laboratory we have been studying temporal and causal relationships between hematopoietic capacity, associated repair functions, and propensities for hematologic disease in canines under variable levels of chronic radiation stress (0.3-26.3 cGy d^-1). Results indicate that the maximum exposure rate tolerated by the hematopoietic system is highly individual-specific (three major responding subgroups identified) and is based largely on the degree to which repair capacity, and, in turn, hematopoietic restoration, is augmented under chronic exposure. In low-tolerance individuals (prone to aplastic anemia, subgroup 1), the failure to augment basic repair functions seemingly results in a progressive accumulation of genetic and cellular damage within vital progenitorial marrow compartments (particularly marked within erythroid compartments) that results in loss of reproductive capacity and ultimately in collapse of the hematopoietic system. The high-tolerance individuals (radioaccommodated and either prone- or not prone to ML, subgroup 2 & 3) appear to minimize the accumulating damage effect of daily exposures by extending repair functions, which preserves reproductive integrity and fosters regenerative hematopoietic responses. As the strength of the regenerative response manifests the extent of repair augmentation, the relatively strong response of high-tolerance individuals progressing to patent ML suggests an insufficiency of repair quality rather than repair quantity. The kinetics of these repair-mediated, regenerative hematopoietic responses within the major subgroups are under study and should provide useful insights into the nature of hematopoietic accommodation (or its failure) under greatly extended periods of chronic, low-daily-dose ionizing radiation exposure.

Seed, T. M.

7

Global Daily Snow and Sea Ice Surface Temperature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the global advance and retreat of daily snow cover along with daily sea ice surface temperature over the Northern Hemisphere from September 2002 through May 2003. The snow cover was measured by the MODIS instrument on the Terra satellite, while the sea ice surface temperature was measured by the MODIS instrument on the Aqua satellite. Since these instruments cannot take measurements through clouds, in cloud-covered regions or areas with suspect data quality, the prior days value is retained until a valid data reading is obtained. This visualization designates an area as covered by snow when the instrument takes a valid measurement showing greater than ~50% snow coverage in that area. This area is assumed to be snow covered until the instrument takes a valid measurement showing less than 40% snow coverage in that same area. A color bar indicates the sea ice surface temperature values. The satellite instruments are unable to collect data through darkness. The region in polar darkness is shown as a grey cap over the pole that grows and shrinks seasonally. A date slider indicates the progression of time. SeaWiFS Land Reflectance shows the seasonal changes in landcover.

Starr, Cindy; Shirah, Greg; Newcombe, Marte; Hall, Dorothy

2004-09-25

8

Downscaling of global solar irradiation in R  

E-print Network

A methodology for downscaling solar irradiation from satellite-derived databases is described using R software. Different packages such as raster, parallel, solaR, gstat, sp and rasterVis are considered in this study for improving solar resource estimation in areas with complex topography, in which downscaling is a very useful tool for reducing inherent deviations in satellite-derived irradiation databases, which lack of high global spatial resolution. A topographical analysis of horizon blocking and sky-view is developed with a digital elevation model to determine what fraction of hourly solar irradiation reaches the Earth's surface. Eventually, kriging with external drift is applied for a better estimation of solar irradiation throughout the region analyzed. This methodology has been implemented as an example within the region of La Rioja in northern Spain, and the mean absolute error found is a striking 25.5% lower than with the original database.

Antonanzas-Torres, F; Antonanzas, J; Perpińán, O

2013-01-01

9

Spatial and temporal variability of global surface solar irradiance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Consideration is given to a fast scheme for computing surface solar irradiance using data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). Daily mean solar irradiances from the fast scheme reproduce the detailed global results from full radiative transfer model calculations to within 6 and 10 W/sq m over the ocean and land, respectively. Comparison of calculated monthly mean results using 5 m of ISCCP data (July 1983-July 1984) with climatology from the 1970s at six temperature-latitude ocean weather stations shows agreement within published estimates of interannual variability of monthly means at the individual stations. A further test against a 17-day time series at a continental site, where ground and satellite data were spatially and temporally coincident, showed an accuracy of better than 9 W/sq m on a daily basis and less than 4 percent bias in the 17-day mean. Frequently used bulk formulas for solar irradiance are also evaluated in each of these tests.

Bishop, James K. B.; Rossow, William B.

1991-01-01

10

Calculation of direct normal irradiation from global horizontal irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) systems only work with the Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI), so a knowledge of DNI data is required for the design and evaluation of these kinds of systems. DNI is not always measured at ground meteorological stations due to equipment costs. In recent years, several spatial databases that estimate DNI from satellite data have been developed. These databases are a very useful tool for CPV applications. However, the databases present uncertainty and provide different values of DNI. This lack of DNI data and the uncertainty of available data contrast with the availability of reliable global horizontal irradiation data, which is easy to find or measure. In this paper, a simple procedure for estimating DNI from global horizontal irradiation is presented. It does not try to improve the existing methods, but meets the basic requirements for the analysis of CPV systems. The method can be easily implemented in a spreadsheet or in computer programs in renewable energy and its accuracy is similar than that of the existing databases.

Rodrigo, Pedro; Pérez-Higueras, Pedro J.; Almonacid, Florencia; Hontoria, Leocadio; Fernández, Eduardo F.; Rus, Catalina; Fernández, Juan I.; Gómez, Pedro; Almonacid, Gabino

2012-10-01

11

Local warming: daily temperature change influences belief in global warming.  

PubMed

Although people are quite aware of global warming, their beliefs about it may be malleable; specifically, their beliefs may be constructed in response to questions about global warming. Beliefs may reflect irrelevant but salient information, such as the current day's temperature. This replacement of a more complex, less easily accessed judgment with a simple, more accessible one is known as attribute substitution. In three studies, we asked residents of the United States and Australia to report their opinions about global warming and whether the temperature on the day of the study was warmer or cooler than usual. Respondents who thought that day was warmer than usual believed more in and had greater concern about global warming than did respondents who thought that day was colder than usual. They also donated more money to a global-warming charity if they thought that day seemed warmer than usual. We used instrumental variable regression to rule out some alternative explanations. PMID:21372325

Li, Ye; Johnson, Eric J; Zaval, Lisa

2011-04-01

12

Retrieving daily global solar radiation from routine climate variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation is an important variable for studies related to solar energy applications, meteorology, climatology, hydrology, and agricultural meteorology. However, solar radiation is not routinely measured at meteorological stations; therefore, it is often required to estimate it using other techniques such as retrieving from satellite data or estimating using other geophysical variables. Over the years, many models have been developed to estimate solar radiation from other geophysical variables such as temperature, rainfall, and sunshine duration. The aim of this study was to evaluate six of these models using data measured at four independent worldwide networks. The dataset included 13 stations from Australia, 25 stations from Germany, 12 stations from Saudi Arabia, and 48 stations from the USA. The models require either sunshine duration hours (Ĺngstrom) or daily range of air temperature (Bristow and Campbell, Donatelli and Bellocchi, Donatelli and Campbell, Hargreaves, and Hargreaves and Samani) as input. According to the statistical parameters, Ĺngstrom and Bristow and Campbell indicated a better performance than the other models. The bias and root mean square error for the Ĺngstrom model were less than 0.25 MJ m2 day-1 and 2.25 MJ m2 day-1, respectively, and the correlation coefficient was always greater than 95 %. Statistical analysis using Student's t test indicated that the residuals for Ĺngstrom, Bristow and Campbell, Hargreaves, and Hargreaves and Samani are not statistically significant at the 5 % level. In other words, the estimated values by these models are statistically consistent with the measured data. Overall, given the simplicity and performance, the Ĺngstrom model is the best choice for estimating solar radiation when sunshine duration measurements are available; otherwise, Bristow and Campbell can be used to estimate solar radiation using daily range of air temperature.

Moradi, Isaac; Mueller, Richard; Perez, Richard

2014-05-01

13

Implications for global warming of intercycle solar irradiance variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The implications of solar irradiance variations on global warming are explored. Strong circumstantial evidence is provided that there have been intercycle variations in solar irradiance which have contributed to the observed temperature changes since 1856. However, it is found that since the nineteenth century greenhouse gases, not solar irradiance variations, have been the dominant contributor to the observed temperature changes.

Schlesinger, Michael E.; Ramankutty, Navin

1992-11-01

14

Adaptive radiotherapy based on the daily regression of a tumor in carbon-ion beam irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new application of adaptive radiotherapy using a scanning beam, taking into account the daily regression of a tumor. No patient-specific hardware (such as collimators and compensating filters) is needed for the scanning technique; thus, it allows re-planning immediately before each fractional irradiation using the sophisticated conformations of dose distributions. We retrospectively modeled the tumor volume regression curves as a function of the dose from the CT images which were taken three times during the treatment course. The daily shape of the tumor was mathematically interpolated assuming constant continuity of the tumor deformation. We simulated the adaptive radiotherapy by optimizing the dose distribution on the estimated daily tumor volume for every fraction. The dose-volume histogram (DVH) for the organ at risk in the adaptive radiotherapy was compared with that of the current clinical protocol. We performed analysis using the CT images of cervical cancer patients who received carbon-ion radiotherapy in broad-beam irradiation. The DVH for the rectum and the sigmoid colon was improved by adaptive radiotherapy considering the inter-fractional tumor regression. The result shows that this approach has possible advantages.

Nagano, Ai; Minohara, Shinichi; Kato, Shingo; Kiyohara, Hiroki; Ando, Ken

2012-12-01

15

Daily estimates of the Earth's pole position with the global positioning system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily estimates of the Earth's pole position have been obtained with measurements from a worldwide network of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, obtained during the three week GIG'91 experiment in January- February, 1991. For this short-term study, the GPS based polar motion series agrees with the other space based geodetic techniques (Very Long Baseline Interferometry and Satellite Laser Ranging) to

Ulf J. Lindqwister; Adam P. Freedman; Geoffrey Blewitt

1992-01-01

16

Global observed changes in daily climate extremes of temperature and precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suite of climate change indices derived from daily temperature and precipitation data, with a primary focus on extreme events, were computed and analyzed. By setting an exact formula for each index and using specially designed software, analyses done in different countries have been combined seamlessly. This has enabled the presentation of the most up-to-date and comprehensive global picture of

L. V. Alexander; X. Zhang; T. C. Peterson; J. Caesar; B. Gleason; A. M. G. Klein Tank; M. Haylock; D. Collins; B. Trewin; F. Rahimzadeh; A. Tagipour; K. Rupa Kumar; J. Revadekar; G. Griffiths; L. Vincent; D. B. Stephenson; J. Burn; E. Aguilar; M. Brunet; M. Taylor; M. New; P. Zhai; M. Rusticucci; J. L. Vazquez-Aguirre

2006-01-01

17

Automated daily process for global ionospheric total electron content maps and satellite ocean altimeter ionospheric calibration based on Global Positioning System data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy of single-frequency ocean altimeters benefits from calibration of the total electron content (TEC) of the ionosphere below the satellite. Data from a global network of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers provides timely, continuous, and globally well-distributed measurements of ionospheric electron content. For several months we have been running a daily automatic Global Ionospheric Map process which inputs global

B. A. Iijima; I. L. Harris; C. M. Ho; U. J. Lindqwister; A. J. Mannucci; X. Pi; M. J. Reyes; L. C. Sparks; B. D. Wilson

1999-01-01

18

Global gridded precipitation over land: a description of the new GPCC First Guess Daily product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the new "First Guess Daily" product of the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC). The new product gives an estimate of the global daily precipitation gridded at a spatial resolution of 1° latitude by longitude. It is based on rain gauge data reported in near real-time via the Global Telecommunication System (GTS) and available about three to five days after the end of each observation month. In addition to the gridded daily precipitation totals in mm day-1, the standard deviation in mm day-1, the Kriging interpolation error in % and the number of measurements per grid cell are also encoded into the monthly netCDF product file and provided for all months since January 2009. Prior to their interpolation the measured precipitation values undergo a preliminary automatic quality control. For the calculation of the areal mean of the grid, anomalies are interpolated with ordinary block Kriging. This approach allows for a near real-time release. However, the purely GTS-based data processing lacks an intensive quality control as well as a high data density. Therefore the product is denoted as "First Guess", and DOI referenced under doi:10.5676/DWD_GPCC/FG_D_100. Besides the "First Guess Daily" product, two further products are under developement at GPCC ("Full Data Daily" and a merged satellite-gauge product), which will be based on all available daily data that have undergone a strict quality control. All GPCC products are available free of charge and provided via the GPCC webpage: ftp://ftp-anon.dwd.de/pub/data/gpcc/html/download_gate.html.

Schamm, K.; Ziese, M.; Becker, A.; Finger, P.; Meyer-Christoffer, A.; Schneider, U.; Schröder, M.; Stender, P.

2013-08-01

19

Association between trends in daily rainfall percentiles and the global mean temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attributing changes in extreme daily precipitation to global warming is difficult, even when based on global climate model simulations or statistical trend analyses. The question about trends in extreme precipitation and their causes has been elusive because of climate models' limited precision and the fact that extremes are both rare and occur at irregular intervals. Here a newly discovered empirical relationship between the wet-day mean and percentiles in 24 h precipitation amounts was used to show that trends in the wet-day 95th percentiles worldwide have been influenced by the global mean temperature, consistent with an accelerated hydrological cycle caused by a global warming. A multiple regression analysis was used as a basis for an attribution analysis by matching temporal variability in precipitation statistics with the global mean temperature.

Benestad, R. E.

2013-10-01

20

Correlations for direct normal and global horizontal irradiation on a French Mediterranean site  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to establish some correlations on direct normal and global horizontal irradiation for a Mediterranean site. The correlations have been developed for monthly mean values, daily and hourly values of irradiation data. The authors have used linear or polynomial regressions between energetical ratio and sunshine duration. For the monthly means and the daily values, the ratio I/I{sub M} fits very well the sunshine duration while, for hourly values, they express I{sub h}/I{sub o,h} as a function of H{sub h}/H{sub o,h}. In all cases, these correlations are, for this Mediterranean site, in good accordance with experimental data. Nevertheless, a study for other locations has to be developed.

Louche, A.; Notton, G.; Poggi, P.; Simonnot, G. (Universite de Corse-CNRS, Ajaccio (France))

1991-01-01

21

Global gridded precipitation over land: a description of the new GPCC First Guess Daily product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the new First Guess Daily product of the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC). The new product gives an estimate of the global daily precipitation gridded at a spatial resolution of 1° latitude by 1° longitude. It is based on rain gauge data reported in near-real time via the Global Telecommunication System (GTS) and available about three to five days after the end of each observation month. In addition to the gridded daily precipitation totals in mm day-1, the standard deviation in mm day-1, the kriging interpolation error in % and the number of measurements per grid cell are also encoded into the monthly netCDF product file and provided for all months since January 2009. Prior to their interpolation, the measured precipitation values undergo a preliminary automatic quality control. For the calculation of the areal mean of the grid, anomalies are interpolated with ordinary block kriging. This approach allows for a near-real-time release. Therefore, the purely GTS-based data processing lacks an intensive quality control as well as a high data density and is denoted as First Guess. The daily data set is referenced under doi:10.5676/DWD_GPCC/FG_D_100. Two further products, the Full Data Daily and a merged satellite-gauge product, are currently under development at Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD). These additional products will not be available in near-real time, but based on significantly more and strictly quality controlled observations. All GPCC products are provided free of charge via the GPCC webpage: ftp://ftp-anon.dwd.de/pub/data/gpcc/html/download_gate.html.

Schamm, K.; Ziese, M.; Becker, A.; Finger, P.; Meyer-Christoffer, A.; Schneider, U.; Schröder, M.; Stender, P.

2014-01-01

22

Carbon tetrachloride lifetimes and emissions determined from daily global measurements during 1978–1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven years of daily gas chromatographic measurements of CCl4 at the five globally distributed ALE\\/GAGE surface sites are reported. It is determined that CCl4 has been accumulating in the atmosphere at a rate of 1.3±0.1%\\/yr over the period 1978–1985 and that the releases of CCl4 into the atmosphere have remained fairly constant, with the smallest releases in 1981–1982. Using an

P. G. Simmonds; D. M. Cunnold; F. N. Alyea; C. A. Cardelino; A. J. Crawford; R. G. Prinn; P. J. Fraser; R. A. Rasmussen; R. D. Rosen

1988-01-01

23

Daily global fire radiative power fields estimation from one or two MODIS instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires are important emitters of aerosol and trace gases and as such need to be taken into account in any atmospheric composition modeling enterprise. One method to estimate these emissions is to convert Fire Radiative Power (FRP) analysis to dry matter burnt and emissions of smoke constituents using land cover dependent conversion factors. Inventories like the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) follow this approach by calculating daily global smoke emissions from FRP observed by the MODIS instruments on-board of the Terra and Aqua satellites. Observations with different overpass times systematically sample fires at different stages in the strong diurnal fire cycle. For some time periods, observations are available from only one instrument, which leads to a bias in the observed average FRP. We develop a method to correct this bias in daily FRP observations from any Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite, so that the budget of daily smoke emissions remains independent of the number of satellites from which FRP observations are taken into account. This ensures the possibility of running, e.g., GFAS in case of a default of one of the MODIS instruments. It also enables the extension GFAS to 2000-2002 and the inclusion of FRP observations from upcoming satellite missions. The correction combines linear and non-linear regressions and uses an adaptive regionalization algorithm. It removes the bias in daily average FRP observations from Terra and Aqua nearly entirely. Errors are larger for Terra than for Aqua, are generally relatively small at a global scale, but can be important at a local scale. The correction algorithm is applied to Terra observations from 25 February 2000 to 31 December 2002, when Aqua observations were not available. The database of fire emissions GFASv1.0 is extended correspondingly.

Remy, S.; Kaiser, J. W.

2014-08-01

24

A global survey on the distribution of annual maxima of daily rainfall: Gumbel or Fréchet?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretically, if the distribution of daily rainfall is known, or, assumed with confidence, then one could argue, based on extreme value theory, that the distribution of the daily annual maxima would resemble one of the three limiting types: (a) type I, known as Gumbel, type II, known as Fréchet and, type III, known as reversed Weibull. Yet, the parent distribution usually is not known and many times only records of annual maxima are available. So, the question that naturally arises is which one of the three types better describes the annual maxima of daily rainfall. The question is of great importance as the naive adoption of a particular type may lead to serious underestimation or overestimation of the rainfall amount assigned to specific return period. To answer this equation, we analyse 15137 records of annual maxima of daily rainfall, from all over the world, with lengths varying for 40 to 163 years. We fit the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution, as it comprises the three limiting types as particular cases for specific values of its shape parameter, and we analyse the results focusing on the estimated shape parameter values. Finally, we investigate the relationship of the GEV shape parameter with record length and we construct a global map form its values to reveal possible geographical patterns.

Papalexiou, S. M.; Koutsoyiannis, D.

2012-04-01

25

Daily global fire radiative power fields estimation from one or two MODIS instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires are important emitters of aerosol and trace gases and as such need to be taken into account in any atmospheric composition modelling enterprise. One method to estimate these emissions is to convert fire radiative power (FRP) analysis into dry matter burnt and emissions of smoke constituents using land-cover-dependent conversion factors. Inventories like the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) follow this approach by calculating daily global smoke emissions from FRP observed by the MODIS instruments onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites. Observations with different overpass times systematically sample fires at different stages in the strong diurnal fire cycle. For some time periods, observations are available from only one instrument, which leads to a bias in the observed average FRP. We develop a method to correct this bias in daily FRP observations from any low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite, so that the budget of daily smoke emissions remains independent of the number of satellites from which FRP observations are taken into account. This ensures the possibility of running, for example, GFAS in case of failure of one of the MODIS instruments. It also enables the extension GFAS to 2000-2002 and the inclusion of FRP observations from upcoming satellite missions. The correction combines linear and non-linear regressions and uses an adaptive regionalization algorithm. It decreases the bias in daily average FRP from Terra and Aqua by more than 95%, and RMSE by 75% for Aqua and 55% for Terra. The correction algorithm is applied to Terra observations from 25 February 2000 to 31 December 2002, when Aqua observations were not available. The database of fire emissions GFASv1.0 is extended correspondingly.

Remy, S.; Kaiser, J. W.

2014-12-01

26

Validation and Development of the GPCP Experimental One-Degree Daily (1DD) Global Precipitation Product  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The One-Degree Daily (1DD) precipitation dataset has been developed for the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and is currently in beta test preparatory to release as an official GPCP product. The 1DD provides a globally-complete, observation-only estimate of precipitation on a daily 1 deg. x 1 deg. grid for the period 1997 through early 2000 (by the time of the conference). In the latitude band 40N-40S the 1DD uses the Threshold-Matched Precipitation Index (TMPI), a GPI-like IR product with the pixel-level T(sub b) threshold and (single) conditional rain rate determined locally for each month by the frequency of precipitation in the GPROF SSM/I product and by, the precipitation amount in the GPCP monthly satellite-gauge (SG) combination. Outside 40N-40S the 1DD uses a scaled TOVS precipitation estimate that has month-by-month adjustments based on the TMPI and the SG. Early validation results are encouraging. The 1DD shows relatively large scatter about the daily validation values in individual grid boxes, as expected for a technique that depends on cloud-sensing schemes such as the TMPI and TOVS. On the other hand, the time series of 1DD shows good correlation with validation in individual boxes. For example, the 1997-1998 time series of 1DD and Oklahoma Mesonet values in a grid box in northeastern Oklahoma have the correlation coefficient = 0.73. Looking more carefully at these two time series, the number of raining days for the 1DD is within 7% of the Mesonet value, while the distribution of daily rain values is very similar. Other tests indicate that area- or time-averaging improve the error characteristics, making the data set highly attractive to users interested in stream flow, short-term regional climatology, and model comparisons. The second generation of the 1DD product is currently under development; it is designed to directly incorporate TRMM and other high-quality precipitation estimates. These data are generally sparse because they are observed by low-orbit satellites, so a fair amount of work must be devoted to analyzing the effect of data boundaries. This work is laying, the groundwork for effective use of the NASA Global Precipitation Mission, which will have full Global coverage by low-orbit passive microwave satellites every three hours.

Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Bolvin, David T.; Einaud, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

27

Global Mapping of Underwater UV Irradiances and DNA-Weighted Exposures using TOMS and SeaWiFS Data Products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The global stratospheric ozone-layer depletion results In an increase in biologically harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the surface and penetrating to ecologically significant depths in natural waters. Such an increase can be estimated on a global scale by combining satellite estimates of UV irradiance at the ocean surface from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite instrument with the SeaWIFS satellite ocean-color measurements in the visible spectral region. In this paper we propose a model of seawater optical properties in the UV spectral region based on the Case I water model in the visible range. The inputs to the model are standard monthly SeaWiFS products: chlorophyll concentration and the diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490nm. Penetration of solar UV radiation to different depths in open ocean waters is calculated using the RT (radiative transfer) quasi-single scattering approximation (QSSA). The accuracy of the QSSA approximation in the water is tested using more accurate codes. The sensitivity study of the underwater UV irradiance to atmospheric and oceanic optical properties have shown that the main environmental parameters controlling the absolute levels of the UVB (280-320nm) and DNA-weighted irradiance underwater are: solar-zenith angle, cloud transmittance, water optical properties, and total ozone. Weekly maps of underwater UV irradiance and DNA-weighted exposure are calculated using monthly-mean SeaWiFS chlorophyll and diffuse attenuation coefficient products, daily SeaWiFS cloud fraction data, and the TOMS-derived surface UV irradiance daily maps. The final products include global maps of weekly-average UVB irradiance and DNA-weighted daily exposures at 3m and 10m, and depths where the UVB irradiance and DNA-weighted dose rate at local noon are equal to 10% of their surface values.

Vasilkov, Alexander; Krotkov, Nickolay; Herman, Jay; McClain, Charles; Arrigo, Kevin; Robinson, Wayne

1999-01-01

28

The Full Seasonal/Global Variation of Mars Ozone from MARCI 2006-2013 Daily Global Mapping Retrievals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mars Color Imager (MARCI) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) employs ultraviolet imaging bands within (260nm) and longward (320 nm) of Hartley band ozone absorption, in support of daily global mapping retrievals for Mars atmospheric ozone columns. We present the first release of this unique global atmospheric mapping data set, consisting of 1010 ozone column retrievals spanning MY29-31 on a daily global grid of 8x8 km spatial resolution. Coincident 320nm cloud optical depth retrievals are obtained in conjunction with the MARCI ozone columns (Wolff et al, 2011). The MARCI ozone column detection limit 1 ?m-atm) is appropriate to mapping elevated ozone abundances at low latitudes around Mars aphelion, and over mid-to-high latitudes during fall/winter/spring seasons. MARCI ozone maps for these regions reveal the detailed spatial and temporal behaviors of water vapor saturation conditions that force large variations in water vapor photolysis products (HOx) responsible for the catalytic destruction of ozone in the Mars atmosphere. In the context of full temporal/spatial resolution, we present aphelion increases in low latitude ozone and potential cloud and topographic correlations, high latitude ozone maxima associated with planetary waves and weather fronts during northern early spring, and surprising (yet to be explained) winter season ozone variations within the Hellas basin. Comparisons are provided for MARCI ozone measurements to ozone simulations from the Laboratory of Meteorology and Dynamics General Circulation Model (LMDGCM; Lefevre et al., 2006) and ozone measurements by the SPICAM ultraviolet spectrometer on Mars Express (Perrier et al, 2006).

Clancy, R. T.; Wolff, M. J.; Lefevre, F.; Malin, M. C.

2013-10-01

29

COMPARISON AND FITTING OF SEVERAL GLOBAL-TO-BEAM IRRADIANCE MODELS IN SPAIN  

E-print Network

to beam irradiance models has been performed. In a first step, five global-to-beam irradiance models is appropriate for this objective, and it will be further developed in future works. Keywords: global and beamCOMPARISON AND FITTING OF SEVERAL GLOBAL-TO-BEAM IRRADIANCE MODELS IN SPAIN Iñigo Pagola 1 , Martín

Boyer, Edmond

30

Analysis of a long-term dataset of global and diffuse horizontal irradiance at northeastern Spain for energy applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An accurate knowledge of the global, diffuse and direct beam irradiance at specific geographical locations in high temporal and spatial resolutions is a must requirement for the development of solar energy applications. Most available datasets comprise global irradiance, but it is not the case for diffuse or direct beam components. These two latter are of great importance when converting the data into declined impinging irradiance or specific components like for example daylight or available energy, utilized to assess the feasibility of solar energy systems. The surface irradiance presents a high temporal variability, and analysis of high frequency sampling datasets provides very valuable information for energy applications. In this contribution, we present an analysis of a long-term dataset of ground measurements of global and diffuse irradiance over a period of 22 years (1986-2007) at northeastern Spain. Ten Irradiance stations of the Catalan Energy Institute (ICAEN) solar network are analyzed to assess the temporal and spatial fluctuations and trends of the ground solar irradiance. The stations provide 5-minutes global and diffuse irradiance over a period of 22 years. In a first step, a quality control testing is applied over our datasets based on QCRad methodology (Long and Shi, 2006; Long and Dutton, 2002). The total amount of valid data from sunrise to sunset is over 6 Million data for global irradiance (87%) and over 4.5 Million data for diffuse irradiance (62%). Then, a comparison and validation of global-to-beam irradiance conversion models is performed to estimate beam irradiance and daily sunshine duration through the clearness index (Kt) and diffuse fraction (Kd). The results allow us to provide a representative solar radiation year which sums up all the climatic information characterizing an annual radiation cycle. REFERENCES Long CN. and Shi Y., 2006. "The QCRad Value Added Product: Surface Radiation Measurement Quality Control Testing, Including Climatology Configurable Limits". Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Technical Report, DOE/SC-ARM/TR-074, available via http://www.arm.gov/publications/vaps.stm Long CN. and Dutton EG., 2002. "BSRN Global Network recommended QC tests, V2.0." BSRN Technical Report, available via http://ezksun3.ethz.ch/bsrn/admin/dokus/qualitycheck.pdf

Rincón, A.; Jorba, O.; Baldasano, J. M.

2009-04-01

31

Modeling daylight availability and irradiance components from direct and global irradiance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the latest versions of several models developed by the authors to predict short time-step solar energy and daylight availability quantities needed by energy system modelers or building designers. The modeled quantities are global, direct and diffuse daylight illuminance, diffuse irradiance and illuminance impinging on tilted surfaces of arbitrary orientation, sky zenith luminance and sky luminance angular distribution.

R. Perez; P. Ineichen; R. Seals; J. Michalsky; R. Stewart

1990-01-01

32

A Temperature-Based Model for Estimating Monthly Average Daily Global Solar Radiation in China  

PubMed Central

Since air temperature records are readily available around the world, the models based on air temperature for estimating solar radiation have been widely accepted. In this paper, a new model based on Hargreaves and Samani (HS) method for estimating monthly average daily global solar radiation is proposed. With statistical error tests, the performance of the new model is validated by comparing with the HS model and its two modifications (Samani model and Chen model) against the measured data at 65 meteorological stations in China. Results show that the new model is more accurate and robust than the HS, Samani, and Chen models in all climatic regions, especially in the humid regions. Hence, the new model can be recommended for estimating solar radiation in areas where only air temperature data are available in China. PMID:24605046

Li, Huashan; Cao, Fei; Wang, Xianlong; Ma, Weibin

2014-01-01

33

Sub-daily resolution of earth rotation variations with Global Positioning System measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from a worldwide Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking experiment have been used to determine variations in earth rotation (UT1-UTC) over a time period of three weeks. Kalman filtering and smoothing enabled changes in UT1-UTC over intervals of 2 to 24 hrs to be detected with the GPS data. Internal consistency checks and comparisons with other solutions from very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and satellite laser ranging (SLR) indicate that the GPS UT1-UTC estimates are accurate to about 2 cm. Comparison of GPS-estimated variations in UT1-UTC with 2-hr time resolution over 4 days with predicted variations computed from diurnal and semidiurnal oceanic tidal contributions strongly suggests that the observed periodic sub-daily variations of about 0.1 msec are largely of tidal origin.

Lichten, Stephen M.; Marcus, Steven L.; Dickey, Jean O.

1992-01-01

34

Response of global upper ocean temperature to changing solar irradiance  

Microsoft Academic Search

By focusing on time sequences of basin-average and global-average upper ocean temperature (i.e., from 40řS to 60řN) we find temperatures responding to changing solar irradiance in three separate frequency bands with periods of >100 years, 18-25 years, and 9-13 years. Moreover, we find them in two different data sets, that is, surface marine weather observations from 1990 to 1991 and

Warren B. White; Judith Lean; Daniel R. Cayan; Michael D. Dettinger

1997-01-01

35

Effect of Estimated Daily Global Solar Radiation Data on the Results of Crop Growth Models  

PubMed Central

The results of previous studies have suggested that estimated daily global radiation (RG) values contain an error that could compromise the precision of subsequent crop model applications. The following study presents a detailed site and spatial analysis of the RG error propagation in CERES and WOFOST crop growth models in Central European climate conditions. The research was conducted i) at the eight individual sites in Austria and the Czech Republic where measured daily RG values were available as a reference, with seven methods for RG estimation being tested, and ii) for the agricultural areas of the Czech Republic using daily data from 52 weather stations, with five RG estimation methods. In the latter case the RG values estimated from the hours of sunshine using the Ĺngström-Prescott formula were used as the standard method because of the lack of measured RG data. At the site level we found that even the use of methods based on hours of sunshine, which showed the lowest bias in RG estimates, led to a significant distortion of the key crop model outputs. When the Ĺngström-Prescott method was used to estimate RG, for example, deviations greater than ±10 per cent in winter wheat and spring barley yields were noted in 5 to 6 per cent of cases. The precision of the yield estimates and other crop model outputs was lower when RG estimates based on the diurnal temperature range and cloud cover were used (mean bias error 2.0 to 4.1 per cent). The methods for estimating RG from the diurnal temperature range produced a wheat yield bias of more than 25 per cent in 12 to 16 per cent of the seasons. Such uncertainty in the crop model outputs makes the reliability of any seasonal yield forecasts or climate change impact assessments questionable if they are based on this type of data. The spatial assessment of the RG data uncertainty propagation over the winter wheat yields also revealed significant differences within the study area. We found that RG estimates based on diurnal temperature range or its combination with daily total precipitation produced a bias of to 30 per cent in the mean winter wheat grain yields in some regions compared with simulations in which RG values had been estimated using the Ĺngström-Prescott formula. In contrast to the results at the individual sites, the methods based on the diurnal temperature range in combination with daily precipitation totals showed significantly poorer performance than the methods based on the diurnal temperature range only. This was due to the marked increase in the bias in RG estimates with altitude, longitude or latitude of given region. These findings in our view should act as an incentive for further research to develop more precise and generally applicable methods for estimating daily RG based more on the underlying physical principles and/or the remote sensing approach.

Trnka, Miroslav; Eitzinger, Josef; Kapler, Pavel; Dubrovský, Martin; Semerádová, Daniela; Žalud, Zden ?k; Formayer, Herbert

2007-01-01

36

The Nature of Martian Dust Storms as Revealed by Long Term Daily Global Atmospheric Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Martian dust cycle is composed of dust lifting and transport events that span a very wide spectrum of temporal and spatial scales. The largest storm events occur with sufficiently low frequency that we are only beginning to be able to provide an observational baseline for these events after seven Martian years of roughly continuous global atmospheric imaging. Creation of daily global maps from Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and Wide Angle and Mars Color Imager (MARCI) images allows the occurrence, evolutionary pathway and development style of large dust storms to be examined in detail. For the period of observations with Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) or Mars Climate Sounder (MCS), we can also examine commensurate changes in atmospheric opacity, temperature and crudely track those in surface dust cover (for TES). These observations allow us to construct a "climatology" of large dust storms, which shows distinct families of dust storm types on the basis of the season and location of storm origin, replacing prior simplified descriptions of a single "dust storm season". We are also able to describe common transport and evolutionary pathways for storms, including very different behaviors of storms originating in the northern versus the southern mid- and high-latitudes. For some of the larger storms during Mars Years 24-26, we are also able to show how the storms modified the surface dust cover, and on what time scales and by what processes the surface dust distribution "recovers" to pre-storm conditions. The results from MOC and MARCI suggest that we have only just begun to collect enough data for a statistically-meaningful climatology of regional-scale storms, and that substantially longer time series would be needed to understanding the diversity and nature of the very largest, global-scale storms. A planned successor for MARCI is greatly needed for our prospects of adequately understanding these dust storm systems, not only for the current and past climate system dynamics, but also for the planning of future missions.

Wang, H.; Richardson, M. I.

2013-12-01

37

An adaptive method to derive direct irradiance from global , P. Blanc2  

E-print Network

An adaptive method to derive direct irradiance from global irradiance A. Oumbe1* , Z. Qu2 , P for Concentrated Solar Technology (CST) such as solar energy conversion systems: parabolic through, solar towers, parabolic dish or concentrated photovoltaic. Several global-to-direct irradiance conversion schemes

Boyer, Edmond

38

Validating a Satellite Microwave Remote Sensing Based Global Record of Daily Landscape Freeze-Thaw Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The freeze-thaw (FT) parameter from satellite microwave remote sensing quantifies the predominant landscape frozen or thawed state and is closely linked to surface energy budget and hydrologic activity, vegetation growth, terrestrial carbon budgets and land-atmosphere trace gas exchange. A global Earth System Data Record of daily landscape FT status (FT-ESDR) was developed using a temporal change classification of overlapping 37 GHz brightness temperature (Tb) series from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), and encompassing land areas where seasonal frozen temperatures influence ecosystem processes. A temporally consistent, long-term (>30 yr) FT record was created by ensuring cross-sensor consistency through pixel-wise adjustment of the SMMR Tb record based on empirical analyses of overlapping SMMR and SSM/I measurements. The FT-ESDR is designed to determine the FT status of the composite landscape vegetation-snow-soil medium with sufficient accuracy to characterize frozen temperature constraints to surface water mobility, vegetation productivity and land-atmosphere CO2 fluxes. A multi-tier validation scheme was applied using in situ temperature measurements, other satellite FT retrievals and synergistic biophysical data. These results are incorporated into the product metadata structure, including mean daily spatial classification accuracies and annual quality assessment (QA) maps accounting for landscape heterogeneity, algorithm limitations and sensor retrieval gaps. The resulting FT-ESDR shows mean annual spatial classification accuracies of 91 (+/-8.6) and 84 (+/-9.3) percent for PM and AM overpass retrievals. Accuracy is reduced during seasonal transition periods when FT heterogeneity is maximized within the relatively coarse (~25-km) satellite footprint. The QA rankings range from low (estimated accuracy <70%) to best (>90%) categories; mean annual QA results for the 1979-2011 period show relative proportions of the FT classification domain under Best (51%), Good (38%), Moderate (7%) and Low (4%) quality categories. Estimated FT-ESDR quality is reduced over complex terrain and dry climate areas where periodic wetting and drying strongly influence surface dielectric and Tb seasonal changes. These results are being used to inform development of an operational FT product for the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission. Portions of this work were conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Kimball, J. S.; Kim, Y.; McDonald, K. C.

2012-12-01

39

Daily ozone cycle in the stratosphere: global, regional and seasonal behaviour modelled with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) is utilised to study the daily ozone cycle and underlying photochemical and dynamical processes. The analysis is focused on the daily ozone cycle in the middle stratosphere at 5 hPa where satellite-based trend estimates of stratospheric ozone are most biased by diurnal sampling effects and drifting satellite orbits. The simulated ozone cycle shows a minimum after sunrise and a maximum in the late afternoon. Further, a seasonal variation of the daily ozone cycle in the stratosphere was found. Depending on season and latitude, the peak-to-valley difference of the daily ozone cycle varies mostly between 3-5% (0.4 ppmv) with respect to the midnight ozone volume mixing ratio. The maximal variation of 15% (0.8 ppmv) is found at the polar circle in summer. The global pattern of the strength of the daily ozone cycle is mainly governed by the solar zenith angle and the sunshine duration. In addition, we find synoptic scale variations in the strength of the daily ozone cycle. These variations are often anti-correlated to regional temperature anomalies and are due to the temperature dependence of the rate coefficients k2 and k3 of the Chapman cycle reactions. Further, the NOx catalytic cycle counteracts to the accumulation of ozone during daytime and leads to an anti-correlation between anomalies in NOx and the strength of the daily ozone cycle. Similarly, ozone recombines with atomic oxygen which leads to an anti-correlation between anomalies in ozone abundance and the strength of the daily ozone cycle. At higher latitudes, an increase of the westerly (easterly) wind cause a decrease (increase) in the sunshine duration of an air parcel leading to a weaker (stronger) daily ozone cycle.

Schanz, A.; Hocke, K.; Kämpfer, N.

2014-03-01

40

Daily ozone cycle in the stratosphere: global, regional and seasonal behaviour modelled with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) is utilised to study the daily ozone cycle and underlying photochemical and dynamical processes. The analysis is focused on the daily ozone cycle in the middle stratosphere at 5 hPa where satellite-based trend estimates of stratospheric ozone are most biased by diurnal sampling effects and drifting satellite orbits. The simulated ozone cycle shows a minimum after sunrise and a maximum in the late afternoon. Further, a seasonal variation of the daily ozone cycle in the stratosphere was found. Depending on season and latitude, the peak-to-valley difference of the daily ozone cycle varies mostly between 3 and 5% (0.4 ppmv) with respect to the midnight ozone volume mixing ratio. The maximal variation of 15% (0.8 ppmv) is found at the polar circle in summer. The global pattern of the strength of the daily ozone cycle is mainly governed by the solar zenith angle and the sunshine duration. In addition, we find synoptic-scale variations in the strength of the daily ozone cycle. These variations are often anti-correlated to regional temperature anomalies and are due to the temperature dependence of the rate coefficients k2 and k3 of the Chapman cycle reactions. Further, the NOx catalytic cycle counteracts the accumulation of ozone during daytime and leads to an anti-correlation between anomalies in NOx and the strength of the daily ozone cycle. Similarly, ozone recombines with atomic oxygen which leads to an anti-correlation between anomalies in ozone abundance and the strength of the daily ozone cycle. At higher latitudes, an increase of the westerly (easterly) wind cause a decrease (increase) in the sunshine duration of an air parcel leading to a weaker (stronger) daily ozone cycle.

Schanz, A.; Hocke, K.; Kämpfer, N.

2014-07-01

41

Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer.

Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.

2009-03-01

42

Artificial Neural Network models for estimating daily solar global UV, PAR and broadband radiant fluxes in an eastern Mediterranean site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, simple Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models for estimating daily solar global broadband as well as solar spectral global UV and PAR radiant fluxes have been established. The data used in this analysis are global ultraviolet UV (GUV), global photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD-QP), broadband global radiant flux (Gh), extraterrestrial radiant flux (G0), air temperature (T), relative humidity (rh), sunshine duration (n), theoretical sunshine duration (N), precipitable water (w) and ozone column density (O3). By using different combinations of the above variables as inputs, numerous ANN-models have been developed. For each model, the output is the daily global GUV, QP and Gh solar radiant fluxes. Firstly, a set of 2 × 365 point (2 years) has been used for training each network-model, whereas a set of 365 point (1 year) has been engaged for testing and validating the ANN-models. It has been found that the ANN-models' accuracy depends on the parameters employed as well as spectral range considered. Comparisons between proposed ANN-models and conventional regression models revealed that the results of both methods are statistically significant. On closer examination of many error measures, though, it is clear that the ANN-models perform better overall. From this point of view, it turned out that the neural network technique is better suited further suggesting that the ANN methodology is a promising and a more accurate tool for estimating both broadband and spectral radiant fluxes.

Jacovides, C. P.; Tymvios, F. S.; Boland, J.; Tsitouri, M.

2015-01-01

43

Assessment and management of interfractional variations in daily diagnostic-quality-CT guided prostate-bed irradiation after prostatectomy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To quantify interfractional anatomic variations and limitations of the current practice of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for prostate-bed patients and to study dosimetric benefits of an online adaptive replanning scheme that addresses the interfractional variations. Methods: Contours for the targets and organs at risk (OARs) from daily diagnostic-quality CTs acquired with in-room CT (CTVision, Siemens) were generated by populating the planning contours using an autosegmentation tool based on deformable registration (ABAS, Elekta) with manual editing for ten prostate-bed patients treated with postoperative daily CT-guided IMRT. Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) obtained by maximizing the overlap of contours for a structure between the daily and plan contours was used to quantify the organ deformation between the plan and daily CTs. Three interfractional-variation-correction schemes, the current standard practice of IGRT repositioning, a previously developed online adaptive RT (ART), and the full reoptimization, were applied to these daily CTs and a number of dose-volume quantities for the targets and organs at risk were compared for their effectiveness to account for the interfractional variations. Results: Large interfractional organ deformations in prostate-bed irradiation were seen. The mean DSCs for CTV, rectum, and bladder were 86.6 ± 5.1% (range from 61% to 97%), 77.3% ± 7.4% (range from 55% to 90%), and 75.4% ± 11.2% (range from 46% to 96%), respectively. The fractional and cumulative dose-volume quantities for CTV and PTV: V100 (volume received at least 100% prescription dose), and rectum and bladder: V{sub 45Gy} and V{sub 60Gy} (volume received at least 45 or 60 Gy), were compared for the repositioning, adaptive, reoptimization, and original plans. The fractional and cumulative dosimetric results were nearly the same. The average cumulative CTV V100 were 88.0%, 98.4%, 99.2%, and 99.3% for the IGRT, ART, reoptimization, and original plans, respectively. The corresponding rectal V{sub 45Gy} (V{sub 60Gy}) were 58.7% (27.3%), 48.1% (20.7%), 43.8% (16.1%), and 44.9% (16.8%). The results for bladder were comparable among three schemes. Paired two-tailed Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were performed and it was found that ART and reoptimization provide better target coverage and better OAR sparing, especially rectum sparing. Conclusions: The interfractional organ motions and deformations during prostate-bed irradiation are significant. The online adaptive replanning scheme is capable of effectively addressing the large organ deformation, resulting in cumulative doses equivalent to those originally planned.

Liu, Feng; Ahunbay, Ergun; Lawton, Colleen; Allen Li, X., E-mail: ali@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States)

2014-03-15

44

Control of continuous irradiation injury on potatoes with daily temperature cycling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two controlled-environment experiments were conducted to determine the effects of temperature fluctuations under continuous irradiation on growth and tuberization of two potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars, Kennebec and Superior. These cultivars had exhibited chlorotic and stunted growth under continuous irradiation and constant temperatures. The plants were grown for 4 weeks in the first experiment and for 6 weeks in the second experiment. Each experiment was conducted under continuous irradiation of 400 micromoles per square meter per second of photosynthetic photon flux and included two temperature treatments: constant 18 degrees C and fluctuating 22 degrees C/14 degrees C on a 12-hour cycle. A common vapor pressure deficit of 0.62 kilopascal was maintained at all temperatures. Plants under constant 18 degrees C were stunted and had chlorotic and abscised leaves and essentially no tuber formation. Plants grown under the fluctuating temperature treatment developed normally, were developing tubers, and had a fivefold or greater total dry weight as compared with those under the constant temperature. These results suggest that a thermoperiod can allow normal plant growth and tuberization in potato cultivars that are unable to develop effectively under continuous irradiation.

Tibbitts, T. W.; Bennett, S. M.; Cao, W.

1990-01-01

45

The calculated influence of atmospheric conditions on solar cell ISC under direct and global solar irradiances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calculations of the influence of atmospheric conditions on solar cell short-circuit current (Isc) are made using a recently developed computer model for solar spectral irradiance distribution. The results isolate the dependence of Isc on changes in the spectral irradiance distribution without the direct influence of the total irradiance level. The calculated direct normal irradiance and percent diffuse irradiance are given as a reference to indicate the expected irradiance levels. This method can be applied to the calibration of photovoltaic reference cells. Graphic examples are provided for amorphous silicon and monocrystalline silicon solar cells under direct normal and global normal solar irradiances.

Mueller, Robert L.

1987-01-01

46

A Global Record of Daily Landscape Freeze-Thaw Status from Satellite Microwave Remote Sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The freeze-thaw (FT) parameter from satellite microwave remote sensing quantifies the predominant landscape frozen or thawed state and is closely linked to surface energy budget and hydrologic activity, seasonal vegetation growth dynamics and terrestrial carbon budgets. A global Earth System Data Record (ESDR) of daily landscape FT status (FT-ESDR) was developed using a temporal change classification of 37 GHz brightness temperature (Tb) series from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), and encompassing land areas where seasonal frozen temperatures influence ecosystem processes. A consistent, long-term (>30 yr) FT record was created by ensuring cross-sensor consistency through pixel-wise adjustment of the SMMR Tb record based on empirical analyses of overlapping SMMR and SSM/I measurements. The product is designed to determine the FT status of the composite landscape vegetation-snow-soil medium with sufficient accuracy to characterize frozen temperature constraints to surface water mobility, vegetation productivity and land-atmosphere CO2 fluxes. A multi-tier product validation is applied using in situ temperature and tower carbon flux measurements, and other satellite FT retrievals. The FT-ESDR record shows mean annual spatial classification accuracies of 91 (+/-8.6) and 84 (+/-9.3) percent for PM and AM overpass retrievals relative to surface air temperature measurements from global weather stations. Other comparisons against spatially dense temperature observations from an Alaska ecological transect reveal satellite sensor frequency dependence and variable FT sensitivity to surface air, vegetation, soil and snow properties. Other satellite sensor retrievals, including AMSR-E and SMOS show similar FT classification accuracies, but variable sensitivity to different landscape elements. Sensor FT classification differences reflect differences in microwave frequency, footprint resolution and satellite overpass timing. Herein we discuss FT-ESDR uncertainty issues, including satellite retrieval gaps, and coarse spatial and temporal sampling relative to landscape FT heterogeneity. We discuss plans for analyzing error sources related to FT-ESDR assembly, including uncertainties associated with remote sensing data, algorithms and cross-product harmonization. We also discuss plans for enhanced FT retrievals and uncertainty analyses, including data assimilation methods for merging synergistic data from multiple sensors and frequencies for improved FT classification accuracy and uncertainty assessment. The FT-ESDR documentation will include a detailed algorithm error budget and descriptions of associated product uncertainties, including detailed data quality flags for every grid cell. These activities support the proposed NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, which will provide operational FT products with L-band sensitivity and improved resolution of FT patterns and temporal dynamics. Portions of this work were conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Kimball, J. S.; Kim, Y.; Colliander, A.; McDonald, K. C.

