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1

ANN-based modelling and estimation of daily global solar radiation data: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN) models for estimating and modelling of daily global solar radiation have been developed. The data used in this work are the global irradiation HG, diffuse irradiation HD, air temperature T and relative humidity Hu. These data are available from 1998 to 2002 at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) website. We have

M. Benghanem; A. Mellit; S. N. Alamri

2009-01-01

2

Intermittency and variability of daily solar irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals the study of variability and intermittency of solar irradiation using an analogy with the turbulence and thus making use of some methodologies used in the study of intermittency of the turbulence. An analysis of the shape of the PDFs corresponding to the increments in the clearness and transmittance indexes, for direct and global radiations, is presented. In addition a study of the relations between the scaling exponents of the structure functions of the clearness and transmittance indexes and the orders of these structure functions has been carried out. According to the study, the range of relative variability is due to changes in the atmospheric components that play a role in the attenuation of solar irradiation. This range of variability is higher in the case of the global irradiation than in the case of the direct. Moreover, the multifractality is showed more intense in sites where, due to local effects, sharper variations in the radiation can be expected, as the case of deserts.

Vindel, J. M.; Polo, J.

2014-06-01

3

A new simple parameterization of daily clear-sky global solar radiation including horizon effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimation of clear-sky global solar radiation is usually an important previous stage for calculating global solar radiation under all sky conditions. This is, for instance, a common procedure to derive incoming solar radiation from remote sensing or by using digital elevation models. In this work, we present a new model to calculate daily values of clear-sky global solar irradiation. The

Gabriel López; F. Javier Batlles; Joaquín Tovar-Pescador

2007-01-01

4

A comparison between one year of daily global irradiation from ground-based measurements versus meteosat images from seven locations in Tunisia  

SciTech Connect

Three numerical images from METEOSAT B2 per day have been processed over a period of 12 months, from October 1985 to September 1986, to estimate the daily values of available solar radiation in Tunisia. The methodology used, GISTEL, on the images of the visible' channel of METEOSAT, is described. Results are compared with measured radiation values from seven stations of the Institut de la Meteorologie de Tunisie.' Among more than 2,200 measured-estimated daily pairs, a high percentage, 89%, show a relative error of + or {minus}10%. Many figures concerning Sidi-Bou-Said, Kairouan, Thala, and Gafsa are presented to show the capability of GISTEL to map the daily available solar radiation with a sufficient spatial resolution in countries where radiation measurements are too scarce.

Djemaa, A.B.; Delorme, C. (Ecole Nationale d'Ingenieurs de Sfax, Tunisie (France))

1992-01-01

5

Hematopoietic tissue repair under chronic low daily dose irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capacity of the hematopoietic system to repair constantly accruing cellular damage under chronic, low daily dose gamma irradiation is essential for the maintenance of a functional hematopoietic system, and, in turn, long term survival. In certain individuals, however, such continuous cycles of damage and repair provide an essential inductive environment for selected types of hematopathologies, e.g., myeloid leukemia (ML). In our laboratory we have been studying temporal and causal relationships between hematopoietic capacity, associated repair functions, and propensities for hematologic disease in canines under variable levels of chronic radiation stress (0.3-26.3 cGy d^-1). Results indicate that the maximum exposure rate tolerated by the hematopoietic system is highly individual-specific (three major responding subgroups identified) and is based largely on the degree to which repair capacity, and, in turn, hematopoietic restoration, is augmented under chronic exposure. In low-tolerance individuals (prone to aplastic anemia, subgroup 1), the failure to augment basic repair functions seemingly results in a progressive accumulation of genetic and cellular damage within vital progenitorial marrow compartments (particularly marked within erythroid compartments) that results in loss of reproductive capacity and ultimately in collapse of the hematopoietic system. The high-tolerance individuals (radioaccommodated and either prone- or not prone to ML, subgroup 2 & 3) appear to minimize the accumulating damage effect of daily exposures by extending repair functions, which preserves reproductive integrity and fosters regenerative hematopoietic responses. As the strength of the regenerative response manifests the extent of repair augmentation, the relatively strong response of high-tolerance individuals progressing to patent ML suggests an insufficiency of repair quality rather than repair quantity. The kinetics of these repair-mediated, regenerative hematopoietic responses within the major subgroups are under study and should provide useful insights into the nature of hematopoietic accommodation (or its failure) under greatly extended periods of chronic, low-daily-dose ionizing radiation exposure.

Seed, T. M.

6

Solar irradiance, cosmic rays and cloudiness over daily timescales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although over centennial and greater timescales solar variability may be one of the most influential climate forcing agents, the extent to which solar activity influences climate over shorter time periods is poorly understood. If a link exists between solar activity and climate, it is likely via a mechanism connected to one (or a combination) of the following parameters: total solar irradiance (TSI), ultraviolet (UV) spectral irradiance, or the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) flux. We present an analysis based around a superposed epoch (composite) approach focusing on the largest TSI increases and decreases (the latter occurring in both the presence and absence of appreciable GCR reductions) over daily timescales. Using these composites we test for the presence of a robust link between solar activity and cloud cover over large areas of the globe using rigorous statistical techniques. We find no evidence that widespread variations in cloud cover at any tropospheric level are significantly associated with changes in the TSI, GCR or UV flux, and further conclude that TSI or UV changes occurring during reductions in the GCR flux are not masking a solar-cloud response. However, we note the detectability of any potential links is strongly constrained by cloud variability.

Laken, Benjamin A.; ?alogovi?, Jasa

2011-12-01

7

Hematopoietic tissue repair under chronic low daily dose irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The capacity of the hematopoietic system to repair constantly accruing cellular damage under chronic, low daily dose gamma irradiation is essential for the maintenance of a functional hematopoietic system, and, in turn, long term survival. In certain individuals, however, such continuous cycles of damage and repair provide an essential inductive environment for selected types of hematopathologies, e.g., myeloid leukemia (ML). We have been studying temporal and causal relationships between hematopoietic capacity, associated repair functions, and propensities for hematologic disease in canines under variable levels of chronic radiation stress (0.3{minus}26.3 cGy d{sup {minus}1}). Results indicate that the maximum exposure rate tolerated by the hematopoietic system is highly individual-specific and is based largely on the degree to which repair capacity, and, in turn, hematopoietic restoration, is augmented under chronic exposure. In low-tolerance individuals (prone to aplastic anemia, subgroup (1), the failure to augment basic m-pair functions seemingly results in a progressive accumulation of genetic and cellular damage within vital progenitorial marrow compartments particularly marked within erythroid compartments. that results in loss of reproductive capacity and ultimately in collapse of the hematopoietic system. The high-tolerance individuals (radioaccomodated and either prone- or not prone to ML, subgroup 2 & 3 appear to minimize the accumulating damage effect of daily exposures by extending repair functions, which preserves reproductive integrity and fosters regenerative hematopoietic responses. As the strength of the regenerative response manifests the extent of repair augmentation, the relatively strong response of high- tolerance individuals progressing to patent ML suggests an insufficiency of repair quality rather than repair quantity.

Seed, T.M.

1994-12-01

8

Global forecast model to predict the daily dose of the solar erythemally effective UV radiation.  

PubMed

A worldwide forecast of the erythemally effective ultraviolet (UV) radiation is presented. The forecast was established to inform the public about the expected amount of erythemally effective UV radiation for the next day. Besides the irradiance, the daily dose is forecasted to enable people to choose the appropriate sun protection tools. Following the UV Index as the measure of global erythemally effective irradiance, the daily dose is expressed in units of UV Index hours. In this study, we have validated the model and the forecast against measurements from broadband UV radiometers of the Robertson-Berger type. The measurements were made at four continents ranging from the northern polar circle (67.4 degrees N) to the Antarctic coast (61.1 degrees S). As additional quality criteria the frequency of underestimation was taken into account because the forecast is a tool of radiation protection and made to avoid overexposure. A value closer than one minimal erythemal dose for the most sensitive skin type 1 to the observed value was counted as hit and greater deviations as underestimation or overestimation. The Austrian forecast model underestimates the daily dose in 3.7% of all cases, whereas 1.7% results from the model and 2.0% from the assumed total ozone content. The hit rate could be found in the order of 40%. PMID:15453822

Schmalwieser, Alois W; Schauberger, Günther; Janouch, Michal; Nunez, Manuel; Koskela, Tapani; Berger, Daniel; Karamanian, Gabriel

2005-01-01

9

Sensitivity of erythemally effective UV irradiance and daily exposure to uncertainties in measured total ozone.  

PubMed

In this study the sensitivity of the erythemally effective radiation to uncertainties in operationally measured total ozone content of the atmosphere (TOC) was estimated. For this, daily operational TOC measurements from different instruments were applied covering the period from 1997 to 1999. Measurements were gained from space by Earth Probe Satellite, Earth Remote Sensing satellite/Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment and Operational Vertical Sounder and from the ground by Dobson and Brewer spectrophotometers for the locations of Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic, 50 degrees N), Nairobi (Kenya, 1 degrees S) and Springbok (Republic of South Africa, 30 degrees S). The values were used as input parameter to model calculations of erythemally effective irradiance and daily radiant exposure. The differences due to the use of TOC from different sources were analyzed with respect to the Ultraviolet Index (UVI). The UVI was introduced as a tool for sun protection and health care. Therefore, it is of special importance to know the restriction of accuracy. As a tool of health care, the maximum uncertainties are of interest and are described in using the 95%-percentile and the maximum differences. This study shows that differences, i.e. uncertainties (95%-percentile) are in the order of 1 UVI. Independently on the location, however, extreme differences may overstep 3 UVI. For the daily dose the 95%-percentile is around 7.5 UVI hours (UVIh) but differences higher than 20 UVIh were also found. PMID:17115799

Schmalwieser, Alois W; Schauberger, Günther; Erbertseder, Thilo; Janouch, Michal; Coetzee, Gerrie J R; Weihs, Philipp

2007-01-01

10

Reproducibility of mantle irradiation with daily imaging films  

SciTech Connect

Daily mantle imaging films were reviewed to evaluate the accuracy of daily treatments for 28 de novo patients with Hodgkin's disease treated with curative intent between September 1978 and September 1983. Each film was compared with the original simulation film by three independent observers. Each observer graded each film for accuracy in the superior mediastinal, axillary, and inferior mediastinal areas and for overall conformity to the treatment plan. Grades ranged from 1 to 3: grade 1 denoted accuracy within +/- 0.5 cm of the treatment plan, grade 2 denoted minor deviations greater than 0.5 cm but with no tumor or prophylactic treatment areas shielded, and grade 3 denoted an unacceptable setup. The results in 28 patients (1,186 films) showed that 84% of the films were within 0.5 cm of original plan, 15% had minor deviations, and 1% were considered unacceptable. Three patients in the study developed recurrence of Hodgkin's disease in the chest. In one of these patients, 4 of 40 films were unacceptable, but recurrence was in lung parenchyma in an area not designated for treatment. Errors in treatment setup in this small sample were not a factor in the likelihood of disease recurrence in the chest. Daily imaging films have helped decrease the number of minor deviations and unacceptable setups, compared with previous experiences.

Taylor, B.W. Jr.; Mendenhall, N.P.; Million, R.R. (Univ. of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville (USA))

1990-07-01

11

Calculation of direct normal irradiation from global horizontal irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) systems only work with the Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI), so a knowledge of DNI data is required for the design and evaluation of these kinds of systems. DNI is not always measured at ground meteorological stations due to equipment costs. In recent years, several spatial databases that estimate DNI from satellite data have been developed. These databases are a very useful tool for CPV applications. However, the databases present uncertainty and provide different values of DNI. This lack of DNI data and the uncertainty of available data contrast with the availability of reliable global horizontal irradiation data, which is easy to find or measure. In this paper, a simple procedure for estimating DNI from global horizontal irradiation is presented. It does not try to improve the existing methods, but meets the basic requirements for the analysis of CPV systems. The method can be easily implemented in a spreadsheet or in computer programs in renewable energy and its accuracy is similar than that of the existing databases.

Rodrigo, Pedro; Pérez-Higueras, Pedro J.; Almonacid, Florencia; Hontoria, Leocadio; Fernández, Eduardo F.; Rus, Catalina; Fernández, Juan I.; Gómez, Pedro; Almonacid, Gabino

2012-10-01

12

Retrieving daily global solar radiation from routine climate variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation is an important variable for studies related to solar energy applications, meteorology, climatology, hydrology, and agricultural meteorology. However, solar radiation is not routinely measured at meteorological stations; therefore, it is often required to estimate it using other techniques such as retrieving from satellite data or estimating using other geophysical variables. Over the years, many models have been developed to estimate solar radiation from other geophysical variables such as temperature, rainfall, and sunshine duration. The aim of this study was to evaluate six of these models using data measured at four independent worldwide networks. The dataset included 13 stations from Australia, 25 stations from Germany, 12 stations from Saudi Arabia, and 48 stations from the USA. The models require either sunshine duration hours (Ångstrom) or daily range of air temperature (Bristow and Campbell, Donatelli and Bellocchi, Donatelli and Campbell, Hargreaves, and Hargreaves and Samani) as input. According to the statistical parameters, Ångstrom and Bristow and Campbell indicated a better performance than the other models. The bias and root mean square error for the Ångstrom model were less than 0.25 MJ m2 day-1 and 2.25 MJ m2 day-1, respectively, and the correlation coefficient was always greater than 95 %. Statistical analysis using Student's t test indicated that the residuals for Ångstrom, Bristow and Campbell, Hargreaves, and Hargreaves and Samani are not statistically significant at the 5 % level. In other words, the estimated values by these models are statistically consistent with the measured data. Overall, given the simplicity and performance, the Ångstrom model is the best choice for estimating solar radiation when sunshine duration measurements are available; otherwise, Bristow and Campbell can be used to estimate solar radiation using daily range of air temperature.

Moradi, Isaac; Mueller, Richard; Perez, Richard

2014-05-01

13

Retrieving daily global solar radiation from routine climate variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation is an important variable for studies related to solar energy applications, meteorology, climatology, hydrology, and agricultural meteorology. However, solar radiation is not routinely measured at meteorological stations; therefore, it is often required to estimate it using other techniques such as retrieving from satellite data or estimating using other geophysical variables. Over the years, many models have been developed to estimate solar radiation from other geophysical variables such as temperature, rainfall, and sunshine duration. The aim of this study was to evaluate six of these models using data measured at four independent worldwide networks. The dataset included 13 stations from Australia, 25 stations from Germany, 12 stations from Saudi Arabia, and 48 stations from the USA. The models require either sunshine duration hours (Ångstrom) or daily range of air temperature (Bristow and Campbell, Donatelli and Bellocchi, Donatelli and Campbell, Hargreaves, and Hargreaves and Samani) as input. According to the statistical parameters, Ångstrom and Bristow and Campbell indicated a better performance than the other models. The bias and root mean square error for the Ångstrom model were less than 0.25 MJ m2 day-1 and 2.25 MJ m2 day-1, respectively, and the correlation coefficient was always greater than 95 %. Statistical analysis using Student's t test indicated that the residuals for Ångstrom, Bristow and Campbell, Hargreaves, and Hargreaves and Samani are not statistically significant at the 5 % level. In other words, the estimated values by these models are statistically consistent with the measured data. Overall, given the simplicity and performance, the Ångstrom model is the best choice for estimating solar radiation when sunshine duration measurements are available; otherwise, Bristow and Campbell can be used to estimate solar radiation using daily range of air temperature.

Moradi, Isaac; Mueller, Richard; Perez, Richard

2013-08-01

14

An improved estimation of daily clear-sky biologically EER from broadband global solar radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish a relation between biologically effective erythemal radiation (EER) and global solar radiation, the hourly and\\u000a daily clear-sky broadband (310–2,800 nm) global solar radiation (G) and spectral ultraviolet radiation incident on a horizontal\\u000a surface at Esfahan, Iran (32°37?N, 51°40?E) were measured during the period 2001–2005. Good correlations at statistically\\u000a significant levels between the daily values of EER and the daily

Ali A. Sabziparvar; M. M. Farahani

2009-01-01

15

Global Monthly and Daily Precipitation Analysis for the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP): Global and Regional Variations and Trends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 22 year, monthly, globally complete precipitation analysis of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP/GEWEX) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and the four year (1997-present) daily GPCP analysis are described in terms of the data sets and analysis techniques used in their preparation. These analyses are then used to study global and regional variations and trends during the 22 years and the shorter-time scale events that constitute those variations. The GPCP monthly data set shows no significant trend in global precipitation over the twenty years, unlike the positive trend in global surface temperatures over the past century. The global trend analysis must be interpreted carefully, however, because the inhomogeneity of the data set makes detecting a small signal very difficult, especially over this relatively short period. The relation of global (and tropical) total precipitation and ENSO (El Nino and Southern Oscillation) events is quantified with no significant signal when land and ocean are combined. In terms of regional trends 1979 to 2000 the tropics have a distribution of regional rainfall trends that has an ENSO-like pattern with features of both the El Nino and La Nina. This feature is related to a possible trend in the frequency of ENSO events (either El Nino or La Nina) over the past 20 years. Monthly anomalies of precipitation are related to ENSO variations with clear signals extending into middle and high latitudes of both hemispheres. The El Nino and La Nina mean anomalies are near mirror images of each other and when combined produce an ENSO signal with significant spatial continuity over large distances. A number of the features are shown to extend into high latitudes. Positive anomalies extend in the Southern Hemisphere from the Pacific southeastward across Chile and Argentina into the south Atlantic Ocean. In the Northern Hemisphere the counterpart feature extends across the southern U.S. and Atlantic Ocean into Europe. In the Southern Hemisphere an anomaly feature is shown to spiral into the Antarctica land mass. The extremes of ENSO-related anomalies are also examined and indicate that globally, during both El Nino and La Nina, more extremes of precipitation (both wet and dry) occur than during the "neutral" regime, with the El Nino regime showing larger magnitudes. The distribution is different for the globe as a whole and when the area is restricted to just land. The recent (1998-present) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observations are also compared with the GPCP analyses and are evaluated with regard to improving the long-term GPCP data set.

Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George; Curtis, Scott; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

16

Fine-resolution satellite-based daily sea surface temperatures over the global ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy and relative merits of two sets of daily global sea surface temperature (SST) analyses are examined and compared. The 1\\/8° Modular Ocean Data Analysis System (MODAS) of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is based only on infrared satellite retrievals. The 1\\/2° Real-Time, Global (RTG) SST analysis of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) supplements infrared satellite observations

A. B. Kara; C. N. Barron

2007-01-01

17

Estimation of UV-B irradiation from total global solar meteorological data in central Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) in the range (280-315 nm) and total global solar irradiation (G) for the period 2002-2006 in a continental Mediterranean environment have been analyzed. UV-B and G data have been recorded at the Low Atmosphere Research Laboratory, Valladolid, Spain, using a YES UVB-1 pyranometer and a Kipp&Zonen CM-6 radiometer, respectively. According to the cloud conditions, the time data series shows that the highest UV-B values are obtained in June and the lowest ones are obtained in December. A comparison of monthly UV-B values reveals that some summer months show more dispersion than winter ones. An empirical relationship between UV-B and G was established to estimate the daily UV-B irradiation from commonly measured daily total global solar irradiation. The annual cycle effects of the solar zenith angle and the ozone total column have been taken into account. A correction factor that depends on the daily total ozone column has been included in the relationship between UV-B and total global solar irradiation. The performance of this relationship has been evaluated comparing estimated and measured UV-B values in three different stations. Scatterplot, root-mean-square error (RMSE), mean bias error (MBE), and linear regression correlation coefficient have been used to compare measured and estimated values. The results of this comparison show that the correlation coefficients were similar to 1 while the RMSE ranges between 2.10 kJ m-2 and 1.94 k Jm-2 and, in percentage, 9.18% and 7.64%, respectively. According to these results, it can be concluded that total global solar irradiation is an appropriate variable to obtain UV-B daily values in places where ultraviolet radiation is not measured or to extend the existing data set back in time.

Bilbao, Julia; de Miguel, Argimiro

2010-01-01

18

Global observed changes in daily climate extremes of temperature and precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suite of climate change indices derived from daily temperature and precipitation data, with a primary focus on extreme events, were computed and analyzed. By setting an exact formula for each index and using specially designed software, analyses done in different countries have been combined seamlessly. This has enabled the presentation of the most up-to-date and comprehensive global picture of

L. V. Alexander; X. Zhang; T. C. Peterson; J. Caesar; B. Gleason; A. M. G. Klein Tank; M. Haylock; D. Collins; B. Trewin; F. Rahimzadeh; A. Tagipour; K. Rupa Kumar; J. Revadekar; G. Griffiths; L. Vincent; D. B. Stephenson; J. Burn; E. Aguilar; M. Brunet; M. Taylor; M. New; P. Zhai; M. Rusticucci; J. L. Vazquez-Aguirre

2006-01-01

19

Daily estimates of the Earth's pole position with the global positioning system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily estimates of the Earth's pole position have been obtained with measurements from a worldwide network of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, obtained during the three week GIG'91 experiment in January- February, 1991. For this short-term study, the GPS based polar motion series agrees with the other space based geodetic techniques (Very Long Baseline Interferometry and Satellite Laser Ranging) to

Ulf J. Lindqwister; Adam P. Freedman; Geoffrey Blewitt

1992-01-01

20

General formula for estimation of monthly average daily global solar radiation in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar radiation and sunshine duration data from 69 meteorological stations in China was used to develop the formula for estimating the monthly average daily global radiation on a horizontal surface. Several models and correlations that embrace such variables as the fraction of sunshine duration, the latitude and the altitude have been selected, tested and compared to decide which model is

Zhou Jin; Wu Yezheng; Yan Gang

2005-01-01

21

The sea breeze at Venice, as related to daily global solar radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the sea breeze at Venice and on her hinterland is influenced by orography - mainly the Alps — to the north and the Po Valley to the west, the search for a correlation between the frequency of development of the sea breeze and the daily global solar radiation seems to be desirable, and may be useful for the management

Dario Camuffo

1982-01-01

22

Automated daily process for global ionospheric total electron content maps and satellite ocean altimeter ionospheric calibration based on Global Positioning System data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy of single-frequency ocean altimeters benefits from calibration of the total electron content (TEC) of the ionosphere below the satellite. Data from a global network of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers provides timely, continuous, and globally well-distributed measurements of ionospheric electron content. For several months we have been running a daily automatic Global Ionospheric Map process which inputs global

B. A. Iijima; I. L. Harris; C. M. Ho; U. J. Lindqwister; A. J. Mannucci; X. Pi; M. J. Reyes; L. C. Sparks; B. D. Wilson

1999-01-01

23

An improved estimation of daily clear-sky biologically EER from broadband global solar radiation.  

PubMed

To establish a relation between biologically effective erythemal radiation (EER) and global solar radiation, the hourly and daily clear-sky broadband (310-2,800 nm) global solar radiation (G) and spectral ultraviolet radiation incident on a horizontal surface at Esfahan, Iran (32 degrees 37'N, 51 degrees 40'E) were measured during the period 2001-2005. Good correlations at statistically significant levels between the daily values of EER and the daily G were found. The seasonal variability of EER/G is also discussed and the correction factors are determined for inclusion of vertical column ozone and solar zenith angle (SZA) cycles. The comparison of the estimated daily EER against the independent observed EER revealed that under clear sky conditions the estimations are accurate to 10% or better over SZA of 10-60 degrees and column ozone of 250-350 Dobson. The comparison of the results with the similar works that have used shorter period of experimental data showed more accurate estimates. The deduced relations could be used to a rough estimate of the daily EER from G in arid climate regions, where there is no measured UV radiation or there are instrumental and other difficulties encountered in measuring UV radiation. PMID:19219466

Sabziparvar, Ali A; Farahani, M M

2009-05-01

24

Global gridded precipitation over land: a description of the new GPCC First Guess Daily product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the new First Guess Daily product of the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC). The new product gives an estimate of the global daily precipitation gridded at a spatial resolution of 1° latitude by 1° longitude. It is based on rain gauge data reported in near-real time via the Global Telecommunication System (GTS) and available about three to five days after the end of each observation month. In addition to the gridded daily precipitation totals in mm day-1, the standard deviation in mm day-1, the kriging interpolation error in % and the number of measurements per grid cell are also encoded into the monthly netCDF product file and provided for all months since January 2009. Prior to their interpolation, the measured precipitation values undergo a preliminary automatic quality control. For the calculation of the areal mean of the grid, anomalies are interpolated with ordinary block kriging. This approach allows for a near-real-time release. Therefore, the purely GTS-based data processing lacks an intensive quality control as well as a high data density and is denoted as First Guess. The daily data set is referenced under doi:10.5676/DWD_GPCC/FG_D_100. Two further products, the Full Data Daily and a merged satellite-gauge product, are currently under development at Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD). These additional products will not be available in near-real time, but based on significantly more and strictly quality controlled observations. All GPCC products are provided free of charge via the GPCC webpage: ftp://ftp-anon.dwd.de/pub/data/gpcc/html/download_gate.html.

Schamm, K.; Ziese, M.; Becker, A.; Finger, P.; Meyer-Christoffer, A.; Schneider, U.; Schröder, M.; Stender, P.

2014-01-01

25

Reducing Noise in the MSU Daily Lower-Tropospheric Global Temperature Dataset  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The daily global-mean values of the lower-tropospheric temperature determined from microwave emissions measured by satellites are examined in terms of their signal, noise, and signal-to-noise ratio. Daily and 30-day average noise estimates are reduced by, almost 50% and 35%, respectively, by analyzing and adjusting (if necessary) for errors due to (1) missing data, (2) residual harmonics of the annual cycle unique to particular satellites, (3) lack of filtering, and (4) spurious trends. After adjustments, the decadal trend of the lower-tropospheric global temperature from January 1979 through February 1994 becomes -0.058 C, or about 0.03 C per decade cooler than previously calculated.

Christy, John R.; Spencer, Roy W.; McNider, Richard T.

1995-01-01

26

Reducing Noise in the MSU Daily Lower-Tropospheric Global Temperature Dataset  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The daily global-mean values of the lower-tropospheric temperature determined from microwave emissions measured by satellites are examined in terms of their signal, noise, and signal-to-noise ratio. Daily and 30-day average noise estimates are reduced by almost 50% and 35%. respectively, by analyzing and adjusting (if necessary) for errors due to 1) missing data, 2) residual harmonics of the annual cycle unique to particular satellites, 3) lack of filtering, and 4) spurious trends. After adjustments, the decadal trend of the lower-tropospheric global temperature from January 1979 through February 1994 becomes -0.058 C. or about 0.03 C per decade cooler than previously calculated.

Christy, John R.; Spencer, Roy W.; McNider, Richard T.

1996-01-01

27

Global variability of daily total suspended solids and their fluxes in rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The daily variability of river suspended sediment concentration (Cs) and related yield (Y) is studied at 60 global stations. The data set covers natural conditions (e.g. pre-reservoir data), ranging from the humid tropics to subarctic and arid regions, located in all types of relief (yearly runoff q* from 0.1 to 55 l s?1 km?2). Basin area ranges from 64 km2

M. Meybeck; L. Laroche; H. H. Durr; J. P. M. Syvitski

2003-01-01

28

Global Precipitation at One-Degree Daily Resolution From Multi-Satellite Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The One-Degree Daily (1DD) technique is described for producing globally complete daily estimates of precipitation on a 1 deg x 1 deg lat/long grid from currently available observational data. Where possible (40 deg N-40 deg S), the Threshold-Matched Precipitation Index (TMPI) provides precipitation estimates in which the 3-hourly infrared brightness temperatures (IR T(sub b)) are thresholded and all "cold" pixels are given a single precipitation rate. This approach is an adaptation of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Precipitation Index (GPI), but for the TMPI the IR Tb threshold and conditional rain rate are set locally by month from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I)-based precipitation frequency and the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) satellite-gauge (SG) combined monthly precipitation estimate, respectively. At higher latitudes the 1DD features a rescaled daily Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) precipitation. The frequency of rain days in the TOVS is scaled down to match that in the TMPI at the data boundaries, and the resulting non-zero TOVS values are scaled locally to sum to the SG (which is a globally complete monthly product). The time series of the daily 1DD global images shows good continuity in time and across the data boundaries. Various examples are shown to illustrate uses. Validation for individual grid -box values shows a very high root-mean-square error but, it improves quickly when users perform time/space averaging according to their own requirements.

Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Morrissey, Mark M.; Curtis, Scott; Joyce, Robert; McGavock, Brad; Susskind, Joel

2000-01-01

29

Sensitivity of UV erythemally effective irradiance and daily dose to spatial variability in total ozone.  

PubMed

The total ozone column (TOC) is the most significant quantity for estimating the erythemally effective UV radiation under clear sky conditions. Uncertainties in TOC measurements and a limited spatial and temporal resolution therefore influence the quality of calculated erythemally effective radiation. The UV Index, the internationally accepted measure of the erythemally effective radiation, is used in public and the media to inform about current levels of UV radiation and builds the base for sun protection. Thus, the accuracy of the promoted values is essential. While in a preceding study we estimated the influence of measurement uncertainties, in this study we analyze the influence of spatial gaps and variability of TOC to the erythemally effective irradiance at noon and to the daily dose. The results allow defining the necessary spatial resolution of TOC values when a certain accuracy for the UV Index or for the purpose of sun protection is required. In case of the erythemally effective irradiance this study reveals that spatial gaps in TOC or the assumption of spatial invariability causes similar uncertainties independent of the geographic location. At higher latitudes the higher spatial variability of TOC counteracts the lower level of irradiance. For the daily dose gaps in TOC have an even higher impact at higher latitudes. PMID:18248500

Schmalwieser, Alois W; Erbertseder, Thilo; Schauberger, Günther; Weihs, Philipp

2008-01-01

30

Forecasting Plant Productivity and Health Using Diffuse-to-Global Irradiance Ratios Extracted from the OMI Aerosol Product  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric aerosols are a major contributor to diffuse irradiance. This Candidate Solution suggests using the OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) aerosol product as input into a radiative transfer model, which would calculate the ratio of diffuse to global irradiance at the Earth s surface. This ratio can significantly influence the rate of photosynthesis in plants; increasing the ratio of diffuse to global irradiance can accelerate photosynthesis, resulting in greater plant productivity. Accurate values of this ratio could be useful in predicting crop productivity, thereby improving forecasts of regional food resources. However, disagreements exist between diffuse-to-global irradiance values measured by different satellites and ground sensors. OMI, with its unique combination of spectral bands, high resolution, and daily global coverage, may be able to provide more accurate aerosol measurements than other comparable sensors.

Knowlton, Kelly; Andrews, Jane C.; Ryan, Robert E.

2007-01-01

31

Global radiation model and angular distribution of the diffuse irradiance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horizontal global radiation computer codes for the evaluation of solar cell performance under various atmospheric conditions were developed. A numerical calculation method for the radiation transfer equation, including the doubling and adding method, was employed to reduce the computational effort. Extensive horizontal global radiation data sets including spectral energy distributions and angular distribution were generated. The spectral irradiances are presented

Yukiharu Miyake; Yuji Nakanishi; Ryuichi Shimokawa; Yoshihiro Hamakawa

1987-01-01

32

Prediction of monthly mean daily global solar radiation using Artificial Neural Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a multilayer feed forward (MLFF) neural network based on back propagation algorithm was developed, trained, and tested to predict monthly mean daily global radiation in Tamil Nadu, India. Various geographical, solar and meteorological parameters of three different locations with diverse climatic conditions were used as input parameters. Out of 565 available data, 530 were used for training and the rest were used for testing the artificial neural network (ANN). A 3-layer and a 4-layer MLFF networks were developed and the performance of the developed models was evaluated based on mean bias error, mean absolute percentage error, root mean squared error and Student's t-test. The 3-layer MLFF network developed in this study did not give uniform results for the three chosen locations. Hence, a 4-layer MLFF network was developed and the average value of the mean absolute percentage error was found to be 5.47%. Values of global radiation obtained using the model were in excellent agreement with measured values. Results of this study show that the designed ANN model can be used to estimate monthly mean daily global radiation of any place in Tamil Nadu where measured global radiation data are not available.

Sivamadhavi, V.; Selvaraj, R. Samuel

2012-12-01

33

Fine-resolution satellite-based daily sea surface temperatures over the global ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accuracy and relative merits of two sets of daily global sea surface temperature (SST) analyses are examined and compared. The 1/8° Modular Ocean Data Analysis System (MODAS) of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is based only on infrared satellite retrievals. The 1/2° Real-Time, Global (RTG) SST analysis of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) supplements infrared satellite observations with ship and buoy data. The accuracy of both products is reported, providing potential users of either data set a common basis to assess the strengths and weaknesses of either product. Differences between the two show the impact of horizontal resolution, inclusion of source data streams, and different assumptions regarding error covariances. The global average of the root-mean-square (RMS) SST difference between MODAS and RTG is found to be 0.51°C, with almost no mean bias. A global set of yearlong daily SST time series from moored buoys during 2002-2005 provides extensive validation data for this study. Comparisons at the locations of these 420 yearlong time series give a median RMS SST difference of 0.40°C between MODAS and RTG. RMS error relative to the buoy observations is comparable, 0.38°C for MODAS and 0.36°C for RTG. The seasonal cycle of SST is well produced by both products with respect to the buoys with a median correlation coefficient of 0.94 for both products. Overall, higher resolution is an advantage for MODAS in improving pattern of daily SSTs, while including in situ SSTs is an advantage for RTG.

Kara, A. B.; Barron, C. N.

2007-05-01

34

Correlations for direct normal and global horizontal irradiation on a French Mediterranean site  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to establish some correlations on direct normal and global horizontal irradiation for a Mediterranean site. The correlations have been developed for monthly mean values, daily and hourly values of irradiation data. The authors have used linear or polynomial regressions between energetical ratio and sunshine duration. For the monthly means and the daily values, the ratio I/I{sub M} fits very well the sunshine duration while, for hourly values, they express I{sub h}/I{sub o,h} as a function of H{sub h}/H{sub o,h}. In all cases, these correlations are, for this Mediterranean site, in good accordance with experimental data. Nevertheless, a study for other locations has to be developed.

Louche, A.; Notton, G.; Poggi, P.; Simonnot, G. (Universite de Corse-CNRS, Ajaccio (France))

1991-01-01

35

Hematopoietic responses under protracted exposures to low daily dose gamma irradiation.  

PubMed

In attempting to evaluate the possible health consequences of chronic ionizing radiation exposure during extended space travel (e.g., Mars Mission), ground-based experimental studies of the clinical and pathological responses of canines under low daily doses of 60Co gamma irradiation (0.3-26.3 cGy d-1) have been examined. Specific reference was given to responses of the blood forming system. Results suggest that the daily dose rate of 7.5 cGy d-1 represents a threshold below which the hematopoietic system can retain either partial or full trilineal cell-producing capacity (erythropoiesis, myelopoiesis, and megakaryopoiesis) for extended periods of exposure (>1 yr). Trilineal capacity was fully retained for several years of exposure at the lowest dose-rate tested (0.3 cGy d-1) but was completely lost within several hundred days at the highest dose-rate (26.3 cGy d-1). Retention of hematopoietic capacity under chronic exposure has been demonstrated to be mediated by hematopoietic progenitors with acquired radioresistance and repair functions, altered cytogenetics, and cell-cycle characteristics. Radiological, biological, and temporal parameters responsible for these vital acquisitions by hematopoietic progenitors have been partially characterized. These parameters, along with threshold responses, are described and discussed in relation to potential health risks of the space traveler under chronic stress of low-dose irradiation. PMID:12572532

Seed, T M; Fritz, T E; Tolle, D V; Jackson, W E

2002-01-01

36

Validation and Development of the GPCP Experimental One-Degree Daily (1DD) Global Precipitation Product  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The One-Degree Daily (1DD) precipitation dataset has been developed for the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and is currently in beta test preparatory to release as an official GPCP product. The 1DD provides a globally-complete, observation-only estimate of precipitation on a daily 1 deg. x 1 deg. grid for the period 1997 through early 2000 (by the time of the conference). In the latitude band 40N-40S the 1DD uses the Threshold-Matched Precipitation Index (TMPI), a GPI-like IR product with the pixel-level T(sub b) threshold and (single) conditional rain rate determined locally for each month by the frequency of precipitation in the GPROF SSM/I product and by, the precipitation amount in the GPCP monthly satellite-gauge (SG) combination. Outside 40N-40S the 1DD uses a scaled TOVS precipitation estimate that has month-by-month adjustments based on the TMPI and the SG. Early validation results are encouraging. The 1DD shows relatively large scatter about the daily validation values in individual grid boxes, as expected for a technique that depends on cloud-sensing schemes such as the TMPI and TOVS. On the other hand, the time series of 1DD shows good correlation with validation in individual boxes. For example, the 1997-1998 time series of 1DD and Oklahoma Mesonet values in a grid box in northeastern Oklahoma have the correlation coefficient = 0.73. Looking more carefully at these two time series, the number of raining days for the 1DD is within 7% of the Mesonet value, while the distribution of daily rain values is very similar. Other tests indicate that area- or time-averaging improve the error characteristics, making the data set highly attractive to users interested in stream flow, short-term regional climatology, and model comparisons. The second generation of the 1DD product is currently under development; it is designed to directly incorporate TRMM and other high-quality precipitation estimates. These data are generally sparse because they are observed by low-orbit satellites, so a fair amount of work must be devoted to analyzing the effect of data boundaries. This work is laying, the groundwork for effective use of the NASA Global Precipitation Mission, which will have full Global coverage by low-orbit passive microwave satellites every three hours.

Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Bolvin, David T.; Einaud, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

37

Selecting the optimal method to calculate daily global reference potential evaporation from CFSR reanalysis data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potential evaporation (PET) is one of the main inputs of hydrological models. Yet, there is limited consensus on which PET equation is most applicable in hydrological climate impact assessments. In this study six different methods to derive global scale reference PET time series from CFSR reanalysis data are compared: Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor and original and modified versions of the Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle method. The calculated PET time series are (1) evaluated against global monthly Penman-Monteith PET time series calculated from CRU data and (2) tested on their usability for modeling of global discharge cycles. The lowest root mean squared differences and the least significant deviations (95 % significance level) between monthly CFSR derived PET time series and CRU derived PET were obtained for the cell specific modified Blaney-Criddle equation. However, results show that this modified form is likely to be unstable under changing climate conditions and less reliable for the calculation of daily time series. Although often recommended, the Penman-Monteith equation did not outperform the other methods. In arid regions (e.g., Sahara, central Australia, US deserts), the equation resulted in relatively low PET values and, consequently, led to relatively high discharge values for dry basins (e.g., Orange, Murray and Zambezi). Furthermore, the Penman-Monteith equation has a high data demand and the equation is sensitive to input data inaccuracy. Therefore, we preferred the modified form of the Hargreaves equation, which globally gave reference PET values comparable to CRU derived values. Although it is a relative efficient empirical equation, like Blaney-Criddle, the equation considers multiple spatial varying meteorological variables and consequently performs well for different climate conditions. In the modified form of the Hargreaves equation the multiplication factor is uniformly increased from 0.0023 to 0.0031 to overcome the global underestimation of CRU derived PET obtained with the original equation. It should be noted that the bias in PET is not linearly transferred to actual evapotranspiration and runoff, due to limited soil moisture availability and precipitation. The resulting gridded daily PET time series provide a new reference dataset that can be used for future hydrological impact assessments or, more specifically, for the statistical downscaling of daily PET derived from raw GCM data.

Sperna Weiland, F. C.; Tisseuil, C.; Dürr, H. H.; Vrac, M.; van Beek, L. P. H.

2011-07-01

38

Diffuse and global solar spectral irradiance under cloudless skies  

SciTech Connect

A simple empirical model to calculate solar spectral diffuse and global irradiance under cloudless skies was investigated. This formulation takes into account absorption of radiation by molecules such as O/sub 3/, H/sub 2/O and the uniformly-mixed absorbing gases CO/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/. Attenuation by Rayleigh-scattering and aerosol extinction are included. Aerosol attenuation is calculated through Angstroem's turbidity parameters ..cap alpha.. and ..beta... The diffuse radiation is assumed to be composed of three parts: (1) Rayleigh-scattered diffuse irradiance; (2) aerosol-scattered diffuse irradiance; and (3) irradiance arising out of multiple reflections between the atmosphere and the ground. The global irradiance is the sum of these three components of diffuse irradiance plus the direct irradiance. The input parameters include an extraterrestrial spectrum, zenith angle theta, turbidity coefficient ..beta.., wavelength exponent ..cap alpha.., ground albedo rho/sub g/, water vapor content and ozone content. The model is shown to yield very good results up to air mass two when compared to accurate theoretical calculations. No comparisons with measured spectra are presented because of a lack of accurate specifications of the input parameters. Results are presented to show the effect of variation of certain of the input parameters.

Brine, D.T.; Iqbal, M.

1982-01-01

39

Sensitivity of erythemally effective UV irradiance and daily exposure to temporal variability in total ozone.  

PubMed

The provision of information to the public about current levels of the erythemally effective UV radiation is an important issue in health care. The quality of promoted values is therefore of special importance. The atmospheric parameter which affects the erythemally effective UV radiation under clear sky most is the total ozone content of the atmosphere. In this paper we examined the sensitivity of the erythemally effective irradiance and daily radiant exposure to the temporal variability of total ozone on time scales from 1 to 15 days. The results show that the sensitivity is highest for the first 24 h. Larger time scales do not exhibit a similar influence. Total ozone measurements of the previous day may already cause uncertainties higher than 0.5 UV index (UVI) independent of the geolocation. For comparison, a temporal persistence of 15 days may cause uncertainties of 1.2 UVI at 50 degrees N, 1 UVI at 30 degrees S and less than 1 UVI at the equator. The results of this study allow finding the necessary temporal resolution of total ozone values when a certain accuracy for the UVI or for the purpose of sun protection is required. The results are compared with those of two preceding studies where we quantified the influence of measurement uncertainties and spatial total ozone variability to the erythemally effective irradiance at noon and to the daily dose. We conclude that temporal variability of total ozone is the most critical issue, but also measurement uncertainties do have a noticeable influence on the erythemally effective radiation. PMID:18764894

Schmalwieser, Alois W; Erbertseder, Thilo; Schauberger, Günther; Weihs, Philipp

2009-01-01

40

The potential of different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques in daily global solar radiation modeling based on meteorological data  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of present study is to predict daily global solar radiation (GSR) on a horizontal surface, based on meteorological variables, using different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques. Daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation, and wind speed values between 2002 and 2006 for Dezful city in Iran (32 16'N, 48 25'E), are used in this study. In order to consider the effect of each meteorological variable on daily GSR prediction, six following combinations of input variables are considered: (I)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature and relative humidity as inputs and daily GSR as output. (II)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature and sunshine hours as inputs and daily GSR as output. (III)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity and sunshine hours as inputs and daily GSR as output. (IV)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and evaporation as inputs and daily GSR as output. (V)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and wind speed as inputs and daily GSR as output. (VI)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation and wind speed as inputs and daily GSR as output. Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) neural networks are applied for daily GSR modeling based on six proposed combinations. The measured data between 2002 and 2005 are used to train the neural networks while the data for 214 days from 2006 are used as testing data. The comparison of obtained results from ANNs and different conventional GSR prediction (CGSRP) models shows very good improvements (i.e. the predicted values of best ANN model (MLP-V) has a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) about 5.21% versus 10.02% for best CGSRP model (CGSRP 5)). (author)

Behrang, M.A.; Assareh, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University, Dezful Branch (Iran); Ghanbarzadeh, A.; Noghrehabadi, A.R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz (Iran)

2010-08-15

41

Sub-daily resolution of earth rotation variations with Global Positioning System measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from a worldwide Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking experiment have been used to determine variations in earth rotation (UT1-UTC) over a time period of three weeks. Kalman filtering and smoothing enabled changes in UT1-UTC over intervals of 2 to 24 hrs to be detected with the GPS data. Internal consistency checks and comparisons with other solutions from very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and satellite laser ranging (SLR) indicate that the GPS UT1-UTC estimates are accurate to about 2 cm. Comparison of GPS-estimated variations in UT1-UTC with 2-hr time resolution over 4 days with predicted variations computed from diurnal and semidiurnal oceanic tidal contributions strongly suggests that the observed periodic sub-daily variations of about 0.1 msec are largely of tidal origin.

Lichten, Stephen M.; Marcus, Steven L.; Dickey, Jean O.

1992-01-01

42

Global Mapping of Underwater UV Irradiances and DNA-Weighted Exposures using TOMS and SeaWiFS Data Products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The global stratospheric ozone-layer depletion results In an increase in biologically harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the surface and penetrating to ecologically significant depths in natural waters. Such an increase can be estimated on a global scale by combining satellite estimates of UV irradiance at the ocean surface from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite instrument with the SeaWIFS satellite ocean-color measurements in the visible spectral region. In this paper we propose a model of seawater optical properties in the UV spectral region based on the Case I water model in the visible range. The inputs to the model are standard monthly SeaWiFS products: chlorophyll concentration and the diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490nm. Penetration of solar UV radiation to different depths in open ocean waters is calculated using the RT (radiative transfer) quasi-single scattering approximation (QSSA). The accuracy of the QSSA approximation in the water is tested using more accurate codes. The sensitivity study of the underwater UV irradiance to atmospheric and oceanic optical properties have shown that the main environmental parameters controlling the absolute levels of the UVB (280-320nm) and DNA-weighted irradiance underwater are: solar-zenith angle, cloud transmittance, water optical properties, and total ozone. Weekly maps of underwater UV irradiance and DNA-weighted exposure are calculated using monthly-mean SeaWiFS chlorophyll and diffuse attenuation coefficient products, daily SeaWiFS cloud fraction data, and the TOMS-derived surface UV irradiance daily maps. The final products include global maps of weekly-average UVB irradiance and DNA-weighted daily exposures at 3m and 10m, and depths where the UVB irradiance and DNA-weighted dose rate at local noon are equal to 10% of their surface values.