2011-12-01

47

Optimal Normal Tissue Sparing in Craniospinal Axis Irradiation Using IMRT With Daily Intrafractionally Modulated Junction(s)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To develop a treatment technique for craniospinal irradiation using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with improved dose homogeneity at the field junction(s), increased target volume conformity, and minimized dose to the organs at risk (OARs). Methods and Materials: Five patients with high-risk medulloblastoma underwent CT simulation in supine position. For each patient, an IMRT plan with daily intrafractionally modulated junction(s) was generated, as well as a treatment plan based on conventional three-dimensional planning (3DCRT). A dose of 39.6 Gy in 22 daily fractions of 1.8 Gy was prescribed. Dose-volume parameters for target volumes and OARs were compared for the two techniques. Results: The maximum dose with IMRT was <107% in all patients. V{sub <95} and V{sub >107} were <1 cm{sup 3} for IMRT compared with 3-9 cm{sup 3} for the craniospinal and 26-43 cm{sup 3} for the spinal-spinal junction with 3DCRT. These observations corresponded with a lower homogeneity index and a higher conformity index for the spinal planning target volume with IMRT. IMRT provided considerable sparing of acute and late reacting tissues. V{sub 75} for the esophagus, gastroesophageal junction, and intestine was 81%, 81%, and 22% with 3DCRT versus 5%, 0%, and 1% with IMRT, respectively. V{sub 75} for the heart and thyroid was 42% and 32% vs. 0% with IMRT. Conclusion: IMRT with daily intrafractionally modulated junction results in a superior target coverage and junction homogeneity compared with 3DCRT. A significant dose reduction can be obtained for acute as well as late-reacting tissues.

Kusters, Johannes M.A.M.; Louwe, Rob J.W.; Kollenburg, Peter G.M. van; Kunze-Busch, Martina C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Gidding, Corrie E.M. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lindert, Erik J. van [Department of Neurosurgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Janssens, Geert O.R.J., E-mail: g.janssens@rther.umcn.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

2011-12-01

48

A general model for estimation of daily global solar radiation using air temperatures and site geographic parameters in Southwest China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimation of daily global solar radiation (Rs) from routinely measured temperature data has been widely developed and used in many different areas of the world. However, many of them are site specific. It is assumed that a general model for estimating daily Rs using temperature variables and geographical parameters could be achieved within a climatic region. This paper made an attempt to develop a general model to estimate daily Rs using routinely measured temperature data (maximum (Tmax, °C) and minimum (Tmin, °C) temperatures) and site geographical parameters (latitude (La, °N), longitude (Ld, °E) and altitude (Alt, m)) for Guizhou and Sichuan basin of southwest China, which was classified into the hot summer and cold winter climate zone. Comparison analysis was carried out through statistics indicators such as root mean squared error of percentage (RMSE%), modeling efficiency (ME), coefficient of residual mass (CRM) and mean bias error (MBE). Site-dependent daily Rs estimating models were calibrated and validated using long-term observed weather data. A general formula was then obtained from site geographical parameters and the better fit site-dependent models with mean RMSE% of 38.68%, mean MBE of 0.381 MJ m-2 d-1, mean CRM of 0.04 and mean ME value of 0.713.

Li, Mao-Fen; Fan, Li; Liu, Hong-Bin; Guo, Peng-Tao; Wu, Wei

2013-01-01

49

Accelerated partial breast irradiation using once-daily fractionation: analysis of 312 cases with four years median follow-up  

PubMed Central

Background There are limited data on accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using external beam techniques. Moreover, there are recent reports of increased fibrosis and unacceptable cosmesis with APBI using external beam with BID fractionation. We adopted a once daily regimen of APBI with fractionation similar to that shown to be effective in a Canadian randomized trial of whole breast irradiation. It is unclear whether patients with DCIS or invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) are suitable for APBI. Methods The retrospective cohort included 310 patients with 312 tumors of T1-T2N0-N1micM0 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), ILC, or Tis (DCIS) treated with APBI via external beam. Most patients were treated using IMRT with 16 daily fractions of 270 cGy to a dose of 4320 cGy. The target volume included the lumpectomy cavity plus 1.0 cm to account for microscopic disease and an additional 0.5 to 1.0 cm for setup uncertainty and breathing motion. Ipsilateral breast failure (IBF) was pathologically confirmed as a local failure (LF) or an elsewhere failure (EF). Results Median follow-up was 49 months. Among the 312 cases, 213 were IDC, 31 ILC, and 68 DCIS. Median tumor size was 1.0 cm. There were 9 IBFs (2.9%) including 5 LFs and 4 EFs. The IBF rates among patients with IDC, ILC, and DCIS were 2.4%, 3.2%, and 4.4%, respectively, with no significant difference between histologies. When patients were analyzed by the ASTRO APBI consensus statement risk groups, 32% of treated cases were considered suitable, 50% cautionary, and 18% unsuitable. The IBF rates among suitable, cautionary, and unsuitable patients were 4.0%, 2.6%, and 1.8%, respectively, with no significant difference between risk groups. Acute skin reactions were rare and long-term cosmetic outcome was very good to excellent. Conclusions External beam APBI with once daily fractionation has a low rate of IBF consistent with other published APBI studies. The ASTRO risk stratification did not differentiate a subset of patients with a higher rate of IBF. APBI may be an appropriate treatment for women with DCIS and ILC. PMID:22309790

2012-01-01

50

Daily global maps of carbon monoxide from NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first observations of tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard NASA's Aqua satellite. AIRS daily coverage of ~70% of the planet represents a significant evolutionary advance in satellite trace gas remote sensing. Tropospheric CO abundances are retrieved from AIRS 4.55 mum spectral region using the full AIRS retrieval algorithm run in a research

W. W. McMillan; C. Barnet; L. Strow; M. T. Chahine; M. L. McCourt; J. X. Warner; P. C. Novelli; S. Korontzi; E. S. Maddy; S. Datta

2005-01-01

51

Daily global maps of carbon monoxide from NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first observations of tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard NASA's Aqua satellite. AIRS daily coverage of ?70% of the planet represents a significant evolutionary advance in satellite trace gas remote sensing. Tropospheric CO abundances are retrieved from AIRS 4.55 ?m spectral region using the full AIRS retrieval algorithm run in a research

W. W. McMillan; C. Barnet; L. Strow; M. T. Chahine; M. L. McCourt; J. X. Warner; P. C. Novelli; S. Korontzi; E. S. Maddy; S. Datta

2005-01-01

52

Global Horizontal Irradiance Anomalies in Long Term Series Over India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India has a high potential for solar energy applications due to its geographic position within the Sun Belt and the large number of cloudless days in many regions of the country. However, certain regions of India, particularly those largely populated, can exhibit large aerosol loading in the atmosphere as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions that could have a negative feedback in the solar resource potential. This effect, named as solar dimming, has already been observed in India, and in some other regions in the world, by some authors using ground data from the last two decades. The recent interest in the promotion of solar energy applications in India highlights the need of extending and improving the knowledge of the solar radiation resources in this country, since most of the long term measurements available correspond to global horizontal radiation (GHI) and most of them are also located big cities or highly populated areas. In addition, accurate knowledge on the aerosol column quantification and on its dynamical behavior with high spatial resolution is particularly important in the case of India, due to their impact on direct normal irradiation. Long term studies of solar irradiation over India can be performed using monthly means of GHI measurements from the Indian Meteorological Department. Ground data are available from 1964 till today through the World Radiation Data Centre that publish these values in the web. This work shows a long term analysis of GHI using anomalies techniques over ten different sites over India. Besides, techniques of linear trends have been applied for to show the evolution over this period. The analysis of anomalies has also found two periods of different behavior. From 1964 till 1988 the anomalies observed were positive and the last 20 years seems to be a period of negative anomalies. The results exhibit a decreasing trend and negative anomalies confirming thus the darkening effect already reported by solar dimming studies. This observation is also consequent with solar dimming effect, apparently increased during the last two decades due to the increase of aerosol loading in the atmosphere. These results remark the important of having accurate knowledge of atmospheric aerosol loading and its dynamics over India with high spatial resolution in the framework of solar energy deployment in the country. It is worth to mention that greater anomalies and a noticeable decreasing trend found in Calcutta could be correlated with the highly population rate, and thus the greater the population density of the area the greater the negative anomalies and the decreasing trend of solar irradiation monthly means.

Cony, Marco; Liria, Juan; Weisenberg, Ralf; Serrano, Enrique

2014-05-01

53

Global observed changes in daily climate extremes of temperature and precipitation  

E-print Network

-to-date and comprehensive global picture of trends in extreme temperature and precipitation indices using results from Zealand. 12 Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, UK. 13 Climate Change Research Group, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarrag

Klein Tank, Albert

54

33 Years of Near-Global Daily Precipitation from Multisatellite Observations and its Application to Drought Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PERSIANN Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR) is a new retrospective satellite-based precipitation data set that is constructed for long-term hydrological and climate studies. The PERSIANN-CDR is a near-global (60°S-60°N) long-term (1980-2012), multi-satellite, high-resolution precipitation product that provides rain rate estimates at 0.25° and daily spatiotemporal resolution. PERSIANN-CDR is aimed at addressing the need for a consistent, long-term, high resolution precipitation data set for studying the spatial and temporal variations and changes of precipitation patterns, particularly in a scale relevant to climate extremes at the global scale. PERSIANN-CDR is generated from the PERSIANN algorithm using GridSat-B1 infrared data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). PERSIANN-CDR is adjusted using the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly precipitation to maintain consistency of two data sets at 2.5° monthly scale throughout the entire reconstruction period. PERSIANN-CDR daily precipitation data demonstrates considerable consistency with both GPCP monthly and GPCP 1DD precipitation products. Verification studies over Hurricane Katrina show that PERSIANN-CDR has a good agreement with NCEP Stage IV radar data, noting that PERSIANN-CDR has better spatial coverage. In addition, the Probability Density Function (PDF) of PERSIANN-CDR over the contiguous United States was compared with the PDFs extracted from CPC gauge data and the TMPA precipitation product. The experiment also shows good agreement of the PDF of PERSIANN-CDR with the PDFs of TMPA and CPC gauge data. The application of PERSIANN-CDR in regional and global drought monitoring is investigated. Consisting of more than three decades of high-resolution precipitation data, PERSIANN-CDR makes us capable of long-term assessment of droughts at a higher resolution (0.25°) than previously possible. The results will be presented at the meeting.

Ashouri, H.; Hsu, K.; Sorooshian, S.; Braithwaite, D.; Knapp, K. R.; Cecil, L. D.

2013-12-01

55

Daily spectral energy conversions of the global circulation during 10-27 January 1979  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modified version of ECMWF Level III-b analyses is used to examine the energetics of the daily low and middle latitude wave activity that occurred over the globe during part of FGGE. The results indicate that the eddy available potential is increased by sensible heat transport down the temperature gradient at all wavenumbers; it is immediately converted to eddy kinetic energy through warmer air rising and/or colder air sinking. In the present study, particular attention is given to Southern Hemispheric energetics.

Huang, Huo-Jin; Vincent, Dayton G.

1988-01-01

56

Numerical computations of diffuse fraction of global irradiance on an hourly basis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar Energy is the feedstock for various applications of renewable energy sources, thus, the necessity of using global tilted irradiance is acknowledged for the computations of the performance and monitoring of PV Parks and solar energy applications. In general, global tilted irradiance is computed as the sum of the beam component of direct irradiation on the tilted surface, diffuse tilted and reflected irradiance. These three components can be computed using only the values of Global horizontal and diffuse irradiance. However, although for some locations both global and diffuse irradiance are measured, in most locations, the data comprise measurements of only global horizontal irradiance, either measured on-site or determined from satellite data. This research is based on a numerical analysis and the development of empirical correlations for the computation of the hourly diffuse fraction, based on the measurements of the clearness index. The solar altitude is included as a parameter in the computations in order to reduce the error in the computations, since it embraces the effect of the different time and date in the computations. The derived numerical equations are presented in terms of the solar altitude in steps of 5 degrees and are validated using data from the meteorological station of Athalassa, Cyprus, for a ten year period (2001-2010). The statistical analysis from the comparison (in terms of R-squared and RMSE) showed better results for higher elevation angles, compared to the lower elevation angles that represent the early morning or late afternoon times.

Tapakis, Rogiros; Charalambides, Alexandros G.; Michaelides, Silas

2014-05-01

57

A simplified calibrated model for estimating daily global solar radiation in Madinah, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation is the most important parameter in defining the energy budget at the surface thereby influencing the hydroclimate. Several empirical models based on air temperature are developed and used in several decision-making needs such as agriculture and energy sector. However, a calibration against direct observations is a priori for implementing such models. A calibrated model is developed for Saudi Arabia (Madinah) based on observations during 2007-2011. The model is used to estimate daily solar radiation and results show a correlation coefficient of 0.94. The calibrated model outperforms the uncalibrated model available for this location. To increase the confidence, the calibrated model is also compared with a simple artificial neural network.

Benghanem, M.; Mellit, A.

2014-01-01

58

A New Perspective on Recent Global Warming: Asymmetric Trends of Daily Maximum and Minimum Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monthly mean maximum and minimum temperatures for over 50% (10%) of the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere landmass, accounting for 37% of the global landmass, indicate that the rise of the minimum temperature has occurred at a rate three times that of the maximum temperature during the period 1951-90 (0.84°C versus 0.28°C). The decrease of the diurnal temperature range is approximately equal

Philip D. Jones; Richard W. Knight; George Kukla; Neil Plummer; Vyacheslav Razuvayev; Kevin P. Gallo; Janette Lindseay; Robert J. Charlson; Thomas C. Peterson

1993-01-01

59

Daily estimates of the earth's pole position with the Global Positioning System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Daily estimates of the earth's pole position have been obtained with measurements from a worldwide network of GPS receivers, obtained during the three week GIG '91 experiment in January-February 1991. For this short-term study, the GPS based polar motion series agrees with the other space based geodetic techniques (Very Long Baseline Interferometry and Satellite Laser Ranging) to about 0.4 mas rms, after the removal of mean biases of order 1-3 mas. The small error in day-to-day variability is not sensitive to the fiducial strategy used, nor are fiducial sites even necessary for monitoring high frequency pole position variability. The small biases indicate that the applied reference frames of the three geodetic techniques are nearly aligned, that the GPS fiducial errors are small, and that systematic errors in GPS are also small (of order 5 ppb). A well determined reference frame is necessary for monitoring the long-term stability of polar motion and for separating it from other long-term signals such as tectonic motion and internal systematic errors.

Lindqwister, Ulf J.; Freedman, Adam P.; Blewitt, Geoffrey

1992-01-01

60

Sub-daily periodicities in the results of local monitoring using global navigation satellite systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays the more attention is focused on the continuous monitoring by using of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) in the study and control of stability of engineering structures and natural objects. The diurnal and semi-diurnal oscillations take place in high frequency GNSS observation. These waves are caused by the presence of the high frequency periodicities in changes of all geospheres, but also in systematic errors of GNSS techniques. Thus the diurnal variations are already found in the coordinates of global and regional networks of CORS stations. They are often related with the influence of Earth's diurnal tides. The purpose of this study is to examine the periodic variations in coordinate increments of local monitoring networks of engineering structures and the earth's surface. But in this case the tidal changes have a small influence because of the relative proximity of the network control points. Results of static GNSS observations in the local network with the control vectors baselines from 170 m to 4.3 km of length were used for the analysis of periodicities. The hourly time series of baseline components of the length of two months were analyzed. Three qualitatively different methods were applied: wavelet transformation (Morlet wavelet function), fast Fourier transformation (FFT), and sequential analysis of the dominant harmonics (dominant analysis) for the more sure detection of hidden periodicities. The results of determination of oscillation spectrum were obtained by the three methods mentioned above. For all baselines their good mutual agreement were obtained. Diurnal and semi-diurnal waves are mainly and the most vividly appeared in the horizontal components, in the height’s component there are also other periodicity of the high and low frequencies. The oscillation’s amplitude reaches 4 mm. It is necessary to clarify the nature of the observed oscillations, which will be the main subject of the following more detailed studies. It is important, since the cause of the detected periodic oscillations can be the real changes, such as temperature deformation of engineering structures as well as the changes connected with the influence of systematic errors of GNSS measurements for example. The obtained results lead to the following conclusions. - In the results of GNSS geodynamic monitoring of engineering structures and objects on the earth surface the stable oscillatory components with periods of 1 and 0.5 days, and amplitudes up to 4 mm are found. - Further analysis of the reasons of identified oscillations that may be caused by the real change of monitored objects and as well as systematic errors of measurement GNSS is required.

Kaftan, Vladimir; Ustinov, Alexander

61

Evaluation of an innovative sensor for measuring global and diffuse irradiance, and sunshine duration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Delta-T Device Limited of Cambridge, UK have developed an integrated device which enables simultaneous measurement of horizontal global and diffuse irradiance as well as sunshine status at any given instance in time. To evaluate the performance of this new device, horizontal global and diffuse irradiance data were simultaneously collected from Delta-T device and Napier University's CIE First Class daylight monitoring station. To enable a cross check a Kipp & Zonen CM11 global irradiance sensor has also been installed in Currie, south-west Edinburgh. Sunshine duration data have been recorded at the Royal Botanical Garden, Edinburgh using their Campbell-Stokes recorder. Hourly data sets were analysed and plotted within the Microsoft Excel environment. Using the common statistical measures, Root Mean Square Difference (RMSD) and Mean Bias Difference (MBD) the accuracy of measurements of Delta-T sensor's horizontal global and diffuse irradiance, and sunshine duration were investigated. The results show a good performance on the part of Delta-T device for the measurement of global and diffuse irradiance. The sunshine measurements were found to have a lack of consistency and accuracy. It is argued herein that the distance between the respective sensors and the poor accuracy of Campbell-Stokes recorder may be contributing factors to this phenomenon.

Muneer, Tariq; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wood, John

2002-03-01

62

Validation of models for global irradiance on inclined planes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy of models to estimate irradiance on inclined planes is tested by comparing the predictions to measurements taken with four instruments of various tilt and azimuth angles in Sede Boqer, Israel. The three models investigated are: the Perez model, Hay's anisotropic model, and the isotropic model. The Perez model is found to perform significantly better than the other two,

D. Feuremann; A. Zemel

1992-01-01

63

Global calibration of terrestrial reference cells and errors involved in using different irradiance monitoring techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of global calibration of terrestrial reference cells is discussed. A simple, accurate 'secondary' calibration technique based on ratios of test to reference cell currents measured in natural sunlight is described. Different techniques for monitoring incident irradiance during solar cell performance measurements are also examined and assessed, including the techniques of black-body detectors, calibrated reference cells, and the convolution of spectral response with solar irradiance.

Curtis, H. B.

1980-01-01

64

Global and diffuse shortwave irradiance during a strong desert dust episode at Granada (Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies the influence of a strong Saharan dust event on diffuse and global (direct + diffuse) shortwave irradiance (0.305 to 2.800 ?m) recorded at Granada (South Spain) during 6 September 2007. The contribution of coarse mineral dust particles to the aerosol load was evidenced from the large aerosol optical depth (AOD, between 0.8 and 1.5) and the small Angström exponent (between 0.1 and 0.25) values recorded by a sun-photometer. Global irradiance on 6 September decreased about 20% compared to low-aerosol load days, while diffuse irradiance increased 200-400% around solar noon. On that day, the diffuse component was nearly 60% of the global irradiance at 12:00 UTC and therefore the direct component was substantially reduced. The aerosol forcing efficiency (radiative forcing per unit of AOD) during this strong event was higher than most of the desert dust forcing efficiencies reported in the literature; an increase of one unit in the AOD at 440 nm led to a decrease in global solar irradiance at the surface of 123 W/m2. Additionally, low values of the single scattering albedo at 440 nm (mean value 0.90 ± 0.2) in relation to pure desert dust episodes were indicative of absorbing anthropogenic particles from the European and Mediterranean regions.

Antón, M.; Valenzuela, A.; Cazorla, A.; Gil, J. E.; Fernández-Gálvez, J.; Lyamani, H.; Foyo-Moreno, I.; Olmo, F. J.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

2012-11-01

65

Simulation Study of Effects of Solar Irradiance and Sea Surface Temperature on Monsoons and Global Circulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A recent version of the GEOS 2 GCM was used to isolate the roles of the annual cycles of solar irradiation and/or sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) on the simulated circulation and rainfall. Four 4-year long integrations were generated with the GCM. The first integration, called Control Case, used daily-interpolated SSTs from a 30 year monthly SST climatology that was obtained from the analyzed SST-data, while the solar irradiation at the top of the atmosphere was calculated normally at hourly intervals. The next two cases prescribed the SSTs or the incoming solar irradiance at the top of the atmosphere at their annual mean values, respectively while everything else was kept the same as in the Control Case. In this way the influence of the annual cycles of both external forcings was isolated.

Sud, Y. C.; Walker, G. K.; Mehta, V.; Lau, W. K.-M.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

66

Time-Course Study of Different Innate Immune Mediators Produced by Ultraviolet-Irradiated Skin. Comparative Effects of Short and Daily versus a Single Harmful UV Exposure.  

PubMed

The modulatory effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on the immune system have been widely studied. As the skin is the main target of UVR, our purpose was to compare the impact of two contrasting ways to be exposed to sunlight on the skin innate immunity. Hairless mice were UV irradiated with a single high UV dose (shUVd) simulating a harmful exposure, or with repetitive low UV doses (rlUVd) simulating short occasional daily exposures. Skin samples were taken at different times post-UV irradiation to evaluate skin histology, inflammatory cell recruitment, epidermal T cell population and the mitochondrial function of epidermal cells. The transcriptional profiles of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, antimicrobial peptides and TLRs were evaluated by RT-PCR and ELISA in tissue homogenates. Finally, a lymphangiography was performed to assess modification in the lymphatic vessel system. A shUVd produces a deep inflammatory state characterized by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that, in turn, induces the recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages into the irradiated area. On the other hand, rlUVd drive the skin to a photo-induced alert state in which there is no sign of inflammation, but the epithelium undergoes changes in thickness, the lymphatic circulation increases, and the transcription of antimicrobial peptides is induced. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25438991

Cela, E M; Friedrich, A; Paz, M L; Vanzulli, S I; Leoni, J; González Maglio, D H

2014-11-28

67

Splenic irradiation in the treatment of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia or myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia. Results of daily and intermittent fractionation with and without concomitant hydroxyurea  

SciTech Connect

Seventeen patients with either chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) or myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MMM) received 24 courses of splenic irradiation at this institution from 1973 to 1982. Eleven of the 17 patients had received prior chemotherapy. Patients were treated with /sup 60/Co gamma rays or 6 MV photons. The fraction size ranged from 15 to 100 rad and the total dose per treatment course from 15 to 650 rad, with the exception of one patient who received 1650 rad. Fourteen of 19 courses (71%) given for splenic pain yielded significant subjective relief while 17 of 26 courses given for splenomegaly obtained at least 50% regression of splenic size. Blood counts were carefully monitored before each treatment to limit hematologic toxicity. From this experience, the authors conclude that splenic irradiation effectively palliates splenic pain and reverses splenomegaly in the majority of patients with CML and MMM. Intermittent fractionation (twice or thrice weekly) is more convenient for the patient, appears to be as effective as daily treatment, and may be associated with less hematologic toxicity. Preliminary results of concurrent treatment with splenic irradiation and oral hydroxyurea show promise and warrant further study.

Wagner, H. Jr.; McKeough, P.G.; Desforges, J.; Madoc-Jones, H.

1986-09-15

68

Three-year outcomes of a once daily fractionation scheme for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using 3-D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT)  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to report 3-year outcomes of toxicity, cosmesis, and local control using a once daily fractionation scheme (49.95 Gy in 3.33 Gy once daily fractions) for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Between July 2008 and August 2010, women aged ?40 years with ductal carcinoma in situ or node-negative invasive breast cancer ?3 cm in diameter, treated with breast-conserving surgery achieving negative margins, were accrued to a prospective study. Women were treated with APBI using 3–5 photon beams, delivering 49.95 Gy over 15 once daily fractions over 3 weeks. Patients were assessed for toxicities, cosmesis, and local control rates before APBI and at specified time points. Thirty-four patients (mean age 60 years) with Tis 0 (n = 9) and T1N0 (n = 25) breast cancer were treated and followed up for an average of 39 months. Only 3% (1/34) patients experienced a grade 3 subcutaneous fibrosis and breast edema and 97% of the patients had good/excellent cosmetic outcome at 3 years. The 3-year rate of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) was 0% while the rate of contralateral breast events was 6%. The 3-year disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) was 94%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Our novel accelerated partial breast fractionation scheme of 15 once daily fractions of 3.33 Gy (49.95 Gy total) is a remarkably well-tolerated regimen of 3D-CRT-based APBI. A larger cohort of patients is needed to further ascertain the toxicity of this accelerated partial breast regimen. PMID:24403270

Goyal, Sharad; Daroui, Parima; Khan, Atif J; Kearney, Thomas; Kirstein, Laurie; Haffty, Bruce G

2013-01-01

69

Three-year outcomes of a once daily fractionation scheme for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using 3-D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to report 3-year outcomes of toxicity, cosmesis, and local control using a once daily fractionation scheme (49.95 Gy in 3.33 Gy once daily fractions) for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Between July 2008 and August 2010, women aged ?40 years with ductal carcinoma in situ or node-negative invasive breast cancer ?3 cm in diameter, treated with breast-conserving surgery achieving negative margins, were accrued to a prospective study. Women were treated with APBI using 3-5 photon beams, delivering 49.95 Gy over 15 once daily fractions over 3 weeks. Patients were assessed for toxicities, cosmesis, and local control rates before APBI and at specified time points. Thirty-four patients (mean age 60 years) with Tis 0 (n = 9) and T1N0 (n = 25) breast cancer were treated and followed up for an average of 39 months. Only 3% (1/34) patients experienced a grade 3 subcutaneous fibrosis and breast edema and 97% of the patients had good/excellent cosmetic outcome at 3 years. The 3-year rate of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) was 0% while the rate of contralateral breast events was 6%. The 3-year disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) was 94%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Our novel accelerated partial breast fractionation scheme of 15 once daily fractions of 3.33 Gy (49.95 Gy total) is a remarkably well-tolerated regimen of 3D-CRT-based APBI. A larger cohort of patients is needed to further ascertain the toxicity of this accelerated partial breast regimen. PMID:24403270

Goyal, Sharad; Daroui, Parima; Khan, Atif J; Kearney, Thomas; Kirstein, Laurie; Haffty, Bruce G

2013-12-01

70

Irradiance Variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the solar interior emerges magnetic flux that alters the Sun's electromagnetic radiation, producing irradiance variability on a wide range of time scales. The organization, outward extension and expansion of magnetic fields structure the solar atmosphere and cause the entire electromagnetic spectrum to vary in different ways, depending on wavelength. Surface magnetic fields produce variations in near UV, visible and near IR spectra which emerge from the photosphere, and comprise the bulk of total irradiance. Yet the correlation of daily total irradiance and total magnetic field strength is poor; rather, the net effect of two different magnetic features - dark sunspots and bright faculae - better account for the variations observed in total irradiance during the solar cycle. The relationship of UV irradiance with magnetic flux is more direct since bright active regions control the global variations in both these quantities. Connecting X-ray and short wavelength EUV irradiance variations to the solar interior requires the extrapolation of emerging surface magnetic fields to the corona and assumptions about the relationship of their strengths and topologies with coronal pressure. Knowledge of the emergence, evolution, transport and decay of magnetic flux is thus a key to understanding and forecasting solar irradiance variability at all wavelengths. Identification of sizeable magnetic regions on the side of the Sun far from Earth may enable EUV and X-ray irradiance forecasts and subsequent space weather effects on time scales of days to weeks. On multi-decadal time scales improved knowledge of the sub surface dynamo and surface transport processes may help constrain secular solar irradiance evolution, needed for climate change attribution. Also needed is quantification of the association between the closed flux that controls irradiance variability and the open flux that extends into the heliosphere. Although utilized frequently to infer irradiance variability, proxies of long-term solar activity in tree-rings and ice-cores actually reflect heliospheric modulation of galactic cosmic rays. Funded by NASA and ONR.

Lean, J. L.

2003-05-01

71

Measures of daily distribution patterns of cow calf pairs using global positioning systems on both cows and calves  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

GPS collars were used to describe the daily distribution patterns of cows and their calves from 18 to 60 days postpartum on pinyon juniper-shortgrass rangeland in central New Mexico. Eighteen, 3 year old cows and their calves were fitted weekly with GPS collars for seven consecutive weeks. Twenty da...

72

Quantitative Assessment of the Integrated Response in Global Heat and Moisture Budgets to Changing Solar Irradiance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earlier, we found time sequences of basin- and global-average upper ocean temperature (that is, diabatic heat storage above the main pycnocline) for 40 years from 1955-1994 and of sea surface temperature for 95 years from 1900-1994 associated with changes in the Sun's radiative forcing on decadal and interdecadal timescales, lagging by 10 deg.- 30 deg. of phase and confined to the upper 60-120 m. Yet, the observed changes in upper ocean temperature (approx. 0.1 K) were approximately twice those expected from the Stefan-Boltzmann black-body radiation law for the Earth's surface, with phase lags (0 deg. to 30 deg. of phase) much shorter than the 90 deg. phase shift expected as well. Moreover, White et al. (1997, 1998) found the Earth's global decadal mode in covarying SST and SLP anomalies phase locked to the decadal signal in the Sun's irradiance. Yet, Allan (2000) found this decadal signal also characterized by patterns similar to those observed on biennial and interannual time scales; that is, the Troposphere Biennial Oscillation (TBO) and the El Nino and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This suggested that small changes in the Sun's total irradiance could excite this global decadal mode in the Earth's ocean-atmosphere-terrestrial system similar to those excited internally on biennial and interannual period scales. This is a significant finding, proving that energy budget models (that is, models based on globally-averaged radiation balances) yield unrealistic responses. Thus, the true response must include positive and negative feedbacks in the Earth's ocean-atmosphere-terrestrial system as its internal mode (that is, the natural mode of the system) respond in damped resonance to quasi-periodic decadal changes in the Sun's irradiance. Moreover, these responses are not much different from those occurring internally on biennial and interannual period scales.

White, Warren B.; Cayan, Daniel R.; Dettinger, Michael; Sharber, James (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

73

Solar total irradiance variations and the global sea surface temperature record  

SciTech Connect

The record of globally averaged sea surface temperature (SST) over the past 130 years shows a highly significant correlation with the envelope of the 11-year cycle of solar activity over the same period. This correlation could be explained by a variation in the sun's total irradiance (the solar constant) that is in phase with the solar-cycle envelope, supporting and updating an earlier conclusion by Eddy (1976) that such variations could have played a major role in climate change over the past millennium. Measurements of the total irradiance from spacecraft, rockets, and balloons over the past 25 years have provided evidence of long-term variations and have been used to develop a simple linear relationship between irradiance and the envelope of the sunspot cycle. This relationship has been used to force a one-dimensional model of the thermal structure of the ocean, consisting of a 100-m mixed layer coupled to a deep ocean and including a thermohaline circulation. The model was started in the mid-seventeenth century, at the time of the Maunder Minimum of solar activity, and mixed-layer temperatures were calculated at 6-month intervals up to the present. The total range of irradiance values during the period was about 1%, and the total range of SST was about 1C. Cool periods, when temperatures were about 0.5C below present-day values, were found in the early decades of both the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The results can be taken as indicating that solar variability has been an important contributor to global climate variations in recent decades. The growing atmospheric burden of greenhouse gases may well have played an important role in the immediate past.

Reid, G.C. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (USA) Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (USA))

1991-02-20

74

Estimation of daily global solar radiation in Vietnamese Mekong Delta area: A combinational application of statistical downscaling method and Bayesian inference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term daily global solar radiation (GSR) data of the same quality in the 20th century has been needed as a baseline to assess the climate change impact on paddy rice production in Vietnamese Mekong Delta area (MKD: 104.5-107.5oE/8.2-11.2oN). However, though sunshine duration data is available, the accessibility of GSR data is quite poor in MKD. This study estimated the daily GSR in MKD for 30-yr (1978- 2007) by applying the statistical downscaling method (SDM). The estimates of GSR was obtained from four different sources: (1) the combined equations with the corrected reanalysis data of daily maximum/minimum temperatures, relative humidity, sea level pressure, and precipitable water; (2) the correction equation with the reanalysis data of downward shortwave radiation; (3) the empirical equation with the observed sunshine duration; and (4) the observation at one site for short term. Three reanalysis data, i.e., NCEP-R1, ERA-40, and JRA-25, were used. Also the observed meteorological data, which includes many missing data, were obtained from 11 stations of the Vietnamese Meteorological Agency for 28-yr and five stations of the Global Summary of the Day for 30-yr. The observed GSR data for 1-yr was obtained from our station. Considering the use of data with many missing data for analysis, the Bayesian inference was used for this study, which has the powerful capability to optimize multiple parameters in a non-linear and hierarchical model. The Bayesian inference provided the posterior distributions of 306 parameter values relating to the combined equations, the empirical equation, and the correction equation. The preliminary result shows that the amplitude of daily fluctuation of modeled GSR was underestimated by the empirical equation and the correction equation. The combination of SDM and Bayesian inference has a potential to estimate the long- term daily GSR of the same quality even though in the area where the observed data is quite limited.

Iizumi, T.; Nishimori, M.; Yokozawa, M.; Kotera, A.; Khang, N. D.

2008-12-01

75

The impact of laser irradiation on global stability in patients with vertebrobasilar insufficiency: A clinical report  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The purpose of our experiment was to determine whether laser stimulation can improve microcirculation in the posterior regions of the brain in patients with vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI). Material/Methods We studied 25 patients (20 female, 5 male, mean age 64) diagnosed with chronic VBI. All were evaluated using the De Klyn test, followed by qualitative assessment of stability using a Berg Balance Scale and evaluation of global stability using an electronic balance platform. A CTL-1100 low power laser was used with standard parameters. We established a protocol for laser irradiation at 5 points along the vertebral artery in the cervical region bilaterally. Irradiation was performed 10 times over two weeks. Results Significant improvement occurred after therapy in headache (p=0.0005), vertigo (p<0.0000), and tinnitus (p=0.0387). No significant differences were observed in nausea or nystagmus caused by head rotation. The Berg Balance Scale results showed significant differences in almost all features. There was a tendency towards improved stability in all parameters, and statistically significant differences in the total surface of support and the spread surface of support for the left foot. Conclusions Laser stimulation as applied in this study can be useful in the treatment of patients with VBI. The main reason for improvement in global stability, balance, and other VBI symptoms is better blood perfusion. PMID:21873949

Lukowicz, Malgorzata; Zalewski, Pawel; Bulatowicz, Irena; Buszko, Katarzyna; Klawe, Jacek J.

2011-01-01

76

Simulated changes due to global warming in daily precipitation means and extremes and their interpretation using the gamma distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential change in precipitation due to global warming is studied using five-member ensembles of climate simulations by the CSIRO Mark 2 atmosphere-ocean model for the period 1871–1990 and forward to 2100 under both the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) A2 (rapid CO2 increase) and B2 (moderate increase) forcing scenarios. The mean surface warming for the period 1961–1990 is

I. G. Watterson; M. R. Dix

2003-01-01

77

Total ozone column, water vapour and aerosol effects on erythemal and global solar irradiance in Marsaxlokk, Malta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of erythemal (UVER; 280-400 nm) and total solar shortwave irradiance (SW; 305-2800 nm), total ozone column (TOC), water vapour column (w), aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ĺngström exponent (?) were carried out at Marsaxlokk, in south-east Malta. These measurements were recorded during a measurement campaign between May and October 2012, aimed at studying the influence of atmospheric compounds on solar radiation transfer through the atmosphere. The effects of TOC, AOD and w on UVER and SW (global, diffuse and direct) irradiance were quantified using irradiance values under cloud-free conditions at different fixed solar zenith angles (SZA). Results show that UVER (but not SW) irradiance correlates well with TOC. UVER variations ranged between -0.24% DU-1 and -0.32% DU-1 with all changes being statistically significant. Global SW irradiance varies with water vapour column between -2.44% cm-1 and -4.53% cm-1, these results proving statistically significant and diminishing when SZA increases. The irradiance variations range between 42.15% cm-1 and 20.30% cm-1 for diffuse SW when SZA varies between 20° and 70°. The effect of aerosols on global UVER is stronger than on global SW. Aerosols cause a UVER reduction of between 28.12% and 52.41% and a global SW reduction between 13.46% and 41.41% per AOD550 unit. Empirical results show that solar position plays a determinant role, that there is a negligible effect of ozone on SW radiation, and stronger attenuation by aerosol particles in UVER radiation.

Bilbao, Julia; Román, Roberto; Yousif, Charles; Mateos, David; de Miguel, Argimiro

2014-12-01

78

Stochastic model to describe atmospheric attenuation from yearly global solar irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new stochastic model to describe atmospheric attenuation from yearly global solar irradiation has been developed and implemented. The proposed model takes into account the consideration that the whole of all attenuating elements can be thought of as a population where the higher the number of individuals the lesser the clearness index. Thus, the inverse of the clearness index is considered as the variable of a stochastic process. From the proposed master equation as starting point, the new model is characterized by transition rates (assessed from a growing parameter - G - and a decreasing parameter - D) which depend mainly on the climatological characteristics at each location. In this sense, different regions with an attenuation level calculated from the yearly global irradiation have been established using the Köppen-Geiger climate classification as a first approach. The model parameters G and D have been determined for different regions using the inverse of the clearness index as variable. The probability density function obtained after the application of the stochastic model for each climate zone shows how the index mode increases from the zones with lower levels of attenuation to those with higher levels of attenuation. This result confirms the proposed null hypothesis related to the use of the inverse of the clearness index as an attenuation population indicator. The fit between the empirical data and the data provided for the model is good enough according to a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test with a significance level of 0.05. Nevertheless, it is necessary to slightly modify the climate zones of Köppen-Geiger initial classification for a better explanation of the atmospheric attenuation. This climate zones modification can be considered as an additional result.

Vindel, J. M.; Polo, J.; Zarzalejo, L. F.; Ramírez, L.

2015-02-01

79

External Beam Accelerated Partial-Breast Irradiation Using 32 Gy in 8 Twice-Daily Fractions: Five-Year Results of a Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE External-beam accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is an increasingly popular technique following treatment of patients for early-stage breast cancer with conventional breast-conserving therapy. Here we present 5-year results of a prospective trial. METHODS AND MATERIALS From 10/2003 through 11/2005, 98 evaluable patients with Stage I breast cancer were enrolled on the first dose-step (32 Gy delivered in 8 twice-daily fractions) of a prospective, multi-institutional, dose-escalation clinical trial of three-dimensional conformal external-beam APBI (3D-APBI). The median age was 61 years; the median tumor size was 0.8 cm; 89% of tumors were estrogen receptor positive; 10% had a triple-negative phenotype; and 1% had a HER-2-positive subtype. Median follow-up was 71 months (range, 2–88 months; interquartile range 64–75 months). RESULTS Five patients developed IBTR, for a 5-year actuarial IBTR rate of 5% (95% confidence interval, 1–10%). Three of these occurred in patients with triple-negative disease and 2 in non-triple-negative patients, for 5-year actuarial IBTR rates of 33% (0–57%) and 2% (0–6%; p<0.0001), respectively. On multivariate analysis, triple-negative phenotype was the only predictor of IBTR, with borderline statistical significance after adjusting for tumor grade (p=0.0537). CONCLUSIONS Overall outcomes were excellent, particularly for patients with estrogen receptor positive disease. Patients in this study with triple-negative breast cancer had a significantly higher IBTR rate than patients with other receptor phenotypes when treated with 3D-APBI. Larger, prospective 3D-APBI clinical trials should continue evaluating the effect of hormone receptor phenotype on IBTR rates. PMID:22652104

Pashtan, Itai M.; Recht, Abram; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Brachtel, Elena; Abi-Raad, Rita F.; D'Alessandro, Helen A.; Levy, Antonin; Wo, Jennifer Y.; Hirsch, Ariel E.; Kachnic, Lisa A.; Goldberg, Saveli; Specht, Michelle; Gadd, Michelle; Smith, Barbara L.; Powell, Simon N.; Taghian, Alphonse G.

2012-01-01

80

External Beam Accelerated Partial-Breast Irradiation Using 32 Gy in 8 Twice-Daily Fractions: 5-Year Results of a Prospective Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: External beam accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is an increasingly popular technique for treatment of patients with early stage breast cancer following breast-conserving surgery. Here we present 5-year results of a prospective trial. Methods and Materials: From October 2003 through November 2005, 98 evaluable patients with stage I breast cancer were enrolled in the first dose step (32 Gy delivered in 8 twice-daily fractions) of a prospective, multi-institutional, dose escalation clinical trial of 3-dimensional conformal external beam APBI (3D-APBI). Median age was 61 years; median tumor size was 0.8 cm; 89% of tumors were estrogen receptor positive; 10% had a triple-negative phenotype; and 1% had a HER-2-positive subtype. Median follow-up was 71 months (range, 2-88 months; interquartile range, 64-75 months). Results: Five patients developed ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), for a 5-year actuarial IBTR rate of 5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1%-10%). Three of these cases occurred in patients with triple-negative disease and 2 in non-triple-negative patients, for 5-year actuarial IBTR rates of 33% (95% CI, 0%-57%) and 2% (95% CI, 0%-6%; P<.0001), respectively. On multivariable analysis, triple-negative phenotype was the only predictor of IBTR, with borderline statistical significance after adjusting for tumor grade (P=.0537). Conclusions: Overall outcomes were excellent, particularly for patients with estrogen receptor-positive disease. Patients in this study with triple-negative breast cancer had a significantly higher IBTR rate than patients with other receptor phenotypes when treated with 3D-APBI. Larger, prospective 3D-APBI clinical trials should continue to evaluate the effect of hormone receptor phenotype on IBTR rates.

Pashtan, Itai M. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Recht, Abram [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ancukiewicz, Marek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Brachtel, Elena [Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Abi-Raad, Rita F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); D'Alessandro, Helen A. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Levy, Antonin; Wo, Jennifer Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hirsch, Ariel E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kachnic, Lisa A. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Goldberg, Saveli [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Specht, Michelle; Gadd, Michelle; Smith, Barbara L. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Powell, Simon N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Taghian, Alphonse G., E-mail: ataghian@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

2012-11-01

81

Integrating Research on Global Climate Change and Human Use of the Oceans: a Geospatial Method for Daily Monitoring of Sea Ice and Ship Traffic in the Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One apparent consequence of global climate change has been a decrease in the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice more rapidly than models have predicted, while Arctic ship traffic has likewise increased beyond economic predictions. To ensure representative observations of changing climate conditions and human use of the Arctic Ocean, we concluded a method of tracking daily changes in both sea ice and shipping in the Arctic Ocean was needed. Such a process improves the availability of sea ice data for navigational safety and allows future developments to be monitored for understanding of ice and shipping in relation to policy decisions appropriate to optimize sustainable use of a changing Arctic Ocean. The impetus for this work was the 2009 Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment (AMSA) which provided baseline data on Arctic ship traffic. AMSA was based on responses from circumpolar countries, was manpower intensive, and took years to compile. A more timely method of monitoring human use of the Arctic Ocean was needed. To address this, a method of monitoring sea ice on a scale relevant to ship-navigation (<10km) was developed and implemented in conjunction with arctic ship tracking using S-AIS (Satellite Automatic Identification Systems). S-AIS is internationally required on ships over a certain size, which includes most commercial vessels in the Arctic Ocean. Daily AIS and sea ice observations were chosen for this study. Results of this method of geospatial analysis of the entire arctic are presented for a year long period from April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2011. This confirmed the dominance of European Arctic ship traffic. Arctic shipping is maximal during August and diminishes in September with a minimum in winter, although some shipping continues year-round in perennially ice-free areas. Data are analyzed for the four principal arctic quadrants around the North Pole by season for number and nationality of vessels. The goal of this study was not merely to monitor ship traffic and ice conditions concurrently, but also to demonstrate a new method of ocean monitoring based on daily assimilation, data fusion, and integrated visualization of satellite ice remote sensing data and S-AIS ship data. In the future, as Arctic ship traffic and cryosphere sea ice cover variability are both expected to increase, this method can provide near real-time physical data on global climate change and human dimensions of ocean use of to guide policies addressing arctic resource management, Search and Rescue (SAR) operations, oil spill response, and issues such as ship noise impacts on marine mammals, and whale-ship collision avoidance. An internationally agreed implementation of this methodology would benefit ships operating in the Arctic and advance sustainable use of the Arctic Ocean.

Eucker, W.; McGillivary, P. A.

2012-12-01

82

Dependence on latitude of the relation between the diffuse fraction of solar radiation and the radiation and the ratio of global-to-extraterrestrial radiation for monthly average daily values  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach for the prediction of the monthly average daily diffuse radiation, {bar H}{sub d}, was proposed by Page in 1961. The Page method is based on the use of the linear correlation {bar H}{sub d}\\/{bar H} = c + d{bar H}\\/{bar H}{sub o}, where {bar H} and {bar H}{sub o} are, respectively, the monthly average daily values of global

A Soler

1990-01-01

83

Investigation of the effect of contrails on global irradiance and solar energy production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study we investigate the effect of contrails on global shortwave radiation and on Photovoltaic module performance. This investigation is performed using continuous hemispherical fish eye photographs of the sky, diffuse and direct shortwave measurements and short circuit current measurements of a-Si, c-Si and CdTe PV modules. These measurements have been performed at the solar observatory Kanzelhöhe (1540 m.a.s.l) located in the southern part of Austria during a period of one and half year. The time resolution of the measurements is one minute, which allows to accurately follow the formation-eventually the disappearance- or the movement of the contrails in the sky. Using the fish eye photographs we identified clear sky days with a high contrail persistence. We especially look at situations where the contrails were shading the sun. Results show that contrails shading the sun may reduce the global radiation by up to 60%. In general we however observe that during days with a high contrail persistence the diffuse irradiance is slightly increased. Finally a statistic of the contrail persistence during the period of measurement is presented and conclusions as to the relevance for the solar energy production are drawn.

Weihs, Philipp; Rennhofer, Marcus; Baumgartner, Dietmar; Wagner, Jochen; Laube, Wolfgang; Gadermaier, Josef

2013-04-01

84

The use of LinkWinds for the validation and analysis of 14 years of Microwave Sounder Unit daily global temperature anomaly data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Temperature data derived from the Microwave Sounder Unit (MSU) provides an opportunity for investigating atmospheric temperatures on a global scale since 1979. Fourteen years of global data sets of daily temperature anomalies within the lower stratosphere and lower troposphere are being generated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. LinkWinds, a visualization/analysis package under development at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, has been extremely useful for validating and analyzing these data sets. LinkWinds provides the ability to interactively scroll and animate through the 10,220 images of temporal data, to selectively slice and view the data along latitude, longitude, or temporal axes, to interactively analyze spatial and temporal variability within the data, and to perform correlative analysis between various elements of the data. These capabilities have been invaluable in allowing the recognition of processing artifacts, as well as the effects that physical phenomena, such as the El Ninos effects and the Mt. Pinatubo eruption, have had on atmospheric temperatures.

Botts, Michael E.; Spencer, Roy W.

1995-01-01

85

Could the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance be blamed for the global warming? A new effect may exist  

E-print Network

Whether natural factors could interpret the rise of the Earth's surface temperature is still controversial. Though numerous recent researches have reported apparent correlations between solar activity and the Earth's climate, solar activity has encountered a big problem when describing the rapid global warming after 1970s. Our investigation shows the good positive correlations between the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance (280-400 nm) and the Earth's surface temperature both in temporal and spatial variations by analyzing the global surface Ultraviolet irradiance (280-400 nm) and global surface temperature data from 1980-1999. The rise of CO$_2$ cannot interpret the good positive correlations, and we could even get an opposite result to the good correlations when employing the rise of CO$_2$ to describe the relation between them. Based on the good positive correlations, we suggest a new effect, named "Highly Excited Water Vapor" (HEWV) effect, which can interpret how the Sun influences the Earth's surfac...

Chen, Jilong; Zhao, Juan; Zheng, Yujun

2014-01-01

86

Methodological aspects of a pattern-scaling approach to produce global fields of monthly means of daily maximum and minimum temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Climate Pattern-Scaling Model (CPSM) that simulates global patterns of climate change, for a prescribed emissions scenario, is described. A CPSM works by quantitatively establishing the statistical relationship between a climate variable at a specific location (e.g. daily maximum surface temperature, Tmax) and one or more predictor time series (e.g. global mean surface temperature, Tglobal) - referred to as the "training" of the CPSM. This training uses a regression model to derive fit-coefficients that describe the statistical relationship between the predictor time series and the target climate variable time series. Once that relationship has been determined, and given the predictor time series for any greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, the change in the climate variable of interest can be reconstructed - referred to as the "application" of the CPSM. The advantage of using a CPSM rather than a typical atmosphere-ocean global climate model (AOGCM) is that the predictor time series required by the CPSM can usually be generated quickly using a simple climate model (SCM) for any prescribed GHG emissions scenario and then applied to generate global fields of the climate variable of interest. The training can be performed either on historical measurements or on output from an AOGCM. Using model output from 21st century simulations has the advantage that the climate change signal is more pronounced than in historical data and therefore a more robust statistical relationship is obtained. The disadvantage of using AOGCM output is that the CPSM training might be compromised by any AOGCM inadequacies. For the purposes of exploring the various methodological aspects of the CPSM approach, AOGCM output was used in this study to train the CPSM. These investigations of the CPSM methodology focus on monthly mean fields of daily temperature extremes (Tmax and Tmin). Key conclusions are: (1) overall, the CPSM trained on simulations based on the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 emissions scenario is able to reproduce AOGCM simulations of Tmax and Tmin based on predictor time series from an RCP 4.5 emissions scenario; (2) access to hemisphere average land and ocean temperatures as predictors improves the variance that can be explained, particularly over the oceans; (3) regression model fit-coefficients derived from individual simulations based on the RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5 emissions scenarios agree well over most regions of the globe (the Arctic is the exception); (4) training the CPSM on concatenated time series from an ensemble of simulations does not result in fit-coefficients that explain significantly more of the variance than an approach that weights results based on single simulation fits; and (5) the inclusion of a linear time dependence in the regression model fit-coefficients improves the variance explained, primarily over the oceans.

Kremser, S.; Bodeker, G. E.; Lewis, J.

2013-09-01

87

Methodological aspects of a pattern-scaling approach to produce global fields of monthly means of daily maximum and minimum temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Climate Pattern-Scaling Model (CPSM) that simulates global patterns of climate change, for a prescribed emissions scenario, is described. A CPSM works by quantitatively establishing the statistical relationship between a climate variable at a specific location (e.g. daily maximum surface temperature, Tmax) and one or more predictor time series (e.g. global mean surface temperature, Tglobal) - referred to as the "training" of the CPSM. This training uses a regression model to derive fit coefficients that describe the statistical relationship between the predictor time series and the target climate variable time series. Once that relationship has been determined, and given the predictor time series for any greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, the change in the climate variable of interest can be reconstructed - referred to as the "application" of the CPSM. The advantage of using a CPSM rather than a typical atmosphere-ocean global climate model (AOGCM) is that the predictor time series required by the CPSM can usually be generated quickly using a simple climate model (SCM) for any prescribed GHG emissions scenario and then applied to generate global fields of the climate variable of interest. The training can be performed either on historical measurements or on output from an AOGCM. Using model output from 21st century simulations has the advantage that the climate change signal is more pronounced than in historical data and therefore a more robust statistical relationship is obtained. The disadvantage of using AOGCM output is that the CPSM training might be compromised by any AOGCM inadequacies. For the purposes of exploring the various methodological aspects of the CPSM approach, AOGCM output was used in this study to train the CPSM. These investigations of the CPSM methodology focus on monthly mean fields of daily temperature extremes (Tmax and Tmin). The methodological aspects of the CPSM explored in this study include (1) investigation of the advantage gained in having five predictor time series over having only one predictor time series, (2) investigation of the time dependence of the fit coefficients and (3) investigation of the dependence of the fit coefficients on GHG emissions scenario. Key conclusions are (1) overall, the CPSM trained on simulations based on the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 emissions scenario is able to reproduce AOGCM simulations of Tmax and Tmin based on predictor time series from an RCP 4.5 emissions scenario; (2) access to hemisphere average land and ocean temperatures as predictors improves the variance that can be explained, particularly over the oceans; (3) regression model fit coefficients derived from individual simulations based on the RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5 emissions scenarios agree well over most regions of the globe (the Arctic is the exception); (4) training the CPSM on concatenated time series from an ensemble of simulations does not result in fit coefficients that explain significantly more of the variance than an approach that weights results based on single simulation fits; and (5) the inclusion of a linear time dependence in the regression model fit coefficients improves the variance explained, primarily over the oceans.

Kremser, S.; Bodeker, G. E.; Lewis, J.

2014-01-01

88

Advanced chemistry-transport modeling and observing systems allow daily air quality observations, short-term forecasts, and real-time analyses of air quality at the global and  

E-print Network

Advanced chemistry-transport modeling and observing systems allow daily air quality observations, short-term forecasts, and real-time analyses of air quality at the global and European scales control measures that could be taken for managing such episodes, European-scale air quality forecasting

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

89

Spatial estimation of sub-hour Global Horizontal Irradiance based on official observations and remote sensors.  

PubMed

This study was motivated by the need to improve densification of Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) observations, increasing the number of surface weather stations that observe it, using sensors with a sub-hour periodicity and examining the methods of spatial GHI estimation (by interpolation) with that periodicity in other locations. The aim of the present research project is to analyze the goodness of 15-minute GHI spatial estimations for five methods in the territory of Spain (three geo-statistical interpolation methods, one deterministic method and the HelioSat2 method, which is based on satellite images). The research concludes that, when the work area has adequate station density, the best method for estimating GHI every 15 min is Regression Kriging interpolation using GHI estimated from satellite images as one of the input variables. On the contrary, when station density is low, the best method is estimating GHI directly from satellite images. A comparison between the GHI observed by volunteer stations and the estimation model applied concludes that 67% of the volunteer stations analyzed present values within the margin of error (average of ±2 standard deviations). PMID:24732102

Gutierrez-Corea, Federico-Vladimir; Manso-Callejo, Miguel-Angel; Moreno-Regidor, María-Pilar; Velasco-Gómez, Jesús

2014-01-01

90

A globally calibrated aerosol optical depth gridded dataset for improved solar irradiance predictions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shortwave direct normal irradiance (DNI), as well as the diffuse and global irradiance, all depend on aerosol optical depth (AOD). Recent investigations have shown that many existing modeled DNI datasets were severely biased over areas with large and variable AOD, due to errors in the latter data. Unbiased historical DNI data are of crucial importance for the siting, design and financing of large solar power projects, particularly those using concentrators. This requires unbiased AOD data at any site where such projects can be potentially built. Until now, only sunphotometer stations could provide such unbiased data, but these stations are scarce and their records are generally short. For global coverage, gridded AOD data from satellite observations may be used, but their bias is often significant. Moreover, multiwavelength AOD satellite records only exist since 2000 and are not complete over all areas. In this contribution, a method is developed to optimally combine sources of gridded data from various satellites, calibrate them against ground truth on a regional and seasonal basis, and fill missing data points with an appropriate climatology. The monthly satellite data from MODIS (Terra and Aqua, collection 5.1), generated with or without the Deep Blue retrieval algorithm, and from MISR (version 31), are obtained at 0.5x0.5° resolution using appropriate Digital Elevation Models and scale-height corrections of AOD at 550 nm. The ground-truth data originates from networks such as Aeronet. All monthly ground-truth data points are subjected to a scale-height correction for elevation (so that they can be directly compared to the corresponding satellite data), and to a wavelength correction to obtain AOD at 550 nm. This process is undertaken separately for summer and winter, owing to the varying magnitude of AOD, and possible seasonal variations in aerosol composition. For the same reasons, it is also undertaken on a regional basis. The importance of this is confirmed by the uneven results obtained over adjacent areas. In North America, for instance, the MISR dataset and the various MODIS datasets exhibit relatively low bias over most of the continent, but an extremely high bias over the southwestern USA and northern Mexico, possibly due to higher elevation, lower AOD, and more reflective ground. The satellite data calibration (or "debiasing") is performed by applying appropriate scaling factors on a seasonal and regional basis, after comparison with ground truth. To remove all missing data points during the period 2000-2011, an appropriate climatology is selected from existing sources (including chemical transport models), and is subjected to an identical calibration method. A similar methodology is applied to obtain a complete, gridded dataset of the mean monthly Ĺngström exponent (AE) over the same period of 144 months. The AOD and AE global datasets thus obtained still contain significant random errors, but their regional bias is considerably reduced compared to existing satellite data. Overall, the combination of AOD and AE from these calibrated datasets can significantly improve the derivation of 12-year time series of DNI, which is demonstrated with a few examples.

Gueymard, C. A.

2012-04-01

91

Estimation of confidence intervals of global horizontal irradiance obtained from a weather prediction model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many photovoltaic (PV) systems have been installed in Japan after the introduction of the Feed-in-Tariff. For an energy management of electric power systems included many PV systems, the forecast of the PV power production are useful technology. Recently numerical weather predictions have been applied to forecast the PV power production while the forecasted values invariably have forecast errors for each modeling system. So, we must use the forecast data considering its error. In this study, we attempted to estimate confidence intervals for hourly forecasts of global horizontal irradiance (GHI) values obtained from a mesoscale model (MSM) de-veloped by the Japan Meteorological Agency. In the recent study, we found that the forecasted values of the GHI of the MSM have two systematical forecast errors; the first is that forecast values of the GHI are depended on the clearness indices, which are defined as the GHI values divided by the extraterrestrial solar irradiance. The second is that forecast errors have the seasonal variations; the overestimation of the GHI forecasts is found in winter while the underestimation of those is found in summer. The information of the errors of the hourly GHI forecasts, that is, confidence intervals of the forecasts, is of great significance for planning the energy management included a lot of PV systems by an electric company. On the PV systems, confidence intervals of the GHI forecasts are required for a pinpoint area or for a relatively large area control-ling the power system. For the relatively large area, a spatial-smoothing method of the GHI values is performed for both the observations and forecasts. The spatial-smoothing method caused the decline of confidence intervals of the hourly GHI forecasts on an extreme event of the GHI forecast (a case of large forecast error) over the relatively large area of the Tokyo electric company (approximately 68 % than for a pinpoint forecast). For more credible estimation of the confidence intervals, it is required to consider the location of the installed PV systems or its capacity over the region.

Ohtake, Hideaki; Gari da Silva Fonseca, Joao, Jr.; Takashima, Takumi; Oozeki, Takashi; Yamada, Yoshinori

2014-05-01

92

Constitution Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Everyone could use a bit of the Constitution added to their daily lives, and this website more than delivers on its promise to deliver "smart conversation about the Constitution". Constitution Daily is an experimental blog edited by the National Constitution Center (NCC) in Philadelphia, and commentary here can include conversations about student privacy rights, the Second Amendment, and the activities of Congress. Visitors can click on the "Issues" section to dive into topic areas that include civility and privacy. After looking at each topic area, visitors can look at an interactive timeline that arranges comments, posts, and discussion on the subject. The site also contains some nice polls, and information about upcoming events at the NCC.

93

Science Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Daily is a web-based magazine that delivers timely news about discoveries in science and technology, appropriate for all audiences. Articles are often accompanied by streaming video or podcasts; all are written in language a non-scientist can understand. The web site archives contain more than 40,000 resources on topics that include medicine, the brain, plants and animals, earth science, climate, space, matter and energy, computers, mathematics, and paleontology. The web site has been the recipient of numerous awards since its inception in 1995.

2008-03-08

94

Surface ultraviolet irradiance from OMI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura spacecraft is a nadir-viewing spectrometer that measures solar reflected and backscattered light in a selected range of the ultraviolet and visible spectrum. The instrument has a 2600-km-wide viewing swath, and it is capable of daily, global contiguous mapping. We developed and implemented a surface ultraviolet (UV) irradiance

Aapo Tanskanen; Nickolay A. Krotkov; Jay R. Herman; Antti Arola

2006-01-01

95

A Comparison Between Heliosat-2 and Artificial Neural Network Methods for Global Horizontal Irradiance Retrievals over Desert Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global horizontal irradiance (GHI) retrievals at the surface of any given location could be used for preliminary solar resource assessments. More accurately, the direct normal irradiance (DNI) and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) are also required to estimate the global tilt irradiance, mainly used for fixed flat plate collectors. Two different satellite-based models for solar irradiance retrievals have been applied over the desert environment of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Both models employ channels of the SEVIRI instrument, onboard the geostationary satellite Meteosat Second Generation, as their main inputs. The satellite images used in this study have a temporal resolution of 15-min and a spatial resolution of 3-km. The objective of this study is to compare between the GHI retrieved using the Heliosat-2 method and an artificial neural network (ANN) ensemble method over the UAE. The high-resolution visible channel of SEVIRI is used in the Heliosat-2 method to derive the cloud index. The cloud index is then used to compute the cloud transmission, while the cloud-free GHI is computed from the Linke turbidity factor. The product of the cloud transmission and the cloud-free GHI denotes the estimated GHI. A constant underestimation is observed in the estimated GHI over the dataset available in the UAE. Therefore, the cloud-free DHI equation in the model was recalibrated to fix the bias. After recalibration, results over the UAE show a root mean square error (RMSE) value of 10.1% and a mean bias error (MBE) of -0.5%. As for the ANN approach, six thermal channels of SEVIRI were used to estimate the DHI and the total optical depth of the atmosphere (?). An ensemble approach is employed to obtain a better generalizability of the results, as opposed to using one single weak network. The DNI is then computed from the estimated ? using the Beer-Bouguer-Lambert law. The GHI is computed from the DNI and DHI estimates. The RMSE for the estimated GHI obtained over an independent dataset over the UAE is 7.2% and the MBE is +1.9%. The results obtained by the two methods have shown that both the recalibrated Heliosat-2 and the ANN ensemble methods estimate the GHI at a 15-min resolution with high accuracy. The advantage of the ANN ensemble approach is that it derives the GHI from accurate DNI and DHI estimates. The DNI and DHI estimates are valuable when computing the global tilt irradiance. Also, accurate DNI estimates are beneficial for preliminary site selection for concentrating solar powered plants.

Ghedira, H.; Eissa, Y.

2012-12-01

96

Global and direct UV irradiance variation in the Nahuel Huapi National Park (Patagonia, Argentina) after the eruption of Puyehue-Cordon Caulle (Chile)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On June 4th, 2011, the Puyehue-Cordon Caulle volcanic complex (40°35?25?S 72°07?02?W, Chile) started eruption, sending ash 45,000 feet into the atmosphere. After the initial period, the eruption continued for several months, with less intensity. Changes in global irradiance in the UV-B and UV-A, and direct irradiance and AOD in the UV-A, as consequence of the eruption, were studied. Global irradiance has been permanently measured at the Laboratory of Photobiology (LPh) (41.13S, 71.42W, 804 msl) since 1998. In addition, in the frame of a project to study altitude effect on direct and global irradiance, field campaigns were performed during September 17th to 23rd, 2010 and September 14th to 18th, 2011, in the region of the Nahuel Huapi National Park, near 100 km from the eruption. In those periods, simultaneous measurements of direct and global irradiance and aerosol optical depth (AOD) were carried out at three sites: Laboratory of Photobiology (LPh), Mt Otto (41.15S, 71.38W, 1386 msl) and Mt Catedral (41.17S, 71.48W, 1930 msl). The analysis of aerosols in 2011, three to four month after the eruption started, showed the presence of larger particles and more variability than in 2010, at all sites. Global irradiance, at LPh, also exhibited larger variability, compared to 1999, when no eruption or any other event that could have produced major changes in aerosols occurred. The mean decrease, as consequence of the volcano activity, at LPh, was around 20%, at 305 nm and closed to 10%, at 320 nm. At 380 nm, the decrease was very small and not statistically significant, although in particular days, with large aerosol load, a significant decrease was observed. Direct irradiance, in the UV-A, showed larger decrease than global irradiance. The effect of the eruption was more pronounced at the low altitude site.

Diaz, S. B.; Paladini, A. A.; Braile, H. G.; Dieguez, M. C.; Deferrari, G. A.; Vernet, M.; Vrsalovic, J.

2014-05-01

97

Global status of commercialization of and developments on international trade in irradiated food  

Microsoft Academic Search

National and international organizations have paid particular attention to the use of food irradiation as a method to reduce postharvest food losses, to ensure hygienic quality of foods-especially those of animal origin, and to overcome certain non-tariff barriers to trade for the following reasons: (1) The increasingly strict standards for quality and quarantine in food trade. (2) The increasingly restrictions

Paisan Loaharanu

1996-01-01

98

Narrowband filter radiometer for ground-based measurements of global ultraviolet solar irradiance and total ozone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultraviolet narrowband filter radiometer (UV-RAD) designed by the authors to take ground-based measurements of UV solar irradiance, total ozone, and biological dose rate is described, together with the main characteristics of the seven blocked filters mounted on it, all of which have full widths at half maxima that range 0.67 to 0.98 nm. We have analyzed the causes of

Boyan Petkov; Vito Vitale; Claudio Tomasi; Ubaldo Bonafé; Salvatore Scaglione; Daniele Flori; Riccardo Santaguida; Michael Gausa; Georg Hansen; Tiziano Colombo

2006-01-01

99

Narrowband filter radiometer for ground-based measurements of global ultraviolet solar irradiance and total ozone.  

PubMed

The ultraviolet narrowband filter radiometer (UV-RAD) designed by the authors to take ground-based measurements of UV solar irradiance, total ozone, and biological dose rate is described, together with the main characteristics of the seven blocked filters mounted on it, all of which have full widths at half maxima that range 0.67 to 0.98 nm. We have analyzed the causes of cosine response and calibration errors carefully to define the corresponding correction terms, paying particular attention to those that are due to the spectral displacements of the filter transmittance peaks from the integer wavelength values. The influence of the ozone profile on the retrieved ozone at large solar zenith angles has also been examined by means of field measurements. The opportunity of carrying out nearly monochromatic irradiance measurements offered by the UV-RAD allowed us to improve the procedure usually followed to reconstruct the solar spectrum at the surface by fitting the computed results, using radiative transfer models with field measurements of irradiance. Two long-term comparison campaigns took place, showing that a mean discrepancy of +0.3% exists between the UV-RAD total ozone values and those given by the Brewer #63 spectroradiometer and that mean differences of +0.3% and -0.9% exist between the erythemal dose rates determined with the UV-RAD and those obtained with the Brewer #63 and the Brewer #104 spectroradiometers, respectively. PMID:16778947

Petkov, Boyan; Vitale, Vito; Tomasi, Claudio; Bonafé, Ubaldo; Scaglione, Salvatore; Flori, Daniele; Santaguida, Riccardo; Gausa, Michael; Hansen, Georg; Colombo, Tiziano

2006-06-20

100

Narrowband filter radiometer for ground-based measurements of global ultraviolet solar irradiance and total ozone  

SciTech Connect

The ultraviolet narrowband filter radiometer (UV-RAD) designed by the authors to take ground-based measurements of UV solar irradiance, total ozone, and biological dose rate is described, together with the main characteristics of the seven blocked filters mounted on it, all of which have full widths at half maxima that range 0.67 to 0.98 nm. We have analyzed the causes of cosine response and calibration errors carefully to define the corresponding correction terms, paying particular attention to those that are due to the spectral displacements of the filter transmittance peaks from the integer wavelength values. The influence of the ozone profile on the retrieved ozone at large solar zenith angles has also been examined by means of field measurements. The opportunity of carrying out nearly monochromatic irradiance measurements offered by the UV-RAD allowed us to improve the procedure usually followed to reconstruct the solar spectrum at the surface by fitting the computed results, using radiative transfer models with field measurements of irradiance. Two long-term comparison campaigns took place, showing that a mean discrepancy of+0.3% exists between the UV-RAD total ozone values and those given by the Brewer no. 63 spectroradiometer and that mean differences of+0.3% and-0.9% exist between the erythemal dose rates determined with the UV-RAD and those obtained with the Brewer no. 63 and the Brewer no. 104 spectroradiometers, respectively.

Petkov, Boyan; Vitale, Vito; Tomasi, Claudio; Bonafe, Ubaldo; Scaglione, Salvatore; Flori, Daniele; Santaguida, Riccardo; Gausa, Michael; Hansen, Georg; Colombo, Tiziano

2006-06-20

101

Measurements of global UV irradiance at Terranova Bay, Antactica, by a home made narrow band filter radiometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Filter radiometers measure the solar radiation in several channels (typically 4 to 7) with a bandwith from 2 to 10 nm. They require less maintenance than the spectroradiometer and they are able to work in hostile environment as for instance the polar regions. The spectral resolution depends on the width at half maximum (FWHM) of the filters and is generally lower than the spectroradiometer resolution (0.5 nm). Other than the robustness of this instruments, the main advantage of the filter radiometers is the high frequency with which all wavelengths can be measured, making this class of instrument well suited for investigating short term irradiance variation. In this work is presented the results of UV irradiance measurements performed by a very narrow band (FWHM less than 1 nm) filter radiometer at Antarctica Italia Base, Mario Zucchelli Station, Terranova Bay, lat. 74° 41.6084' south and lon. 164° 05.9224' est. All-dielectric Fabry-Perot filters were manufactured in the laboratories of the Optical Coating Group, ENEA, by the ion beam assistance physical vapor deposition technique. Nine filters select nine different wavelengths in the UV spectral range from 296.5 nm to 377 nm with about 1 minute of measurement period, i.e. each wavelength is measured about 1250 times per day. At the moment the radiometer are permanently located near MZS and the data are daily downloaded in ENEA, Rome, by a dedicated satellite channel. During the Antarctica winter the radiometer will be in standby mode, in this season MZS is closed, and it will be start to measure again in the Antarctica spring.

Salvatore, Scaglione; di Sarcina, Ilaria; Flori, Daniele; Menchini, Francesca

2010-05-01

102

X. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN DIFFUSE AND GLOBAL IRRADIANCE For numerous applications, particularly those  

E-print Network

for this study is the hourly global and beam solar ra- diation values from six University of Oregon sites in the Pacific Northwest along with cor- responding data from the Solar Energy Mete- orological Research the direct and diffuse components of the incident solar intensity. Because constant care is needed to measure

Oregon, University of

103

Reconstitution des irradiations globale et diffuse en fonction de quelques paramčtres météorologiques pour un ciel quelconque  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work is to verify the application of models which allow reconstituting monthly averages a day global and diffuse radiations on a horizontal plan. Chosen models were proposed in the literature by various scientists and relative to several sites in the world. This models are a function of main meteorological parameters of which ambient temperature, relative humidity,

M. Koussa; M. Haddadi; A. Malek

104

Comparison of Direct Normal Irradiance Derived from Silicon and Thermopile Global Hemispherical Radiation Detectors: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Concentrating solar applications utilize direct normal irradiance (DNI) radiation, a measurement rarely available. The solar concentrator industry has begun to deploy numerous measurement stations to prospect for suitable system deployment sites. Rotating shadowband radiometers (RSR) using silicon photodiodes as detectors are typically deployed. This paper compares direct beam estimates from RSR to a total hemispherical measuring radiometer (SPN1) multiple fast thermopiles. These detectors simultaneously measure total and diffuse radiation from which DNI can be computed. Both the SPN1 and RSR-derived DNI are compared to DNI measured with thermopile pyrheliometers. Our comparison shows that the SPN1 radiometer DNI estimated uncertainty is somewhat greater than, and on the same order as, the RSR DNI estimates for DNI magnitudes useful to concentrator technologies.

Myers, D. R.

2010-01-01

105

Accuracy of silicon versus thermopile radiometers for daily and monthly integrated total hemispherical solar radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement stations for solar radiation resource assessment data are expensive and labor intensive. For this reason, long-term solar radiation measurements are not widely available. Growing interest in solar renewable energy systems has generated a great number of questions about the quality of data obtained from inexpensive silicon photodiode radiometers versus costly thermopile radiometers. We analyze a year of daily total and monthly mean global horizontal irradiance measurements derived from 1-minute averages of 3-second samples of pyranometer signals. The data were collected simultaneously from both types of radiometers at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) operated by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. All broadband radiometers in service at SRRL are calibrated annually using an outdoor method with reference radiometers traceable to the World Radiometric Reference. We summarized the data by daily total and monthly mean daily total amounts of solar radiation. Our results show that systematic and random errors (identified in our outdoor calibration process) in each type of radiometer cancel out over periods of one day or more. Daily total and mean monthly daily total solar energy measured by the two pyranometer types compare within 1% to 2%. The individual daily variations among different models of thermopile radiometers may be up to twice as large, up to +/-5%, being highest in the winter (higher average solar zenith angle conditions) and lowest in summer, consistent with the lower solar zenith angle conditions.

Stoffel, Thomas L.; Myers, Daryl R.

2010-08-01

106

White Paper on SBUV/2 Solar Irradiance Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The importance of solar irradiance measurements by the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet, Model 2 (SBUV/2) instruments on NOAA's operational satellites is described. These measurements are necessary accurately monitor the long-term changes in the global column ozone amount, the altitude distribution of ozone in the upper stratosphere, and the degree to which ozone changes are caused by anthropogenic sources. Needed to accomplish these goals are weekly solar irradiance measurements at the operational ozone wavelengths, daily measurements of the Mg II proxy index, instrument-specific Mg II scale factors, and daily measurements of the solar spectral irradiance at photochemically important wavelengths. Two solar measurement schedules are provided: (1) a baseline schedule for all instruments except the NOAA-14 instrument and (2) a modified schedule for the NOAA-14 SBUV/2 instrument. This latter schedule is needed due to the NOAA-14 grating drive problems.

Hilsenrath, Ernest; DeLand, Matthew T.; Cebula, Richard P.

1996-01-01

107

Cirrus cloud radiative forcing on surface-level shortwave and longwave irradiances at regional and global scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cirrus clouds not only play a major role in the energy budget of the Earth-Atmosphere system, but are also important in the hydrological cycle. According to satellite passive remote sensing high-altitude clouds cover as much as 40% of the earth's surface on average and can reach 70% of cloud cover over the Tropics. Hence, given their very large cloud cover, the relatively small instantaneous radiative effects of these cirrus clouds can engender a significant cumulative radiative forcing at the surface. Precise calculations of the cirrus cloud radiative forcing are obtained from the difference between measured radiative fluxes downwelling at the surface in the presence of cirrus clouds (broadband flux measurements) and computed clear sky references (parametric models with RMS error < 5 W m-2). Overcast and clear sky period identification is obtained from a combined analysis of lidar and broadband flux measurements. In this study, we analyze two datasets: ground-based and satellite measurements. The firsts corresponds to solar and infrared irradiance measurements, cloud and aerosol Lidar backscattering profiles, microwave radiometer brightness temperatures, radiosonde profiles, and sun-photometer extinctions monitored at four observatories located in the midlatitudes (SIRTA Observatory and ARM SGP Lamont), the Tropics (ARM TWP Nauru) and the Arctic (ARM NSA Barrow). This dataset permits us to estimate the Cirrus cloud Radiative Forcing (cloud base altitude above 7 km) on surface-level shortwave (CRFSW) and longwave (CRFLW) irradiances. The sensitivity of CRFSW to Cloud Optical Thickness (noted CRFSW*) is established and ranges from 100 W m-2 to 200 W m-2 per unit of cloud optical thickness. The important variability of aerosols and water vapor content obtained in studying the 4 observatories allows us to quantify the combined influence of aerosol optical thickness and integrated water vapor on CRFSW* : 10 to 20 % CRFSW* range for turbid and pristine atmosphere. Moreover, the sensitivity of the CRFLW to both cloud emissivity and cloud temperature (noted CRFLW*) is established and the influence of integrated water vapor on CRFLW* quantified: partial infrared opacity for arctic site (dry atmosphere) and quasi-total infrared opacity for tropical site (wet atmosphere), respectively 20% and 97% of opacity. Cirrus cloud radiative forcing parameterizations are hence developed starting from the ground-based collocated measurements. They relate CRFSW or CRFLW to cirrus cloud macrophysical properties, atmospheric humidity, aerosol content and solar zenith angle. Satellite measurements are used next as input parameters to the cirrus cloud radiative forcing parameterizations to calculate CRFSW and CRFLW at global scale. CALIOP provide aerosol and cirrus cloud properties and AIRS the integrated water vapor. Meridian distribution are shown and discussed. They reveal a positive cirrus cloud net radiative effect (CRFSW + CRFLW) from 30°N poleward during boreal winter and from 45°S during austral winter. The cumulative cirrus cloud net radiative effect reaches +1.5 W m-2 for these two winter cases and -8 W m-2 near the equator.

Dupont, J. C.; Haeffelin, M.; Long, C. N.

2009-04-01

108

Columbia Journalism Review Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The journalism school at Columbia University is held in high-regard by many for their commitment to training journalists that will hold a high standard of quality investigative reporting that will inspire future generations of like-minded individuals. As with many journalism schools, they have made great headway into offering both critique and comment on the changing world of journalism, and the Columbia Journalism Review Daily is a fine example of such efforts. The Daily was born in 2004 with a mandate to monitor coverage of the presidential election campaign, and has continued over the past several years by offering daily (and, at times, hourly) critiques of political journalism and analyses of the broader forces affecting press performance. Visitors to the homepage can read their commentaries and analyses, and also search the entire contents of the Daily via a handy search feature. Additionally, visitors can make their way through the Daily's archives, if they so wish.

109

Chronic daily headaches  

PubMed Central

Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches. PMID:23024563

Ahmed, Fayyaz; Parthasarathy, Rajsrinivas; Khalil, Modar

2012-01-01

110

Could the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance be blamed for the global warming? (II) ----Ozone layer depth reconstruction via HEWV effect  

E-print Network

It is suggested by Chen {\\it et al.} that the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance ($280-400$ nm) could influence the Earth's surface temperature variation by "Highly Excited Water Vapor" (HEWV) effect. In this manuscript, we reconstruct the developing history of the ozone layer depth variation from 1860 to 2011 based on the HEWV effect. It is shown that the reconstructed ozone layer depth variation correlates with the observational variation from 1958 to 2005 very well ($R=0.8422$, $P>99.9\\%$). From this reconstruction, we may limit the spectra band of the surface Ultraviolet irradiance referred in HEWV effect to Ultraviolet B ($280-320$ nm).

Chen, Jilong; Zheng, Yujun

2014-01-01

111

Daily Life with Glaucoma  

MedlinePLUS

Daily Life with Glaucoma email Send this article to a friend by filling out the fields below: Your name: ... and comforting. Don't let glaucoma limit your life Don’t let glaucoma limit your life. You ...

112

Managing Daily Life  

MedlinePLUS

Managing Daily Life Environmental accessibility As the person with Duchenne starts to have more problems moving around, consider making changes in ... such as wider doorways and ramps, can make life easier once the person with Duchenne cannot climb ...

113

Tips for Daily Life  

MedlinePLUS

... chapter Join our online community Tips for Daily Life Coping skills will help you handle day-to- ... challenges, maximize your independence and live a meaningful life with your diagnosis. Accepting changes Creating a coping ...

114

Daily Life: At Home  

MedlinePLUS

... living with sma > daily life > at home At Home Many families affected by SMA choose to make ... many cases, modifications address both safety and accessibility. Home Modification Considerations Before making a decision on home ...

115

Daily Food Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will find daily food recommendations based upon their age, weight, height, and activity level. Standard 2 Objective1: a,b,c It is helpful to have a guide that can give us directions on the type and quantity of foods we should eat daily. Lets first view the basics of our food groups. Click the Food Group Basics link below and see if you can answer the questions provided. Food Group Basics What is the ...

Mr. Peterson

2011-09-18

116

UV-B radiation amplification factor determined based on the simultaneous observation of total ozone and global spectral irradiance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Japan Meteorological Agency started the spectral observation of solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiance on 1 January 1990 at Tateno, Aerological Observatory in Tsukuba (35 deg N, 140 deg E). The observation has been carried out using the Brewer spectrophotometer for the wavelengths from 290 to 325 nm with a 0.5 nm interval every hour from 30 minutes before sunrise to 30 minutes after sunset throughout a year. Because of remarkable similarity within observed spectra, an observed spectrum can be expressed by a simple combination of a reference spectrum and two parameters expressing the deformation of the observed spectrum from the reference. By use of the relation between one of the deformation parameters and the total ozone simultaneously observed with the Dobson spectrophotometer, the possible increase of UV irradiance due to ozone depletion is estimated. For damaging UV, the irradiance possibly increases about 19 percent with the ozone depletion of 10 percent at noon throughout the year in the northern midlatitudes. DUV at noon on the summer solstice possibly increases about 5.6 percent with the ozone depletion of 10 m atm-cm for all latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere.

Ito, T.; Sakoda, Y.; Matsubara, K.; Kajihara, R.; Uekubo, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Shitamichi, M.; Ueno, T.; Ito, M.

1994-01-01

117

Hoover Daily Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hoover Institution at Stanford University is known for its many research projects, conferences, working papers, and distinguished fellows. Over the past several years, they have been tweaking various sections of their website, and the Daily Report provides ample evidence of this transformation. The Daily Report offers a "one-stop" online destination for interested parties to look at op-ed and commentary pieces by Hoover Fellows, blog posts, interviews, and related articles and quotes about the Hoover Institution and their associates. Users can browse the materials here by date, topic, or author, and they may also sign up here to receive the Daily Report by email. The site also is quite rich in social media and Web 2.0 features.

118

Toothbrushing: Do It Daily.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a practical guide for promoting daily toothbrushing in young children. Discusses the importance of proper dental care, explains the causes of tooth decay, describes proper dental care for infants and young children, recommends materials and teaching methods, and discusses visits to the dentist and the benefits of fluoride for dental health.…

Texas Child Care, 1993

1993-01-01

119

NOAA Daily Weather Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The charts on this website are the principal charts of the former Weather Bureau publication, "Daily Weather Map." They are the Surface Weather Map, the 500-Millibar Height Contours chart, the Highest and Lowest Temperatures chart, and the Precipitation Areas and Amounts chart. For each day, simple charts are arranged on a single page. These charts are the surface analysis of pressure and fronts, color shading, in ten degree intervals,of maximum and minimum temperature, 500-Millibar height contours, and color shaded 24-hour total precipitation. These charts act as links to their respective Daily Weather Map charts. All charts are derived from the operational weather maps prepared at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, National Weather Service.

Hydrometeorological Prediction Center

2011-01-01

120

Daily Food Checklist  

Cancer.gov

The daily food checklist method is a form of food record. The tool is comprised of a list of foods; over the course of a day, a respondent makes a check beside a food each time she or he eats it. The checklist shares an advantage of other record methods in that it does not rely on memory. In addition, it avoids some disadvantages of complete quantitative food records in that it has relatively low respondent and investigator burden.

121

New types of simple non-linear models to compute solar global irradiance from cloud cover amount  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most simple solar radiation models are built with reference to a basic model calibrated for clear sky conditions. New models are built in this paper with reference to two basic models, calibrated for clear sky and overcast sky conditions, correspondingly. The models are illustrated with measurements data from five meteorological stations in Romania (South-Eastern Europe), where the ratio between the solar irradiance on overcast sky and clear sky, respectively, ranges between 0.27 and 0.55. A three-parameter model is used for both basic models. Three new types of regression models were developed from the two basic models. They are non-linear generalizations of the Angstrom-Savinov model. Their accuracy decreases by increasing the cloud cover amount. One model has been further tested. A set of regression coefficients has been obtained by fitting that model to all available data, for all stations. The model based on this set of regression coefficients has good accuracy in any particular station, when low and intermediate cloudy skies are considered. The model based on a set of regression coefficients obtained in a given station was tested in other stations. Its accuracy is good (or marginally, good enough) on skies with low and intermediate cloudy skies. Its accuracy is good for intermediate zenith angles, ranging between 30° and 70°.

Badescu, Viorel; Dumitrescu, Alexandru

2014-09-01

122

HEPROC Daily Gazette  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The HEPROC Daily Gazette Web page offers features stories about technology adaptations, assessment, faculty development, quality, and announcements of interest to the Higher Education community. Current items include: new ways to keep alumni together, increased sharing across the Internet, collaborative publication resources, an online help center, career center online, and recommendations for interactive learning. Additional features address collaboration and electronic tools in the humanities, adopting radical change in the "classroom", the Iowa State University Center for Teaching Excellence, tenure and change, collaboration with primary and secondary education, and undergraduate scholarship.

123

The Irradiance Volume  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This paper presentsavolumetric representation for the global illumination within a space based on theradiometric quantity irradiance. We call this representation the irradiance volume. Although irradianceis traditionally computed only for surfaces, we extend its de#nition to all points and directions in space.

Gene Greger; Peter Shirley; Philip M. Hubbard; Donald P. Greenberg

1998-01-01

124

Math in Daily Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Math in the "real world" happens all the time, and it can involve everything from buying a car to following a simple (or complex) recipe. The "Math in Daily Life" site offers up a series of interesting ways to get students thinking about how math works in everyday life. Created by Annenberg Media, this set of interactive exercises looks at the manifestation of mathematical principles in areas of life such as home decorating, finances, and of course, cooking. In each section, users will find hands-on exercises that complement well-written essays that help introduce visitors to seven different topical areas. Finally, the site includes a list of relevant websites, including links to The Math Forum, the U.S. Census Bureau, and The Metric Conversion Card.

2008-01-24

125

The Cornell Daily Sun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Cornell University Library and the Cornell Daily Sun have teamed up to offer access to the complete run of this student newspaper. The paper was first published in September 1880, and over the intervening years it has served as a repository for the hopes, dreams, activities, and general milieu of the members of the Cornell community. Currently, visitors may browse issues dating back to 1880 in their entirety, and the project will eventually allow users to search the entire Sun archives for articles by subject, writer, or date. Visitors can use the "Search" section to type in sample searches like "Ithaca," "sports," or "library." It's an ambitious project, and one that could serve as an ideal model for other student newspapers and related publications hoping to take on a similar challenge.

126

New daily persistent headache  

PubMed Central

New daily persistent headache (NDPH) is a chronic headache developing in a person who does not have a past history of headaches. The headache begins acutely and reaches its peak within 3 days. It is important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure and volume. A significant proportion of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. The condition is best viewed as a syndrome rather than a diagnosis. The headache can mimic chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache, and it is also important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in CSF pressure and volume. A large proportion of NDPH sufferers have migrainous features to their headache and should be managed with treatments used for treating migraine. A small group of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. PMID:23024565

Tyagi, Alok

2012-01-01

127

ArchDaily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Billed as the "world's most visited architecture website,â ArchDaily is a treasure trove of materials on new building projects, architectural trends, design matters, and competitions. Along the top of its homepage, visitors can delve into areas that include News, Articles, Materials, Software, and Interviews. This last area is a great place to start as it includes fabulous conversations with notables such as Jeanne Gang, Jean-Louis Cohen, and Andreas G. Gjertsen. Moving along, the Materials section offers specific technical information on equipment, finishes, installation techniques, and structural work. The Projects area contains information on new and compelling works, such as the Soundcloud Headquarters in Berlin and the Bagnoli Futura in Italy.

128

A Model for the Estimation of Global Solar Radiation Using Fuzzy Random Variables.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the concept of fuzzy random variables is applied for the estimation of global solar radiation on a surface at ground level. The cloudiness index is defined as the fraction of extraterrestrial radiation that reaches the earth's surface when the sky above the location of interest is obscured by the cloud cover. The cloud cover at the location of interest during the jth time interval of a day is assumed to follow the fuzzy random phenomenon. The cloudiness index, therefore, is considered as a fuzzy random variable that accounts for the cloud cover at the location of interest during the jth time interval of a day. This variable is assumed to depend on four other fuzzy random variables that, respectively, account for the cloud cover corresponding to the 1) type of cloud group, 2) climatic region, 3) season with most of the precipitation, and 4) type of precipitation at the location of interest during the jth time interval. The method is applied to estimate the monthly mean daily global solar irradiation for four different locations corresponding to four different climatic regions in India. The mean hourly global solar irradiation for the months of January and July and the global solar irradiance on a horizontal surface at Delhi for two typical days are also estimated. The deviations of simulated values with respect to the corresponding observed values are calculated using the mean biased error and root-mean-square error statistical parameters characteristic of long-term and short-term predictive values of the deviations, respectively. For the short-term and long-term performances, the simulated values exhibit maximum deviations of 0.532% and 1.86%, respectively, from the corresponding observed values of monthly mean daily global irradiation at Calcutta. The maximum deviations are 3.204% and 5.845%, respectively, for monthly mean hourly global irradiation at Delhi in January.

Gautam, Nalin K.; Kaushika, N. D.

2002-12-01

129

An introduction to quiet daily geomagnetic fields  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On days that are quiet with respect to solar-terrestrial activity phenomena, the geomagnetic field has variations, tens of gamma in size, with major spectral components at about 24, 12, 8, and 6 hr in period. These quiet daily field variations are primarily due to the dynamo currents flowing in the E region of the earth's ionosphere, are driven by the global thermotidal wind systems, and are dependent upon the local tensor conductivity and main geomagnetic field vector. The highlights of the behavior and interpretation of these quiet field changes, from their discovery in 1634 until the present, are discussed as an introduction to the special journal issue on Quiet Daily Geomagnetic Fields. ?? 1989 Birkha??user Verlag.

Campbell, W.H.

1989-01-01

130

Quantification of Daily Physical Activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of physical activity on the maintenance and adaptation of musculoskeletal tissue is difficult to assess. Cumulative musculoskeletal loading is hard to quantify and the attributes of the daily tissue loading history affecting bone metabolism have not been completely identified. By monitoring the vertical component of the daily ground reaction force (GRFz), we have an indirect measure of cumulative daily lower limb musculoskeletal loading to correlate with bone density and structure. The objective of this research is to develop instrumentation and methods of analysis to quantify activity level in terms of the daily history of ground reaction forces.

Whalen, Robert; Breit, Greg; Quintana, Jason

1994-01-01

131

Daily Egyptian Diversity News Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed as part of the online collections at Southern Illinois University-Carbondale's Morris Library, the Daily Egyptian Diversity News Index provides historical insight into the campus climate at this unique school. In 2006, Dr. Seymour Bryson, the associate chancellor for diversity, teamed up with several other colleagues to identify articles in the Daily Egyptian (the University's student newspaper) related to the university's historic minority campus populations. The project entailed surveying microfilm and creating searchable transcripts for online access. Currently, the online archive contains over 1,400 items from the Daily Egyptian, and content includes pieces on African American members of the homecoming court, student activists, musical groups, and student government.

132

Daily Lightning Measurements from TRMM: April 1, 1998 through April 29, 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Daily actual lightning measurements from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on TRMM for the period from April 1, 1998, through April 29, 1998. Global data is shown, followed by regional data for North America, North and South America, and Africa.

Shirah, Greg; Kummerow, Chris

1998-05-19

133

Tractor Operation and Daily Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for the tractor operator, the manual describes, with the aid of colored illustrations and diagrams, the tasks involved in the proper operation and daily maintenance of tractors. It offers explanations for the desirability of the various servicing and adjustment operations, as well as guidelines for tractor operation and safety. The…

Fore, J. M.; And Others

134

Daily Log 2009 September 2009  

E-print Network

Location: Parking Lot I Disposition: Report--Closed Comments: Two vehicle accident; no injuries. #12;Daily Location: Lot E Disposition: Report--Open Comments: Student parking permit taken from unlocked vehicle to hospital by ambulance. Report #: 2009-00486 Reported: 09/29/09 2116 Occurred: Same Incident: Traffic Crash

Boyce, Richard L.

135

2011 Daily Log February 2011  

E-print Network

: 02/28/2011 1349 Incident: Traffic Crash Location: Lot D Disposition: Report--Closed Comments: Two: 02/26/2011 Incident: Hit and Skip Location: Lot P Disposition: Report--Closed Comments: Unknown vehicle struck parked vehicle and left the scene. #12;2011 Daily Log Report #: 2011-00110 Reported: 02

Boyce, Richard L.

136

Web searching for daily living  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new concept proposed in this paper is a query free web search that automatically retrieves a web page including information re- lated to the daily activity that we are currently engaged in for auto- matically displaying the page on Internet-connected domestic ap- pliances around us such as televisions. When we are washing a coffee maker, for example, a web

Takuya Maekawa; Yutaka Yanagisawa; Yasushi Sakurai; Yasue Kishino; Koji Kamei; Takeshi Okadome

2009-01-01

137

2010 Daily Log January 2010  

E-print Network

off the road and into a ditch; no injuries. #12;2010 Daily Log Report #: 2010-00042 Reported: 01: 01/31/10 1852 Occurred: Same Incident: Traffic Stop Location: Johns Hill Road Disposition: Citation vehicle accident with injuries; vehicle towed. Report #: 2010-00047 Reported: 01/28/10 2113 Occurred: Same

Boyce, Richard L.

138

Reconstruction of solar UV irradiance since 1974  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations of the solar UV irradiance are an important driver of chemical and physical processes in the Earth's upper atmosphere and may also influence global climate. Here we reconstruct solar UV irradiance in the range 115–400 nm over the period 1974–2007 by making use of the recently developed empirical extension of the Spectral And Total Irradiance Reconstruction (SATIRE) models employing

N. A. Krivova; S. K. Solanki; T. Wenzler; B. Podlipnik

2009-01-01

139

Global Hydrology Resource Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration provides data ingest, archive, and distribution services for the Global Hydrology and Climate Center (GHCC). Eight categories of online data are available to download using FTP. These include MSFC SSM/I Brightness Temperature, MSFC SSM/I Daily Gridded Products, and MSU Daily/Monthly Anomalies/Annual Cycle Temperatures-Limb90. The entire database can be viewed through HyDRO, the Hydrologic Data search, Retrieval, and Order system. Note that some data is restricted to Earth Observing System (EOS) affiliated investigators.