Vasilkov, Alexander; Krotkov, Nickolay; Herman, Jay; McClain, Charles; Arrigo, Kevin; Robinson, Wayne

1999-01-01

43

Effect of Estimated Daily Global Solar Radiation Data on the Results of Crop Growth Models  

PubMed Central

The results of previous studies have suggested that estimated daily global radiation (RG) values contain an error that could compromise the precision of subsequent crop model applications. The following study presents a detailed site and spatial analysis of the RG error propagation in CERES and WOFOST crop growth models in Central European climate conditions. The research was conducted i) at the eight individual sites in Austria and the Czech Republic where measured daily RG values were available as a reference, with seven methods for RG estimation being tested, and ii) for the agricultural areas of the Czech Republic using daily data from 52 weather stations, with five RG estimation methods. In the latter case the RG values estimated from the hours of sunshine using the Ångström-Prescott formula were used as the standard method because of the lack of measured RG data. At the site level we found that even the use of methods based on hours of sunshine, which showed the lowest bias in RG estimates, led to a significant distortion of the key crop model outputs. When the Ångström-Prescott method was used to estimate RG, for example, deviations greater than ±10 per cent in winter wheat and spring barley yields were noted in 5 to 6 per cent of cases. The precision of the yield estimates and other crop model outputs was lower when RG estimates based on the diurnal temperature range and cloud cover were used (mean bias error 2.0 to 4.1 per cent). The methods for estimating RG from the diurnal temperature range produced a wheat yield bias of more than 25 per cent in 12 to 16 per cent of the seasons. Such uncertainty in the crop model outputs makes the reliability of any seasonal yield forecasts or climate change impact assessments questionable if they are based on this type of data. The spatial assessment of the RG data uncertainty propagation over the winter wheat yields also revealed significant differences within the study area. We found that RG estimates based on diurnal temperature range or its combination with daily total precipitation produced a bias of to 30 per cent in the mean winter wheat grain yields in some regions compared with simulations in which RG values had been estimated using the Ångström-Prescott formula. In contrast to the results at the individual sites, the methods based on the diurnal temperature range in combination with daily precipitation totals showed significantly poorer performance than the methods based on the diurnal temperature range only. This was due to the marked increase in the bias in RG estimates with altitude, longitude or latitude of given region. These findings in our view should act as an incentive for further research to develop more precise and generally applicable methods for estimating daily RG based more on the underlying physical principles and/or the remote sensing approach.

Trnka, Miroslav; Eitzinger, Josef; Kapler, Pavel; Dubrovsky, Martin; Semeradova, Daniela; Zalud, Zden ek; Formayer, Herbert

2007-01-01

44

Estimating daily global solar radiation during the growing season in Northeast China using the Ångström-Prescott model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily global solar radiation is an important input required in most crop models. In the present study, a sunshine-based model, the Ångström-Prescott model, is employed to estimate daily global solar radiation on a horizontal surface during the growing season in Northeast China. Data from six control groups are used. The controls include the entire sequence, precipitation days, and non-precipitation days both during the growing season and year-round. Estimations are validated by comparing the calculated values with the corresponding measured values. The results indicate that estimating daily global solar radiation during the growing season using data only from the growing season is better than using year-round data. Classifying days with respect to precipitation and non-precipitation is also unnecessary. The performance on estimating daily global solar radiation during the growing season using the entire data in growing season performs best. A sunshine-based equation is obtained using our method to estimate growing season daily radiation for all meteorological stations in Northeast China. The approved approach is expected to be beneficial to crop models and other agricultural purposes.

Wu, Zhengfang; Du, Haibo; Zhao, Dongsheng; Li, Ming; Meng, Xiangjun; Zong, Shengwei

2012-05-01

45

Homogenization of Daily Global Radiosonde Humidity Data: Vaisala RS92 Bias Correction and Impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new statistical approach has been developed to homogenize historical records of daily tropospheric dew point depression (DPD) from radiosonde data (Dai et al. 2011). The adjusted-daily DPD using this approach shows no apparent discontinuities and has much smaller and spatially more coherent trends during 1973-2011 than the raw data. One of improvements can be made to the approach with quantitative bias information for specific sonde types. Such information will enable us to identify a segment with the most realistic DPD distribution, remove any biases in the DPD data over this segment, and then use it as the reference segment for the quantile based adjustment for each station. Vaisala RS92 radiosonde is the most widely used radiosonde type in the current global network (~30% of the stations), and its data are used as the reference segment for homogenization. One of the most significant biases in RS92 data is its daytime solar radiation dry bias (SRDB) due to the heating of the sensor boom. This study focuses on developing and validating an algorithm (referred as NCAR Radiation Bias Correction, NRBC) to correct the SRDB, which is applicable to operational radiosonde data archive. The method is based on a more complicated approach developed by the GCOS Reference Upper Air Network (GRUAN) community. The NRBC to RHs is a function of measured RH, temperature and solar radiation correction of the temperature sensor. The latter varies with pressure, season and the time of the day. The RH correction has a mean magnitude of ~2-4% in the lower and middle troposphere and increase to 6-8% in the upper troposphere. The uncertainty of the NRBC is also estimated and is within 2% with maximum values in the upper troposphere. The NRBC algorithm is evaluated by comparing with the ground-based GPS estimated precipitable water (PW). The NRBC leads to reduced biases in PW comparing with the GPS data and better agreements with GPS on PW diurnal cycle in phase, magnitude and its seasonal variations. The NRBC is applied to the radiosonde data from 1960 to 2010 at 65 stations. The raw DPD data with and without NRBC are homogenized using the methods in Dai et al. (2011). The NRBC results in consistently smaller DPD values throughout the time record in the homogenized data with NRBC than that without corrections, which would have potential impact on global reanalysis products when the homogenized daily data are assimilated into the reanalysis models. However, it has insignificant effects on the long-term trends. Dai, A., J. Wang, P.W. Thorne, D.E. Parker, L. Haimberger, and X.L. Wang, 2011: A new approach to homogenize daily radiosonde humidity data. J. Climate, 24, 965-991.

Wang, J.; Zhang, L.; Dai, A.; Immler, F.; Sommer, M.; Vömel, H.

2012-04-01

46

Mapping daily evapotranspiration at field to global scales using geostationary and polar orbiting satellite imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing of land-surface temperature (LST) provides valuable information about the sub-surface moisture status required for estimating evapotranspiration (ET) and detecting the onset and severity of drought. While empirical indices measuring anomalies in LST and vegetation amount (e.g., as quantified by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI) have demonstrated utility in monitoring ET and drought conditions over large areas, they may provide ambiguous results when other factors (soil moisture, advection, air temperature) are affecting plant stress. A more physically based interpretation of LST and NDVI and their relationship to sub-surface moisture conditions can be obtained with a surface energy balance model driven by TIR remote sensing. The Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model is a multi-sensor TIR approach to ET mapping, coupling a two-source (soil+canopy) land-surface model with an atmospheric boundary layer model in time-differencing mode to routinely and robustly map daily fluxes at continental scales and 5-10 km resolution using thermal band imagery and insolation estimates from geostationary satellites. A related algorithm (DisALEXI), spatially disaggregates ALEXI fluxes down to finer spatial scales using moderate resolution TIR imagery from polar orbiting satellites. An overview of this modeling approach is presented, along with strategies for fusing information from multiple satellite platforms and wavebands to map daily ET down to resolutions of 30 m. The ALEXI/DisALEXI model has potential for global applications by integrating data from multiple geostationary meteorological satellite systems, such as the US Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites, the European Meteosat satellites, the Chinese Fen-yung 2B series, and the Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellites. Work is underway to further evaluate multi-scale ALEXI implementations over the US, Europe and, Africa and other continents with geostationary satellite coverage.

Anderson, M. C.; Kustas, W. P.; Norman, J. M.; Hain, C. R.; Mecikalski, J. R.; Schultz, L.; González-Dugo, M. P.; Cammalleri, C.; D'Urso, G.; Pimstein, A.; Gao, F.

2010-08-01

47

Global, Daily, Near Real-Time Satellite-based Flood Monitoring and Product Dissemination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding is the most destructive, frequent, and costly natural disaster faced by modern society, and is expected to increase in frequency and damage with climate change and population growth. Some of 2013's major floods have impacted the New York City region, the Midwest, Alberta, Australia, various parts of China, Thailand, Pakistan, and central Europe. The toll of these events, in financial costs, displacement of individuals, and deaths, is substantial and continues to rise as climate change generates more extreme weather events. When these events do occur, the disaster management community requires frequently updated and easily accessible information to better understand the extent of flooding and better coordinate response efforts. With funding from NASA's Applied Sciences program, we developed and are now operating a near real-time global flood mapping system to help provide critical flood extent information within 24-48 hours of events. The system applies a water detection algorithm to MODIS imagery received from the LANCE (Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS) system at NASA Goddard within a few hours of satellite overpass. Using imagery from both the Terra (10:30 AM local time overpass) and Aqua (1:30 PM) platforms allows an initial daily assessment of flooding extent by late afternoon, and more robust assessments after accumulating cloud-free imagery over several days. Cloud cover is the primary limitation in detecting surface water from MODIS imagery. Other issues include the relatively coarse scale of the MODIS imagery (250 meters), the difficulty of detecting flood waters in areas with continuous canopy cover, confusion of shadow (cloud or terrain) with water, and accurately identifying detected water as flood as opposed to normal water extents. We have made progress on many of these issues, and are working to develop higher resolution flood detection using alternate sensors, including Landsat and various radar sensors. Although these provide better spatial resolution, this typically comes at the cost of being less timely. Since late 2011, this system has been providing daily flood maps of the global non-antarctic land surface. These data products are generated in raster and vector formats, and provided freely on our website. To better serve the disaster response community, we have recently begun providing the products via live OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) services, allowing easy access in a variety of platforms (Google Earth, desktop GIS software, mobile phone apps). We are also working with the Pacific Disaster Center to bring our product into their Disaster Alert system (including a mobile app), which will help simplify product distribution to the disaster management community.

Slayback, D. A.; Policelli, F. S.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Tokay, M. M.; Smith, M. M.; Kettner, A. J.

2013-12-01

48

Global daily precipitation analysis for the validation of medium-range climate predictions (DAPACLIP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Federal Ministry of Education and Research in Germany (BMBF) funds the research programme "Mittelfristige Klimaprognosen" (MiKlip) with the aim to create a model system that can provide reliable decadal forecasts on climate and weather, including extreme weather events. Of central importance for the development process of the MiKlip system is the data and process based validation of the decadal scale prediction system during the development stages of MiKlip. An essential part of the evaluation procedure will be the application of satellite derived data sets to assess the aspired model system with respect to atmospheric water cycle components including clouds and related changes in the radiation budget. Within the MiKlip-DAPACLIP project new precipitation products suitable for the evaluation of the MiKlip prediction system are developed in close contact with the modelling community. These new data sets will be used to evaluate precipitation from global and regional decadal MiKlip hindcasts on a daily time scale, including the statistical analysis of extreme precipitation events. The data products will the time period from 1988-2008 and consists of daily data fields with several grid resolutions (1.0° x 1.0° and 2.5° x 2.5°; over Europe: 0.5°). The data set is based on an optimum combination of a dedicated in situ-based Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) precipitation analyses for land surface areas and a new version of the satellite-derived Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and fluxes from Satellite Data (HOAPS) precipitation analyses for ocean surface areas. An unprecedented feature in comparison to previous efforts is to allow for a traceable estimation of the uncertainty in the aspired data product. Over land the error information is retrieved from an optimized interpolation method that includes a kriging procedure. Over the ocean a 1D-Var retrieval is used to derive the precipitation along with a retrieval uncertainty from passive microwave data. This presentation will show first results of the improved combined precipitation data set as well as the integration of this data in the model evaluation process.

Dietzsch, Felix; Andersson, Axel; Schamm, Kirstin; Schröder, Marc; Becker, Andreas

2014-05-01

49

Prediction of global solar irradiance based on time series analysis: Application to solar thermal power plants energy production planning  

SciTech Connect

Due to strong increase of solar power generation, the predictions of incoming solar energy are acquiring more importance. Photovoltaic and solar thermal are the main sources of electricity generation from solar energy. In the case of solar thermal energy plants with storage energy system, its management and operation need reliable predictions of solar irradiance with the same temporal resolution as the temporal capacity of the back-up system. These plants can work like a conventional power plant and compete in the energy stock market avoiding intermittence in electricity production. This work presents a comparisons of statistical models based on time series applied to predict half daily values of global solar irradiance with a temporal horizon of 3 days. Half daily values consist of accumulated hourly global solar irradiance from solar raise to solar noon and from noon until dawn for each day. The dataset of ground solar radiation used belongs to stations of Spanish National Weather Service (AEMet). The models tested are autoregressive, neural networks and fuzzy logic models. Due to the fact that half daily solar irradiance time series is non-stationary, it has been necessary to transform it to two new stationary variables (clearness index and lost component) which are used as input of the predictive models. Improvement in terms of RMSD of the models essayed is compared against the model based on persistence. The validation process shows that all models essayed improve persistence. The best approach to forecast half daily values of solar irradiance is neural network models with lost component as input, except Lerida station where models based on clearness index have less uncertainty because this magnitude has a linear behaviour and it is easier to simulate by models. (author)

Martin, Luis; Marchante, Ruth; Cony, Marco [Investigaciones y Recursos Solares Avanzados (IrSOLaV), Tres Cantos 2 8045 (Spain); Zarzalejo, Luis F.; Polo, Jesus; Navarro, Ana [Energy Department, CIEMAT, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

2010-10-15

50

Validating a Satellite Microwave Remote Sensing Based Global Record of Daily Landscape Freeze-Thaw Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The freeze-thaw (FT) parameter from satellite microwave remote sensing quantifies the predominant landscape frozen or thawed state and is closely linked to surface energy budget and hydrologic activity, vegetation growth, terrestrial carbon budgets and land-atmosphere trace gas exchange. A global Earth System Data Record of daily landscape FT status (FT-ESDR) was developed using a temporal change classification of overlapping 37 GHz brightness temperature (Tb) series from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), and encompassing land areas where seasonal frozen temperatures influence ecosystem processes. A temporally consistent, long-term (>30 yr) FT record was created by ensuring cross-sensor consistency through pixel-wise adjustment of the SMMR Tb record based on empirical analyses of overlapping SMMR and SSM/I measurements. The FT-ESDR is designed to determine the FT status of the composite landscape vegetation-snow-soil medium with sufficient accuracy to characterize frozen temperature constraints to surface water mobility, vegetation productivity and land-atmosphere CO2 fluxes. A multi-tier validation scheme was applied using in situ temperature measurements, other satellite FT retrievals and synergistic biophysical data. These results are incorporated into the product metadata structure, including mean daily spatial classification accuracies and annual quality assessment (QA) maps accounting for landscape heterogeneity, algorithm limitations and sensor retrieval gaps. The resulting FT-ESDR shows mean annual spatial classification accuracies of 91 (+/-8.6) and 84 (+/-9.3) percent for PM and AM overpass retrievals. Accuracy is reduced during seasonal transition periods when FT heterogeneity is maximized within the relatively coarse (~25-km) satellite footprint. The QA rankings range from low (estimated accuracy <70%) to best (>90%) categories; mean annual QA results for the 1979-2011 period show relative proportions of the FT classification domain under Best (51%), Good (38%), Moderate (7%) and Low (4%) quality categories. Estimated FT-ESDR quality is reduced over complex terrain and dry climate areas where periodic wetting and drying strongly influence surface dielectric and Tb seasonal changes. These results are being used to inform development of an operational FT product for the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission. Portions of this work were conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Kimball, J. S.; Kim, Y.; McDonald, K. C.

2012-12-01

51

GIS Based Estimation and Mapping of Local Level Daily Irradiation on Inclined Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In this study, the spatial distribution of total solar irradiance at the surface was estimated taking into account the effect of topography on the surface orientation. The direct irradiance on surfaces normal to the solar beam, as well as the diffuse irradiance on horizontal surfaces were simulated using an atmospheric radiative transfer model and following a spatial model was

Nektarios Chrysoulakis; Manolis Diamandakis; Poulicos Prastacos

2004-01-01

52

Global spectral irradiance variability and material discrimination at Boulder, Colorado.  

PubMed

We analyze 7,258 global spectral irradiance functions over 0.4-2.2 microm that were acquired over a wide range of conditions at Boulder, Colorado, during the summer of 1997. We show that low-dimensional linear models can be used to capture the variability in these spectra over both the visible and the 0.4-2.2 microm spectral ranges. Using a linear model, we compare the Boulder data with the previous study of Judd et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1031 (1964)] over the visible wavelengths. We also examine the agreement of the Boulder data with a spectral database generated by using the MODTRAN 4.0 radiative transfer code. We use a database of 223 minerals to consider the effect of the spectral variability in the global spectral irradiance functions on hyperspectral material identification. We show that the 223 minerals can be discriminated accurately over the variability in the Boulder data with subspace projection techniques. PMID:12630837

Pan, Zhihong; Healey, Glenn; Slater, David

2003-03-01

53

A critical review on the estimation of daily global solar radiation from sunshine duration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models such as the Angström–Prescott equation are used to estimate global solar radiation from sunshine duration. In the literature, researchers investigate either the goodness of the model itself or the goodness of the estimation of global solar radiation based on a set of statistical parameters such as R2, RMSE, MBE, MABE, MPE and MAPE. If the former is the objective,

Mehmet Yorukoglu; Ali Naci Celik

2006-01-01

54

Daily global maps of carbon monoxide from NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first observations of tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard NASA's Aqua satellite. AIRS daily coverage of ~70% of the planet represents a significant evolutionary advance in satellite trace gas remote sensing. Tropospheric CO abundances are retrieved from AIRS 4.55 mum spectral region using the full AIRS retrieval algorithm run in a research

W. W. McMillan; C. Barnet; L. Strow; M. T. Chahine; M. L. McCourt; J. X. Warner; P. C. Novelli; S. Korontzi; E. S. Maddy; S. Datta

2005-01-01

55

Control of continuous irradiation injury on potatoes with daily temperature cycling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two controlled-environment experiments were conducted to determine the effects of temperature fluctuations under continuous irradiation on growth and tuberization of two potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars, Kennebec and Superior. These cultivars had exhibited chlorotic and stunted growth under continuous irradiation and constant temperatures. The plants were grown for 4 weeks in the first experiment and for 6 weeks in the second experiment. Each experiment was conducted under continuous irradiation of 400 micromoles per square meter per second of photosynthetic photon flux and included two temperature treatments: constant 18 degrees C and fluctuating 22 degrees C/14 degrees C on a 12-hour cycle. A common vapor pressure deficit of 0.62 kilopascal was maintained at all temperatures. Plants under constant 18 degrees C were stunted and had chlorotic and abscised leaves and essentially no tuber formation. Plants grown under the fluctuating temperature treatment developed normally, were developing tubers, and had a fivefold or greater total dry weight as compared with those under the constant temperature. These results suggest that a thermoperiod can allow normal plant growth and tuberization in potato cultivars that are unable to develop effectively under continuous irradiation.

Tibbitts, T. W.; Bennett, S. M.; Cao, W.

1990-01-01

56

Estimation of the diffuse radiation fraction for hourly, daily and monthly-average global radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hourly pyrheliometer and pyranometer data from four U.S. locations are used to establish a relationship between the hourly diffuse fraction and the hourly clearness index. This relationship is compared to the relationship established by Orgill and Hollands (1977) and to a set of data from Highett, Australia, and agreement is within a few percent in both cases. The transient simulation program TRNSYS is used to calculate the annual performance of solar energy systems using several correlations. For the systems investigated, the effect of simulating the random distribution of the hourly diffuse fraction is negligible. A seasonally dependent daily diffuse correlation is developed from the data, and this daily relationship is used to derive a correlation for the monthly-average diffuse fraction.

Erbs, D. G.; Klein, S. A.; Duffie, J. A.

57

Daily and Hourly Variability in Global Fire Emissions and Consequences for Atmospheric Model Predictions of Carbon Monoxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attribution of the causes of atmospheric trace gas and aerosol variability often requires the use of high resolution time series of anthropogenic and natural emissions inventories. Here we developed an approach for representing synoptic- and diurnal-scale temporal variability in fire emissions for the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3). We distributed monthly GFED3 emissions during 2003-2009 on a daily time step using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived measurements of active fires from Terra and Aqua satellites. In parallel, mean diurnal cycles were constructed from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) active fire observations. We found that patterns of daily variability in fires varied considerably across different biomes, with short but intense periods of daily emissions in boreal ecosystems and lower intensity (but more continuous) periods of bunting in savannas. On diurnal timescales, our analysis of the GOES active fires indicated that fires in savannas, grasslands, and croplands occurred earlier in the day as compared to fires in nearby forests. Comparison with Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) column CO observations provided evidence that including daily variability in emissions moderately improved atmospheric model simulations, particularly during the fire season and near regions with high levels of biomass burning. The high temporal resolution estimates of fire emissions developed here may ultimately reduce uncertainties related to fire contributions to atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Important future directions include reconciling top-down and bottom up estimates of fire radiative power and integrating burned area and active fire time series from multiple satellite sensors to improve daily emissions estimates.

Mu, M.; Randerson, J. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Giglio, L.; Kasibhatla, P.; Morton, D.; Collatz, G. J.; DeFries, R. S.; Hyer, E. J.; Prins, E. M.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Wunch, D.; Toon, G. C.; Sherlock, V.; Wennberg, P. O.

2011-01-01

58

Daily and 3-hourly Variability in Global Fire Emissions and Consequences for Atmospheric Model Predictions of Carbon Monoxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attribution of the causes of atmospheric trace gas and aerosol variability often requires the use of high resolution time series of anthropogenic and natural emissions inventories. Here we developed an approach for representing synoptic- and diurnal-scale temporal variability in fire emissions for the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3). We disaggregated monthly GFED3 emissions during 2003.2009 to a daily time step using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ]derived measurements of active fires from Terra and Aqua satellites. In parallel, mean diurnal cycles were constructed from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) active fire observations. Daily variability in fires varied considerably across different biomes, with short but intense periods of daily emissions in boreal ecosystems and lower intensity (but more continuous) periods of burning in savannas. These patterns were consistent with earlier field and modeling work characterizing fire behavior dynamics in different ecosystems. On diurnal timescales, our analysis of the GOES WF_ABBA active fires indicated that fires in savannas, grasslands, and croplands occurred earlier in the day as compared to fires in nearby forests. Comparison with Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) column CO observations provided evidence that including daily variability in emissions moderately improved atmospheric model simulations, particularly during the fire season and near regions with high levels of biomass burning. The high temporal resolution estimates of fire emissions developed here may ultimately reduce uncertainties related to fire contributions to atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Important future directions include reconciling top ]down and bottom up estimates of fire radiative power and integrating burned area and active fire time series from multiple satellite sensors to improve daily emissions estimates.

Mu, M.; Randerson, J. T.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Giglio, L.; Kasibhatla, P.; Morton, D.; Collatz, G. J.; DeFries, R. S.; Hyer, E. J.; Prins, E. M.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Wunch, D.; Toon, G. C.; Sherlock, V.; Wennberg, P. O.

2011-01-01

59

Daily and 3-hourly variability in global fire emissions and consequences for atmospheric model predictions of carbon monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attribution of the causes of atmospheric trace gas and aerosol variability often requires the use of high resolution time series of anthropogenic and natural emissions inventories. Here we developed an approach for representing synoptic- and diurnal-scale temporal variability in fire emissions for the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3). We disaggregated monthly GFED3 emissions during 2003-2009 to a daily time step using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived measurements of active fires from Terra and Aqua satellites. In parallel, mean diurnal cycles were constructed from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) active fire observations. Daily variability in fires varied considerably across different biomes, with short but intense periods of daily emissions in boreal ecosystems and lower intensity (but more continuous) periods of burning in savannas. These patterns were consistent with earlier field and modeling work characterizing fire behavior dynamics in different ecosystems. On diurnal timescales, our analysis of the GOES WF_ABBA active fires indicated that fires in savannas, grasslands, and croplands occurred earlier in the day as compared to fires in nearby forests. Comparison with Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) column CO observations provided evidence that including daily variability in emissions moderately improved atmospheric model simulations, particularly during the fire season and near regions with high levels of biomass burning. The high temporal resolution estimates of fire emissions developed here may ultimately reduce uncertainties related to fire contributions to atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Important future directions include reconciling top-down and bottom up estimates of fire radiative power and integrating burned area and active fire time series from multiple satellite sensors to improve daily emissions estimates.

Mu, M.; Randerson, J. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Giglio, L.; Kasibhatla, P.; Morton, D.; Collatz, G. J.; Defries, R. S.; Hyer, E. J.; Prins, E. M.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Wunch, D.; Toon, G. C.; Sherlock, V.; Wennberg, P. O.

2011-12-01

60

Global Horizontal Irradiance Anomalies in Long Term Series Over India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India has a high potential for solar energy applications due to its geographic position within the Sun Belt and the large number of cloudless days in many regions of the country. However, certain regions of India, particularly those largely populated, can exhibit large aerosol loading in the atmosphere as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions that could have a negative feedback in the solar resource potential. This effect, named as solar dimming, has already been observed in India, and in some other regions in the world, by some authors using ground data from the last two decades. The recent interest in the promotion of solar energy applications in India highlights the need of extending and improving the knowledge of the solar radiation resources in this country, since most of the long term measurements available correspond to global horizontal radiation (GHI) and most of them are also located big cities or highly populated areas. In addition, accurate knowledge on the aerosol column quantification and on its dynamical behavior with high spatial resolution is particularly important in the case of India, due to their impact on direct normal irradiation. Long term studies of solar irradiation over India can be performed using monthly means of GHI measurements from the Indian Meteorological Department. Ground data are available from 1964 till today through the World Radiation Data Centre that publish these values in the web. This work shows a long term analysis of GHI using anomalies techniques over ten different sites over India. Besides, techniques of linear trends have been applied for to show the evolution over this period. The analysis of anomalies has also found two periods of different behavior. From 1964 till 1988 the anomalies observed were positive and the last 20 years seems to be a period of negative anomalies. The results exhibit a decreasing trend and negative anomalies confirming thus the darkening effect already reported by solar dimming studies. This observation is also consequent with solar dimming effect, apparently increased during the last two decades due to the increase of aerosol loading in the atmosphere. These results remark the important of having accurate knowledge of atmospheric aerosol loading and its dynamics over India with high spatial resolution in the framework of solar energy deployment in the country. It is worth to mention that greater anomalies and a noticeable decreasing trend found in Calcutta could be correlated with the highly population rate, and thus the greater the population density of the area the greater the negative anomalies and the decreasing trend of solar irradiation monthly means.

Cony, Marco; Liria, Juan; Weisenberg, Ralf; Serrano, Enrique

2014-05-01

61

Analysis of daily, monthly, and annual burned area using the fourth-generation global fire emissions database (GFED4)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract We describe the fourth generation of the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Fire Emissions Database (GFED4) burned area data set, which provides <span class="hlt">global</span> monthly burned area at 0.25° spatial resolution from mid-1995 through the present and <span class="hlt">daily</span> burned area for the time series extending back to August 2000. We produced the full data set by combining 500 m MODIS burned area maps with active fire data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) family of sensors. We found that the <span class="hlt">global</span> annual area burned for the years 1997 through 2011 varied from 301 to 377Mha, with an average of 348Mha. We assessed the interannual variability and trends in burned area on the basis of a region-specific definition of fire years. With respect to trends, we found a gradual decrease of 1.7Mhayr - 1 ( - 1.4%yr - 1) in Northern Hemisphere Africa since 2000, a gradual increase of 2.3Mhayr - 1 (+1.8%yr - 1) in Southern Hemisphere Africa also since 2000, a slight increase of 0.2Mhayr - 1 (+2.5%yr - 1) in Southeast Asia since 1997, and a rapid decrease of approximately 5.5Mhayr - 1 ( - 10.7%yr - 1) from 2001 through 2011 in Australia, followed by a major upsurge in 2011 that exceeded the annual area burned in at least the previous 14 years. The net trend in <span class="hlt">global</span> burned area from 2000 to 2012 was a modest decrease of 4.3Mhayr - 1 ( - 1.2%yr - 1). We also performed a spectral analysis of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> burned area time series and found no vestiges of the 16 day MODIS repeat cycle.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Giglio, Louis; Randerson, James T.; Werf, Guido R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">62</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H43I1590A"> <span id="translatedtitle">33 Years of Near-<span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Precipitation from Multisatellite Observations and its Application to Drought Monitoring</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">PERSIANN Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR) is a new retrospective satellite-based precipitation data set that is constructed for long-term hydrological and climate studies. The PERSIANN-CDR is a near-<span class="hlt">global</span> (60°S-60°N) long-term (1980-2012), multi-satellite, high-resolution precipitation product that provides rain rate estimates at 0.25° and <span class="hlt">daily</span> spatiotemporal resolution. PERSIANN-CDR is aimed at addressing the need for a consistent, long-term, high resolution precipitation data set for studying the spatial and temporal variations and changes of precipitation patterns, particularly in a scale relevant to climate extremes at the <span class="hlt">global</span> scale. PERSIANN-CDR is generated from the PERSIANN algorithm using GridSat-B1 infrared data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). PERSIANN-CDR is adjusted using the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly precipitation to maintain consistency of two data sets at 2.5° monthly scale throughout the entire reconstruction period. PERSIANN-CDR <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation data demonstrates considerable consistency with both GPCP monthly and GPCP 1DD precipitation products. Verification studies over Hurricane Katrina show that PERSIANN-CDR has a good agreement with NCEP Stage IV radar data, noting that PERSIANN-CDR has better spatial coverage. In addition, the Probability Density Function (PDF) of PERSIANN-CDR over the contiguous United States was compared with the PDFs extracted from CPC gauge data and the TMPA precipitation product. The experiment also shows good agreement of the PDF of PERSIANN-CDR with the PDFs of TMPA and CPC gauge data. The application of PERSIANN-CDR in regional and <span class="hlt">global</span> drought monitoring is investigated. Consisting of more than three decades of high-resolution precipitation data, PERSIANN-CDR makes us capable of long-term assessment of droughts at a higher resolution (0.25°) than previously possible. The results will be presented at the meeting.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ashouri, H.; Hsu, K.; Sorooshian, S.; Braithwaite, D.; Knapp, K. R.; Cecil, L. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">63</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007evga.conf...79K"> <span id="translatedtitle">QUASAR software in IAA EOP service: <span class="hlt">Global</span> Solution and <span class="hlt">Daily</span> SINEX</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper we briefly describe the QUASAR software for VLBI data processing created in IAA RAS. The estimation parameters and results of <span class="hlt">global</span> solution obtained with QUASAR software are shown. The first results of involving QUASAR software into IAA EOP service for EOP and station positions calculation are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kurdubov, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">64</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40753963"> <span id="translatedtitle">Improving estimation of hourly, <span class="hlt">daily</span>, and monthly solar radiation by importing <span class="hlt">global</span> data sets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Surface solar radiation is an important parameter in hydrological models and crop yield models. This study developed a model to estimate solar radiation from sunshine duration. The model is more accurate and more general than traditional Ångström–Prescott models. It can explicitly account for radiative extinction processes in the atmosphere. Moreover, <span class="hlt">global</span> data sets that describe the spatial and temporal distribution</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kun Yang; Toshio Koike; Baisheng Ye</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">65</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49334734"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of monthly-mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation based on MODIS and TRMM products</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Global</span> solar radiation (GSR) is required in a large number of fields. Many parameterization schemes are developed to estimate it using routinely measured meteorological variables, since GSR is directly measured at a limited number of stations. Even so, meteorological stations are sparse, especially, in remote areas. Satellite signals (radiance at the top of atmosphere in most cases) can be used</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jun Qin; Zhuoqi Chen; Kun Yang; Shunlin Liang; Wenjun Tang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">66</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48935017"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> changes in <span class="hlt">global</span> cloud cover and Earth transits of the heliospheric current sheet</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Changes in cloud cover are found to occur for periods of a few days following Earth transits of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS), provided also that the transits occur in years of high stratospheric aerosol loading. Using <span class="hlt">global</span> cloud products from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) D1 data series, epoch superposition analyses were made for various samples of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. R. Kniveton; B. A. Tinsley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">67</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29400523"> <span id="translatedtitle">Appropriate use of antiplatelets: is prescription in <span class="hlt">daily</span> practice influenced by the <span class="hlt">global</span> cardiovascular risk?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective: To evaluate the appropriate pre- scription of antiplatelets according to patients' <span class="hlt">global</span> cardiovascular risk level in everyday practice. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, general practitioners (GPs) identified a random sample of 10% of patients at car- diovascular risk among all subjects coming to the sur- gery and collected data on cardiovascular risk factors and history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lara Monesi; Fausto Avanzini; Simona Barlera; Vittorio Caimi; Davide Lauri; Paolo Longoni; Daria Roccatagliata; Massimo Tombesi; Gianni Tognoni; Maria Carla Roncaglioni</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">68</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000021367&hterms=SSM+Framework&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DSSM%2BFramework"> <span id="translatedtitle">Incorporating TRMM and Other High-Quality Estimates into the One-Degree <span class="hlt">Daily</span> (1DD) <span class="hlt">Global</span> Precipitation Product</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The One-Degree <span class="hlt">Daily</span> (1DD) precipitation dataset was recently developed for the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). The IDD provides a <span class="hlt">globally</span>-complete, observation-only estimate of precipitation on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> 1 deg x 1 deg grid for the period 1997 through late 1999 (by the time of the conference). In the latitude band 40 N - 40 S the IDD uses the Threshold-Matched Precipitation Index (TMPI), a GPI-like IR product with the T(sub b) threshold and (single) conditional rain rate determined locally for each month by the frequency of precipitation in the GPROF SSNU product and by the precipitation amount in the GPCP satellite-gauge (SG) combination. Outside 40 N - 40 S the 1DD uses a scaled TOVS precipitation estimate that has adjustments based on the TMPI and the SG. This first-generation 1DD has been in beta test preparatory to release as an official GPCP product. In this paper we discuss further development of the 1DD framework to allow the direct incorporation of TRMM and other high-quality precipitation estimates. First, these data are generally sparse (typically from low-orbit satellites), so a fair amount of work was devoted to data boundaries. Second, these data are not the same as the original 1DD estimates, so we had to give careful consideration to the best scheme for forcing the 1DD to sum to the SG for the month. Finally, the non-sun-synchronous, low-inclination orbit occupied by TRMM creates interesting variations against the sun-synchronous, high-inclination orbits occupied by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program satellites that carry the SSM/I. Examples will be given of each of the development issues, then comparisons will be made to <span class="hlt">daily</span> raingauge analyses.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Bolvin, David T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">69</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ThApC.tmp...74B"> <span id="translatedtitle">A simplified calibrated model for estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation in Madinah, Saudi Arabia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Solar radiation is the most important parameter in defining the energy budget at the surface thereby influencing the hydroclimate. Several empirical models based on air temperature are developed and used in several decision-making needs such as agriculture and energy sector. However, a calibration against direct observations is a priori for implementing such models. A calibrated model is developed for Saudi Arabia (Madinah) based on observations during 2007-2011. The model ( {Rs=A+B\\cdot R{{s}_0}{{{( {{T_{max }}-{T_{min }}} )}}^C}} ) is used to estimate <span class="hlt">daily</span> solar radiation and results show a correlation coefficient of 0.94. The calibrated model outperforms the uncalibrated model available for this location. To increase the confidence, the calibrated model is also compared with a simple artificial neural network.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Benghanem, M.; Mellit, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">70</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22054498"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optimal Normal Tissue Sparing in Craniospinal Axis <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> Using IMRT With <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Intrafractionally Modulated Junction(s)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: To develop a treatment technique for craniospinal <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with improved dose homogeneity at the field junction(s), increased target volume conformity, and minimized dose to the organs at risk (OARs). Methods and Materials: Five patients with high-risk medulloblastoma underwent CT simulation in supine position. For each patient, an IMRT plan with <span class="hlt">daily</span> intrafractionally modulated junction(s) was generated, as well as a treatment plan based on conventional three-dimensional planning (3DCRT). A dose of 39.6 Gy in 22 <span class="hlt">daily</span> fractions of 1.8 Gy was prescribed. Dose-volume parameters for target volumes and OARs were compared for the two techniques. Results: The maximum dose with IMRT was <107% in all patients. V{sub <95} and V{sub >107} were <1 cm{sup 3} for IMRT compared with 3-9 cm{sup 3} for the craniospinal and 26-43 cm{sup 3} for the spinal-spinal junction with 3DCRT. These observations corresponded with a lower homogeneity index and a higher conformity index for the spinal planning target volume with IMRT. IMRT provided considerable sparing of acute and late reacting tissues. V{sub 75} for the esophagus, gastroesophageal junction, and intestine was 81%, 81%, and 22% with 3DCRT versus 5%, 0%, and 1% with IMRT, respectively. V{sub 75} for the heart and thyroid was 42% and 32% vs. 0% with IMRT. Conclusion: IMRT with <span class="hlt">daily</span> intrafractionally modulated junction results in a superior target coverage and junction homogeneity compared with 3DCRT. A significant dose reduction can be obtained for acute as well as late-reacting tissues.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kusters, Johannes M.A.M.; Louwe, Rob J.W.; Kollenburg, Peter G.M. van; Kunze-Busch, Martina C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Gidding, Corrie E.M. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lindert, Erik J. van [Department of Neurosurgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Janssens, Geert O.R.J., E-mail: g.janssens@rther.umcn.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">71</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920055252&hterms=global+positioning+system&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3D%2522global%2Bpositioning%2Bsystem%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> estimates of the earth's pole position with the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Positioning System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> estimates of the earth's pole position have been obtained with measurements from a worldwide network of GPS receivers, obtained during the three week GIG '91 experiment in January-February 1991. For this short-term study, the GPS based polar motion series agrees with the other space based geodetic techniques (Very Long Baseline Interferometry and Satellite Laser Ranging) to about 0.4 mas rms, after the removal of mean biases of order 1-3 mas. The small error in day-to-day variability is not sensitive to the fiducial strategy used, nor are fiducial sites even necessary for monitoring high frequency pole position variability. The small biases indicate that the applied reference frames of the three geodetic techniques are nearly aligned, that the GPS fiducial errors are small, and that systematic errors in GPS are also small (of order 5 ppb). A well determined reference frame is necessary for monitoring the long-term stability of polar motion and for separating it from other long-term signals such as tectonic motion and internal systematic errors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lindqwister, Ulf J.; Freedman, Adam P.; Blewitt, Geoffrey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">72</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4373T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Numerical computations of diffuse fraction of <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on an hourly basis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Solar Energy is the feedstock for various applications of renewable energy sources, thus, the necessity of using <span class="hlt">global</span> tilted <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> is acknowledged for the computations of the performance and monitoring of PV Parks and solar energy applications. In general, <span class="hlt">global</span> tilted <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> is computed as the sum of the beam component of direct <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> on the tilted surface, diffuse tilted and reflected <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. These three components can be computed using only the values of <span class="hlt">Global</span> horizontal and diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. However, although for some locations both <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> are measured, in most locations, the data comprise measurements of only <span class="hlt">global</span> horizontal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, either measured on-site or determined from satellite data. This research is based on a numerical analysis and the development of empirical correlations for the computation of the hourly diffuse fraction, based on the measurements of the clearness index. The solar altitude is included as a parameter in the computations in order to reduce the error in the computations, since it embraces the effect of the different time and date in the computations. The derived numerical equations are presented in terms of the solar altitude in steps of 5 degrees and are validated using data from the meteorological station of Athalassa, Cyprus, for a ten year period (2001-2010). The statistical analysis from the comparison (in terms of R-squared and RMSE) showed better results for higher elevation angles, compared to the lower elevation angles that represent the early morning or late afternoon times.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tapakis, Rogiros; Charalambides, Alexandros G.; Michaelides, Silas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">73</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/srb/srb_rel2_sw_daily_table"> <span id="translatedtitle">REL2 SW <span class="hlt">DAILY</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href=""></a></p> <p class="result-summary">... Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release 2 Shortwave <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Data in Native Format News:  GEWEX ... Parameters:  Viewing Geometry Incoming Shortwave Radiation Radiative Flux Solar <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Solar ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">74</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52344359"> <span id="translatedtitle">Worldwide forecast of the biologically effective UV radiation: UV index and <span class="hlt">daily</span> dose</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Since October 1995 a <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">daily</span> forecast of the UV index and the <span class="hlt">daily</span> dose, as the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> of the biologically effective ultraviolet radiation, for clear sky is calculated. The Austrian model as well as the input parameters are described. By connecting the <span class="hlt">daily</span> dose with the sensitivity of the photobiological skin types, a recommendation is given to select an</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alois W. Schmalwieser; Guenther Schauberger; Michal Janouch; Manuel Nunez; Tapani Koskela; Daniel Berger; Gabriel Karamanian; Pavel Prosek; Kamil Laska</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">75</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=33755"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dependence of <span class="hlt">global</span> temperatures on atmospheric CO2 and solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Changes in <span class="hlt">global</span> average temperatures and of the seasonal cycle are strongly coupled to the concentration of atmospheric CO2. I estimate transfer functions from changes in atmospheric CO2 and from changes in solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> to hemispheric temperatures that have been corrected for the effects of precession. They show that changes from CO2 over the last century are about three times larger than those from changes in solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. The increase in <span class="hlt">global</span> average temperature during the last century is at least 20 times the SD of the residual temperature series left when the effects of CO2 and changes in solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> are subtracted.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thomson, David J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">76</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002IJSE...22..115M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of an innovative sensor for measuring <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, and sunshine duration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Delta-T Device Limited of Cambridge, UK have developed an integrated device which enables simultaneous measurement of horizontal <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> as well as sunshine status at any given instance in time. To evaluate the performance of this new device, horizontal <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> data were simultaneously collected from Delta-T device and Napier University's CIE First Class daylight monitoring station. To enable a cross check a Kipp & Zonen CM11 <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> sensor has also been installed in Currie, south-west Edinburgh. Sunshine duration data have been recorded at the Royal Botanical Garden, Edinburgh using their Campbell-Stokes recorder. Hourly data sets were analysed and plotted within the Microsoft Excel environment. Using the common statistical measures, Root Mean Square Difference (RMSD) and Mean Bias Difference (MBD) the accuracy of measurements of Delta-T sensor's horizontal <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, and sunshine duration were investigated. The results show a good performance on the part of Delta-T device for the measurement of <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. The sunshine measurements were found to have a lack of consistency and accuracy. It is argued herein that the distance between the respective sensors and the poor accuracy of Campbell-Stokes recorder may be contributing factors to this phenomenon.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Muneer, Tariq; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wood, John</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">77</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53035754"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of hourly and <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation at clear days using an approach based on modified version of gaussian distribution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The performance of two models, Jain and Baig, based on the modified version of Gaussian distribution function in estimating the <span class="hlt">daily</span> total of <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation and its distribution through the hours of the day from sunrise to sunset at any clear day is evaluated with our own measured data in the period from June 1992 to May 1993 in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. M. El Shazly</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">78</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800007301&hterms=irradiance+thin+film&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dirradiance%2Bthin%2Bfilm"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> calibration of terrestrial reference cells and errors involved in using different <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> monitoring techniques</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The feasibility of <span class="hlt">global</span> calibration of terrestrial reference cells is discussed. A simple, accurate 'secondary' calibration technique based on ratios of test to reference cell currents measured in natural sunlight is described. Different techniques for monitoring incident <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> during solar cell performance measurements are also examined and assessed, including the techniques of black-body detectors, calibrated reference cells, and the convolution of spectral response with solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Curtis, H. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">79</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ruby.fgcu.edu/courses/twimberley/EnviroPhilo/Reid.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar total <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variations and the <span class="hlt">global</span> sea surface temperature record</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The record of <span class="hlt">globally</span> averaged sea surface temperature (SST) over the past 130 years shows a highly significant correlation with the envelope of the 11-year cycle of solar activity over the same period. This correlation could be explained by a variation in the sun's total <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (the solar constant) that is in phase with the solar-cycle envelope, supporting and updating</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">George C. Reid</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">80</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010045819&hterms=Sea+surface+temperature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%253A%2522Sea%2Bsurface%2Btemperature%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulation Study of Effects of Solar <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> and Sea Surface Temperature on Monsoons and <span class="hlt">Global</span> Circulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A recent version of the GEOS 2 GCM was used to isolate the roles of the annual cycles of solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> and/or sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) on the simulated circulation and rainfall. Four 4-year long integrations were generated with the GCM. The first integration, called Control Case, used <span class="hlt">daily</span>-interpolated SSTs from a 30 year monthly SST climatology that was obtained from the analyzed SST-data, while the solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> at the top of the atmosphere was calculated normally at hourly intervals. The next two cases prescribed the SSTs or the incoming solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at the top of the atmosphere at their annual mean values, respectively while everything else was kept the same as in the Control Case. In this way the influence of the annual cycles of both external forcings was isolated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sud, Y. C.; Walker, G. K.; Mehta, V.; Lau, W. K.-M.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a 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<img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">81</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE..82S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Towards the automatic identification of cloudiness condition by means of solar <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study focuses on the design of an automatic algorithm for classification of the cloudiness condition based only on <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements. Clouds are a major modulating factor for the Earth radiation budget. They attenuate the solar radiation and control the terrestrial radiation participating in the energy balance. Generally, cloudiness is a limiting factor for the solar radiation reaching the ground, highly contributing to the Earth albedo. Additionally it is the main responsible for the high variability shown by the downward <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measured at ground level. Being a major source for the attenuation and high-frequency variability of the solar radiation available for energy purposes in solar power plants, the characterization of the cloudiness condition is of great interest. This importance is even higher in Southern Europe, where very high <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> values are reached during long periods within the year. Thus, several indexes have been proposed in the literature for the characterization of the cloudiness condition of the sky. Among these indexes, those exclusively involving <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> are of special interest since this variable is the most widely available measurement in most radiometric stations. Taking this into account, this study proposes an automatic algorithm for classifying the cloudiness condition of the sky into three categories: cloud-free, partially cloudy and overcast. For that aim, solar <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> was measured by Kipp&Zonen CMP11 pyranometer installed on the terrace of the Physics building in the Campus of Badajoz (Spain) of the University of Extremadura. Measurements were recorded at one-minute basis for a period of study extending from 23 November 2009 to 31 March 2010. The algorithm is based on the clearness index kt, which is calculated as the ratio between the solar <span class="hlt">global</span> downward <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measured at ground and the solar downward <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at the top of the atmosphere. Since partially cloudy conditions exhibit large variability in the solar <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measured at ground and, therefore, in the kt index, the algorithm is based, along with the value of the kt index, on the local variability. This variability was locally computed as the coefficient of variation of a two-neighbor window around each measurement. The consideration of both, the value of kt index and its local variability, highly improves previous classifications consisting in applying fixed thresholds to the kt index value. The proposed algorithm is applied to certain selected cases and compared to classifications proposed by other authors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sanchez, G.; Serrano, A.; Cancillo, M. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">82</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/3x5he3rcd1cbufmh.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of the variability and extremes of <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall during the Indian summer monsoon for present and future times in a <span class="hlt">global</span> time-slice experiment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study the simulation of the variability and extremes of <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall during the Indian summer monsoon for the present-day and the future climate is investigated. This is done on the basis of a <span class="hlt">global</span> time-slice experiment (TSL) with the ECHAM4 atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) at a high horizontal resolution of T106. The first time-slice (period: 1970–1999) represents</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. May</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">83</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39996803"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of hourly and <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation at clear days using an approach based on modified version of gaussian distribution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The performance of two models, Jain and Baig, based on the modified version of Gaussian distribution function in estimating\\u000a the <span class="hlt">daily</span> total of <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation and its distribution through the hours of the day from sunrise to sunset at any\\u000a clear day is evaluated with our own measured data in the period from June 1992 to May 1993 in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. M. El shazly</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">84</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE..84S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of direct to diffuse partitioning of <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at the radiometric station in Badajoz (Spain)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study is aimed at the analysis of the partitioning of <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> into its direct and diffuse components at the radiometric station in Badajoz (Spain). The detailed knowledge of the solar radiation field is of increasing interest in Southern Europe due to its use as renewable energy. In particular, the knowledge of the solar radiation partitioning into direct and diffuse radiation has become a major demand for the design and suitable orientation of solar panels in solar power plants. In this study the first measurements of solar diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> performed in the radiometric station in Badajoz (Spain) are presented and analyzed in the framework of the partitioning of solar <span class="hlt">global</span> radiation. Thus, solar <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> were measured at one-minute basis from 23 November 2009 to 31 March 2010. Solar <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> were measured by two Kipp&Zonen CMP11 pyranometers, using a Kipp&Zonen CM121 shadow ring for the measurements of solar diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. Diffuse measurements were corrected from the solid angle hidden by the ring and direct <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> was calculated as the difference between <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse measurements. <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> was obtained from the pyranomenters by applying calibration coefficients obtained in an inter-comparison campaign performed at INTA/El Arenosillo, in Huelva (Spain), last September 2009. There, calibration coefficients were calculated using as a reference a CMP11 pyranometer which had been previously calibrated by the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos/World Radiation Centre in Switzerland. In order to study the partitioning of the solar radiation, the <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> have been analyzed for three typical different sky conditions: cloud-free, broken clouds and overcast. Particular days within the period of study have been selected by visual inspection. Along with the analysis of the <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> themselves, ratios of these <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> to the downward <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at the top of the atmosphere have also been analyzed. Several interesting features have been found. It is particularly worth to note the decreasing relative contribution of the direct component to the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> as the solar zenith angle increases, due to a longer path crossed within the atmosphere. In broken clouds and overcast conditions, the diffuse component becomes the major contribution to the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> being the high-frequency variability the main difference between both type of cases. While in overcast conditions the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> remains remarkably low, under broken clouds the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> shows a very high variability frequently reaching values higher than the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at the top of the atmosphere, due to multi-reflection phenomenon. The present study contributes to a better knowledge of the radiation field and its partitioning, involving original high-frequency measurements.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sanchez, G.; Cancillo, M. L.; Serrano, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">85</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012OptEn..51d6001X"> <span id="translatedtitle">Model for correcting <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measured with rotating shadowband radiometer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Global</span> horizontal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (GHI) measured with rotating shadowband radiometer (RSR) is not accurate enough due to thermal sensitivity and nonuniform spectral response of the photovoltaic detector equipped inside. The purpose of this work is to develop a multiple regressive model to correct the errors posed by the temperature and spectrum. The ratio of the reference <span class="hlt">global</span> horizontal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (RGHI) to the RSR measured GHI is defined as correction factor, based on which, the model is built via device temperature, air mass, and solar zenith angle. Evaluated from various statistical tests such as coefficient of correlation R2, mean bias deviation, root mean square deviation, t-statistic, skewness, and kurtosis, results show that the corrected RSR GHI can be comparable with the high-quality RGHI, which indicates the validity of the model.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xing, Hongyan; Chong, Wei; Sha, Yizhuo; Lv, Wenhua</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">86</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26542756"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Kuwait's oil-fire smoke cloud on <span class="hlt">global</span> horizontal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The influence of Kuwait's 1991 Oil-Fire smoke cloud on incident total horizontal solar radiation has been investigated using measurements made at the automatic solar radiation and meteorological monitoring station in Dhahran (26[degrees] 32'N, 50[degrees] 13'E), Saudi Arabia. Results indicate that the <span class="hlt">global</span> horizontal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on smoky days was 70-87% of that on clear\\/non-smoky days and that the Clearness Index was</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. A. Elhadidy; S. M. Shaahid</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">87</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52951051"> <span id="translatedtitle">Combination of spaceborne sensor(s) and 3-D aerosol models to assess <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">daily</span> near-surface air quality</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aerosol Particulate Matter (PM), measured by ground-based monitoring stations, is used as a standard by the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) to evaluate <span class="hlt">daily</span> air quality. PM monitoring is particularly important for human health protection because the exposure to suspended particles can contribute, among others, to lung and respiratory diseases and even premature death. However, most of the PM monitoring stations</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Kacenelenbogen; J. Redemann; P. B. Russell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">88</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996AdAtS..13..349E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of hourly and <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation at clear days using an approach based on modified version of gaussian distribution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The performance of two models, Jain and Baig, based on the modified version of Gaussian distribution function in estimating the <span class="hlt">daily</span> total of <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation and its distribution through the hours of the day from sunrise to sunset at any clear day is evaluated with our own measured data in the period from June 1992 to May 1993 in Qena / Egypt. The results show a high relative deviation of calculated values from measured ones, especially for Jain model, in the most hours of the day, except for those near to local noon. This misfit behavior is quite obvious in the early morning and late afternoon. A new approach has been proposed in this paper to estimate the <span class="hlt">daily</span> and hourly <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation. This model performs with very high accuracy on the recorded data in our region. The validity of this approach was verified with new measurements in some clear days in June and August 1994. The resultant very low relative deviation of the calculated values of <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation from the measured ones confirms the high performance of the approach proposed in this work.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">El Shazly, S. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">89</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012HESS...16..983S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Selecting the optimal method to calculate <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> reference potential evaporation from CFSR reanalysis data for application in a hydrological model study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Potential evaporation (PET) is one of the main inputs of hydrological models. Yet, there is limited consensus on which PET equation is most applicable in hydrological climate impact assessments. In this study six different methods to derive <span class="hlt">global</span> scale reference PET <span class="hlt">daily</span> time series from Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) data are compared: Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor and original and re-calibrated versions of the Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle method. The calculated PET time series are (1) evaluated against <span class="hlt">global</span> monthly Penman-Monteith PET time series calculated from CRU data and (2) tested on their usability for modeling of <span class="hlt">global</span> discharge cycles. A major finding is that for part of the investigated basins the selection of a PET method may have only a minor influence on the resulting river flow. Within the hydrological model used in this study the bias related to the PET method tends to decrease while going from PET, AET and runoff to discharge calculations. However, the performance of individual PET methods appears to be spatially variable, which stresses the necessity to select the most accurate and spatially stable PET method. The lowest root mean squared differences and the least significant deviations (95% significance level) between monthly CFSR derived PET time series and CRU derived PET were obtained for a cell-specific re-calibrated Blaney-Criddle equation. However, results show that this re-calibrated form is likely to be unstable under changing climate conditions and less reliable for the calculation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> time series. Although often recommended, the Penman-Monteith equation applied to the CFSR data did not outperform the other methods in a evaluation against PET derived with the Penman-Monteith equation from CRU data. In arid regions (e.g. Sahara, central Australia, US deserts), the equation resulted in relatively low PET values and, consequently, led to relatively high discharge values for dry basins (e.g. Orange, Murray and Zambezi). Furthermore, the Penman-Monteith equation has a high data demand and the equation is sensitive to input data inaccuracy. Therefore, we recommend the re-calibrated form of the Hargreaves equation which <span class="hlt">globally</span> gave reference PET values comparable to CRU derived values for multiple climate conditions. The resulting gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> PET time series provide a new reference dataset that can be used for future hydrological impact assessments in further research, or more specifically, for the statistical downscaling of <span class="hlt">daily</span> PET derived from raw GCM data. The dataset can be downloaded from <a href ="http://opendap.deltares.nl/thredds/dodsC/opendap/deltares/FEWS-IPCC"target="_blank">http://opendap.deltares.nl/thredds/dodsC/opendap/deltares/FEWS-IPCC</a>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sperna Weiland, F. C.; Tisseuil, C.; Dürr, H. H.; Vrac, M.; van Beek, L. P. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">90</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5005147"> <span id="translatedtitle">Splenic <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> in the treatment of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia or myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia. Results of <span class="hlt">daily</span> and intermittent fractionation with and without concomitant hydroxyurea</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Seventeen patients with either chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) or myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MMM) received 24 courses of splenic <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> at this institution from 1973 to 1982. Eleven of the 17 patients had received prior chemotherapy. Patients were treated with /sup 60/Co gamma rays or 6 MV photons. The fraction size ranged from 15 to 100 rad and the total dose per treatment course from 15 to 650 rad, with the exception of one patient who received 1650 rad. Fourteen of 19 courses (71%) given for splenic pain yielded significant subjective relief while 17 of 26 courses given for splenomegaly obtained at least 50% regression of splenic size. Blood counts were carefully monitored before each treatment to limit hematologic toxicity. From this experience, the authors conclude that splenic <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> effectively palliates splenic pain and reverses splenomegaly in the majority of patients with CML and MMM. Intermittent fractionation (twice or thrice weekly) is more convenient for the patient, appears to be as effective as <span class="hlt">daily</span> treatment, and may be associated with less hematologic toxicity. Preliminary results of concurrent treatment with splenic <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> and oral hydroxyurea show promise and warrant further study.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wagner, H. Jr.; McKeough, P.G.; Desforges, J.; Madoc-Jones, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">91</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3892401"> <span id="translatedtitle">Three-year outcomes of a once <span class="hlt">daily</span> fractionation scheme for accelerated partial breast <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> (APBI) using 3-D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this study was to report 3-year outcomes of toxicity, cosmesis, and local control using a once <span class="hlt">daily</span> fractionation scheme (49.95 Gy in 3.33 Gy once <span class="hlt">daily</span> fractions) for accelerated partial breast <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> (APBI) using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Between July 2008 and August 2010, women aged ?40 years with ductal carcinoma in situ or node-negative invasive breast cancer ?3 cm in diameter, treated with breast-conserving surgery achieving negative margins, were accrued to a prospective study. Women were treated with APBI using 3–5 photon beams, delivering 49.95 Gy over 15 once <span class="hlt">daily</span> fractions over 3 weeks. Patients were assessed for toxicities, cosmesis, and local control rates before APBI and at specified time points. Thirty-four patients (mean age 60 years) with Tis 0 (n = 9) and T1N0 (n = 25) breast cancer were treated and followed up for an average of 39 months. Only 3% (1/34) patients experienced a grade 3 subcutaneous fibrosis and breast edema and 97% of the patients had good/excellent cosmetic outcome at 3 years. The 3-year rate of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) was 0% while the rate of contralateral breast events was 6%. The 3-year disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) was 94%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Our novel accelerated partial breast fractionation scheme of 15 once <span class="hlt">daily</span> fractions of 3.33 Gy (49.95 Gy total) is a remarkably well-tolerated regimen of 3D-CRT-based APBI. A larger cohort of patients is needed to further ascertain the toxicity of this accelerated partial breast regimen.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goyal, Sharad; Daroui, Parima; Khan, Atif J; Kearney, Thomas; Kirstein, Laurie; Haffty, Bruce G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">92</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.B33A0386I"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation in Vietnamese Mekong Delta area: A combinational application of statistical downscaling method and Bayesian inference</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Long-term <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation (GSR) data of the same quality in the 20th century has been needed as a baseline to assess the climate change impact on paddy rice production in Vietnamese Mekong Delta area (MKD: 104.5-107.5oE/8.2-11.2oN). However, though sunshine duration data is available, the accessibility of GSR data is quite poor in MKD. This study estimated the <span class="hlt">daily</span> GSR in MKD for 30-yr (1978- 2007) by applying the statistical downscaling method (SDM). The estimates of GSR was obtained from four different sources: (1) the combined equations with the corrected reanalysis data of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum/minimum temperatures, relative humidity, sea level pressure, and precipitable water; (2) the correction equation with the reanalysis data of downward shortwave radiation; (3) the empirical equation with the observed sunshine duration; and (4) the observation at one site for short term. Three reanalysis data, i.e., NCEP-R1, ERA-40, and JRA-25, were used. Also the observed meteorological data, which includes many missing data, were obtained from 11 stations of the Vietnamese Meteorological Agency for 28-yr and five stations of the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Summary of the Day for 30-yr. The observed GSR data for 1-yr was obtained from our station. Considering the use of data with many missing data for analysis, the Bayesian inference was used for this study, which has the powerful capability to optimize multiple parameters in a non-linear and hierarchical model. The Bayesian inference provided the posterior distributions of 306 parameter values relating to the combined equations, the empirical equation, and the correction equation. The preliminary result shows that the amplitude of <span class="hlt">daily</span> fluctuation of modeled GSR was underestimated by the empirical equation and the correction equation. The combination of SDM and Bayesian inference has a potential to estimate the long- term <span class="hlt">daily</span> GSR of the same quality even though in the area where the observed data is quite limited.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Iizumi, T.; Nishimori, M.; Yokozawa, M.; Kotera, A.; Khang, N. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">93</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5513457"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar total <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variations and the <span class="hlt">global</span> sea surface temperature record</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The record of <span class="hlt">globally</span> averaged sea surface temperature (SST) over the past 130 years shows a highly significant correlation with the envelope of the 11-year cycle of solar activity over the same period. This correlation could be explained by a variation in the sun's total <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (the solar constant) that is in phase with the solar-cycle envelope, supporting and updating an earlier conclusion by Eddy (1976) that such variations could have played a major role in climate change over the past millennium. Measurements of the total <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> from spacecraft, rockets, and balloons over the past 25 years have provided evidence of long-term variations and have been used to develop a simple linear relationship between <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and the envelope of the sunspot cycle. This relationship has been used to force a one-dimensional model of the thermal structure of the ocean, consisting of a 100-m mixed layer coupled to a deep ocean and including a thermohaline circulation. The model was started in the mid-seventeenth century, at the time of the Maunder Minimum of solar activity, and mixed-layer temperatures were calculated at 6-month intervals up to the present. The total range of <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> values during the period was about 1%, and the total range of SST was about 1C. Cool periods, when temperatures were about 0.5C below present-day values, were found in the early decades of both the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The results can be taken as indicating that solar variability has been an important contributor to <span class="hlt">global</span> climate variations in recent decades. The growing atmospheric burden of greenhouse gases may well have played an important role in the immediate past.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reid, G.C. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (USA) Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (USA))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-02-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">94</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1931776"> <span id="translatedtitle">Blindness in patients after external beam <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> for pituitary adenomas: two cases occurring after small <span class="hlt">daily</span> fractional doses.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report two cases of blindness occurring within 10 months of completion of radiation with 45 Gy in 1.80 Gy fractions given five times weekly. The literature on blindness as a complication of pituitary <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> is reviewed. There have been no reported cases of total visual loss occurring as a consequence of treatment with fractional doses of less than 2 Gy. Visual loss due to radiation damage usually occurs within two years of completion of treatment in contrast to visual loss due to recurrence or empty sella syndrome, which usually occur more than two years after the completion of therapy. Other causes of blindness not related to the radiation, and potentially reversible, must be considered. However, these causes usually have a distinctively different clinical picture. Fraction size, total dose, and treatment time are all important factors when considering the biological effects of radiation to the pituitary region. PMID:1931776</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Millar, J L; Spry, N A; Lamb, D S; Delahunt, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">95</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.alz.org/care/alzheimers-dementia-daily-plan.asp"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Care</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... You Need to Know Online Tools Enhancing <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Life <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Plan Activities Communication Food & Eating Music & Art Personal Care Incontinence Bathing Dressing & Grooming Dental Care Medical Care Working with the Doctor Treatments ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">96</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6652E...7B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Passive separation of <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> into direct normal and diffuse components</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Common methods for ground-based measurement of direct normal and diffuse solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> include the simultaneous use of two instruments, usually a pyrheliometer and pyranometer or two pyranometers one of which is fitted with a shading ring. This article describes a passive method of obtaining the direct and diffuse components using a single pyranometer and an innovative shading band containing regularly spaced perforations to allow for alternate shading and exposure of the instrument's sensor as the sun transits the sky. Under clear sky conditions a saw tooth curve is generated that may be reformed into two distinct curves, one each for <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. The unknown direct normal values are then readily calculated. The approach potentially offers a cost advantage over dual-instrument and rotating band systems and an accuracy advantage over the single-instrument approach. In conjunction with a reference pyrheliometer under clear sky conditions, the device can be used in shade-unshade calibrations of pyranometers without need of manual operations. Design of the shading band is described and preliminary experimental results are presented. Results show that good accuracy is obtainable, on the order of +/- 40 Watts per square meter for <span class="hlt">global</span>, diffuse and direct estimates, under clear sky conditions, when compared with independent reference data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brooks, Michael J.; Braden, Sarah; Myers, Daryl R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">97</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ClDy...22..183M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of the variability and extremes of <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall during the Indian summer monsoon for present and future times in a <span class="hlt">global</span> time-slice experiment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study the simulation of the variability and extremes of <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall during the Indian summer monsoon for the present-day and the future climate is investigated. This is done on the basis of a <span class="hlt">global</span> time-slice experiment (TSL) with the ECHAM4 atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) at a high horizontal resolution of T106. The first time-slice (period: 1970-1999) represents the present-day climate and the second (2060-2089) the future climate. Moreover, observational rainfall data from the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP, 1997-2002) and rainfall data from the ECMWF re-analysis (ERA, 1958-2001) are considered. ERA reveals serious deficiencies in its representation of the variability and extremes of <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall during the Indian summer monsoon. These are mainly a severe overestimation of the frequency of wet days over the oceans and in the Himalayas, where also the rainfall intensity is overestimated. Further, ERA shows unrealistically heavy rainfall events over the tropical Indian Ocean. The ECHAM4 atmospheric GCM at a horizontal resolution of T106, on the other hand, simulates the variability and extremes of <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall in good agreement with the observations. The only marked deficiencies are an underestimation of the rainfall intensity on the west coast of the Indian peninsula and in Bangladesh, an overestimation over the tropical Indian Ocean, due to an erroneous northwestward extension of the tropical convergence zone, and an overestimation of the frequency of wet days in Tibet. Further, heavy rainfall events are relatively strong in the centre of the Indian peninsula. For the future, TSL predicts large increases in the rainfall intensity over the tropical Indian Ocean as well as in northern Pakistan and northwest India, but decreases in southern Pakistan, in the centre of the Indian peninsula, and over the western part of the Bay of Bengal. The frequency of wet days is markedly increased over the tropical Indian Ocean and decreased over the northern part of the Arabian Sea and in Tibet. The intensity of heavy rainfall events is generally increased in the future, with large increases over the Arabian Sea and the tropical Indian Ocean, in northern Pakistan and northwest India as well as in northeast India, Bangladesh, and Myanmar.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">May, W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">98</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B33L..07D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Identifying crop specific signals for <span class="hlt">global</span> agricultural monitoring based on the stability of <span class="hlt">daily</span> multi-angular MODIS reflectance time series</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Global</span> agricultural monitoring requires satellite Earth Observation systems that maximize the observation revisit frequency over the largest possible geographical coverage. Such compromise has thus far resulted in using a spatial resolution that is often coarser than desired. As a consequence, for many agricultural landscapes across the world, crop status can only be inferred from a mixed signal of the landscape (with a pixel size typically close to 1 km), composed of reflectance from neighbouring fields with potentially different crops, variable phenological behaviours and distinct management practices. MODIS has been providing, since 2000, a higher spatial resolution (~250m) that is closer to the size of individual fields in many agro-ecological landscapes. However, the challenge for operational crop specific monitoring remains to identify in time where a given crop has been sown during the current growing season. An innovative use of MODIS <span class="hlt">daily</span> data is proposed for crop identification based on the stability of the multi-angular signal. MODIS is a whiskbroom sensor with a large swath. For any given place, consecutive MODIS observations are made with considerably different viewing angles according to the <span class="hlt">daily</span> change in orbit. Consequently, the footprint of the observation varies considerably, thereby sampling the vicinity around the centre of the grid cell in which the time series is ultimately recorded in. If the consecutive observations that have sampled the vicinity provide similar NDVI values (for which BRDF effects are reduced), the resulting temporal signal is relatively stable. This stability indicated that the signal comes from a spatially homogeneous surface, such as a single large field covered by the same crop with similar agro-management practices. If the resulting temporal signal is noisy, it is probable that the consecutive <span class="hlt">daily</span> observations have sampled different land uses, thus contaminating the signal. Such time series can therefore be discarded as they are much more difficult to interpret for crop specific monitoring. The approach is demonstrated over different agro-ecological landscapes in Europe and America at regional level. Stable crop temporal signals are first identified automatically and then undergo an unsupervised classification. Clusters exhibiting the expected temporal behaviour of the dominant crops can then be labelled based on knowledge of the landscape. Such crop specific signals can then be related to official crop yield estimates at regional scale for operational yield forecasting during the remaining time life of MODIS. But more importantly, it could serve as a basis to develop a crop specific <span class="hlt">global</span> archive of crop specific signals since 2000, which could be used as a reference for future satellite Earth observation systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Duveiller, G.; Lopez-Lozano, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">99</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS31E1776E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Integrating Research on <span class="hlt">Global</span> Climate Change and Human Use of the Oceans: a Geospatial Method for <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Monitoring of Sea Ice and Ship Traffic in the Arctic</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">One apparent consequence of <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change has been a decrease in the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice more rapidly than models have predicted, while Arctic ship traffic has likewise increased beyond economic predictions. To ensure representative observations of changing climate conditions and human use of the Arctic Ocean, we concluded a method of tracking <span class="hlt">daily</span> changes in both sea ice and shipping in the Arctic Ocean was needed. Such a process improves the availability of sea ice data for navigational safety and allows future developments to be monitored for understanding of ice and shipping in relation to policy decisions appropriate to optimize sustainable use of a changing Arctic Ocean. The impetus for this work was the 2009 Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment (AMSA) which provided baseline data on Arctic ship traffic. AMSA was based on responses from circumpolar countries, was manpower intensive, and took years to compile. A more timely method of monitoring human use of the Arctic Ocean was needed. To address this, a method of monitoring sea ice on a scale relevant to ship-navigation (<10km) was developed and implemented in conjunction with arctic ship tracking using S-AIS (Satellite Automatic Identification Systems). S-AIS is internationally required on ships over a certain size, which includes most commercial vessels in the Arctic Ocean. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> AIS and sea ice observations were chosen for this study. Results of this method of geospatial analysis of the entire arctic are presented for a year long period from April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2011. This confirmed the dominance of European Arctic ship traffic. Arctic shipping is maximal during August and diminishes in September with a minimum in winter, although some shipping continues year-round in perennially ice-free areas. Data are analyzed for the four principal arctic quadrants around the North Pole by season for number and nationality of vessels. The goal of this study was not merely to monitor ship traffic and ice conditions concurrently, but also to demonstrate a new method of ocean monitoring based on <span class="hlt">daily</span> assimilation, data fusion, and integrated visualization of satellite ice remote sensing data and S-AIS ship data. In the future, as Arctic ship traffic and cryosphere sea ice cover variability are both expected to increase, this method can provide near real-time physical data on <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change and human dimensions of ocean use of to guide policies addressing arctic resource management, Search and Rescue (SAR) operations, oil spill response, and issues such as ship noise impacts on marine mammals, and whale-ship collision avoidance. An internationally agreed implementation of this methodology would benefit ships operating in the Arctic and advance sustainable use of the Arctic Ocean.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eucker, W.; McGillivary, P. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">100</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960022588&hterms=temporal+anomaly&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dtemporal%2Banomaly"> <span id="translatedtitle">The use of LinkWinds for the validation and analysis of 14 years of Microwave Sounder Unit <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature anomaly data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Temperature data derived from the Microwave Sounder Unit (MSU) provides an opportunity for investigating atmospheric temperatures on a <span class="hlt">global</span> scale since 1979. Fourteen years of <span class="hlt">global</span> data sets of <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature anomalies within the lower stratosphere and lower troposphere are being generated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. LinkWinds, a visualization/analysis package under development at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, has been extremely useful for validating and analyzing these data sets. LinkWinds provides the ability to interactively scroll and animate through the 10,220 images of temporal data, to selectively slice and view the data along latitude, longitude, or temporal axes, to interactively analyze spatial and temporal variability within the data, and to perform correlative analysis between various elements of the data. These capabilities have been invaluable in allowing the recognition of processing artifacts, as well as the effects that physical phenomena, such as the El Ninos effects and the Mt. Pinatubo eruption, have had on atmospheric temperatures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Botts, Michael E.; Spencer, Roy W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> 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<img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">101</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920043769&hterms=spectral+irradiance+solar+radiation+model&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dspectral%2Birradiance%2Bsolar%2Bradiation%2Bmodel"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> for satellite applications on a <span class="hlt">global</span> scale</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An early version of a physical model was modified and expanded to derive surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> from satellite observations. The model is based on radiative transfer theory, and can produce both direct and diffuse spectral components in the 0.2-4.0-micron interval. Attention is given to the absorption and scattering processes in the atmosphere and the interaction of radiation with the surface. The bidirectional nature of the exiting radiation at the top of the atmosphere is also accounted for. In this paper the emphasis will be on describing the current status of the model and its implementation on a <span class="hlt">global</span> scale with the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project C1 data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pinker, R. T.; Laszlo, I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">102</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3565032"> <span id="translatedtitle">Baseline Disability in Activities of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Living Predicts Dementia Risk Even After Controlling for Baseline <span class="hlt">Global</span> Cognitive Ability and Depressive Symptoms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objectives Late-life disability in Activities of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Living (ADL) is theorized to be driven by underlying cognitive and/or physical impairment, interacting with psychological and environmental factors. While we expect that cognitive deficits would explain associations between ADL disability and dementia risk, the current study examined ADL as a predictor of future dementia after controlling for <span class="hlt">global</span> cognitive status. Methods The population-based Cache County Memory Study (CCMS; N=3547) assessed individuals in four triennial waves (average age 74.9, years of education 13.36; 57.9% were women). Cox proportional hazards regression models assessed whether baseline ADL disability (presence of 2+ Instrumental ADL and/or 1+ Personal ADL) predicted incident dementia after controlling for APOE status, gender, age, baseline cognitive ability (Modified Mini-mental State Exam, 3MS-R; adjusted for education level), and baseline depressive symptoms (Diagnostic Interview Schedule). Results Over the course of study, 571 cases of incident dementia were identified through in-depth cognitive assessment, ending in expert consensus diagnosis. Results from Cox models suggest that ADL disability is a statistically significant predictor of incident dementia (adjusted Hazard Ratio=1.83, p<.001), even after controlling for covariate. Conclusions Findings suggest that ADL disability offers unique contributions in risk for incident dementia, even after controlling for <span class="hlt">global</span> cognitive status. We discuss how physical impairment and executive function may play important roles in this relationship, and how ADL is useful, not just a diagnostic tool at, or after dementia onset, but as a risk factor for future dementia, even in individuals not impaired on <span class="hlt">global</span> cognitive tests.