2007-08-05

140

UVIS CCD Daily Monitor A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program obtains full-frame, four-amp readout bias and dark frames as part of a daily monitor of the behavior of the WFC3/UVIS CCD. All images are post-flashed at a level of 12 e-; a separate program {13559} will be used to obtain un-flashed UVIS darks to monitor non-postflashed behavior. The frames from this proposal, in addition to those that are obtained as part of the WFC3/UVIS anneal program {13554}, will be used to create superbias and superdark calibration reference files for the Calibration Database System {CDBS}.This is the first of three daily monitoring programs of Cycle 21 {the others are 13557 and 13558}. It covers November 2, 2013 through February 24, 2014. The combination of the three programs provides full coverage of Cycle 21.

Bourque, Matthew

2013-10-01

141

UVIS CCD Daily Monitor C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program obtains full-frame, four-amp readout bias and dark frames as part of a daily monitor of the behavior of the WFC3/UVIS CCD. All images are post-flashed at a level of 12 e-; a separate program {13559} will be used to obtain un-flashed UVIS darks to monitor non-postflashed behavior. The frames from this program, in addition to those that are obtained as part of the WFC3/UVIS anneal program {13554}, will be used to create superbias and superdark calibration reference files for the Calibration Database System {CDBS}.This program is the second of three daily monitoring programs of Cycle 21 {the others being 13556 and 13557}. This program spans June 18, 2013 through November 4, 2014. The combination of this and the other programs span the entirety of Cycle 21.

Bourque, Matthew

2013-10-01

142

UVIS CCD Daily Monitor B  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program obtains full-frame, four-amp readout bias and dark frames as part of a daily monitor of the behavior of the WFC3/UVIS CCD. All images are post-flashed at a level of 12 e-; a separate program {13559} will be used to obtain un-flashed UVIS darks to monitor non-postflashed behavior. The frames from this program, in addition to those that are obtained as part of the WFC3/UVIS anneal program {13554}, will be used to create superbias and superdark calibration reference files for the Calibration Database System {CDBS}.This program is the second of three daily monitoring programs of Cycle 21 {the others being 13556 and 13558}. This program spans February 24, 2013 through June 18, 2014. The combination of this and the other programs span the entirety of Cycle 21.

Bourque, Matthew

2013-10-01

143

A new method for estimating the turbulent heat flux at the bottom of the daily mixed layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method is presented for estimating the vertical turbulent heat flux at the bottom of the daily mixed layer from the temperature data in the mixed layer and net solar irradiance data at the sea surface. We assume that fluctuations in the divergence of advective heat flux have longer than daily time scales. The method is applied to data

Shiro Imawaki; Pearn P. Niiler; Catherine H. Gautier; David Halpern; Robert A. Knox; William G. Large; Douglas S. Luther; James C. McWilliams; James N. Moum; Clayton A. Paulson

1988-01-01

144

Spatial downscaling and mapping of daily precipitation and air temperature using daily station data and monthly mean maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate maps of daily weather variables are an essential component of hydrologic and ecologic modeling. Here we present a four-step method that uses daily station data and transient monthly maps of precipitation and air temperature. This method uses the monthly maps to help interpolate between stations for more accurate production of daily maps at any spatial resolution. The first step analyzes the quality of the each station's data using a discrepancy analysis that compares statistics derived from a statistical jack-knifing approach with a time-series evaluation of discrepancies generated for each station. Although several methods could be used for the second step of producing initial maps, such as kriging, splines, etc., we used a gradient plus inverse distance squared method that was developed to produce accurate climate maps for sparse data regions with widely separated and few climate stations, far fewer than would be needed for techniques such as kriging. The gradient plus inverse distance squared method uses local gradients in the climate parameters, easting, northing, and elevation, to adjust the inverse distance squared estimates for local gradients such as lapse rates, inversions, or rain shadows at scales of 10's of meters to kilometers. The third step is to downscale World Wide Web (web) based transient monthly data, such as Precipitation-Elevation Regression on Independent Slope Method (PRISM) for the US (4 km or 800 m maps) or Climate Research Unit (CRU 3.1) data sets (40 km for global applications) to the scale of the daily data's digital elevation model. In the final step the downscaled transient monthly maps are used to adjust the daily time-series mapped data (~30 maps/month) for each month. These adjustments are used to scale daily maps so that summing them for precipitation or averaging them for temperature would more accurately reproduce the variability in selected monthly maps. This method allows for individual days to have maxima or minima values away from the station locations based on the underlying geographic structure of the monthly maps. We compare our results with the web based 12 km Variable Infiltration Capacity model (VIC) daily data and the 1 km DayMet daily data as well as make comparisons of the month summation or average of daily data sets with the PRISM and CRU data sets. There were mixed results in the comparisons with some good agreement and some bad agreement, even between VIC and DayMet. These daily maps are intended to be used as input to daily hydrological models. The results will provide more insight into the significance of the differences, at least from a hydrology perspective.

Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.; Stern, M. A.

2013-12-01

145

Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

2013-01-01

146

Improving HelioClim-3 estimates of surface solar irradiance using the McClear clear-sky model and recent advances in atmosphere composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The HelioClim-3 database (HC3v3) provides records of surface solar irradiation every 15 min, estimated by processing images from the geostationary meteorological Meteosat satellites using climatological data sets of the atmospheric Linke turbidity factor. This technical note proposes a method to improve a posteriori HC3v3 by combining it with data records of the irradiation under clear skies from the new McClear clear-sky model, whose inputs are the advanced global aerosol property forecasts and physically consistent total column content in water vapour and ozone produced by the MACC (Monitoring Atmosphere Composition and Climate) projects. The method is validated by comparison with a series of ground measurements for 15 min and 1 h for 6 stations and for daily irradiation for 23 stations. The correlation coefficient is large, greater than respectively 0.92, 0.94, and 0.97, for 15 min, 1 h and daily irradiation. The bias ranges from -4 to 4% of the mean observed irradiation for most sites. The relative root mean square difference (RMSD) varies between 14 and 38% for 15 min, 12 and 33% for 1 h irradiation, and 6 and 20% for daily irradiation. As a rule of thumb, the farther from the nadir of the Meteosat satellite located at latitude 0° and longitude 0°, and the greater the occurrence of fragmented cloud cover, the greater the relative RMSD. The method improves HC3v3 in most cases, and with no degradation in the others. A systematic correction of HC3v3 with McClear is recommended.

Qu, Z.; Gschwind, B.; Lefevre, M.; Wald, L.

2014-11-01

147

Mail Irradiation  

MedlinePLUS

... packages. Top of page How does irradiation kill anthrax? Irradiation kills anthrax by shattering its DNA and other cellular components. ... technology is used) strikes the mail and any anthrax spores it may contain. The radiation dose is ...

148

Daily cycles in coastal dunes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Daily cycles of summer sea breezes produce distinctive cyclic foreset deposits in dune sands of the Texas and Oregon coasts. In both areas the winds are strong enough to transport sand only during part of the day, reach a peak during the afternoon, and vary little in direction during the period of sand transport. Cyclicity in the foreset deposits is made evident by variations in the type of sedimentary structure, the texture, and the heavy-mineral content of the sand. Some of the cyclic deposits are made up entirely of one basic type of structure, in which the character of the structure varies cyclically; for example, the angle of climb in a climbing-wind-ripple structure may vary cyclically. Other cyclic deposits are characterized by alternations of two or more structural types. Variations in the concentration of fine-grained heavy minerals, which account for the most striking cyclicity, arise mainly because of segregation on wind-rippled depositional surfaces: where the ripples climb at low angles, the coarsegrained light minerals, which accumulate preferentially on ripple crests, tend to be excluded from the local deposit. Daily cyclic deposits are thickest and best developed on small dunes and are least recognizable near the bases of large dunes. ?? 1988.

Hunter, R.E.; Richmond, B.M.

1988-01-01

149

Once-daily aminoglycoside therapy.  

PubMed Central

The once-daily administration of aminoglycosides is an attractive concept. In animal experiments and clinical trials, there is either a reduction in or no influence on the risk of toxicity. Less frequent dosing reduces the contact time between host tissue binding sites and drug. Thanks to the PAE and perhaps other as-yet-unrecognized factors, the fall in the level in serum below the MIC does not appear to impair antibacterial efficacy; in fact, the higher peak level in serum may enhance drug efficacy early in a dosage interval. In neutropenic patients, the in vivo PAE may be lost or small-colony variants with a shorter PAE may be selected unless a concomitant beta-lactam is administered. Because it will be some time before data from clinical trials in the United States are available, because the results from the international trials are encouraging, and because there is potential benefit to patients, it seems reasonable for infectious diseases consultants to cautiously initiate the educational process necessary to implement once-daily aminoglycoside therapy in their institutions. PMID:2039189

Gilbert, D N

1991-01-01

150

Daily Medicine Record for Your Child  

MedlinePLUS

... and Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Safely Daily Medicine Record for Your Child (English) (PDF version - 97KB) Why ... 2 years old___ Weight: ___ 30 pounds ___ Daily Medicine Record Child’s name: ___________________ Today’s date: _________________ Age: ____________ Weight: ________________ (pounds) Time ...

151

27 CFR 19.650 - Daily records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 Daily records...accurate and complete daily records of production operations. It is not...

2014-04-01

152

27 CFR 19.650 - Daily records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 Daily records...accurate and complete daily records of production operations. It is not...

2013-04-01

153

27 CFR 19.650 - Daily records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 Daily records...accurate and complete daily records of production operations. It is not...

2011-04-01

154

27 CFR 19.650 - Daily records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 Daily records...accurate and complete daily records of production operations. It is not...

2012-04-01

155

2, 11471183, 2005 A daily salt balance  

E-print Network

HESSD 2, 1147­1183, 2005 A daily salt balance model for streamflow generation M. A. Bari and K. R Sciences A daily salt balance model for representing stream salinity generation process following land use­1183, 2005 A daily salt balance model for streamflow generation M. A. Bari and K. R. J. Smettem Title Page

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

156

Sleep and chronic daily headache.  

PubMed

Sleep and headache have a complex and extensive interrelationship. This review focuses on the relationship between sleep and chronic daily headache, examining recent advances in the epidemiology and insights into possible mechanisms of this relationship as well as reviewing advances in treatment. There is a clear relationship between obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and snoring and morning headache, but the relationship between OSA and snoring and other primary headaches requires clarification. OSA and chronic migraine share both obesity and patent foramen ovale (PFO) as possible co-morbidities. Hypoxia does not clearly predispose to morning headache. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is an established treatment for OSA, and mixed results have been reported with regards to headache improvement with this treatment. PMID:25416461

Stark, Catherine Diana; Stark, Richard James

2015-01-01

157

Total Maximum Daily Load Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides this informative resource on Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL). A term used to discuss water quality, TMDL refers to "a calculation of the maximum amount of a pollutant that a water body can receive and still meet water quality standards." The TMDL Program Website offers background information on TMDLs (including FAQs), a National Overview of Impaired Waters in the US, and two standard presentations on TMDLs (HTML and Power Point). The heart of the site, however, is the interactive map of the US, which allows users access to each state's TMDL Program. Within each state, watershed names and maps, as well as source information (Water body, Parameter of Concern, Priority for TMDL Development), are provided.

158

Hibernation and daily torpor minimize mammalian extinctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small mammals appear to be less vulnerable to extinction than large species, but the underlying reasons are poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that almost all (93.5%) of 61 recently extinct mammal species were homeothermic, maintaining a constant high body temperature and thus energy expenditure, which demands a high intake of food, long foraging times, and thus exposure to predators. In contrast, only 6.5% of extinct mammals were likely heterothermic and employed multi-day torpor (hibernation) or daily torpor, even though torpor is widespread within more than half of all mammalian orders. Torpor is characterized by substantial reductions of body temperature and energy expenditure and enhances survival during adverse conditions by minimizing food and water requirements, and consequently reduces foraging requirements and exposure to predators. Moreover, because life span is generally longer in heterothermic mammals than in related homeotherms, heterotherms can employ a ‘sit-and-wait’ strategy to withstand adverse periods and then repopulate when circumstances improve. Thus, torpor is a crucial but hitherto unappreciated attribute of small mammals for avoiding extinction. Many opportunistic heterothermic species, because of their plastic energetic requirements, may also stand a better chance of future survival than homeothermic species in the face of greater climatic extremes and changes in environmental conditions caused by global warming.

Geiser, Fritz; Turbill, Christopher

2009-10-01

159

Irradiation of Food, Current Legislation Framework, and Detection of Irradiated Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review covers description of food irradiation process, the current status of global legislation background in the field\\u000a of irradiated foodstuffs, and the state of detection methods up-to-date available based on physical, chemical, biological,\\u000a and microbiological changes in irradiated foods. Special emphasis was put on European Standards for the detection of irradiated\\u000a foods adopted by the European Committee for Standardization,

Rayna Stefanova; Nikola V. Vasilev; Stefan L. Spassov

2010-01-01

160

Corticosteroid replacement therapy: twice or thrice daily?  

PubMed Central

Although glucocorticoid replacement is conventionally administered twice daily, the pharmacokinetics of hydrocortisone would predict very low levels of plasma cortisol by mid-afternoon. This study compared plasma cortisol day profiles in 7 hypoadrenal patients while on twice daily and thrice daily hydrocortisone replacement. The twice daily regimen was associated with very low levels of cortisol at 16.00 and 18.00 h. This was eliminated by administering the same total dose in a thrice daily regimen. Furthermore, estimates of 'well-being' by visual analogue scale correlated significantly with simultaneous plasma cortisol levels and 5 of the patients expressed a preference for the thrice daily regimen. The findings suggest that thrice daily glucocorticoid replacement therapy should be adopted routinely. PMID:3184107

Groves, R W; Toms, G C; Houghton, B J; Monson, J P

1988-01-01

161

Corticosteroid replacement therapy: twice or thrice daily?  

PubMed

Although glucocorticoid replacement is conventionally administered twice daily, the pharmacokinetics of hydrocortisone would predict very low levels of plasma cortisol by mid-afternoon. This study compared plasma cortisol day profiles in 7 hypoadrenal patients while on twice daily and thrice daily hydrocortisone replacement. The twice daily regimen was associated with very low levels of cortisol at 16.00 and 18.00 h. This was eliminated by administering the same total dose in a thrice daily regimen. Furthermore, estimates of 'well-being' by visual analogue scale correlated significantly with simultaneous plasma cortisol levels and 5 of the patients expressed a preference for the thrice daily regimen. The findings suggest that thrice daily glucocorticoid replacement therapy should be adopted routinely. PMID:3184107

Groves, R W; Toms, G C; Houghton, B J; Monson, J P

1988-09-01

162

Maximizing daily canopy photosynthesis with respect to the leaf nitrogen allocation pattern in the canopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of daily canopy photosynthesis was constructed taking light and leaf nitrogen distribution in the canopy into consideration. It was applied to a canopy of Solidago altissima. Both irradiance and nitrogen concentration per unit leaf area decreased exponentially with increasing cumulative leaf area from the top of the canopy. The photosynthetic capacity of a single leaf was evaluated in

T. Hirose; M. J. A. Werger

1987-01-01

163

Global Gene Expression Profiles of the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803 in Response to Irradiation with UV-B and White Light  

PubMed Central

We developed a transcript profiling methodology to elucidate expression patterns of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 and used the technology to investigate changes in gene expression caused by irradiation with either intermediate-wavelength UV light (UV-B) or high-intensity white light. Several families of transcripts were altered by UV-B treatment, including mRNAs specifying proteins involved in light harvesting, photosynthesis, photoprotection, and the heat shock response. In addition, UV-B light induced the stringent response in Synechocystis, as indicated by the repression of ribosomal protein transcripts and other mRNAs involved in translation. High-intensity white light- and UV-B-mediated expression profiles overlapped in the down-regulation of photosynthesis genes and induction of heat shock response but differed in several other transcriptional processes including those specifying carbon dioxide uptake and fixation, the stringent response, and the induction profile of the high-light-inducible proteins. These two profile comparisons not only corroborated known physiological changes but also suggested coordinated regulation of many pathways, including synchronized induction of D1 protein recycling and a coupling between decreased phycobilisome biosynthesis and increased phycobilisome degradation. Overall, the gene expression profile analysis generated new insights into the integrated network of genes that adapts rapidly to different wavelengths and intensities of light. PMID:12446635

Huang, Lixuan; McCluskey, Michael P.; Ni, Hao; LaRossa, Robert A.

2002-01-01

164

Cokriging estimation of daily suspended sediment loads  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Daily suspended sediment loads (S) were estimated using cokriging (CK) of S with daily river discharge based on weekly, biweekly, or monthly sampled sediment data. They were also estimated with ordinary kriging (OK) and a rating curve method. The estimated daily loads were compared with the daily measured values over a nine-year-period. The results show that the estimated daily sediment loads with the CK using the weekly measured data best matched the measured daily values. The rating curve method based on the same data provides a fairly good match but it tends to underestimate the peak and overestimate the low values. The CK estimation was better than the rating curve because CK considers the temporal correlation among the data values and honors the measured points whereas the rating curve method does not. For the site studied, weekly sampling may be frequent enough for estimating daily sediment loads with CK when daily discharge data is available. The estimated daily loads with CK were less reliable when the sediment samples were taken less frequently, i.e., biweekly or monthly. The OK estimates using the weekly measured data significantly underestimates the daily S because unlike CK and the rating curve, OK makes no use of the correlation of sediment loads with frequently measured river discharge. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Li, Z.; Zhang, Y.-K.; Schilling, K.; Skopec, M.

2006-01-01

165

Estimation of atmospheric turbidity and surface radiative parameters using broadband clear sky solar irradiance models in Rio de Janeiro-Brasil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of this paper is to estimate a set of optimal seasonal, daily, and hourly values of atmospheric turbidity and surface radiative parameters Ĺngström's turbidity coefficient (?), Ĺngström's wavelength exponent (?), aerosol single scattering albedo (? o ), forward scatterance (F c ) and average surface albedo (? g ), using the Brute Force multidimensional minimization method to minimize the difference between measured and simulated solar irradiance components, expressed as cost functions. In order to simulate the components of short-wave solar irradiance (direct, diffuse and global) for clear sky conditions, incidents on a horizontal surface in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro (MARJ), Brazil (22° 51' 27? S, 43° 13' 58? W), we use two parameterized broadband solar irradiance models, called CPCR2 and Iqbal C, based on synoptic information. The meteorological variables such as precipitable water (u w ) and ozone concentration (u o ) required by the broadband solar models were obtained from moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on Terra and Aqua NASA platforms. For the implementation and validation processes, we use global and diffuse solar irradiance data measured by the radiometric platform of LabMiM, located in the north area of the MARJ. The data were measured between the years 2010 and 2012 at 1-min intervals. The performance of solar irradiance models using optimal parameters was evaluated with several quantitative statistical indicators and a subset of measured solar irradiance data. Some daily results for Ĺngström's wavelength exponent ? were compared with Ĺngström's parameter (440-870 nm) values obtained by aerosol robotic network (AERONET) for 11 days, showing an acceptable level of agreement. Results for Ĺngström's turbidity coefficient ?, associated with the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere, show a seasonal pattern according with increased precipitation during summer months (December-February) in the MARJ.

Flores, José L.; Karam, Hugo A.; Marques Filho, Edson P.; Pereira Filho, Augusto J.

2015-01-01

166

Sedoanalgesia in pediatric daily surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The present report was focused on clinical advantages of sedoanalgesia in the pediatric outpatient surgical cases. Method: Sedoanalgesia has been used to sedate patients for a variety of pediatric procedures in our department between 2007 and 2010. This is a retrospective review of 2720 pediatric patients given ketamine for sedation with midazolam premedication. Ketamine was given intravenously (1-2 mg/kg) together with atropine (0.02 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.1 mg/kg) + a local infiltration anesthetic 2 mg/kg 0.5% bupivacaine hydrochloride. Result: Median age of the patients included in the study was 5.76 ± 2.12 (0-16 years). The main indications for ketamine include circumcision (69%), inguinal pathologies (inguinal hernia (17%), orchidopexy (2.68%), hydrocele (3.38%), hypospadias (1.94%), urethral fistula repair (0.33%), urethral dilatation (0.25%), and other conditions. All of our patients were discharged home well. In this regard, we have the largest group of patients ever given ketamine. Conclusion: Sedoanalgesia might be used as a quite effective method for daily surgical procedures in children. PMID:23936597

Ozkan, Aybars; Okur, Mesut; Kaya, Murat; Kaya, Ertugrul; Kucuk, Adem; Erbas, Mesut; Kutlucan, Leyla; Sahan, Leyla

2013-01-01

167

Chronic daily headaches in children.  

PubMed

Chronic daily headache (CDH) or highly frequent headaches are being recognised as an increasing problem. In adults it is estimated that up to 4% of the population has CDH, however, this number appears to be lower in children. The actual prevalence of CDH in children, however, has not been determined. The simplest definition of CDH is > 15 headache days per month. In the international headache society (IHS) criteria, only chronic tension-type headaches and chronic cluster headaches are recognised as CDH. Criteria for CDH have been suggested for adults that mirror the IHS criteria. In children, the majority of CDH appear to be migraine related. The next revision of the IHS criteria has been proposed to include chronic migraine as one of the CDH. Evaluation of CDH needs to include a complete history and physical examination to identify any possibility of the headache representing secondary headaches. Treatment and management involves a multi-tiered approach, which includes abortive therapy when the headache becomes more severe. With the precaution of avoiding overuse of analgesic medication, prophylactic therapy is used to help reduce the characteristics of the headache as well as the frequency and mild behavioural therapy. PMID:12667111

Hershey, Andrew D

2003-04-01

168

Flexibility in daily travel routines causes regional variation in bird migration speed  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used novel Global Positioning System-based satellite telemetry to reconstruct daily time budgets on travelling days of\\u000a a long-distance migrant, the Osprey Pandion haliaetus, to reveal how landscape affects migratory performance. We compared daily travel routines between the Ospreys’ passage of\\u000a Europe and the Sahara. In Europe, where feeding habitat is abundant, Ospreys fed both before–after flights and during interruptions,

Raymond H. G. Klaassen; Roine Strandberg; Mikael Hake; Thomas Alerstam

2008-01-01

169

Estimates of tropical analysis differences in daily values produced by two operational centers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To assess the uncertainty of daily synoptic analyses for the atmospheric state, the intercomparison of three First GARP Global Experiment level IIIb datasets is performed. Daily values of divergence, vorticity, temperature, static stability, vertical motion, mixing ratio, and diagnosed diabatic heating rate are compared for the period of 26 January-11 February 1979. The spatial variance and mean, temporal mean and variance, 2D wavenumber power spectrum, anomaly correlation, and normalized square difference are employed for comparison.

Kasahara, Akira; Mizzi, Arthur P.

1992-01-01

170

Regional Trends in the Statistical Distributions of Daily Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trends in the evolutions of anomaly probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the averages of daily station maximum (Tmax) and minimum temperatures (Tmin), common proxies for average daily temperatures, are calculated from NOAA's Global Historical Climatology Network Daily (GHCND) dataset for each season relative to a 1961-1990 climatology. Distribution trends are represented as generalized linear regression coefficients on the mean, variance, skewness, and kurtosis values tabulated from decade length time bins over the twentieth century assuming an AR1 auto-covariance structure. The coefficients are supplemented with estimates of trend significance. To provide further insight into regional trends, various characteristic global regions are selected and their aggregate PDFs plotted on the same axis over time to illustrate the visual nature of the distribution shifts. The GHCND data suggests that seasonal PDFs of Tavg are non-Gaussian, and that these distributions have undergone systematic shifts over the twentieth century. When plotted geographically, distributional regions as well regional trends in the characterizing central moments over time are clearly evident. This work suggests that regional shifts in temperature distributions with climate change may occur in addition to the shifts suggested simply by changes in expectation. This work also suggests that further analysis in the context of extreme value theory is needed to more fully understand the evolution of tail behaviors in the climate system. Three toy examples utilizing extreme-value theory, cluster analysis, and Bayesian statistics are supplied as suggestions as ways to analyze tail probabilities and boundedness, regional homogeneity, and conditional expectations from the El Nino Southern Oscillation, respectively, within the context of distributions of daily weather.;

Cavanaugh, N.

2012-12-01

171

Mastering Social and Organization Goals: Strategy Use by Two Children with Asperger Syndrome during Cognitive Orientation to Daily Occupational Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preliminary data supports the effectiveness of Cognitive Orientation to (daily) Occupational Performance (CO-OP) for children with Asperger syndrome (AS). Children with AS often experience social and organizational difficulties spanning daily occupations. This case study explored the pattern of Global Strategies and Domain-Specific Strategies…

Rodger, Sylvia; Vishram, Alysha

2010-01-01

172

Validation of an hourly resolved global aerosol model in answer to solar electricity generation information needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar energy applications need global aerosol optical depth (AOD) information to derive historic surface solar irradiance databases from geostationary meteorological satellites reaching back to the 1980's. This paper validates the MATCH/DLR model originating in the climate community against AERONET ground measurements. Hourly or daily mean AOD model output is evaluated individually for all stations in Europe, Africa and the Middle East - an area highly interesting for solar energy applications being partly dominated by high aerosol loads. Overall, a bias of 0.02 and a root mean square error of 0.23 are found for daily mean AOD values, while the RMSE increases to 0.28 for hourly mean AOD values. Large differences between various regions and stations are found providing a feedback loop for the aerosol modelling community. The difference in using daily means versus hourly resolved modelling with respect to hourly resolved observations is evaluated. Nowadays state of the art in solar resource assessment relies on monthly turbidity or AOD climatologies while at least hourly resolved irradiance time series are needed by the solar sector. Therefore, the contribution of higher temporally modelled AOD is evaluated.

Schroedter-Homscheidt, M.; Oumbe, A.

2012-12-01

173

Validation of an hourly resolved global aerosol model in answer to solar electricity generation information needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar energy applications need global aerosol optical depth (AOD) information to derive historic surface solar irradiance databases from geostationary meteorological satellites reaching back to the 1980's. This paper validates the MATCH/DLR model originating in the climate community against AERONET ground measurements. Hourly or daily mean AOD model output is evaluated individually for all stations in Europe, Africa and the Middle East - an area highly interesting for solar energy applications being partly dominated by high aerosol loads. Overall, a bias of 0.02 and a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.23 are found for daily mean AOD values, while the RMSE increases to 0.28 for hourly mean AOD values. Large differences between various regions and stations are found providing a feedback loop for the aerosol modelling community. The difference in using daily means versus hourly resolved modelling with respect to hourly resolved observations is evaluated. Nowadays state-of-the-art in solar resource assessment relies on monthly turbidity or AOD climatologies while at least hourly resolved irradiance time series are needed by the solar sector. Therefore, the contribution of higher temporally modelled AOD is evaluated.

Schroedter-Homscheidt, M.; Oumbe, A.

2013-04-01

174

Triggers of daily life ischaemia  

PubMed Central

Objective—To determine the usual triggers of silent and symptomatic ischaemia.?Design—Patients wore an ambulatory recorder for 48 hours. The device emitted a tone on detection of ischaemia and patients noted activities, feelings, and symptoms so that ischaemia could be attributed to one of four triggers: physical stress, mental stress, combined physical/mental stress, or no stressor.?Setting—Home environment.?Patients—Patients (n = 38) with stable coronary disease, positive exercise electrocardiography, and ischaemic episodes on ambulatory electrocardiography.?Main outcome measure—Matching ischaemic episodes with perceived triggers.?Results—Altogether 257 ischaemic episodes (53% silent) were documented. Triggers were: physical stress, 56%; mental stress, 5%; combined physical/mental stress, 8%; no identifiable trigger, 31%. Episodes associated with mental or no stress were more often silent (69% and 75%, respectively) than those associated with physical stress (45%, p < 0.01), while combined physical/mental stress episodes were usually symptomatic (10% silent, p < 0.01 v other stressors). Although physical stress was less commonly a trigger of silent ischaemia than angina (47% v 65%, p < 0.01), it was still the predominant trigger of silent ischaemia. There was no identifiable trigger in 45% of silent and only 17% of anginal episodes (p < 0.01). Only nine silent episodes involved mental stress alone as a trigger.?Conclusions—Daily life ischaemia is usually triggered by physical activity. Mental stress alone is an uncommon trigger of either silent or symptomatic ischaemia, while combined physical/mental stress is a significant but minor trigger of angina. Patients can identify a trigger in 83% of anginal episodes, compared with only half of silent ischaemic episodes.?? Keywords: silent ischaemia;  ambulatory electrocardiography PMID:9930050

Freedman, S; Wong, C

1998-01-01

175

DAILY / OVERNIGHT REQUEST FORM PROJECTORS: AUDIO  

E-print Network

DAILY / OVERNIGHT REQUEST FORM PROJECTORS: AUDIO: HUNTER COLLEGE Today's Date: ___ Overhead Projector ___ Public Address Unit ___ Ensign PA Audio-Visual Services ___ Slide Projector ___ Audio Cassette

Qiu, Weigang

176

Emerging issues in food irradiation research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ionizing radiation is used on a global basis to improve the phytosanitary and microbial safety and shelf-life of foods. In recent years progress has been made in the commercial application of irradiation to sterilize destructive invasive insects and to irradiate produce to improve its microbiologica...

177

Solar extreme ultraviolet irradiance: Present, past, and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

New models of solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance variability are constructed in 1 nm bins from 0 to 120 nm using multiple regression of the Mg II and F10.7 solar activity indices with irradiance observations made during the descending phase of cycle 23. The models have been used to reconstruct EUV spectra daily since 1950, annually since 1610, to forecast

J. L. Lean; T. N. Woods; F. G. Eparvier; R. R. Meier; D. J. Strickland; J. T. Correira; J. S. Evans

2011-01-01

178

The relationship between daily and vacation activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to build upon existing literature in recreation involvement and loyalty to investigate the relationship between vacation and daily activities. The results support the hypothesis that the more that individuals are involved in an activity in a daily setting, the more they tend to participate in the same activity while on vacation. The segmentation tree

Xinran Y. Lehto

2007-01-01

179

Obtaining daily precipitation parameters from meteorological yearbooks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares the performance of two different methods, one based on the method of moments and the other based on maximum likelihood, in their assessment of the main statistical features of daily precipitation using censored information found in meteorological yearbooks. A Monte Carlo simulation was performed to generate series of daily rainfall and summarize them in the same format

Francisco J. Meza

2006-01-01

180

Effects of daily stress on negative mood  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the influence of daily stressors on mental health in a community sample. Ss were 166 married couples who completed diaries each day for 6 weeks. In pooled within-person analyses, daily stressors explained up to 20% of the variance in mood. Interpersonal conflicts were by far the most distressing events. Furthermore, when stressors occurred on a series of

Niall Bolger; Anita DeLongis; Ronald C. Kessler; Elizabeth A. Schilling

1989-01-01

181

New daily persistent headache and panic disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: New daily persistent headache (NDPH) is a primary chronic daily headache that is generally considered to be difficult to treat. Migraine has been linked to comorbid psychiatric conditions, mainly mood and anxiety disorders, but NDPH has never been linked to psychiatric conditions, and never studied extensively for such an association. Case: We report nine cases (six women and three

Mario FP Peres; Giancarlo Lucchetti; Juliane PP Mercante; William B Young

2011-01-01

182

Daily Spiritual Experiences and Prosocial Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines how the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES) relates to range of prosocial behaviors, using a large, nationally representative U.S. data set. It finds that daily spiritual experiences are a statistically and substantively significant predictor of volunteering, charitable giving, and helping individuals one knows personally.…

Einolf, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

183

Measuring Degradation Rates Without Irradiance Data  

SciTech Connect

A method to report PV system degradation rates without using irradiance data is demonstrated. First, a set of relative degradation rates are determined by comparing daily AC final yields from a group of PV systems relative to the average final yield of all the PV systems. Then, the difference between relative and absolute degradation rates is found from a statistical analysis. This approach is verified by comparing to methods that utilize irradiance data. This approach is significant because PV systems are often deployed without irradiance sensors, so the analysis method described here may enable measurements of degradation using data that were previously thought to be unsuitable for degradation studies.

Pulver, S.; Cormode, D.; Cronin, A.; Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Smith, R.

2011-02-01

184

Changes to the temporal distribution of daily precipitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

to the temporal distribution of daily precipitation were investigated using a data set of 12,513 land-based stations from the Global Historical Climatology Network. The distribution of precipitation was measured using the Gini index (which describes how uniformly precipitation is distributed throughout a year) and the annual number of wet days. The Mann-Kendall test and a regression analysis were used to assess the direction and rate of change to both indices. Over the period of 1976-2000, East Asia, Central America, and Brazil exhibited a decrease in the number of both wet and light precipitation days, and eastern Europe exhibited a decrease in the number of both wet and moderate precipitation days. In contrast, the U.S., southern South America, western Europe, and Australia exhibited an increase in the number of both wet and light precipitation days. Trends in both directions were field significant at the global scale.

Rajah, Kailash; O'Leary, Tess; Turner, Alice; Petrakis, Gabriella; Leonard, Michael; Westra, Seth

2014-12-01

185

Adolescent Daily and General Maladjustment: Is There Reactivity to Daily Repeated Measures Methodologies?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined whether repeated exposure to daily surveys about negative social experiences predicts changes in adolescents' daily and general maladjustment, and whether question content moderates these changes. Across a 2-week period, 6th-grade students (N = 215; mode age = 11) completed 5 daily reports tapping experienced or…

Nishina, Adrienne

2012-01-01

186

Deriving Daily Purpose through Daily Events and Role Fulfillment among Asian American Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Establishing life purpose is a key developmental task; however, how it is linked to adolescents' everyday family, school, extracurricular, and leisure experiences remains unclear. Using daily diary data from 180 Asian American ninth and tenth graders (50% ninth; 58% female; 25% first generation), daily purpose was positively related to daily

Kiang, Lisa

2012-01-01

187

Living with rheumatoid arthritis: The role of daily spirituality and daily religious and spiritual coping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this preliminary study was to evaluate more fully the role of daily spiritual experiences and daily religious\\/spiritual coping in the experience of individuals with pain due to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Thirty-five individuals with RA were asked to keep a structured daily diary for 30 consecutive days. The diary included standardized measures designed to assess spiritual experiences, religious

Francis J. Keefe; Glenn Affleck; John Lefebvre; Lynn Underwood; David S. Caldwell; Jana Drew; Jennifer Egert; Jessica Gibson; Kenneth Pargament

2001-01-01

188

The Carcinogenic Effect of UVA Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carcinogenic effect of UVA radiation (from Philips black light tubes filtered through a 2 mm-thick glass plate to eliminate the radiation below 320 nm) was studied in 7 groups of 25 lightly pigmented hairless mice. Irradiation with a moderate daily dose of combined UVB and UVA for 3 months induced a tumor incidence of 0.22 after 58 weeks. When

Bent Staberg; Hans Christian Wulf; Per Klemp; Thomas Poulsen; Holger Brodthagen

1983-01-01

189

Photosynthetic characteristics of leaves developed at different irradiances and temperatures: an extension of the current hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthetic characteristics at high measurement irradiance were analyzed for single leaves of two C3 and one C4 species grown under twenty one combinations of irradiance level, irradiance duration, and air temperature in order to test the idea that photosynthetic characteristics developed by leaves in different environments are controlled by the daily amount of photosynthesis. Photosynthetic rates per unit area and

James A. Bunce

1983-01-01

190

27 CFR 19.829 - Daily records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Records ...shall keep accurate and complete daily records of production operations that include— (a) The kind...

2010-04-01

191

Object Perception Impairments Predict Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Dependence in Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the contribution of object perception and spatial localization to functional dependence among Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Forty patients with probable AD completed measures assessing verbal recognition memory, working memory, object perception, spatial localization, semantic knowledge, and global cognition. Primary caregivers completed a measure of activities of daily living (ADLs) that included instrumental and basic self-care subscales (i.e.,

Angela L. Jefferson; Lamia P. Barakat; Tania Giovannetti; Robert H. Paul; Guila Glosser

2006-01-01

192

Associations among Daily Stressors and Salivary Cortisol: Findings from the National Study of Daily Experiences  

PubMed Central

While much research has focused on linking stressful experiences to emotional and biological reactions in laboratory settings, there is an emerging interest in extending these examinations to field studies of daily life. The current study examined day-to-day associations among naturally-occurring daily stressors and salivary cortisol in a national sample of adults from the second wave of the National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE). A sample of 1,694 adults (Age=57, Range=33–84; 44% male) completed telephone interviews detailing their stressors and emotions on eight consecutive evenings. Participants also provided saliva samples upon waking, 30 minutes post-waking, before lunch and before bed, on four consecutive interview days resulting in 5,995 days of interview/cortisol data. Analyses revealed three main findings. First, cortisol AUC was significantly higher on stressor days compared to stressor-free days, particularly for arguments and overloads at home, suggesting that daily stressors are associated with increased cortisol output, but that not all daily stressors have such an influence. Second, individuals reporting a greater frequency of stressor days also exhibited a steeper diurnal cortisol slope. Finally, daily stressor-cortisol associations were unaltered after adjustment for daily negative affect and physical symptoms. Our discussion focuses on the influence of naturally-occurring daily stressors on daily cortisol and the role of daily diary approaches for studying healthy cortisol responses to psychosocial stressors outside of traditional laboratory settings. PMID:23856186

Stawski, Robert S.; Cichy, Kelly E.; Piazza, Jennifer R.; Almeida, David M.

2013-01-01

193

Daily albedo estimation and comparison to MCD43 product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land surface broadband albedo is among the main radiative uncertainties in current climate modelling. An accuracy requirement of 5% and a daily temporal resolution is suggested by the Global Climate Observing System for albedo characterization at spatial and temporal scales compatible with climate studies. Satellite remote sensing provides the only practical way of producing high-quality global albedo data sets with high spatial and temporal resolutions. For view-ilumination geometries such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), in order to retrieve the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) parameters and, consequently, the albedo, a period of sequential measurement is needed to accumulate sufficient observations. This is used to derive the MODIS BRDF/Albedo product (MCD43), which consider a composite period of 16 days with a resulting temporal resolution of 8 days. Looking for an improvement in the albedo temporal resolution that mitigated the assumption of a stable target, Vermote et al. (2009) presented the VJB method that assumes that the BRDF shape variations throughout a year are limited and linked to the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). This method retains the highest temporal resolution (daily, cloud cover permitting). The purpose of this work is to compare the MCD43 product with the VJB method through the albedo. Additionally, we present and study a method based on the VJB assumption, the 5param Rsqr. In this study we focus our analysis on daily MODIS CMG Collection 6 data from both Aqua and Terra satellites over Europe from 2002 until 2011. Figure 1 shows the percentage of the total RMSE of the VJB and the 5param Rsqr method against the MCD43 product. They display that southern latitudes present lower errors while they increase for northern latitudes and mountainous areas. Comparing the methods, the VJB presents errors higher than 15% in 8.2% of total land pixels while they suppose 6.9% of pixels when using the 5param Rsqr. We obtain an overall RMSE of 5% when using the VJB and 5.1% for the 5param Rsqr method. Since both methods meet the absolute requirement of 5% accuracy we conclude that they have an equivalent performance in deriving the albedo to the MODIS product with the advantage of daily temporal resolution. We demonstrate then that a simple four (or five) parameter NDVI-scaled model performs as well as a more complex model with many more degrees of freedom. Additionally, we propose the 5param Rsqr method as an alternative to the VJB method due to its decrease data processing time reducing it 44%. Figure 1. Percentage RMSE of the VJB (right) and 5param Rsqr (left) against the MCD43 product.

Franch, B.; Vermote, E.; Sobrino, J. A.

2013-12-01

194

Global Fluency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines global fluency as a facility with cultural behaviors that help an organization thrive in an ever-changing global business environment; and discusses business culture, global culture, an example of a change effort at a global company, leadership values, company values, and defining global values and practices. (Author/LRW)

Tosti, Donald T.

1999-01-01

195

Global canopy interception from satellite observations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new methodology for retrieving rainfall interception rates from multi satellite observations is presented. The approach makes use of the daily productof the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) as driving data and applies Gash’s analytical model to derive interception rates at global sc...

196

Globalization and the Experiences of Aging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Globalization is a product of urbanization and economic intensification which has escalated since the 1970s. Globalized markets have created many of the features of modern life including consumerism, increased cultural homogeneity, increased social polarization, erosion of the sovereignty of nation states, and delocalization of daily life. The…

Fry, Christine L.

2005-01-01

197

Daily Thermal Predictions of the AGR-1 Experiment with Gas Gaps Varying with Time  

SciTech Connect

A new daily as-run thermal analysis was performed at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) test experiment number one at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This thermal analysis incorporates gas gaps changing with time during the irradiation experiment. The purpose of this analysis was to calculate the daily average temperatures of each compact to compare with experimental results. Post irradiation examination (PIE) measurements of the graphite holder and fuel compacts showed the gas gaps varying from the beginning of life. The control temperature gas gap and the fuel compact – graphite holder gas gaps were linearly changed from the original fabrication dimensions, to the end of irradiation measurements. A steady-state thermal analysis was performed for each daily calculation. These new thermal predictions more closely match the experimental data taken during the experiment than previous analyses. Results are presented comparing normalized compact average temperatures to normalized log(R/B) Kr-85m. The R/B term is the measured release rate divided by the predicted birth rate for the isotope Kr-85m. Correlations between these two normalized values are presented.

Grant Hawkes; James Sterbentz; John Maki; Binh Pham

2012-06-01

198

Daily thermal predictions of the AGR-1 experiment with gas gaps varying with time  

SciTech Connect

A new daily as-run thermal analysis was performed at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) test experiment number one at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This thermal analysis incorporates gas gaps changing with time during the irradiation experiment. The purpose of this analysis was to calculate the daily average temperatures of each compact to compare with experimental results. Post irradiation examination (PIE) measurements of the graphite holder and fuel compacts showed the gas gaps changed from the beginning of life. The control temperature gas gap and the fuel compact - graphite holder gas gaps were modeled with a linear change from the original fabrication gap dimensions to the end of irradiation measurements. A steady-state thermal analysis was performed for each daily calculation with the commercial finite element heat transfer code ABAQUS. These new thermal predictions more closely match the experimental data taken during the experiment than previous analyses. Results are presented comparing normalized compact average temperatures to normalized log(R/B) Kr-85m. The R/B term is the measured release rate divided by the predicted birth rate for the isotope Kr-85m. Correlations between these two normalized values are presented. (authors)

Hawkes, G.; Sterbentz, J.; Maki, J.; Pham, B. [Idaho National Laboratory, MS 3870, 2525 Fremont (United States)

2012-07-01

199

Irradiance Variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the solar interior emerges magnetic flux that alters the Sun's electromagnetic radiation, producing irradiance variability on a wide range of time scales. The organization, outward extension and expansion of magnetic fields structure the solar atmosphere and cause the entire electromagnetic spectrum to vary in different ways, depending on wavelength. Surface magnetic fields produce variations in near UV, visible and

J. L. Lean

2003-01-01

200

Irradiance gradients  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for improving the accuracy of a diffuse interreflection calculation is introduced in a ray tracing context. The information from a hemispherical sampling of the luminous environment is interpreted in a new way to predict the change in irradiance as a function of position and surface orientation. The additional computation involved is modest and the benefit is substantial.

Gregory J. Ward; Paul S. Heckbert

2008-01-01

201

Irradiated foods  

MedlinePLUS

... and reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes and for the control of insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

202

20 CFR 330.3 - Daily rate of compensation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Daily rate of compensation. 330.3 Section...BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DETERMINATION OF DAILY BENEFIT RATES § 330.3 Daily rate of compensation. (a)...

2010-04-01

203

MathMastery.com: Daily Brains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Six days a week, a new math problem is posted on this Web site to intrigue and challenge grade school students. Each Daily Brain has a different theme, considering some mathematical perspective of science, history, geography, and more. After solving the problem, or for a little help, students can look at a step-by-step solution that is also posted online. All old Daily Brains are kept in an archive, and as of May 2003, they numbered around 400. The problems are mostly intended for students between fourth and sixth grades.

2007-12-12

204

ScienceDaily: Researchers Directly Deposit Gold Nanoparticles In Suspension ScienceDaily: Your source for the latest  

E-print Network

ScienceDaily: Researchers Directly Deposit Gold Nanoparticles In Suspension ScienceDaily: Your Engineering, Biochemistry, Engineering, Physics, Microarrays Researchers Directly Deposit Gold Nanoparticles - Search #12;ScienceDaily: Researchers Directly Deposit Gold Nanoparticles In Suspension Magnetic

Espinosa, Horacio D.

205

Daily Snow and Sea Ice Temperature over Asia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the global advance and retreat of daily snow cover along with daily sea ice surface temperature over Asia from September 2002 through May 2003. The snow cover was measured by the MODIS instrument on the Terra satellite, while the sea ice surface temperature was measured by the MODIS instrument on the Aqua satellite. Since these instruments cannot take measurements through clouds, in cloud-covered regions or areas with suspect data quality, the prior days value is retained until a valid data reading is obtained. This visualization designates an area as covered by snow when the instrument takes a valid measurement showing greater than ~50% snow coverage in that area. This area is assumed to be snow covered until the instrument takes a valid measurement showing less than 40% snow coverage in that same area. A color bar indicates the sea ice surface temperature values. The satellite instruments are unable to collect data through darkness. The region in polar darkness is shown as a grey cap over the pole that grows and shrinks seasonally. A date slider indicates the progression of time. SeaWiFS Land Reflectance shows the seasonal changes in landcover.

Starr, Cindy; Shirah, Greg; Newcombe, Marte; Hall, Dorothy

2004-09-25

206

Daily Snow and Sea Ice Temperature over Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the global advance and retreat of daily snow cover along with daily sea ice surface temperature over Europe from September 2002 through May 2003. The snow cover was measured by the MODIS instrument on the Terra satellite, while the sea ice surface temperature was measured by the MODIS instrument on the Aqua satellite. Since these instruments cannot take measurements through clouds, in cloud-covered regions or areas with suspect data quality, the prior days value is retained until a valid data reading is obtained. This visualization designates an area as covered by snow when the instrument takes a valid measurement showing greater than ~50% snow coverage in that area. This area is assumed to be snow covered until the instrument takes a valid measurement showing less than 40% snow coverage in that same area. A color bar indicates the sea ice surface temperature values. The satellite instruments are unable to collect data through darkness. The region in polar darkness is shown as a grey cap over the pole that grows and shrinks seasonally. A date slider indicates the progression of time. SeaWiFS Land Reflectance shows the seasonal changes in landcover.

Starr, Cindy; Shirah, Greg; Newcombe, Marte; Hall, Dorothy

2004-09-25

207

Daily Snow and Sea Ice Temperature over North America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the global advance and retreat of daily snow cover along with daily sea ice surface temperature over North America from September 2002 through May 2003. The snow cover was measured by the MODIS instrument on the Terra satellite, while the sea ice surface temperature was measured by the MODIS instrument on the Aqua satellite. Since these instruments cannot take measurements through clouds, in cloud-covered regions or areas with suspect data quality, the prior days value is retained until a valid data reading is obtained. This visualization designates an area as covered by snow when the instrument takes a valid measurement showing greater than ~50% snow coverage in that area. This area is assumed to be snow covered until the instrument takes a valid measurement showing less than 40% snow coverage in that same area. A color bar indicates the sea ice surface temperature values. The satellite instruments are unable to collect data through darkness. The region in polar darkness is shown as a grey cap over the pole that grows and shrinks seasonally. A date slider indicates the progression of time. SeaWiFS Land Reflectance shows the seasonal changes in landcover.