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fauth, Elizabeth B.; Schwartz, Sarah; Tschanz, JoAnn T.; ?stbye, Truls; Corcoran, Christopher; Norton, Maria C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">103</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.3277W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of the effect of contrails on <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and solar energy production</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the present study we investigate the effect of contrails on <span class="hlt">global</span> shortwave radiation and on Photovoltaic module performance. This investigation is performed using continuous hemispherical fish eye photographs of the sky, diffuse and direct shortwave measurements and short circuit current measurements of a-Si, c-Si and CdTe PV modules. These measurements have been performed at the solar observatory Kanzelhöhe (1540 m.a.s.l) located in the southern part of Austria during a period of one and half year. The time resolution of the measurements is one minute, which allows to accurately follow the formation-eventually the disappearance- or the movement of the contrails in the sky. Using the fish eye photographs we identified clear sky days with a high contrail persistence. We especially look at situations where the contrails were shading the sun. Results show that contrails shading the sun may reduce the <span class="hlt">global</span> radiation by up to 60%. In general we however observe that during days with a high contrail persistence the diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> is slightly increased. Finally a statistic of the contrail persistence during the period of measurement is presented and conclusions as to the relevance for the solar energy production are drawn.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weihs, Philipp; Rennhofer, Marcus; Baumgartner, Dietmar; Wagner, Jochen; Laube, Wolfgang; Gadermaier, Josef</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">104</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRA..117.8110Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Time-dependent MHD modeling of the <span class="hlt">global</span> solar corona for year 2007: Driven by <span class="hlt">daily</span>-updated magnetic field synoptic data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we develop a time-dependent MHD model driven by the <span class="hlt">daily</span>-updated synoptic magnetograms (MHD-DUSM) to study the dynamic evolution of the <span class="hlt">global</span> corona with the help of the 3D Solar-Interplanetary (SIP) adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) space-time conservation element and solution element (CESE) MHD model (SIP-AMR-CESE MHD Model). To accommodate the observations, the tangential component of the electric field at the lower boundary is specified to allow the flux evolution to match the observed changes of magnetic field. Meanwhile, the time-dependent solar surface boundary conditions derived from the method of characteristics and the mass flux limit are incorporated to couple the observation and the 3D MHD model. The simulated evolution of the <span class="hlt">global</span> coronal structure during 2007 is compared with solar observations and solar wind measurements from both Ulysses and spacecrafts near the Earth. The MHD-DUSM model is also validated by comparisons with the standard potential field source surface (PFSS) model, the newly improved Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) empirical formula, and the MHD simulation with a monthly synoptic magnetogram (MHD-MSM). Comparisons show that the MHD-DUSM results have good overall agreement with coronal and interplanetary structures, including the sizes and distributions of coronal holes, the positions and shapes of the streamer belts, and the transitions of the solar wind speeds and magnetic field polarities. The MHD-DUSM results also display many features different from those of the PFSS, the WSA, and the MHD-MSM models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, L. P.; Feng, X. S.; Xiang, C. Q.; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Xuepu; Wu, S. T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">105</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/srb/srb_rel2.81_sw_daily_table"> <span id="translatedtitle">REL2.81 SW <span class="hlt">DAILY</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href=""></a></p> <p class="result-summary">... Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release 2.81 Shortwave <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Data in Native Format News:  GEWEX ... Parameters:  Viewing Geometry Incoming Shortwave Radiation Radiative Flux Solar <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Solar ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">106</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22149558"> <span id="translatedtitle">External Beam Accelerated Partial-Breast <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> Using 32 Gy in 8 Twice-<span class="hlt">Daily</span> Fractions: 5-Year Results of a Prospective Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: External beam accelerated partial breast <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> (APBI) is an increasingly popular technique for treatment of patients with early stage breast cancer following breast-conserving surgery. Here we present 5-year results of a prospective trial. Methods and Materials: From October 2003 through November 2005, 98 evaluable patients with stage I breast cancer were enrolled in the first dose step (32 Gy delivered in 8 twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> fractions) of a prospective, multi-institutional, dose escalation clinical trial of 3-dimensional conformal external beam APBI (3D-APBI). Median age was 61 years; median tumor size was 0.8 cm; 89% of tumors were estrogen receptor positive; 10% had a triple-negative phenotype; and 1% had a HER-2-positive subtype. Median follow-up was 71 months (range, 2-88 months; interquartile range, 64-75 months). Results: Five patients developed ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), for a 5-year actuarial IBTR rate of 5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1%-10%). Three of these cases occurred in patients with triple-negative disease and 2 in non-triple-negative patients, for 5-year actuarial IBTR rates of 33% (95% CI, 0%-57%) and 2% (95% CI, 0%-6%; P<.0001), respectively. On multivariable analysis, triple-negative phenotype was the only predictor of IBTR, with borderline statistical significance after adjusting for tumor grade (P=.0537). Conclusions: Overall outcomes were excellent, particularly for patients with estrogen receptor-positive disease. Patients in this study with triple-negative breast cancer had a significantly higher IBTR rate than patients with other receptor phenotypes when treated with 3D-APBI. Larger, prospective 3D-APBI clinical trials should continue to evaluate the effect of hormone receptor phenotype on IBTR rates.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pashtan, Itai M. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Recht, Abram [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ancukiewicz, Marek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Brachtel, Elena [Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Abi-Raad, Rita F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); D'Alessandro, Helen A. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Levy, Antonin; Wo, Jennifer Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hirsch, Ariel E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kachnic, Lisa A. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Goldberg, Saveli [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Specht, Michelle; Gadd, Michelle; Smith, Barbara L. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Powell, Simon N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Taghian, Alphonse G., E-mail: ataghian@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">107</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4029700"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatial Estimation of Sub-Hour <span class="hlt">Global</span> Horizontal <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Based on Official Observations and Remote Sensors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study was motivated by the need to improve densification of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Horizontal <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> (GHI) observations, increasing the number of surface weather stations that observe it, using sensors with a sub-hour periodicity and examining the methods of spatial GHI estimation (by interpolation) with that periodicity in other locations. The aim of the present research project is to analyze the goodness of 15-minute GHI spatial estimations for five methods in the territory of Spain (three geo-statistical interpolation methods, one deterministic method and the HelioSat2 method, which is based on satellite images). The research concludes that, when the work area has adequate station density, the best method for estimating GHI every 15 min is Regression Kriging interpolation using GHI estimated from satellite images as one of the input variables. On the contrary, when station density is low, the best method is estimating GHI directly from satellite images. A comparison between the GHI observed by volunteer stations and the estimation model applied concludes that 67% of the volunteer stations analyzed present values within the margin of error (average of ±2 standard deviations).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gutierrez-Corea, Federico-Vladimir; Manso-Callejo, Miguel-Angel; Moreno-Regidor, Maria-Pilar; Velasco-Gomez, Jesus</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">108</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24732102"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatial estimation of sub-hour <span class="hlt">Global</span> Horizontal <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> based on official observations and remote sensors.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study was motivated by the need to improve densification of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Horizontal <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> (GHI) observations, increasing the number of surface weather stations that observe it, using sensors with a sub-hour periodicity and examining the methods of spatial GHI estimation (by interpolation) with that periodicity in other locations. The aim of the present research project is to analyze the goodness of 15-minute GHI spatial estimations for five methods in the territory of Spain (three geo-statistical interpolation methods, one deterministic method and the HelioSat2 method, which is based on satellite images). The research concludes that, when the work area has adequate station density, the best method for estimating GHI every 15 min is Regression Kriging interpolation using GHI estimated from satellite images as one of the input variables. On the contrary, when station density is low, the best method is estimating GHI directly from satellite images. A comparison between the GHI observed by volunteer stations and the estimation model applied concludes that 67% of the volunteer stations analyzed present values within the margin of error (average of ±2 standard deviations). PMID:24732102</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gutierrez-Corea, Federico-Vladimir; Manso-Callejo, Miguel-Angel; Moreno-Regidor, María-Pilar; Velasco-Gómez, Jesús</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">109</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2287634"> <span id="translatedtitle">Model for the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> of the solar biologically-effective ultraviolet-radiation on inclined surfaces.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The body surface area of man is the relevant receiving surface for solar UV radiation. To consider this body surface geometry, the biologically-effective UV radiation of the solar <span class="hlt">global</span> radiation was measured. This was done at 26 differently aligned measuring points whose orientation was determined by the angle of inclination (vertical) and the azimuth (horizontal). Approximately eight hundred sets of measurement series were carried out at 33 different sites. A simple model, developed from the data obtained, made it possible to calculate relative <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> as a function of the angle of inclination and the ground reflection (UV albedo). Thus relative risk of solar UV exposure to different regions of the body can be assessed. In addition to this, if the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on a horizontal plane (measured or calculated by a corresponding model) is taken into consideration, the absolute values for UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on tilted planes can be determined. PMID:2287634</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schauberger, G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">110</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3303O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of confidence intervals of <span class="hlt">global</span> horizontal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> obtained from a weather prediction model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many photovoltaic (PV) systems have been installed in Japan after the introduction of the Feed-in-Tariff. For an energy management of electric power systems included many PV systems, the forecast of the PV power production are useful technology. Recently numerical weather predictions have been applied to forecast the PV power production while the forecasted values invariably have forecast errors for each modeling system. So, we must use the forecast data considering its error. In this study, we attempted to estimate confidence intervals for hourly forecasts of <span class="hlt">global</span> horizontal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (GHI) values obtained from a mesoscale model (MSM) de-veloped by the Japan Meteorological Agency. In the recent study, we found that the forecasted values of the GHI of the MSM have two systematical forecast errors; the first is that forecast values of the GHI are depended on the clearness indices, which are defined as the GHI values divided by the extraterrestrial solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. The second is that forecast errors have the seasonal variations; the overestimation of the GHI forecasts is found in winter while the underestimation of those is found in summer. The information of the errors of the hourly GHI forecasts, that is, confidence intervals of the forecasts, is of great significance for planning the energy management included a lot of PV systems by an electric company. On the PV systems, confidence intervals of the GHI forecasts are required for a pinpoint area or for a relatively large area control-ling the power system. For the relatively large area, a spatial-smoothing method of the GHI values is performed for both the observations and forecasts. The spatial-smoothing method caused the decline of confidence intervals of the hourly GHI forecasts on an extreme event of the GHI forecast (a case of large forecast error) over the relatively large area of the Tokyo electric company (approximately 68 % than for a pinpoint forecast). For more credible estimation of the confidence intervals, it is required to consider the location of the installed PV systems or its capacity over the region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ohtake, Hideaki; Gari da Silva Fonseca, Joao, Jr.; Takashima, Takumi; Oozeki, Takashi; Yamada, Yoshinori</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">111</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://poems.com/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Poetry <span class="hlt">Daily</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Some might say that a poem a day isn't nearly enough, while the skeptical might say that it is quite enough already, thank you very much. Regardless of that debate, Poetry <span class="hlt">Daily</span> is a splendid resource that brings visitors new poems from books, magazines and journals currently in print. Visitors to the site will find themselves looking straight at "Today's Poem", which of course features the <span class="hlt">daily</span> poem, along with links to other works by the author. If one poem is simply not enough, the site also contains an archive that goes back approximately one year. Additionally, the site also contains a "News, Reviews, & Special Features" section, which digests recent news stories about the world of poetry.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">112</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://blog.constitutioncenter.org/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Constitution <span class="hlt">Daily</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Everyone could use a bit of the Constitution added to their <span class="hlt">daily</span> lives, and this website more than delivers on its promise to deliver "smart conversation about the Constitution". Constitution <span class="hlt">Daily</span> is an experimental blog edited by the National Constitution Center (NCC) in Philadelphia, and commentary here can include conversations about student privacy rights, the Second Amendment, and the activities of Congress. Visitors can click on the "Issues" section to dive into topic areas that include civility and privacy. After looking at each topic area, visitors can look at an interactive timeline that arranges comments, posts, and discussion on the subject. The site also contains some nice polls, and information about upcoming events at the NCC.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">113</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A31F0084G"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Comparison Between Heliosat-2 and Artificial Neural Network Methods for <span class="hlt">Global</span> Horizontal <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Retrievals over Desert Environments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Global</span> horizontal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (GHI) retrievals at the surface of any given location could be used for preliminary solar resource assessments. More accurately, the direct normal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (DNI) and diffuse horizontal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (DHI) are also required to estimate the <span class="hlt">global</span> tilt <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, mainly used for fixed flat plate collectors. Two different satellite-based models for solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> retrievals have been applied over the desert environment of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Both models employ channels of the SEVIRI instrument, onboard the geostationary satellite Meteosat Second Generation, as their main inputs. The satellite images used in this study have a temporal resolution of 15-min and a spatial resolution of 3-km. The objective of this study is to compare between the GHI retrieved using the Heliosat-2 method and an artificial neural network (ANN) ensemble method over the UAE. The high-resolution visible channel of SEVIRI is used in the Heliosat-2 method to derive the cloud index. The cloud index is then used to compute the cloud transmission, while the cloud-free GHI is computed from the Linke turbidity factor. The product of the cloud transmission and the cloud-free GHI denotes the estimated GHI. A constant underestimation is observed in the estimated GHI over the dataset available in the UAE. Therefore, the cloud-free DHI equation in the model was recalibrated to fix the bias. After recalibration, results over the UAE show a root mean square error (RMSE) value of 10.1% and a mean bias error (MBE) of -0.5%. As for the ANN approach, six thermal channels of SEVIRI were used to estimate the DHI and the total optical depth of the atmosphere (?). An ensemble approach is employed to obtain a better generalizability of the results, as opposed to using one single weak network. The DNI is then computed from the estimated ? using the Beer-Bouguer-Lambert law. The GHI is computed from the DNI and DHI estimates. The RMSE for the estimated GHI obtained over an independent dataset over the UAE is 7.2% and the MBE is +1.9%. The results obtained by the two methods have shown that both the recalibrated Heliosat-2 and the ANN ensemble methods estimate the GHI at a 15-min resolution with high accuracy. The advantage of the ANN ensemble approach is that it derives the GHI from accurate DNI and DHI estimates. The DNI and DHI estimates are valuable when computing the <span class="hlt">global</span> tilt <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. Also, accurate DNI estimates are beneficial for preliminary site selection for concentrating solar powered plants.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ghedira, H.; Eissa, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">114</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A11I0163Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of A <span class="hlt">Global</span>-To-Beam <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Model to the Satellite-Based NASA GEWEX SRB Data and Validation of the Results against the Ground-Based BSRN Data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The NASA/GEWEX SRB (Surface Radiation Budget) project has produced a 24.5-year continuous <span class="hlt">global</span> record of shortwave and longwave radiation flux dataset at TOA and the Earth's surface from satellite measurements. The time span of the data is from July 1983 to December 2007, and the spatial resolution is 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude. SRB products are available on 3-hourly, 3-hourly-monthly, <span class="hlt">daily</span> and monthly time scales. The inputs to the models include: 1.) Cloud parameters derived from pixel-level DX product of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP); 2.) Temperature and moisture profiles of the atmosphere generated with the Goddard Earth Observing System model Version 4.0.3 (GEOS-4.0.3) from a 4-D data assimilation product of the Data Assimilation Office at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; 3.) Atmospheric column ozone record constructed from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aboard Nimbus-7 (July 1983 - November 1994), from the Operational Vertical Sounder aboard the Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS, TOVS) (December 1994 - October 1995), from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and from Stratospheric Monitoring Ozone Blended Analysis (SMOBA) products; 4.) Surface albedos based on monthly climatological clear-sky albedos at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) which in turn were derived from the NASA Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data during 2000-2005; 5.) Surface emissivities from a map developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The SRB <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> have been extensively validated against the ground-based BSRN (Baseline Surface Radiation Network), GEBA (<span class="hlt">Global</span> Energy Balance Archive), and WRDC (World Radiation Data Centre) data, and generally good agreement is achieved. In this paper, we apply the DirIndex model, a modified version of the DirInt model, to the SRB 3-hourly <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> and derive the 3-hourly beam, or direct normal, <span class="hlt">irradiances</span>. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> and monthly mean direct normal and diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> are derived. The input variables include, among others, surface pressure, precipitable water, geopotential height of the surface, 10-meter temperature, and specific humidity from GEOS, and AOD at 700 nm derived from the MATCH (Model for Atmospheric Transport and CHemistry) data. The DirIndex model is modified to accommodate the ranges of the input variables wider than specified in the original DirIndex model. The results are then validated against their BSRN counterparts. Compared with an earlier empirical model for monthly means, the results from the modified DirIndex model shows appreciable improvement.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, T.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.; Chandler, W.; Hoell, J. M.; Westberg, D. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">115</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGC11A0680S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Total Solar <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Composites and the empirical analysis of the solar contribution to <span class="hlt">global</span> mean air surface temperature change (Invited)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We discuss the Total Solar <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> satellite composites and show that the ACRIM/PMOD controversy is still open to further investigation. In particular we show that TSI proxy models based on solar surface magnetic field disprove the alterations made by PMOD of the Nimbus record during the ACRIM gap (1989-1992). This suggest that the TSI may have increased from 1980 to 2000 as ACRIM science team has proposed. By using alternative TSI model we evaluate the solar contribution to <span class="hlt">global</span> mean air surface temperature change by using an empirical bi-scale climate model characterized by both fast and slow characteristic time responses to solar forcing: T1 = 0.4 +/- 0.1 yr, and T2 = 8 +/- 2 yr or T2 = 12 +/- 3 yr. Since 1980 the solar contribution to climate change is uncertain because of the severe uncertainty of the total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> satellite composites. The sun may have caused from a slight cooling, if PMOD TSI composite is used, to a significant warming (up to 65% of the total observed warming) if ACRIM, or other TSI composites are used. The model is calibrated only on the empirical 11-year solar cycle signature on the instrumental <span class="hlt">global</span> surface temperature since 1980. The model reconstructs the major temperature patterns covering 400 years of solar induced temperature changes, as shown in recent paleoclimate <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature records.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Scafetta, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">116</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JASTP.112...47D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> and direct UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variation in the Nahuel Huapi National Park (Patagonia, Argentina) after the eruption of Puyehue-Cordon Caulle (Chile)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">On June 4th, 2011, the Puyehue-Cordon Caulle volcanic complex (40°35?25?S 72°07?02?W, Chile) started eruption, sending ash 45,000 feet into the atmosphere. After the initial period, the eruption continued for several months, with less intensity. Changes in <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> in the UV-B and UV-A, and direct <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and AOD in the UV-A, as consequence of the eruption, were studied. <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> has been permanently measured at the Laboratory of Photobiology (LPh) (41.13S, 71.42W, 804 msl) since 1998. In addition, in the frame of a project to study altitude effect on direct and <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, field campaigns were performed during September 17th to 23rd, 2010 and September 14th to 18th, 2011, in the region of the Nahuel Huapi National Park, near 100 km from the eruption. In those periods, simultaneous measurements of direct and <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and aerosol optical depth (AOD) were carried out at three sites: Laboratory of Photobiology (LPh), Mt Otto (41.15S, 71.38W, 1386 msl) and Mt Catedral (41.17S, 71.48W, 1930 msl). The analysis of aerosols in 2011, three to four month after the eruption started, showed the presence of larger particles and more variability than in 2010, at all sites. <span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, at LPh, also exhibited larger variability, compared to 1999, when no eruption or any other event that could have produced major changes in aerosols occurred. The mean decrease, as consequence of the volcano activity, at LPh, was around 20%, at 305 nm and closed to 10%, at 320 nm. At 380 nm, the decrease was very small and not statistically significant, although in particular days, with large aerosol load, a significant decrease was observed. Direct <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, in the UV-A, showed larger decrease than <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. The effect of the eruption was more pronounced at the low altitude site.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Diaz, S. B.; Paladini, A. A.; Braile, H. G.; Dieguez, M. C.; Deferrari, G. A.; Vernet, M.; Vrsalovic, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">117</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998JGR...10321355W"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> upper ocean heat storage response to radiative forcing from changing solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and increasing greenhouse gas/aerosol concentrations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We constructed gridded fields of diabatic heat storage changes in the upper ocean from 20°S to 60°N from historical temperature profiles collected from 1955 to 1996. We filtered these 42 year records for periods of 8 to 15 years and 15 to 30 years, producing depth-weighted vertical average temperature (DVT) changes from the sea surface to the top of the main pycnocline. Basin and <span class="hlt">global</span> averages of these DVT changes reveal decadal and interdecadal variability in phase across the Indian, Pacific, Atlantic, and <span class="hlt">Global</span> Oceans, each significantly correlated with changing surface solar radiative forcing at a lag of 0+/-2 years. Decadal and interdecadal changes in <span class="hlt">global</span> average DVT are 0.06°+/-0.01°K and 0.04°K+/-0.01°K, respectively, the same as those expected from consideration of the Stefan-Boltzmann radiation balance (i.e., 0.3°K per Wm-2) in response to 0.1% changes in surface solar radiative forcing of 0.2 Wm-2 and 0.15 Wm-2, respectively. <span class="hlt">Global</span> spatial patterns of DVT changes are similar to temperature changes simulated in coupled ocean-atmosphere models, suggesting that natural modes of Earth's variability are phase-locked to the solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> cycle. A trend in <span class="hlt">global</span> average DVT of 0.15°K over this 42 year record cannot be explained by changing surface solar radiative forcing. But when we consider the 0.5 Wm-2 increase in surface radiative forcing estimated from the increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas and aerosol (GGA) concentrations over this period [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 1995], the Stefan-Boltzmann radiation balance yields this observed change. Moreover, the sum of solar and GGA surface radiative forcing can explain the relatively sharp increase in <span class="hlt">global</span> and basin average DVT in the late 1970's.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">White, Warren B.; Cayan, Daniel R.; Lean, Judith</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">118</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18602273"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> status of commercialization of and developments on international trade in <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> food</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">National and international organizations have paid particular attention to the use of food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> as a method to reduce postharvest food losses, to ensure hygienic quality of foods-especially those of animal origin, and to overcome certain non-tariff barriers to trade for the following reasons: (1) The increasingly strict standards for quality and quarantine in food trade. (2) The increasingly restrictions</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paisan Loaharanu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">119</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16778947"> <span id="translatedtitle">Narrowband filter radiometer for ground-based measurements of <span class="hlt">global</span> ultraviolet solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and total ozone.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ultraviolet narrowband filter radiometer (UV-RAD) designed by the authors to take ground-based measurements of UV solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, total ozone, and biological dose rate is described, together with the main characteristics of the seven blocked filters mounted on it, all of which have full widths at half maxima that range 0.67 to 0.98 nm. We have analyzed the causes of cosine response and calibration errors carefully to define the corresponding correction terms, paying particular attention to those that are due to the spectral displacements of the filter transmittance peaks from the integer wavelength values. The influence of the ozone profile on the retrieved ozone at large solar zenith angles has also been examined by means of field measurements. The opportunity of carrying out nearly monochromatic <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements offered by the UV-RAD allowed us to improve the procedure usually followed to reconstruct the solar spectrum at the surface by fitting the computed results, using radiative transfer models with field measurements of <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. Two long-term comparison campaigns took place, showing that a mean discrepancy of +0.3% exists between the UV-RAD total ozone values and those given by the Brewer #63 spectroradiometer and that mean differences of +0.3% and -0.9% exist between the erythemal dose rates determined with the UV-RAD and those obtained with the Brewer #63 and the Brewer #104 spectroradiometers, respectively. PMID:16778947</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Petkov, Boyan; Vitale, Vito; Tomasi, Claudio; Bonafé, Ubaldo; Scaglione, Salvatore; Flori, Daniele; Santaguida, Riccardo; Gausa, Michael; Hansen, Georg; Colombo, Tiziano</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-06-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">120</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ApOpt..45.4383P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Narrowband filter radiometer for ground-based measurements of <span class="hlt">global</span> ultraviolet solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and total ozone</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ultraviolet narrowband filter radiometer (UV-RAD) designed by the authors to take ground-based measurements of UV solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, total ozone, and biological dose rate is described, together with the main characteristics of the seven blocked filters mounted on it, all of which have full widths at half maxima that range 0.67 to 0.98 nm. We have analyzed the causes of cosine response and calibration errors carefully to define the corresponding correction terms, paying particular attention to those that are due to the spectral displacements of the filter transmittance peaks from the integer wavelength values. The influence of the ozone profile on the retrieved ozone at large solar zenith angles has also been examined by means of field measurements. The opportunity of carrying out nearly monochromatic <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements offered by the UV-RAD allowed us to improve the procedure usually followed to reconstruct the solar spectrum at the surface by fitting the computed results, using radiative transfer models with field measurements of <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. Two long-term comparison campaigns took place, showing that a mean discrepancy of +0.3% exists between the UV-RAD total ozone values and those given by the Brewer #63 spectroradiometer and that mean differences of +0.3% and -0.9% exist between the erythemal dose rates determined with the UV-RAD and those obtained with the Brewer #63 and the Brewer #104 spectroradiometers, respectively.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Petkov, Boyan; Vitale, Vito; Tomasi, Claudio; Bonafé, Ubaldo; Scaglione, Salvatore; Flori, Daniele; Santaguida, Riccardo; Gausa, Michael; Hansen, Georg; Colombo, Tiziano</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img 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showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">121</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39663828"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> photosynthetically active radiation and its relationship with <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation in the Eastern Mediterranean basin</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary  ¶The relationship between <span class="hlt">global</span> photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation is studied with a 2-year\\u000a data archive of hourly values HPAR and HSW of these <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> obtained at Athalassa, Cyprus. These data are used to determine the temporal variability of HPAR and its dependence on sky conditions. The seasonal variation of the ratio HPAR\\/HSW obtained from <span class="hlt">daily</span> data</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. P. Jacovides; F. S. Tymvios; D. N. Asimakopoulos; K. M. Theofilou; S. Pashiardes</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">122</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/43559513"> <span id="translatedtitle">The PROMOTE UV Record: Toward a <span class="hlt">Global</span> Satellite-Based Climatology of Surface Ultraviolet <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper describes the PROMOTE UV Record, which aims to provide a <span class="hlt">global</span> long-term record of the surface UV radiation. The algorithm developed takes as input cloud information from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) and a recently developed multisensor assimilated record of the total ozone column. Aerosols and surface albedo are based on climatologies. Here, first validation results</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anders Lindfors; Aapo Tanskanen; Antti Arola; Ronald van der A; Alkiviadis Bais; Uwe Feister; Michal Janouch; Weine Josefsson; Tapani Koskela; Kaisa Lakkala; Peter N. den Outer; Andrew R. D. Smedley; Harry Slaper; Ann R. Webb</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">123</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cder.dz/vlib/revue/pdf/v010_n1_texte_8.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reconstitution des <span class="hlt">irradiations</span> <span class="hlt">globale</span> et diffuse en fonction de quelques paramètres météorologiques pour un ciel quelconque</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this work is to verify the application of models which allow reconstituting monthly averages a day <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse radiations on a horizontal plan. Chosen models were proposed in the literature by various scientists and relative to several sites in the world. This models are a function of main meteorological parameters of which ambient temperature, relative humidity,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Koussa; M. Haddadi; A. Malek</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">124</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACPD....926777D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cirrus cloud radiative effect on surface-level shortwave and longwave <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> at regional and <span class="hlt">global</span> scale</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Data collected at four ground-level sites are analyzed (1) to determine the surface cloud radiative effect (CRE) induced by cirrus clouds at regional scale for shortwave (CRESW) and longwave (CRELW) fluxes and (2) to derive the sensitivity of surface CRESW to the cloud optical thickness (COT) modulated by the solar zenith angle and the atmospheric turbidity (noted CRESW*) and the sensitivity of surface CRELW to the infrared emissive power of cirrus cloud modulated by the water vapor content (noted CRELW*). The average CRESW* is -120 W m-2 COT-1 but it ranges from -80 to -140 m-2 COT-1 depending on the solar illumination with a residual variability ranges from +40 and -40 W m-2 COT-1 from pristine to turbid conditions, respectively. The CRELW*, that corresponds to the infrared transmissivity of the atmosphere, ranges from 3% to 40% from dry to wet atmospheric conditions, respectively. The subvisible cirrus class (COT<0.03) over mid-latitude sites, that represents 20% of the population, induces a significant increase in surface LW <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at the 2-7 W m-2 level. The semi-transparent cirrus class (0.03<COT<0.3), that represents 45% of the population, will affect the surface SW <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> by -12 to -25 W m-2. Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) are used here to estimate the surface radiative effect at <span class="hlt">global</span> scale. <span class="hlt">Global</span> CRE estimations show very significant zonal and seasonal variability of each component of the CRENET. CRENET is 0.4 W m-2 during winter/autumn for 15-75° N and 1 W m-2 for 45-75° S whereas it is near -3 W m-2 for 15° S-15° N. The summer period shows a cirrus cloud <span class="hlt">global</span> cooling at all the latitudes except for 75-45° S with a quasi null effect and a peak at -3.6 W m-2 for 15° S-45° N. The <span class="hlt">global</span> average cumulative CRE is -2.8, 1.7 and -1.1 W m-2 for CRESW, CRELW, and CRENET, respectively.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dupont, J.-C.; Haeffelin, M.; Long, C. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">125</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780031917&hterms=qantas&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2522qantas%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> measurements of gaseous and aerosol trace species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere from <span class="hlt">daily</span> flights of 747 airliners</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A description is given of the NASA <span class="hlt">Global</span> Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP), taking into account the onboard system which collects atmospheric data automatically, the extensive atmospheric measurement capability, and the data handling and distribution procedure. GASP was implemented to assess the environmental impact of aircraft exhaust emissions in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. <span class="hlt">Global</span> air quality data are to be obtained for a period of five to ten years. Measurements of pollutants not related to aircraft exhaust emissions, such as chlorofluoromethanes, are now included. GASP systems are operating on a United Airlines 747, two Pan Am 747s, and a Qantas Airways of Australia 747. Real-time, in-situ measurements are conducted of ozone, water vapor, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen. Chlorofluoromethanes are measured by laboratory analysis. Typical GASP data show significant changes in ozone, carbon monoxide, and water vapor related to crossings of the tropopause.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Perkins, P. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">126</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1211585S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measurements of <span class="hlt">global</span> UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at Terranova Bay, Antactica, by a home made narrow band filter radiometer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Filter radiometers measure the solar radiation in several channels (typically 4 to 7) with a bandwith from 2 to 10 nm. They require less maintenance than the spectroradiometer and they are able to work in hostile environment as for instance the polar regions. The spectral resolution depends on the width at half maximum (FWHM) of the filters and is generally lower than the spectroradiometer resolution (0.5 nm). Other than the robustness of this instruments, the main advantage of the filter radiometers is the high frequency with which all wavelengths can be measured, making this class of instrument well suited for investigating short term <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variation. In this work is presented the results of UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements performed by a very narrow band (FWHM less than 1 nm) filter radiometer at Antarctica Italia Base, Mario Zucchelli Station, Terranova Bay, lat. 74° 41.6084' south and lon. 164° 05.9224' est. All-dielectric Fabry-Perot filters were manufactured in the laboratories of the Optical Coating Group, ENEA, by the ion beam assistance physical vapor deposition technique. Nine filters select nine different wavelengths in the UV spectral range from 296.5 nm to 377 nm with about 1 minute of measurement period, i.e. each wavelength is measured about 1250 times per day. At the moment the radiometer are permanently located near MZS and the data are <span class="hlt">daily</span> downloaded in ENEA, Rome, by a dedicated satellite channel. During the Antarctica winter the radiometer will be in standby mode, in this season MZS is closed, and it will be start to measure again in the Antarctica spring.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Salvatore, Scaglione; di Sarcina, Ilaria; Flori, Daniele; Menchini, Francesca</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">127</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100003076&hterms=health+publications&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dhealth%2Bpublications"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solutions Network Formulation Report. Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor Measurements of Diffuse-to-<span class="hlt">Global</span> <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Ratio for Improved Forecasting of Plant Productivity and Health</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Studies have shown that vegetation is directly sensitive to changes in the diffuse-to-<span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> ratio and that increased percentage of diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> can accelerate photosynthesis. Therefore, measurements of diffuse versus <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> could be useful for monitoring crop productivity and overall vegetative health as they relate to the total amount of particulates in the air that result from natural disasters or anthropogenic (manmade) causes. While the components of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> are measured by satellite and surface sensors and calculated with atmospheric models, disagreement exists between the results, creating a need for more accurate and comprehensive retrievals of atmospheric aerosol parameters. Two satellite sensors--APS and VIIRS--show promise for retrieving aerosol properties at an unprecedented level of accuracy. APS is expected to be launched in December 2008. The planned launch date for VIIRS onboard NPP is September 2009. Identified partners include the USDA s ARS, North Carolina State University, Purdue Climate Change Research Center, and the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere at Colorado State University. Although at present no formal DSSs (decision support systems) require accurate values of diffuse-to-<span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, this parameter is sufficiently important that models are being developed that will incorporate these measurements. This candidate solution is aligned with the Agricultural Efficiency and Air Quality National Applications.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Knowlton, Kelly; Andrews, Jane C.; Ryan, Robert E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">128</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7773E..14M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of direct normal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> derived from silicon and thermopile <span class="hlt">global</span> hemispherical radiation detectors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Concentrating solar applications utilize direct normal <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (DNI) radiation, a measurement rarely available. The solar concentrator industry has begun to deploy numerous measurement stations to prospect for suitable system deployment sites. Rotating shadowband radiometers (RSR) using silicon photodiodes as detectors are typically deployed. This paper compares direct beam estimates from RSR to a total hemispherical measuring radiometer (SPN1) multiple fast thermopiles. These detectors simultaneously measure total and diffuse radiation from which DNI can be computed. Both the SPN1 and RSR-derived DNI are compared to DNI measured with thermopile pyrheliometers. Our comparison shows that the SPN1 radiometer DNI estimated uncertainty is somewhat greater than, and on the same order as, the RSR DNI estimates for DNI magnitudes useful to concentrator technologies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Myers, Daryl R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">129</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20466163"> <span id="translatedtitle">The A1chieve study: a 60 000-person, <span class="hlt">global</span>, prospective, observational study of basal, meal-time, and biphasic insulin analogs in <span class="hlt">daily</span> clinical practice.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">While evidenced-based guidelines promote glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) targets <7.0% in order to reduce the long-term risk of diabetic complications, many individuals with type 2 diabetes do not achieve these targets. Fear of hypoglycemia provides a major barrier to improving blood glucose control as a result of delayed insulin initiation and failure to appropriately titrate insulin following initiation. Modern insulin analogs were designed to achieve improved blood glucose control with similar hypoglycemic risk compared with non-analog insulins (or similar blood glucose control with reduced hypoglycemic risk). While this has been demonstrated in randomized controlled trials, there is a need to confirm these findings in an everyday clinical setting. The A(1)chieve study will evaluate adverse events and effectiveness of premix (biphasic insulin aspart 30 [NovoMix 30]), basal (insulin detemir [Levemir]), and meal-time (insulin aspart [NovoRapid]) insulin analogs in people with type 2 diabetes in near-routine clinical practice. A(1)chieve is an international, prospective, multi-center, open-label, non-interventional, 24-week study of people with type 2 diabetes using an insulin analog. The study will recruit 60 000 people from 30 countries across four continents (Asia, Africa, South America, and Europe). The primary aim of the study is to assess the adverse event profile of the study insulins in routine clinical practice, including rates of hypoglycemia. In addition, effectiveness (HbA(1c), fasting plasma glucose, and postprandial plasma glucose) and patient quality of life outcomes will be measured. Comprehensive epidemiological data will be collected at baseline, including recent plasma glucose results and hypoglycemic episodes, prevalence of diabetes-related complications, and measures of current standards of care. Thus, A(1)chieve should provide important information about how insulin analogs perform in <span class="hlt">daily</span> clinical practice. PMID:20466163</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shah, Siddharth N; Litwak, León; Haddad, Jihad; Chakkarwar, Praful N; Hajjaji, Issam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">130</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20849990"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fifteen-year results of a randomized prospective trial of hyperfractionated chest wall <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> versus once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> chest wall <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> after chemotherapy and mastectomy for patients with locally advanced noninflammatory breast cancer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: To analyze the results of a Phase III clinical trial that investigated whether a hyperfractionated radiotherapy (RT) schedule could reduce the risk of locoregional recurrence in patients with locally advanced breast cancer treated with chemotherapy and mastectomy. Methods and Materials: Between 1985 and 1989, 200 patients with clinical Stage III noninflammatory breast cancer were enrolled in a prospective study investigating neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy. Of the 179 patients treated with mastectomy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 108 participated in a randomized component of the trial that compared a dose-escalated, hyperfractionated (twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span>, b.i.d.) chest wall RT schedule (72 Gy in 1.2-Gy b.i.d. fractions) with a once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> (q.d.) schedule (60 Gy in 2-Gy q.d. fractions). In both arms of the study, the supraclavicular fossa and axillary apex were treated once <span class="hlt">daily</span> to 50 Gy. The median follow-up period was 15 years. Results: The 15-year actuarial locoregional recurrence rate was 7% for the q.d. arm and 12% for the b.i.d. arm (p = 0.36). The rates of severe acute toxicity were similar (4% for q.d. vs. 5% for b.i.d.), but moist desquamation developed in 42% of patients in the b.i.d. arm compared with 28% of the patients in the q.d. arm (p = 0.16). The 15-year actuarial rate of severe late RT complications did not differ between the two arms (6% for q.d. vs. 11% for b.i.d., p = 0.54). Conclusion: Although the sample size of this study was small, we found no evidence that this hyperfractionation schedule of postmastectomy RT offered a clinical advantage. Therefore, we have concluded that it should not be further studied in this cohort of patients.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Buchholz, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)]. E-mail: tbuchhol@mdanderson.org; Strom, Eric A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Oswald, Mary Jane [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Perkins, George H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Oh, Julia [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Domain, Delora [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Yu, Tse-Kuan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Woodward, Wendy A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Tereffe, Welela [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Singletary, S. Eva [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Thomas, Eva [Department of Breast Medical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Buzdar, Aman U. [Department of Breast Medical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Hortobagyi, Gabriel N. [Department of Breast Medical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); McNeese, Marsha D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-07-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">131</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE85700054"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> over Zambia.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Angstroem-Page linear regression equation between <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> and sunshine duration is fitted for five Zambian locations for which the direct measured values of the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> exist. Excellent correlation is found to exist for all the five ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. C. Jain</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">132</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/KUDiseases/pubs/diary/index.aspx"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Bladder Diary</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... Bladder Control for Women : <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Bladder Diary <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Bladder Diary The following links are to pages that ... printer so that you have copies of the bladder diary. If you have Adobe's® Acrobat® Reader Software , ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">133</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930022266&hterms=Fuzzy+control&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3D%2522Fuzzy%2Bcontrol%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> exercise routines</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Viewgraphs on <span class="hlt">daily</span> exercise routines are presented. Topics covered include: <span class="hlt">daily</span> exercise and periodic stress testings; exercise equipment; physiological monitors; exercise protocols; physiological levels; equipment control; control systems; and fuzzy logic control.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anderson, Patrick L.; Amoroso, Michael T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">134</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12720600"> <span id="translatedtitle">Imaging chronic <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">New imaging technology allows us to study neurologic disorders that have had no previous structural basis. There have been recent reports on the involvement of nociceptive pathways in <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache. A systematic review was performed using key words "chronic <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache" and "imaging." This paper reviews the literature on imaging studies performed on <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache with emphasis on the new imaging technology. PMID:12720600</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aurora, Sheena K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">135</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.yourhealthdaily.com/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Your Health <span class="hlt">Daily</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Your Health <span class="hlt">Daily</span> offers <span class="hlt">daily</span> updates on health and medical news in a well-organized and easy-to-use format. Provided by The New York Times Syndicate, Your Health <span class="hlt">Daily</span> includes news, features, analysis and columns from a variety of news sources in the United States, Asia and Europe, including Medical Tribune News Service. Users can browse the latest news or choose from 15 "Common Topics" for articles of personal interest. A database of past medical and health articles is available and searchable by topic or keyword. The site provides links to other NYT Syndicate services such as Computer News <span class="hlt">Daily</span> and TimesFax.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">136</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7075880"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quick use of WEFAX images from METEOSAT to determine <span class="hlt">daily</span> solar radiation in France</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors present some preliminary results about 74 days: March 15th to June 30th, 1990. Four WEFAX images per day from the visible channel of METEOSAT have been processed. The main elements of the GISTEL methodology are briefly stated again. The estimated <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> on the ground is compared with figures measured at 10 stations in the south of France. In order to analyze the main causes of inaccuracy, this comparison is made on several modes: estimated and measured values, estimated and measured weather indexes for normalization, station per station to detect possible geographic errors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Delorme, C.; Gallo, A.; Olivieri, J. (Univ. of Avignon Energie-Climat (France))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">137</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3444216"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chronic <span class="hlt">daily</span> headaches</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Chronic <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new <span class="hlt">daily</span> persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic <span class="hlt">daily</span> headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ahmed, Fayyaz; Parthasarathy, Rajsrinivas; Khalil, Modar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">138</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040095303&hterms=global+trends&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2522global%2Btrends%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimations of the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Distribution and Time Series of UV Noontime <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> (305, 310, 324, 380 nm, and Erythemal) from TOMS and SeaWiFS Data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The amount of UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> reaching the Earth's surface is estimated from the measured cloud reflectivity, ozone, aerosol amounts, and surface reflectivity time series from 1980 to 1992 and 1997 to 2000 to estimate changes that have occurred over a 21-year period. Recent analysis of the TOMS data shows that there has been an apparent increase in reflectivity (decrease in W) in the Southern Hemisphere that is related to a calibration error in EP-TOMS. Data from the well-calibrated SeaWiFS satellite instrument have been used to correct the EP-TOMS reflectivity and UV time series. After correction, some of the local trend features seen in the N7 time series (1980 to 1992) have been continued in the combined time series, but the overall zonal average and <span class="hlt">global</span> trends have changed. In addition to correcting the EP-TOMS radiance calibration, the use of SeaWiFS cloud data permits estimation of UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at higher spatial resolution (1 to 4 km) than is available from TOMS (100 km) under the assumption that ozone is slowly varying over a scale of 100 km. The key results include a continuing decrease in cloud cover over Europe and North America with a corresponding increase in UV and a decrease in UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> near Antarctica.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Herman, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">139</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N20000033140"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Mapping of Underwater UV <span class="hlt">Irradiances</span> and DNA-Weighted Exposures using TOMS and SeaWiFS Data Products.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">global</span> stratospheric ozone-layer depletion results In an increase in biologically harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the surface and penetrating to ecologically significant depths in natural waters. Such an increase can be estimated on a glob...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Vasilkov N. Krotkov J. Herman C. McClain K. Arrigo W. Robinson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">140</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/city07.sci.engin.design.daily/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Shaundra Bryant <span class="hlt">Daily</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this video from Science City, Shaundra Bryant <span class="hlt">Daily</span>, an electrical engineer, describes a software program she developed to help girls reflect on their emotions, and how her two passions—science and dance—are connected.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Foundation, Wgbh E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-09-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">141</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ia.usu.edu/viewproject.php?project=ia:17276"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Food Plan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Students will find <span class="hlt">daily</span> food recommendations based upon their age, weight, height, and activity level. Standard 2 Objective1: a,b,c It is helpful to have a guide that can give us directions on the type and quantity of foods we should eat <span class="hlt">daily</span>. Lets first view the basics of our food groups. Click the Food Group Basics link below and see if you can answer the questions provided. Food Group Basics What is the ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peterson, Mr.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">142</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26543924"> <span id="translatedtitle">Technical and economical system comparison of photovoltaic and concentrating solar thermal power systems depending on annual <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Concentrating solar thermal power and photovoltaics are two major technologies for converting sunlight to electricity. Variations of the annual solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> depending on the site influence their annual efficiency, specific output and electricity generation cost. Detailed technical and economical analyses performed with computer simulations point out differences of solar thermal parabolic trough power plants, non-tracked and two-axis-tracked PV systems. Therefore,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Volker Quaschning</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">143</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRD..115.4203H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> increase in UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> during the past 30 years (1979-2008) estimated from satellite data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Zonal average ultraviolet <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (flux ultraviolet, FUV) reaching the Earth's surface has significantly increased since 1979 at all latitudes except the equatorial zone. Changes are estimated in zonal average FUV caused by ozone and cloud plus aerosol reflectivity using an approach based on Beer's law for monochromatic and action spectrum weighted <span class="hlt">irradiances</span>. For four different cases, it is shown that Beer's Law leads to a power law form similar to that applied to erythemal action spectrum weighted <span class="hlt">irradiances</span>. Zonal and annual average increases in FUV were caused by decreases in ozone amount from 1979 to 1998. After 1998, midlatitude annual average ozone amounts and UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> levels have been approximately constant. In the Southern Hemisphere, zonal and annual average UV increase is partially offset by tropospheric cloud and aerosol transmission decreases (hemispherical dimming), and to a lesser extent in the Northern Hemisphere. Ozone and 340 nm reflectivity changes have been obtained from multiple joined satellite time series from 1978 to 2008. The largest zonal average increases in FUV have occurred in the Southern Hemisphere. For clear-sky conditions at 50°S, zonal average FUV changes are estimated (305 nm, 23%; erythemal, 8.5%; 310 nm, 10%; vitamin D production, 12%). These are larger than at 50°N (305 nm, 9%; erythemal, 4%; 310 nm, 4%; vitamin D production, 6%). At the latitude of Buenos Aires, Argentina (34.6°S), the clear-sky FUV increases are comparable to the increases near Washington, D. C. (38.9°N): 305 nm, 9% and 7%; erythemal, 6% and 4%; and vitamin D production, 7% and 5%, respectively.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Herman, Jay R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">144</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110013553&hterms=climatology+everest&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dclimatology%2Beverest"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Increase in UV <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> during the Past 30 Years (1979-2008) Estimated from Satellite Data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Zonal average ultraviolet <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (flux ultraviolet, F(sub uv)) reaching the Earth's surface has significantly increased since 1979 at all latitudes except the equatorial zone. Changes are estimated in zonal average F(sub uv) caused by ozone and cloud plus aerosol reflectivity using an approach based on Beer's law for monochromatic and action spectrum weighted <span class="hlt">irradiances</span>. For four different cases, it is shown that Beer's Law leads to a power law form similar to that applied to erythemal action spectrum weighted <span class="hlt">irradiances</span>. Zonal and annual average increases in F(sub uv) were caused by decreases in ozone amount from 1979 to 1998. After 1998, midlatitude annual average ozone amounts and UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> levels have been approximately constant. In the Southern Hemisphere, zonal and annual average UV increase is partially offset by tropospheric cloud and aerosol transmission decreases (hemispherical dimming), and to a lesser extent in the Northern Hemisphere. Ozone and 340 nm reflectivity changes have been obtained from multiple joined satellite time series from 1978 to 2008. The largest zonal average increases in F(sub uv) have occurred in the Southern Hemisphere. For clear-sky conditions at 50 S, zonal average F(sub uv) changes are estimated (305 nm, 23%; erythemal, 8.5%; 310 nm, 10%; vitamin D production, 12%). These are larger than at 50 N (305 nm, 9%; erythemal, 4%; 310 nm, 4%; vitamin D production, 6%). At the latitude of Buenos Aires, Argentina (34.6 S), the clear-sky Fuv increases are comparable to the increases near Washington, D. C. (38.9 N): 305 nm, 9% and 7%; erythemal, 6% and 4%; and vitamin D production, 7% and 5%, respectively.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Herman, Jay R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">145</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ACP.....7.5959K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Attenuation of <span class="hlt">global</span> ultraviolet and visible <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> over Greece during the total solar eclipse of 29 March 2006</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The variability of ultraviolet and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) during the total solar eclipse of 29 March 2006 was examined in this study. The measurements from NILU-UV multichannel radiometers at 7 stations of the Greek UV Network were used, where the maximum eclipse percentage ranged from 73.1% to 94.8%. In addition, an extra instrument was established at a remote Greek island, Kastelorizo, which was within the Moon's umbral shadow. The reduction of <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at 305 and 312 nm relative to non-eclipse conditions at all sites was almost 1.5 times more than the corresponding decrease in the UVA and visible part of the spectrum and reached 98% for eclipse percentage equal to 94%. The availability of several instruments in close proximity to the path of the umbral shadow provided a challenging test for the models. The measured changes in UV and visible <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> were compared with 1-D model calculations accounting for the limb darkening effect. The agreement between measurements and modeled values at all sites is within 3% for eclipse percentages of less than 30% and becomes worse as the eclipse progresses. The 1-D model reproduced the spectral effect of the eclipse in UVA and PAR wavelength regions within 3% for eclipse percentages up to 50%, but only the half of the observed change was captured as the eclipse progressed. At three sites, where the eclipse maximum was more than 94%, the measured <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at 305 nm for eclipse percentages of more than 85% decreased with slower rates than for longer wavelengths. As a result, the total ozone values, derived from the 305/320 nm ratios, apparently decreased significantly for high eclipse percentages. The effect is similar at all three sites, but the interpretation of this observation remains a challenge. Comparison results with 3-D model calculations shortly before, during and shortly after totality were performed for the first time and revealed an agreement with measurements within 20% in the UV-A region. However, the modeled estimates of <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at 312 nm are three times lower than measured values.