Starr, Cindy; Shirah, Greg; Newcombe, Marte; Hall, Dorothy

2004-09-25

208

Daily Snow and Sea Ice Temperature over the North Pole  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the global advance and retreat of daily snow cover along with daily sea ice surface temperature over the Northern Hemisphere from September 2002 through May 2003. The snow cover was measured by the MODIS instrument on the Terra satellite, while the sea ice surface temperature was measured by the MODIS instrument on the Aqua satellite. Since these instruments cannot take measurements through clouds, in cloud-covered regions or areas with suspect data quality, the prior days value is retained until a valid data reading is obtained. This visualization designates an area as covered by snow when the instrument takes a valid measurement showing greater than ~50% snow coverage in that area. This area is assumed to be snow covered until the instrument takes a valid measurement showing less than 40% snow coverage in that same area. A color bar indicates the sea ice surface temperature values. The satellite instruments are unable to collect data through darkness. The region in polar darkness is shown as a grey cap over the pole that grows and shrinks seasonally. A date slider indicates the progression of time. SeaWiFS Land Reflectance shows the seasonal changes in landcover.

Starr, Cindy; Shirah, Greg; Newcombe, Marte; Hall, Dorothy

2004-09-25

209

Irradiation Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Food Safety Consortium (FSC) is a federally created consortium consisting of researchers from the University of Arkansas, Iowa State University and Kansas State University. The FSC conducts research in poultry, beef, and pork production. This site contains summary articles from the FDA, the Washington Times, the Los Angeles Times, the Chicago Tribune, and newsletter articles from the FSC. Previously approved for use on poultry and fruits and vegetables in the US, irradiation can kill disease-causing bacteria like Salmonella and Escherichia coli 0157:H7 (discussed in the Scout Report for Science and Engineering's In the News section, September 17, 1997), and molds and funguses that cause rot. With recent US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval, irradiation can now be used to process red meat (e.g., beef, pork, lamb, and byproducts). The process involves exposing food to a source of radiation such as gamma rays from radioactive cobalt 60, cesium 137, or x-rays. No radioactive material is added to the product, and the technique is routinely used on grains and spices, as well as for sterilizing disposable medical devices. In spite of a number of tests conducted over the last 30 years substantiating its safety, irradiation has not gained widespread public acceptance in the US. This is largely due to the public's general fear of processes utilizing radiation. Supporters of the technology claim that it will virtually eliminate food-borne illness in the US, while skeptics feel that technology such as steam treatment can accomplish adequate sterilization without the purported risks and public concern associated with irradiation.

1997-01-01

210

Objective Prediction of Daily Precipitation and Cloudiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between present weather and concurrent daily 700-mb circulation is studied for the winter season in the United States. All weather data are averaged within 40 climatologically homogeneous circles and expressed asnumerical index giving the propor- tion of precipitation or cloudiness within each circle at map time. The synoptic climatology of the resulting weather index is analyzed, and schematic

William H. Klein; Curtis W. Crockett; James F. Andrews

1965-01-01

211

Probabilistic quality control of daily temperature data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A procedure for quality control of daily maximum and minimum temperature data acquired by a monitoring network is presented. The procedure aims to automatically identify data affected by potential anomalies, thus reducing the necessary time for a manual inspection of the operator who has the task to assign the final flags in each quality control system. Potential anomalies in daily temperature data are identified through probabilistic confidence intervals derived from the historical dataset observed both in the target station and in the selected reference stations. In particular, a first control is carried out by verifying whether the observed data lie within a confidence interval of fixed probability, obtained from the historical series of the same station, after removal of statistically significant linear trend. A second control is based on comparing the observed data with confidence intervals derived by means of multiple linear regressions, developed by using contemporaneous data observed in reference stations. Examples of applications of the proposed procedures are reported with reference to daily maximum and minimum temperature observed from 1950 to 2004 at some Sicilian automatic stations, operated by the Water Observatory of Regional Agency for Waste and Water (formerly, the Sicilian Regional Hydrographic Office). Finally, the accuracy of the proposed procedure is verified by introducing known errors in the available series of daily temperature, assumed as correct, and by computing the probabilities to correctly and incorrectly classify the acquired data in terms of the corresponding frequencies.

Sciuto, G.; Bonaccorso, B.; Cancelliere, A.; Rossi, G.

2010-05-01

212

Detection of Daily Clouds on Titan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have discovered frequent variations in the near-infrared spectrum of Titan, Saturn's largest moon, which are indicative of the daily presence of sparse clouds covering less than 1% of the area of the satellite. The thermodynamics of Titan's atmosphere and the clouds' altitudes suggest that convection governs their evolutions. Their short lives point to the presence of rain. We propose

Caitlin A. Griffith; Joseph L. Hall; Thomas R. Geballe

2000-01-01

213

FRESH KNOWLEDGE DAILY NEW THIS SUMMER!  

E-print Network

FRESH KNOWLEDGE DAILY SUMMER AT NEW THIS SUMMER! SU's David B. Falk College of Sport and Human Dynamics offers this 3 credit class for Summer 2014. For more information about this class, contact Rachel Razza at rrazza@syr.edu. Visit summer.syr.edu for information about other classes available through

Mather, Patrick T.

214

TRENDS IN ANNUAL AND DAILY PRECIPITATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Annual precipitation in the Great Plains was generally higher during the last two decades of the 20th century. Corresponding changes in daily precipitation amount, number of rainy days, and distribution throughout the year were investigated for Kingfisher in central Oklahoma. The number of rainy da...

215

Super 7: Daily Exercises in Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a year-long program of daily exercises in problem solving for 2nd and 3rd grade students that presents 144 lessons, each with seven problems. The problems cover number sense, computation, measurements, geometry, problem solving, and patterns. The material is presented in a sequential fashion with concepts repeated and expanded, and…

Hamilton, Octavia

216

National Institutes of Health Daily Food List  

Cancer.gov

DAILY FOOD LIST PARTICIPANT ID HERE NOTIFICATION TO RESPONDENT OF ESTIMATED BURDEN Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 5 minutes per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information.

217

INTERPOLATING VANCOUVER'S DAILY AMBIENT PM 10 FIELD  

EPA Science Inventory

In this article we develop a spatial predictive distribution for the ambient space- time response field of daily ambient PM10 in Vancouver, Canada. Observed responses have a consistent temporal pattern from one monitoring site to the next. We exploit this feature of the field b...

218

Daily Reporting Rainfall Station CAPE YORK RIVERS  

E-print Network

Daily Reporting Rainfall Station CAPE YORK RIVERS Manual Heavy Rainfall Station Manual River Station Telemetry Rainfall Station Telemetry River Station Revised: Nov 2011 MAP 919.1 FLOOD WARNING River Pormpuraaw Kowanyama Southwell Croydon Yappar R Blackbull Siding M itchellR StaatenR Dorunda TM

Greenslade, Diana

219

News Allocation Policies of American Daily Newspapers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reported in this paper, conducted during the winter of 1973-74, explored the newshole policies of U.S. daily newspapers in the context of rapid technological and economic changes. A national survey consisted of a structured questionnaire mailed to a stratified, random sample of newspapers selected by circulation size. Analysis of…

Drew, Dan G.; Wilhoit, G. Cleveland

220

2011 Daily Log Report #: 2011-00168  

E-print Network

2011 Daily Log March 2011 Report #: 2011-00168 Reported: 03/31/2011 1237 Occurred: 03/31/2011 1235 Incident: Medical Emergency Location: Outside of Student Union Disposition: Report--Closed Comments: Female transported to hospital by ambulance for medical treatment. Report #: 2011-00167 Reported: 03/31/2011 1116

Boyce, Richard L.

221

Big Ideas behind Daily 5 and CAFE  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Daily 5 and CAFE were born out of The Sister's research and observations of instructional mentors, their intense desire to be able to deliver highly intentional, focused instruction to small groups and individuals while the rest of the class was engaged in truly authentic reading and writing, and their understanding that a one size fits all…

Boushey, Gail; Moser, Joan

2012-01-01

222

Daily life ischemia and nitrate therapy.  

PubMed

Daily life ischemia has generated considerable interest because most of it is silent and associated with increased risk of adverse outcome. Coronary vasomotion, as well as increases in myocardial oxygen demand, seem important in the pathogenesis of this form of ischemia, so treatment with nitrates seems rational. Administration of sublingual nitroglycerin hourly, over 12 hours, was shown to decrease both silent and painful ischemic episodes in patients with effort angina. Subsequently, isosorbide dinitrate or mononitrate, given either as an intravenous infusion or orally, was shown to decrease both silent and painful ischemic episodes in patients with unstable rest angina and in those with severe angina. More recently, 6 studies have reported using transdermal nitroglycerin for daily life ischemia. Three of these reported open-label uncontrolled observations and suggested that ischemia frequency may be reduced approximately 60-80% during treatment with doses of 10-30 mg/day, with a duration of treatment ranging from 1 hour to 14 days. In 2 of these reports the duration of ischemia also decreased. The other 3 studies were randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with a total enrollment of 86 patients. These studies provided mixed results. One suggested that evidence for partial tolerance develops within 1 day of treatment, using large continuous or intermittent doses (mean, 52 mg/day). Another suggested that no tolerance develops to intermittent dosing (18 mg/16 hr out of 24 hr) during exercise testing but no effect is seen on daily life ischemia. The remaining study suggested that tolerance does not develop using small doses (15 mg/day) continuously over 14 days for ischemia during daily life, and that this response is different from that observed using the calcium antagonist nifedipine. These limited observations and conflicting results underscore a need for additional larger controlled trials, employing topical nitrate therapy in low intermittent doses for daily life ischemia. PMID:1529927

Pepine, C J

1992-09-24

223

Break Correction of Swiss Daily and Sub-Daily Temperature Series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many applications in climate science require high-quality, long-term data at a high temporal resolution. However, such records are often affected by artificial breaks. The challenging task of homogenizing daily and sub-daily data has only been partially addressed in recent years. Therefore, the number of available datasets providing homogeneous daily and sub-daily series is still small compared to the volume of monthly or annual data. In this study, series of daily maximum (Tmax), daily minimum (Tmin), morning (Tmorn), noon (Tnoon) and evening (Teve), and daily mean (Tmean) temperatures measured in 61 stations of the Swiss climate observation network were corrected for artificial breaks. The break detection for the above mentioned series was accomplished in a former study by using a combination of three different break detection methods. Here the previously determined breakpoints are corrected by applying the method of higher-order moments for autocorrelated data (HOMAD), which is an improved version of the higher-order moments method (HOM), providing an objective choice of regression parameters.

Auchmann, Renate; Kuglitsch, Franz; Toreti, Andrea; Brönnimann, Stefan

2014-05-01

224

Racial Differences in Exposure and Reactivity to Daily Family Stressors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the National Study of Daily Experiences, the authors examined racial differences in exposure and reactivity to daily stressors involving family members. Respondents included African American and European American adults age 34 to 84 (N = 1,931) who participated in 8 days of daily interviews during which they reported on daily

Cichy, Kelly E.; Stawski, Robert S.; Almeida, David M.

2012-01-01

225

The effects of sunspots on solar irradiance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that the darkness of a sunspot on the visible hemisphere of the sun will reduce the solar irradiance on the earth. Approaches are discussed for obtaining a crude estimate of the irradiance deficit produced by sunspots and of the total luminosity reduction for the whole global population of sunspots. Attention is given to a photometric sunspot index, a global measure of spot flux deficit, and models for the compensating flux excess. A model is shown for extrapolating visible-hemisphere spot areas to the invisible hemisphere. As an illustration, this extrapolation is used to calculate a very simple model for the reradiation necessary to balance the flux deficit.

Hudson, H. S.; Silva, S.; Woodard, M.; Willson, R. C.

1982-01-01

226

Different scaling behaviors in daily temperature records over China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-range correlations of five kinds of daily temperature records (i.e. daily average temperature records, daily maximum temperature records, daily minimum temperature records, diurnal temperature range and the sum of daily maximum and minimum temperature records) from 164 weather stations over China during 1951–2004 are analyzed by means of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). These five kinds of fluctuation series are found to

Naiming Yuan; Zuntao Fu; Jiangyu Mao

2010-01-01

227

Heavy metals in common foodstuff: Daily intake  

SciTech Connect

Lately, toxic effects of some heavy metals (Pb, Cd) as well as desirable ones of some others (Ni, Mn, Zn) have been a field of thorough investigation. The main way of human body fortification in metals is through foodchain depending on the kind and quantity of the consumed food, according to dietary habits. The purpose of this study is the calculation of metals daily intake through common foodstuff of Greek inhabitants. The calculation is based on results from quantitative analysis of Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn, and Zn in common foodstuff from the market of the city of Thessaloniki. The daily food consumption data is derived from three sources: (a) answers to a questionnaire distributed to families of the city of Thessaloniki, (b) nutrition data provided by the Agricultural Bank of Greece and (c) nutrition data according to international bibliography.

Tsoumbaris, P.; Tsoukali-Papadopoulou, H. (Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece))

1994-07-01

228

Continuous Blood Pressure Monitoring in Daily Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous monitoring of blood pressure in daily life could improve early detection of cardiovascular disorders, as well as promoting healthcare. Conventional ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) equipment can measure blood pressure at regular intervals for 24 hours, but is limited by long measuring time, low sampling rate, and constrained measuring posture. In this paper, we demonstrate a new method for continuous real-time measurement of blood pressure during daily activities. Our method is based on blood pressure estimation from pulse wave velocity (PWV) calculation, which formula we improved to take into account changes in the inner diameter of blood vessels. Blood pressure estimation results using our new method showed a greater precision of measured data during exercise, and a better accuracy than the conventional PWV method.

Lopez, Guillaume; Shuzo, Masaki; Ushida, Hiroyuki; Hidaka, Keita; Yanagimoto, Shintaro; Imai, Yasushi; Kosaka, Akio; Delaunay, Jean-Jacques; Yamada, Ichiro

229

Microalbuminuria, Kidney Function, and Daily Physical Activity  

PubMed Central

The present study was carried out to investigate independent relationship between daily physical activity, microalbuminuria, and kidney function. The demographic characteristics and laboratory parameters were recorded for all patients. The determination of daily activities was carried out by Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living Scale (NEADLS) which was performed for each patient in an interview. Totally 139 patients were enrolled. In the whole group NEADLS score was correlated with age (rho: ?0.759, P < 0.0001), clinical systolic blood pressure (rho: ?0.212, P: 0.018), blood urea nitrogen (rho: ?0.516, P < 0.0001), creatinine (rho: ?0.501, P < 0.0001), uric acid (rho: ?0.308, P < 0.0001), albumin (rho: 0.382, P < 0.0001), total cholesterol (rho: ?0.194, P: 0.022), LDL-cholesterol (rho: ?0.230, P: 0.008), hemoglobin (rho: 0.256, P: 0.002), creatinine clearance (rho: 0.565, P < 0.0001), 24-hour urinary protein excretion (rho: ?0.324, P < 0.0001), and 24-hour urinary albumin excretion (UAE) (rho: ?0.483, P < 0.0001). The multivariate linear regression of independent factors corelated with logarithmically converted NEADLS score (as a dependent variable) has shown that age (P < 0.0001), presence of coronary artery disease (P: 0.011), hemoglobin (P: 0.020), 24-hour creatinine clearance (P: 0.004), and 24-hour urinary albumin excretion (P < 0.0001) were independently corelated with NEADLS score. In conclusion, both UAE and kidney function were independently associated with daily physical activity. PMID:24455256

2013-01-01

230

Global Warming Kid's Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set up this site to teach kids about global warming, climate change, and climatology, as well as environmentally friendly habits that benefit the earth. The site allows students and educators to approach ecological issues from various perspectives. Global Warming (What it is) is an introduction to current climatological change. Other resources such as Climate and Weather and What is the Climate System? provide overviews of such climatological phenomena as the water cycle, greenhouse gasses, and climatological change over the world's history. Finally, socially and environmentally conscious resources such as So What's the BIG DEAL? and We CAN Make a Difference discuss how changes in our daily lives can affect our impact on the earth's climate. The site also has games, animations modeling climatological activity, and recommendations for educators interested in using the site.

231

Copula-based daily rainfall disaggregation model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A daily rainfall disaggregation model, which uses a copula to model the dependence structure between total depth, total duration of wet periods, and the maximum proportional depth of a wet period, is presented. The wet(1)-dry(0) binary sequence is modeled by the nonrandomized Bartlett-Lewis model with diurnal effect incorporated before superimposing the AR(1) depth process submodel. Unlike previous studies, the model is structured such that all wet day data available are considered in the analysis, without the need to discard any good quality daily data embedded in a month having some missing data. This increased the data size, thus improving the modeling process. Further, the daily data are classified according to the total duration of wet periods duration within the day. In this way a large proportion of the model parameters become seasonal invariant, the overriding factor being the total duration of wet periods. The potential of the developed model has been demonstrated by disaggregating both the data set used in developing the model parameters and also a 12 year continuous rainfall data set not used in the model parameterization. Gross rainfall statistics of several aggregation levels down to 6 min have been very well reproduced by the disaggregation model. The copula dependence structure and the variation of the depth process submodel parameters with the total duration of wet periods are also very well captured by the presented model.

Gyasi-Agyei, Yeboah

2011-07-01

232

Understanding metropolitan patterns of daily encounters.  

PubMed

Understanding of the mechanisms driving our daily face-to-face encounters is still limited; the field lacks large-scale datasets describing both individual behaviors and their collective interactions. However, here, with the help of travel smart card data, we uncover such encounter mechanisms and structures by constructing a time-resolved in-vehicle social encounter network on public buses in a city (about 5 million residents). Using a population scale dataset, we find physical encounters display reproducible temporal patterns, indicating that repeated encounters are regular and identical. On an individual scale, we find that collective regularities dominate distinct encounters' bounded nature. An individual's encounter capability is rooted in his/her daily behavioral regularity, explaining the emergence of "familiar strangers" in daily life. Strikingly, we find individuals with repeated encounters are not grouped into small communities, but become strongly connected over time, resulting in a large, but imperceptible, small-world contact network or "structure of co-presence" across the whole metropolitan area. Revealing the encounter pattern and identifying this large-scale contact network are crucial to understanding the dynamics in patterns of social acquaintances, collective human behaviors, and--particularly--disclosing the impact of human behavior on various diffusion/spreading processes. PMID:23918373

Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W; Lee, Der-Horng; Huang, Xianfeng

2013-08-20

233

Understanding metropolitan patterns of daily encounters  

PubMed Central

Understanding of the mechanisms driving our daily face-to-face encounters is still limited; the field lacks large-scale datasets describing both individual behaviors and their collective interactions. However, here, with the help of travel smart card data, we uncover such encounter mechanisms and structures by constructing a time-resolved in-vehicle social encounter network on public buses in a city (about 5 million residents). Using a population scale dataset, we find physical encounters display reproducible temporal patterns, indicating that repeated encounters are regular and identical. On an individual scale, we find that collective regularities dominate distinct encounters’ bounded nature. An individual’s encounter capability is rooted in his/her daily behavioral regularity, explaining the emergence of “familiar strangers” in daily life. Strikingly, we find individuals with repeated encounters are not grouped into small communities, but become strongly connected over time, resulting in a large, but imperceptible, small-world contact network or “structure of co-presence” across the whole metropolitan area. Revealing the encounter pattern and identifying this large-scale contact network are crucial to understanding the dynamics in patterns of social acquaintances, collective human behaviors, and—particularly—disclosing the impact of human behavior on various diffusion/spreading processes. PMID:23918373

Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W.; Lee, Der-Horng; Huang, Xianfeng

2013-01-01

234

A Double-Edged Sword: Race, Daily Family Support Exchanges, and Daily Well-Being.  

PubMed

This study contributes to research on race and family ties by exploring racial differences in the direct effects of family support exchanges on daily well-being and the extent to which family support buffers/exacerbates stressor reactivity. African Americans and European Americans aged 34 to 84 (N = 1,931) from the National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE) reported on family support exchanges (i.e., support received/support provided), daily stressors, and negative affect during 8 days of telephone interviews. On a daily basis, receiving family support was not associated with well-being, whereas providing family support was associated with compromised well-being among African Americans. As expected, receiving family support buffered reactivity to daily tensions for both races, whereas providing emotional support to family exacerbated African Americans' reactivity to daily tensions. Together, our findings suggest that even after considering the benefits of receiving family support, providing family support takes an emotional toll on African Americans. PMID:25368438

Cichy, Kelly E; Stawski, Robert S; Almeida, David M

2014-11-01

235

Smoking motives of daily and non-daily smokers: A profile analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Non-daily or intermittent smoking is becoming common, but little is known about smoking patterns of intermittent smokers (ITS). This study assesses differences in the profile of smoking motives of non-daily, ITS and daily smokers (DS). Methods Participants were 218 DS and 252 ITS (152 converted ITS [CITS], who previously smoked daily, and 80 native ITS [NITS] who did not), not currently quitting, recruited by advertisement. ITS were defined as smoking 4–27 days per month; DS as smoking daily, 5–30 cigarettes per day. Participants completed the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM), yielding scores for 13 different motives. The within-profile standard deviation expressed profile scatter (differentiation among motives), and profile shape was assessed on scores standardized for within-profile mean and standard deviation. Results There was no difference between ITS and DS on profile scatter. ITS and DS differed in the shape of the standardized score profile, with DS scoring higher on Tolerance, Craving, Automaticity, Loss of Control and Behavioral Choice motives, and ITS scoring higher on Cue Exposure, Weight Control, and Positive Reinforcement motives. CITS did not differ from NITS in profile scatter or profile shape. Conclusion ITS differ from DS in the relative importance of motives, with ITS emphasizing motives associated with acute, situational smoking, and DS emphasizing dependence-related motives. Among ITS, history of daily smoking did not influence the profile of motives. PMID:22784601

Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael S.; Scholl, Sarah M.; Tindle, Hilary A.

2013-01-01

236

Southern California Permanent GPS Geodetic Array: Error analysis of daily position estimates and site velocities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze time series of daily positions estimated from data collected by 10 continuously monitoring Global Positioning System (GPS) sites in southern California during the 19-month period between the June 28, 1992 (MW=7.3), Landers and January 17, 1994 (MW=6.7), Northridge earthquakes. Each time series exhibits a linear tectonic signal and significant colored noise. Spectral power at frequencies in the range

Jie Zhang; Yehuda Bock; Hadley Johnson; Peng Fang; Simon Williams; Joachim Genrich; Shimon Wdowinski; Jeff Behr

1997-01-01

237

Prevention of Rectal SHIV Transmission in Macaques by Daily or Intermittent Prophylaxis with Emtricitabine and Tenofovir  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn the absence of an effective vaccine, HIV continues to spread globally, emphasizing the need for novel strategies to limit its transmission. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with antiretroviral drugs could prove to be an effective intervention strategy if highly efficacious and cost-effective PrEP modalities are identified. We evaluated daily and intermittent PrEP regimens of increasing antiviral activity in a macaque model

J. Gerardo García-Lerma; Ron A Otten; Shoukat H Qari; Eddie Jackson; Mian-er Cong; Silvina Masciotra; Wei Luo; Caryn Kim; Debra R Adams; Michael Monsour; Jonathan Lipscomb; Jeffrey A Johnson; David Delinsky; Raymond F Schinazi; Robert Janssen; Thomas M Folks; Walid Heneine

2008-01-01

238

Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article provides a brief discussion of the issues surrounding global warming. Topics include greenhouse gas emissions, the possible consequences of global warming, and debates among proponents and opponents about whether global warming is indeed happening and whether it represents a danger to the planet.

239

Global Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning module from the Association of American Geographer's Center for Global Geography Education looks into the geographic characteristics of the global economy and the processes linking economic activities at local, regional, and global scales. Four case studies are included in the learning unit, each focusing on a different region (New Zealand, Chile, Central and South America, East/Southeast Asia).

2011-01-21

240

The materials test station: a fast spectrum irradiation facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Materials Test Station is a fast-neutron spectrum irradiation facility under design at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in support of the United States Department of Energy's Global Nuclear Energy Partnership. The facility will be capable of rodlets-scale irradiations of candidate fuel forms being developed to power the next generation of fast reactors. Driven by a powerful proton beam, the

Pitcher; Eric J

2007-01-01

241

BOREAS TE-21 Daily Surface Meteorological Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-21 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the meteorology of boreal forest areas. Daily meteorological data were derived from half-hourly BOREAS tower flux (TF) and Automatic Meteorological Station (AMS) mesonet measurements collected in the Southern and Northern Study Areas (SSA and NSA) for the period of 01 Jan 1994 until 31 Dec 1994. The data were stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Kimball, John; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor)

2000-01-01

242

Daily Lesson Plan: Thirsty for Drought Relief  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Daily Lesson Plan from the New York Times Learning Network, students explore a variety of drought-related issues and research possible courses of action as part of a "drought preparedness taskforce." Based on New York Times coverage of drought in Arizona (story link provided), this exercise offers an active, interdisciplinary way to learn about water conservation and the ecological and economic effects of drought. Designed for grades 6-8 or 9-12, this exercise can be completed in one class period. The site includes useful Web links and a printer-friendly version of the lesson plan. Free registration is required.

Anderson, Bridget.

2003-01-01

243

Daily Spiritual Experiences and Adolescent Treatment Response  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to explore changes in belief orientation during treatment and the impact of increased daily spiritual experiences (DSE) on adolescent treatment response. One-hundred ninety-five adolescents court-referred to a 2-month residential treatment program were assessed at intake and discharge. Forty percent of youth who entered treatment as agnostic or atheist identified themselves as spiritual or religious at discharge. Increased DSE was associated with greater likelihood of abstinence, increased prosocial behaviors, and reduced narcissistic behaviors. Results indicate a shift in DSE that improves youth self-care and care for others that may inform intervention approaches for adolescents with addiction.

LEE, MATTHEW T.; VETA, PAIGE S.; JOHNSON, BYRON R.; PAGANO, MARIA E.

2014-01-01

244

Dementia care: focusing on daily experiences.  

PubMed

Dementia care is emerging as a national priority. It is affecting younger people and as many as one million could be living with the condition by 2015. This article describes the development of the Kitwood Plus model, which was specifically designed to care for people with dementia. Based on Kitwood (1997), the model fosters high-quality interaction from high-quality carers to enhance relationships and daily living experiences. Smile, touch, eye contact and positive talk (STEP) are the basic tools needed to connect with people with the condition. PMID:23035369

Durgahee, Taleb; Durgahee, Amir

245

The necessity and availability of noise-free daily satellite-observed NDVI during rapid phenological changes in terrestrial ecosystems in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

General, global, long-term, and comprehensive phenological observations are required to evaluate the variability of photosynthetic activities due to environmental changes in terrestrial ecosystems. The observation of seasonal changes and detection of interannual variation in canopy phenology over regional and global scales require satellite data with high temporal resolution (i.e. a daily time step). However, satellite data often include noise caused

Shin Nagai; Taku M. Saitoh; Rikie Suzuki; Kenlo Nishida Nasahara; Woo-Kyun Lee; Yowhan Son; Hiroyuki Muraoka

2011-01-01

246

42 CFR 409.34 - Criteria for “daily basis”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Requirements for Coverage of Posthospital SNF Care § 409.34 Criteria for “daily basis”. (a) To meet the daily basis requirement specified in §...

2014-10-01

247

Daily Drinking May Raise Risk of Liver Cirrhosis  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Daily Drinking May Raise Risk of Liver Cirrhosis, Study Warns Everyday habits appear to matter ... Daily drinking increases the risk of alcohol-related liver cirrhosis, a new study found. It's generally believed ...

248

27 CFR 19.736 - Daily production records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Daily production records. 19.736 Section 19...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Production Account § 19.736 Daily production records. (a) Spirits...

2010-04-01

249

7 CFR 59.301 - Mandatory Daily Reporting for Lambs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Mandatory Daily Reporting for Lambs. 59.301 Section 59.301 Agriculture...CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Lamb Reporting § 59.301 Mandatory Daily Reporting for Lambs. (a) In general . The...

2010-01-01

250

42 CFR 409.34 - Criteria for “daily basis”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Requirements for Coverage of Posthospital SNF Care § 409.34 Criteria for “daily basis”. (a) To meet the daily basis requirement specified in §...

2011-10-01

251

42 CFR 409.34 - Criteria for “daily basis”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Requirements for Coverage of Posthospital SNF Care § 409.34 Criteria for “daily basis”. (a) To meet the daily basis requirement specified in §...

2013-10-01

252

42 CFR 409.34 - Criteria for “daily basis”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Requirements for Coverage of Posthospital SNF Care § 409.34 Criteria for “daily basis”. (a) To meet the daily basis requirement specified in §...

2012-10-01

253

42 CFR 409.34 - Criteria for “daily basis”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Requirements for Coverage of Posthospital SNF Care § 409.34 Criteria for “daily basis”. (a) To meet the daily basis requirement specified in §...

2010-10-01

254

More Than 1 in 10 Use Daily Aspirin Inappropriately  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. More Than 1 in 10 Use Daily Aspirin Inappropriately For many users, the odds of heart ... Many Americans are likely using daily low-dose aspirin inappropriately in the hopes of preventing a first- ...

255

Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use the links below to complete your research. The Heat Over Global Warming God and Global Warming Robert Redford: Business Warming Up to Environment Emission Impossible? Senator Stepping Up on Climate Control Interview: Bill McKibben Climate Change and the Media Senate Hearings Five Questions with Environmental Writer Tom Philpott Home Grown Oil, Politics Bribes E2: Energy The Greens Online NewsHour: The Global Warming Debate NewsHour Extra: Global Warming Linked to Humans NewsHour Extra: Global Warming Fears Lead to Ratification of the Kyoto Protocol Frontline: Doubters of Global Warming Journey to Planet Earth: The State of the Planet: Global Warming What s Up With the Weather? Some of the below resources were found in the book Global Warming : Opposing Viewpoints (available in the MRC) The Heritage Foundation - Global Warming Rainforest Alliance Doing a global warming search in this website will result in a list of various articles Sierra Club - homepage eLibrary (Proquest) is now available through the

Ms. Schultz

2007-12-03

256

Clinical and biochemical correlates of starting “daily” hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical and biochemical correlates of starting “daily” hemodialysis.BackgroundDaily hemodialysis has been proposed to improve outcomes for patients with end-stage renal disease. There has been increasing evidence that daily hemodialysis might have potential advantages over intermittent dialysis. However, despite these potential advantages, daily hemodialysis is infrequently used in the United States, and published accounts on the technique are few.MethodsWe describe patient

John D. Woods; Friedrich K. Port; Sean Orzol; Umberto Buoncristiani; Eric Young; Robert A. Wolfe; Philip J. Held

1999-01-01

257

SORCE Solar Irradiance Data Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) at the University of Colorado manages the SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) Science Data System. This data processing system routinely produces Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) and Spectral Solar Irradiance (SSI) data products, which are formulated using measurements from the four primary instruments on board the SORCE spacecraft. The TIM instrument provides measurements of the TSI, whereas the SIM, SOLSTICE, and XPS instruments collectively provide measurements of the solar irradiance spectrum from 1 nm to 2400 nm (excluding 31-115 nm, which is measured by the SEE instrument on NASA's TIMED mission). Derived products, such as the Magnesium II Core-to-Wing Index which can be used for space weather applications, are also produced. The SORCE Science Data System utilizes raw spacecraft and instrument telemetry, calibration data, and other ancillary information to produce a variety of solar irradiance data products that have been corrected for all known instrumental and operational factors. Since launch of the SORCE spacecraft in January 2003, science processing algorithms have continued to mature, instrument calibrations (e.g. degradation corrections) have improved, and regularly updated versions of data products have been released. "Level 3" data products (time-averaged over daily and six-hourly periods and/or spectrally re-sampled onto uniform wavelength scales) are routinely produced and delivered to the public via the SORCE web site (http://lasp.colorado.edu/sorce/data/), and are archived at the Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC). Native resolution "Level 2" products are also available for scientific studies. This poster provides an overview of the SORCE data processing system, summarizes the present state of the processing algorithms, describes the quality of the current SORCE data products, provides details on how to access SORCE science data, and presents future plans.

Lindholm, D. M.; Pankratz, C. K.; Knapp, B. G.; Meisner, R.; Fontenla, J.; Harder, J. W.; McClintock, W. E.; Kopp, G.; Snow, M.; Woods, T. N.

2008-12-01

258

The Daily Stress Inventory: Validity and effect of repeated administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Daily Stress Inventory (DSI) is a self-report measure of minor stressors which is administered daily. One test of the validity of a measure of daily stress is its sensitivity to the difference between the stressors of workdays and those of weekends. A second concern in establishing the validity of a test administered repeatedly is that self-monitoring may influence the

Phillip J. Brantley; Thomas B. Cocke; Glenn N. Jones; Anthony J. Goreczny

1988-01-01

259

Original article A comparison of daily representations of canopy  

E-print Network

Original article A comparison of daily representations of canopy conductance based on two to unreasonable values of com- puted canopy conductance, which corrupt diurnal courses and daily averages, both methods for computing daily canopy conductance were compared in a pine for- est. A simplification

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

260

Experimental Analysis of a Reduced Daily Bluegill Limit in Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a reduced daily limit (from 30 to 10 fish\\/d) on the size structure of bluegills Lepomis macrochirus in eight Minnesota lakes was measured with a controlled and replicated experiment. Bluegills from four treatment lakes (daily limit of 10 fish) and four control lakes (daily limit of 30 fish) were sampled in 2 years prior to regulation implementation

Peter C. Jacobson

2005-01-01

261

Derivation Of Daily Values Used For Nutrition Labeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily Values (DVs) are the daily dietary intake standards used for nutrition labeling. Information on the derivation of DVs is important for dietetics professionals and nutrition educators who use DVs to educate and instruct patients and students about diet planning and evaluation and about adherence to modified diets. The first daily intake standards for nutrition labeling were established in 1973

JEAN A. T. PENNINGTON; VANS. HUBBARD

1997-01-01

262

CALCULATION OF DAILY RATE WORKSHEET FOR THE TEACHING ASSISTANTS AND  

E-print Network

CALCULATION OF DAILY RATE WORKSHEET FOR THE TEACHING ASSISTANTS AND TEACHING ASSOCIATES Please in quarter) http://www.ap.uci.edu/salary/ 1. Calculate Quarterly Rate: Annual Salary = Quarterly Rate 3 = 2. Calculate amount of Daily Rate: Quarterly Rate = Daily Rate "Working Days" in Quarter = 3. Calculate payment

Rose, Michael R.

263

20 CFR 330.2 - Computation of daily benefit rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT ...OF DAILY BENEFIT RATES § 330.2 Computation...maximum daily benefit rate, such increase will apply to days of unemployment or days of sickness...by the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act are...her daily benefit rate. [56 FR...

2010-04-01

264

Magnetic Modulation of Solar 304 Ĺ Irradiance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar 304 Ĺ irradiance is an important source of heating and ionization in the Earth's upper atmosphere. Because only intermittent observations exist prior to solar cycle 23, the absolute levels and solar cycle variability of 304 Ĺ irradiance are uncertain by a factor of two, based on the range of estimates from four current EUV irradiance variability models. Large active regions are a significant source of 304 Ĺ radiation but their characteristics are not well specified, with contrasts reported in the range of two to ten. Statistical quantification of the role of small scale active regions and network is also lacking. During solar cycle 23, three different instruments are observing the Sun's 304 Ĺ radiation concurrently. The EIT on SOHO records the brightness distribution on the solar disk in a 20 Ĺ band, SEM on SOHO monitors the disk-integrated emission in an 80 Ĺ band, and the SEE grating spectrometer on the TIMED spacecraft recently began observing EUV irradiance spectra with 4 Ĺ resolution. We calculate daily histograms of the brightness distributions of EIT images after adjustments for various instrumental effects. Deconstructions of the histograms permit statistical characterizations of magnetic sources of 304 Ĺ irradiance variability during solar cycle 23, in terms of fractional disk areas and contrasts. We also study center-to-limb variations. The calculations provide independent irradiance variability estimates for comparison with the SEM and SEE direct irradiance observations, and the models. We utilize the source characterizations to revise the NRLEUV model, the present version of which estimates 304 Ĺ emission by assuming that a bright active region has a contrast of ten, and that source region evolution is temporally similar to the Mg chromospheric irradiance index. Funded by NASA SEC GI Program.

Lean, J. L.; Mariska, J. T.; Warren, H. P.; Woods, T. N.; Eparvier, F. G.; McMullin, D. R.; Judge, D. L.; Newmark, J. S.; Viereck, R. A.

2003-05-01

265

Regional Model Nesting Within GFS Daily Forecasts Over West Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study uses the RM3, the regional climate model at the Center for Climate Systems Research of Columbia University and the NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies (CCSR/GISS). The paper evaluates 30 48-hour RM3 weather forecasts over West Africa during September 2006 made on a 0.5 grid nested within 1 Global Forecast System (GFS) global forecasts. September 2006 was the Special Observing Period #3 of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA). Archived GFS initial conditions and lateral boundary conditions for the simulations from the US National Weather Service, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration were interpolated four times daily. Results for precipitation forecasts are validated against Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite estimates and data from the Famine Early Warning System (FEWS), which includes rain gauge measurements, and forecasts of circulation are compared to reanalysis 2. Performance statistics for the precipitation forecasts include bias, root-mean-square errors and spatial correlation coefficients. The nested regional model forecasts are compared to GFS forecasts to gauge whether nesting provides additional realistic information. They are also compared to RM3 simulations driven by reanalysis 2, representing high potential skill forecasts, to gauge the sensitivity of results to lateral boundary conditions. Nested RM3/GFS forecasts generate excessive moisture advection toward West Africa, which in turn causes prodigious amounts of model precipitation. This problem is corrected by empirical adjustments in the preparation of lateral boundary conditions and initial conditions. The resulting modified simulations improve on the GFS precipitation forecasts, achieving time-space correlations with TRMM of 0.77 on the first day and 0.63 on the second day. One realtime RM3/GFS precipitation forecast made at and posted by the African Centre of Meteorological Application for Development (ACMAD) in Niamey, Niger is shown.

Druyan, Leonard M.; Fulakeza, Matthew; Lonergan, Patrick; Worrell, Ruben

2010-01-01

266

Investigation of daily covering material for biocells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioreactor landfilling, with the acceptance of landfill Directive 1999/31/EC has lost its actuality in European Union; at the same time, this method can still be used for acceleration of biowaste degradation and biogas production. One of the possibilities to reduce the disposal of biowaste is to use biocells for its anaerobic pre-treatment before landfilling. The daily filling up of such a cell requires isolation of the main volume to limit gas emissions, reduce smells, etc. Bioprocesses that are of the utmost importance for biocell treatment are often not taken into account in selection of materials to be used as daily landfill covers. Based on physical, chemical and biological methods the investigations have been carried out into different covering materials offered in the market, with identification of parameters that are the most important for daily covering the biocells. It is found that the materials fitted best this purpose should be of biological origin and consist of small bio-particles with large surface, without the inhibitors of anaerobic processes such as sulphuric compounds. Bioreaktoru pielietošana atkritumu uzglab?šanas sf?r?, sakar? ar Direkt?vas 1999/31/EC pie?emšanu, ir zaud?jusi savu aktualit?ti, ta?u š? metode v?l joproj?m var tikt izmantota bioatkritumu no?rd?šanai un biog?zes ražošanai. Viena no iesp?j?m k? samazin?t bioatkritumu izvietošanu ir bioš?nu izmantošana bioatkritumu anaerobai pirmsapstr?dei pirms to noglab?šanas. Š?nas piepild?šana ikdien? prasa nepieciešam?bu izol?t liel?ko t?s da?u, lai samazin?tu g?zes emisiju, smakas, utt. Materi?li, kas ikdien? tiek izmantoti atkritumu p?rkl?šanai, nepietiekami ietekm? bioprocesus, kas pamat? ir galvenais bioš?nas izmantošanas m?r?is. Šaj? sakar? ir veikta daž?du tirdzniec?b? pieejamu p?rkl?juma materi?lu izp?te, pielietojot virkni fizik?lo, ??misko un biolo?isko metožu, un nosakot svar?g?kos parametrus, kas ir b?tiski šo materi?lu izmantošanai ikdien? k? bioš?nas p?rkl?jumu. P?t?jumu rezult?t? noteikts, ka visatbilstoš?kie ir materi?li ar biolo?isko izcelsmi, sast?voši no maz?m bio da?i??m ar lielu laukumu bez anaerobo procesu inhibitoriem, piem?ram, s?ra komponent?m.

Bendere, R.; Smigins, R.; Medne, O.; Berzina-Cimdina, L.; Rugele, K.

2014-02-01

267

Surface Irradiances Consistent With CERES-Derived Top-of-Atmosphere Shortwave and Longwave Irradiances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The estimate of surface irradiance on a global scale is possible through radiative transfer calculations using satellite-retrieved surface, cloud, and aerosol properties as input. Computed top-of-atmosphere (TOA) irradiances, however, do not necessarily agree with observation-based values, for example, from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES). This paper presents amethod to determine surface irradiances using observational constraints of TOA irradiance from CERES. A Lagrange multiplier procedure is used to objectively adjust inputs based on their uncertainties such that the computed TOA irradiance is consistent with CERES-derived irradiance to within the uncertainty. These input adjustments are then used to determine surface irradiance adjustments. Observations by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO), CloudSat, andModerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) that are a part of the NASA A-Train constellation provide the uncertainty estimates. A comparison with surface observations from a number of sites shows that the bias [root-mean-square (RMS) difference] between computed and observed monthlymean irradiances calculated with 10 years of data is 4.7 (13.3) W/sq m for downward shortwave and 22.5 (7.1) W/sq m for downward longwave irradiances over ocean and 21.7 (7.8) W m22 for downward shortwave and 21.0 (7.6) W/sq m for downward longwave irradiances over land. The bias andRMS error for the downward longwave and shortwave irradiances over ocean are decreased from those without constraint. Similarly, the bias and RMS error for downward longwave over land improves, although the constraint does not improve downward shortwave over land. This study demonstrates how synergetic use of multiple instruments (CERES,MODIS, CALIPSO, CloudSat, AIRS, and geostationary satellites) improves the accuracy of surface irradiance computations.

Kato, Seiji; Loeb, Norman G.; Rose, Fred G.; Doelling, David R.; Rutan, David A.; Caldwell, Thomas E.; Yu, Lisan; Weller, Robert A.

2013-01-01

268

Global Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the Global Challenge, teams of US high school students collaborate with international counterparts from October to May to address global climate change and compete for prizes and scholarship awards. Students strengthen skills in math, science, engineering, and critical thinking while learning about global business practices. The current Global Challenge is to create science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and business solutions that address climate change and the future of energy. Students ages 14-17 who participate in the competition have the opportunity to receive assistance in admissions to colleges and universities and win praise and acclaim as well as awards.

Craig DeLuca, The Arno Group, LLC

2007-10-31

269

[Medical emergencies in daily dermatological practice].  

PubMed

Many patients and their companions who present daily in dermatological clinics and private practices may have numerous non-dermatological comorbidities, which can cause medical emergencies. Additionally several dermatologic diagnostic or therapeutic procedures which are commonly performed can cause life-threatening complications. Therefore dermatologists can be confronted with acute medical emergencies at any time. Mostly these are internal medicine emergencies. Therefore dermatologists must have the basic emergency medical knowledge; emergency situations should be practiced regularly and this training documented for quality control measures. Every practice must be able to deliver life-saving care until trained emergency medical personnel arrive. The general emergency procedures are presented below and the practical approach is illustrated at different cardinal symptoms such as impaired consciousness, respiratory disorders or cardiocirculatory disorders. PMID:22527382

Ständer, H F

2012-04-01

270

Climatology: Contrails reduce daily temperature range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential of condensation trails (contrails) from jet aircraft to affect regional-scale surface temperatures has been debated for years, but was difficult to verify until an opportunity arose as a result of the three-day grounding of all commercial aircraft in the United States in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Here we show that there was an anomalous increase in the average diurnal temperature range (that is, the difference between the daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperatures) for the period 11-14 September 2001. Because persisting contrails can reduce the transfer of both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation and so reduce the daily temperature range, we attribute at least a portion of this anomaly to the absence of contrails over this period.

Travis, David J.; Carleton, Andrew M.; Lauritsen, Ryan G.

2002-08-01

271

Council on Foreign Relations: Daily Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Council on Foreign Relations produces an impressive array of background papers, online debates, op-ed pieces, and articles every year. International relations gurus, policy pundits, and members of the public benefit widely from these works, and those persons who haven't looked over the Council's "Daily Analysis" yet, may wish to do so now. Here visitors can read analytical briefs written by staff members on issues of the day, complete with links to "the news, analysis, commentary, and primary source materials that put the facts in context." The briefs are arranged chronologically, and recent pieces include "Is Brain Drain Good For Africa?", "China's Olympic Moment", and "Picking Presidents and Foreign Policy". These briefs are a great way to get acquainted with important news developments from around the world, and it's easy to see how educators might want to draw on the site as a resource for political science or international relations courses.

2008-01-01

272

The Science of Sleep and Daily Rhythms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created as part of the BioEd initiative at the Baylor College of Medicine, this fine guide to the science of sleep and daily rhythms was authored by Nancy P. Moreno, Barbara Z. Tharp, and Gregory L. Vogt. The 32-page document is designed for use in a variety of classrooms, and it contains activities, worksheets, and information about how sleep studies are used to improve performance across a wide range of human endeavors. The activities here include "Using a Sundial," "Living Clocks," "Sleep Patterns," and "Investigating Sleep." Each of these activities is explained succinctly and thoroughly, and many do not required specialized equipment. One of the most interesting activities is the sun tracking board which allows students to track the sun's movements with just a bit of cardboard, several writing instruments, a ruler, and some string. Finally, the sleep cycle rhythms activity gets creative, as students are asked to write a few poems about their own sleep patterns.

Moreno, Nancy P.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Vogt, Gregory

2012-07-06

273

Daily variation characteristics at polar geomagnetic observatories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is based on the statistical analysis of the diurnal variation as observed at six polar geomagnetic observatories, three in the Northern and three in the Southern hemisphere. Data are for 2006, a year of low geomagnetic activity. We compared the Italian observatory Mario Zucchelli Station (TNB; corrected geomagnetic latitude: 80.0°S), the French-Italian observatory Dome C (DMC; 88.9°S), the French observatory Dumont D'Urville (DRV; 80.4°S) and the three Canadian observatories, Resolute Bay (RES; 83.0°N), Cambridge Bay (CBB; 77.0°N) and Alert (ALE, 87.2°N). The aim of this work was to highlight analogies and differences in daily variation as observed at the different observatories during low geomagnetic activity year, also considering Interplanetary Magnetic Field conditions and geomagnetic indices.

Lepidi, S.; Cafarella, L.; Pietrolungo, M.; Di Mauro, D.

2011-08-01

274

Photophysiology and daily primary production of a temperate symbiotic gorgonian.  