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kazantzidis, A.; Bais, A. F.; Emde, C.; Kazadzis, S.; Zerefos, C. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">146</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRD..114.0D08G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Decadal changes in shortwave <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at the surface in the period from 1960 to 2000 estimated from <span class="hlt">Global</span> Energy Balance Archive Data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Decadal changes in shortwave <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at the Earth's surface are estimated for the period from approximately 1960 through to 2000 from pyranometer records stored in the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Energy Balance Archive. For this observational period, estimates could be calculated for a total of 140 cells of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project grid (an equal area 2.5° × 2.5° grid at the equator) using regression models allowing for station effects. In large regions worldwide, shortwave <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> decreases in the first half of the observational period, recovers from the decrease in the 1980s, and thereafter increases, in line with previous reports. Years of trend reversals are determined for the grid cells which are best described with a second-order polynomial model. This reversal of the trend is observed in the majority of the grid cells in the interior of Europe and in Japan. In China, shortwave <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> recovers during the 1990s in the majority of the grid cells in the southeast and northeast from the decrease observed in the period from 1960 through to 1990. A reversal of the trend in the 1980s or early 1990s is also observed for two grid cells in North America, and for the grid cells containing the Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia), Singapore, Casablanca (Morocco), Valparaiso (Chile) sites, and, noticeably, the remote South Pole and American Samoa sites. Negative trends persist, i.e., shortwave radiation decreases, for the observational period 1960 through to 2000 at the European coasts, in central and northwest China, and for three grid cells in India and two in Africa.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gilgen, H.; Roesch, A.; Wild, M.; Ohmura, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">147</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.capitolwatch.com/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Capitol Watch <span class="hlt">Daily</span> News</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Capitol Watch On Line offers content on what's going on in the nations capital <span class="hlt">daily</span>. A dozen or more headline stories plus a special interests section and links to the Federal News Service and other government sites. "Live chat with candidates and the leaders of our nation" is promised to be coming in 2 weeks.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">148</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48567669"> <span id="translatedtitle">Variations of Solar <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span>, 10.7 cm Radio Flux, He I 10830 Å Equivalent Width, and <span class="hlt">Global</span> Magnetic Field Intensity and Their Relation to Large-Scale Solar Magnetic Field Structure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Variations of total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, 10.7 cm radio emission, the Hei 10830 Ú equivalent width and the solar magnetic field flux measured for the entire Sun are compared with variations of the energy index of the <span class="hlt">global</span> solar magnetic field and the index of the effective solar multipole for years 1979–1992. It is shown that photospheric radiation and that generated</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. V. Ivanov; V. N. Obridko; I. V. Ananyev</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">149</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/dailywxmap/index.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">NOAA <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Weather Maps</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The charts on this website are the principal charts of the former Weather Bureau publication, "<span class="hlt">Daily</span> Weather Map." They are the Surface Weather Map, the 500-Millibar Height Contours chart, the Highest and Lowest Temperatures chart, and the Precipitation Areas and Amounts chart. For each day, simple charts are arranged on a single page. These charts are the surface analysis of pressure and fronts, color shading, in ten degree intervals,of maximum and minimum temperature, 500-Millibar height contours, and color shaded 24-hour total precipitation. These charts act as links to their respective <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Weather Map charts. All charts are derived from the operational weather maps prepared at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, National Weather Service.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Center, Hydrometeorological P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">150</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://appliedresearch.cancer.gov/diet/screeners/daily.html"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Food Checklist</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.cancer.gov">Cancer.gov</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">daily</span> food checklist method is a form of food record. The tool is comprised of a list of foods; over the course of a day, a respondent makes a check beside a food each time she or he eats it. The checklist shares an advantage of other record methods in that it does not rely on memory. In addition, it avoids some disadvantages of complete quantitative food records in that it has relatively low respondent and investigator burden.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">151</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990STIN...9118961."> <span id="translatedtitle">Insolation data manual: Long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days, and <span class="hlt">global</span> KT for 248 National Weather Service stations and direct normal solar radiation data manual: Long-term, monthly mean, <span class="hlt">daily</span> totals for 235 National Weather Service stations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Insolation Data Manual presents monthly averaged data which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service (NWS) stations, principally in the United States. Monthly and annual average <span class="hlt">daily</span> insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data, generally from 1952 to 1975, and listed for each location. Insolation values represent monthly average <span class="hlt">daily</span> totals of <span class="hlt">global</span> radiation on a horizontal surface and are depicted using the three units of measurement: kJ/sq m per day, Btu/sq ft per day and langleys per day. Average <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum, minimum and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3 C (65 F). For each station, <span class="hlt">global</span> KT (cloudiness index) values were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. <span class="hlt">Global</span> KT is an index of cloudiness and indicates fractional transmittance of horizontal radiation, from the top of the atmosphere to the earth's surface. The second section of this volume presents long-term monthly and annual averages of direct normal solar radiation for 235 NWS stations, including a discussion of the basic derivation process. This effort is in response to a generally recognized need for reliable direct normal data and the recent availability of 23 years of hourly averages for 235 stations. The relative inaccessibility of these data on microfiche further justifies reproducing at least the long-term averages in a useful format. In addition to a definition of terms and an overview of the ADIPA model, a discussion of model validation results is presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">152</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18595853"> <span id="translatedtitle">Within-canopy sampling of <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> to describe downwelling light distribution and infer canopy stratification in a broadleaf forest.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A broadleaf mixed forest diversified through partial tree thinning was studied to identify expedient sampling and data analysis procedures to capture the heterogeneous within-canopy downward distribution of instantaneous <span class="hlt">global</span> photosynthetic photon flux (PPF); to extract foliage structural properties from the acquired light values; and to compute statistics descriptive of the within-canopy light and leaf layer distributions. We sampled PPF at 1-m intervals along vertical gradients using a helium-filled balloon as a platform for a light sensor. A random method was used to identify the forest floor locations for the within-canopy balloon ascents. About 400 PPF measurements were recorded per vertical transect. For each PPF value, we computed, by inversion of the Monsi-Saeki model, the number of leaf strata cumulated along the sunbeam direction from the position where the light was measured. Variability in PPF and leaf layer at different vegetation scales was computed by non-parametric statistics. The methods were evaluated as appropriate for intra-canopy PPF sampling, particularly in an undisturbed canopy. The minimum number of vertical PPF profiles required to capture the within-canopy PPF variability was 9-10 (equivalent to about 4000 measurements). The reliability and sensitivity of the inversion of the Monsi-Saeki method were sufficient to capture the canopy structural differences between undisturbed and partially thinned forests. The proposed PPF canopy sampling and data analysis procedures provide a fast, reliable and inexpensive way to characterize tree crown structure, and to predict plant growth and forest dynamics and could be applied whenever vegetation absorbed radiation is a main driving force for forest canopy processes. The experimental light attenuation data and the extracted canopy leaf layer numbers could serve to corroborate canopy mechanistic models of radiative transfer and net primary production. PMID:18595853</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Giuliani, Rita; Brown, Kim J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">153</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://Cybereditions.com/aldaily/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Art & Letters <span class="hlt">Daily</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Users wishing quick and easy access to some of the best writing online will want to examine this site. Art & Letters <span class="hlt">Daily</span>, updated six days per week, offers links to articles, new book notices and reviews, and essays and opinion pieces in all fields of the humanities. The does not site provide original content, but rather mines a wide array of online newspapers, journals, and other publications and offers links with very brief introductions to the "precious nuggets of real content" on the Web. In addition, the site provides a linked list of the publications and columnists used to glean the reports as well as an archive of past features. Certainly few users will find all of the pieces interesting or pertinent, but the quantity and variety of content and the frequency with which it is updated guarantee that there will be something for almost anyone.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">154</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://events.slooh.com"> <span id="translatedtitle">Astronomy<span class="hlt">Daily</span>.Com</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Astronomy <span class="hlt">Daily</span>.Com offers real time astronomical data tailored to the viewer's location and time zone. The personalized front page presents a chart of tonight's sky. Diagrams allow users to view the planets in their orbits. Educators and students can find images of today's moon and its phase on the calendar, plus data dealing with its current position and its physical and orbital characteristics. Phil Harrington, a supervisor at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, provides two monthly articles; the first assesses a phenomenon in the sky that can be observed with binoculars and the second discusses a phenomenon in the Deep Sky. Viewers can also participate in many discussion forums with other interested astronomers. Although users are required to register in order to view the customized site, no personal identification is requested. This site is also reviewed in the October 3, 2003 NSDL Physical Sciences Report.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">155</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.learner.org/interactives/dailymath/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Math in <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Life</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">What are your odds of hitting it big at the casino? Should you buy or lease a car? How much will you have when you retire? All of these questions involve math, and this latest addition to the Annenberg Media Projects Learner Online site (described in the September 12, 1997 Scout Report) explores the use of basic mathematical concepts in <span class="hlt">daily</span> decision-making. The exhibit is divided into several topical sections exploring probability and gambling, compound interest and credit cards, population growth, geometry in the home, and ratios and recipes. In addition to an overview of the topic, each section offers several links to selected related sites and online tools, and two feature interactive learning activities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">156</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JApMe..41.1267G"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Model for the Estimation of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Solar Radiation Using Fuzzy Random Variables.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, the concept of fuzzy random variables is applied for the estimation of <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation on a surface at ground level. The cloudiness index is defined as the fraction of extraterrestrial radiation that reaches the earth's surface when the sky above the location of interest is obscured by the cloud cover. The cloud cover at the location of interest during the jth time interval of a day is assumed to follow the fuzzy random phenomenon. The cloudiness index, therefore, is considered as a fuzzy random variable that accounts for the cloud cover at the location of interest during the jth time interval of a day. This variable is assumed to depend on four other fuzzy random variables that, respectively, account for the cloud cover corresponding to the 1) type of cloud group, 2) climatic region, 3) season with most of the precipitation, and 4) type of precipitation at the location of interest during the jth time interval. The method is applied to estimate the monthly mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> for four different locations corresponding to four different climatic regions in India. The mean hourly <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> for the months of January and July and the <span class="hlt">global</span> solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on a horizontal surface at Delhi for two typical days are also estimated. The deviations of simulated values with respect to the corresponding observed values are calculated using the mean biased error and root-mean-square error statistical parameters characteristic of long-term and short-term predictive values of the deviations, respectively. For the short-term and long-term performances, the simulated values exhibit maximum deviations of 0.532% and 1.86%, respectively, from the corresponding observed values of monthly mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> at Calcutta. The maximum deviations are 3.204% and 5.845%, respectively, for monthly mean hourly <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> at Delhi in January.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gautam, Nalin K.; Kaushika, N. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">157</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00876831"> <span id="translatedtitle">An introduction to quiet <span class="hlt">daily</span> geomagnetic fields</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">On days that are quiet with respect to solar-terrestrial activity phenomena, the geomagnetic field has variations, tens of gamma in size, with major spectral components at about 24, 12, 8, and 6 hr in period. These quiet <span class="hlt">daily</span> field variations are primarily due to the dynamo currents flowing in the E region of the earth's ionosphere, are driven by the <span class="hlt">global</span> thermotidal wind systems, and are dependent upon the local tensor conductivity and main geomagnetic field vector. The highlights of the behavior and interpretation of these quiet field changes, from their discovery in 1634 until the present, are discussed as an introduction to the special journal issue on Quiet <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Geomagnetic Fields. ?? 1989 Birkha??user Verlag.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Campbell, W. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">158</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2919941"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Aircraft Routing and Scheduling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper we consider the <span class="hlt">daily</span> aircraft routing and scheduling problem (DARSP). It consists of determining <span class="hlt">daily</span> schedules which maximize the anticipated profits derived from the aircraft of a heterogeneous fleet. This fleet must cover a set of operational flight legs with known departure time windows, durations and profits according to the aircraft type. We present two models for</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guy Desaulniers; Jacques Desrosiers; Yvan Dumas; Marius M. Solomon; François Soumis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">159</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/501990"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> wind speed under climate change</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A semi-empirical downscaling approach is presented to estimate spatial and temporal statistical properties of local <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean wind speed under <span class="hlt">global</span> climate change. The present semi-empirical downscaling method consists of two elements. Since general circulation models (GCMs) are able o reproduce the features of the present atmospheric general circulation quite correctly, the first element represents the large-scale circulation of the atmosphere. The second element is a link between local wind speed and large-scale circulation pattern (CP). The linkage is expressed by a stochastic model conditioned on CP types. Parameters of the linkage model are estimated using observed data series; then this model is utilized with GCM-generated CP type data corresponding to a 2 x CO{sub 2} scenario. Under the climate of Nebraska the lognormal distribution is the best two-parameter distribution to describe <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean wind speed. The space-time variability of wind speed is described by a transformed multivariate autoregressive (AR) process, and the linkage between local wind and large-scale circulation is expressed as a conditional AR process, i.e. the autoregressive parameters depend on the actual <span class="hlt">daily</span> CP type. The basic tendency of change under 2 x CO{sub 2} climate is a considerable increase of wind speed from the beginning of summer to the end of winter and a somewhat smaller wind decrease in spring. 18 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bogardi, I. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)] [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Matyasovszky, I. [Eotvos Lorand Univ., Budapest (Hungary)] [Eotvos Lorand Univ., Budapest (Hungary)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">160</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://collections.carli.illinois.edu/cdm4/index_sic_degypt.php?CISOROOT=/sic_degypt"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Egyptian Diversity News Index</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Developed as part of the online collections at Southern Illinois University-Carbondale's Morris Library, the <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Egyptian Diversity News Index provides historical insight into the campus climate at this unique school. In 2006, Dr. Seymour Bryson, the associate chancellor for diversity, teamed up with several other colleagues to identify articles in the <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Egyptian (the University's student newspaper) related to the university's historic minority campus populations. The project entailed surveying microfilm and creating searchable transcripts for online access. Currently, the online archive contains over 1,400 items from the <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Egyptian, and content includes pieces on African American members of the homecoming court, student activists, musical groups, and student government.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">161</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1693766"> <span id="translatedtitle">Defining the radiation target on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The delineation of the target volume for <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> is a critical step in the radiotherapy process. Delivery of radiotherapy occurs over a fractionated course of many treatments. Variations in the position of the target volume may occur on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis during treatment and so the procedure for defining the target volume on a single initial ‘snapshot’ computed tomography scan has been re-evaluated. Newer technologies of image-guided radiotherapy allow the development of on-line <span class="hlt">daily</span> definition of the target volume prior to radiotherapy delivery.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dobbs, H J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">162</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26542148"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fourier Analysis of <span class="hlt">daily</span> solar radiation data in Spain</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this work has been to obtain a Typical Annual Time Function by the application of a calculation procedure based on a Fourier analysis to solar radiation data 21 stations in Spain. This function allows us to estimate the most probable value of the horizontal <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation for every day of the year in a certain</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. M. Baldasano; J. Clar; A. Berna</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/5684907"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analytical integrated functions for <span class="hlt">daily</span> solar radiation on slopes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a procedure for estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation for inclined surfaces having specified slope and aspect for application with surface energy balance models for determining evapotranspiration. Procedures are provided for developing clear sky solar curves and for translating measured solar radiation from a horizontal surface to slopes. The procedure assumes an extensive surface having uniform slope at</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richard G. Allen; Ricardo Trezza; Masahiro Tasumi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ghrc.msfc.nasa.gov/index.html"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Hydrology Resource Center</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Global</span> Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration provides data ingest, archive, and distribution services for the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Hydrology and Climate Center (GHCC). Eight categories of online data are available to download using FTP. These include MSFC SSM/I Brightness Temperature, MSFC SSM/I <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Gridded Products, and MSU <span class="hlt">Daily</span>/Monthly Anomalies/Annual Cycle Temperatures-Limb90. The entire database can be viewed through HyDRO, the Hydrologic Data search, Retrieval, and Order system. Note that some data is restricted to Earth Observing System (EOS) affiliated investigators.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ghrc.msfc.nasa.gov"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Hydrology Resource Center</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Global</span> Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration provides data ingest, archive, and distribution services for the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Hydrology and Climate Center (GHCC). Eight categories of online data are available to download using FTP. These include MSFC SSM/I Brightness Temperature, MSFC SSM/I <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Gridded Products, and MSU <span class="hlt">Daily</span>/Monthly Anomalies/Annual Cycle Temperatures-Limb90. The entire database can be viewed through HyDRO, the Hydrologic Data search, Retrieval, and Order system. Note that some data is restricted to Earth Observing System (EOS) affiliated investigators.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-08-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3766261"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> versus twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> combination of Ropinirole prolonged release in Parkinson's disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Ropinirole prolonged release (RPR) is a once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> formulation. However, there may be individual pharmacokinetic differences so that multiple dosing may be preferred in some individuals. This study compares once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> and twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> RPR in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Methods This study was an open-label crossover study. We enrolled Parkinson’s disease patients on dopamine agonist therapy with unsatisfactory control such as motor fluctuation, dyskinesia and sleep-related problems. Agonists were switched into equivalent dose of RPR. Subjects were consecutively enrolled into either once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> first or twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> first groups, and received the same amount of RPR in a single and two divided dosing for 8 weeks respectively in a crossover manner without a washout period. The primary outcome was a questionnaire of the preference completed by patients in the last visit. The secondary outcome measures included the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale part 3 (mUPDRS), Hoehn and Yahr stage (H&Y); sleep questionnaire including overall quality of sleep, nocturnal off symptoms and early morning symptoms; Epworth Sleep Scale (ESS); compliances and patient <span class="hlt">global</span> impression (PGI). Results A total of 82 patients were enrolled and 61 completed the study. 31 patients preferred twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen, 17 preferred the once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen, and 13 had no preference. Their mean mUPDRS, H&Y, ESS, sleep quality, compliance and adverse events were not statistically different in both regimens. PGI-improvement on wearing off defined was better in twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> dosing regimen. Conclusions RPR is a once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> formulation, but multiple dosing was preferred in many patients. Multiple dosing of RPR might be a therapeutic option if once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> dosing is unsatisfactory. Trial registration This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00986245.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7841E..29E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ten-<span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> composites of METOP-AVHRR</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Systematic scanning of the earth surface could be achieved for the first time in 1978, with the launch of the earth observation system NOAA-AVHRR. Some twenty years later, the SPOT-VEGETATION instrument introduced significant improvements at the levels of image quality, timeliness and availability. Since the start in April 1998, VITO is responsible for the central processing, archiving and distribution of the VEGETATION data. This paper briefly announces how a similar service is being established at VITO to provide the same kind of image data from the recently launched METOP-AVHRR.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eerens, Herman; Baruth, Bettina; Bydekerke, Lieven; Deronde, Bart; Dries, Jan; Goor, Erwin; Heyns, Walter; Jacobs, Tim; Ooms, Bart; Piccard, Isabelle; Royer, Antoine; Swinnen, Else; Timmermans, Adri; van Roey, Tom; Vereecken, Johan; Verheijen, Yves</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.sciencedaily.com/videos/2007/1208-physics_of_sailing.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Science <span class="hlt">Daily</span>: Physics of Sailing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This video podcast from Science <span class="hlt">Daily</span> magazine explores the physics principles that enable modern sailboats to move faster than the wind. Physicist Bryon Anderson, Kent State University, explains the secret that many novice sailors do not know: a sailboat goes fastest when the wind blows from the side, not from directly behind the craft. Dr. Anderson discusses the physics involved, while the video provides illustrations of the interacting forces. Science <span class="hlt">Daily</span> is a web-based magazine that delivers timely news about discoveries in science and technology, appropriate for all audiences. The web site archives contain more than 40,000 resources that cover all strands of the sciences.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhST..118...24C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar <span class="hlt">Global</span> Radiation and Sunshine Duration in Extremadura (Spain)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper aims at analysing the relationship of solar <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> and sunshine duration at three stations in Extremadura (Spain) at a <span class="hlt">daily</span> and monthly basis. Studying this dependence is of great interest since it allows to estimate solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> in many stations where sunshine duration is measured and then, extend the number of locations with data, in order to plot reliable solar radiation spatial distributed maps. The mentioned relationship is investigated at both <span class="hlt">daily</span> and monthly basis, by fitting the Ångström-Prescott model by regression techniques. The correlation coefficients show notably high values for the three locations, suggesting the suitability of the model for the measured data. Moreover, the regression coefficients are in agreement with those obtained in other works for different locations in the Iberian Peninsula. In the <span class="hlt">daily</span> analysis, it is also found that residuals show a smooth annual behaviour and, therefore, Ångström-Prescott model was fitted for each calendar month separately. The annual evolution of the regression coefficients and the atmospheric transparency index is analysed and compared for the three stations of measurements.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cancillo, M. L.; Serrano, A.; Ruiz, A.; García, J. A.; Antón, M.; Vaquero, J. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002PhDT.......166B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modelling spectral and broadband UV-B (290--325 nm) <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> for Canada</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This is a study concerning the modeling of UV-B <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at the earth's surface. It is timely because stratospheric ozone depletion has occurred <span class="hlt">globally</span> as a result of increasing chlorofluorocarbons in the stratosphere. This reduction allows more UV-B <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (290--325 nm) to reach the earth's surface and cause detrimental biological effects. Presently there are few spectral UV-B radiation measurements. Therefore, <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> models are useful tools for estimating UV-B <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> in areas where measurements are not made. A numerical model to calculate spectral and broadband <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> for all sky conditions is described and the results are validated with measurements for nine Canadian stations (Alert, Resolute Bay, Churchill, Edmonton, Regina, Winnipeg, Montreal, Halifax and Toronto). The model uses either the discrete ordinate radiative transfer (DISORT) or the delta-Eddington algorithms to solve the radiative transfer equation for a 49-layer, vertically inhomogeneous, plane-parallel atmosphere, with cloud inserted between the 2 and 3 km heights. Spectral calculations are made at 1 nm intervals. The model uses extraterrestrial spectral <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, spectral optical properties for each atmospheric layer for ozone, air molecules, and aerosol and surface albedo. Cloud optical depths tau c were calculated separately for overcast <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements for nine stations from 26 years of data. The delta-Eddington method performed well for producing tauc and overcast broadband <span class="hlt">irradiances</span>. A fixed tauc value of 18.7 was found to be accurate for calculating cloudy sky <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> at all stations except in the arctic. Twenty-six station years of <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements and model estimates are compared. Comparisons are made both for <span class="hlt">daily</span> totals and for monthly averaged spectral and broadband <span class="hlt">irradiances</span>. It is shown that the delta-Eddington method is not suitable for calculating spectral <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> under clear skies, at short wavelengths (<305 nm), where absorption by ozone is high, and at large solar zenith angles. The errors are smaller for overcast conditions. The method was found to be adequate for <span class="hlt">daily</span> total spectral (?305 nm) and for broadband calculations for all sky conditions, although consistently overestimating the <span class="hlt">irradiances</span>. There is a good agreement between broadband measurements and calculations for both <span class="hlt">daily</span> totals and monthly averages with mean bias error (MBE) mainly less than 5% of the mean measured <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and root mean square error (RMSE) less than 26%, decreasing to below 15% for monthly averages. Agreement between mean monthly measured and calculated spectral <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> is also good for wavelengths ?305 nm. The accuracy of the Brewer instrument is questioned at wavelengths <305 nm at most stations. Comparison of the model broadband <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> with simultaneous satellite-based results and Brewer measurements at six stations shows that the model performs as well as the satellite model but with the advantage that it can provide <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> estimates throughout the day and, therefore, <span class="hlt">daily</span> totals.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Binyamin, Jacqueline</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49134736"> <span id="translatedtitle">Monthly mean hourly <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation estimation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, selected empirical models were used to estimate the monthly mean hourly <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation from the <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> radiation at three sites in the east coast of Malaysia. The purpose is to determine the most accurate model to be used for estimating the monthly mean hourly <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation in these sites. The hourly <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. B. Wan Nik; M. Z. Ibrahim; K. B. Samo; A. M. Muzathik</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53226880"> <span id="translatedtitle">Correlations Between Total Solar <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> and Spectral <span class="hlt">Irradiances</span> Using SORCE Measurements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) was launched in January 2003 to measure both total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (TSI) and spectral solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (SSI). The available spectral <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> are contiguous from 115 nm to 1600 nm with nearly <span class="hlt">daily</span> coverage, providing useful inputs to climate models since the Earth's atmospheric response is highly wavelength dependent. By correlating these relatively recent</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Kopp</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/6050828"> <span id="translatedtitle">Web searching for <span class="hlt">daily</span> living</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The new concept proposed in this paper is a query free web search that automatically retrieves a web page including information re- lated to the <span class="hlt">daily</span> activity that we are currently engaged in for auto- matically displaying the page on Internet-connected domestic ap- pliances around us such as televisions. When we are washing a coffee maker, for example, a web</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Takuya Maekawa; Yutaka Yanagisawa; Yasushi Sakurai; Yasue Kishino; Koji Kamei; Takeshi Okadome</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/300386"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature fluctuations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature fluctuations over more than 50 yr in two places on the globe that are separated by more than 3000 km. We analyze the temperature fluctuations ?Ti with respect to the mean noon temperature ?Ti? averaged, for each day of the year, over the whole year, ?Ti = Ti ? ?Ti?. We find that the ?Ti are</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eva Koscielny-Bunde; Armin Bunde; Shlomo Havlin; Yair Goldreich</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a000000/a000100/a000186/index.html"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Lightning Measurements from TRMM: April 1, 1998 through April 29, 1998</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> actual lightning measurements from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on TRMM for the period from April 1, 1998, through April 29, 1998. <span class="hlt">Global</span> data is shown, followed by regional data for North America, North and South America, and Africa.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shirah, Greg; Kummerow, Chris</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-05-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmRe.148...24B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of erythemal UV/<span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> ratios to atmospheric parameters: application for estimating erythemal radiation at four sites in Thailand</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Factors affecting the ratio of erythemal UV (UVER) to broadband (G) <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> were investigated in this study. Data from four solar monitoring sites in Thailand, namely Chiang Mai, Ubon Ratchathani, Nakhon Pathom and Songkhla were used to investigate the UVER/G ratio in response to geometric and atmospheric parameters. These comprised solar zenith angle, aerosol load, total ozone column, precipitable water and clearness index. A modeling scheme was developed to isolate and examine the effect of each individual environmental parameter on the ratio. Results showed that all parameters with the exception of solar zenith angle and clearness index influenced the ratios in a linear manner. These results were also used to develop a semi-empirical model for estimating hourly erythemal UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. Data from 2009 to 2010 were used to construct the ratio model while validation was performed using erythemal UV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at the above four sites in 2011. The validation results showed reasonable agreement with a root mean square difference of 13.5% and mean bias difference of - 0.5%, under all sky conditions and 10.9% and - 0.3%, respectively, under cloudless conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Buntoung, Sumaman; Janjai, Serm; Nunez, Manuel; Choosri, Pranomkorn; Pratummasoot, Noppamas; Chiwpreecha, Kulanist</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://plaza.ufl.edu/gbaigorr/GB/Documents/Series/SECC%2009-002.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">GIST, A MODEL FOR GENERATING SPATIAL-TEMPORAL <span class="hlt">DAILY</span> RAINFALL DATA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Weather generators are tools developed to create synthetic <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather data over long periods of time. These tools have also been used for downscaling from monthly to seasonal forecasts produced by <span class="hlt">global</span> and regional circulation models to <span class="hlt">daily</span> values in order to provide inputs for crop and other environmental models. A major limitation of weather generators is that they do</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guillermo A. Baigorria; James W. Jones</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/10465948"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of Pinatubo aerosols on the seasonal trends of <span class="hlt">global</span>, direct and diffuse <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> in two northern mid-latitude sites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In June 1991, Mt Pinatubo's eruption in the Philippines ejected a staggering 20 million metric tons of SO2 into the stratosphere which resulted in an aerosol cloud covering most of the Earth within a few months after the eruption. In this article we illustrate how the seasonal trends of <span class="hlt">global</span>, direct and diffuse solar radiation were modified by the eruption</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Benoît Molineaux; Pierre Ineichen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19951776"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electronic aids for <span class="hlt">daily</span> living.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Electronic aids to <span class="hlt">daily</span> living (EADLs) are devices that facilitate the operation of electrical appliances in a given environment for a person with a severe physical disability. These specialized devices can provide tremendous psychological and functional benefits to someone with a severe disability, their family members and caregivers. This article provides an overview of the utility, functionality, access, acquisition, and evaluation of EADLs. It also highlights challenges in obtaining and measuring the benefits of these devices. PMID:19951776</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Little, Roger</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/fg306874579132k2.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gender in Spanish <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Newspapers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to examine the portrayal of women and men in a Spanish <span class="hlt">daily</span> newspaper and to find whether there\\u000a were gender differences among the authors of the articles in said newspaper. A content analysis was conducted of 4,060 articles\\u000a and advertisements from 24 issues of a randomly selected, large-circulation, Spanish newspaper. Men were found to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Pilar Matud; Carmen Rodríguez; Inmaculada Espinosa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a 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onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080012144&hterms=hourly+solar+radiation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dhourly%2Bsolar%2Bradiation"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release 2 Shortwave <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Data in Native Format (SRB_REL2_SW_<span class="hlt">DAILY</span>)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This data set contains upward and downward fluxes, photosynthetically active radiative flux, aerosol and cloud optical depth, cloud fraction, and solar zenith angle measured at three hourly intervals for each day for the entire globe between 07/01/1983 and 10/31/1995. These SW surface radiative parameters were derived with the Shortwave algorithm of the NASA World Climate Research Programme/<span class="hlt">Global</span> Energy and Water-Cycle Experiment (WCRP/GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Project. [Location=<span class="hlt">GLOBAL</span>] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1998-07-26] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=Ranges from 1 degree (tropics and subtropics) to 120 degrees (the poles).; Temporal_Resolution=<span class="hlt">daily</span>; Temporal_Resolution_Range=<span class="hlt">daily</span>].</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24514630"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear optics in <span class="hlt">daily</span> life.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An overview is presented of the impact of NLO on today's <span class="hlt">daily</span> life. While NLO researchers have promised many applications, only a few have changed our lives so far. This paper categorizes applications of NLO into three areas: improving lasers, interaction with materials, and information technology. NLO provides: coherent light of different wavelengths; multi-photon absorption for plasma-materials interaction; advanced spectroscopy and materials analysis; and applications to communications and sensors. Applications in information processing and storage seem less mature. PMID:24514630</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Garmire, Elsa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H43I1589F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatial downscaling and mapping of <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and air temperature using <span class="hlt">daily</span> station data and monthly mean maps</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Accurate maps of <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather variables are an essential component of hydrologic and ecologic modeling. Here we present a four-step method that uses <span class="hlt">daily</span> station data and transient monthly maps of precipitation and air temperature. This method uses the monthly maps to help interpolate between stations for more accurate production of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maps at any spatial resolution. The first step analyzes the quality of the each station's data using a discrepancy analysis that compares statistics derived from a statistical jack-knifing approach with a time-series evaluation of discrepancies generated for each station. Although several methods could be used for the second step of producing initial maps, such as kriging, splines, etc., we used a gradient plus inverse distance squared method that was developed to produce accurate climate maps for sparse data regions with widely separated and few climate stations, far fewer than would be needed for techniques such as kriging. The gradient plus inverse distance squared method uses local gradients in the climate parameters, easting, northing, and elevation, to adjust the inverse distance squared estimates for local gradients such as lapse rates, inversions, or rain shadows at scales of 10's of meters to kilometers. The third step is to downscale World Wide Web (web) based transient monthly data, such as Precipitation-Elevation Regression on Independent Slope Method (PRISM) for the US (4 km or 800 m maps) or Climate Research Unit (CRU 3.1) data sets (40 km for <span class="hlt">global</span> applications) to the scale of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> data's digital elevation model. In the final step the downscaled transient monthly maps are used to adjust the <span class="hlt">daily</span> time-series mapped data (~30 maps/month) for each month. These adjustments are used to scale <span class="hlt">daily</span> maps so that summing them for precipitation or averaging them for temperature would more accurately reproduce the variability in selected monthly maps. This method allows for individual days to have maxima or minima values away from the station locations based on the underlying geographic structure of the monthly maps. We compare our results with the web based 12 km Variable Infiltration Capacity model (VIC) <span class="hlt">daily</span> data and the 1 km DayMet <span class="hlt">daily</span> data as well as make comparisons of the month summation or average of <span class="hlt">daily</span> data sets with the PRISM and CRU data sets. There were mixed results in the comparisons with some good agreement and some bad agreement, even between VIC and DayMet. These <span class="hlt">daily</span> maps are intended to be used as input to <span class="hlt">daily</span> hydrological models. The results will provide more insight into the significance of the differences, at least from a hydrology perspective.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.; Stern, M. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013759"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> cycles in coastal dunes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> cycles of summer sea breezes produce distinctive cyclic foreset deposits in dune sands of the Texas and Oregon coasts. In both areas the winds are strong enough to transport sand only during part of the day, reach a peak during the afternoon, and vary little in direction during the period of sand transport. Cyclicity in the foreset deposits is made evident by variations in the type of sedimentary structure, the texture, and the heavy-mineral content of the sand. Some of the cyclic deposits are made up entirely of one basic type of structure, in which the character of the structure varies cyclically; for example, the angle of climb in a climbing-wind-ripple structure may vary cyclically. Other cyclic deposits are characterized by alternations of two or more structural types. Variations in the concentration of fine-grained heavy minerals, which account for the most striking cyclicity, arise mainly because of segregation on wind-rippled depositional surfaces: where the ripples climb at low angles, the coarsegrained light minerals, which accumulate preferentially on ripple crests, tend to be excluded from the local deposit. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> cyclic deposits are thickest and best developed on small dunes and are least recognizable near the bases of large dunes. ?? 1988.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hunter, R. E.; Richmond, B. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110007072&hterms=RSE&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DRSE"> <span id="translatedtitle">Enhancement of the MODIS <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Snow Albedo Product</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The MODIS <span class="hlt">daily</span> snow albedo product is a data layer in the MOD10A1 snow-cover product that includes snow-covered area and fractional snow cover as well as quality information and other metadata. It was developed to augment the MODIS BRDF/Albedo algorithm (MCD43) that provides 16-day maps of albedo <span class="hlt">globally</span> at 500-m resolution. But many modelers require <span class="hlt">daily</span> snow albedo, especially during the snowmelt season when the snow albedo is changing rapidly. Many models have an unrealistic snow albedo feedback in both estimated albedo and change in albedo over the seasonal cycle context, Rapid changes in snow cover extent or brightness challenge the MCD43 algorithm; over a 16-day period, MCD43 determines whether the majority of clear observations was snow-covered or snow-free then only calculates albedo for the majority condition. Thus changes in snow albedo and snow cover are not portrayed accurately during times of rapid change, therefore the current MCD43 product is not ideal for snow work. The MODIS <span class="hlt">daily</span> snow albedo from the MOD10 product provides more frequent, though less robust maps for pixels defined as "snow" by the MODIS snow-cover algorithm. Though useful, the <span class="hlt">daily</span> snow albedo product can be improved using a <span class="hlt">daily</span> version of the MCD43 product as described in this paper. There are important limitations to the MOD10A1 <span class="hlt">daily</span> snow albedo product, some of which can be mitigated. Utilizing the appropriate per-pixel Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDFs) can be problematic, and correction for anisotropic scattering must be included. The BRDF describes how the reflectance varies with view and illumination geometry. Also, narrow-to-broadband conversion specific for snow on different surfaces must be calculated and this can be difficult. In consideration of these limitations of MOD10A1, we are planning to improve the <span class="hlt">daily</span> snow albedo algorithm by coupling the periodic per-pixel snow albedo from MCD43, with <span class="hlt">daily</span> surface ref|outanoom, In this paper, we compare a <span class="hlt">daily</span> version of MCD43B3 with the <span class="hlt">daily</span> albedo from MOD10A1. and MCD43B3 with a 16-day average of MOD10A1, over Greenland. We also discuss some near-future planned enhancements to MOD10A1.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hall, Dorothy K.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Wang, Zhuosen; Riggs, George A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title49-vol4-sec230-13.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 230.13 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> inspection.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> inspection. 230.13 Section 230.13 Transportation...OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS General General Inspection Requirements § 230.13 <span class="hlt">Daily</span>...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/ResourcesForYou/Consumers/BuyingUsingMedicineSafely/UnderstandingOver-the-CounterMedicines/SafeUseofOver-the-CounterPainRelieversandFeverReducers/ucm233848.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Medicine Record for Your Child</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... Acetaminophen and Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Safely <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Medicine Record for Your Child (English) (PDF version - 97KB) ... Age: ____ 2 years old___ Weight: ___ 30 pounds ___ <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Medicine Record Child’s name: ___________________ Today’s date: _________________ Age: ____________ Weight: ________________ (pounds) ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://gerontology.ssri.psu.edu/nsde/papers/Mroczek%20and%20Almeida%20%282004%29.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Stress, Personality, and Age on <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Negative Affect</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The current study examined whether stress reactivity becomes stronger or weaker with age. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> stress and <span class="hlt">daily</span> negative affect were modeled using 1,012 subjects from the National Study of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Events (NSDE), an 8-day <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary study. Age ranged from 25 to 74. Data were modeled using within-person HLM techniques. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> stress and neuroticism interacted in their effect on <span class="hlt">daily</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daniel K. Mroczek; David M. Almeida</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://scitechdaily.com/"> <span id="translatedtitle">SciTech <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Review</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Users wishing quick and easy access to some of the best writing online will want to examine this site. Scitech <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Review, updated four days per week offers links to articles, new book notices and reviews, and essays and opinion pieces for the fields of science and technology. The site does not provide original content, but rather mines a wide array of online newspapers, journals, and other publications and offer links with very brief introductions to the "precious nuggets of real content" on the Web. In addition, the site provides a linked list of the publications and columnists used to glean the reports as well as an archive of past features. Certainly few users will find all of the pieces interesting or pertinent, but the quantity and variety of content and the frequency with which it is updated guarantee that there will be something for almost anyone.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12167846"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contrails reduce <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature range.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The potential of condensation trails (contrails) from jet aircraft to affect regional-scale surface temperatures has been debated for years, but was difficult to verify until an opportunity arose as a result of the three-day grounding of all commercial aircraft in the United States in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Here we show that there was an anomalous increase in the average diurnal temperature range (that is, the difference between the daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperatures) for the period 11-14 September 2001. Because persisting contrails can reduce the transfer of both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation and so reduce the <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature range, we attribute at least a portion of this anomaly to the absence of contrails over this period. PMID:12167846</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Travis, David J; Carleton, Andrew M; Lauritsen, Ryan G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://digital.lib.uiowa.edu/dp/index.php"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Palette Digital Collection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Every day, the staff members at the <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Palette Digital Collection at the University of Iowa Libraries put up a new artwork by a different Iowa artist. Since the project was launched in 2004, the collection has profiled over 1,000 artists working in the fine arts, literature, video, and the performing arts. Visitors can scroll through the Highlights of Collection section near the bottom of the page for a taste of the very intriguing offerings here. The Subcollections area includes areas like Iowa Writes, Iowa on Stage, and Iowa at 30 Frames per second. This last area has 11 rather intriguing short films, including "Body Beasts," "Back of the Mike," and "Alternative Forms of Energy." Also, Iowa Writes includes over 700 poems, including "Ode to Thresher" and "16th Avenue, Cedar Rapids."</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://library.brown.edu/cds/dbdh//"> <span id="translatedtitle">Brown <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Herald Digital Archive</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Since 1891, the Brown <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Herald has chronicled "political protest, athletic wins and losses, curricular changes, and students' initiative." Recently, Brown University's Center for Digital Initiatives and the Herald began working together to create this digital archive of the paper. On the site, visitors can learn more about the digitization project, sign up to be part of their LinkedIn group, and also take a look at their online store. Using the archive is quite simple, and visitors are encouraged to view specific issues by year or month, and they can also use a search engine to look for news coverage of particular interest. One rather compelling feature of the site is that returned search results include the page or story in question, along with thumbnails of the other pages in the issues on the bottom of the screen.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=humor+AND+styles&pg=3&id=ED525890"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Practices of Successful Principals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">While many books outline the attributes of successful school leaders, few describe how those traits manifest in <span class="hlt">daily</span> practice. "The <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Practices of Successful Principals" goes beyond the outward picture of excellence and provides a compendium of <span class="hlt">daily</span> practices used by successful principals in various settings. Written by former administrators…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brock, Barbara L.; Grady, Marilyn L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009NW.....96.1235G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hibernation and <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor minimize mammalian extinctions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Small mammals appear to be less vulnerable to extinction than large species, but the underlying reasons are poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that almost all (93.5%) of 61 recently extinct mammal species were homeothermic, maintaining a constant high body temperature and thus energy expenditure, which demands a high intake of food, long foraging times, and thus exposure to predators. In contrast, only 6.5% of extinct mammals were likely heterothermic and employed multi-day torpor (hibernation) or <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor, even though torpor is widespread within more than half of all mammalian orders. Torpor is characterized by substantial reductions of body temperature and energy expenditure and enhances survival during adverse conditions by minimizing food and water requirements, and consequently reduces foraging requirements and exposure to predators. Moreover, because life span is generally longer in heterothermic mammals than in related homeotherms, heterotherms can employ a ‘sit-and-wait’ strategy to withstand adverse periods and then repopulate when circumstances improve. Thus, torpor is a crucial but hitherto unappreciated attribute of small mammals for avoiding extinction. Many opportunistic heterothermic species, because of their plastic energetic requirements, may also stand a better chance of future survival than homeothermic species in the face of greater climatic extremes and changes in environmental conditions caused by <span class="hlt">global</span> warming.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Geiser, Fritz; Turbill, Christopher</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE90000353"> <span id="translatedtitle">Insolation data manual: Long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and <span class="hlt">global</span> K(sub T) for 248 National Weather Service stations and Direct normal solar radiation data manual: Long-term, monthly mean, <span class="hlt">daily</span> totals for 235 National Weather Service stations. Addendum to the Insolation data manual.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Insolation Data Manual presents monthly averaged data which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service (NWS) stations, principally in the United States. Monthly and annual average <span class="hlt">daily</span> insolation and temperature val...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRA..118..515X"> <span id="translatedtitle">The longitudinal variation of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean thermospheric mass density</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study uses the GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) and CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload) accelerometer measurements from 2003 to 2008. These measurements gave thermospheric mass densities at ~480 km (GRACE) and ~380 km (CHAMP), respectively. We found that there are strong longitude variations in the <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean thermospheric mass density. These variations are <span class="hlt">global</span> and have the similar characteristics at the two heights under geomagnetically quiet conditions (Ap < 10). The largest relative longitudinal changes of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean thermospheric mass density occur at high latitudes from October to February in the Northern Hemisphere and from March to September in the Southern Hemisphere. The positive density peaks locate always near the magnetic poles. The high density regions extend toward lower latitudes and even into the opposite hemisphere. This extension appears to be tilted westward, but mostly is confined to the longitudes where the magnetic poles are located. Thus, the relative longitudinal changes of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean thermospheric mass density have strong seasonal variations and show an annual oscillation at high and middle latitudes but a semiannual oscillation around the equator. Our results suggest that heating of the magnetospheric origin in the auroral region is most likely the cause of these observed longitudinal structures. Our results also show that the relative longitude variation of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean thermospheric mass density is hemispherically asymmetric and more pronounced in the Southern Hemisphere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xu, Jiyao; Wang, Wenbin; Gao, Hong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.11.028"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cokriging estimation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> suspended sediment loads</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> suspended sediment loads (S) were estimated using cokriging (CK) of S with <span class="hlt">daily</span> river discharge based on weekly, biweekly, or monthly sampled sediment data. They were also estimated with ordinary kriging (OK) and a rating curve method. The estimated <span class="hlt">daily</span> loads were compared with the <span class="hlt">daily</span> measured values over a nine-year-period. The results show that the estimated <span class="hlt">daily</span> sediment loads with the CK using the weekly measured data best matched the measured <span class="hlt">daily</span> values. The rating curve method based on the same data provides a fairly good match but it tends to underestimate the peak and overestimate the low values. The CK estimation was better than the rating curve because CK considers the temporal correlation among the data values and honors the measured points whereas the rating curve method does not. For the site studied, weekly sampling may be frequent enough for estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> sediment loads with CK when <span class="hlt">daily</span> discharge data is available. The estimated <span class="hlt">daily</span> loads with CK were less reliable when the sediment samples were taken less frequently, i.e., biweekly or monthly. The OK estimates using the weekly measured data significantly underestimates the <span class="hlt">daily</span> S because unlike CK and the rating curve, OK makes no use of the correlation of sediment loads with frequently measured river discharge. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Z.; Zhang, Y. -K.; Schilling, K.; Skopec, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22global+business%22&pg=5&id=EJ597527"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Fluency.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Defines <span class="hlt">global</span> fluency as a facility with cultural behaviors that help an organization thrive in an ever-changing <span class="hlt">global</span> business environment; and discusses business culture, <span class="hlt">global</span> culture, an example of a change effort at a <span class="hlt">global</span> company, leadership values, company values, and defining <span class="hlt">global</span> values and practices. (Author/LRW)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tosti, Donald T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://www.kansascityfed.org/PUBLICAT/ECONREV/Pdf/4q03rogo.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> and <span class="hlt">global</span> disinflation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Since the invention of money, pressure to finance government debt and deficits, directly or indirectly, has been the single most important driver of inflation. It is not at all clear, however, that improved fiscal policy has been the main driver of the recent disinflation. ; Whatever the explanation of <span class="hlt">global</span> disinflation, the raw data are stunning. In recent years, inflation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kenneth S. Rogoff</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACP....13.3777S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Validation of an hourly resolved <span class="hlt">global</span> aerosol model in answer to solar electricity generation information needs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Solar energy applications need <span class="hlt">global</span> aerosol optical depth (AOD) information to derive historic surface solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> databases from geostationary meteorological satellites reaching back to the 1980's. This paper validates the MATCH/DLR model originating in the climate community against AERONET ground measurements. Hourly or <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean AOD model output is evaluated individually for all stations in Europe, Africa and the Middle East - an area highly interesting for solar energy applications being partly dominated by high aerosol loads. Overall, a bias of 0.02 and a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.23 are found for <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean AOD values, while the RMSE increases to 0.28 for hourly mean AOD values. Large differences between various regions and stations are found providing a feedback loop for the aerosol modelling community. The difference in using <span class="hlt">daily</span> means versus hourly resolved modelling with respect to hourly resolved observations is evaluated. Nowadays state-of-the-art in solar resource assessment relies on monthly turbidity or AOD climatologies while at least hourly resolved <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> time series are needed by the solar sector. Therefore, the contribution of higher temporally modelled AOD is evaluated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schroedter-Homscheidt, M.; Oumbe, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> 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class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40211136"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flexibility in <span class="hlt">daily</span> travel routines causes regional variation in bird migration speed</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We used novel <span class="hlt">Global</span> Positioning System-based satellite telemetry to reconstruct <span class="hlt">daily</span> time budgets on travelling days of\\u000a a long-distance migrant, the Osprey Pandion haliaetus, to reveal how landscape affects migratory performance. We compared <span class="hlt">daily</span> travel routines between the Ospreys’ passage of\\u000a Europe and the Sahara. In Europe, where feeding habitat is abundant, Ospreys fed both before–after flights and during interruptions,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Raymond H. G. Klaassen; Roine Strandberg; Mikael Hake; Thomas Alerstam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=editing&pg=2&id=EJ808928"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Oral Language: Is It Effective?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study examines the <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Oral Language (DOL) program aimed at helping students learn mechanics of writing through <span class="hlt">daily</span> editing exercises. This nine-month study sought to determine if DOL improved editing skills and actual writing skills of seventy fourth-grade students. While the results of this study did not statistically demonstrate the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Whittingham, Jeff L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cb.wsu.edu/%7Edsprott/PDFs/Self-Brand/Nezlek_Plesko_PSPB_03.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Affect and Self-Based Models of Relationships between <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Events and <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Well-Being</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present study examined affect- and self-based explanatory models of relationships between <span class="hlt">daily</span> events and <span class="hlt">daily</span> well- being. Twice a week for up to 10 weeks, participants described the events that occurred each day and provided measures of their <span class="hlt">daily</span> affect, self-esteem, and depressogenic thinking. Partici- pants also provided trait-level measures of affect, depression, and self-esteem. Measures of <span class="hlt">daily</span> well-being</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">John B. Nezlek; Rebecca M. Plesko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA279345"> <span id="translatedtitle">Absolute, Extreme-Ultraviolet Solar Spectral <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Monitor (AESSIM).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The goal of this research program was development of a method for obtaining <span class="hlt">daily</span> radiometrically accurately, solar spectral <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> data at EUV wavelengths. In orbit radiometric instrumentation recalibration is a fundamental requirement for accurate s...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. H. Parkinson P. L. Smith</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA267045"> <span id="translatedtitle">Absolute, Extreme Ultraviolet Solar Spectral <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Monitor (AESSIM).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The goal of this research program is development of a method for obtaining <span class="hlt">daily</span>, radiometrically accurate, solar spectral <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> data at extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths. In-orbit radiometric instrumentation recalibration is a fundamental requir...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. H. Parkinson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA268154"> <span id="translatedtitle">Absolute, Extreme Ultraviolet Solar Spectral <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Monitor (AESSIM).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The goal of this research program is development of a method for obtaining <span class="hlt">daily</span>, radiometrically accurate, solar spectral <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> data at extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths. In-orbit radiometric instrumentation recalibration is a fundamental requir...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. H. Parkinson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22social+AND+activities%22&pg=2&id=EJ956697"> <span id="translatedtitle">Deriving <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Purpose through <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Events and Role Fulfillment among Asian American Youth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Establishing life purpose is a key developmental task; however, how it is linked to adolescents' everyday family, school, extracurricular, and leisure experiences remains unclear. Using <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary data from 180 Asian American ninth and tenth graders (50% ninth; 58% female; 25% first generation), <span class="hlt">daily</span> purpose was positively related to <span class="hlt">daily</span>…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kiang, Lisa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007evga.conf...69A"> <span id="translatedtitle">ERP time series with <span class="hlt">daily</span> and sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> resolution determined from CONT05</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">From time to time, continuous VLBI campaigns take place under the direction of the IVS. Even though these observations are continuous over two weeks, the standard VLBI analysis procedure leads to independent <span class="hlt">daily</span> datasets. In this paper, an alternative approach is presented to estimate earth rotation parameters with different temporal resolutions. By stacking the single sessions to a two-weekly solution on the normal equation level, a consistent time series is produced over the whole CONT05 period. Stacked parameters are station positions which are estimated in a '<span class="hlt">global</span>' approach and borders of time dependent parameters e.g. zenith wet delay. Analysis of the correlation matrix of estimated parameters gives an impression of the dependencies between them. Furthermore, it is demonstrated how these dependencies depend on the type of datum used. E.g. correlations between earth rotation parameters (ERP) and tropospheric zenith delay of certain VLBI sites have been detected. The ERP time series resulting from the stacking approach turned out to be more consistent over the fortnightly time span. In particular, time series of hourly ERP exhibit a better behaviour at the session boundaries, since the discrepancies at session borders due to poorly determined intervals is minimized.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Artz, T.; Böckmann, S.; Nothnagel, A.; Tesmer, V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Consumerism&pg=6&id=EJ839706"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> and the Experiences of Aging</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Globalization</span> is a product of urbanization and economic intensification which has escalated since the 1970s. <span class="hlt">Globalized</span> markets have created many of the features of modern life including consumerism, increased cultural homogeneity, increased social polarization, erosion of the sovereignty of nation states, and delocalization of <span class="hlt">daily</span> life. The…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fry, Christine L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdSpR..51.1727K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prediction of clear-sky biologically effective erythematic radiation (EER) From <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation (250-2800 nm) at Cairo, Egypt</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The hourly and <span class="hlt">daily</span> measured clear-sky <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation (G) and biologically important effective erythematic radiation (EER) incident on a horizontal surface at Cairo, Egypt (latitude 30° 05? N & Longitude 31° 15? E), during the period from January 1995 to December 2005 are used in this paper. The relationship between <span class="hlt">daily</span> integrated totals of EER and the <span class="hlt">daily</span> totals of broadband <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation (250-2800 nm) is established. The temporal variability of the percentage ratio of the total <span class="hlt">daily</span> erythema to total <span class="hlt">daily</span> broadband solar <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> (EER/G) is determined. The monthly and the seasonal averages of the extraterrestrial UVB solar radiation, Mesurad and estímated UVB solar radiation and clearness index KtUVB of UVB radiation are discussed. The average monthly mean variation of slant ozone (Z) and UVB transmission (KtUVB) at the present work are found. The two variables show an opposite seasonal behavior, and the average monthly of slant ozone column and UVB transmission values shows the relationship between them in a clearer way than those of <span class="hlt">daily</span> values. The estimated values of UVB solar radiation a good agreement with the measured values of the UVB solar radiation, the difference between the estimated and measured values of UVB solar radiation varies from 1.2% to 2.8%. The effect of the annual cycles of solar zenith angle (SZA) and total column ozone (TCO) on the ratios (EER/G) are presented and the correction factors are determined for removal of the ozone cycle. The seasonal variability of EER/G is also discussed. The effect of the annual cycles of solar zenith angle (SZA) and total column ozone (TCO) on the ratios (EER/G) is presented and the correction factors are determined for removal of the ozone cycle.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Khalil, Samy A.; Shaffie, A. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990WRR....26.2741W"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Hybrid Model for Forecasting <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Rainfall</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a hydrologic basin where precipitation rates have strong seasonal characteristics, simple seasonal forecasts of rainfall along with regression analysis on a few related meteorological observations can be used to obtain an estimate of the anticipated rainfall rate one day in advance. In this paper a model for forecasting <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall with one day lead time is presented. The model uses smoothed normal <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall rates as seasonal forecasts and a linear regression model on deviations of atmospheric pressure, temperature, and humidity from their seasonal mean values for estimating departures from seasonal rainfall forecasts. The model has been applied to and tested with <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall data of Dhaka (Dacca) city in Bangladesh.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wasimi, Saleh A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N7917384"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spectral <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> of Daylight at Durban.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An apparatus and method used to measure the spectral <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> of daylight on a horizontal plane in the 295-775 nm wavelength region are described. Both <span class="hlt">global</span> and diffuse sky <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> were measured over a period of approximately 12 months. The result...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. J. Kok A. N. Chalmers</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_147343.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Most Kids Eat Fruit, Veggies <span class="hlt">Daily</span>: CDC</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... enable JavaScript. Most Kids Eat Fruit, Veggies <span class="hlt">Daily</span>: CDC Survey finds 3 out of 4 are getting ... Samara Joy Nielsen, a nutritional epidemiologist with the CDC's National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). "We weren' ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/everyone/basics/water.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Water: Meeting Your <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Fluid Needs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... gov . Nutrition for Everyone Nutrition Topics Share Compartir Water: Meeting Your <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Fluid Needs Ever notice how ... drink more fluids. Where do I get the water I need? Most of your water needs are ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2011105345"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Marijuana Users. The NSDUH Report.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Marijuana use impairs physical and mental health, cognitive abilities, career status, and social life. Heavy marijuana use critically lowers learning skills, and <span class="hlt">daily</span> use may result in overall reduced intellectual functioning. The National Survey on Drug...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.palliative.uab.edu/wp-content/uploads/2008/07/sawyer-p-lillis-jp-bodner-ev-etal.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Substantial <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Pain Among Nursing Home Residents</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Results: The analysis is based on 27,628 nursing home residents 65 and older with mean age of 82.8 years; 20% African American; 25% male. Seventeen percent had substantial <span class="hlt">daily</span> pain. By nursing home, reported substantial <span class="hlt">daily</span> pain prevalence ranged from 0% to 54.7%. The prevalence of pain was less in smaller nurs- ing homes (P.001). Bivariate correlations were signif- icant</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Patricia Sawyer; J. Porter Lillis; Eric V. Bodner; Richard M. Allman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.irisa.fr/prive/kadi/SiteEquipeAsociee/Site_RTR2A/Papiers/ieee_TVCG.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radiance Caching for Efficient <span class="hlt">Global</span> Illumination Computation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we present a ray tracing-based method for accelerated <span class="hlt">global</span> illumination computation in scenes with low- frequency glossy BRDFs. The method is based on sparse sampling, caching, and interpolating radiance on glossy surfaces. In particular, we extend the <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> caching scheme proposed by Ward et al. (1) to cache and interpolate directional incoming radiance instead of <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jaroslav Krivánek; Pascal Gautron; Sumanta N. Pattanaik; Kadi Bouatouch</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H43A1300R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of Quantile Regression for Statistical Downscaling of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Precipitation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Statistical downscaling is often used in climate change studies to bridge the gap between the resolution of <span class="hlt">global</span> climate models and the resolution required in applications, as well as to resolve issues with model biases. Conventional linear regression models have been extensively used for this purpose. In the context of statistical downscaling, it involves the development of relationships between for example <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and large-scale variables that are presumably well represented in <span class="hlt">global</span> climate models. However, linear regression models have a number of potential shortcomings. For example, the best prediction of high, low, and medium precipitation may require use of different subsets of predictor variables, something that cannot be accomplished with traditional regression models. The error distribution may not be Gaussian, even after some transformation of variables, and the error variance may not be independent of predictors. We address these shortcomings through the use of linear quantile regression. While traditional regression models predict the mean value in the conditional distribution, quantile regression predicts user-selected quantiles in the conditional distribution. By developing quantile regression models for a range of quantile levels, one can obtain an accurate representation of the conditional distribution corresponding to given values of the predictors, and a downscaled <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation value can be obtained by sampling from the conditional distribution established in this way. The issue of selecting predictor variables for quantile regression is not as straightforward as for traditional regression models. We address this issue through Bayesian model averaging, implemented using the Gibbs sampler combined with stochastic search techniques. The suitability of the approach is evaluated and compared to the traditional regression model, using climate station data from Manitoba and data from the NCEP/NCAR <span class="hlt">Global</span> Reanalysis. While in some cases quantile regression produces results that are fairly similar to those obtained from conventional linear regression, there are a number of instances where downscaling based on quantile regression outperforms the traditional method.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rasmussen, P.; Tareghian, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Negative+AND+Energy&pg=4&id=EJ690204"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Experiences of Emotions and Social Contexts of Securely and Insecurely Attached Young Adults</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study examined <span class="hlt">daily</span> emotions and social contexts of young adults who differed in <span class="hlt">global</span> attachment style (secure vs. insecure). Sixty-nine college students (41% male, 59% female) completed self-report measures of attachment and provided time-sampling data on moods, companionship, and activities using the experience sampling method. Secure (n…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Torquati, Julia C.; Raffaelli, Marcela</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53118822"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar Spectral <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Variability in the Near Infrared and Correlations to the Variability of Total Solar <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> During the Declining Phase of Solar Cycle 23</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Spectral <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Monitor (SIM) as part of the NASA EOS SORCE mission continuously monitors the solar spectral <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (SSI) across the wavelength region spanning the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared (a region encompassing >97% of the TSI measured by the SORCE Total <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Monitor, TIM). These are the first <span class="hlt">daily</span> measurements from space with the required precision to detect</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. C. Richard; J. W. Harder; J. Fontenla; P. Pilewskie; G. Kopp; T. N. Woods</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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style="font-weight: bold;">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3594929"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intent to quit among <span class="hlt">daily</span> and non-<span class="hlt">daily</span> college student smokers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-<span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers (i.e. never <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers), converted non-<span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers (i.e. former <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers) and <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers] and (ii) smoking category as it relates to readiness to quit among current smokers. Of the 4438 students at six Southeast colleges who completed an online survey, 69.7% (n = 3094) were non-smokers, 6.6% (n = 293) were quitters, 7.1% (n = 317) were native non-<span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers, 6.4% (n = 283) were converted non-<span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers and 10.2% (n = 451) were <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers. There were differences in sociodemographics, substance use (alcohol, marijuana, other tobacco products) in the past 30 days and psychosocial factors among these subgroups of students (P < 0.001). Among current smokers, there were differences in cigarettes smoked per day, recent quit attempts, self-identification as a smoker, self-efficacy and motivation to quit (P < 0.001). After controlling for important factors, converted non-<span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers were more likely to be ready to quit in the next month versus native non-<span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers (OR = 2.15, CI 1.32–3.49, P = 0.002). Understanding differences among young adults with different smoking patterns and histories is critical in developing interventions targeting psychosocial factors impacting cessation among this population.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23856186"> <span id="translatedtitle">Associations among <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors and salivary cortisol: findings from the National Study of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Experiences.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">While much research has focused on linking stressful experiences to emotional and biological reactions in laboratory settings, there is an emerging interest in extending these examinations to field studies of <span class="hlt">daily</span> life. The current study examined day-to-day associations among naturally occurring <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors and salivary cortisol in a national sample of adults from the second wave of the National Study of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Experiences (NSDE). A sample of 1694 adults (age=57, range=33-84; 44% male) completed telephone interviews detailing their stressors and emotions on eight consecutive evenings. Participants also provided saliva samples upon waking, 30min post-waking, before lunch and before bed, on four consecutive interview days resulting in 5995 days of interview/cortisol data. Analyses revealed three main findings. First, cortisol AUC was significantly higher on stressor days compared to stressor-free days, particularly for arguments and overloads at home, suggesting that <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors are associated with increased cortisol output, but that not all <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors have such an influence. Second, individuals reporting a greater frequency of stressor days also exhibited a steeper diurnal cortisol slope. Finally, <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressor-cortisol associations were unaltered after adjustment for <span class="hlt">daily</span> negative affect and physical symptoms. Our discussion focuses on the influence of naturally occurring <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors on <span class="hlt">daily</span> cortisol and the role of <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary approaches for studying healthy cortisol responses to psychosocial stressors outside of traditional laboratory settings. PMID:23856186</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stawski, Robert S; Cichy, Kelly E; Piazza, Jennifer R; Almeida, David M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2634860"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonstandard Work Schedules, Perceived Family Well-Being, and <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Stressors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Data from two studies assessed the effects of nonstandard work schedules on perceived family well-being and <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors. Study 1, using a sample of employed, married adults aged 25 – 74 (n = 1,166) from the National Survey of Midlife in the United States, showed that night work was associated with perceptions of greater marital instability, negative family-work, and work-family spillover than weekend or daytime work. In Study 2, with a subsample of adults (n = 458) who participated in the National Study of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Experiences, weekend workers reported more <span class="hlt">daily</span> work stressors than weekday workers. Several sociodemographic variables were tested as moderators. Both studies demonstrated that nonstandard work schedules place a strain on working, married adults at the <span class="hlt">global</span> and <span class="hlt">daily</span> level.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Davis, Kelly D.; Goodman, W. Benjamin; Pirretti, Amy E.; Almeida, David M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED309119.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Education.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This issue contains an introduction ("The Promise and Perplexity of <span class="hlt">Globalism</span>," by W. Longstreet) and seven articles dedicated to exploring the meaning of <span class="hlt">global</span> education for today's schools. "<span class="hlt">Global</span> Education: An Overview" (J. Becker) develops possible definitions, identifies objectives and skills, and addresses questions and issues in this…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Longstreet, Wilma S., Ed.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cgge.aag.org/GlobalEconomy1e/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Economy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This learning module from the Association of American Geographer's Center for <span class="hlt">Global</span> Geography Education looks into the geographic characteristics of the <span class="hlt">global</span> economy and the processes linking economic activities at local, regional, and <span class="hlt">global</span> scales. Four case studies are included in the learning unit, each focusing on a different region (New Zealand, Chile, Central and South America, East/Southeast Asia).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=government+AND+failure+AND+market+AND+failure&pg=4&id=ED428216"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> HRD.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This document contains four papers from a symposium on <span class="hlt">global</span> human resource development (HRD). "<span class="hlt">Globalization</span> of Human Resource Management (HRM) in Government: A Cross-Cultural Perspective" (Pan Suk Kim) relates HRM to national cultures and addresses its specific functional aspects with a unique dimension in a <span class="hlt">global</span> organization. "An…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">1997</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B41D0423F"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> albedo estimation and comparison to MCD43 product</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Land surface broadband albedo is among the main radiative uncertainties in current climate modelling. An accuracy requirement of 5% and a <span class="hlt">daily</span> temporal resolution is suggested by the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Climate Observing System for albedo characterization at spatial and temporal scales compatible with climate studies. Satellite remote sensing provides the only practical way of producing high-quality <span class="hlt">global</span> albedo data sets with high spatial and temporal resolutions. For view-ilumination geometries such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), in order to retrieve the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) parameters and, consequently, the albedo, a period of sequential measurement is needed to accumulate sufficient observations. This is used to derive the MODIS BRDF/Albedo product (MCD43), which consider a composite period of 16 days with a resulting temporal resolution of 8 days. Looking for an improvement in the albedo temporal resolution that mitigated the assumption of a stable target, Vermote et al. (2009) presented the VJB method that assumes that the BRDF shape variations throughout a year are limited and linked to the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). This method retains the highest temporal resolution (<span class="hlt">daily</span>, cloud cover permitting). The purpose of this work is to compare the MCD43 product with the VJB method through the albedo. Additionally, we present and study a method based on the VJB assumption, the 5param Rsqr. In this study we focus our analysis on <span class="hlt">daily</span> MODIS CMG Collection 6 data from both Aqua and Terra satellites over Europe from 2002 until 2011. Figure 1 shows the percentage of the total RMSE of the VJB and the 5param Rsqr method against the MCD43 product. They display that southern latitudes present lower errors while they increase for northern latitudes and mountainous areas. Comparing the methods, the VJB presents errors higher than 15% in 8.2% of total land pixels while they suppose 6.9% of pixels when using the 5param Rsqr. We obtain an overall RMSE of 5% when using the VJB and 5.1% for the 5param Rsqr method. Since both methods meet the absolute requirement of 5% accuracy we conclude that they have an equivalent performance in deriving the albedo to the MODIS product with the advantage of <span class="hlt">daily</span> temporal resolution. We demonstrate then that a simple four (or five) parameter NDVI-scaled model performs as well as a more complex model with many more degrees of freedom. Additionally, we propose the 5param Rsqr method as an alternative to the VJB method due to its decrease data processing time reducing it 44%. Figure 1. Percentage RMSE of the VJB (right) and 5param Rsqr (left) against the MCD43 product.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Franch, B.; Vermote, E.; Sobrino, J. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/ja/ja1101/2010JA015901/2010JA015901.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar extreme ultraviolet <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>: Present, past, and future</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">New models of solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variability are constructed in 1 nm bins from 0 to 120 nm using multiple regression of the Mg II and F10.7 solar activity indices with <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> observations made during the descending phase of cycle 23. The models have been used to reconstruct EUV spectra <span class="hlt">daily</span> since 1950, annually since 1610, to forecast</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. L. Lean; T. N. Woods; F. G. Eparvier; R. R. Meier; D. J. Strickland; J. T. Correira; J. S. Evans</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32724963"> <span id="translatedtitle">Candesartan Cilexetil: Comparison of once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> versus twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> administration for systemic hypertension</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This randomized, double-masked, placebocontrolled, forced-titration, parallel-arm study was designed to compare the blood pressure (BP)-lowering effect of candesartan cilexetil, a potent antagonist of the angiotensin II receptor subtype AT1, administered once <span class="hlt">daily</span> with that of the same agent administered twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> at the same total <span class="hlt">daily</span> dose of 16 mg. After a 4- to 5-week placebo run-in period, 277 patients</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christen A. Zuschke; Iris Keys; Mark A. Munger; Albert A. Carr; George N. Marinides; Terry L. Flanagan; Daniel J. Cushing; Jodi L. Hayes; Eric L. Michelson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30379505"> <span id="translatedtitle">A comparison of <span class="hlt">daily</span> CT localization to a <span class="hlt">daily</span> ultrasound-based system in prostate cancer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: <span class="hlt">Daily</span> CT localization has been demonstrated to be a precise method of correcting radiation field placement by reducing setup and organ motion variations to facilitate dose escalation in prostate carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of <span class="hlt">daily</span> ultrasound-guided localization utilizing <span class="hlt">daily</span> CT as a standard. The relatively simple computer-assisted ultrasound-based system is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Joseph Lattanzi; Shawn McNeeley; Wayne Pinover; Eric Horwitz; Indra Das; Timothy E Schultheiss; Gerald E Hanks</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9218V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal disaggregation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological grid data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For operational flood forecasting, the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Administration (NVE) applies the conceptual HBV rainfall-runoff model for 117 catchments. The hydrological models are calibrated and run using an extensive meteorological grid data set providing <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature and precipitation data back to 1957 for entire Norway at 1x1 km grid resolution (seNorge grids). The <span class="hlt">daily</span> temporal resolution is dictated by the resolution of historical meteorological data. However, since meteorological forecasts and runoff observations are also available at a much finer than a <span class="hlt">daily</span> time-resolution (e.g. 6 hourly), and many hydrological extreme events happens at a temporal scale of less than <span class="hlt">daily</span>, it is important to try to establish a historical dataset of meteorological input at a finer corresponding temporal resolution. We present a simple approach for the temporal disaggregation of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological seNorge grids into 6-hour values by consulting a HIRLAM hindcast grid data series with an hourly time resolution and a 10x10 km grid resolution. The temporal patterns of the hindcast series are used to disaggregate the <span class="hlt">daily</span> interpolated observations from the seNorge grids. In this way, we produce a historical grid dataset from 1958-2010 with 6-hourly temperature and precipitation for entire Norway on a 1x1 km grid resolution. For validation and to see if additional information is gained, the disaggregated data is compared with observed values from selected meteorological stations. In addition, the disaggregated data is evaluated against <span class="hlt">daily</span> data, simply split into four fractions. The validation results indicate that additional information is indeed gained and point out the benefit of disaggregated data compared to <span class="hlt">daily</span> data split into four. With regard to temperature, the disaggregated values show very low deviations (MAE, RMSE), and are highly correlated with observed values. Regarding precipitation, the disaggregated data shows cumulative distribution functions (CDF) which are very consistent to those of measured values. Especially for extreme precipitation events with occurrence probabilities lower than 15 %, the disaggregated data is much more appropriate to measurements than the simply fractioned <span class="hlt">daily</span> data. For the recalibration of the hydrological models - and especially with regard to flood forecasting purposes - these results are very promising.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vormoor, K.; Skaugen, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/44475643"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Retrospective Estimation of Soil Moisture Using the Variable Infiltration Capacity Land Surface Model, 1980-93</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">daily</span> set of surface meteorological forcings, model-derived surface moisture fluxes, and state variables for <span class="hlt">global</span> land areas for the period of 1979-93 is described. The forcing dataset facilitates <span class="hlt">global</span> simulations and evaluation of land surface parameterizations without relying heavily on GCM output. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> precipitation and temperature are based on station observations, <span class="hlt">daily</span> wind speeds are based on National Centers</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bart Nijssen; Reiner Schnur; Dennis P. Lettenmaier</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1007339"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measuring Degradation Rates Without <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method to report PV system degradation rates without using <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> data is demonstrated. First, a set of relative degradation rates are determined by comparing <span class="hlt">daily</span> AC final yields from a group of PV systems relative to the average final yield of all the PV systems. Then, the difference between relative and absolute degradation rates is found from a statistical analysis. This approach is verified by comparing to methods that utilize <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> data. This approach is significant because PV systems are often deployed without <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> sensors, so the analysis method described here may enable measurements of degradation using data that were previously thought to be unsuitable for degradation studies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pulver, S.; Cormode, D.; Cronin, A.; Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Smith, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dceg.cancer.gov/research/what-we-study/environment/tonsil-irradiation"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tonsil <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.cancer.gov">Cancer.gov</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A cohort of about 3,000 individuals who were <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> during childhood for benign head and neck conditions at Michael Reese Hospital was assembled and monitored for the risk of thyroid and other cancers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24784123"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chronic <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache: diagnosis and management.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Chronic <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache is defined as the presence of a headache on 15 days or more per month for at least three months. The most common types of chronic <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache are chronic migraines and chronic tension-type headaches. If a red flag for a secondary cause of headache is present, magnetic resonance imaging of the head should be performed. All patients should be asked about medication overuse, which can increase the frequency of headaches. Patients who overuse medications for abortive therapy for headache should be encouraged to stop the medications entirely and consider prophylactic treatment. Several prophylactic treatments for chronic <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache can reduce headache frequency and severity, as well as improve overall quality of life. Nonpharmacologic treatments include relaxation techniques, cognitive behavior therapy, acupuncture, osteopathic manipulation, and cervical exercises. Pharmacologic therapies include amitriptyline, gabapentin, onabotulinumtoxinA, propranolol, tizanidine, topiramate, and valproate. PMID:24784123</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yancey, Joseph R; Sheridan, Richard; Koren, Kelly G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24820732"> <span id="translatedtitle">New <span class="hlt">daily</span> persistent headache: an update.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">New <span class="hlt">daily</span> persistent headache is a primary headache disorder marked by a unique temporal profile which is <span class="hlt">daily</span> from onset. For many sufferers this is their first ever headache. Very little is known about the pathogenesis of this condition. It might be a disorder of abnormal glial activation with persistent central nervous system inflammation and it may be a syndrome that occurs in individuals who have a history of cervical hypermobility. At present there is no known specific treatment and many patients go for years to decades without any improvement in their condition despite aggressive therapy. This article will present an up-to-date overview of new <span class="hlt">daily</span> persistent headache on the topics of clinical presentation, treatment, diagnostic criteria, and presumed pathogenesis. It will also provide some of the authors own treatment suggestions based on recognized triggering events and some suggestions for future clinical trials. PMID:24820732</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rozen, Todd D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24293106"> <span id="translatedtitle">A clinical and pharmacologic assessment of once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> versus twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> dosing for rivaroxaban.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Altering doses and regimens of a drug has consequences for the drug's pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile. Based on a half-life of 5-13 h, it is expected that the Factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban would be best suited to a twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> rather than a once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> dose regimen. However, although rivaroxaban is used as a twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen for the initial treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and secondary prevention after acute coronary syndromes, the approved dosing is once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> for prevention of VTE after orthopaedic surgery, long-term secondary prevention of VTE and stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Rivaroxaban dosing was based on the evaluation of the efficacy and safety of several rivaroxaban doses and regimens in phase II trials. A clear overall advantage of twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> dosing compared with once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> dosing was not documented for indications for which once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> dosing was subsequently selected. Once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> dosing was therefore selected for these indications because it is expected to be associated with better compliance than twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> dosing, and potentially, with improved outcomes. These studies and data obtained with another Factor Xa inhibitor, edoxaban, in addition to previous experience with low molecular weight heparins, indicate that the clinical impact of once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> versus twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> doses on outcome in terms of efficacy and safety cannot be reliably predicted from pharmacology data, e.g. elimination half-life, obtained during pre-clinical and early phase I clinical studies but rather should be ascertained empirically in phase II and III clinical trials. PMID:24293106</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kreutz, Reinhold</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/d58q055316603k08.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neutron activation analysis of uranium in human bone, drinking water and <span class="hlt">daily</span> diet</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Uranium in human bone, drinking water and <span class="hlt">daily</span> diet has been determined by neutron activation analysis using the238U(n, ?)239U reaction. An improved scheme for the separation of the239U is proposed; with this scheme, after neutron <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> in a 100 kW TRIGA reactor, a uranium content as low as 5·10?11 g can be determined reliably, rapidly and easily. A wide range</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. Nozaki; M. Ichikawa; T. Sasuga; M. Inarida</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1970-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mathmastery.com/dailybrains/"> <span id="translatedtitle">MathMastery.com: <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Brains</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Six days a week, a new math problem is posted on this Web site to intrigue and challenge grade school students. Each <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Brain has a different theme, considering some mathematical perspective of science, history, geography, and more. After solving the problem, or for a little help, students can look at a step-by-step solution that is also posted online. All old <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Brains are kept in an archive, and as of May 2003, they numbered around 400. The problems are mostly intended for students between fourth and sixth grades.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1054296"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Thermal Predictions of the AGR-1 Experiment with Gas Gaps Varying with Time</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new <span class="hlt">daily</span> as-run thermal analysis was performed at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) test experiment number one at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This thermal analysis incorporates gas gaps changing with time during the <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> experiment. The purpose of this analysis was to calculate the <span class="hlt">daily</span> average temperatures of each compact to compare with experimental results. Post <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> examination (PIE) measurements of the graphite holder and fuel compacts showed the gas gaps varying from the beginning of life. The control temperature gas gap and the fuel compact – graphite holder gas gaps were linearly changed from the original fabrication dimensions, to the end of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> measurements. A steady-state thermal analysis was performed for each <span class="hlt">daily</span> calculation. These new thermal predictions more closely match the experimental data taken during the experiment than previous analyses. Results are presented comparing normalized compact average temperatures to normalized log(R/B) Kr-85m. The R/B term is the measured release rate divided by the predicted birth rate for the isotope Kr-85m. Correlations between these two normalized values are presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grant Hawkes; James Sterbentz; John Maki; Binh Pham</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10154823"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> temperature and precipitation data for 223 USSR Stations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">On- May 23, 1972, the United States and the USSR established a bilateral initiative known as the Agreement on Protection of the Environment. Given recent interest in possible greenhouse gas-induced climate change, Working Group VIII (Influence of Environmental Changes on Climate) has become particularly useful to the scientific communities of both nations. Among its many achievements, Working Group VIII has been instrumental in the exchange of climatological information between the principal climate data centers of each country [i.e., the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) in Asheville, North Carolina, and the Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information in Obninsk, Russia]. Considering the relative lack of climate records previously available for the USSR, data obtained via this bilateral exchange are particularly valuable to researchers outside the former Soviet Union. To expedite the dissemination of these data, NOAA`s Climate and <span class="hlt">Global</span> Change Program funded the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) and NCDC to distribute one of the more useful archives acquired through this exchange: a 223-station <span class="hlt">daily</span> data set covering the period 1881-1989. This data set contains: (1) <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean, minimum, and maximum temperature data; (2) <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation data; (3) station inventory information (WMO No., name, coordinates, and elevation); (4) station history information (station relocation and rain gauge replacement dates); and (5) quality assurance information (i.e., flag codes that were assigned as a result of various data checks). The data set is available, free of charge, as a Numeric Data Package (NDP) from CDIAC. The NDP consists of 18 data files and a printed document which describes both the data files and the 223-station network in detail.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Razuvaev, V.N.; Apasova, E.G.; Martuganov, R.A. [Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Vose, R.S. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Steurer, P.M. [National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRD..119.1720G"> <span id="translatedtitle">WRF summer extreme <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation over the CORDEX Arctic</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">analyze <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation extremes produced by a six-member ensemble of the Pan-Arctic Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) that simulated 19 years on the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) Arctic domain for the Arctic summer. Attention focuses on four North American analysis regions defined using climatological records, regional weather patterns, and geographical/topographical features. We compare simulated extremes with those occurring at corresponding observing stations in the U.S. National Climate Data Center's <span class="hlt">Global</span> Summary of the Day. Our analysis focuses on variations in features of the extremes such as magnitudes, spatial scales, and temporal regimes between regions. Using composites of extreme events, we also analyze the processes producing these extremes, comparing circulation, pressure, temperature, and humidity fields from the ERA-Interim reanalysis and the model output. Although the model's extreme precipitation is low compared to the observed one, the physical behavior in the reanalysis leading to observed extremes is simulated in the model. In particular, the reanalysis and the model both show the importance of moisture advection against topography for producing most of the extreme <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation events in summer. In contrast, parts of Arctic western Canada also have a substantial contribution from convective precipitation, which is not seen in the other regions analyzed. The analysis establishes the physical credibility of the simulations for extreme behavior. It also highlights the utility of the model for extracting behaviors that are not easily discernible from the observations such as convective precipitation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Glisan, Justin M.; Gutowski, William J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/srb/srb_rel3.0_lpsa_daily_table"> <span id="translatedtitle">REL3.0 LPSA <span class="hlt">DAILY</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href=""></a></p> <p class="result-summary">REL3.0 LPSA <span class="hlt">DAILY</span> Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release 3.0 Langley Parameterized Shortwave ... Top-of-atmosphere (TOA) Insolation Pristine-sky Surface Insolation Clear-sky Surface Insolation All-sky Surface ... Spatial Coverage: 8000 km^2 area in Brazil Full Product Page ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004GeoRL..3116203C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Downscaling <span class="hlt">daily</span> extreme temperatures with genetic programming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A context-free genetic programming (GP) method is presented that simulated local scale <span class="hlt">daily</span> extreme (maximum and minimum) temperatures based on large scale atmospheric variables. The method evolves simple and optimal models for downscaling <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature at a station. The advantage of the context-free GP method is that both the variables and constants of the candidate models are optimized and consequently the selection of the optimal model. The method is applied to the Chute-du-Diable weather station in Northeastern Canada along with the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis datasets. The performance of the GP based downscaling models is compared to benchmarks from a commonly used statistical downscaling model. The experiment results show that the models evolved by the GP are simpler and more efficient for downscaling <span class="hlt">daily</span> extreme temperature than the common statistical method. The different model test results indicate that the GP approach significantly outperforms the statistical method for the downscaling of <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum temperature, while for the maximum temperature the two methods are almost equivalent. However, the GP method remains slightly more effective for maximum temperature downscaling than the statistical method.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Coulibaly, Paulin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Measurement+problems%22&pg=4&id=ED465554"> <span id="translatedtitle">Super 7: <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Exercises in Problem Solving.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This book is a year-long program of <span class="hlt">daily</span> exercises in problem solving for 2nd and 3rd grade students that presents 144 lessons, each with seven problems. The problems cover number sense, computation, measurements, geometry, problem solving, and patterns. The material is presented in a sequential fashion with concepts repeated and expanded, and…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hamilton, Octavia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/thcdjuwr1y6htgxb.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Stock Prediction Using Neurogenetic Hybrids</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We propose a neuro-genetic <span class="hlt">daily</span> stock prediction model. Traditional indicators of stock prediction are utilized to produce useful input features of neural networks. The genetic algorithm optimizes the neural networks under a 2D encoding and crossover. To reduce the time in processing mass data, a parallel genetic algorithm was used on a Linux cluster system. It showed notable improvement on</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yung-keun Kwon; Byung-Ro Moon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37320208"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Rhythms in Disease-Vector Insects</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The host-vector-parasite interaction offers a clear illustration of the adaptive value of biological rhythms. In this review, we summarise some of the information currently available on <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of insect vectors, particularly those responsible for the transmission of parasites to humans. Included amongst the cases described are circadian rhythms of locomotor and flight activity, and of eclosion and oviposition in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Romina B. Barrozo; Pablo E. Schilman; Sebastián A. Minoli; Claudio R. Lazzari</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/162/8/936.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gastric and Duodenal Safety of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Alendronate</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Isolated case reports of gastric ulcers af- ter alendronate sodium use raised concern about the gas- troduodenal safety of <span class="hlt">daily</span> alendronate. This study was conducted to estimate the excess risk of hospitaliza- tions for gastric or duodenal perforations, ulcers, and bleeding associated with alendronate use. Participants and Methods: Study subjects were 6432 men and women, 35 years or older.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">James G. Donahue; K. Arnold Chan; Susan E. Andrade; Arne Beck; Myde Boles; Diana S. M. Buist; Vincent J. Carey; Julie M. Chandler; Gary A. Chase; Bruce Ettinger; Paul Fishman; Michael Goodman; Harry A. Guess; Jerry H. Gurwitz; Andrea Z. LaCroix; T. R. Levin; Richard Platt</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30432440"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> targeting of intrahepatic tumors for radiotherapy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction: A system has been developed for <span class="hlt">daily</span> targeting of intrahepatic tumors using a combination of ventilatory immobilization, in-room diagnostic imaging, and on-line setup adjustment. By reducing geometric position uncertainty, as well as organ movement, this system permits reduction of margins and thus potentially higher treatment doses. This paper reports our initial experience treating 8 patients with focal liver tumors</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">James M Balter; Kristy K Brock; Dale W Litzenberg; Daniel L McShan; Theodore S Lawrence; Randall Ten Haken; Cornelius J McGinn; Kwok L Lam; Laura A Dawson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jd/jd0321/2002JD003307/2002JD003307.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> morphology of infrasound propagation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Atmospheric sound waves in the 0.02–10 Hz region, also known as infrasound, exhibit long-range <span class="hlt">global</span> propagation characteristics. Measurable infrasound is produced around the globe on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis by a variety of natural and man-made sources. As a result of weak classical attenuation (?0.01 dB km?1 at 0.1 hz), these acoustic signals can propagate thousands of kilometers in tropospheric, stratospheric,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Douglas P. Drob; J. M. Picone; M. Garcés</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58124645"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Challenges</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using simple economic reasoning, this book analyses a broad range of <span class="hlt">global</span> challenges including <span class="hlt">global</span> warming, ozone shield depletion, acid rain, nuclear waste disposal, revolution dispersion, international terrorism, disease eradication, population growth, tropical deforestation, and peacemaking. These challenges are put into perspective in terms of scientific, economic, and political considerations. Many of these contingencies are shown to be solvable without</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Todd Sandler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22976876"> <span id="translatedtitle">In-vivo confirmation of the use of the dart thrower's motion during activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The dart thrower's motion is a wrist rotation along an oblique plane from radial extension to ulnar flexion. We report an in-vivo study to confirm the use of the dart thrower's motion during activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living. <span class="hlt">Global</span> wrist motion in ten volunteers was recorded using a three-dimensional optoelectronic motion capture system, in which digital infra-red cameras track the movement of retro-reflective marker clusters. <span class="hlt">Global</span> wrist motion has been approximated to the dart thrower's motion when hammering a nail, throwing a ball, drinking from a glass, pouring from a jug and twisting the lid of a jar, but not when combing hair or manipulating buttons. The dart thrower's motion is the plane of <span class="hlt">global</span> wrist motion used during most activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living. Arthrodesis of the radiocarpal joint instead of the midcarpal joint will allow better wrist function during most activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living by preserving the dart thrower's motion. PMID:22976876</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brigstocke, G H O; Hearnden, A; Holt, C; Whatling, G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21124210"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Bone Alignment With Limited Repeat CT Correction Rivals <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Ultrasound Alignment for Prostate Radiotherapy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of <span class="hlt">daily</span> ultrasound (US)- and computed tomography (CT)-guided alignments with an off-line correction protocol using <span class="hlt">daily</span> bone alignment plus a correction factor for systematic internal prostate displacement (CF{sub ID}). Methods and Materials: Ten prostate cancer patients underwent CT scans three times weekly using an integrated CT-linear accelerator system, followed by alignment using US for <span class="hlt">daily</span> radiotherapy. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans were designed with our current clinical margins. The treatment plan was copied onto the repeat CT images and aligned using several methods: (1) bone alignment plus CF{sub ID} after three off-line CT scans (bone+3CT), (2) bone alignment plus CF{sub ID} after six off-line CT scans (bone+6CT), (3) US alignment, and (4) CT alignment. The accuracy of the repeated US and CT measurements to determine the CF{sub ID} was compared. The target dosimetric effect was quantified. Results: The CF{sub ID} for internal systematic prostate displacements was more accurately measured with limited repeat CT scans than with US (residual error, 0.0 {+-} 0.7 mm vs. 2.0 {+-} 3.2 mm). Bone+3CT, bone+6CT, and US provided equivalent prostate and seminal vesicle dose coverage, but bone+3CT and bone+6CT produced more precise <span class="hlt">daily</span> alignments. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> CT alignment provided the greatest target dose coverage. Conclusion: <span class="hlt">Daily</span> bone alignment plus CF{sub ID} for internal systematic prostate displacement provided better <span class="hlt">daily</span> alignment precision and equivalent dose coverage compared with <span class="hlt">daily</span> US alignment. The CF{sub ID} should be based on at least three repeat CT scans, which could be collected before the start of treatment or during the first 3 treatment days. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> bone alignment plus CF{sub ID} provides another option for accurate prostate cancer patient positioning.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">O'Daniel, Jennifer C. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Dong Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)], E-mail: ldong@mdanderson.org; Zhang Lifei; Wang He [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Tucker, Susan L. [Department of Biostatistics and Applied Mathematics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Kudchadker, Rajat J. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Lee, Andrew K.; Cheung, Rex; Cox, James D.; Kuban, Deborah A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRA..119.3747C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geomagnetic activity effect on the <span class="hlt">global</span> ionosphere during the 2007-2009 deep solar minimum</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">this paper the significant effect of weaker geomagnetic activity during the 2007-2009 deep solar minimum on ionospheric variability on the shorter-term time scales of several days was highlighted via investigating the response of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">global</span> electron content (GEC, the <span class="hlt">global</span> area integral of total electron content derived from ground-based GPS measurements) to geomagnetic activity index Ap. Based on a case during the deep solar minimum, the effect of the recurrent weaker geomagnetic disturbances on the ionosphere was evident. Statistical analyses indicate that the effect of weaker geomagnetic activity on GEC variations on shorter-term time scales was significant during 2007-2009 even under relatively quiet geomagnetic activity condition; <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean GEC was positively correlated with geomagnetic activity. However, GEC variations on shorter-term time scales were poorly correlated with geomagnetic activity during the solar cycle descending phase of 2003-2005 except under strong geomagnetic disturbance condition. Statistically, the effects of solar EUV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, geomagnetic activity, and other factors (e.g., meteorological sources) on GEC variations on shorter-term time scales were basically equivalent during the 2007-2009 solar minimum.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Yiding; Liu, Libo; Le, Huijun; Wan, Weixing</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD748679"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of Computer <span class="hlt">Global</span> Radiation for Areas of High Relief.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The variation over uneven terrain of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> total of incident shortwave (<span class="hlt">global</span>) radiation under cloudless conditions may be estimated by existing methods for calculating direct and diffuse solar radiation on a slope. A computer program for performing ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. T. Andrews L. D. Williams R. G. Barry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1971-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=argument&pg=4&id=EJ967197"> <span id="translatedtitle">Racial Differences in Exposure and Reactivity to <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Family Stressors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using data from the National Study of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Experiences, the authors examined racial differences in exposure and reactivity to <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors involving family members. Respondents included African American and European American adults age 34 to 84 (N = 1,931) who participated in 8 days of <span class="hlt">daily</span> interviews during which they reported on <span class="hlt">daily</span>…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cichy, Kelly E.; Stawski, Robert S.; Almeida, David M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30696067"> <span id="translatedtitle">Air pollution and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality in Rome, Italy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">OBJECTIVES: To assess the relation between several <span class="hlt">daily</span> indicators of air pollution (particulates and gases) and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality in the metropolitan area of Rome and in the central part of the city. METHODS: Time series analysis. The associations between <span class="hlt">daily</span> concentrations of pollutants (particles, SO2, NO2, CO, O3) recorded by five fixed monitors and <span class="hlt">daily</span> total mortality in the period</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. Michelozzi; F. Forastiere; D. Fusco; C. A. Perucci; B. Ostro; C. Ancona; G. Pallotti</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.midus.wisc.edu/findings/pdfs/669.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Women's <span class="hlt">daily</span> physical health symptoms and stressful experiences across adulthood</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study investigated the extent to which the experience of <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors was related to women's age and <span class="hlt">daily</span> health symptomology, such as flu and cold symptoms. Respondents were 562 women (aged 25–74) who were a part of the National Study of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Experiences (NSDE), a telephone diary study examining <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressful events. The respondents were interviewed by telephone on</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Melanie Horn Mallers; David M. Almeida; Shevaun D. Neupert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=520826"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> rhythms in plasma levels of homocysteine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background There is accumulated evidence that plasma concentration of the sulfur-containing amino-acid homocysteine (Hcy) is a prognostic marker for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Both fasting levels of Hcy and post methionine loading levels are used as prognostic markers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the existence of a <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm in plasma Hcy under strictly controlled nutritional and sleep-wake conditions. We also investigated if the time during which methionine loading is performed, i.e., morning or evening, had a different effect on the resultant plasma Hcy concentration. Methods Six healthy men aged 23–26 years participated in 4 experiments. In the first and second experiments, the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm in Hcy as well as in other amino acids was investigated under a normal or an inverse sleep-wake cycle. In the third and fourth, Hcy concentrations were investigated after a morning and evening methionine loading. To standardize food consumption in the first two experiments, subjects received every 3 hours 150 ml of specially designed low-protein liquid food (Ensure® formula). Results In both the first and second experiments there was a significant <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm in Hcy concentrations with a mid-day nadir and a nocturnal peak. Strikingly different 24-h patterns were observed in methionine, leucine, isoleucine and tyrosine. In all, the 24-h curves revealed a strong influence of both the sleep-wake cycle and the feeding schedule. Methionine loading resulted in increased plasma Hcy levels during both morning and evening experiments, which were not significantly different from each other. Conclusions There is a <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm in plasma concentration of the amino acid Hcy, and this rhythm is independent of sleep-wake and food consumption. In view of the fact that increased Hcy concentrations may be associated with increased cardiovascular risks, these findings may have clinical implications for the health of rotating shift workers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lavie, Lena; Lavie, Peretz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4104788"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Analysis of Physical Activity and Satisfaction with Life in Emerging Adults</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective Subjective well-being has well-established positive health consequences. During emerging adulthood, from ages 18 to 25 years, people’s <span class="hlt">global</span> evaluations of their well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life [SWL]) appear to worsen more than any other time in the adult lifespan, indicating that this population would benefit from strategies to enhance SWL. In these studies, we investigated top-down (i.e., time-invariant, trait-like) and bottom-up (i.e., time-varying, state-like) influences of physical activity (PA) on <span class="hlt">daily</span> SWL. Methods Two <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary studies lasting 8 days (N = 190) and 14 days (N = 63) were conducted with samples of emerging adults enrolled in college to evaluate relations between <span class="hlt">daily</span> PA and SWL while controlling for established and plausible top-down and bottom-up influences on SWL. Results In both studies, multilevel models indicated that people reported greater SWL on days when they were more active (a within-person, bottom-up effect). Top-down effects of PA were not significant in either study. These findings were robust when we controlled for competing top-down influences (e.g., sex, personality traits, self-esteem, body mass index, mental health symptoms, fatigue) and bottom-up influences (e.g., <span class="hlt">daily</span> self-esteem, <span class="hlt">daily</span> mental health symptoms, <span class="hlt">daily</span> fatigue). Conclusions We concluded that SWL was impacted by people’s <span class="hlt">daily</span> PA rather than their trait level of PA over time. These findings extend evidence that PA is a health behavior with important consequences for <span class="hlt">daily</span> well-being and should be considered when developing national policies to enhance SWL.