PubMed

Gorgonians are one of the most important benthic components of tropical and temperate areas, and play a fundamental role as ecosystem engineers. Although global warming and pollution increasingly threaten them, the acquisition of nutrients, which is a key process in fitness and stress resistance, has been poorly investigated in such species. This study has thus used an advanced in situ incubation chamber for the first time with gorgonians, to assess the daily acquisition of nutrients and the photophysiology of the Mediterranean symbiotic species, Eunicella singularis. The xanthophyll cycle was assessed in parallel. This work has revealed that E. singularis presents a different functioning than the Mediterranean symbiotic corals. This gorgonian indeed relies on both autotrophy and heterotrophy in summer to optimize its energetic budget, while corals mainly shift to autotrophy for their respiratory needs and tissue growth. In addition, although E. singularis lives in the same depths/locations, and harbours the same symbiont genotype than the corals, the photosynthetic performances of their respective symbionts are significantly different. Indeed, E. singularis acquired 2-3 times less autotrophic carbon from its symbionts than corals, but maintained a positive carbon budget by reducing respiration rates, and by presenting maximal photosynthetic rates throughout the day, suggesting a very efficient light utilization. Almost no photoinhibition was observed under very high light levels, because of the induction of a xanthophyll photoprotection process. These results help understanding why gorgonians often dominate many benthic ecosystems. PMID:25255987

Ferrier-Pagčs, C; Reynaud, S; Béraud, E; Rottier, C; Menu, D; Duong, G; Gévaert, F

2015-01-01

275

Potential global fire monitoring from EOS-MODIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) plans to launch the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MEDIS) on the polarorbiting Earth Observation System (EeS) providing morning and evening global observations in 1999 and afternoon and night observations in 2000. These four MEDIS daily fire observations will advance global fire monitoring with special 1 km resolution fire channels at 4 and 11

Yoram J. Kaufman; Christopher O. Justice; Luke P. Flynn; Jackie D. Kendall; Elaine M. Prins; Louis Giglio; Darold E. Ward; W. Paul Menzel; Alberto W. Setzer

1998-01-01

276

Children as Global Citizens: A Socratic Approach to Teaching Character  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators around the world are being challenged to promote positive global citizenship skills in the face of daily news concerning widespread discord, dissonance, injustice, and corruption. This article describes a Socratic approach to developing global citizenship. Recognizing the central role of teachers in educating future generations of a…

Helterbran, Valeri R.; Strahler, Brianna R.

2013-01-01

277

Globalization and the "Identity Remix" among Urban Adolescents in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined adolescents' perceptions of cultural change and identity development during an age of globalization in India. Analyses of data from 1497 Indian, urban, middle-class 12-15-year-olds (46% girls) revealed that these youth were aware of changes in their daily lives due to globalization and evaluated such changes in a pragmatic…

Rao, Mrinalini A.; Berry, Ruhi; Gonsalves, Ayesha; Hastak, Yogita; Shah, Mukti; Roeser, Robert W.

2013-01-01

278

Daily Lesson Plan: Gasping for Truth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This timely lesson plan from the New York Times (NYT) Learning Network has students explore current global responses to the SARS epidemic. Designed for grades 6-8 and 9-12, the lesson plan has students evaluate what they already know about infectious respiratory diseases, and then read and discuss a recent SARS-related NYT article to learn how international governments are responding to the crisis. The Web site provides in-depth discussion questions for class activities, homework ideas, links to Web resources, and evaluation guidelines for teachers.

Chin, Tanya Y.; Dekorne, Clayton.

2003-01-01

279

A comparison of alternatives for daily to sub-daily rainfall disaggregation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThis paper evaluates three distinct approaches for disaggregating daily rainfall to sub-daily sequences: (1) random multiplicative cascades (microcanonical and canonical versions), (2) point process (randomized Bartlett-Lewis model - RBLM), and (3) resampling (method of fragments). These methods are used to perform disaggregation of daily rainfall to hourly rainfall at four point locations across Australia (Sydney, Perth, Cairns, and Hobart), which are associated with different climatic regimes. The methods are evaluated based on parameter estimation procedures applied (including introduction of the sequential Monte Carlo sampler in RBLM), the capability of the resulting sequences to reproduce standard validation statistics, and the representation of observed rainfall variability and intermittency, within-day wet spells, and extreme rainfall percentiles. The results generally indicate that the method of fragments outperforms the other models. While all the models are found to simulate reasonably well the commonly used statistical measures (e.g. mean and dry proportions) of rainfall at the hourly timestep, the microcanonical model is found to significantly overestimate the hourly rainfall variance. With respect to extreme value characteristics, the resampling approach is found to match well the observed intensity-frequency relationship at an hourly scale, with the cascade models underestimating (canonical) and overestimating (microcanonical) extreme rainfall. The point process model's performance is poor in Cairns but reasonably good at other locations. An analysis of the empirical within-day wet- and dry-spell distributions further reveals that the cascade-based models are not robust for observed wet and dry spells.

Pui, Alexander; Sharma, Ashish; Mehrotra, Rajeshwar; Sivakumar, Bellie; Jeremiah, Erwin

2012-11-01

280

Daily phosphorus variation in a mountain stream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monthly diel monitoring studies for phosphorus content were conducted (1995-1996 period) for multiple stations on Incline Creek, a mountain stream in the Lake Tahoe basin (California-Nevada). Large discharge and particulate P (PP) concentration fluctuations occurred during June in the early evening as snowmelt from higher elevations arrived at the lower stream reaches. June diel dissolved organic P (DOP) concentrations steadily increased, while soluble reactive P (SRP) concentrations remained constant. June diel PP concentrations associated with sand-sized particles (PPsand: >63 ?m) exhibited a clockwise hysteresis, indicating possible sediment source depletion on a daily timescale. June diel PP associated with silt- and clay-sized particles (PPSC: >0.45 ?m and <63 ?m) exhibited counterclockwise hysteresis behavior, suggesting a potential groundwater contribution to PPSC. PPSC comprised the majority of PP concentration, except during high-discharge events when PPsand concentration was dominant. Areal PP loading, specifically PPsand, appears to originate primarily from the lower eastern branch of Incline Creek during the spring snowmelt season. Possible sources include a ski resort/parking lot and a golf course. DOP and SRP areal loads were greatest from the undeveloped upper subwatershed, suggesting that natural factors such as slope are influencing loading of small-sized P fractions.

Hatch, Lorin K.; Reuter, John E.; Goldman, Charles R.

1999-12-01

281

Nasopharyngeal Radium Irradiation (NRI)  

MedlinePLUS

... assess the health risks associated with nasopharyngeal radium irradiation. This treatment was an accepted medical practice in ... on "The Public Health Response to Nasopharyngeal Radium Irradiation." It brought together a diverse group of more ...

282

Global Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Module covering the conceptual framework and case studies on economic globalization. The module is primarily expositive but includes some interactive sections for checking factual understanding and user submitted interactive projects which are available with a (free) registration.

Education, American A.

283

Global Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students create graphs of real temperature data to analyze climate trends by analyzing the global temperature record from 1867 to the present. Long-term trends and shorter-term fluctuations are both evaluated. The data is examined for evidence of the impact of natural and anthropogenic climate forcing mechanisms on the global surface temperature variability. Students are prompted to determine the difficulties scientists face in using this data to make climate predictions.

Mackay, Robert; Faculty, Serc S.

284

Very low temperature (irradiation  

E-print Network

irradiation M. V. Ramana Murty and Harry A. Atwater Thomas J. Watson Laboratory of Applied Physics, California 18 February 1993) Concurrent low energy (50-70 eV) ion irradiation during silicon molecular beam molecular beam epitaxy. Ion irradiation of a ( 1X 1) dihydride-terminated Si(OO1) results in a (2 X 1

Atwater, Harry

285

Daily Exposure to Dust Alters Innate Immunity  

PubMed Central

Pig farmers are exposed to organic material in pig barns on a daily basis and have signs of an ongoing chronic airway inflammation and increased prevalence of chronic inflammatory airway diseases, predominantly chronic bronchitis. Interestingly, the inflammatory response to acute exposure to organic dust is attenuated in farmers. The aim of the study was to closer characterize innate immunity features in blood and airways in farmers and in naďve, non-exposed, controls. The expression of pattern recognition receptors (TLR2, TLR4 and CD14) whose ligands are abundant in pig barn dust and adhesion proteins (CD11b, CD62L and CD162L) on blood and sputum neutrophils in pig farmers and soluble TLR2 and CD14 (sTLR2 and sCD14) in blood and sputum were assessed in pig farmers and previously unexposed controls. The release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from blood cells stimulated with LPS ex vivo was measured in the absence and presence of anti-ST2. We also examined, in a separate study population, serum levels of soluble ST2 (sST2), before and after exposure in a pig barn and a bronchial LPS challenge. Farmers had signs of ongoing chronic inflammation with increased number of blood monocytes, and decreased expression of CD62L and CD162 on blood neutrophils. Farmers also had lower levels of sTLR2 and sCD14 in sputum and reduced expression of CD14 on sputum neutrophils than controls. Exposure to organic dust and LPS induced increase of serum sST2 in controls but not in farmers. In conclusion, farmers have signs of local and systemic inflammation associated with altered innate immunity characteristics. PMID:22355383

Sahlander, Karin; Larsson, Kjell; Palmberg, Lena

2012-01-01

286

21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily activity assist device. (a) Identification....

2010-04-01

287

21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily activity assist device. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

288

A Method for Calculating Reference Evapotranspiration on Daily Time Scales  

E-print Network

Measures of reference evapotranspiration are essential for applications of agricultural management and water resources engineering. Using numerous esoteric variables, one can calculate daily reference evapotranspiration ...

Farmer, William

289

RMAWGEN: A software project for a daily Multi-Site Weather Generator with R  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modeling in in climate change applications for agricultural or hydrological purposes often requires daily time-series of precipitation and temperature. This is the case of downscaled series from monthly or seasonal predictions of Global Climate Models (GCMs). This poster presents a software project, the R package RMAWGEN (R Multi-Sites Auto-regressive Weather GENerator), to generate daily temperature and precipitation time series in several sites by using the theory of vectorial auto-regressive models (VAR). The VAR model is used because it is able to maintain the temporal and spatial correlations among the several series. In particular, observed time series of daily maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation are used to calibrate the parameters of a VAR model (saved as "GPCAvarest2" or "varest2" classes, which inherit the "varest" S3 class defined in the package vars [Pfaff, 2008]). Therefore the VAR model, coupled with monthly mean weather variables downscaled by GCM predictions, allows to generate several stochastic daily scenarios. The structure of the package consists in functions that transform precipitation and temperature time series into Gaussian-distributed random variables through deseasonalization and Principal Component Analysis. Then a VAR model is calibrated on transformed time series. The time series generated by VAR are then inversely re-transformed into precipitation and/or temperature series. An application is included in the software package as an example; it is presented by using a dataset with daily weather time series recorded in 59 different sites of Trentino (Italy) and its neighborhoods for the period 1958-2007. The software is distributed as a Free Software with General Public License (GPL) and is available on CRAN website (http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/RMAWGEN/index.html)

Cordano, E.; Eccel, E.

2012-04-01

290

The Effect of Personality on Daily Life Emotional Processes  

PubMed Central

Personality features are associated with individual differences in daily emotional life, such as negative and positive affectivity, affect variability and affect reactivity. The existing literature is somewhat mixed and inconclusive about the nature of these associations. The aim of this study was to shed light on what personality features represent in daily life by investigating the effect of the Five Factor traits on different daily emotional processes using an ecologically valid method. The Experience Sampling Method was used to collect repeated reports of daily affect and experiences from 104 healthy university students during one week of their normal lives. Personality traits of the Five Factor model were assessed using NEO Five Factor Inventory. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze the effect of the personality traits on daily emotional processes. Neuroticism predicted higher negative and lower positive affect, higher affect variability, more negative subjective evaluations of daily incidents, and higher reactivity to stressors. Conscientiousness, by contrast, predicted lower average level, variability, and reactivity of negative affect. Agreeableness was associated with higher positive and lower negative affect, lower variability of sadness, and more positive subjective evaluations of daily incidents. Extraversion predicted higher positive affect and more positive subjective evaluations of daily activities. Openness had no effect on average level of affect, but predicted higher reactivity to daily stressors. The results show that the personality features independently predict different aspects of daily emotional processes. Neuroticism was associated with all of the processes. Identifying these processes can help us to better understand individual differences in daily emotional life. PMID:25343494

Komulainen, Emma; Meskanen, Katarina; Lipsanen, Jari; Lahti, Jari Marko; Jylhä, Pekka; Melartin, Tarja; Wichers, Marieke; Isometsä, Erkki; Ekelund, Jesper

2014-01-01

291

Field measurement of clear-sky solar irradiance in Badain Jaran Desert of Northwestern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Semi-Arid Climate and Environment Observatory of Lanzhou University (SACOL) sponsored and conducted an intensive field campaign on dust aerosols in Badain Jaran Desert of Northwestern China from April 20 to June 20, 2010. A set of state-of-the-art broadband radiometers and sun/sky photometers were deployed along with launched radiosonde. In this paper, we compared the simulated solar irradiances by using the SBDART radiative transfer model with those from the ground-based measurements for 69 selected cases of 7 days. It was shown that the averaged aerosol optical depth at 500nm (AOD500) is 0.18±0.09 with AOD500 less than 0.5 for all cases. The single-scattering albedo and asymmetry factor at 675nm are 0.928±0.035, 0.712±0.023, respectively. The AODs retrieved from the CIMEL sun photometer at various wavelengths agree well with those from the PREDE sky radiometer, and the columnar water vapor contents from CIMEL also agree well with radiosonde observations. In the radiative closure experiment, we used a collocated thermopile pyrgeometer with a shadow and ventilator to correct the thermal dome offset of diffuse irradiance measurement. The mean differences between model and measurements are -9.1Wm-2 (-2.6%) for the direct irradiance, +3.1Wm-2 (+2.8%) for diffuse irradiance, and -6.0Wm-2 (-1.3%) for global irradiance, which indicates an excellent radiative closure. Aerosol shortwave direct radiative forcing (ARF) and radiative heating rate are also investigated. The daily mean ARF ranges from -4.8 to +0.4Wm-2 at the top of the atmosphere, -5.2 to -15.6Wm-2 at the surface, and 5.2 to 10.8Wm-2 in the atmosphere. The corresponding radiative heating rates for the whole atmosphere due to dust aerosols are 0.07, 0.11, 0.14, 0.11, 0.10, 0.08, and 0.07K/day for the 7 selected cloudless days. These solar radiative forcing can be considered as the representative impact of background dust aerosol in Northwestern China.

Bi, Jianrong; Huang, Jianping; Fu, Qiang; Ge, Jinming; Shi, Jinsen; Zhou, Tian; Zhang, Wu

2013-06-01

292

Global Grocery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fun Web site is part of OLogy, where kids can collect virtual trading cards and create projects with them. Here, they take a behind-the-scenes look at the biodiversity that's part of the many things they eat and use daily. The site opens by asking kids a series of questions to get them thinking about the ingredients in common foods and products. Then it takes them to a well-stocked kitchen, where they can mouse over everything from chocolate chip cookies and coffee to cough drops and cold medicine to learn about the origins of key ingredients.

293

Global Compact  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Global Compact is a joint project of the International Labor Organization (ILO), the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP), and the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. The site outlines the nine principles drafted at the World Economic Forum on January 31, 1999 to serve as guidelines for world businesses. The principles address three basic areas of concern: human rights, labor standards, and environment. The Global Compact also provides means and methods for enacting these principles, including case studies and research from the ILO and the UNEP. The site's Country Information section is a searchable database of labor, human rights, and environmental information from Abkhyazia to Zimbabwe. The News and Reviews section contains current and archived news, as well as statements about the Global Compact from UN Secretary General Kofi Annan and Secretary General Amnesty International Pierre Sane among others. Here, users will also find an analytical overview of the research and debates over these topics.

294

Capturing daily urban rhythms: The use of location aware technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily activities and travel often follow a natural rhythm or flow that is structured by the fixed spatial and temporal constraints. The work and home location act as pegs that define individual's activity space and it is within these spaces that activities and travel behaviour are believed to be habitual and recurring. Aggregating such individual behaviour leads to so-called daily

Stephan Krygsman; Tom de Jong; Peter Schmitz

295

The Role of Religion in Coping with Daily Hassles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the role of religion in coping with daily stressors. Specifically, daily hassles, religious and nonreligious coping, Positive and Negative Affect, and Depression were assessed in a sample of college students (n=222). It was expected that religious coping would predict adjustment over and above the effects of nonreligious coping…

Belavich, Timothy G.

296

Classifying Human Hand Use and the Activities of Daily Living  

E-print Network

Chapter 10 Classifying Human Hand Use and the Activities of Daily Living Aaron M. Dollar Abstract Humans use their hands for a large variety of tasks during daily life. In this chapter, a discussion of human hand use is presented, including classification schemes for grasping and manipulation behaviors

Dollar, Aaron M.

297

Daily Increment Formation in Otoliths of the Redspotted Sunfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

To generate reliable age information for fishes, we must assess the robustness of techniques to environmental variation. We quantified daily ring deposition within the sagittal otoliths of known-age larval and juvenile redspotted sunfish Lepomis miniatus reared in ponds. We also determined how daily light : dark cycles mimicking natural conditions, reduced daylight, or constant daylight affected ring deposition in fish

Matt E. Roberts; James E. Wetzel II; Ronald C. Brooks; James E. Garvey

2004-01-01

298

Daily Mortality and PM10 Pollution in Utah Valley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between daily mortality and respirable particulate pollution (PM10) in Utah County was assessed from April 1985 through December 1989. Poisson regression analysis was used to regress daily death counts on PM10 pollution levels, controlling for variability in the weather. A significant positive association between nonaccidental mortality and PM10 pollution was observed. The strongest association was with 5-d moving

C. Arden Pope III; Joel Schwartz; Michael R. Ransom

1992-01-01

299

The determinants of daily function in children with cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to identify determinants of daily function in a population-based sample of children with cerebral palsy (CP). The study took into consideration factors from the entire scope of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). Furthermore, the determinants of daily function were examined from the perspectives of capacity and performance respectively.A total of

Mei-Hui Tseng; Kuan-Lin Chen; Jeng-Yi Shieh; Lu Lu; Chien-Yu Huang

2011-01-01

300

Daily Experience Research: Methods and Applications in Therapeutic Recreation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the major approaches used by social scientists to measure daily experiences, including interval-contingent, signal- contingent, and event-contingent methods. Examples of how these methods have been used in therapeutic recreation and leisure research are provided. The unique challenges and issues of measuring the daily experiences of…

Voelkl, Judith E.; Baldwin, Cheryl K.

2000-01-01

301

Extreme limit distribution of truncated models for daily rainfall  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose truncated and power-transformed (TPT) models for daily rainfall and we derive the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) limit distributions for these models. We find that these limit distributions belong to the domain of attrac- tion of the Frechet family when the parent distribution of the daily values is a TPT t-Student model. In this case the shape parameter of

Aracelis Hernández; Lelys Guenni; Bruno Sansó

2009-01-01

302

When Opportunity Knocks: Integrating Language Arts and the Daily Calendar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With daily classroom schedules jammed with many concepts and skills to cover, integrating subjects whenever possible offers some relief. Primary classrooms can use their daily calendar time to integrate language arts and math. This teaching approach includes the use of word walls, interactive writing, journaling, and other effective teaching…

Biddle, Melissa

2007-01-01

303

STABILITY OR REGULARITY OF THE DAILY TRAVEL TIME IN LYON?  

E-print Network

STABILITY OR REGULARITY OF THE DAILY TRAVEL TIME IN LYON? ­ APPLICATION OF A DURATION MODEL Iragaël approaches; Travel time budget; Zahavi's hypothesis. Abstract: Escaping unidimensional analysis limits variable and permits to test the dependence of daily travel times on elapsed time. In the perspective

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

304

Experiential avoidance and well-being: A daily diary analysis.  

PubMed

Experiential avoidance (EA) is a regulatory strategy characterised by efforts to control or avoid unpleasant thoughts, feelings and bodily sensations. Most studies of EA have used trait measures without considering the effects of EA on psychological functioning in naturalistic settings. To address this gap, we used daily diary methodology to examine the influence of EA of anxiety on everyday well-being. For two weeks, 89 participants provided daily reports of EA, positive and negative affect, enjoyment of daily events and meaning in life (MIL). Daily EA predicted higher negative affect, lower positive affect, less enjoyment of daily events (exercising, eating food and listening to music) and less MIL. The effect of EA on positive affect was not accounted for by the amount of negative affect experienced. Our daily measure of EA was a stronger predictor of daily well-being than a traditional trait measure (The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire). Taken together, results offer insights into the adverse effects of EA on daily well-being and suggest that EA is a context-specific regulatory strategy that might be best captured using a state-dependent measure. PMID:24800802

Machell, Kyla A; Goodman, Fallon R; Kashdan, Todd B

2015-02-01

305

Global Winds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On this worksheet, students examine a diagram of global winds and learn the position of the prevailing westerlies, the polar easterlies, the trade winds, the horse latitudes and the doldrums, and that together, the uneven heating of the planet by the Sun and the Coriolis Effect are responsible for the global wind belts. The resource is part of the teacher's guide accompanying the video, NASA Why Files: The Case of the Mysterious Red Light. Lesson objectives supported by the video, additional resources, teaching tips and an answer sheet are included in the teacher's guide.

2012-08-03

306

Considerations on the new nevirapine: switching patients from twice-daily to once-daily.  

PubMed

Nevirapine (NVP) was the first nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) approved for the treatment of HIV infection. NVP can provide safe and efficacious viral suppression for treatment-naive patients and for virologically controlled patients "switching" from other NNRTI or protease inhibitor-based regimens. Formulations allowing once-daily dosing of antiretrovirals can significantly improve regimen adherence, which is important for maintaining virologic control, especially for NNRTI-based regimens with low barriers for genetic resistance. Randomized and controlled clinical trials have established the clinical non inferiority of a new, extended-release formulation (XR) of NVP, in both treatment-naive (VERxVE) and treatment-experienced patients (TRANxITION), where patients already stable on the immediate-release formulation of NVP were safely transitioned directly to NVP XR. As a potentially more convenient once-daily option, NVP XR may improve adherence and reduce the risk of mutant viruses, attendant virologic failure, and the spread of drug resistance. PMID:23449713

Ward, Douglas; Slim, Jihad

2013-01-01

307

The Global Sun Temperature Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website created by Stevens Institute of Technology and the Center for Innovation in Engineering and Science Education (CIESE) allows students from around the world to work together to determine how average daily temperatures and hours of sunlight change with distance from the equator. Upper elementary, middle, and high school students can participate in the Global Sun Temperature Project from March 18 to June 3, 2005. Educators can find project information, lesson plans, and implementation assistance. Participants can submit their project data, pictures, and final reports. If interested parties miss the May 6th registration deadline, check out the website to discover future runs.

308

The Clinical Global Impressions Scale  

PubMed Central

Objective: This paper reviews the potential value in daily clinical practice of an easily applied research tool, the Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) Scale, for the nonresearcher clinician to quantify and track patient progress and treatment response over time. Method: The instrument is described and sample patient scenarios are provided with scoring rationales and a practical charting system. Conclusion: The CGI severity and improvement scales offer a readily understood, practical measurement tool that can easily be administered by a clinician in a busy clinical practice setting. PMID:20526405

Targum, Steven D.

2007-01-01

309

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of boosted once-daily darunavir.  

PubMed

The ability to dose antiretroviral agents once daily simplifies the often complex therapeutic regimens required for the successful treatment of HIV infection. Thus, once-daily dosing can lead to improved patient adherence to medication and, consequently, sustained virological suppression and reduction in the risk of emergence of drug resistance. Several trials have evaluated once-daily darunavir/ritonavir in combination with other antiretrovirals (ARTEMIS and ODIN trials) or as monotherapy (MONET, MONOI and PROTEA trials) in HIV-1-infected adults. Data from ARTEMIS and ODIN demonstrate non-inferiority of once-daily darunavir/ritonavir against a comparator and, together with pharmacokinetic data, have established the suitability of once-daily darunavir/ritonavir for treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients with no darunavir resistance-associated mutations. The findings of ARTEMIS and ODIN have led to recent updates to treatment guidelines, whereby once-daily darunavir/ritonavir, given with other antiretrovirals, is now a preferred treatment option for antiretroviral-naive adult patients and a simplified treatment option for antiretroviral-experienced adults who have no darunavir resistance-associated mutations. Once-daily dosing with darunavir/ritonavir is an option for treatment-naive and for treatment-experienced paediatric patients with no darunavir resistance-associated mutations based on the findings of the DIONE trial and ARIEL substudy. This article reviews the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety and tolerability of once-daily boosted darunavir. The feasibility of darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy as a treatment approach for some patients is also discussed. Finally, data on a fixed-dose combination of 800/150 mg of darunavir/cobicistat once daily are presented, showing comparable darunavir bioavailability to that obtained with 800/100 mg of darunavir/ritonavir once daily. PMID:24951533

Kakuda, Thomas N; Brochot, Anne; Tomaka, Frank L; Vangeneugden, Tony; Van De Casteele, Tom; Hoetelmans, Richard M W

2014-10-01

310

Bystander Effects Induced by Medium From Irradiated Cells: Similar Transcriptome Responses in Irradiated and Bystander K562 Cells  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Cells exposed to ionizing radiation release factors that induce deoxyribonucleic acid damage, chromosomal instability, apoptosis, and changes in the proliferation rate of neighboring unexposed cells, phenomena known as bystander effects. This work analyzes and compares changes in global transcript levels induced by direct irradiation and by bystander effects in K562 (human erythroleukemia) cells. Methods and Materials: Cells were X-irradiated with 4 Gy or transferred into culture medium collected from cells 1 h after irradiation (irradiation-conditioned medium). Global transcript profiles were assessed after 36 h of growth by use of Affymetrix microarrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) and the kinetics of change of selected transcripts by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results: The level of the majority (72%) of transcripts changed similarly (increase, decrease, or no change) in cells grown in irradiation-conditioned medium or irradiated, whereas only 0.6% showed an opposite response. Transcript level changes in bystander and irradiated cells were significantly different from those in untreated cells grown for the same amount of time and were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for selected genes. Signaling pathways in which the highest number of transcripts changed in both conditions were found in the following groups: neuroactive ligand-receptor, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Janus Kinase-Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (JAK-STAT) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) In control cells more transcripts were downregulated than in irradiated and bystander cells with transcription factors YBX1 and STAT5B, heat shock protein HSPA1A, and ribonucleic acid helicase DDX3X as examples. Conclusions: The transcriptomes of cells grown in medium from X-irradiated cells or directly irradiated show very similar changes. Signals released by irradiated cells may cause changes in the transcriptome of neighboring cells that sustain their survival.

Herok, Robert; Konopacka, Maria [Department of Experimental and Clinical Radiobiology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); Polanska, Joanna; Swierniak, Andrzej [System Engineering Group, Institute of Automatic Control, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland); Rogolinski, Jacek [Department of Experimental and Clinical Radiobiology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); Jaksik, Roman [System Engineering Group, Institute of Automatic Control, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland); Hancock, Ronald [Laval University Cancer Research Centre, Hotel-Dieu Hospital, Quebec, QC (Canada); Rzeszowska-Wolny, Joanna, E-mail: jwolny@io.gliwice.p [Department of Experimental and Clinical Radiobiology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); System Engineering Group, Institute of Automatic Control, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland)

2010-05-01

311

Global militarization  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the titles are: Military Formations and Social Formations: A Structural Analysis; Global Conflict Formations: Present Developments and Future Directions; War and the Power of Warmakers in Western Europe and Elsewhere, 1600-1980; and The Urban Type of Society and International War.

Wallensteen, P.; Galtung, J.; Portales, C.

1985-01-01

312

Global Warming?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents information and data on an experiment designed to test whether different atmosphere compositions are affected by light and temperature during both cooling and heating. Although flawed, the experiment should help students appreciate the difficulties that researchers face when trying to find evidence of global warming. (PR)

Eichman, Julia Christensen; Brown, Jeff A.

1994-01-01

313

Technique to produce daily estimates of the migrating diurnal tide using TIMED/SABER and EOS Aura/MLS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique to explicitly compute the day-to-day variability of the migrating diurnal tide (DW1) between 20 km and 80 km on a global scale is presented and analyzed. Our method employs temperature data from two satellite instruments: the MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) instrument on the EOS (Earth Observing System) Aura spacecraft and the SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) instrument on the TIMED (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics) spacecraft. By taking advantage of the four daily solar local time measurements from the two instruments, a least squares fit representing the DW1 is constructed. Consequently, the daily zonal mean, DW1 amplitude and phase are all estimated on a daily basis. Before the implementation of our technique, a comparative analysis between the instrument data sets is conducted. The analysis reveals temperature biases of up to 10 K, which are removed to improve our estimates. To evaluate performance, our method is applied to a model atmosphere constructed from tidal fields obtained from the Global Scale Wave Model (GSWM). Performance results indicate that the DW1 is most effectively extracted from the background atmosphere and other tidal components when each latitude circle is well sampled and the local time sampling is evenly spaced. A comparison of our results to the GSWM and past observations support the conclusion that our method produces daily estimates of the DW1 that can be utilized for scientifically useful investigations of short term tidal variability.

Nguyen, Vu; Palo, S. E.

2013-12-01

314

The sun’s total and spectral irradiance for solar energy applications and solar radiation models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the most recent composite time series of total solar irradiance spaceborne measurements, a solar constant value of 1366.1 Wm?2 is confirmed, and simple quadratic expressions are proposed to predict its daily value from the Zurich sunspot number, the MgII index, or the 10.7 cm radio flux index. Whenever these three indices are available on a daily basis (since 1978),

Christian A. Gueymard

2004-01-01

315

Solar influences on global change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monitoring of the Sun and the Earth has yielded new knowledge essential to this debate. There is now no doubt that the total radiative energy from the Sun that heats the Earth's surface changes over decadal time scales as a consequence of solar activity. Observations indicate as well that changes in ultraviolet radiation and energetic particles from the Sun, also connected with the solar activity, modulate the layer of ozone that protects the biosphere from the solar ultraviolet radiation. This report reassesses solar influences on global change in the light of this new knowledge of solar and atmospheric variability. Moreover, the report considers climate change to be encompassed within the broader concept of global change; thus the biosphere is recognized to be part of a larger, coupled Earth system. Implementing a program to continuously monitor solar irradiance over the next several decades will provide the opportunity to estimate solar influences on global change, assuming continued maintenance of observations of climate and other potential forcing mechanisms. In the lower atmosphere, an increase in solar radiation is expected to cause global warming. In the stratosphere, however, the two effects produce temperature changes of opposite sign. A monitoring program that would augment long term observations of tropospheric parameters with similar observations of stratospheric parameters could separate these diverse climate perturbations and perhaps isolate a greenhouse footprint of climate change. Monitoring global change in the troposphere is a key element of all facets of the United States Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), not just of the study of solar influences on global change. The need for monitoring the stratosphere is also important for global change research in its own right because of the stratospheric ozone layer.

1994-01-01

316

Mapping Daily Evapotranspiration at Field to Global Scales using Geostationary and Polar Orbiting Satellite Imagery  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing of land-surface temperature (LST) provides valuable information about the sub-surface moisture status required for estimating evapotranspiration (ET) and detecting the onset and severity of drought. While empirical indices measuring anomalies in LST and vegetati...

317

GSOD Based Daily Global Mean Surface Temperature and Mean Sea Level Air Pressure (1982-2011)  

SciTech Connect

This data product contains all the gridded data set at 1/4 degree resolution in ASCII format. Both mean temperature and mean sea level air pressure data are available. It also contains the GSOD data (1982-2011) from NOAA site, contains station number, location, temperature and pressures (sea level and station level). The data package also contains information related to the data processing methods

Xuan Shi, Dali Wang

2014-05-05

318

GSOD Based Daily Global Mean Surface Temperature and Mean Sea Level Air Pressure (1982-2011)  

DOE Data Explorer

This data product contains all the gridded data set at 1/4 degree resolution in ASCII format. Both mean temperature and mean sea level air pressure data are available. It also contains the GSOD data (1982-2011) from NOAA site, contains station number, location, temperature and pressures (sea level and station level). The data package also contains information related to the data processing methods

Xuan Shi, Dali Wang

319

Comparison of daily UV doses estimated from Nimbus 7/TOMS measurements and ground-based spectroradiometric data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During recent years, methods have been developed for estimating UV irradiance reaching the Earth's surface using satellite-measured backscattered UV radiances. The NASA-developed method is based on radiative transfer calculations and satellite measurements of parameters affecting UV radiation: extraterrestrial solar irradiance, atmospheric ozone, cloud reflectivity, aerosol amounts, and ground albedo. In this work a comparison is made between daily UV erythemal doses estimated from Nimbus-7/TOMS measurements (from 1991 to May 1993) and those calculated from ground-based spectroradiometer data. Three stations operated by the National Science Foundation were chosen for this comparison: Ushuaia, Argentina (for 573 days), Palmer, Antarctica (for 450 days), and San Diego, California, (for 149 days). These stations were selected to illustrate the differences between ground-based measurements using the same type of instrument, SUV-100 double monochromator spectroradiometers, and satellite estimates of surface UV irradiance under three different environmental conditions (mountains and snow, nearly continuous snow cover, and midlatitude urban sea level conditions). Averaging the measured and TOMS-estimated doses over periods from 1 week to 1 month improves the agreement. The daily or monthly mean bias increases during months when there is snow/ice on the surface. TOMS has a larger estimate of the UV irradiance by 25% at San Diego (no snow), in agreement with the summer-month analysis of Toronto irradiances [Herman et al., 1999]. TOMS underestimates the average daily-UV dose at Ushuaia (monthly mean bias of -13%) and at Palmer (-35%) consistent with snow/ice with cloud effects not being properly accounted for in the TOMS algorithm. When the reflectivity at all three sites is low (no snow), the TOMS irradiance estimate is larger than the SUV-100 measurements consistent with previously analyzed Brewer data at Toronto. The effects of local fog or clouds smaller than the satellite field of view and undetected UV-absorbing aerosols near the ground are discussed. In addition to uncertainties in radiometric calibrations of the spectrometers, none of the SUV-100 data are corrected for deviations of diffuser-transmittance from true cosine response.

Kalliskota, Sari; Kaurola, Jussi; Taalas, Petteri; Herman, Jay R.; Celarier, Edward A.; Krotkov, Nikolay A.

2000-02-01

320

Irradiation of Metallic and Oxide Fuels for Actinide Transmutation in the ATR  

SciTech Connect

Metallic fuels containing minor actinides and rare earth additions have been fabricated and are prepared for irradiation in the ATR, scheduled to begin during the summer of 2007. Oxide fuels containing minor actinides are being fabricated and will be ready for irradiation in ATR, scheduled to begin during the summer of 2008. Fabrication and irradiation of these fuels will provide detailed studies of actinide transmutation in support of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership. These fuel irradiations include new fuel compositions that have never before been tested. Results from these tests will provide fundamental data on fuel irradiation performance and will advance the state of knowledge for transmutation fuels. (authors)

MacLean, Heather J.; Hayes, Steven L. [Idaho National Laboratory: P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID, 83415 (United States)

2007-07-01

321

Indoor and Outdoor Spectroradiometer Intercomparison for Spectral Irradiance Measurement  

SciTech Connect

This report details the global spectral irradiance intercomparison using spectroradiometers that was organized by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. The intercomparison was performed both indoors and outdoors on September 17, 2013. Five laboratories participated in the intercomparison using 10 spectroradiometers, and a coordinated measurement setup and a common platform were employed to compare spectral irradiances under both indoor and outdoor conditions. The intercomparison aimed to understand the performance of the different spectroradiometers and to share knowledge in making spectral irradiance measurements. This intercomparison was the first of its kind in the United States.

Habte, A.; Andreas, A.; Ottoson, L.; Gueymard, C.; Fedor, G.; Fowler, S.; Peterson, J.; Naranen, R.; Kobashi, T.; Akiyama, A.; Takagi, S.

2014-05-01

322

Panwapa: Global Kids, Global Connections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Panwapa, created by the Sesame Street Workshop of PBS, is an example of an initiative on the Internet designed to enhance students' learning by exposing them to global communities. Panwapa means "Here on Earth" in Tshiluba, a Bantu language spoken in the Democratic Republic of Congo. At the Panwapa website, www.panwapa.org, children aged four to…

Berson, Ilene R.; Berson, Michael J.

2009-01-01

323

Global Health Research | 2 Global Health Research  

E-print Network

Global Health Research | 2 Global Health Research Supporting researchers in low- and middle Health Research #12;Global Health Research | 4 We are a global charitable foundation dedicated water. Mark Jones #12;5 | Global Health Research We support researchers in low- and middle- income

Rambaut, Andrew

324

Contribution of daily and seasonal biorhythms to obesity in humans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the significance of obesity as a serious health problem is well recognized, little is known about whether and how biometerological factors and biorhythms causally contribute to obesity. Obesity is often associated with altered seasonal and daily rhythmicity in food intake, metabolism and adipose tissue function. Environmental stimuli affect both seasonal and daily rhythms, and the latter are under additional control of internal molecular oscillators, or body clocks. Modifications of clock genes in animals and changes to normal daily rhythms in humans (as in shift work and sleep deprivation) result in metabolic dysregulation that favours weight gain. Here, we briefly review the potential links between biorhythms and obesity in humans.

Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Witowski, Janusz

2014-07-01

325

Global Integrity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many of the worldâ??s national governments have been plagued by charges of corruption and pervasive malfeasance over the past few decades. As a result, a number of international organizations have been created to provide information on corruption and governance trends for the policy community and the general public. With funding from the World Bank, the Global Integrity organization produces the Global Integrity Report, which features a number of â??integrity indicatorsâ?ť, which analyze openness, governance, and anti-corruption mechanisms for a wide range of countries. Visitors to their site can read the Report in its entirety here, and also browse through a number of media resources designed for journalists. Additionally, visitors can also learn more about the organizationâ??s staff members and their various methodologies for compiling reports.

326

Flight Global  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Perhaps you are interested in the projects that AirTran has going on? And maybe you'd like to know more about helicopters? These topics (and many more) are all covered on the Flight Global site. The homepage contains a briefing of global airline news, complete with related links, polls, and information from their breaking news blog. Curious parties should also look at the left-hand side of the page, as it contains a list of fourteen different topics, ranging from "Aircraft" to "Media Centre". Further down, the page also contains a "Jobs" area for people looking to enter the industry or to make a career move. The site also contains "cutaways", which feature the interior schematics of military and commercial planes. Visitors should also check out the "AirSpace Image of the Week", which highlights some beautiful and amazing photographs.

327

Determination of daily total ultraviolet-B in a subtropical region (Upper Egypt): An empirical approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the fundamental role played by ultraviolet-B (UVB) and due to the lack of long-term measurements of its magnitude, the present work has established an empirical approach to estimate daily total UVB in all sky conditions (UVBd). Data from eight years (2000-2007) of UVBd and daily total global solar radiation (Gd) have been used. For both variables, the dataset used was examined, and a relationship between these two quantities was developed. In addition, the variation of daily clearness indices of UVB and global solar radiation, G (KtUVB and Kt respectively) was determined. Kt was introduced to determine UVBd. This variable can be considered as an atmospheric modulator of the maximum values of UVBd (under clear-sky conditions, UVB0d). The relationship between UVBd and the product of UVB0d and Kt (UVB0d*Kt) was parameterized. The significance and performance of this empirical approach have been evaluated with the aid of several statistical analysis procedures. The results show that the modeling index (d) and the coefficient of modeling efficiency (ME) were 0.99 and 1 respectively. In addition, the root mean square error (RMSE), the mean bias error (MBE), and the mean absolute error (MAE) were 8%, - 0.3%, and 6%, respectively. Datasets for a new time period from Qena and another location (Aswan) were used to validate the proposed approach. The results of this empirical approach were satisfactory, with a correlation coefficient of 0.98 between measured and estimated values of UVBd for both sites.

Adam, Mahmoud El-Nouby

2015-02-01

328

Once-daily 0.1% mometasone furoate cream versus twice-daily 0.1% betamethasone valerate cream in the treatment of a variety of dermatoses.  

PubMed

A randomized, investigator-blind, parallel-group trial was conducted to compare the safety and efficacy of 0.1% mometasone furoate cream applied once daily with that of 0.1% betamethasone valerate cream applied twice daily in patients (n = 69) with allergic contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis and other steroid-responsive dermatoses. After 3 day's treatment improvement in conditions averaged 38.2% and 39.3%, respectively, in the mometasone and betamethasone treatment groups, and after 21 days average improvements were 93.6% and 96.5%, respectively. The physicians' global evaluation of overall change in disease status and the patients' evaluation of treatment also indicated that the two treatment regimens produced comparable, rapid and progressive improvements in the patients' conditions, and no local side-effects were reported. It is concluded that mometasone furoate was as effective as betamethasone valerate in the treatment of a variety of steroid-responsive dermatoses, although mometasone furoate was applied only half as frequently. PMID:2292327

Viglioglia, P; Jones, M L; Peets, E A

1990-01-01

329

Global Predictions  

E-print Network

above 500 will institute a burn ban. The index uses weather station estimates of temperature and Doppler radar-based precipitation estimates to produce geographic information systems (GIS) maps. The KBDI maps are one of more than 15 map products... created every day by the lab and used by the forest service, county commissioners and others. Using computer technology and satellites, the lab currently focuses on three core spatial technologies? GIS, global positioning systems (GPS) and remote...

Swyden, Courtney

2006-01-01

330

ELPIS-JP: a dataset of local-scale daily climate change scenarios for Japan  

PubMed Central

We developed a dataset of local-scale daily climate change scenarios for Japan (called ELPIS-JP) using the stochastic weather generators (WGs) LARS-WG and, in part, WXGEN. The ELPIS-JP dataset is based on the observed (or estimated) daily weather data for seven climatic variables (daily mean, maximum and minimum temperatures; precipitation; solar radiation; relative humidity; and wind speed) at 938 sites in Japan and climate projections from the multi-model ensemble of global climate models (GCMs) used in the coupled model intercomparison project (CMIP3) and multi-model ensemble of regional climate models form the Japanese downscaling project (called S-5-3). The capability of the WGs to reproduce the statistical features of the observed data for the period 1981–2000 is assessed using several statistical tests and quantile–quantile plots. Overall performance of the WGs was good. The ELPIS-JP dataset consists of two types of daily data: (i) the transient scenarios throughout the twenty-first century using projections from 10 CMIP3 GCMs under three emission scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1) and (ii) the time-slice scenarios for the period 2081–2100 using projections from three S-5-3 regional climate models. The ELPIS-JP dataset is designed to be used in conjunction with process-based impact models (e.g. crop models) for assessment, not only the impacts of mean climate change but also the impacts of changes in climate variability, wet/dry spells and extreme events, as well as the uncertainty of future impacts associated with climate models and emission scenarios. The ELPIS-JP offers an excellent platform for probabilistic assessment of climate change impacts and potential adaptation at a local scale in Japan. PMID:22291226

Iizumi, Toshichika; Semenov, Mikhail A.; Nishimori, Motoki; Ishigooka, Yasushi; Kuwagata, Tsuneo

2012-01-01

331

Prolonged survival for patients with newly diagnosed, inoperable glioblastoma with 3-times daily ultrafractionated radiation therapy  

PubMed Central

Ultrafractionation of radiation therapy is a novel regimen consisting of irradiating tumors several times daily, delivering low doses (<0.75 Gy) at which hyperradiosensitivity occurs. We recently demonstrated the high efficiency of ultrafractionated radiotherapy (RT) on glioma xenografts and report here on a phase II clinical trial to determine the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of an ultrafractionation regimen in patients with newly and inoperable glioblastoma (GBM). Thirty-one patients with histologically proven, newly diagnosed, and unresectable supratentorial GBM (WHO grade IV) were enrolled. Three daily doses of 0.75 Gy were delivered at least 4 hours apart, 5 days per week over 6–7 consecutive weeks (90 fractions for a total of 67.5 Gy). Conformal irradiation included the tumor bulk with a margin of 2.5 cm. The primary end points were safety, toxicity, and tolerability, and the secondary end points were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Multivariate analysis was used to compare the OS and PFS with the EORTC-NCIC trial 26981-22981/CE.3 of RT alone vs radiation therapy and temozolomide (TMZ). The ultrafractionation radiation regimen was safe and well tolerated. No acute Grade III and/or IV CNS toxicity was observed. Median PFS and OS from initial diagnosis were 5.1 and 9.5 months, respectively. When comparing with the EORTC/NCIC trial, in both PFS and OS multivariate analysis, ultrafractionation showed superiority over RT alone, but not over RT and TMZ. The ultrafractionation regimen is safe and may prolong the survival of patients with GBM. Further investigation is warranted and a trial associating ultra-fractionation and TMZ is ongoing. PMID:20511183

Beauchesne, Patrick; Bernier, Valerie; Carnin, Charlotte; Taillandier, Luc; Djabri, Mohamed; Martin, Laurent; Michel, Xavier; Maire, Jean-Philippe; Khalil, Toufic; Kerr, Christine; Gorlia, Thierry; Stupp, Roger; Pedeux, Remy

2010-01-01

332

Corneal Transplant Improves Vision and Daily Life for Some Children  

MedlinePLUS

... Index March 1, 2011 Rare, but Effective: Corneal Transplant Improves Vision and Daily Life for Some Children ... Teens, children, and even infants sometimes require corneal transplants, although most such surgeries are performed in adults. ...

333

Statistical Downscaling of Daily Wind Speed Variations MEGAN C. KIRCHMEIER  

E-print Network

: statistical and dynamical. Dynamical downscaling typi- cally employs the use of a regional climate model (RCM complete description of RCMs and dynamical downscaling. Al- though computationally expensive, dynamicalStatistical Downscaling of Daily Wind Speed Variations MEGAN C. KIRCHMEIER Department

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

334

21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES...daily activity assist device is a modified adaptor...that is intended for medical purposes to assist a...general controls). The device is exempt from the...

2012-04-01

335

21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES...daily activity assist device is a modified adaptor...that is intended for medical purposes to assist a...general controls). The device is exempt from the...

2013-04-01

336

21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES...daily activity assist device is a modified adaptor...that is intended for medical purposes to assist a...general controls). The device is exempt from the...

2014-04-01

337

Daily spatiotemporal precipitation simulation using latent and transformed Gaussian processes  

E-print Network

Daily spatiotemporal precipitation simulation using latent and transformed Gaussian processes precipitation generator that yields spatially consistent gridded quantitative precipitation realizations is described. The methodology relies on a latent Gaussian process to drive precipitation occurrence

Katz, Richard

338

Daily variability in abundance of larval fishes inside Beaufort Inlet  

E-print Network

. Species of interest were Brevoortia tyrannus, Lagodon rhomboides, Leio- stomus xanthurus, Micropogonias- mental variables. Daily collections ofB. tyrannus larvae provided otoliths (n=1,341) showing that a large

339

A general model to predict individual exposure to solar UV by using ambient irradiance data.  

PubMed

Excessive exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) is the main cause of skin cancer. Specific prevention should be further developed to target overexposed or highly vulnerable populations. A better characterisation of anatomical UV exposure patterns is however needed for specific prevention. To develop a regression model for predicting the UV exposure ratio (ER, ratio between the anatomical dose and the corresponding ground level dose) for each body site without requiring individual measurements. A 3D numeric model (SimUVEx) was used to compute ER for various body sites and postures. A multiple fractional polynomial regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of ER. The regression model used simulation data and its performance was tested on an independent data set. Two input variables were sufficient to explain ER: the cosine of the maximal daily solar zenith angle and the fraction of the sky visible from the body site. The regression model was in good agreement with the simulated data ER (R(2)=0.988). Relative errors up to +20% and -10% were found in daily doses predictions, whereas an average relative error of only 2.4% (-0.03% to 5.4%) was found in yearly dose predictions. The regression model predicts accurately ER and UV doses on the basis of readily available data such as global UV erythemal irradiance measured at ground surface stations or inferred from satellite information. It renders the development of exposure data on a wide temporal and geographical scale possible and opens broad perspectives for epidemiological studies and skin cancer prevention. PMID:24496216

Vernez, David; Milon, Antoine; Vuilleumier, Laurent; Bulliard, Jean-Luc; Koechlin, Alice; Boniol, Mathieu; Doré, Jean F

2015-01-01

340

Irradiator apparatus and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An irradiator of the type using a radioactive material as a source of radiation is combined with a gaseous liquid contact chamber. The irradiator has a casing having an input and output therefrom and a plurality of connected chambers formed in the casing and separated by walls having an opening therethrough. A plurality of gamma radiation sources are located in

Woodbridge

1984-01-01

341

Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

Bauer, Roger E. (Kennewick, WA); Straalsund, Jerry L. (Kennewick, WA); Chin, Bryan A. (Auburn, AL)

1985-01-01

342

TOLERANCE OF IRRADIATED FATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

As is known, irradiation of polyene acids causes them to undergo similar ; changes as occur in auto-oxidation, and auto-oxidized fat can become toxic under ; certain conditions. Thus experiments were devised to study the effects of ; feeding fats irradiated by a substantially higher dose than is necessary for the ; sterilization or pasteurization of foodstuifs; to determine the

Lang

1962-01-01

343

Salt plays an important role in our daily lives. True, salt makes our food tastier, but perhaps its most significant role is as an ingredient in  

E-print Network

Salt plays an important role in our daily lives. True, salt makes our food tastier, but perhaps its, or the concentration of salt at the ocean's surface, gives scientists vital information on global ocean circulation changes, so does salinity! Ocean salinity is affected by the water cycle. As salt water evaporates

Waliser, Duane E.

344

Irradiation Creep in Graphite  

SciTech Connect

An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

2014-03-13

345

Development and validation of a standardized measure of activity of daily living in patients with severe COPD: the London Chest Activity of Daily Living scale (LCADL).  

PubMed

Activities of daily living (ADL) may be severely restricted in patients with COPD and assessment requires evaluation of the impact of disability and handicap on daily life. This study is concerned with the development and validation of a standardized 15-item questionnaire to assess routine ADL. Sixty (33 male, 27 female) patients with severe COPD, mean (SD) FEV1 0.91 (0.43) l, median (range) age 70 (50-82) years, completed a 59-item ADL list previously generated by open-ended interview and by literature review. Patients also performed the Shuttle Walk Test (SWT), and completed the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), the Nottingham Extended Activity of Daily Living Questionnaire (EADL) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression score (HAD). Criteria for item reduction in the development of The London Chest ADL scale (LCADL) consisted of removal of items where the majority of respondents showed no limitation in the activity (n = 19), where there was no association with perception of global health (n = 9), where an association with age or gender was detected (n = 4), or where items showed poor reliability on test re-test (n = 9). Fifteen items were identified as core activities of daily living. The LCADL was then compared with other measures of health status in these patients. There were good correlations with the SGRQ activity and impact components (p=0.70; P<0.0001) and (p=0.58; P<0.0001), respectively, and EADL (p=0.45; P<0.001), and a moderate correlation with HAD anxiety (p=0.28; P<0.03). There was a significant relationship between the SWT and LCADL (p=0.58; P<0.0001), suggesting a relationship between impaired exercise performance and lower ADL scores. There was evidence of high internal consistency of the questionnaire with Chronbach's alpha of 0.98. These findings suggest that the LCADL scale is a valid tool for the assessment of ADL in patients with severe COPD. PMID:10921765

Garrod, R; Bestall, J C; Paul, E A; Wedzicha, J A; Jones, P W

2000-06-01

346

Global Agenda  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

New from the Economist.com, Global Agenda "provides rolling coverage and analysis on six to eight of the most important business and political topics each day." Written by Economist staff writers, each world topic includes a short paragraph summary of the issue, as well as a mid-length article examining the issue in greater detail. Related items, found in a column on the right side of the screen, include links to Economist articles, newswires, and accompanying Websites. These dynamic articles are updated as events occur; dramatic changes will be noted in red.

347

Effect of Irradiation on Cell Transcriptome and Proteome of Rat Submandibular Salivary Glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salivary glands (SGs) are irreversibly damaged by irradiation (IR) treatment in head and neck cancer patients. Here, we used an animal irradiation model to investigate and define the molecular mechanisms affecting SGs following IR, focusing on saliva proteome and global transcription profile of submandibular salivary gland (SSG) tissue.We show that saliva secretion was gradually reduced to 50% of its initial

Raluca Stiubea-Cohen; Ran David; Yoav Neumann; Guy Krief; Omer Deutsch; Batia Zacks; Doron J. Aframian; Aaron Palmon

2012-01-01

348

75 FR 42399 - Orders Finding That the PJM WH Real Time Peak Daily Contract, PJM WH Real Time Off-Peak Daily...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Time Off-Peak Daily Contract and PJM WH Day Ahead LMP Peak Daily Contract Offered for...Daily (``ODP'') contract and PJM WH Day Ahead LMP Peak Daily (``PDA'') contract...of the CEA that averaged five trades per day or more over the most recent calendar...

2010-07-21

349

global warming's six indias  

E-print Network

global warming's six indias: An Audience Segmentation Analysis #12;Global Warming's Six Indias 1............................................................................................................................................20 2. Global Warming Beliefs and Attitudes................................................................................ 21 Knowledge about global warming varies widely by group

Haller, Gary L.

350

Introduction Global Resilience  

E-print Network

Introduction Global Resilience Local Resilience On Static and Dynamic Partitioning Behavior Global Resilience Local Resilience Outline 1 Introduction Background 2 Global Resilience Generic Global Resilience Model Static Node Failure Dynamic Node Failure 3 Local Resilience Static Node Failure Dynamic Node

Loguinov, Dmitri

351

Daily torpor and hibernation in birds and mammals.  

PubMed

Many birds and mammals drastically reduce their energy expenditure during times of cold exposure, food shortage, or drought, by temporarily abandoning euthermia, i.e. the maintenance of high body temperatures. Traditionally, two different types of heterothermy, i.e. hypometabolic states associated with low body temperature (torpor), have been distinguished: daily torpor, which lasts less than 24 h and is accompanied by continued foraging, versus hibernation, with torpor bouts lasting consecutive days to several weeks in animals that usually do not forage but rely on energy stores, either food caches or body energy reserves. This classification of torpor types has been challenged, suggesting that these phenotypes may merely represent extremes in a continuum of traits. Here, we investigate whether variables of torpor in 214 species (43 birds and 171 mammals) form a continuum or a bimodal distribution. We use Gaussian-mixture cluster analysis as well as phylogenetically informed regressions to quantitatively assess the distinction between hibernation and daily torpor and to evaluate the impact of body mass and geographical distribution of species on torpor traits. Cluster analysis clearly confirmed the classical distinction between daily torpor and hibernation. Overall, heterothermic endotherms tend to be small; hibernators are significantly heavier than daily heterotherms and also are distributed at higher average latitudes (?35°) than daily heterotherms (?25°). Variables of torpor for an average 30 g heterotherm differed significantly between daily heterotherms and hibernators. Average maximum torpor bout duration was >30-fold longer, and mean torpor bout duration >25-fold longer in hibernators. Mean minimum body temperature differed by ?13°C, and the mean minimum torpor metabolic rate was ?35% of the basal metabolic rate (BMR) in daily heterotherms but only 6% of BMR in hibernators. Consequently, our analysis strongly supports the view that hibernators and daily heterotherms are functionally distinct groups that probably have been subject to disruptive selection. Arguably, the primary physiological difference between daily torpor and hibernation, which leads to a variety of derived further distinct characteristics, is the temporal control of entry into and arousal from torpor, which is governed by the circadian clock in daily heterotherms, but apparently not in hibernators. PMID:25123049

Ruf, Thomas; Geiser, Fritz

2014-08-15

352

Daily oil losses in shipping crude oil: measuring crude oil loss rates in daily North Sea shipping operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catastrophic crude oil spills excite media interest but operators usually manage greater losses from daily shipping operations single-handed. This paper invites energy policy makers to re-embrace daily oil losses. It categorises them, discusses physical and accounting measures and reports empirically crude oil loss patterns and factors influencing them on some recent North Sea voyages. Losses varied with crude-type, measured by

Rohit Bhatia; John Dinwoodie

2004-01-01

353

Global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study prepared for the National Science Foundation (NSF) by engineers and economists at the Massachussetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Stanford University concludes that the global warming caused by buildup of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere during the next century can at least be slowed down if we learn to use nonpolluting energy sources more efficiently. It will take international cooperation, however, and prompt action to keep the greenhouse effects to a minimum.The report follows on the heels of two separate studies released in October by the National Research Council and the Environmental Protection Agency on carbon dioxide and global warming (Eos, November 15, 1983, p. 929). Like those groups, the NSF study panel believes that “a significant … warming in the next century probably cannot be avoided.” However, “the rate of increase of atmospheric CO2 due to fossil fuel consumption can be significantly reduced via the adoption of realistic energy strategies that are relatively ‘CO2-benign.”’ The so-called greenhouse effect is caused when carbon dioxide and other gasses create an atmospheric blanket that traps heat near the surface.

354

Global Journalist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To experience the world of high quality reporting from North Korea, meditations on the state of journalism, and a wide range of other stories, direct your browser to the Global Journalist website. Originally created for the International Press Institute in 1995, the publication moved to the Missouri School of Journalism in 1999. Today, journalism students work with staff members to produce content for the site and its accompanying radio show, which is broadcast on KBIA, central Missouri's NPR affiliate. With funding provided in part by the Donald W. Reynolds Journalism Institute, the people at the Global Journalist provide users with current and archived radio shows on the homepage. After listening to a few recent stories, interested parties may wish to click on the Free Press Watch section. Here they can use the interactive map to learn about various transgressions committed against members of the press around the world. Also, users shouldn't miss the Blogs area which contains links to high-quality news blogs from "Persian Letters" (billed as "a window into Iranian politics and society") and the Guardian's "Newsblog."

2012-01-01

355

Ethnic identity and the daily psychological well-being of adolescents from Mexican and Chinese backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protective effects of ethnic identity on daily psychological well-being were examined in a sample of 415 ninth graders from Mexican and Chinese backgrounds. Utilizing daily diary assessments and multilevel modeling, adolescents with a greater regard for their ethnic group exhibited greater levels of daily happiness and less daily anxiety averaged over the 2-week study period. Ethnic regard moderated the daily

Lisa Kiang; Melinda Gonzales-Backen; Tiffany Yip; Melissa Witkow; Andrew J. Fuligni

2006-01-01

356

Macitentan: first global approval.  

PubMed

Macitentan (Opsumit®) is a novel dual endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA) with sustained receptor binding properties developed by Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd. In October 2013, oral macitentan 10 mg once daily received its first global approval in the US, followed closely by Canada, for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The drug has also received a positive opinion in the EU from the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use for the treatment of PAH, and is under regulatory review in several other countries for the same indication. Endothelin (ET)-1 influences pathological changes via two ET receptor subtypes (ETA and ETB), to which it binds with high affinity. ET-1 is implicated in several forms of vascular disease making it a valid target for the treatment of pulmonary vascular diseases such as PAH. Clinical development is underway for other indications, including Eisenmenger syndrome, ischaemic digital ulcers secondary to systemic sclerosis, and glioblastoma. Macitentan was also evaluated in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; however, a phase 2 trial did not meet its primary endpoint and further investigation in this indication was discontinued. Macitentan was developed by modifying the structure of bosentan in the search for an optimal dual ERA with improved efficacy and tolerability compared with other ERAs. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of macitentan leading to this first approval for PAH. PMID:24297706

Patel, Trina; McKeage, Kate

2014-01-01

357

[Partial breast irradiation].  

PubMed

Owing to breast cancer screening, breast cancer is more and more diagnosed at early stage. For those breast cancer women, breast conserving treatment (breast conserving surgery followed by whole breast irradiation) is commonly used since many years. New radiation modalities have been recently developed in early breast cancers particularly accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Among all techniques of radiotherapy, 3D-conformal APBI and intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) are the main modalities of radiotherapy used. The present review states on indications, treatment modalities and updated results of local control and side effects of partial breast irradiation. PMID:24445657

Bourgier, Céline; Lemanski, Claire; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Riou, Olivier; Dubois, Jean Bernard; Azria, David

2014-01-01

358

Assessment of Daily Life Physical Activities in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Background In pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), the six-minute walk test (6MWT) is believed to be representative of patient's daily life physical activities (DLPA). Whether DLPA are decreased in PAH and whether the 6MWT is representative of patient's DLPA remain unknown. Methods 15 patients with idiopathic PAH (IPAH) and 10 patients with PAH associated with limited systemic sclerosis (PAH-SSc) were matched with 15 healthy control subjects and 10 patients with limited systemic sclerosis without PAH. Each subject completed a 6MWT. The mean number of daily steps and the mean energy expenditure and duration of physical activities >3 METs were assessed with a physical activity monitor for seven consecutive days and used as markers of DLPA. Results The mean number of daily steps and the mean daily energy expenditure and duration of physical activities >3 METs were all reduced in PAH patients compared to their controls (all p<0.05). The mean number of daily steps correlated with the 6MWT distance for both IPAH and PAH-SSc patients (r?=?0.76, p<0.01 and r?=?0.85, p<0.01), respectively. Conclusion DLPA are decreased in PAH and correlate with the 6MWT distance. Functional exercise capacity may thus be a useful surrogate of DLPA in PAH. PMID:22110770

Mainguy, Vincent; Provencher, Steeve; Maltais, François; Malenfant, Simon; Saey, Didier

2011-01-01

359

Pollutant roses for daily averaged ambient air pollutant concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollutant roses are indispensable tools to identify unknown (fugitive) sources of heavy metals at industrial sites whose current impact exceeds the target values imposed for the year 2012 by the European Air Quality Daughter Directive 2004/207/EC. As most of the measured concentrations of heavy metals in ambient air are daily averaged values, a method to obtain high quality pollutant roses from such data is of practical interest for cost-effective air quality management. A computational scheme is presented to obtain, from daily averaged concentrations, 10° angular resolution pollutant roses, called PRP roses, that are in many aspects comparable to pollutant roses made with half-hourly concentrations. The computational scheme is a ridge regression, based on three building blocks: ordinary least squares regression; outlier handling by weighting based on expected values of the higher percentiles in a lognormal distribution; weighted averages whereby observed values, raised to a power m, and daily wind rose frequencies are used as weights. Distance measures are used to find the optimal value for m. The performance of the computational scheme is illustrated by comparing the pollutant roses, constructed with measured half-hourly SO 2 data for 10 monitoring sites in the Antwerp harbour, with the PRP roses made with the corresponding daily averaged SO 2 concentrations. A miniature dataset, made up of 7 daily concentrations and of half-hourly wind directions assigned to 4 wind sectors, is used to illustrate the formulas and their results.

Cosemans, Guido; Kretzschmar, Jan; Mensink, Clemens

360

Global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources.

Houghton, John

2005-06-01

361

ASSESSMENT OF IMMUNE FUNCTION DEVELOPMENT IN MICE IRRADIATED IN UTERO WITH 2450-MHZ MICROWAVES  

EPA Science Inventory

Groups of time-bred pregnant mice were irradiated with 2450-MHz microwaves at an incident power density of 28 mW/sq. cm. for 100 min daily from day 6 to day 18 of pregnancy. The average specific absorption rate (SAR) was 16.5 W/kg. Two experiments were performed under these condi...

362

Total solar irradiance monitors, space instruments for measuring total solar irradiance on FY-3 satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) has been recorded daily by Total Solar Irradiance Monitors (TSIM) with overlapping measurements on FY-3 (Feng Yun-3) series satellites since 2008. Instrument descriptions, operation in space and flight performance of three TSIMs are presented in this paper. TSI is measured by electrical substitution radiometers integrated in TSIM, with traceability to SI. TSIM/FY-3A and TSIM/FY-3B share nearly the same design. Since TSIM/FY-3A and TSIM/FY-3B have no pointing system, the Sun is only observed when the Sunlight sweeps TSIM's field-of-view and TSI measurements are influenced inevitably by solar pointing errors. TSIM/FY-3C, a radiometer package was constructed with a pointing system for solar tracking in order to achieve accurate solar pointing. TSIM/FY-3C was sent into orbit in September 2013 onboard FY-3C satellite. Daily TSI measurements have been performed by TSIM/FY-3C with autonomous accurate solar tracking for 1 year. TSIM/FY-3C is in a good instrument health according to its on-orbit data.

Wang, Hongrui; Wang, Yupeng; Ye, Xin; Wang, Kai; Yang, Dongjun; Fang, Wei; Li, Huiduan

2014-11-01

363

Current status of information transfer activity on food irradiation and consumer attitudes in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the purpose of public education of radiation and radiation-related technology towards school kids and their parents through efficient information transfer, ''RADIATION FAIR—the relationship between daily life and radiation" has been successfully held at Kintetsu Department Store, one of the major departmental stores in downtown Osaka, the second largest city in Japan during summer vacation in every August for 19 years. Currently various irradiated products available in our daily life including irradiated potatoes and spices were displayed together with explanatory panels and attractions. The number of participants has increased every year and constantly exceeded 20,000 in recent years. This activity has become a good medium for the consumer to recognize the quality of the irradiated potatoes which has been distributed in the market since 1974, and irradiated spices, the next candidate for the clearance under examination by Japanese government. Taking advantage of this opportunity, we have demonstrated toward the participants that irradiation-decontaminated spices are superior to conventional heat-treated ones in aromatic quality as well as conducting survey of the visitor's feeling on radiation and irradiated foods. These activities would be potentially effective to facilitate public acceptance of irradiation decontamination of spices.

Furuta, Masakazu

2004-09-01

364

Attentional demands and daily functioning among community-dwelling elders.  

PubMed

Everyday life is full of numerous demands for attention that can affect the ability to function. For elders, examples of these attentional demands include negotiating public transportation and driving, sensory losses, and physical discomforts and worries that make it harder to concentrate and complete tasks. The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between attentional demands and the ability to manage daily activities requiring concentration for 54 community-dwelling elders (34 women, 20 men). As theorized, attentional demands correlated (r = -.58) significantly with daily functioning: Elders with more attentional demands perceived themselves as having greater difficulty managing tasks requiring concentration. Attentional demands accounted for a significant proportion of variance in functioning (12%), even after partialling out the effects of depressive symptoms and health. Findings support the theorized relation between attentional demands and daily functioning, as well as nursing interventions aimed at decreasing attentional demands to promote effective functioning for elders. PMID:16445360

Jansen, Debra A

2006-01-01

365

Spatial distribution of the daily precipitation concentration index in Algeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the spatial and temporal distribution of the daily precipitation concentration index (CI) in Algeria (South Mediterranean Sea) has been assessed. Forty-two daily rainfall series based on high quality and fairly regular rainfall records for the period from 1970 to 2008 were used. The daily precipitation concentration index results allowed identifying three climatic zones: the northern country, characterized by coastal regions with CI values between 0.59 and 0.63, the highlands, with values between 0.57 and 0.62 (average of 0.61), except for the area of Biskra (CI = 0.70), and the southern region of the country, with high rainfall concentrations, with values between 0.62 and 0.69. CI is an index related to the rainfall intensity and erosive capacity; therefore, this index has great interest for studies on torrential rainfall and floods.

Boucherf, D.; Benhamrouche, A.; Hamadache, R.; Bendahmane, L.; Martin-Vide, J.; Teixeira Nery, J.

2014-04-01

366

Daily water level by ENVISAT altimetry of the Amazon River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radar Altimetry is a remote sensing technique applied in order to obtain the level of water of the hydrological processes, mostly in remote regions such as in the Amazon basin. However, the altimetry satellites have a limitation in their temporal resolution, which in the case of ENVISAT is 35 days, which prevents the study of short-term hydrological events alert of floods and droughts and etc. Thus, a method of obtaining altimetric daily time series water level, based on a linear model of interpolation by optimization with multi-objective criteria was applied, using data from in situ on pluvial stations, along the Amazon River. The altimetry data validation show accurate results with a RMS of 11 cm, while the estimates carried out by the model obtained 63% of altimetric daily time series water level data with RMS less than 40 cm, thus allowing the use of altimetry data daily at various hydrological studies, hydrodynamic modeling and monitoring of extreme events.

Sousa, A. C.; Pereira, P.; Silva, J. S.; Calmant, S.; Seyler, F.

2013-05-01

367

Modeled soft X-ray solar irradiances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar soft X-rays have historically been inaccurately modeled in both relative variations and absolute magnitudes by empirical solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance models. This is a result of the use of a limited number of rocket data sets which were primarily associated with the calibration of the AE-E satellite EUV data set. In this work, the EUV91 solar EUV irradiance model has been upgraded to improve the accuracy of the 3.0 to 5.0 nm relative irradiance variations. The absolute magnitude estimate of the flux in this wavelength range has also been revised upwards. The upgrade was accomplished by first digitizing the SOLRAD 11 satellite 4.4 to 6.0 nm measured energy flux data set, then extracting and extrapolating a derived 3.0 to 5.0 nm photon flux from these data, and finally by performing a correlation between these derived data and the daily and 81-day mean 10.7 cm radio flux emission using a multiple linear regression technique. A correlation coefficient of greater than 0.9 was obtained between the dependent and independent data sets. The derived and modeled 3.0 to 5.0 nm flux varies by more than an order of magnitude over a solar cycle, ranging from a flux below 1 x 10(exp 8) to a flux greater than 1 x 10(exp 9) photons per sq cm per sec. Solar rotational (27-day) variations in the flux magnitude are a factor of 2. The derived and modeled irradiance absolute values are an order of magnitude greater than previous values from rocket data sets related to the calibration of the AE-E satellite.

Tobiska, W. Kent

1994-01-01

368

Analysis of treatment of childhood leukaemia. V. Advantage of reduced chemotherapy during and immediately after cranial irradiation.  

PubMed Central

This paper compares anti-leukaemic efficiency with toxicity to the patient of chemotherapy during and immediately after central nervous system irradiation. The drug regimen consisted of daily mercaptopurine (MP) and weekly methotrexate (MTX) at the maximum tolerated dose. Of 140 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia allocated to receive this drug regimen during and after cranial irradiation, 8 died in complete remission within 6 months of the end of irradiation. Details of the nature of these deaths are given. This result led the Working Party to modify the chemotherapy scheduled for this stage in treatment. The modified chemotherapy consisted of MP at reduced dosage before and during cranial irradiation and omission of MP and MTX for 3 weeks after irradiation, during which time daily prednisolone with 2 doses of vincristine were substituted. Following that, the treatment reverted to the original schedule of daily MP and weekly MTX at maximum tolerated dose. Of 109 patients allocated to this modified regimen only one died in remission within 24 weeks after cranial irradiation. Analysis of the anti-leukaemic effect of the modified regimen showed that up to 600 days it was at least as effective as the original more intensive regimen. We conclude that there is a definite advantage in keeping chemotherapy to a minimum during and immediately following cranial prophylactic irradiation. PMID:412509

MacLennan, I. C.; Peto, J.; Kay, H. E.

1977-01-01

369

Long-term variation in the upper atmosphere as seen in the amplitude of the geomagnetic solar quiet daily variation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been well-known that geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation is produced by global ionospheric currents flowing in the E-region from middle latitudes to the magnetic equator. These currents are generated by a dynamo process via interaction between the neutral wind and ionospheric plasma in a region of the thermosphere and ionosphere. From the Ohm's equation, the ionospheric currents strongly depend on the ionospheric conductivity, polarization electric field and neutral wind. Then, to investigate the Sq amplitude is essential for understanding the long-term variations in the ionospheric conductivity and neutral wind of the thermosphere and ionosphere. Elias et al. [2010] found that the Sq amplitude tends to increase by 5.4-9.9 % in the middle latitudes from 1961 to 2001. They mentioned that the long-term variation of ionospheric conductivity associated with geomagnetic secular variation mainly determines the Sq trend, but that the rest component is ionospheric conductivity enhancement associated with cooling effects in the thermosphere due to increasing the greenhouse gases. In this talk, we clarify the characteristics of the long-term variation in the Sq amplitude using the long-term observation data of geomagnetic field and neutral wind. These observation data have been provided by the IUGONET (Inter-university Upper atmosphere Global Observation NETwork) project. In the present analysis, we used the F10.7 flux as an indicator of the variation in the solar irradiance in the EUV and UV range, geomagnetic field data with time resolution of 1 hour. The definition of the Sq amplitude is the difference of the H-component between the maximum and minimum per day when the Kp index is less than 4. As a result, the Sq amplitude at all the stations strongly depends on 11-year solar activity, and tends to enhance more during the high activities (19- and 22- solar cycles) than during the low activity (20-solar cycle). The Fourier spectra of the F10.7 flux and Sq amplitude at Guam (13.59N, 144.87E) showed that the common peaks appear at the periods of 5.5, 7,5 and 10.5 years with the coherence of more than 0.9 while the spectrum peaks around 0.5 and 1.0 year appear only in the Sq amplitude. The former peak of the Sq amplitude is due to the solar activity while the latter is a cause of the upper atmosphere variation. In order to minimize the solar activity dependence of the Sq amplitude, we calculated the residual Sq amplitude using a second degree polynomial curve between the F10.7 and Sq amplitude during 1957-2010, and examined the residual Sq field defined as the deviation from the fitting curve. The residual Sq amplitude showed a clear tendency to increase and decrease during the periods of 1957-1992 and 1993-2010, respectively. It should be noted that the residual Sq amplitude around 2010 is almost the same level as that around 1970. In order to verify qualitatively the above signatures, we need to investigate the long-term variation in the ionospheric conductivities calculated with the IRI-2007 and MSIS-00 models.

Shinbori, A.; Koyama, Y.; Hayashi, H.; Nose, M.; Hori, T.; Otsuka, Y.; Tsuda, T.

2011-12-01

370

Statistical procedures for evaluating daily and monthly hydrologic model predictions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The overall study objective was to evaluate the applicability of different qualitative and quantitative methods for comparing daily and monthly SWAT computer model hydrologic streamflow predictions to observed data, and to recommend statistical methods for use in future model evaluations. Statistical methods were tested using daily streamflows and monthly equivalent runoff depths. The statistical techniques included linear regression, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, nonparametric tests, t-test, objective functions, autocorrelation, and cross-correlation. None of the methods specifically applied to the non-normal distribution and dependence between data points for the daily predicted and observed data. Of the tested methods, median objective functions, sign test, autocorrelation, and cross-correlation were most applicable for the daily data. The robust coefficient of determination (CD*) and robust modeling efficiency (EF*) objective functions were the preferred methods for daily model results due to the ease of comparing these values with a fixed ideal reference value of one. Predicted and observed monthly totals were more normally distributed, and there was less dependence between individual monthly totals than was observed for the corresponding predicted and observed daily values. More statistical methods were available for comparing SWAT model-predicted and observed monthly totals. The 1995 monthly SWAT model predictions and observed data had a regression Rr2 of 0.70, a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.41, and the t-test failed to reject the equal data means hypothesis. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient and the R r2 coefficient were the preferred methods for monthly results due to the ability to compare these coefficients to a set ideal value of one.

Coffey, M.E.; Workman, S.R.; Taraba, J.L.; Fogle, A.W.

2004-01-01

371

Two daily smoke maxima in eighteenth century London air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Varied electrostatics experiments followed Benjamin Franklin's pioneering atmospheric investigations. In Knightsbridge, Central London, John Read (1726-1814) installed a sensing rod in the upper part of his house and, using a pith ball electrometer and Franklin chimes, monitored atmospheric electricity from 1789 to 1791. Atmospheric electricity is sensitive to weather and smoke pollution. In calm weather conditions, Read observed two daily electrification maxima in moderate weather, around 9 am and 7 pm. This is likely to represent a double diurnal cycle in urban smoke. Before the motor car and steam railways, one source of the double maximum smoke pattern was the daily routine of fire lighting for domestic heating.

Harrison, R. Giles

372

ScienceDaily: Space and Time News Headlines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Space and Time News Headlines section of the ScienceDaily online magazine contains news articles on astronomy, space missions, space technology, astrophysics, the search for extraterrestrial life, the origin of the moon, and other space-related issues. ScienceDaily articles are selected from news releases submitted by leading universities and other research organizations around the world. Each news release is posted in its original form, with a contact name and link to the organization, to aid journalists and others interested in finding up-to-date and relevant background information for a particular story.

373

Fish Consumption, Sleep, Daily Functioning, and Heart Rate Variability  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: This study investigated the effects of fatty fish on sleep, daily functioning and biomarkers such as heart rate variability (HRV), vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) in red blood cells. Moreover the relationship among sleep, daily functioning, HRV, vitamin D status, and levels of EPA+DHA was investigated. Methods: Ninety-five male forensic patients from a secure forensic inpatient facility in the USA were randomly assigned into a Fish or a Control group. The Fish group received Atlantic salmon three times per week from September to February, and the Control group was provided an alternative meal (e.g., chicken, pork, beef), but with the same nutritional value as their habitual diet, three times per week during the same period. Sleep (sleep latency, sleep efficiency, actual sleep time, and actual wake time), self-perceived sleep quality and daily functioning, as well as vitamin D status, EPA+DHA, and HRV, were assessed pre- and post-intervention period. Results: There was a significant increase in sleep latency from pre- to post-test in the Control group. The Fish group reported better daily functioning than the Control group during post-test. Fish consumption throughout the wintertime had also an effect on resting HRV and EPA+DHA, but not on vitamin D status. However, at post-test, the vitamin D status in the Fish group was still closer to the level regarded as optimal compared to the Control group. Vitamin D status correlated negatively with actual wake time and positively with sleep efficiency during pre-test, as well as positively with daily functioning and sleep quality during post-test. Finally, HRV correlated negatively with sleep latency and positively with daily functioning. Conclusions: Fish consumption seemed to have a positive impact on sleep in general and also on daily functioning, which may be related to vitamin D status and HRV. Citation: Hansen AL, Dahl L, Olson G, Thornton D, Graff IE, Frřyland L, Thayer JF, Pallesen S. Fish consumption, sleep, daily functioning, and heart rate variability. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(5):567-575. PMID:24812543

Hansen, Anita L.; Dahl, Lisbeth; Olson, Gina; Thornton, David; Graff, Ingvild E.; Frřyland, Livar; Thayer, Julian F.; Pallesen, Staale

2014-01-01

374

A comparison of solar total irradiance observations from spacecraft: 1985-1992  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a statistical comparison of the solar total irradiance measured from the Nimbus-7, the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM), the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS), and the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) spacecraft platforms, for the period 1985-1992. The mean irradiance, standard deviation, and the correlation among the daily irradiance remained high during periods of high solar activity. Linear regression models are established to estimate the irradiance measurements from one platform by the others. The results are consistent with the observations. However, the Nimbus-7 ERB responses show a drift during 1989-1992. The absolute irradiance observed by each instrument varies within the uncertainty associated with the corresponding radiometer.

Mecherikunnel, A. T.

1994-01-01

375

Blood irradiation: Rationale and technique  

SciTech Connect

Upon request by the local American Red Cross, the Savannah Regional Center for Cancer Care irradiates whole blood or blood components to prevent post-transfusion graft-versus-host reaction in patients who have severely depressed immune systems. The rationale for blood irradiation, the total absorbed dose, the type of patients who require irradiated blood, and the regulations that apply to irradiated blood are presented. A method of irradiating blood using a linear accelerator is described.

Lewis, M.C. (Savannah Regional Center for Cancer Care, Memorial Medical Center, GA (USA))

1990-01-01

376

Global Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nations around the world have recognized biodiversity as one of the most pressing ecological issues of our time. Declining biodiversity over recent decades has prompted the formation of international coalitions and national biodiversity programs. This Topic in Depth explores the work of both international and national efforts to increase global biodiversity. The first site presents an archived report from the Convention on Biological Diversity, an international organization formed by many world nations after the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. This first edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook report, published in 2001, was created to provide a status summary, and an analysis of Convention objectives. It is expected that a second edition will be published this year presenting more recent data and analysis (1). Explore Biodiversity is an innovative project involving a team of scientists and filmmakers working to document the diminishing biological diversity of our planet. The hip Explore website shares beautiful images, videos, and information from expeditions to Hawaii, Mexico, and Alaska (2). The third site, from the Australian Government's Department of the Environment and Heritage, discusses biodiversity in Australia. The site contains sections regarding Migratory Species; Conservation and Regional Planning; Invasive Species; and Biodiversity Hotspots--to name a few (3). The fourth website presents the Belgian Biodiversity Platform (4), which is "an integrated network of people and institutions funded by the Belgian Federal Science Policy to facilitate dialogue and collaboration between scientists in Belgium and abroad, in the field of biological diversity." From the Nepalese Government's Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, the fifth site presents information about biodiversity programs in Nepal. The site contains sections about Forests, National Parks, Plant Resources, and the Ministry's National Biodiversity Unit (5). The final website presents the Centre for Marine Biodiversity (CMB), a Canada-based organization that was established in 2000 to promote scientific support of marine biodiversity. The CMB website contains research reports, links to several databases, links to various identification guides, and a photo gallery with some nice underwater images (6).

377

A global heat and freshwater forcing dataset for ocean models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A global dataset based on the ECMWF Re-Analyses (ERA) is presented that can be used as surface boundary conditions for ocean models with sea-ice components. The definition of these conditions is based on bulk formulae. To study the mean ocean circulation, a mean annual cycle on a daily basis was constructed from ERA for all relevant parameters including wind stress.

Frank Röske

2006-01-01

378

cMOOCs and Global Learning: An Authentic Alternative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Massive open online courses (MOOCs) continue to attract press coverage as they change almost daily in their format, number of registrations, and potential for credentialing. An enticing aspect of the MOOC is its global reach. In this paper, we will focus on a type of MOOC called a cMOOC because it is based on the theory of connectivism and fits…

Yeager, Carol; Hurley-Dasgupta, Betty; Bliss, Catherine A.

2013-01-01

379

Improved global sea surface temperature analyses using optimum interpolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new NOAA operational global sea surface temperature (SST) analysis is described. The analyses use 7 days of in situ (ship and buoy) and satellite SST. These analyses are produced weekly and daily using optimum interpolation (OI) on a 1[degrees] grid. The OI technique requires the specification of data and analysis error statistics. These statistics are derived and show that

Richard W. Reynolds; Thomas M. Smith

1994-01-01

380

Introduction Climatologists have sounded the clarion call that global warming  

E-print Network

over will be impacted by global warming, but because they are diurnal, and experience scarcity of food and drinking water and, more importantly, temperatures that are already extreme, desert birds may be among where vast deserts occur, simulations for climate change predict that daily Ta will increase by 3­5°C

Williams, Jos. B.

381

Global trends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measuring trends in ozone, and most other geophysical variables, requires that a small systematic change with time be determined from signals that have large periodic and aperiodic variations. Their time scales range from the day-to-day changes due to atmospheric motions through seasonal and annual variations to 11 year cycles resulting from changes in the sun UV output. Because of the magnitude of all of these variations is not well known and highly variable, it is necessary to measure over more than one period of the variations to remove their effects. This means that at least 2 or more times the 11 year sunspot cycle. Thus, the first requirement is for a long term data record. The second related requirement is that the record be consistent. A third requirement is for reasonable global sampling, to ensure that the effects are representative of the entire Earth. The various observational methods relevant to trend detection are reviewed to characterize their quality and time and space coverage. Available data are then examined for long term trends or recent changes in ozone total content and vertical distribution, as well as related parameters such as stratospheric temperature, source gases and aerosols.

Megie, G.; Chanin, M.-L.; Ehhalt, D.; Fraser, P.; Frederick, J. F.; Gille, J. C.; Mccormick, M. P.; Schoebert, M.; Bishop, L.; Bojkov, R. D.

1990-01-01

382

Estimated daily intake and cumulative risk assessment of phthalate diesters in a Belgian general population.  

PubMed

The daily intakes (DI) were estimated in a Belgian general population for 5 phthalates, namely diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), based on the urinary measurements of their corresponding metabolites. DI values ranged between globally higher for children than adults. They were compared to acceptable levels of exposure (tolerable daily intakes) to evaluate the hazard quotients (HQ), which highlight an intake above the dose considered as safe for values greater than 1. If very few of our Belgian participants exceeded this threshold for phthalates considered individually, 6.2% of the adults and 25% of the children showed an excessive hazard index (HI) which took into account the cumulative risk of adverse anti-androgenic effects. These results are of concern since these HI were based on only 3 phthalates (DEHP, DiBP and DnBP), and showed a median of 0.55 and 0.29 for children and adults respectively. The comparison with previously determined dietary intakes demonstrated that for DEHP, food intake was nearly the only route of exposure while other pathways occurred mainly for the other studied phthalates. PMID:24968065

Dewalque, Lucas; Charlier, Corinne; Pirard, Catherine

2014-12-01

383

Coping with daily thermal variability: behavioural performance of an ectotherm model in a warming world.  

PubMed

Global climate change poses one of the greatest threats to species persistence. Most analyses of the potential biological impacts have focused on changes in mean temperature, but changes in thermal variance will also impact organisms and populations. We assessed the effects of acclimation to daily variance of temperature on dispersal and exploratory behavior in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio laevis in an open field. Acclimation treatments were 24 ± 0, 24 ± 4 and 24 ± 8 °C. Because the performance of ectotherms relates nonlinearly to temperature, we predicted that animals acclimated to a higher daily thermal variation should minimize the time exposed in the centre of open field, --i.e. increase the linearity of displacements. Consistent with our prediction, isopods acclimated to a thermally variable environment reduce their exploratory behaviour, hypothetically to minimize their exposure to adverse environmental conditions. This scenario as well as the long latency of animals after releases acclimated to variable environments is consistent with this idea. We suggested that to develop more realistic predictions about the biological impacts of climate change, one must consider the interactions between the mean and variance of environmental temperature on animals' performance. PMID:25207653

Rojas, José M; Castillo, Simón B; Folguera, Guillermo; Abades, Sebastián; Bozinovic, Francisco

2014-01-01

384

Estimation of daily ultraviolet radiation in Beijing using a semiempirical method.  

PubMed

This study proposes a semiempirical method to reconstruct daily ultraviolet (UV) radiation from global solar (G) radiation measurements using a radiative transfer model. The attenuation ratio and cloud modification factors are calculated based on measured and simulated data under cloudless-sky conditions. A reconstruction method of UV radiation is established using cloud modification factors; based on comparisons among reconstructions and measurements, the reconstruction model is demonstrated to offer high resolution. The bias errors for daily measured and reconstructed UV radiation are maintained within ±20%, the mean absolute bias error (mabe) is 7.7% and the root mean square error (rmse) is 9.7%. Furthermore, the model performance and transferability were tested by comparison with a simple empirical model in Beijing, Eerduosi and Hailun. A comparison of the measured and estimated UV values for the two methods in the aforementioned three locations revealed that smaller mabe and rmse were observed in our method, with both of these values in the three locations being less than 14%. Thus, a better applicability and transferability has been confirmed. The results and analysis should contribute to improving the knowledge about actual UV climate characteristics. PMID:23848948

Zhang, Xinghua; Hu, Bo; Wang, Yuesi

2013-01-01

385

QUESTIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING  

E-print Network

QUESTIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING ÂĄIS IT REAL? ÂĄIS IT IMPORTANT? ÂĄWHAT IS IT DUE TO? ÂĄHOW MUCH MORE in the atmosphere, giving Earth its temperate climate. Global Atmosphere, Global Warming GLOBAL TEMPERATURE TRENDĂ?t a cure for global warming! Aerosols only last a short while in the atmosphere, they would have

386

Magnitude and variability of land evaporation and its components at the global scale  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A physics-based methodology is applied to estimate global land-surface evaporation from multi-satellite observations. GLEAM (Global Land-surface Evaporation: the Amsterdam Methodology) combines a wide range of remotely sensed observations within a Priestley and Taylor-based framework. Daily actual e...

387

The Struggles of Taking Daily Data on Students with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching is a hard profession, particularly in special education. I was recently challenged by one of my graduate professors to blog daily for a at least a month about the stresses of juggling graduate school, family demands, and teaching students with disabilities. After reading through my blog posts, I noticed that one of my greatest struggles…

Simmons, Kate D.; Ellis, Dawn

2014-01-01

388

Predictors of Daily Blood Glucose Monitoring in Appalachian Ohio  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine factors contributing to successful diabetes self-management in Appalachia, as evidenced by daily blood glucose monitoring. Methods: A telephone survey (N = 3841) was conducted to assess health status and health care access. The current investigation is limited to the subset of this sample who report having diabetes (N =…

Raffle, Holly; Ware, Lezlee J.; Ruhil, Anirudh V. S.; Hamel-Lambert, Jane; Denham, Sharon A.

2012-01-01

389

Social stability and daily body mass gain in great tits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an experiment on the influence of changes in flock composition and social rank on the pattern of daily mass gain in captive wintering great tits. We created flocks of three male great tits and scored dominance when ranks had stabilized after a few days. We then moved the dominant bird from each flock into

Henrik Lange; Olof Leimar

2004-01-01

390

Melatonin Production Accompanies Arousal from Daily Torpor in Siberian Hamsters  

E-print Network

577 Melatonin Production Accompanies Arousal from Daily Torpor in Siberian Hamsters Jennie E of Chicago. All rights reserved. 1522-2152/2003/7604-2092$15.00 Introduction Production of melatonin (Mel is accompanied by a transient rise of melatonin (Mel) in circulation; there are no comparable analyses of Mel

Zucker, Irving

391

Daily Weather from Monthly Averages -- Hocus Pocus, or Useful Tool?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Just how much can you legitimately extract from monthly statistics of daily weather parameters? In this paper we present the utility and limitations of a simple weather generator (CLIGEN) which has over 750 registered users, most of whom are international. CLIGEN's 4,000-plus station files of mont...

392

Estimating autotrophic respiration in streams using daily metabolism data  

EPA Science Inventory

Knowing the fraction of gross primary production (GPP) that is immediately respired by autotrophs and their closely associated heterotrophs (ARf) is necessary to understand the trophic base and carbon spiraling in streams. We show a means to estimate ARf from daily metabolism da...

393

Skeletal Adaptation to Daily Activity: A Biochemical Perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Musculoskeletal forces generated by normal daily activity on Earth maintain the functional and structural properties of muscle and bone throughout most of one's adult life. A reduction in the level of cumulative daily loading caused by space flight, bed rest or spinal cord injury induces rapid muscle atrophy, functional changes in muscle, and bone resorption in regions subjected to the reduced loading. Bone cells in culture and bone tissue reportedly respond to a wide variety of non-mechanical and mechanical stimuli ranging, from electromagnetic fields, and hormones to small amplitude, high frequency vibrations, fluid flow, strain rate, and stress/strain magnitude. However, neither the transduction mechanism that transforms the mechanical input into a muscle or bone metabolic response nor the characteristics, of the loading history that directly or indirectly stimulates the cell is known. Identifying the factors contributing to the input stimulus will have a major impact on the design of effective countermeasures for long duration space flight. This talk will present a brief overview of current theories of bone remodeling and functional adaptation to mechanical loading. Work from our lab will be presented from the perspective of daily cumulative loading on Earth and its relationship to bone density and structure. Our objective is to use the tibia and calcaneus as model bone sites of cortical and cancellous bone adaptation, loaded daily by musculoskeletal forces in equilibrium with the ground reaction force. All materials that will be discussed are in the open scientific literature.

Whalen, Robert T.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

394

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DAILY FEED CONSUMPTION AND FEED EFFICIENCY 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE usual value used to measure feed effi- ciency in swine has been feed consumption divided by gain. This means that the smaller the value the more desirable the feed efficiency. Thus daily gain is negatively associated with feed efficiency on the observed scale but posi- tively associated with feed efficiency on the desirability scale. Therefore, the term \\

W. T. MAGEE

395

Daily rhythm of salivary and serum urea concentration in sheep  

PubMed Central

Background In domestic animals many biochemical and physiological processes exhibit daily rhythmicity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the rhythmic pattern of salivary and serum urea concentrations in sheep. Methods Six 3-year-old female sheep kept in the same environmental conditions were used. Sheep were sampled at 4 hour intervals for 48 consecutive hours starting at 08:00 of the first day and finishing at 04:00 of the second day. Blood samples were collected via intravenous cannulae inserted into the jugular vein; saliva samples were collected through a specific tube, the "Salivette". Salivary and serum urea concentrations were assayed by means of UV spectrophotometer. ANOVA was used to determine significant differences. The single Cosinor procedure was applied to the results showing significant differences over time. Results ANOVA showed a significant effect of time on salivary and serum urea concentrations. Serum and salivary urea peaked during the light phase. In the dark phase serum and salivary urea concentrations decreased, and the diurnal trough occurred at midnight. Cosinor analysis showed diurnal acrophases for salivary and serum urea concentrations. Daily mean levels were significantly higher in the serum than in the saliva. Conclusion In sheep both salivary and serum urea concentrations showed daily fluctuations. Urea is synthesized in the liver and its production is strongly influenced by food intake. Future investigation should clarify whether daily urea rhythms in sheep are endogenous or are simply the result of the temporal administration of food. PMID:17123442

Piccione, Giuseppe; Foŕ, Augusto; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Caola, Giovanni

2006-01-01

396

ORIGINAL PAPER Daily Experiences Among Mothers of Adolescents and Adults  

E-print Network

-being in both groups. These findings highlight the need for family support services. Keywords Daily experiences and Halterman 2006). Parents of children with ASD report greater negative impact of having a child with a disability and poorer well-being in comparison to parents of children with other developmental disorders

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

397

Extreme value analysis of daily Canadian crude oil prices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude oil markets are highly volatile and risky. Extreme Value Theory (EVT), an approach to modelling and measuring risks under rare events, has seen a more prominent role in risk management in recent years. This article presents an application of EVT to the daily returns of crude oil prices in the Canadian spot market between 1998 and 2006. We focus

Feng Ren; David E. Giles

2010-01-01

398

Extreme Value Analysis of Daily Canadian Crude Oil Prices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude oil markets are highly volatile and risky. Extreme value theory (EVT), an approach to modelling and measuring risks under rare events, has seen a more prominent role in risk management in recent years. This paper presents an application of EVT to the daily returns of crude oil prices in the Canadian spot market between 1998 and 2006. We focus

Feng Ren; David E. Giles

2007-01-01

399

Daily Management of Work and Family Goals in Employed Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses one-week time-sampling information from 104 employed parents with pre-school children to examine the association between daily workloads, control strategies, and goal progress. In addition, it examines relationships between work- and family-goal progress and important stress indices such as positive/negative affect and cortisol…

Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Klumb, Petra L.

2012-01-01

400

Daily Air Temperature and Electricity Load in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weather has a significant impact on different sectors of the economy. One of the most sensitive is the electricity market, because power demand is linked to several weather variables, mainly the air temperature. This work analyzes the relationship between electricity load and daily air temperature in Spain, using a population-weighted temperature index. The electricity demand shows a significant trend due

Enric Valor; Vicente Meneu; Vicente Caselles

2001-01-01

401

Daily weather variables and affective disorder admissions to psychiatric hospitals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous studies have reported that admission rates in patients with affective disorders are subject to seasonal variation. Notwithstanding, there has been limited evaluation of the degree to which changeable daily meteorological patterns influence affective disorder admission rates. A handful of small studies have alluded to a potential link between psychiatric admission rates and meteorological variables such as environmental temperature (heat waves in particular), wind direction and sunshine. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test, ARIMA and time-series regression analyses to examine whether daily meteorological variables—namely wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, rainfall, hours of sunshine, sunlight radiation and temperature—influence admission rates for mania and depression across 12 regions in Ireland over a 31-year period. Although we found some very weak but interesting trends for barometric pressure in relation to mania admissions, daily meteorological patterns did not appear to affect hospital admissions overall for mania or depression. Our results do not support the small number of papers to date that suggest a link between daily meteorological variables and affective disorder admissions. Further study is needed.

McWilliams, Stephen; Kinsella, Anthony; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard

2014-12-01

402

Bacteria Total Maximum Daily Load Task Force Final Report  

E-print Network

TR-341 2009 Bacteria Total Maximum Daily Load Task Force Final Report By C. Allan Jones and Kevin Wagner, Texas Water Resources Institute; George Di Giovanni, Texas AgriLife Research; Larry... Introduction 4 Bacteria Fate and Transport Models 6 Bacteria Source Tracking 23 Recommended Approach for Bacteria TMDL and Implementation Plan Development 36...

Jones, C. Allan; Wagner, Kevin; Di Giovanni, George; Hauck, Larry; Mott, Joanna; Rifai, Hanadi; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Ward, George; Wythe, Kathy

403

Description: Lithium batteries are used daily in our work  

E-print Network

Description: Lithium batteries are used daily in our work activities from flashlights, cell phones containing one SureFire 3-volt non-rechargeable 123 lithium battery and one Interstate 3-volt non-rechargeable 123 lithium battery. A Garage Mechanic had the SureFire flashlight in his shirt pocket with the lens

404

Keeping Secrets from Parents: Daily Variations among Poor, Urban Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Daily variations in secrecy with mothers and fathers were examined in 108 poor, urban, diverse middle adolescents (M = 15.16 years, SD = 0.89). Adolescents completed online diaries over 14 days assessing secrecy from parents about school, personal, and multifaceted activities (e.g., staying out late), and bad behavior. Three-level hierarchical…

Smetana, Judith G.; Villalobos, Myriam; Rogge, Ronald D.; Tasopoulos-Chan, Marina

2010-01-01

405

Fish Otoliths: Daily Growth Layers and Periodical Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early-stage annual rings in otoliths from some cold-temperate fish consist of thin growth bands, the number of which corresponds to that of the days in a year. This indicates that growth takes place by daily increments. Other recurrent patterns show a fortnightly and monthly periodicity. Spawning rings are microscopically distinguishable from winter rings.

Giorgio Pannella

1971-01-01

406

DAILY STREAMFLOW - VIRGINIA PORTION OF THE ALBEMARLE-PAMLICO ESTUARY  

EPA Science Inventory

Daily mean discharge data from the U.S. Geological Survey (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis-w/VA) for gaging stations within the Virginia portion of the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuary watershed. Record dates vary by gaging station. Data for each station are located in a text file named ...

407

Haptic Characteristics of some Activities of Daily Living  

E-print Network

- ing Company, and Intel Research, Seattle. The authors also thank Diana Friedman and members of Washington I. ABSTRACT Activities of daily living (ADLs) are of interest in rehabilitation, independent to acknowledge National Science Foundation grant IIS-0303750 and support for undergraduate researchers from Boe

408

Daily Program 1 for a Child Development Center: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet presents a brief overview of the components of a center-based Head Start child development program, including its general philosophy as well as guidelines for specific daily planning. Headings are: (1) What is a Child Development Program? (2) The Staff Designs Its Own Program; (3) The Children Themselves--What Are They Like? (4) Goals…

Stone, Jeannette Galambos; Janis, Marjorie Graham

409

Forecasting of daily total atmospheric ozone in Isfahan.  

PubMed

A neural network combined to an artificial neural network model is used to forecast daily total atmospheric ozone over Isfahan city in Iran. In this work, in order to forecast the total column ozone over Isfahan, we have examined several neural networks algorithms with different meteorological predictors based on the ozone-meteorological relationships with previous day's ozone value. The meteorological predictors consist of temperatures (dry and dew point) and geopotential heights at standard levels of 100, 50, 30, 20 and 10 hPa with their wind speed and direction. These data together with previous day total ozone forms the input matrix of the neural model that is based on the back propagation algorithm (BPA) structure. The output matrix is the daily total atmospheric ozone. The model was build based on daily data from 1997 to 2004 obtained from Isfahan ozonometric station data. After modeling these data we used 3 year (from 2001 to 2003) of daily total ozone for testing the accuracy of model. In this experiment, with the final neural network, the total ozone are fairly well predicted, with an Agreement Index 76%. PMID:18843548

Yazdanpanah, H; Karimi, M; Hejazizadeh, Z

2009-10-01

410

Natural hypometabolism during hibernation and daily torpor in mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily torpor and hibernation are the most powerful measures of endotherms to reduce their energy expenditure. During entrance into these torpid states metabolic rate is suppressed to a fraction of euthermic metabolism, paralleled by reductions in ventilation and heart rate. Body temperature gradually decreases towards the level of ambient temperature. In deep torpor body temperature as well as metabolic rate

Gerhard Heldmaier; Sylvia Ortmann; Ralf Elvert

2004-01-01

411

Spatial gridding of daily maximum and minimum temperatures in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed an operationally applicable land-only daily high-resolution (5 km × 5 km) gridding method for station observations of minimum and maximum 2 m temperature ( T min/ T max) for Europe (WMO region VI). The method involves two major steps: (1) the generation of climatological T min/ T max maps for each month of the year using block regression kriging, which considers the spatial variation explained by applied predictors; and (2) interpolation of transformed daily anomalies using block kriging, and combination of the resulting anomaly maps with climatological maps. To account for heterogeneous climatic conditions in the estimation of the statistical parameters, these steps were applied independently in overlapping climatic subregions, followed by an additional spatial merging step. Uncertainties in the gridded maps and the derived error maps were quantified: (a) by cross-validation; and (b) comparison with the T min/ T max maps estimated in two regions having very dense temperature observation networks. The main advantages of the method are the high quality of the daily maps of T min/ T max, the calculation of daily error maps and computational efficiency.

Krähenmann, S.; Bissolli, P.; Rapp, J.; Ahrens, B.

2011-11-01

412

Spatial interpolation of daily precipitation in China: 1951-2005  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate research relies heavily on good quality instrumental data; for modeling efforts gridded data are needed. So far, relatively little effort has been made to create gridded climate data for China. This is especially true for high-resolution daily data. This work, focuses on identifying an accurate method to produce gridded daily precipitation in China based on the observed data at 753 stations for the period 1951-2005. Five interpolation methods, including ordinary nearest neighbor, local polynomial, radial basis function, inverse distance weighting, and ordinary kriging, have been used and compared. Cross-validation shows that the ordinary kriging based on seasonal semi-variograms gives the best performance, closely followed by the inverse distance weighting with a power of 2. Finally the ordinary kriging is chosen to interpolate the station data to a 18 km× 18 km grid system covering the whole country. Precipitation for each 0.5° × 0.5° latitude-longitude block is then obtained by averaging the values at the grid nodes within the block. Owing to the higher station density in the eastern part of the country, the interpolation errors are much smaller than those in the west (west of 100°E). Excluding 145 stations in the western region, the daily, monthly, and annual relative mean absolute errors of the interpolation for the remaining 608 stations are 74%, 29%, and 16%, respectively. The interpolated daily precipitation has been made available on the internet for the scientific community.

Chen, Deliang; Ou, Tinghai; Gong, Lebing; Xu, Chong-Yu; Li, Weijing; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Qian, Weihong

2010-11-01

413

Mineral Resources Out of the Ground . . . Into Our Daily Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This poster summarizes common uses of mineral resources in our homes, offices, and equipment we use daily. It shows a diagram of a house surrounded by various mineral names and some of the products made from them. There are also some definitions of the various classes of mineral commodities.

Frank, Dave; Galloway, John P.; Weathers, Judy

2011-07-06

414

INTRODUCTION THE DEBATE OVER DAILY SLEEP NEED IN MODERN HUMANS  

E-print Network

requiring activi- ties 24 h a day, 7 days a week (e.g., industrial production, transportation, public safety at critical times in potentially lethal situations (e.g., health care, military operations, space flight daily sleep is reduced across many days. Experimental reports on the effects of long-term chronic sleep

Pennsylvania, University of

415

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Sequentiality of Daily Life Physiology: An Automatized  

E-print Network

daily life. Heart and breathing rates and skin temperature have been non-invasively recorded algorithm applied to one physiological signal (skin temperature). The annotations resulted in a total number physiological homeostasis, and emotions coexist (Homma and Masaoka 2008). In addition, the processes

Fontecave-Jallon, Julie

416

Using Your Daily Newspaper to Turn On the Resistant Reader.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series prepared by the Hawaii Newspaper Agency, this teaching guide offers suggestions on using the daily newspaper to "turn on" the resistant reader. Sample materials describe how to use the 5 w's (who, what, where, when, why) and a H (how) to answer questions, read without words, play beginner's bridge, use comics for learning, watch…

Hawaii Newspaper Agency, Inc., Honolulu.

417

Essential tremor quantification during activities of daily living  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEssential tremor (ET), characterized primarily by postural and kinetic tremor, is typically measured in the clinic with subjective tremor rating scales. These ratings are often used to adjust medications and assess efficacy in clinical trials. However, tremor ratings require the presence of a clinician and do not necessarily capture tremor fluctuations throughout the day during activities of daily living (ADL).

Dustin A. Heldman; Joseph Jankovic; David E. Vaillancourt; Janey Prodoehl; Rodger J. Elble; Joseph P. Giuffrida

2011-01-01

418

Randomised trial of prophylactic daily aspirin in British male doctors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A six year randomised trial was conducted among 5139 apparently healthy male doctors to see whether 500 mg aspirin daily would reduce the incidence of and mortality from stroke, myocardial infarction, or other vascular conditions. Though total mortality was 10% lower in the treated than control group, this difference was not statistically significant and chiefly involved diseases other than stroke

R Peto; R Gray; R Collins; K Wheatley; C Hennekens; K Jamrozik; C Warlow; B Hafner; E Thompson; S Norton; J Gilliland; R Doll

1988-01-01

419

Mood in Daily Contexts: Relationship with Risk in Early Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disturbances in affect have been linked to problem behavior in adolescence and future psychopathology, but little is known about how such disturbances manifest themselves in everyday contexts. This study investigated daily mood in Dutch 7th graders, aged 11-14. Cluster analysis of problem measures distinguished high-risk (n=25) and low-risk…

Schneiders, Josien; Nicolson, Nancy A.; Berkhof, Johannes; Feron, Frans J.; deVries, Marten W.; van Os, Jim

2007-01-01

420

Multi-site stochastic modelling of daily rainfall in Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of precipitation records in Uganda has significantly decreased since the 1970s, severely limiting the data available for hydrological modelling. This problem has been addressed in this study by using the generalized linear modelling (GLM) framework to develop stochastic daily rainfall models that have the capability for extending and infilling historic data sets. We have used a relatively sparse

Max Kigobe; Neil McIntyre; Howard Wheater; Richard Chandler

2011-01-01

421

Stochastic daily precipitation model with a heavy-tailed component  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stochastic daily precipitation models are commonly used to generate scenarios of climate variability or change on a daily timescale. The standard models consist of two components describing the occurrence and intensity series, respectively. Binary logistic regression is used to fit the occurrence data, and the intensity series is modeled using a continuous-valued right-skewed distribution, such as gamma, Weibull or lognormal. The precipitation series is then modeled using the joint density, and standard software for generalized linear models can be used to perform the computations. A drawback of these precipitation models is that they do not produce a sufficiently heavy upper tail for the distribution of daily precipitation amounts; they tend to underestimate the frequency of large storms. In this study, we adapted the approach of Furrer and Katz (2008) based on hybrid distributions in order to correct for this shortcoming. In particular, we applied hybrid gamma-generalized Pareto (GP) and hybrid Weibull-GP distributions to develop a stochastic precipitation model for daily rainfall at Ihtiman in western Bulgaria. We report the results of simulations designed to compare the models based on the hybrid distributions and those based on the standard distributions. Some potential difficulties are outlined.

Neykov, N. M.; Neytchev, P. N.; Zucchini, W.

2014-09-01

422

Models of Deafness: Cochlear Implants in the Australian Daily Press  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examined a database of Australian daily newspapers on the terms cochlear implant and deaf children to investigate how journalists and columnists report competing models of deafness: as either "medical" (deafness is a condition to be cured) or "sociocultural" (deafness provides a way of life to be lived). The results from the cochlear…

Power, Des

2005-01-01

423

Australian and International Mature Students: The Daily Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we explore the learning climate and possible obstacles faced by mature students enrolled in Australian universities. More specifically, using the Experience Sampling Method devised by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, we chart the daily activities of Australian and international students and examine these for factors which may facilitate or…

Leder, Gilah; Forgasz, Helen

2004-01-01

424

Estimation of Daily Stream Temperatures in a Mountain River Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stream temperature plays an important role in aquatic ecosystems. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen, water and spawning habitat quality, growth of fish populations are functions of stream temperature. Therefore, accurate estimates of daily stream temperatures can provide beneficial information for water resource managers and decision makers. Here, we develop a model for precise daily water temperature estimates that is applicable even in places lacking various meteorological and hydrological data. The water temperature model in this study is a piecewise model that considers both linear and non-linear relationships between dependent and independent variables including maximum and minimum temperature (meteorological derivers) and precipitation (hydrological deriver). We demonstrated the model in the Boise River Basin, in central Idaho, USA. The hydrology of this basin is snow-dominated and complex due to the mountainous terrain. We predicted daily stream temperature at 34 sites using 12 weather and Snowtel stations for deriving variables. Results of the stream temperature model indicate average Root Mean Square Error of 1.28 degree of Celsius along with average 0.91 of Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient for all stations. Comparison of the results of this study to Mohseni et al.'s model (1998), which is widely applied in water temperature studies, shows better performance of the model presented in this study. Our approach can be used to provide historical reconstructions of daily stream temperatures or projections of stream temperatures under climate change scenarios in any location with at least one year of daily stream temperature observations and with contemporaneous regional air temperature and precipitation data.

Sohrabi, M.; Benjankar, R. M.; Isaak, D.; Wenger, S.; Tonina, D.

2013-12-01

425

Magnitude of food overabundance affects expression of daily torpor.  

PubMed

Many small mammal species use torpor as a strategy for reducing energy expenditure in winter. Some rodent hibernators also hoard food to provide reserves of energy, and individuals with large hoards express less torpor than those with smaller reserves. These facts imply that animals can recognize levels of food availability, but where food is very plentiful, it is unclear whether torpor expression is affected by temporal changes in the extent of food overabundance. Moreover, the relationship between daily torpor and excess food availability has not been clearly established. The large Japanese field mouse Apodemus speciosus caches food for use as a winter energy resource and exhibits daily torpor under artificial winter conditions. The present study examined whether individuals exposed to different magnitudes of overabundant food exhibited differences in expression of daily torpor, and secondly whether torpor expression varied in response to changes in the overall quantity of overabundant food. It was observed that while absolute quantities of overabundant food did not appear to affect daily torpor expression, the mice did respond to changes in food availability, even when food remained overabundant. This suggests that the mice respond to fluctuations in food availability, even where these changes do not place any constraint on energy budgets. Thus recognition of changing food availability cannot be a purely physiological response to shortage or plenty, and may contribute to predictions of future energy availability. The expression of torpor was inhibited in response to increasing food availability, and the mice used shallower torpor when food availability increased to superabundance. These findings suggest that daily torpor may be regulated not only physiologically in response to energy constraints but also psychologically, via recognition of food availability. PMID:25483213

Eto, Takeshi; Hayashi, Rintaroh; Okubo, Yoshinobu; Kashimura, Atsushi; Koshimoto, Chihiro; Sakamoto, Shinsuke H; Morita, Tetsuo

2015-02-01

426

ORNL irradiation creep facility  

SciTech Connect

A machine was developed at ORNL to measure the rates of elongation observed under irradiation in stressed materials. The source of radiation is a beam of 60 MeV alpha particles from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC). This choice allows experiments to be performed which simulate the effects of fast neutrons. A brief review of irradiation creep and experimental constraints associated with each measurement technique is given. Factors are presented which lead to the experimental choices made for the Irradiation Creep Facility (ICF). The ICF consists of a helium-filled chamber which houses a high-precision mechanical testing device. The specimen to be tested must be thermally stabilized with respect to the temperature fluctuations imposed by the particle beam which passes through the specimen. Electrical resistance of the specimen is the temperature control parameter chosen. Very high precision in length measurement and temperature control are required to detect the small elongation rates relevant to irradiation creep in the test periods available (approx. 1 day). The apparatus components and features required for the above are presented in some detail, along with the experimental procedures. The damage processes associated with light ions are discussed and displacement rates are calculated. Recent irradiation creep results are given, demonstrating the suitability of the apparatus for high resolution experiments. Also discussed is the suitability of the ICF for making high precision thermal creep measurements.

Reiley, T.C.; Auble, R.L.; Beckers, R.M.; Bloom, E.E.; Duncan, M.G.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shannon, R.H.

1980-09-01

427

Global Focus Microscope The Global Health Challenge  

E-print Network

Summer 2006 BIKE RIDE FOR GLOBAL HEALTH ANATOMY RECONFIGURED ALUMNI NEWS AND FEATURES Goldfor Teaching to raise money for and awareness of global health issues. I trust you'll find this a "moving" issue Bike Ride for Global Health 14 NJMS Student Pursues Research at NIH 14 Accolades 15 A Large Step

428

Comparison of GPCP Monthly and Daily Precipitation Estimates with High-Latitude Gauge Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is very important to know how much rain and snow falls around the world for uses that range from crop forecasting to disaster response, drought monitoring to flood forecasting, and weather analysis to climate research. Precipitation is usually measured with rain gauges, but rain gauges don t exist in areas that are sparsely populated, which tends to be a good portion of the globe. To overcome this, meteorologists use satellite data to estimate global precipitation. However, it is difficult to estimate rain and especially snow in cold climates using most current satellites. The satellite sensors are often "confused" by a snowy or frozen surface and therefore cannot distinguish precipitation. One commonly used satellite-based precipitation data set, the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) data, overcomes this frozen-surface problem through the innovative use of two sources of satellite data, the Television Infrared Observation Satellite Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Though the GPCP estimates are generally considered a very reliable source of precipitation, it has been difficult to assess the quality of these estimates in cold climates due to the lack of gauges. Recently, the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) has provided a 12-year span of high-quality daily rain gauge observations, covering all of Finland, that can be used to compare with the GPCP data to determine how well the satellites estimate cold-climate precipitation. Comparison of the monthly GPCP satellite-based estimates and the FMI gauge observations shows remarkably good agreement, with the GPCP estimates being 6% lower in the amount of precipitation than the FMI observations. Furthermore, the month-to-month correlation between the GPCP and FMI is very high at 0.95 (1.0 is perfect). The daily GPCP estimates replicate the FMI daily occurrences of precipitation with a correlation of 0.55 in the summer and 0.45 in the winter. The winter result indicates the GPCP estimates have skill in "seeing" snowfall, which is the most challenging situation. Thus, the GPCP data set successfully overcomes a current limitation in satellite meteorology, namely the estimation of cold-climate precipitation. The success of the GPCP data set bodes well for future missions, whose instrumentation is specifically designed to give even more information for addressing cold-climate precipitation.

Bolvin, David T.; Adler, Robert G.; Nelkin, Eric J.; Poutiainen, Jani

2008-01-01

429

Sub-daily variability of suspended sediment fluxes in small mountainous catchments - implications for community-based river monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate estimates of suspended sediment yields depend on effective monitoring strategies. In mountainous environments undergoing intense seasonal precipitation, the implementation of such monitoring programs relies primarily on a rigorous study of the temporal variability of fine sediment transport. This investigation focuses on seasonal and short-term sediment variability in a subhumid region of the Mexican Volcanic Belt. Intensive hydrosedimentary monitoring was conducted during one year on four contrasting catchments (3 to 630 km2). Analyses revealed significant temporal variability in suspended sediment export over various time scales, with between 63 and 97% of the annual load exported in as little as 2% of the time. Statistical techniques were used to evaluate the sampling frequency required to get reliable annual sediment yield estimates at the four sites. A bi-daily sampling would be required at the outlet of the 630-km2 catchment, whereas in the three smaller catchments (3-12 km2), the achievement of accurate estimates would inevitably require hourly monitoring. At the larger catchment scale, analysis of the sub-daily variability of fine sediment fluxes showed that the frequency of sampling could be lowered by up to 100% (i.e. from bi-daily to daily) if considering a specific and regular sampling time in the day. In contrast, conducting a similar sampling strategy at the three smaller catchments could lead to serious misinterpretation (i.e. up to 1000% error). Our findings emphasise the importance of an analysis of the sub-daily variability of sediment fluxes in mountainous catchments. Characterising this variability may offer useful insights for improving the effectiveness of community-based monitoring strategies in rural areas of developing countries. In regions where historical records based on discrete sampling are available, it may also help assessing the quality of past flux estimates. Finally, the study confirms the global necessity of acquiring more high frequency data in small mountainous catchments, especially in poorly gauged areas.

Duvert, C.; Gratiot, N.; Némery, J.; Burgos, A.; Navratil, O.

2010-10-01

430

Phase I Study of Daily Irinotecan as a Radiation Sensitizer for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The study aimed to determine the maximum tolerated dose of daily irinotecan given with concomitant radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Methods and Materials: Between September 2000 and March 2008, 36 patients with histologically proven unresectable pancreas adenocarcinoma were studied prospectively. Irinotecan was administered daily, 1 to 2 h before irradiation. Doses were started at 6 mg/m{sup 2} per day and then escalated by increments of 2 mg/m{sup 2} every 3 patients. Radiotherapy was administered in 2-Gy fractions, 5 fractions per week, up to a total dose of 50 Gy to the tumor volume. Inoperability was confirmed by a surgeon involved in a multidisciplinary team. All images and responses were centrally reviewed by radiologists. Results: Thirty-six patients were enrolled over a period of 8 years through eight dose levels (6 mg/m{sup 2} to 20 mg/m{sup 2} per day). The maximum tolerated dose was determined to be 18 mg/m{sup 2} per day. The dose-limiting toxicities were nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, dehydration, and hypokalemia. The median survival time was 12.6 months with a median follow-up of 53.8 months. The median progression-free survival time was 6.5 months, and 4 patients (11.4%) with very good responses could undergo surgery. Conclusions: The maximum tolerated dose of irinotecan is 18 mg/m{sup 2} per day for 5 weeks. Dose-limiting toxicities are mainly gastrointestinal. Even though efficacy was not the aim of this study, the results are very promising, with a median survival time of 12.6 months.

Fouchardiere, Christelle de la, E-mail: delafo@lyon.fnclcc.f [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Lyon-Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); Negrier, Sylvie [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Lyon-Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); Labrosse, Hugues [Department of Surgery, Infirmerie Protestante, Lyon (France); Martel Lafay, Isabelle [Department of Radiation Therapy, University of Lyon-Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); Desseigne, Francoise [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Lyon-Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); Meeus, Pierre [Department of Surgery, University of Lyon-Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); Tavan, David [Department of Gastrointestinal Medicine, Infirmerie Protestante, Lyon (France); Petit-Laurent, Fabien [Department of Gastrointestinal Medicine, Centre Hospitalier, Villefranche-sur-Saone (France); Rivoire, Michel [Department of Surgery, University of Lyon-Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); Perol, David [Department of Biostatistics, University of Lyon-Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); Carrie, Christian [Department of Radiation Therapy, University of Lyon-Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France)

2010-06-01

431

Improvement of therapeutic index for brain tumors with daily image guidance  

PubMed Central

Background Image-guidance maximizes the therapeutic index of brain irradiation by decreasing setup uncertainty. As dose-volume data emerge defining the tolerance of critical normal structures responsible for neuroendocrine function and neurocognition, minimizing clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) expansion of targets near these structures potentially lessens long-term toxicity. Methods We reviewed the treatment records of 29 patients with brain tumors, with a total of 517 fractions analyzed. The CTV was uniformly expanded by 3 mm to create the PTV for all cases. We determined the effect of patient specific factors (prescribed medications, weight gain, tumor location) and image-guidance technique on setup uncertainty and plotted the mean +/- standard deviation for each factor. ANOVA was used to determine significance between these factors on setup uncertainty. We determined the impact of applying the initial three fraction variation as custom PTV-expansion on dose to normal structures. Results The initial 3 mm margin encompassed 88% of all measured shifts from daily imaging for all fractions. There was no difference (p?=?n.s.) in average setup uncertainty between CBCT or kV imaging for all patients. Vertical, lateral, longitudinal, and 3D shifts were similar (p?=?n.s.) between days 1, 2, and 3 imaging and later fractions. Patients prescribed sedatives experienced increased setup uncertainty (p?Daily imaging allows application of individualized CTV expansion to reduce dose to OAR responsible for neurocognition, learning, and neuroendocrine function below doses shown to correlate with long-term morbidity. The demonstrated reduction in dose to OAR in this study has implications for quality of life and provides the motivation to pursue custom PTV expansion. PMID:24295338

2013-01-01

432

Assessment of CMIP5 GCM daily predictor variables for statistical downscaling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessment of CMIP5 GCM daily predictor variables for statistical downscaling To support adaptation to climate change in the water resource sector in South Australia, downscaled climate projections are being constructed within the Goyder Institute for Water Research - a 5-year multi-million dollar collaborative research partnership between the Government of South Australia, CSIRO and the university sector. Statistical downscaling is a robust approach providing a link between observed (re-analysis) large-scale atmospheric variables (predictors) and local or regional surface climate variables such as daily station rainfall. When applied to outputs of Global Climate Models (GCMs), the credibility of statistically downscaled future projections is dependent on the ability of GCMs to reproduce the re-analysis data statistics for the current climate. The main objective of this study is thus to assess daily predictor variables simulated by phase Five of Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) GCMs, while acknowledging that an optimal measure of overall GCM performance does not exist and the usefulness of any assessment approach varies with the intended application. Here we assess GCMs by comparing cumulative probability density functions of predictor variables against the re-analysis data using the Kolmogorov test metric. Historical daily data simulations from 12 GCMs (BCC-csm1, CanESM2, CSIRO-Mk3.6.0, GFDL-ESM2M, HadGEM2-ES, IPSL-CM5A-LR, IPSL-CM5A-MR, MIROC4h, MIROC-ESM-CHEM, MPI-ESM-LR, MRI-CGCM3, and NorESM1-M) for the period 1961-2005 are used. The variables assessed include specific/relative humidity, winds, geopotential heights at different atmospheric levels and sea-level pressure over the Australian region (7-45oS, 100-160oE). We present a summary of results for the South Australia region quantifying the ability of these GCMs in reproducing the mean state and the relative frequency of extremes for these predictors. The complexity and challenges in GCM selection emanating from the inconsistent performance of GCMs across predictor variables will also be discussed. Keywords: Climate change; statistical downscaling; GCM performance; water resources; adaptation.

Mpelasoka, F. S.; Charles, S.; Chiew, F. H.; Fu, G.; Beecham, S.

2012-04-01

433

Exogenous model of global tectonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new model of lithosphere-plates movement based on three pillars: 1) The thermoelastic wave, which was described first of all by Berger (1975), 2) The ratcheting mechanism, which was described for asphalt buckling and/or lithosphere evolution by J. Croll (2006, 2007), and 3) the solar irradiance energy, as quantified by IPCC (2007). The thermal wave, which is generated by solar irradiance on the surface, penetrates into depth, and subsurface rocks are expanded. The deformation spreads to the surrounding of expanded rocks and to the depths. Such elastic wave is called thermoelastic wave and has dominant periods of one day, one year, (short) climate periods (AMO, PDO and other oscillations), Milankovich periods (14000 - 120000 years) and longer climate periods. This deformation concerns prevalently the continental lithosphere and not lithosphere covered by ocean or thick layers of unconsolidated sediments. This non-uniform deformation of continental and/or oceanic plates leads to opening of the cracks, faults and/or rifts during the period of continental contraction. The ratchets can fulfil such free spaces and openings. During the next period of continental expansion, such faults, cracks or rifts cannot reach the same positions as before, which leads to increasing stress, which accumulates on the discontinuities especially between continental and oceanic crust (Kalenda et al. 2012). Such process can accumulate a portion of the solar energy reaching the solid surface rocks. Then we can explain the whole energy budget of seismic and volcanic activity (1022 J/year) only by solar irradiance. Only 4 % of total solar irradiance of the Earth's surface (1024 J/year) is enough to cover all budget of lithosphere plate movement. No other resources are necessary. Because this new model of the lithosphere plate movement is not accepted at that moment by the mainstream, it is necessary to publish it in the section Geoethics, as a one of the examples of the behaviour of the Science as a whole. References Berger, J. (1975): A Note on Thermoelastic Strains and Tilts, 1975, J. Geophys.Res., 80, pp. 274-277. Croll, J.G.A. (2006): From asphalt to the Arctic: new insights into thermo-mechanical ratcheting processes. III Int. Conf. On Computational Mechanics. Lisbon, Portugal, 5-8 June. Croll, J.G.A. (2007): A new hypothesis for Earth lithosphere evolution. New Concepts in Global Tectonics Newsletter, no. 45, December, 2007, 34-51. IPCC (2007): IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007 (AR4). http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_and_data_reports.shtml Kalenda P. et al. (2012): Tilts, global tectonics and earthquake prediction. SWB, London, 247pp.

Kalenda, Pavel; Wandrol, Ivo; Kopf, Tomáš; Frydrýšek, Karel; Neumann, Libor; Procházka, Václav; Ost?ihanský, Lubor

2014-05-01

434

An empirical model of daily highs and lows of West Texas Intermediate crude oil prices  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a large collection of literature on energy price forecasting, but most studies typically use monthly average or close-to-close daily price data. In practice, the daily price range constructed from the daily high and low also contains useful information on price volatility and is used frequently in technical analysis. The interaction between the daily high and low and the

Angela W. W. He; Jerry T. K. Kwok; Alan T. K. Wan

2010-01-01

435

The Relations of Daily Task Accomplishment Satisfaction With Changes in Affect: A Multilevel Study in Nurses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focusing on a sample of nurses, this investigation examined the relationships of daily task accomplishment satisfaction (for direct and indirect care tasks) with changes in positive and negative affect from preshift to postshift. Not accomplishing tasks to one's satisfaction was conceptualized as a daily workplace stressor that should increase daily negative affect and decrease daily positive affect from preshift to

Allison S. Gabriel; James M. Diefendorff; Rebecca J. Erickson

2011-01-01

436

Convergence Between the Daily Stress Inventory and Endocrine Measures of Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation examined the convergent validity between endocrine measures of stress and the Daily Stress Inventory (DSI), a daily measure of minor psychological stressors. Daily urinary measures of cortisol and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and daily DSIs were provided by 18 subjects for 10 days. Due to potential reactivity effects, the first day was eliminated and only 9 days were used

Phillip J. Brantley; Linda S. Dietz; G. Tipton McKnight; Glenn N. Jones; Richard Tulley

1988-01-01

437

The daily timing of gene expression and physiology in mammals  

PubMed Central

Mammalian behavior and physiology undergo daily rhythms that are coordinated by an endogenous circadian timing system. This system has a hierarchical structure, in that a master pacemaker, residing in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the ventral hypothalamus, synchronizes peripheral oscillators in virtually all body cells. While the basic molecular mechanisms generating the daily rhythms are similar in aIl cells, most clock out-puts are cell-specific. This conclusion is based on genomewide transcriptome profiling studies in several tissues that have revealed hundreds of rhythmically expressed genes. Cyclic gene expression in the various organs governs overt rhythms in behavior and physiology, encompassing sleep-wake cycles, metabolism, xenobiotic detoxification, and cellularproliferation. As a consequence, chronic perturbation of this temporal organization may lead to increased morbidity and reduced lifespan. PMID:17969863

Schibler, Ueli

2007-01-01

438

Arts Journal: The Daily Digest of Arts & Cultural Journalism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Edited by Douglas McLennan, formerly an arts columnist and arts reporter with the Seattle Post-Intelligencer and the Seattle Weekly, Arts Journal is a daily digest of some of the best online arts and cultural journalism. Each weekday beginning at 5AM PST, McLennan examines and posts stories from over 180 English-language newspapers, magazines, and publications featuring writing about arts and culture. These are grouped under eight categories: Top Stories, Dance, Art Issues, Media, Music, Arts People, Publishing, Theater, and Visual Arts. Each Monday, the site also posts a weekly Arts Beat column, an annotated summary of the week's best stories. Users can subscribe to receive Arts Beat for free by email. This amazing resource for current news of the arts will appeal to a broad range of users and quickly find a prominent spot in their collection of daily news bookmarks.

439

Validation of daily increments in otoliths of northern squawfish larvae  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Otoliths from laboratory-reared northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, larvae were examined to determine the periodicity of increment deposition. Increment deposition began in both sagittae and lapilli after hatching. Reader counts indicated that increment formation was daily in sagittae of 1-29-day-old larvae. However, increment counts from lapilli were significantly less than the known ages of northern squawfish larvae, possibly because some increments were not detectable. Otolith readability and age agreement among readers were greatest for young (<11 days) northern squawfish larvae. This was primarily because a transitional zone of low-contrast material began forming in otoliths of 8-11-day-old larvae and persisted until approximately 20 days after hatching. Formation of the transition zone appeared to coincide with the onset of exogenous feeding and continued through yolk sac absorption. Our results indicate that aging wild-caught northern squawfish larvae using daily otolith increment counts is possible.

Wertheimer, R.H.; Barfoot, C.A.

1998-01-01

440

Do Diurnal Aerosol Changes Affect Daily Average Radiative Forcing?  

SciTech Connect

Strong diurnal variability of aerosol has been observed frequently for many urban/industrial regions. How this variability may alter the direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF), however, is largely unknown. To quantify changes in the time-averaged DARF, we perform an assessment of 29 days of high temporal resolution ground-based data collected during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) on Cape Cod, which is downwind of metropolitan areas. We demonstrate that strong diurnal changes of aerosol loading (about 20% on average) have a negligible impact on the 24-h average DARF, when daily averaged optical properties are used to find this quantity. However, when there is a sparse temporal sampling of aerosol properties, which may preclude the calculation of daily averaged optical properties, large errors (up to 100%) in the computed DARF may occur. We describe a simple way of reducing these errors, which suggests the minimal temporal sampling needed to accurately find the forcing.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.; Michalsky, Joseph J.; Lantz, K.; Hodges, G. B.

2013-06-17

441

Estimates of daily rainfall over the Amazon basin  

SciTech Connect

Five geostationary satellite rain estimation techniques were tested over Amazonia. Individually, the techniques explained 1/4 to 1/3 of the variance of daily gage rainfall. Based in large part on cost, one technique, which involves a nonlinear relation in temperature, was selected to provide a mapping of daily Amazonia rainfall between May 6 and 12, 1987. Accumulated over the 7 days, rainfall by this technique averaged 40 mm. It varied from zero in the southeast to more than 150 mm in the northwest. To the southwest the predominantly convective pattern of the rain image was overlaid by a streakiness, implying some baroclinic influence. In maps combining gage observations with satellite estimates, rainfall varied significantly from day to day. Only over the largest scale did a trend emerge: a tendency for rain to withdraw from south to north.

Martin, D.W.; Goodman, B.; Schmit, T.J. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA)); Cutrim, E.C. (Universidade Federal do Para, Belem (Brazil))

1990-09-20

442

Daily tornado frequency distributions in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors examine daily tornado counts in the United States over the period 1994-2012 and find strong evidence for a power-law relationship in the distribution frequency. The scaling exponent is estimated at 1.64 (0.019 s.e.) giving a per tornado-day probability of 0.014% (return period of 71 years) that a tornado day produces 145 tornadoes as was observed on 27 April 2011. They also find that the total number of tornadoes by damage category on days with at least one violent tornado follows an exponential rule. On average, the daily number of tornadoes in the next lowest damage category is approximately twice the number in the current category. These findings are important and timely for tornado hazard models and for seasonal and sub-seasonal forecasts of tornado activity.

Elsner, J. B.; Jagger, T. H.; Widen, H. M.; Chavas, D. R.

2014-01-01

443

Weather, season, and daily stroke admissions in Hong Kong  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies examining daily temperature and stroke incidence have given conflicting results. We undertook this retrospective study of all stroke admissions in those aged 35 years old and above to Hong Kong public hospitals from 1999 through 2006 in order to better understand the effects of meteorological conditions on stroke risk in a subtropical setting. We used Poisson Generalized Additive Models with daily hemorrhagic (HS) and ischemic stroke (IS) counts separately as outcomes, and daily mean temperature, humidity, solar radiation, rainfall, air pressure, pollutants, flu consultation rates, day of week, holidays, time trend and seasonality as predictors. Lagged effects of temperature, humidity and pollutants were also considered. A total of 23,457 HS and 107,505 IS admissions were analyzed. Mean daily temperature had a strong, consistent, negative linear association with HS admissions over the range (8.2-31.8°C) observed. A 1°C lower average temperature over the same day and previous 4 days (lags 0-4) being associated with a 2.7% (95% CI: 2.0-3.4%, P < .0.0001) higher admission rate after controlling for other variables. This association was stronger among older subjects and females. Higher lag 0-4 average change in air pressure from previous day was modestly associated with higher HS risk. The association between IS and temperature was weaker and apparent only below 22°C, with a 1°C lower average temperature (lags 0-13) below this threshold being associated with a 1.6% (95% CI:1.0-2.2%, P < 0.0001) higher IS admission rate. Pollutant levels were not associated with HS or IS. Future studies should examine HS and IS risk separately.

Goggins, William B.; Woo, Jean; Ho, Suzanne; Chan, Emily Y. Y.; Chau, P. H.

2012-09-01

444

[Relationship between daily high temperature and mortality in Kyushu, Japan].  

PubMed

We analyzed the relationship between daily high temperature and mortality in Kyushu, Japan, 1972-1990. Mortality rate was obtained by dividing the number of deaths in a certain daily high temperature category by person-days in the same category. The results were as follows: (1) With daily high temperature on the x-axis and mortality rate on the y-axis, the relationship between the two variables appeared to be V-shaped. The minimum mortality rate was observed at the 28 degrees C-33 degrees C level. (2) Among all deaths at 33+ degrees C level, the proportion of deaths from "excessive heat" never exceeded 0.4%. This suggested that heat stroke is not a major contributor to the V-shape formation. (3) The V-shape was observed even in 1990, suggesting that the rapid spread of air conditioners did not alter the relationship between daily high temperature and mortality rate. (4) For the 0-4 years age group, mortality was not temperature dependent. However, the 5-14 years age group showed high mortality rates at 33+ degrees C. This may be attributed to outdoor activities during summer. After 30 years of age, the overall mortality rates rose with age, with greater increases at lower ambient temperature levels. As a result, the 65+ years age group had the greatest temperature dependence. (5) Deaths from respiratory diseases, circulatory diseases, and senility were highly temperature dependent, whereas death from cancer was not temperature dependent. Deaths from digestive diseases, infectious diseases, and accidents showed moderate temperature dependence. PMID:7780169

Honda, Y; Ono, M; Sasaki, A; Uchiyama, I

1995-04-01

445

DAILY STEP COUNTS IN A US COHORT WITH COPD  

PubMed Central

Background Baseline values for daily step counts in US adults with COPD and knowledge of its accurate measurement, natural change over time, and independent relationships with measures of COPD severity are limited. Methods 127 persons with stable COPD wore the StepWatch Activity Monitor (SAM) for 14 days, and 102 of them wore it a median 3.9 months later. SAM counts were compared to manual counts in the clinic. We assessed change over time, the effect of season, and relationships with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) % predicted, 6-minute walk test (6MWT) distance, the modified Medical Research Council (MMRC) dyspnea score, and the St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire Total Score (SGRQ-TS). Results 98% of subjects were males, with mean age 71 ± 8 years and FEV1 1.48 ± 0.54 L (52 ± 19 % predicted). All 4 GOLD stages were represented, with the most subjects in GOLD II (44%) and GOLD III (37%). The SAM had > 90% accuracy in 99% of subjects. Average step count was 5,680 steps/day, which decreased with increasing GOLD stage (p=0.0046). Subjects walked 645 fewer steps/day at follow-up, which was partly explained by season of monitoring (p=0.013). In a multivariate model, FEV1 % predicted, 6MWT distance and MMRC score were weakly associated with daily step counts, while SGRQ-TS was not. Conclusions These findings will aid the design of future studies using daily step counts in COPD. Accurately measured, daily step counts decline over time partly due to season and capture unique information about COPD status. PMID:22521225

MOY, MARILYN L.; DANILACK, VALERY A.; WESTON, NICOLE A.; GARSHICK, ERIC

2013-01-01

446

Estimated daily intake of phthalates in occupationally exposed groups.  

PubMed

Improved analytical methods for measuring urinary phthalate metabolites have resulted in biomarker-based estimates of phthalate daily intake for the general population, but not for occupationally exposed groups. In 2003-2005, we recruited 156 workers from eight industries where materials containing diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and/or di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were used as part of the worker's regular job duties. Phthalate metabolite concentrations measured in the workers' end-shift urine samples were used in a simple pharmacokinetic model to estimate phthalate daily intake. DEHP intake estimates based on three DEHP metabolites combined were 0.6-850??g/kg/day, with the two highest geometric mean (GM) intakes in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film manufacturing (17??g/kg/day) and PVC compounding (12??g/kg/day). All industries, except phthalate manufacturing, had some workers whose DEHP exposure exceeded the U.S. reference dose (RfD) of 20??g/kg/day. A few workers also exceeded the DEHP European tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 50??g/kg/day. DEP intake estimates were 0.5-170??g/kg/day, with the highest GM in phthalate manufacturing (27??g/kg/day). DBP intake estimates were 0.1-76??g/kg/day, with the highest GMs in rubber gasket and in phthalate manufacturing (17??g/kg/day, each). No DEP or DBP intake estimates exceeded their respective RfDs. The DBP TDI (10??g/kg/day) was exceeded in three rubber industries and in phthalate manufacturing. These intake estimates are subject to several uncertainties; however, an occupational contribution to phthalate daily intake is clearly indicated in some industries. PMID:20010977

Hines, Cynthia J; Hopf, Nancy B N; Deddens, James A; Silva, Manori J; Calafat, Antonia M

2011-01-01

447

[TNF-blocking drugs and infection; recommendations for daily practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy is associated with an increased risk of infection. There are sparse data and no evidence-based guidelines on how to deal with this problem in daily practice. However, recommendations can be made based on theoretical considerations and by extrapolating from recommendations for other types ofimmunodeficiency. Before starting anti-TNF therapy, screening for tuberculosis and other possible infections

J. W. Jacobs; M. C. W. Creemers; M. A. van Agtmael; M. A. F. J. van de Laar; T. van der Poll; P. P. Tak; J. W. J. Bijlsma

2007-01-01

448

New York Times Daily Lesson Plan Archive: Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Archive of the New York Times' daily lesson plans, developed in partnership with the Bank Street College of Education, on general science topics. The lesson plans, intended for use with middle-school or high-school students, include learning objectives, materials lists and instructions, discussion questions and vocabulary, suggestions for evaluation and extension activities, links to web sites with related information, and alignments to Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL) educational standards.

Publications and Media Group, Bank Street College of Education

449

Spatial and temporal modeling of daily pollen concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate assessments of pollen counts are valuable to allergy sufferers, the medical industry, and health researchers; however, monitoring stations do not exist in most areas. In addition, the degree of spatial reliability provided by the limited number of monitoring stations is poorly understood. We developed and compared spatial models to estimate pollen concentrations in locations without monitoring stations. Daily Acer, Quercus, and overall tree, grass, and weed pollen counts, in grains/m3, were obtained from 14 aeroallergen monitoring stations located in the northeastern and mid-Atlantic region of the United States from 2003 to 2006. Pollen counts were spatially interpolated using ordinary kriging. Mixed effects and generalized estimating equations incorporating daily and seasonal weather characteristics, pollen season characteristics and land-cover information were also developed to estimate daily pollen concentrations. We then compared observed values from a monitoring station to model estimates for that location. Observed counts and kriging estimates for tree pollen differed ( p = 0.04), but not when peak periods were removed ( p = 0.29). No differences between observed and kriging estimates of Acer ( p = 0.46), Quercus ( p = 0.24), grass ( p = 0.31) or weed pollen ( p = 0.29) were found. Estimates from longitudinal models also demonstrated good agreement with observed counts, except for the extremes of pollen distributions. Our results demonstrate that spatial interpolation techniques as well as regression methods incorporating both weather and land-cover characteristics can provide reliable estimates of daily pollen concentrations in areas where monitors do not exist for all but periods of extremely high pollen.

Dellavalle, Curt T.; Triche, Elizabeth W.; Bell, Michelle L.

2012-01-01

450

Dummies Daily: The Online Resource for the Rest of Us  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by PC World Online and IDG Books Worldwide (publishers of the popular "for Dummies" series), Dummies Daily allows Interested Internauts to subscribe to any of six electronic newsletters (Microsoft Word and Excel, Quicken, The Internet, Web After Five, and Computing Basics), and recieve a quick, simple tip every business day. These friendly and informative tips, written with a keen awareness of how intimidating computers can be to new users, are excellent for beginners.

451

The Impact of Diabetic Retinopathy on Participation in Daily Living  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the restriction of participa- tion in daily activities of people with diabetic retinopa- thy using the Impact of Vision Impairment question- naire. Methods: Individuals with diabetic retinopathy and a visual acuity (VA) worse than 20\\/40 or 6\\/12 in the bet- ter eye were eligible. Participants answered demo- graphicquestionsandhadVAinformationabstractedfrom medical records. If VA information was unavailable, it was

Ecosse L. Lamoureux; Jennifer B. Hassell; Jill E. Keeffe

2004-01-01

452

Conditioning stochastic daily precipitation models on total monthly precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chain-dependent stochastic daily precipitation models are fit to dry, near-normal, and wet subsets of monthly total precipitation data, using category definitions consistent with the 30-day forecasts issued by the Climate Analysis Center of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The resulting models are compared to those derived unconditionally from entire data records. It is found that for the 10 selected

Daniel S. Wilks

1989-01-01

453

Indacaterol, A Novel Once Daily Inhaled ?2-Adrenoreceptor Agonist  

PubMed Central

In this article we will review the role of long acting ?2-adrenoreceptor agonists and long-acting muscarinic agents in the management of airflow obstruction. We will then focus our attention on indacaterol, one of the new once daily inhaled ?2-adrenoreceptor agonists. Pharmacologically this drug is a nearly full ?2-agonist without loss of efficacy after prolonged administration. We will also discuss its dosing, safety and tolerability. PMID:19452036

Roig, Jorge; Hernando, Rosana; Mora, Ramon

2009-01-01

454

New York Times Daily Lesson Plan Archive: Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Archive of the New York Times' daily lesson plans, developed in partnership with the Bank Street College of Education, on technology topics. The lesson plans, intended for use with middle-school or high-school students, include learning objectives, materials lists and instructions, discussion questions and vocabulary, suggestions for evaluation and extension activities, links to web sites with related information, and alignments to Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL) educational standards.

Publications and Media Group, Bank Street College of Education