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maher, Jaclyn P.; Doerksen, Shawna E.; Elavsky, Steriani; Hyde, Amanda L.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img 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href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5227815"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gamma <span class="hlt">irradiators</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The commercial use of gamma radiation to sterilize medical equipment and supplies began in the late 1950s. This article describes the basic technology and design aspects of commercial <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> facilities. It explains the safety features and interlocks which protect workers, the public, and the environment from radiation and radioactive material.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cuda, J.; McKinnon, R.G. (Nordion International Inc. (US)); Baker, P.G. (Baxter/Convertors (US))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002431.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Irradiated</span> foods</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... and reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes and for the control of insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3752247"> <span id="translatedtitle">Understanding metropolitan patterns of <span class="hlt">daily</span> encounters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Understanding of the mechanisms driving our <span class="hlt">daily</span> face-to-face encounters is still limited; the field lacks large-scale datasets describing both individual behaviors and their collective interactions. However, here, with the help of travel smart card data, we uncover such encounter mechanisms and structures by constructing a time-resolved in-vehicle social encounter network on public buses in a city (about 5 million residents). Using a population scale dataset, we find physical encounters display reproducible temporal patterns, indicating that repeated encounters are regular and identical. On an individual scale, we find that collective regularities dominate distinct encounters’ bounded nature. An individual’s encounter capability is rooted in his/her <span class="hlt">daily</span> behavioral regularity, explaining the emergence of “familiar strangers” in <span class="hlt">daily</span> life. Strikingly, we find individuals with repeated encounters are not grouped into small communities, but become strongly connected over time, resulting in a large, but imperceptible, small-world contact network or “structure of co-presence” across the whole metropolitan area. Revealing the encounter pattern and identifying this large-scale contact network are crucial to understanding the dynamics in patterns of social acquaintances, collective human behaviors, and—particularly—disclosing the impact of human behavior on various diffusion/spreading processes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W.; Lee, Der-Horng; Huang, Xianfeng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011WRR....47.7535G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Copula-based <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall disaggregation model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall disaggregation model, which uses a copula to model the dependence structure between total depth, total duration of wet periods, and the maximum proportional depth of a wet period, is presented. The wet(1)-dry(0) binary sequence is modeled by the nonrandomized Bartlett-Lewis model with diurnal effect incorporated before superimposing the AR(1) depth process submodel. Unlike previous studies, the model is structured such that all wet day data available are considered in the analysis, without the need to discard any good quality <span class="hlt">daily</span> data embedded in a month having some missing data. This increased the data size, thus improving the modeling process. Further, the <span class="hlt">daily</span> data are classified according to the total duration of wet periods duration within the day. In this way a large proportion of the model parameters become seasonal invariant, the overriding factor being the total duration of wet periods. The potential of the developed model has been demonstrated by disaggregating both the data set used in developing the model parameters and also a 12 year continuous rainfall data set not used in the model parameterization. Gross rainfall statistics of several aggregation levels down to 6 min have been very well reproduced by the disaggregation model. The copula dependence structure and the variation of the depth process submodel parameters with the total duration of wet periods are also very well captured by the presented model.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gyasi-Agyei, Yeboah</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23918373"> <span id="translatedtitle">Understanding metropolitan patterns of <span class="hlt">daily</span> encounters.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Understanding of the mechanisms driving our <span class="hlt">daily</span> face-to-face encounters is still limited; the field lacks large-scale datasets describing both individual behaviors and their collective interactions. However, here, with the help of travel smart card data, we uncover such encounter mechanisms and structures by constructing a time-resolved in-vehicle social encounter network on public buses in a city (about 5 million residents). Using a population scale dataset, we find physical encounters display reproducible temporal patterns, indicating that repeated encounters are regular and identical. On an individual scale, we find that collective regularities dominate distinct encounters' bounded nature. An individual's encounter capability is rooted in his/her <span class="hlt">daily</span> behavioral regularity, explaining the emergence of "familiar strangers" in <span class="hlt">daily</span> life. Strikingly, we find individuals with repeated encounters are not grouped into small communities, but become strongly connected over time, resulting in a large, but imperceptible, small-world contact network or "structure of co-presence" across the whole metropolitan area. Revealing the encounter pattern and identifying this large-scale contact network are crucial to understanding the dynamics in patterns of social acquaintances, collective human behaviors, and--particularly--disclosing the impact of human behavior on various diffusion/spreading processes. PMID:23918373</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W; Lee, Der-Horng; Huang, Xianfeng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005MmSAI..76.1038S"> <span id="translatedtitle">GOME and SCIAMACHY solar measurements: Solar spectral <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and Mg II solar activity proxy indicator .</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">GOME (<span class="hlt">Global</span> Ozone Monitoring Experiment, 1995-present) and SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY, 2002-present) provide solar observations in the visible and near UV since 1995. SCIAMACHY also measures in the near IR with some gaps up to 2380 nm. The solar spectral <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measured by SCIAMACHY is compared with results from other data sources such as SIM, SOLSPEC, SOLSTICE, and SUSIM and is generally in good agreement within 2 to 3% in most cases. The Mg II index is derived from <span class="hlt">daily</span> solar observations in the near UV spectral region which provides a good measure of the solar EUV variability. For the understanding of the solar-terrestrial climate interaction the establishment of a long Mg II time series spanning several decades is important. A continuous solar Mg II index from 1995 to 2005 composed from GOME and SCIAMACHY solar measurements is presented and compared with Mg II data available from NOAA.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Skupin, J.; Weber, M.; Noël, S.; Bovensmann, H.; Burrows, J. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24815581"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity of mammals.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Both the formation and reactions of hydroxyl radical (•OH) are quantitative chemical reactions even in mammalians, and so we can reproduce such in vivo reactions in test tubes. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> urinary excretions of some reaction products have been used to estimate the amount of •OH produced <span class="hlt">daily</span>. Although urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is a well-known marker of •OH, we have shown that creatol (CTL: 5-hydroxycreatinine), an •OH adduct of creatinine (Crn), and its metabolite, methylguanidine (MG), are better markers, because the amount of •OH scavenged by deoxyguanosine (dG) in the body is negligible. We measured CTL and MG together with Crn in 24-h urine, and calculated their molar sum, CTL + MG, providing a <span class="hlt">daily</span> estimate of moles of •OH scavenged with Crn, and, from the molar ratio (CTL + MG)/Crn, we can calculate the percentage of Crn that was used to scavenge •OH. Healthy subjects and normal rats were indicated to use circa (ca.) 0.2 and 0.3% of Crn in order to scavenge •OH, respectively, because the corresponding ratios, scavenged •OH/Crn, were 2.2 and 3.0 mmole/mole (24-h urine) (Crn scavenged ca. 20-25 ?mole and ca. 200 pmole of •OH in healthy subjects and normal rats, respectively). Since 8-OHdG/Crn has been reported to be 1.9 ?mole/mole (24-h urine), the <span class="hlt">daily</span> scavenging capacity with Crn is 10(3)-fold more than dG. In patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) or chronic kidney disease (CKD) at stages 3-5: glomerular filtration rate (GFR) < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), •OH levels increased in proportion to the severity of CKD: up to ca. 3% of Crn was used <span class="hlt">daily</span> in order to scavenge •OH. Although the accumulation of MG in organs has not been reported except for the brain and skin tissues in normal animals, •OH increases markedly and MG becomes detectable in all organs such as the kidney, liver, and heart in CRF rats. PMID:24815581</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ienaga, Kazuharu; Hum Park, Chan; Yokozawa, Takako</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020039695&hterms=frequency+selective+surface&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dfrequency%2Bselective%2Bsurface"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Impacts of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Surface Forcing in the Upper Ocean over Tropical Pacific: A Numerical Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tropical Pacific Ocean is an important region that affects <span class="hlt">global</span> climate. How the ocean responds to the atmospheric surface forcing (surface radiative, heat and momentum fluxes) is a major topic in oceanographic research community. The ocean becomes warm when more heat flux puts into the ocean. The monthly mean forcing has been used in the past years since <span class="hlt">daily</span> forcing was unavailable due to the lack of observations. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> forcing is now available from the satellite measurements. This study investigates the response of the upper ocean over tropical Pacific to the <span class="hlt">daily</span> atmospheric surface forcing. The ocean surface heat budgets are calculated to determine the important processes for the oceanic response. The differences of oceanic responses between the eastern and western Pacific are intensively discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sui, C.-H.; Rienecker, Michele M.; Li, Xiaofan; Lau, William K.-M.; Laszlo, Istvan; Pinker, Rachel T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC43D1059M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of <span class="hlt">daily</span> versus monthly fire emissions on atmospheric model applications in the tropics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fires are widely used throughout the tropics to create and maintain areas for agriculture, but are also significant contributors to atmospheric trace gas and aerosol concentrations. However, the timing and magnitude of fire activity can vary strongly by year and ecosystem type. For example, frequent, low intensity fires dominate in African savannas whereas Southeast Asian peatland forests are susceptible to huge pulses of emissions during regional El Niño droughts. Despite the potential implications for modeling interactions with atmospheric chemistry and transport, fire emissions have commonly been input into <span class="hlt">global</span> models at a monthly resolution. Recognizing the uncertainty that this can introduce, several datasets have parsed fire emissions to <span class="hlt">daily</span> and sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> scales with satellite active fire detections. In this study, we explore differences between utilizing the monthly and <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">Global</span> Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) products as inputs into the NASA GISS-E2 composition climate model. We aim to understand how the choice of the temporal resolution of fire emissions affects uncertainty with respect to several common applications of <span class="hlt">global</span> models: atmospheric chemistry, air quality, and climate. Focusing our analysis on tropical ozone, carbon monoxide, and aerosols, we compare modeled concentrations with available ground and satellite observations. We find that increasing the temporal frequency of fire emissions from monthly to <span class="hlt">daily</span> can improve correlations with observations, predominately in areas or during seasons more heavily affected by fires. Differences between the two datasets are more evident with public health applications: <span class="hlt">daily</span> resolution fire emissions increases the number of days exceeding World Health Organization air quality targets.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marlier, M. E.; Voulgarakis, A.; Faluvegi, G.; Shindell, D. T.; DeFries, R. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48910539"> <span id="translatedtitle">Climatology of <span class="hlt">globally</span> averaged thermospheric mass density</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a climatological analysis of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">globally</span> averaged density data, derived from orbit data and covering the years 1967–2007, along with an empirical <span class="hlt">Global</span> Average Mass Density Model (GAMDM) that encapsulates the 1986–2007 data. The model represents density as a function of the F10.7 solar radio flux index, the day of year, and the Kp geomagnetic activity index. We</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. T. Emmert; J. M. Picone</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jb/v102/iB08/97JB01380/97JB01380.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Southern California Permanent GPS Geodetic Array: Error analysis of <span class="hlt">daily</span> position estimates and site velocities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyze time series of <span class="hlt">daily</span> positions estimated from data collected by 10 continuously monitoring <span class="hlt">Global</span> Positioning System (GPS) sites in southern California during the 19-month period between the June 28, 1992 (MW=7.3), Landers and January 17, 1994 (MW=6.7), Northridge earthquakes. Each time series exhibits a linear tectonic signal and significant colored noise. Spectral power at frequencies in the range</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jie Zhang; Yehuda Bock; Hadley Johnson; Peng Fang; Simon Williams; Joachim Genrich; Shimon Wdowinski; Jeff Behr</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.extension.iastate.edu/foodsafety/irradiation/index.cfm?parent=3"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Irradiation</span> Information</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Food Safety Consortium (FSC) is a federally created consortium consisting of researchers from the University of Arkansas, Iowa State University and Kansas State University. The FSC conducts research in poultry, beef, and pork production. This site contains summary articles from the FDA, the Washington Times, the Los Angeles Times, the Chicago Tribune, and newsletter articles from the FSC. Previously approved for use on poultry and fruits and vegetables in the US, <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> can kill disease-causing bacteria like Salmonella and Escherichia coli 0157:H7 (discussed in the Scout Report for Science and Engineering's In the News section, September 17, 1997), and molds and funguses that cause rot. With recent US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval, <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> can now be used to process red meat (e.g., beef, pork, lamb, and byproducts). The process involves exposing food to a source of radiation such as gamma rays from radioactive cobalt 60, cesium 137, or x-rays. No radioactive material is added to the product, and the technique is routinely used on grains and spices, as well as for sterilizing disposable medical devices. In spite of a number of tests conducted over the last 30 years substantiating its safety, <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> has not gained widespread public acceptance in the US. This is largely due to the public's general fear of processes utilizing radiation. Supporters of the technology claim that it will virtually eliminate food-borne illness in the US, while skeptics feel that technology such as steam treatment can accomplish adequate sterilization without the purported risks and public concern associated with <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy...42.1275W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Record occurrence and record values in <span class="hlt">daily</span> and monthly temperatures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyze the occurrence and the values of record-breaking temperatures in <span class="hlt">daily</span> and monthly temperature observations. Our aim is to better understand and quantify the statistics of temperature records in the context of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. Similar to earlier work we employ a simple mathematical model of independent and identically distributed random variables with a linearly growing expectation value. This model proved to be useful in predicting the increase (decrease) in upper (lower) temperature records in a warming climate. Using both station and re-analysis data from Europe and the United States we further investigate the statistics of temperature records and the validity of this model. The most important new contribution in this article is an analysis of the statistics of record values for our simple model and European reanalysis data. We estimate how much the mean values and the distributions of record temperatures are affected by the large scale warming trend. In this context we consider both the values of records that occur at a certain time and the values of records that have a certain record number in the series of record events. We compare the observational data both to simple analytical computations and numerical simulations. We find that it is more difficult to describe the values of record breaking temperatures within the framework of our linear drift model. Observations from the summer months fit well into the model with Gaussian random variables under the observed linear warming, in the sense that record breaking temperatures are more extreme in the summer. In winter however a significant asymmetry of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature distribution hides the effect of the slow warming trends. Therefore very extreme cold records are still possible in winter. This effect is even more pronounced if one considers only data from subpolar regions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wergen, G.; Hense, A.; Krug, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2003/06/12/healthy-hearts/"> <span id="translatedtitle">NY Times <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Lesson Plan: Healthy Hearts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Lesson Plan from the New York Times Learning Network has students explore the causes and cures of diseases affecting the cardiopulmonary system. Designed for grades 6-12, the lesson covers pulse-taking, cardiopulmonary anatomy, cardiopulmonary diseases and advanced technological treatments, and so on. The lesson is based on a recent NYT article, which may be accessed for free and without registration. Helpful Web links are provided for the group research portion of the lesson plan, and the suggested extension activities provide interesting ways to explore cardiopulmonary issues in greater depth.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010005251&hterms=ornl&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dornl"> <span id="translatedtitle">BOREAS TE-21 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Surface Meteorological Data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-21 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the meteorology of boreal forest areas. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> meteorological data were derived from half-hourly BOREAS tower flux (TF) and Automatic Meteorological Station (AMS) mesonet measurements collected in the Southern and Northern Study Areas (SSA and NSA) for the period of 01 Jan 1994 until 31 Dec 1994. The data were stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kimball, John; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.splinterware.com/products/idailydiary.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle">i<span class="hlt">Daily</span>Diary 3.1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The most intimate of all prose may be in fact the world of the personal diary. In the digital age, diaries can be placed online for full disclosure or kept in a secretive file on a computer desktop. With this program, visitors can keep a diary that contains various image files, such as animated GIFs or different icons. Users can also create as many diaries as they want, and they may also enter links to other diary pages. This version of i<span class="hlt">Daily</span>Diary 3.1 is compatible with computers running Windows 95 and newer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm/cmhansrd.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hansard: House of Commons <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Debates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In early 2000, access to Hansard (House of Commons, British Parliament) debates (originally reviewed in the November 1, 1996 Scout Report) was improved, with the new edition available each day at 9:00 am UK time. The site contains <span class="hlt">daily</span> oral questions and debates, written answers to questions, and a table of contents listing column numbers, headings, timelines, and names of members in the Commons Hansard Debates text for each day. The debates are browseable and searchable by keyword, name of member, question number, dates, and document type. Past sessions to 1993-94 are also available at the site.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy...42.2691C"> <span id="translatedtitle">How well are <span class="hlt">daily</span> intense rainfall events captured by current climate models over Africa?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ability of state-of-the-art climate models to capture the mean spatial and temporal characteristics of <span class="hlt">daily</span> intense rainfall events over Africa is evaluated by analyzing regional climate model (RCM) simulations at 90- and 30-km along with output from four atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) and coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project 5. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> intense rainfall events are extracted at grid point scale using a 95th percentile threshold approach applied to all rainy days (i.e., <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall ?1 mm day-1) over the 1998-2008 period for which two satellite-derived precipitation products are available. Both RCM simulations provide similar results. They accurately capture the spatial and temporal characteristics of intense events, while they tend to overestimate their number and underestimate their intensity. The skill of AGCMs and AOGCMs is generally similar over the African continent and similar to previous <span class="hlt">global</span> climate model generations. The majority of the AGCMs and AOGCMs greatly overestimate the frequency of intense events, particularly in the tropics, generally fail at simulating the observed intensity, and systematically overestimate their spatial coverage. The RCM performs at least as well as the most accurate <span class="hlt">global</span> climate model, demonstrating a clear added value to general circulation model simulations and the usefulness of regional modeling for investigating the physics leading to intense events and their change under <span class="hlt">global</span> warming.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Crétat, Julien; Vizy, Edward K.; Cook, Kerry H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26587647"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> solar radiation in Northeastern Saudi Arabia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents the actual <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation on a horizontal surface along with the prevailing meteorological conditions encountered during the measurement period from 1 January–31 December, for one complete year, in the Arabian Gulf Coast near the city of Dhahran. High resolution, real time solar radiation and meteorological data were collected, and processed. Hourly, <span class="hlt">daily</span>, and monthly statistics of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ahmet Aksakal; Shafiqur Rehman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://bklyn.newspapers.com/title_1890/the_brooklyn_daily_eagle/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Brooklyn <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Eagle Online, 1841-1902</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sometimes referred to as "the borough of homes and churches," Brooklyn has long been an urban community that has captured the attention of the United States and the rest of the world. For over a century, the Brooklyn <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Eagle chronicled the community's history while under the reins of a host of well-regarded editors, including Walt Whitman. This Web site, which is a collaboration between the Brooklyn Public Library and the Institute of Museum and Library Services, brings over seventy years of this paper online for viewing by the Web-browsing public. The Web site includes an introduction to the paper's history over its long tenure as Brooklyn's main <span class="hlt">daily</span> paper, as well as a timeline of important changes to the paper's format, layout, and content organization. What is perhaps most remarkable about this online archive is that the entire run from 1841 to 1902 can be searched by keyword, date, and content type. It is important to note that this current archive is a beta release, and that, at certain times (until the main release in the summer of 2003), certain features may not be always available. Regardless of this fact, this is an excellent resource for urban historians and researchers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24173611"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chronic <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache in the elderly.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Disabling headache disorders are ubiquitous in all age groups, including the elderly, yet they are under-recognized, underdiagnosed and undertreated worldwide. Surveys and clinic-based research reports on headache disorders in elderly populations are extremely limited in number. Chronic <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache (CDH) is an important and growing subtype of primary headache disorders, associated with increased burden and disruption to quality of life. CDH can be divided into two forms, based on headache duration. Common forms of primary headache disorders of long duration (>4 hours) were comprehensively defined in the third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 beta). These include chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new <span class="hlt">daily</span> persistent headache, and hemicrania continua. Rarer short-duration (<4 hours) forms of CDH are chronic cluster headache, chronic paroxysmal hemicrania, SUNCT, and hypnic headache. Accurate diagnosis, management, and relief of the burden of CDH in the elderly population present numerous unique challenges as the "aging world" continues to grow. In order to implement appropriate coping strategies for the elderly, it is essential to establish the correct diagnosis at each step and to exercise caution in differentiating from secondary causes, while always taking into consideration the unique needs and limitations of the aged body. PMID:24173611</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Özge, Aynur</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AAS...21422801L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Programs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">IYA2009 is a <span class="hlt">global</span> collaboration between almost 140 nations and more than 50 international organisations sharing the same vision. Besides the common brand, mission, vision and goals, IAU established eleven cornerstones programmes to support the different IYA2009 stakeholder to organize events, activities under a common umbrella. These are <span class="hlt">global</span> activities centred on specific themes and are aligned with IYA2009's main goals. Whether it is the support and promotion of women in astronomy, the preservation of dark-sky sites around the world or educating and explaining the workings of the Universe to millions, the eleven Cornerstones are key elements in the success of IYA2009. However, the process of implementing <span class="hlt">global</span> projects across cultural boundaries is challenging and needs central coordination to preserve the pre-established goals. During this talk we will examine the ups and downs of coordinating such a project and present an overview of the principal achievements for the Cornerstones so far.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Russo, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53882163"> <span id="translatedtitle">A multivariate regional test for trend detection in extreme rainfall: the case of extreme <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall in the French Mediterranean area</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A multivariate regional test for trend detection in extreme rainfall: the case of extreme <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall in the French Mediterranean area. N. Pujol, L. Neppel, R. Sabatier The effect of human activity on the climate and on the earth <span class="hlt">global</span> warming is now accepted by all the scientific community. In the context of a <span class="hlt">global</span> warming one can ask for</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">N. Pujol; L. Neppel; R. Sabatier</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57542532"> <span id="translatedtitle">The necessity and availability of noise-free <span class="hlt">daily</span> satellite-observed NDVI during rapid phenological changes in terrestrial ecosystems in East Asia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">General, <span class="hlt">global</span>, long-term, and comprehensive phenological observations are required to evaluate the variability of photosynthetic activities due to environmental changes in terrestrial ecosystems. The observation of seasonal changes and detection of interannual variation in canopy phenology over regional and <span class="hlt">global</span> scales require satellite data with high temporal resolution (i.e. a <span class="hlt">daily</span> time step). However, satellite data often include noise caused</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shin Nagai; Taku M. Saitoh; Rikie Suzuki; Kenlo Nishida Nasahara; Woo-Kyun Lee; Yowhan Son; Hiroyuki Muraoka</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7223659"> <span id="translatedtitle">Slow release oxprenolol in angina pectoris: study comparing oxprenolol, once <span class="hlt">daily</span>, with propranolol, four times <span class="hlt">daily</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Oxprenolol and propranolol are noncardioselective beta adrenoreceptor blocking agents known to be equally effective in the management of patients with angina pectoris. Both are usually prescribed four times <span class="hlt">daily</span>. Slow release formulation of oxprenolol administered once <span class="hlt">daily</span> has been shown to maintain therapeutic effects for 24 hours. In a double-blind crossover study in 23 patients with stable angina pectoris, the effects of 160 mg slow release oxprenolol, administered once <span class="hlt">daily</span> for 1 month, were compared with those of 40 mg of propranolol given four times <span class="hlt">daily</span> for a similar period. No adverse effects occurred when patients were switched between treatment schedules. The average number of anginal attacks experienced were 11/month during oxprenolol therapy and 8/month during propranolol therapy (difference not significant). The resting values for heart rate were higher 7 1/2 nd 24 hours after oxprenolol than they were 4 and 12 hours after propranolol (p less than 0.01). The treadmill walking time to the onset of angina and to the development of moderate angina 24 hours after oxprenolol was less than that observed 7 1/2 hours after the drug or 4 and 12 hours after propranolol (p less than 0.01). In contrast, the values for walking time to the onset of angina and to the development of moderate angina at 4 and 12 hours after propranolol were similar. This decreased exercise tolerance 24 hours after oxprenolol was associated with a lesser degree of beta adrenoreceptor blockade than that present after propranolol as documented by higher levels of heart rate (p less than 0.05), systolic blood pressure (p less than 0.05) and rate-pressure product (p less than 0.05) during exercise after oxprenolol therapy. It is concluded that in the doses used, slow release oxprenolol administered once <span class="hlt">daily</span> does not exert as consistent a beneficial effect on exercise tolerance throughout the dosing schedule as does propranolol given four times <span class="hlt">daily</span>. PMID:7223659</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Olowoyeye, J O; Thadani, U; Parker, J O</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title19-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title19-vol2-sec159-35.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">19 CFR 159.35 - Certified <span class="hlt">daily</span> rate.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES Conversion of Foreign Currency § 159.35 Certified <span class="hlt">daily</span> rate. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> buying rate of foreign currency which is determined by the...be used for the conversion of foreign currency whenever a proclaimed...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title42-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title42-vol2-sec409-34.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">42 CFR 409.34 - Criteria for “<span class="hlt">daily</span> basis”.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Requirements for Coverage of Posthospital SNF Care § 409.34 Criteria for “<span class="hlt">daily</span> basis”. (a) To meet the <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis requirement specified in §...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title42-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title42-vol2-sec409-34.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">42 CFR 409.34 - Criteria for “<span class="hlt">daily</span> basis”.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Requirements for Coverage of Posthospital SNF Care § 409.34 Criteria for “<span class="hlt">daily</span> basis”. (a) To meet the <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis requirement specified in §...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title42-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title42-vol2-sec409-34.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">42 CFR 409.34 - Criteria for “<span class="hlt">daily</span> basis”.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Requirements for Coverage of Posthospital SNF Care § 409.34 Criteria for “<span class="hlt">daily</span> basis”. (a) To meet the <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis requirement specified in §...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110023008&hterms=West+Africa&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2522West%2BAfrica%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Regional Model Nesting Within GFS <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Forecasts Over West Africa</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The study uses the RM3, the regional climate model at the Center for Climate Systems Research of Columbia University and the NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies (CCSR/GISS). The paper evaluates 30 48-hour RM3 weather forecasts over West Africa during September 2006 made on a 0.5 grid nested within 1 <span class="hlt">Global</span> Forecast System (GFS) <span class="hlt">global</span> forecasts. September 2006 was the Special Observing Period #3 of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA). Archived GFS initial conditions and lateral boundary conditions for the simulations from the US National Weather Service, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration were interpolated four times <span class="hlt">daily</span>. Results for precipitation forecasts are validated against Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite estimates and data from the Famine Early Warning System (FEWS), which includes rain gauge measurements, and forecasts of circulation are compared to reanalysis 2. Performance statistics for the precipitation forecasts include bias, root-mean-square errors and spatial correlation coefficients. The nested regional model forecasts are compared to GFS forecasts to gauge whether nesting provides additional realistic information. They are also compared to RM3 simulations driven by reanalysis 2, representing high potential skill forecasts, to gauge the sensitivity of results to lateral boundary conditions. Nested RM3/GFS forecasts generate excessive moisture advection toward West Africa, which in turn causes prodigious amounts of model precipitation. This problem is corrected by empirical adjustments in the preparation of lateral boundary conditions and initial conditions. The resulting modified simulations improve on the GFS precipitation forecasts, achieving time-space correlations with TRMM of 0.77 on the first day and 0.63 on the second day. One realtime RM3/GFS precipitation forecast made at and posted by the African Centre of Meteorological Application for Development (ACMAD) in Niamey, Niger is shown.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Druyan, Leonard M.; Fulakeza, Matthew; Lonergan, Patrick; Worrell, Ruben</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jd/v103/iD24/98JD01644/98JD01644.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Potential <span class="hlt">global</span> fire monitoring from EOS-MODIS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) plans to launch the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MEDIS) on the polarorbiting Earth Observation System (EeS) providing morning and evening <span class="hlt">global</span> observations in 1999 and afternoon and night observations in 2000. These four MEDIS <span class="hlt">daily</span> fire observations will advance <span class="hlt">global</span> fire monitoring with special 1 km resolution fire channels at 4 and 11</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoram J. Kaufman; Christopher O. Justice; Luke P. Flynn; Jackie D. Kendall; Elaine M. Prins; Louis Giglio; Darold E. Ward; W. Paul Menzel; Alberto W. Setzer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014LatJP..51...44B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> covering material for biocells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bioreactor landfilling, with the acceptance of landfill Directive 1999/31/EC has lost its actuality in European Union; at the same time, this method can still be used for acceleration of biowaste degradation and biogas production. One of the possibilities to reduce the disposal of biowaste is to use biocells for its anaerobic pre-treatment before landfilling. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> filling up of such a cell requires isolation of the main volume to limit gas emissions, reduce smells, etc. Bioprocesses that are of the utmost importance for biocell treatment are often not taken into account in selection of materials to be used as <span class="hlt">daily</span> landfill covers. Based on physical, chemical and biological methods the investigations have been carried out into different covering materials offered in the market, with identification of parameters that are the most important for <span class="hlt">daily</span> covering the biocells. It is found that the materials fitted best this purpose should be of biological origin and consist of small bio-particles with large surface, without the inhibitors of anaerobic processes such as sulphuric compounds. Bioreaktoru pielietošana atkritumu uzglab?šanas sf?r?, sakar? ar Direkt?vas 1999/31/EC pie?emšanu, ir zaud?jusi savu aktualit?ti, ta?u š? metode v?l joproj?m var tikt izmantota bioatkritumu no?rd?šanai un biog?zes ražošanai. Viena no iesp?j?m k? samazin?t bioatkritumu izvietošanu ir bioš?nu izmantošana bioatkritumu anaerobai pirmsapstr?dei pirms to noglab?šanas. Š?nas piepild?šana ikdien? prasa nepieciešam?bu izol?t liel?ko t?s da?u, lai samazin?tu g?zes emisiju, smakas, utt. Materi?li, kas ikdien? tiek izmantoti atkritumu p?rkl?šanai, nepietiekami ietekm? bioprocesus, kas pamat? ir galvenais bioš?nas izmantošanas m?r?is. Šaj? sakar? ir veikta daž?du tirdzniec?b? pieejamu p?rkl?juma materi?lu izp?te, pielietojot virkni fizik?lo, ??misko un biolo?isko metožu, un nosakot svar?g?kos parametrus, kas ir b?tiski šo materi?lu izmantošanai ikdien? k? bioš?nas p?rkl?jumu. P?t?jumu rezult?t? noteikts, ka visatbilstoš?kie ir materi?li ar biolo?isko izcelsmi, sast?voši no maz?m bio da?i??m ar lielu laukumu bez anaerobo procesu inhibitoriem, piem?ram, s?ra komponent?m.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bendere, R.; Smigins, R.; Medne, O.; Berzina-Cimdina, L.; Rugele, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fuelcelleducation.org/wp-content/themes/sandbox/pdf/Global%20Warming_07.ppt"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This document was created as a presentation for a fuel cell training seminar at Hocking College. The presentation covers the basics of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming, how human behavior has impacted our environment and the change using renewable fuels can have. This document may be downloaded in Power Point file format.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58415984"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Banking</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Few sectors of the <span class="hlt">global</span> economy have experienced the dynamic and structural change that has occurred over the past several decades in banking and financial services or as much turbulence and damage to the economy and to ordinary people. Regulatory and technological changes have been among the main catalysts of change in the financial industry worldwide, making entrenched competitive structures</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roy C. Smith; Ingo Walter; Gayle DeLong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7012939"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> militarization</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the titles are: Military Formations and Social Formations: A Structural Analysis; <span class="hlt">Global</span> Conflict Formations: Present Developments and Future Directions; War and the Power of Warmakers in Western Europe and Elsewhere, 1600-1980; and The Urban Type of Society and International War.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wallensteen, P.; Galtung, J.; Portales, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=GLOBAL+AND+TEMPERATURES&pg=4&id=EJ484206"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Presents information and data on an experiment designed to test whether different atmosphere compositions are affected by light and temperature during both cooling and heating. Although flawed, the experiment should help students appreciate the difficulties that researchers face when trying to find evidence of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. (PR)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eichman, Julia Christensen; Brown, Jeff A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/u4286634210075kq.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Children's and parents' <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressful events and psychological symptoms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Associations of children's <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressful events and their parents' <span class="hlt">daily</span> hassles and psychological symptoms with children's emotional\\/behavioral problems were examined in a sample of fourth- and fifth-grade children and their parents. Correlational analyses indicated that children's self-reports of depressive symptoms were associated with children's <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors and mothers' <span class="hlt">daily</span> hassles, and children's selfreports of anxiety symptoms were associated with children's</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gerard A. Banez; Bruce E. Compas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24988259"> <span id="translatedtitle">Drinking-to-Cope Motivation and Negative Mood-Drinking Contingencies in a <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Diary Study of College Students.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">ABSTRACT. Objective: This study examined whether <span class="hlt">global</span> drinking-to-cope (DTC) motivation moderates negative mood-drinking contingencies and negative mood-motivation contingencies at the <span class="hlt">daily</span> level of analysis. Method: Data came from a <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary study of college student drinking (N = 1,636; 53% female; Mage = 19.2 years). Fixed-interval models tested whether <span class="hlt">global</span> DTC motivation moderated relations between <span class="hlt">daily</span> negative mood and that evening's drinking and episodic DTC. Time-to-drink models examined whether <span class="hlt">global</span> DTC motivation moderated the effects of weekly negative mood on the immediacy of drinking and DTC in the weekly cycle. Results: More evening drinking occurred on days characterized by relatively higher anxiety or anger, and students were more likely to report DTC on days when they experienced greater sadness. However, only the <span class="hlt">daily</span> Anxiety × <span class="hlt">Global</span> DTC Motivation interaction for number of drinks consumed was consistent with hypotheses. Moreover, students reported drinking, heavy drinking, and DTC earlier in weeks characterized by relatively higher anxiety or anger, but no hypothesized interactions with <span class="hlt">global</span> DTC motivation were found. Conclusions: Results indicate that negative mood is associated with increased levels of drinking and drinking for coping reasons among college students but that the strength of these relations does not differ by <span class="hlt">global</span> levels of DTC motivation. These findings raise the possibility that <span class="hlt">global</span> DTC measures are insufficient for examining within-person DTC processes. Further implications of these results are discussed, including future directions that may determine the circumstances under which, and for whom, DTC occurs. (J. Stud. Alcohol Drugs, 75, 606-614, 2014). PMID:24988259</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">O'Hara, Ross E; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://idnc.library.illinois.edu/cgi-bin/illinois?a=cl&cl=CL1&sp=DIL&e=-------en-20--1--txt-txIN-------"> <span id="translatedtitle">Illinois Digital Newspaper Collection: The <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Illini</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The digitization of historically important and interesting newspapers continues apace, and this latest collection is quite a find. The Illinois Digital Newspaper Collection is a project of the History, Philosophy, and Newspaper Library at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Library. Their first project is the digitization of select years from the <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Illini, which is the student newspaper on campus. Currently, visitors can browse and search papers from 1916 to 1936, and there are plans to include the years 1937 to 1945 in the near future. Interested parties can also search by keyword across articles, advertisements and photo captions. One can imagine that this type of archive would be of interest to social historians, journalists, and anyone who wishes to peer into the world of campus life in the Roaring 20s and the not-so-Roaring 30s.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.bioedonline.org/tasks/render/file/index.cfm?fileID=170935CF-DAC9-30AD-16BD879197DC50D6"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Science of Sleep and <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Rhythms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Created as part of the BioEd initiative at the Baylor College of Medicine, this fine guide to the science of sleep and <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms was authored by Nancy P. Moreno, Barbara Z. Tharp, and Gregory L. Vogt. The 32-page document is designed for use in a variety of classrooms, and it contains activities, worksheets, and information about how sleep studies are used to improve performance across a wide range of human endeavors. The activities here include "Using a Sundial," "Living Clocks," "Sleep Patterns," and "Investigating Sleep." Each of these activities is explained succinctly and thoroughly, and many do not required specialized equipment. One of the most interesting activities is the sun tracking board which allows students to track the sun's movements with just a bit of cardboard, several writing instruments, a ruler, and some string. Finally, the sleep cycle rhythms activity gets creative, as students are asked to write a few poems about their own sleep patterns.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moreno, Nancy P.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Vogt, Gregory</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21292346"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dermatoscopy: alternative uses in <span class="hlt">daily</span> clinical practice.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dermatoscopy, also known as dermoscopy, epiluminescence microscopy, or surface microscopy, is a noninvasive technique allowing rapid and magnified (× 10) in vivo observation of the skin with the visualization of morphologic features often imperceptible to the naked eye. Videodermatoscopy (VD) represents the evolution of dermatoscopy and is performed with a video camera equipped with lenses providing higher magnification (× 10 to × 1000). Over the past few years, both dermatoscopy and VD have been demonstrated to be useful in a wide variety of cutaneous disorders, including ectoparasitic infestations, cutaneous/mucosal infections, hair and nail abnormalities, psoriasis, and other dermatologic as well as cosmetologic conditions. Depending on the skin disorder, both dermatoscopy and VD may be useful for differential diagnosis, prognostic evaluation, and monitoring response to treatment. Nowadays, it represents an important and relatively simple aid in <span class="hlt">daily</span> clinical practice. PMID:21292346</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Micali, Giuseppe; Lacarrubba, Francesco; Massimino, Doriana; Schwartz, Robert A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/m484w22h50787555.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The cognitive moderation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> stress in early adolescence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Utilized <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary data to investigate age differences in the moderation of stressful <span class="hlt">daily</span> events. Data from 243 fifth- to ninth-grade boys and girls, collected over a period of I week, were used to examine the moderation effect that expectation and past experience have upon affective response to <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors and uplifts. Responses indicate that across a variety of contexts</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mark Ham; Reed Larson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40465145"> <span id="translatedtitle">How similar are <span class="hlt">daily</span> and seasonal biological clocks?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> and seasonal timing systems in insects have usually been supposed to share similar mechanisms, because both rely in large measure on information from the <span class="hlt">daily</span> light–dark cycle: <span class="hlt">daily</span> clocks can ensure that activity coincides with the appropriate time of day, and seasonal time is indicated most reliably by daylength. However, several lines of evidence suggest that the systems are</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. V. Danks</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.geofisica.unam.mx/divulgacion/geofinternacional/iframes/anteriores/2009/04/1mendoza.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Possible dependence between the total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and di- methylsulphide</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Solar variability is one of the main natural influences on the Earth's climate. Biological processes are pro - foundly affected by the solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. Some of these processes have been proposed to change the cloud albedo and therefore impact the climate. Here we investigate the relation between the total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> (TSI) and the <span class="hlt">global</span> concentration of Dimethylsulphide (DMS), produced</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. Mendoza; E. L. Flores-Márquez; A. Ramírez-Rojas; A. Martínez-Arroyo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60854500"> <span id="translatedtitle">THE INFLUENCE OF INTRODUCTION OF BONE MARROW SUSPENSION OF THE IMMINITY OF <span class="hlt">IRRADIATED</span> ANIMALS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Experimental investigations show that <span class="hlt">daily</span> protracted (20 to 25 days) ; treatment with bone marrow following the action of ionizing radiation stimulates ; hematopoiesis. Prolonged <span class="hlt">daily</span> administration of bone marrow of nonirradiated ; rats (80 to 100 million cells) into the <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> rats increases the number of ; leukocytes, erythroeytes, thrombocytes, and reticulocytes in comparison with the ; control. The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. A. Tumanyan; A. V. Izvekova</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1959-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sesame&pg=3&id=EJ834679"> <span id="translatedtitle">Panwapa: <span class="hlt">Global</span> Kids, <span class="hlt">Global</span> Connections</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Panwapa, created by the Sesame Street Workshop of PBS, is an example of an initiative on the Internet designed to enhance students' learning by exposing them to <span class="hlt">global</span> communities. Panwapa means "Here on Earth" in Tshiluba, a Bantu language spoken in the Democratic Republic of Congo. At the Panwapa website, www.panwapa.org, children aged four to…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berson, Ilene R.; Berson, Michael J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.flightglobal.com/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flight <span class="hlt">Global</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Perhaps you are interested in the projects that AirTran has going on? And maybe you'd like to know more about helicopters? These topics (and many more) are all covered on the Flight <span class="hlt">Global</span> site. The homepage contains a briefing of <span class="hlt">global</span> airline news, complete with related links, polls, and information from their breaking news blog. Curious parties should also look at the left-hand side of the page, as it contains a list of fourteen different topics, ranging from "Aircraft" to "Media Centre". Further down, the page also contains a "Jobs" area for people looking to enter the industry or to make a career move. The site also contains "cutaways", which feature the interior schematics of military and commercial planes. Visitors should also check out the "AirSpace Image of the Week", which highlights some beautiful and amazing photographs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=recruitment+AND+malaysia&id=EJ889844"> <span id="translatedtitle">Going <span class="hlt">Global</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a move to increase its out-of-state and international student enrollment, officials at the University of Iowa are stepping up their <span class="hlt">global</span> recruitment efforts--even in the face of criticism that the school may be losing sight of its mission. The goal is to increase enrollment across the board, with both in-state as well as out-of-state and…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boulard, Garry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613459P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of synoptic weather patterns on solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> variability in Europe</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Solar radiation is important for many aspects of existence on Earth, including the biosphere, the hydrological cycle, and creatures living on the planet. Previous studies have reported decadal trends in observational records of surface shortwave (SW) <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> around the world, too strong to be caused by varying solar output. These observed decadal trends have been dubbed "solar dimming and brightening" and are believed to be related to changes in atmospheric aerosols and cloud cover. Because the observed solar variability coincides with qualitative air pollution histories, the dimming and brightening have become almost synonymous with shortwave attenuation by anthropogenic aerosols. However, there are indications that atmospheric circulation patterns have influenced the dimming and brightening in some regions, e.g., Alaska and Scandinavia. In this work, we focus on the role of atmospheric circulation patterns in modifying shortwave <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. An examination of European SW <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> data from the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) shows that while there are periods of predominantly decreasing (~1970-1985) and increasing (~1985-2007) SW <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, the changes are not spatially uniform within Europe and in a majority of locations not statistically significant. To establish a connection between weather patterns and sunshine, regression models of SW <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> are fitted using a <span class="hlt">daily</span> classification of European weather called Grosswetterlagen (GWL). The GWL reconstructions of shortwave <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> represent the part of the solar variability that is related to large scale weather patterns, which should be effectively separated from the influence of varying anthropogenic aerosol emissions. The correlation (R) between observed and reconstruced SW <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> is between 0.31 and 0.75, depending on station and season, all statistically significant (p<0.05, estimated with a bootstrap test). In central and eastern parts of Europe, the observed decadal SW variability is poorly represented by the GWL models, but in northern Europe, the GWL model recreates observed decadal solar variability well. This finding suggests that natural and/or anthropogenic variations in circulation patterns have influenced solar dimming and brightening to a higher degree in the north than in the rest of Europe.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Parding, Kajsa; Hinkelman, Laura; Liepert, Beate; Ackerman, Thomas; Dagestad, Knut-Frode; Asle Olseth, Jan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2003/04/03/gasping-for-truth/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Lesson Plan: Gasping for Truth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This timely lesson plan from the New York Times (NYT) Learning Network has students explore current <span class="hlt">global</span> responses to the SARS epidemic. Designed for grades 6-8 and 9-12, the lesson plan has students evaluate what they already know about infectious respiratory diseases, and then read and discuss a recent SARS-related NYT article to learn how international governments are responding to the crisis. The Web site provides in-depth discussion questions for class activities, homework ideas, links to Web resources, and evaluation guidelines for teachers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chin, Tanya Y.; Dekorne, Clayton.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ciese.org/curriculum/tempproj/"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Global</span> Sun Temperature Project</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This on-line project is part of the Center for Improved Engineering and Science Education (CIESE) program, which has developed internet activities for the elementary, middle, and high school level student. Students measure the temperature, record the number of minutes of sunlight per day over a predetermined week, and determine their <span class="hlt">global</span> coordinates. Each class then posts their data to this web site to compare and contrast results with classes from all over the world, thus learning how proximity to the equator affects average <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature and hours of sunlight. The project provides instructions, data links, reference materials, on-line help, and a teacher area for help and ideas.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a000000/a002400/a002484/index.html"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Snow Cover from MODIS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides data in 36 spectral bands, some of which are used in an algorithm to map <span class="hlt">global</span> snow cover. The animation shows the dynamic behavior of the advance and retreat of continental snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere for the winter of 2001-02 from MODIS-derived 8-day composite snow maps with a spatial resolution of about 5 km. A time series of MODIS snow-cover maps of the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California, derived from MODIS-derived <span class="hlt">daily</span> snow maps with 500-m resolution, is also shown for the winter and spring of 2001.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Starr, Cindy; Hall, Dorothy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19782942"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reflectance confocal microscopy in the <span class="hlt">daily</span> practice.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) allows noninvasive imaging of the epidermis and superficial dermis. Like dermoscopy, RCM acquires images in the horizontal plane (en face), allowing assessment of tissue pathology underlying dermoscopic structures of interest at a cellular-level resolution. Thus, clinicians using dermoscopy may find RCM to be particularly useful. Our aim was to show the value of RCM for diagnosis and management decisions related to pigmented and nonpigmented skin neoplasms seen in <span class="hlt">daily</span> practice. Six cases of clinically and dermoscopically equivocal skin lesions, for which RCM facilitated making the correct diagnosis, are presented. Final diagnoses were made based on histopathologic analysis. Three flat pigmented skin lesions with dermoscopic signs of regression showed distinct RCM features that allowed their correct classification as pigmented basal cell carcinoma, pigmented actinic keratosis, and melanoma on sun-damaged skin. A flat nonpigmented skin lesion on the face, which did not show distinct clinical or dermoscopic features, was correctly diagnosed as basal cell carcinoma based on RCM findings. In addition, the response of a pigmented actinic keratosis and a melanoma in situ on sun-damaged skin to noninvasive topical treatment was monitored using RCM. RCM is a promising and practical imaging tool for the diagnosis and follow-up of pigmented and nonpigmented skin lesions. PMID:19782942</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ahlgrimm-Siess, Verena; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer; Cao, Theresa; Oliviero, Margaret; Scope, Alon; Rabinovitz, Harold S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7622E.138B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> quality control for breast tomosynthesis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Breast tomosynthesis is an imaging modality that recently became available for breast examination. For conventional projection mammography quality control procedures are well described. For breast tomosynthesis, on the other hand, such procedures have not yet been established. In this paper we propose a simple method and phantom for <span class="hlt">daily</span> quality control (DQC). With DQC image quality problems arising after acceptance of the system should be detected. Therefore, the DQC procedure needs to monitor the stability of the most critical components of the system over time. For breast tomosynthesis we assume that the most critical items are the image receptor, X-ray tube and the tomosynthesis motion. In the proposed procedure the image receptor homogeneity and system stability are evaluated using an image of a homogeneous block of PMMA. The z-resolution is assumed to be dependent on the tomosynthesis motion. To monitor this motion the nominal z-resolution using the slice sensitive profile is measured. Shading artefacts that arise due to objects with high attenuation are also typical for tomosynthesis systems. Analysing those artefacts may provide additional information about the tomosynthesis motion. The proposed DQC procedure has been evaluated on two different breast tomosynthesis systems: A multi slit scanning system and a system using a stationary a-Se detector. Preliminary results indicate that the proposed method is useful for DQC, although some minor changes to the phantoms are advised. To verify that this method detects image quality problems sufficiently, more experience with different DBT systems, over longer periods of time are needed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bouwman, R. W.; Visser, R.; Young, K. C.; Dance, D. R.; Lazzari, B.; van der Burght, R.; Heid, P.; van Engen, R. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2234191"> <span id="translatedtitle">Molecular insights into human <span class="hlt">daily</span> behavior</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Human beings exhibit wide variation in their timing of <span class="hlt">daily</span> behavior. We and others have suggested previously that such differences might arise because of alterations in the period length of the endogenous human circadian oscillator. Using dermal fibroblast cells from skin biopsies of 28 subjects of early and late chronotype (11 “larks” and 17 “owls”), we have studied the circadian period lengths of these two groups, as well as their ability to phase-shift and entrain to environmental and chemical signals. We find not only period length differences between the two classes, but also significant changes in the amplitude and phase-shifting properties of the circadian oscillator among individuals with identical “normal” period lengths. Mathematical modeling shows that these alterations could also account for the extreme behavioral phenotypes of these subjects. We conclude that human chronotype may be influenced not only by the period length of the circadian oscillator, but also by cellular components that affect its amplitude and phase. In many instances, these changes can be studied at the molecular level in primary dermal cells.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brown, Steven A.; Kunz, Dieter; Dumas, Amelie; Westermark, Pal O.; Vanselow, Katja; Tilmann-Wahnschaffe, Amely; Herzel, Hanspeter; Kramer, Achim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/923436"> <span id="translatedtitle">TRENDS IN ESTIMATED MIXING DEPTH <span class="hlt">DAILY</span> MAXIMUMS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential temperature and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-11-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950005971&hterms=Behavior-Driven+Development&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DBehavior-Driven%2BDevelopment"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar influences on <span class="hlt">global</span> change</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Monitoring of the Sun and the Earth has yielded new knowledge essential to this debate. There is now no doubt that the total radiative energy from the Sun that heats the Earth's surface changes over decadal time scales as a consequence of solar activity. Observations indicate as well that changes in ultraviolet radiation and energetic particles from the Sun, also connected with the solar activity, modulate the layer of ozone that protects the biosphere from the solar ultraviolet radiation. This report reassesses solar influences on <span class="hlt">global</span> change in the light of this new knowledge of solar and atmospheric variability. Moreover, the report considers climate change to be encompassed within the broader concept of <span class="hlt">global</span> change; thus the biosphere is recognized to be part of a larger, coupled Earth system. Implementing a program to continuously monitor solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> over the next several decades will provide the opportunity to estimate solar influences on <span class="hlt">global</span> change, assuming continued maintenance of observations of climate and other potential forcing mechanisms. In the lower atmosphere, an increase in solar radiation is expected to cause <span class="hlt">global</span> warming. In the stratosphere, however, the two effects produce temperature changes of opposite sign. A monitoring program that would augment long term observations of tropospheric parameters with similar observations of stratospheric parameters could separate these diverse climate perturbations and perhaps isolate a greenhouse footprint of climate change. Monitoring <span class="hlt">global</span> change in the troposphere is a key element of all facets of the United States <span class="hlt">Global</span> Change Research Program (USGCRP), not just of the study of solar influences on <span class="hlt">global</span> change. The need for monitoring the stratosphere is also important for <span class="hlt">global</span> change research in its own right because of the stratospheric ozone layer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Ge%26Ae..54..248B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal changes in <span class="hlt">daily</span> variations of ELF-VLF atmospherics detected at auroral latitudes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> variations in the intensities of atmospherics at 600 Hz and 6 kHz detected at the Lovozero observatory from June to December 2012 were studied. Under quiet geomagnetic conditions, <span class="hlt">daily</span> variations of atmospherics are shown to be determined by both the waveguide parameters of the Earth's ionosphere and the activity of storm centers. In summer, a broad daytime maximum of atmospherics flow N hr (the number of atmospherics per hour) is detected most likely due to the lightning activity in mid-latitude regions that are nearer to the observatory than the <span class="hlt">global</span> storm centers. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> variations in atmospherics mean amplitudes per hour A hr differ appreciably from the <span class="hlt">daily</span> variations N hr, reflecting largely the changes in lighting conditions along signal propagation paths. The distribution function of the levels of atmospherics can be approximated by the following formula taken from publications: P( X) = [1 + ( X/ X 50) k ]-1, where k is a parameter that changes from 2.2 to 3.2 at f = 600 Hz and from 1.5 to 2 at f = 6 kHz under quiet geomagnetic conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beloglazov, M. I.; Kirillov, V. I.; Pchelkin, V. V.; Galakhov, A. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120011702&hterms=climate&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dclimate"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar Spectral <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> and Climate</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spectrally resolved solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> is recognized as being increasingly important to improving our understanding of the manner in which the Sun influences climate. There is strong empirical evidence linking total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> to surface temperature trends - even though the Sun has likely made only a small contribution to the last half-century's <span class="hlt">global</span> temperature anomaly - but the amplitudes cannot be explained by direct solar heating alone. The wavelength and height dependence of solar radiation deposition, for example, ozone absorption in the stratosphere, absorption in the ocean mixed layer, and water vapor absorption in the lower troposphere, contribute to the "top-down" and "bottom-up" mechanisms that have been proposed as possible amplifiers of the solar signal. New observations and models of solar spectral <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> are needed to study these processes and to quantify their impacts on climate. Some of the most recent observations of solar spectral variability from the mid-ultraviolet to the near-infrared have revealed some unexpected behavior that was not anticipated prior to their measurement, based on an understanding from model reconstructions. The atmospheric response to the observed spectral variability, as quantified in climate model simulations, have revealed similarly surprising and in some cases, conflicting results. This talk will provide an overview on the state of our understanding of the spectrally resolved solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>, its variability over many time scales, potential climate impacts, and finally, a discussion on what is required for improving our understanding of Sun-climate connections, including a look forward to future observations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pilewskie, P.; Woods, T.; Cahalan, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.economist.com"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Agenda</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">New from the Economist.com, <span class="hlt">Global</span> Agenda "provides rolling coverage and analysis on six to eight of the most important business and political topics each day." Written by Economist staff writers, each world topic includes a short paragraph summary of the issue, as well as a mid-length article examining the issue in greater detail. Related items, found in a column on the right side of the screen, include links to Economist articles, newswires, and accompanying Websites. These dynamic articles are updated as events occur; dramatic changes will be noted in red.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51832919"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Global</span> Analysis on Satellite Derived and DGVM Surface Soil Moisture Products</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We evaluated the soil moisture component in a <span class="hlt">global</span> dynamic vegetation model through a comparison of a recently developed <span class="hlt">global</span> remotely sensed product with the modeled soil moisture. Quarter degree <span class="hlt">daily</span> AMSR-E surface soil moisture, as derived from the Land Parameter Retrieval Model, was compared to the ORCHIDEE <span class="hlt">Global</span> Dynamic Vegetation Model (GDVM) soil moisture products for the years 2003</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. de Jeu; K. Rebel; P. Ciais; H. Dolman; N. Viovy; S. Piao; N. Noblet-Ducoudré</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22355383"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> exposure to dust alters innate immunity.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pig farmers are exposed to organic material in pig barns on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis and have signs of an ongoing chronic airway inflammation and increased prevalence of chronic inflammatory airway diseases, predominantly chronic bronchitis. Interestingly, the inflammatory response to acute exposure to organic dust is attenuated in farmers. The aim of the study was to closer characterize innate immunity features in blood and airways in farmers and in naïve, non-exposed, controls. The expression of pattern recognition receptors (TLR2, TLR4 and CD14) whose ligands are abundant in pig barn dust and adhesion proteins (CD11b, CD62L and CD162L) on blood and sputum neutrophils in pig farmers and soluble TLR2 and CD14 (sTLR2 and sCD14) in blood and sputum were assessed in pig farmers and previously unexposed controls. The release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from blood cells stimulated with LPS ex vivo was measured in the absence and presence of anti-ST2. We also examined, in a separate study population, serum levels of soluble ST2 (sST2), before and after exposure in a pig barn and a bronchial LPS challenge. Farmers had signs of ongoing chronic inflammation with increased number of blood monocytes, and decreased expression of CD62L and CD162 on blood neutrophils. Farmers also had lower levels of sTLR2 and sCD14 in sputum and reduced expression of CD14 on sputum neutrophils than controls. Exposure to organic dust and LPS induced increase of serum sST2 in controls but not in farmers. In conclusion, farmers have signs of local and systemic inflammation associated with altered innate immunity characteristics. PMID:22355383</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sahlander, Karin; Larsson, Kjell; Palmberg, Lena</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3631842"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Dosimetry of solar ultraviolet radiation. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> and monthly changes in Paris].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The intensity of ultraviolet A and B radiations was measured in Paris (48 degrees North) by means of silicon photoelectric cells (Osram Centra dosimeter) from December, 1984 till February, 1986. The results, which must be regarded as approximate, are expressed as physical units (mW/cm2) and biological units (minimal erythema dose/hour). For sunny days two curves are presented separately for UVB and UVA: <span class="hlt">daily</span> variations in radiation (hourly measurements) and <span class="hlt">daily</span> variations at 11 hours (solar time) during one year. Maximum <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> was observed at noon in early July: UVB 0.15 mW/cm2, UVA 5.4 mW/cm2. Between December and July the amount of UVB radiation was multiplied by 14 and that of UVA radiation by 9. For subjects with clear photo-type and when the sun was at its zenith, an MED per hour was obtained from May 1 onwards. Within a day, 30 p. 100 (summer) and 50 p. 100 (winter) of erythema-producing UV intensity were delivered between 11 and 13 hours (solar time). This kind of study has numerous clinical applications: advice regarding exposure to sun rays, dosing of heliotherapy, epidemiological data concerning photodermatitis (circumstances of exposure, UV threshold dose) and photocarcinogenesis (determination of annual MED doses in relation to areas of uncovered skin and occupational exposure to sun rays). Other studies on the French territory will provide a map of UV <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>. PMID:3631842</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jeanmougin, M; Civatte, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3699690"> <span id="translatedtitle">Childhood Abuse and Inflammatory Responses to <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Stressors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Childhood abuse leads to greater morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Dysregulated physiological stress responses may underlie the greater health risk among abused individuals. Purpose This study evaluated the impact of childhood abuse on inflammatory responses to naturalistically occurring <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors. Methods In this cross-sectional study of 130 older adults, recent <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors and childhood abuse history were evaluated using the <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Inventory of Stressful Events and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Blood samples provided data on circulating interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Results Childhood abuse history moderated IL-6 levels, but not TNF-? and CRP responses to <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors. Individuals with a childhood abuse history who experienced multiple stressors in the past 24 hours had IL-6 levels 2.35 times greater than those of participants who reported multiple <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors but no early abuse history. Conclusion Childhood abuse substantially enhances IL-6 responses to <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors in adulthood.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Glaser, Ronald; Malarkey, William B.; Beversdorf, David; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ITEIS.124.1834K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stochastic Modeling of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Rainfall for Pricing Weather Derivatives</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Weather derivatives are getting to be powerful tools for weather risk hedging. A popular method which draws out valid prices of weather derivatives is a stochastic modeling approach. In the method, expected payoffs of weather derivatives based on stochastic weather models are regarded as their valid prices. Although useful stochastic models of temperature have been shown, stochastic models of <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall are still being developed. Therefore, it is considered that pricing of <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall derivatives is difficult. This paper shows a new stochastic <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall model for pricing <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall options. The new model in which a modified geometric distribution model is applied can express stochastic features of <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall. Furthermore, this paper also shows that the combination model of the Markov chain rainy day model and the new model can express stochastic features and risks of <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall option payoffs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kubo, Osamu; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24107710"> <span id="translatedtitle">The role of locus of control in <span class="hlt">daily</span> life.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Conceived of as a stable trait, locus of control has been linked with psychological and physical health outcomes. We investigated whether locus of control operates as a state variable, whether variation in <span class="hlt">daily</span> locus of control is associated with anxiety and stressful events, and whether it predicts <span class="hlt">daily</span> health behaviors and symptoms. Using a <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary study of pregnant couples, we found <span class="hlt">daily</span> variation in locus of control was predicted by <span class="hlt">daily</span> hassles and anxiety such that high same-day and previous-day anxiety and hassles were associated with reports of lower levels of control. Furthermore, <span class="hlt">daily</span> locus of control was positively associated with positive health behaviors and predicted negative health symptoms. These results provide evidence for a social learning perspective on the development and maintenance of individuals' sense of control and suggest that locus of control should be considered both a state- and trait-level construct in future research. PMID:24107710</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ryon, Holly S; Gleason, Marci E J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24654668"> <span id="translatedtitle">Once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> gastroretentive gabapentin for treatment of postherpetic neuralgia.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">SUMMARY The immediate-release formulation of gabapentin (gabapentin three-times <span class="hlt">daily</span>) is approved for treatment of postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Although it has a low propensity for drug-drug interactions, it requires multiple <span class="hlt">daily</span> dosing and is associated with a high frequency of dizziness and somnolence. A once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> formulation of gabapentin was recently approved for the treatment of PHN. This formulation employs a gastroretentive technology to provide a prolonged release of gabapentin. Clinical studies have confirmed the efficacy of once-<span class="hlt">daily</span>, gastroretentive gabapentin in the treatment of PHN. In addition, these studies have suggested that the rate of dizziness and somnolence may be reduced compared with similar studies using gabapentin three-times <span class="hlt">daily</span>. This article reviews key aspects of the pharmacology, efficacy and safety of once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> gabapentin in the treatment of PHN. PMID:24654668</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Irving, Gordon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61121551"> <span id="translatedtitle">THE PHYSIOPATHOLOGICAL PICTURE FROM <span class="hlt">IRRADIATION</span> OF THE BRAIN IN RATS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In 1,300 Long-Evans rats, the effects of <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> of the brain (with ; 200 M, x rays or Co⁶° gamma rays, in doses of 1500, 3000, 4000, and 5000 ; rads administered either as a single dose or in <span class="hlt">daily</span> fractions of 250 rads) were ; studied with regard to survival, changes in body weight, local reaction in the ;</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Greco; G. Pisani; M. L. Tognacca</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1961-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer/biblio/1130373"> <span id="translatedtitle">GSOD Based <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">Global</span> Mean Surface Temperature and Mean Sea Level Air Pressure (1982-2011)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This data product contains all the gridded data set at 1/4 degree resolution in ASCII format. Both mean temperature and mean sea level air pressure data are available. It also contains the GSOD data (1982-2011) from NOAA site, contains station number, location, temperature and pressures (sea level and station level). The data package also contains information related to the data processing methods</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xuan Shi, Dali Wang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7867871"> <span id="translatedtitle">Patient compliance with once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> and twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> oral formulations of 5-isosorbide mononitrate: a comparative study.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study compares patient compliance with once- and twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> formulations of 5-isosorbide mononitrate. A total of 31 patients (20 men and 11 women) with stable angina pectoris were randomized to receive either 60 mg 5-isosorbide mononitrate in a controlled release formulation once <span class="hlt">daily</span>, or 20 mg 5-isosorbide mononitrate twice <span class="hlt">daily</span>. The results indicated that compliance assessed using the electronic Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS) was better with the once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> than with the twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> formulation; patients on the once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen performed better with respect to the total number of bottle openings, the number of openings per day, the timing of openings and the intervals between openings. The apparently superior compliance with the once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen appeared to be reflected in better efficacy; patients on the once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen experienced fewer angina attacks (a mean of 1.7 per 7 days, compared with 3.3 per 7 days for patients on the twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen) and used fewer nitroglycerin tablets than those on the twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen. PMID:7867871</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brun, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMSM11B1623L"> <span id="translatedtitle">SORCE Solar <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Data Products</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) at the University of Colorado manages the SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) Science Data System. This data processing system routinely produces Total Solar <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> (TSI) and Spectral Solar <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> (SSI) data products, which are formulated using measurements from the four primary instruments on board the SORCE spacecraft. The TIM instrument provides measurements of the TSI, whereas the SIM, SOLSTICE, and XPS instruments collectively provide measurements of the solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> spectrum from 1 nm to 2400 nm (excluding 31-115 nm, which is measured by the SEE instrument on NASA's TIMED mission). Derived products, such as the Magnesium II Core-to-Wing Index which can be used for space weather applications, are also produced. The SORCE Science Data System utilizes raw spacecraft and instrument telemetry, calibration data, and other ancillary information to produce a variety of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> data products that have been corrected for all known instrumental and operational factors. Since launch of the SORCE spacecraft in January 2003, science processing algorithms have continued to mature, instrument calibrations (e.g. degradation corrections) have improved, and regularly updated versions of data products have been released. "Level 3" data products (time-averaged over <span class="hlt">daily</span> and six-hourly periods and/or spectrally re-sampled onto uniform wavelength scales) are routinely produced and delivered to the public via the SORCE web site (http://lasp.colorado.edu/sorce/data/), and are archived at the Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC). Native resolution "Level 2" products are also available for scientific studies. This poster provides an overview of the SORCE data processing system, summarizes the present state of the processing algorithms, describes the quality of the current SORCE data products, provides details on how to access SORCE science data, and presents future plans.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lindholm, D. M.; Pankratz, C. K.; Knapp, B. G.; Meisner, R.; Fontenla, J.; Harder, J. W.; McClintock, W. E.; Kopp, G.; Snow, M.; Woods, T. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51141060"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ambient assessment of <span class="hlt">daily</span> activity and gait velocity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper describes novel ambient technologies for domestic gait velocity measurement and in-home <span class="hlt">daily</span> activity monitoring. This was achieved through low cost, easily deployable passive infrared motion detectors and an unobtrusive wireless sensor network. This system was deployed in the houses of eight older adults (1 faller; 7 non-fallers) living independently over eight weeks. Inter-<span class="hlt">daily</span> gait velocity and <span class="hlt">daily</span> activity</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lorcan Walsh; Barry R. Greene; Adrian Burns; Cliodhna Ni Scanaill</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMED42A..03S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> teaching of <span class="hlt">global</span> seismology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Our recent textbook, Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes, & Earth Structure (Blackwell, 2003) is used in many countries. Part of the reason for this may be our deliberate attempt to write the book for an international audience. This effort appears in several ways. We stress seismology's long tradition of <span class="hlt">global</span> data interchange. Our brief discussions of the science's history illustrate the contributions of scientists around the world. Perhaps most importantly, our discussions of earthquakes, tectonics, and seismic hazards take a <span class="hlt">global</span> view. Many examples are from North America, whereas others are from other areas. Our view is that non-North American students should be exposed to North American examples that are type examples, and that North American students should be similarly exposed to examples elsewhere. For example, we illustrate how the Euler vector geometry changes a plate boundary from spreading, to strike-slip, to convergence using both the Pacific-North America boundary from the Gulf of California to Alaska and the Eurasia-Africa boundary from the Azores to the Mediterranean. We illustrate diffuse plate boundary zones using western North America, the Andes, the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and the East Africa Rift. The subduction zone discussions examine Japan, Tonga, and Chile. We discuss significant earthquakes both in the U.S. and elsewhere, and explore hazard mitigation issues in different contexts. Both comments from foreign colleagues and our experience lecturing overseas indicate that this approach works well. Beyond the specifics of our text, we believe that such a <span class="hlt">global</span> approach is facilitated by the international traditions of the earth sciences and the world youth culture that gives students worldwide common culture. For example, a video of the scene in New Madrid, Missouri that arose from a nonsensical earthquake prediction in 1990 elicits similar responses from American and European students.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stein, S.; Wysession, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP21B1990G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Changes in distribution of <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature and precipitation between the Late Maunder Minimum and the 2nd half of the 20th century: A regional model study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Climate models are an important tool to get insight of the response of climate to changes to external forcings and to evaluate the role of internal variability. Their suitability to simulate climate changes can be addressed by comparing paleoclimate simulations and reconstructions of past climates. In this contribution we focus on the simulated changes of the probability distribution (PDF) of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean temperature and precipitation in two periods of the past millennium in Europe. These simulated changes will eventually be used for comparisons with reconstructions of the frequency of extremes. For this purpose, a simulation performed with the Regional Climate Model MM5 driven at the domain boundaries by the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Circulation Model ECHO-G was analysed. The regional domain encompasses Europe and the horizontal resolution of the regional model was 45 km. Both simulations consider three sources of external forcings related to changes in Total Solar <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> (TSI), volcanic events and greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations. The distribution of <span class="hlt">daily</span> series of temperature and precipitation have been obtained for several subareas of Europe for a recent period (1950-1990), influenced by the presence of additional anthropogenic GHGs, and compared with the period of the Late Maunder Minimum (LMM, 1675-1715) characterized by low TSI and enhanced volcanic activity. Results indicate that although the regional model is tightly driven by the <span class="hlt">global</span> model in terms of mean values, the shape of the PDFs can be significantly modified and improved with respect to observations in the regional model simulations. However, despite an obvious difference in the recent period with respect to the LMM, in terms on changes in external forcings, the shape of the PDFs hardly changes between these two periods. This indicates that the variations in simulated climate of the past millennium can be characterized by slowly changing mean values but with stable shape of the PDFs for temperature and precipitation. However, because changes in external forcings over the past millennium have been much smaller than the projected changes for the end of this century, especially for anthropogenic GHGs, this conclusion may not prove true for the future.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gomez-Navarro, J. J.; Wagner, S.; Zorita, E.; Montavez, J. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010NHESS..10..717F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Brief communication: Calabria <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall from 1970 to 2006</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This brief communication introduces a new quality-controlled precipitation database for Calabria, shows the precipitation trend for the period considered, and correlates <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall with some common teleconnection patterns. The database consists of <span class="hlt">daily</span> accumulated precipitation collected by 61 rain gauges from 1 January 1970 to 31 December 2006. The 37-year trend in yearly rainfall shows a decrease of 4.7 mm/y, with a 17% reduction in the yearly mean value. The correlation of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall with large-scale patterns shows that the Mediterranean Oscillation Index (MOI a/c) is a useful predictor of <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation over Calabria.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Federico, S.; Pasqualoni, L.; Avolio, E.; Bellecci, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7827N"> <span id="translatedtitle">A stochastic disaggregation algorithm for analysis of change in the sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> extreme rainfall</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The statistical characteristics of local extreme rainfall, particularly at shorter durations, are among the key design parameters for urban storm water collection systems. Recent observations have provided sufficient evidence that the ongoing climate change alters form, pattern, intensity and frequency of precipitation across various temporal and spatial scales. Quantifying and predicting the resulted changes in the extremes, however, remains as a challenging problem, especially for local and shorter duration events. Most importantly, climate models are still unable to produce the extreme rainfall events at <span class="hlt">global</span> and regional scales. In addition, current simulations of climate models are at much coarser temporal and spatial resolutions than can be readily used in local design applications. Spatial and temporal downscaling methods, therefore, are necessary to bring the climate model simulations into finer scales. To tackle the temporal downscaling problem, we propose a stochastic algorithm, based on the novel notion of Rainfall Distribution Functions (RDFs), to disaggregate the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall into hourly estimates. In brief, RDFs describe how the historical <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall totals are distributed into hourly segments. By having a set of RDFs, an empirical probability distribution function can be constructed to describe the proportions of <span class="hlt">daily</span> cumulative rainfall at each hourly time step. These hour-by-hour empirical distribution functions can be used for random generation of hourly rainfall given total <span class="hlt">daily</span> values. We used this algorithm for disaggregating the <span class="hlt">daily</span> spring and summer rainfalls in the city of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada and tested the performance of the disaggregation with respect to reproduction of extremes. In particular, the Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves generated based on both historical and reconstructed extremes are compared. The proposed disaggregation scheme is further plugged into an existing <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall generator to provide a fully stochastic spatiotemporal framework for downscaling <span class="hlt">Global</span> Climate Models' (GCMs) outputs. Using future simulations of HadCM3 and CGCM, provided through CMIP5 portal, we realized large ensembles of hourly rainfall for the city of Saskatoon throughout the whole 21st century. The chance of alteration in the extreme rainfall intensities at different durations and return periods are then investigated and discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nazemi, Ali; Elshorbagy, Amin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2356290"> <span id="translatedtitle">[3-D-<span class="hlt">irradiation</span> planning based on the TOMOSCAN CX (Philips) computed tomograph. I. Principles of the CT-<span class="hlt">irradiation</span> planning program. II. CT-<span class="hlt">irradiation</span> planning for after-<span class="hlt">irradiation</span> of breast cancer].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Actually CT-cross-sections are the best base for <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> planning. Bases are represented to use CT-picture matrices of scanner TOMOSCAN CX (Philips) for <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> planning. The direct application of CT-pictures is done in "off-line"-running with the magnetic tape set. For figuring on colour display and estimation of density matrix limits of Hounsfield values are given. Adjustment of the CT to take off scan planes requires a special work-regime for <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> planning. Repair and use of defective CT-pictures are realized by input of specific outlines. In <span class="hlt">daily</span> routine the output of sagittal dose distribution is most advantageous in form of a table. Application of this CT-<span class="hlt">irradiation</span> planning system, being implemented on microcalculator K 1630, is shown for telecobalt <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> of mammary carcinoma. PMID:2356290</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tabbert, E; Bollmann, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1414026C"> <span id="translatedtitle">RMAWGEN: A software project for a <span class="hlt">daily</span> Multi-Site Weather Generator with R</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The modeling in in climate change applications for agricultural or hydrological purposes often requires <span class="hlt">daily</span> time-series of precipitation and temperature. This is the case of downscaled series from monthly or seasonal predictions of <span class="hlt">Global</span> Climate Models (GCMs). This poster presents a software project, the R package RMAWGEN (R Multi-Sites Auto-regressive Weather GENerator), to generate <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature and precipitation time series in several sites by using the theory of vectorial auto-regressive models (VAR). The VAR model is used because it is able to maintain the temporal and spatial correlations among the several series. In particular, observed time series of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation are used to calibrate the parameters of a VAR model (saved as "GPCAvarest2" or "varest2" classes, which inherit the "varest" S3 class defined in the package vars [Pfaff, 2008]). Therefore the VAR model, coupled with monthly mean weather variables downscaled by GCM predictions, allows to generate several stochastic <span class="hlt">daily</span> scenarios. The structure of the package consists in functions that transform precipitation and temperature time series into Gaussian-distributed random variables through deseasonalization and Principal Component Analysis. Then a VAR model is calibrated on transformed time series. The time series generated by VAR are then inversely re-transformed into precipitation and/or temperature series. An application is included in the software package as an example; it is presented by using a dataset with <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather time series recorded in 59 different sites of Trentino (Italy) and its neighborhoods for the period 1958-2007. The software is distributed as a Free Software with General Public License (GPL) and is available on CRAN website (http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/RMAWGEN/index.html)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cordano, E.; Eccel, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2140085"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Dosing of Rifapentine Cures Tuberculosis in Three Months or Less in the Murine Model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Availability of an ultra-short-course drug regimen capable of curing patients with tuberculosis in 2 to 3 mo would significantly improve <span class="hlt">global</span> control efforts. Because immediate prospects for novel treatment-shortening drugs remain uncertain, we examined whether better use of existing drugs could shorten the duration of treatment. Rifapentine is a long-lived rifamycin derivative currently recommended only in once-weekly continuation-phase regimens. Moxifloxacin is an 8-methoxyfluoroquinolone currently used in second-line regimens. Methods and Findings Using a well-established mouse model with a high bacterial burden and human-equivalent drug dosing, we compared the efficacy of rifapentine- and moxifloxacin-containing regimens with that of the standard <span class="hlt">daily</span> short-course regimen based on rifampin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide. Bactericidal activity was assessed by lung colony-forming unit counts, and sterilizing activity was assessed by the proportion of mice with culture-positive relapse after 2, 3, 4, and 6 mo of treatment. Here, we demonstrate that replacing rifampin with rifapentine and isoniazid with moxifloxacin dramatically increased the activity of the standard <span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen. After just 2 mo of treatment, mice receiving rifapentine- and moxifloxacin-containing regimens were found to have negative lung cultures, while those given the standard regimen still harbored 3.17 log10 colony-forming units in the lungs (p < 0.01). No relapse was observed after just 3 mo of treatment with <span class="hlt">daily</span> and thrice-weekly administered rifapentine- and moxifloxacin-containing regimens, whereas the standard <span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen required 6 mo to prevent relapse in all mice. Conclusions Rifapentine should no longer be viewed solely as a rifamycin for once-weekly administration. Our results suggest that treatment regimens based on <span class="hlt">daily</span> and thrice-weekly administration of rifapentine and moxifloxacin may permit shortening the current 6 mo duration of treatment to 3 mo or less. Such regimens warrant urgent clinical investigation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rosenthal, Ian M; Zhang, Ming; Williams, Kathy N; Peloquin, Charles A; Tyagi, Sandeep; Vernon, Andrew A; Bishai, William R; Chaisson, Richard E; Grosset, Jacques H; Nuermberger, Eric L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14746270"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Structural variations of the eye linked to <span class="hlt">daily</span> vertical migrations of Daphnia longispina].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The role of the eyes, and more precisely that of the ommatidian pigments, in the control of <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of movement of Daphnia longispina is investigated. In the laboratory, under permanent light (LL), the pigmentary modifications observed are <span class="hlt">globally</span> similar to those observed in situ, except in their timing, around dusk, LL cycles do not coincide with the ascent of daphnids but precede it. This is the expression of an endogenous free-running rhythm. Therefore, in D. longispina, an internal oscillator controls DVMs, which are circadian and not nycthemeral, and, in situ, illumination at dawn suffices to synchronize migrations on dark/light alternation. PMID:14746270</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cellier-Michel, Sandrine; Berthon, Jean-Louis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> 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href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010018486&hterms=Morrissey&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DMorrissey"> <span id="translatedtitle">Extending the Precipitation Map Offshore Using <span class="hlt">Daily</span> and 3-Hourly Combined Precipitation Estimates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">One of the difficulties in studying landfalling extratropical cyclones along the Pacific Coast is the lack of antecedent data over the ocean, including precipitation. Recent research on combining various satellite-based precipitation estimates opens the possibility of realistic precipitation estimates on a <span class="hlt">global</span> 1 deg. x 1 deg. latitude-longitude grid at the <span class="hlt">daily</span> or even 3-hourly interval. The goal in this work is to provide quantitative precipitation estimates that correctly represent the precipitation- related variables in the hydrological cycle: surface accumulations (fresh-water flux into oceans), frequency and duration statistics, net latent heating, etc.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Bolvin, David T.; Curtis, Scott; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.2658D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of different models to estimate the <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation on inclined surface</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Global</span> and diffuse solar radiation intensities are, in general, measured on horizontal surfaces, whereas stationary solar conversion systems (both flat plate solar collector and solar photovoltaic) are mounted on inclined surface to maximize the amount of solar radiation incident on the collector surface. Consequently, the solar radiation incident measured on a tilted surface has to be determined by converting solar radiation from horizontal surface to tilted surface of interest. This study evaluates the performance of 14 models transposing 10 minutes, hourly and <span class="hlt">daily</span> diffuse solar <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> from horizontal to inclined surface. Solar radiation data from 8 months (April to November 2011) which include diverse atmospheric conditions and solar altitudes, measured on the roof of the radiation tower of the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium in Uccle (Longitude 4.35°, Latitude 50.79°) were used for validation purposes. The individual model performance is assessed by an inter-comparison between the calculated and measured solar <span class="hlt">global</span> radiation on the south-oriented surface tilted at 50.79° using statistical methods. The relative performance of the different models under different sky conditions has been studied. Comparison of the statistical errors between the different radiation models in function of the clearness index shows that some models perform better under one type of sky condition. Putting together different models acting under different sky conditions can lead to a diminution of the statistical error between <span class="hlt">global</span> measured solar radiation and <span class="hlt">global</span> estimated solar radiation. As models described in this paper have been developed for hourly data inputs, statistical error indexes are minimum for hourly data and increase for 10 minutes and one day frequency data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Demain, C.; Journée, M.; Bertrand, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6826744"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gamma -ray <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> head for panoramic <span class="hlt">irradiation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The invention relates to a gamma -ray <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> head for panoramic <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> comprising a tungsten target revolving about an axis, and means for deflecting electrons around the same axis for producing photons in several directions either successively or simultaneously. When the beam of electrons is deflected in its entirety and when the impact zone moves on the target about the axis, the axis of the radiation lobe moves in the same way and permits <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> according to a variable azimuth.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Azam, G.; Bensussan, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-10-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRA..119.2090J"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> ionospheric total electron contents (TECs) during the last two solar minimum periods</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">last solar minimum period was anomalously extended and low in EUV <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> compared with previous solar minima. It can readily be expected that the thermosphere and the ionosphere must be correspondingly affected by this low solar activity. While there have been unanimous reports on the thermospheric changes, being cooler and lower in its density as expected, the ionospheric responses to low solar activity in previous studies were not consistent with each other, probably due to the limited ionospheric observations used for them. In this study, we utilized the measurements of total electron content (TEC) from TOPEX and JASON-1 satellites during the periods of 1992 to 2010, which includes both the last two solar minimum periods, in order to investigate how the ionosphere responded to the extremely low solar activity during the last solar minimum compared with previous solar minimum. Although the <span class="hlt">global</span> <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean TECs show negligible differences between the two solar minimum periods, the <span class="hlt">global</span> TEC maps reveal that there are significant systematic differences ranging from about -30% to +50% depending on local time, latitude, and season. The systematic variations of the ionospheric responses seem to mainly result from the relative effects of reduced solar EUV production and reduced recombination rate due to thermospheric changes during the last solar minimum period.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jee, Geonhwa; Lee, Han-Byul; Solomon, Stanley C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://scout.wisc.edu/Reports/NSDL/LifeSci/2004/ls-041112#TopicInDepth"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Biodiversity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nations around the world have recognized biodiversity as one of the most pressing ecological issues of our time. Declining biodiversity over recent decades has prompted the formation of international coalitions and national biodiversity programs. This Topic in Depth explores the work of both international and national efforts to increase <span class="hlt">global</span> biodiversity. The first site presents an archived report from the Convention on Biological Diversity, an international organization formed by many world nations after the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. This first edition of the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Biodiversity Outlook report, published in 2001, was created to provide a status summary, and an analysis of Convention objectives. It is expected that a second edition will be published this year presenting more recent data and analysis (1). Explore Biodiversity is an innovative project involving a team of scientists and filmmakers working to document the diminishing biological diversity of our planet. The hip Explore website shares beautiful images, videos, and information from expeditions to Hawaii, Mexico, and Alaska (2). The third site, from the Australian Government's Department of the Environment and Heritage, discusses biodiversity in Australia. The site contains sections regarding Migratory Species; Conservation and Regional Planning; Invasive Species; and Biodiversity Hotspots--to name a few (3). The fourth website presents the Belgian Biodiversity Platform (4), which is "an integrated network of people and institutions funded by the Belgian Federal Science Policy to facilitate dialogue and collaboration between scientists in Belgium and abroad, in the field of biological diversity." From the Nepalese Government's Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, the fifth site presents information about biodiversity programs in Nepal. The site contains sections about Forests, National Parks, Plant Resources, and the Ministry's National Biodiversity Unit (5). The final website presents the Centre for Marine Biodiversity (CMB), a Canada-based organization that was established in 2000 to promote scientific support of marine biodiversity. The CMB website contains research reports, links to several databases, links to various identification guides, and a photo gallery with some nice underwater images (6).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59735737"> <span id="translatedtitle">Functional tasks exercise improves <span class="hlt">daily</span> function in older women</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ageing is characterised by a reduction in physical reserve, the physiological capacity in excess of that needed for <span class="hlt">daily</span> activities, that provides a margin of safety that absorbs age- or disease-related changes without a loss in function. When physical capacity falls below the ability required for the performance of <span class="hlt">daily</span> tasks, functional limitations and a loss of independence may occur.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. L. de Vreede</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.therapyforu.co.uk/documents/Child_Development.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Continuity, Stability, and Change in <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Emotional Experience across Adolescence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This longitudinal study examined change in adolescents' <span class="hlt">daily</span> range of emotional states between early and late adolescence. A sample of 220 youth provided reports on their <span class="hlt">daily</span> emotions at random times during two 1-week periods. At Time 1 they were in the fifth through eighth grades; 4 years later, at Time 2, they were in the ninth through twelfth grades.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reed W. Larson; Giovanni Moneta; Maryse H. Richards; Suzanne Wilson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..65..171M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Which metric of ambient ozone to predict <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is well known that ozone concentration is associated with <span class="hlt">daily</span> cause specific mortality. But which ozone metric is the best predictor of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> variability in mortality? We performed a time series analysis on <span class="hlt">daily</span> deaths (all causes, respiratory and cardiovascular causes as well as death in elderly 65+) in Vienna for the years 1991-2009. We controlled for seasonal and long term trend, day of the week, temperature and humidity using the same basic model for all pollutant metrics. We found model fit was best for same day variability of ozone concentration (calculated as the difference between <span class="hlt">daily</span> hourly maximum and minimum) and hourly maximum. Of these the variability displayed a more linear dose-response function. Maximum 8 h moving average and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean value performed not so well. Nitrogen dioxide (<span class="hlt">daily</span> mean) in comparison performed better when previous day values were assessed. Same day ozone and previous day nitrogen dioxide effect estimates did not confound each other. Variability in <span class="hlt">daily</span> ozone levels or peak ozone levels seem to be a better proxy of a complex reactive secondary pollutant mixture than <span class="hlt">daily</span> average ozone levels in the Middle European setting. If this finding is confirmed this would have implications for the setting of legally binding limit values.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moshammer, Hanns; Hutter, Hans-Peter; Kundi, Michael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4693445"> <span id="translatedtitle">Building Intelligent Environments Using Smart <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Objects and Personal Devices</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Our <span class="hlt">daily</span> life will be more attractive when our surround- ings will be more intelligent. Most of current researches in ubiquitous computing try to build a smart environment by embedding sensors and computers in our living spaces directly. However, the approach is very expensive to make our environment smart. Our approach uses intelligent <span class="hlt">daily</span> objects and personal devices to build</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tatsuo Nakajima; Kaori Fujinami; Eiji Tokunaga</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://researchspace.csir.co.za/dspace/bitstream/10204/1321/1/Krygsman_2007.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Capturing <span class="hlt">daily</span> urban rhythms: The use of location aware technologies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> activities and travel often follow a natural rhythm or flow that is structured by the fixed spatial and temporal constraints. The work and home location act as pegs that define individual's activity space and it is within these spaces that activities and travel behaviour are believed to be habitual and recurring. Aggregating such individual behaviour leads to so-called <span class="hlt">daily</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stephan Krygsman; Tom de Jong; Peter Schmitz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED308534.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Flying Newsboy: A Small <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Attempts Air Delivery.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For 10 months in 1929-30, subscribers to "The McCook (Nebraska) <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Gazette" (a <span class="hlt">daily</span> newspaper serving 33 towns in southwestern Nebraska and northwestern Kansas) received their newspapers via air delivery with "The Newsboy," a Curtis Robin cabin monoplane. In an age when over-the-road travel was difficult and air travel was just emerging,…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Watts, Elizabeth A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/38567102"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prednisone as Initial Treatment of Analgesic-Induced <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Headache</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The majority of the patients who seek medical care in tertiary headache centres present with transformed migraine, and convert to <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache, as a result of excessive intake of symptomatic medications (SM). This study aimed to analyse the possibility of using a short course of oral prednisone for detoxifying patients with chronic <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache due to medication overuse in an</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A V Krymchantowski; J S Barbosa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4311441"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lifestyle Ubiquitous Gaming: Making <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Lives More Plesurable</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we propose a novel computer gaming style Lifestyle Ubiquitous Gaming, where our experience is enriched in our <span class="hlt">daily</span> lives by using gaming concepts. In lifestyle ubiquitous gaming, human <span class="hlt">daily</span> activities are implicitly tracked and interpreted. Then, the feedback of the activities are returned to a user as a game system' presentation. The user can enjoy the game</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tatsuo Nakajima; Vili Lehdonvirta; Eiji Tokunaga; Masaaki Ayabe; Hiroaki Kimura; Yohei Okuda</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/44460871"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temperature Effects on the Winter <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Electric Load</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Here we describe the relationship between average <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature and winter-<span class="hlt">daily</span> electric load, as ascertained on the largest electric district in Italy. In particular, it is shown that a sudden 6°C temperature decrease (not a rare event) raises the load by 5%. Several aspects of users' behavior before temperature changes are also pointed out by the statistical analysis of available</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paolo Bolzern; Giorgio Fronza; Giuseppe Brusasca</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mssanz.org.au/modsim05/papers/tan_ks1.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of Two Stochastic Spatial <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Rainfall Generation Approaches</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> rainfall is a key input into models that simulate water resources, agricultural and ecological systems. Stochastic rainfall data provide alternative realisations that are equally likely to have occurred, and are often used to drive hydrological and other models to quantify uncertainty in environmental systems associated with climatic variability. This paper describes the comparison of two stochastic spatial <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. H. S. Chiew; R. Srikanthan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40753766"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> solar radiation in the Argentine Pampas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Solar radiation is an important input to crop growth models used for risk management and assessment purposes. Methods are explored to estimate <span class="hlt">daily</span> solar radiation in the Argentine Pampas, one of the most important agricultural areas in the world. Two scenarios are considered: (i) sunshine duration data are available for a given location, or (ii) only <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature (minimum and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guillermo P. Podestá; Liliana Núñez; Carlos A. Villanueva; Mar??a A. Skansi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA412528"> <span id="translatedtitle">Remote Monitoring of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Activities and Behaviors at Home.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In maintaining the health of people, both elderly and younger, it can be useful to monitor their health status through their <span class="hlt">daily</span> routines in their own home. This paper reports on the remote monitoring of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> routine behaviors in an ordinary house....</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Ogawa S. Ochiai K. Otsuka T. Togawa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/index.php/cfn/article/view/675"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long <span class="hlt">daily</span> movements of wolves (Canis lupus) during pup raising</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wolves, Canis lupus, on Ellesmere Island traveled a <span class="hlt">daily</span> round-trip distance of 40.2 km from their den to a landfill during July 2008, plus an undetermined distance hunting after leaving the landfill. Although long travels by Wolves are well known, this appears to be the first documentation of long <span class="hlt">daily</span> movements by Wolves rearing pups.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mech, L. David; Cluff, H. Dean</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57806533"> <span id="translatedtitle">Meaningfulness in <span class="hlt">daily</span> occupations among individuals with persistent mental illness</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study investigated how people with persistent mental illness who work or study, attend a community?based activity centre or have no regular activities, experience and describe the meaningfulness of their <span class="hlt">daily</span> occupations. Data were gathered from 102 randomly selected individuals who were interviewed regarding their <span class="hlt">daily</span> occupations and perceived meaningfulness using a ‘yesterday activity diary’. Content analysis revealed five main</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christel Leufstadius; Tommy Björkman; Mona Eklund</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=only+AND+child+AND+personality&pg=5&id=EJ679732"> <span id="translatedtitle">Parenting <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Hassles, Child Temperament, and Social Adjustment in Preschool.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Explored relations between child temperament, parenting <span class="hlt">daily</span> hassles, and children's social adjustment in preschool. Found that parenting <span class="hlt">daily</span> hassles predicted child externalizing problems beyond the contribution of child temperament characteristics. Child temperament interacted with parenting hassles in predicting adjustment outcomes. Child…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Coplan, Robert J.; Bowker, Anne; Cooper, Suzanne M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> 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onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=birth+AND+order&pg=5&id=EJ908341"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Determinants of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this study was to identify determinants of <span class="hlt">daily</span> function in a population-based sample of children with cerebral palsy (CP). The study took into consideration factors from the entire scope of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). Furthermore, the determinants of <span class="hlt">daily</span> function were examined from…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tseng, Mei-Hui; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Lu, Lu; Huang, Chien-Yu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30698572"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> concentrations of air pollution and plasma fibrinogen in London</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">OBJECTIVESThe reason for the association between air pollution and risk of cardiovascular diseases is unknown. The hypothesis was examined that <span class="hlt">daily</span> concentrations of air pollution are associated with <span class="hlt">daily</span> concentrations of fibrinogen, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.METHODSData on concentrations of plasma fibrinogen for 4982 male and 2223 female office workers, collected in a cross sectional survey in London between</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J Pekkanen; E J Brunner; H R Anderson; P Tiittanen; R W Atkinson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC23C0925I"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using <span class="hlt">Daily</span> GCM Rainfall for Crop Yield Predictions: Advances and Challenges</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Global</span> climate models (GCMs) are promising for crop yield predictions not only because of their ability to simulate seasonal climate in advance of the growing season but also of their ability to simulate long-term climate changes. Despite this potential, a lot of challenges exist in using directly raw GCM data to crop models. First, because of the spatial scale mismatch between GCMs and crop models (10^2 km vs. 10^1 m), and second, due to biases and temporal structure mismatches in <span class="hlt">daily</span> GCM rainfall relative to station observations. Crop growth is very sensitive to <span class="hlt">daily</span> variations of rainfall thus any mismatch in <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall statistics could adversely impact simulation of crop yields. In view of this, a lot of efforts have been made to correct biases in <span class="hlt">daily</span> GCM rainfall relative to the climatology of a station or set of stations, and recently on some attempts to correct time structure in climate model rainfall. Here, we will present some advances in tailoring <span class="hlt">daily</span> GCM rainfall for crop yield predictions and discuss some challenges underlying those methods. Specifically, we will present an improved nested GCM bias correction-stochastic disaggregation (BC-DisAg) method for improving the use of <span class="hlt">daily</span> GCM rainfall for crop simulations and show some testing and evaluation results in different regions (Northeastern Kenya, Uruguay, Southern and Northeast Brazil). We also examined several ways of weighting GCM grid cells to better summarize their information contents for the nested approach, including inverse-distance weighting, arithmetic averaging, multiple linear regression and genetic algorithms. Finally, we will show a comparison between the GCM bias correction and Model Output Statistics (MOS)-correction downscaling in one of the selected sites at Katumani, Kenya. Our results showed that there is a significant improvement in the simulation of yields if the GCM bias correction (BC) is nested with stochastic disaggregation than just BC alone because of the improvements made on dry spell lengths simulations due to improved time structure of <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall. The skill of the GCM however is still the final determinant for the overall success of the approach.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ines, A. M.; Hansen, J. W.; Robertson, A. W.; Baethgen, W.; Sun, L.; Indeje, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920006214&hterms=readings+fossil+record&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dreadings%2Bfossil%2Brecord"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> trends</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Measuring trends in ozone, and most other geophysical variables, requires that a small systematic change with time be determined from signals that have large periodic and aperiodic variations. Their time scales range from the day-to-day changes due to atmospheric motions through seasonal and annual variations to 11 year cycles resulting from changes in the sun UV output. Because of the magnitude of all of these variations is not well known and highly variable, it is necessary to measure over more than one period of the variations to remove their effects. This means that at least 2 or more times the 11 year sunspot cycle. Thus, the first requirement is for a long term data record. The second related requirement is that the record be consistent. A third requirement is for reasonable <span class="hlt">global</span> sampling, to ensure that the effects are representative of the entire Earth. The various observational methods relevant to trend detection are reviewed to characterize their quality and time and space coverage. Available data are then examined for long term trends or recent changes in ozone total content and vertical distribution, as well as related parameters such as stratospheric temperature, source gases and aerosols.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Megie, G.; Chanin, M.-L.; Ehhalt, D.; Fraser, P.; Frederick, J. F.; Gille, J. C.; Mccormick, M. P.; Schoebert, M.; Bishop, L.; Bojkov, R. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://globalvoicesonline.org/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Voices</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Former CNN Beijing and Tokyo Bureau Chief Rebecca MacKinnon and Africa expert Ethan Zuckerman started <span class="hlt">Global</span> Voices while they were both fellows at Harvard. The website is a community of over 300 bloggers and translators from around the world whose aim is "to redress some of the inequities in media attention by leveraging the power of citizens' media." The website has "featured stories" and "latest stories" on the homepage, as well as "Updates" and "Special Coverage", such as "Gabon Unrest 2011", "Nigeria Elections 2011", and the "Death of Osama Bin Laden". The site can also be searched by "Countries", "Topics" and "Contributors". The "Countries" link contains an extensive list of countries that visitors can peruse at their leisure. There is also a monthly archive that shows the number of posts for that country, and they date all the way back to August 2005. A look at Algeria allows visitors to read the post "Arab World: Tears Spilled on the Break Up of Sudan", which shows the reaction of Arab netizens on Twitter to South Sudan's Independence referendum. The tweets have been translated from the Arabic into English, which is particularly useful for those persons who do not speak Arabic.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3247621"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> or Intermittent Budesonide in Preschool Children with Recurrent Wheezing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND <span class="hlt">Daily</span> inhaled glucocorticoids are recommended for young children at risk for asthma exacerbations, as indicated by a positive value on the modified asthma predictive index (API) and an exacerbation in the preceding year, but concern remains about <span class="hlt">daily</span> adherence and effects on growth. We compared <span class="hlt">daily</span> therapy with intermittent therapy. METHODS We studied 278 children between the ages of 12 and 53 months who had positive values on the modified API, recurrent wheezing episodes, and at least one exacerbation in the previous year but a low degree of impairment. Children were randomly assigned to receive a budesonide inhalation suspension for 1 year as either an intermittent high-dose regimen (1 mg twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> for 7 days, starting early during a predefined respiratory tract illness) or a <span class="hlt">daily</span> low-dose regimen (0.5 mg nightly) with corresponding placebos. The primary outcome was the frequency of exacerbations requiring oral glucocorticoid therapy. RESULTS The <span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen of budesonide did not differ significantly from the intermittent regimen with respect to the frequency of exacerbations, with a rate per patient-year for the <span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen of 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76 to 1.22) versus a rate of 0.95 (95% CI, 0.75 to 1.20) for the intermittent regimen (relative rate in the intermittent-regimen group, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.35; P=0.60). There were also no significant between-group differences in several other measures of asthma severity, including the time to the first exacerbation, or adverse events. The mean exposure to budesonide was 104 mg less with the intermittent regimen than with the <span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen. CONCLUSIONS A <span class="hlt">daily</span> low-dose regimen of budesonide was not superior to an intermittent high-dose regimen in reducing asthma exacerbations. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> administration led to greater exposure to the drug at 1 year.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zeiger, Robert S.; Mauger, David; Bacharier, Leonard B.; Guilbert, Theresa W.; Martinez, Fernando D.; Lemanske, Robert F.; Strunk, Robert C.; Covar, Ronina; Szefler, Stanley J.; Boehmer, Susan; Jackson, Daniel J.; Sorkness, Christine A.; Gern, James E.; Kelly, H. William; Friedman, Noah J.; Mellon, Michael H.; Schatz, Michael; Morgan, Wayne J.; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Raissy, Hengameh H.; Bade, Elizabeth; Malka-Rais, Jonathan; Beigelman, Avraham; Taussig, Lynn M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SGeo..tmp...21Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> GRACE Gravity Field and Numerical Water Storage Models for De-aliasing of Satellite Gravimetry Observations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reducing aliasing effects of insufficiently modelled high-frequent, non-tidal mass variations of the atmosphere, the oceans and the hydrosphere in gravity field models derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission is the topic of this study. The signal content of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> GRACE gravity field model series (ITG-Kalman) is compared to high-frequency bottom pressure variability and terrestrially stored water variations obtained from recent numerical simulations from an ocean circulation model (OMCT) and two hydrological models (WaterGAP <span class="hlt">Global</span> Hydrology Model, Land Surface Discharge Model). Our results show that <span class="hlt">daily</span> estimates of ocean bottom pressure from the most recent OMCT simulations and the <span class="hlt">daily</span> ITG-Kalman solutions are able to explain up to 40 % of extra-tropical sea-level variability in the Southern Ocean. In contrast to this, the <span class="hlt">daily</span> ITG-Kalman series and simulated continental total water storage variability largely disagree at periods below 30 days. Therefore, as long as no adequate hydrological model will become available, the <span class="hlt">daily</span> ITG-Kalman series can be regarded as a good initial proxy for high-frequency mass variations at a <span class="hlt">global</span> scale. As a second result of this study, based on monthly solutions as well as <span class="hlt">daily</span> observation residuals, it is shown that applying this GRACE-derived de-aliasing model supports the determination of the time-variable gravity field from GRACE data and the subsequent geophysical interpretation. This leads us to the recommendation that future satellite concepts for determining mass variations in the Earth system should be capable of observing higher frequeny signals with sufficient spatial resolution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zenner, L.; Bergmann-Wolf, I.; Dobslaw, H.; Gruber, T.; Güntner, A.; Wattenbach, M.; Esselborn, S.; Dill, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=relationship+AND+results&pg=3&id=EJ936186"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adaptation to <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Stress among Mothers of Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Positive Affect</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Raising a child with an autism spectrum disorder is a challenging experience that can impact maternal well-being. Using a <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary methodology, this study investigates (1) the relationship between stress and negative affect, and (2) the role of <span class="hlt">daily</span> positive affect as a protective factor in the stress and negative affect relationship. Results…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ekas, Naomi V.; Whitman, Thomas L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3282675"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fluticasone furoate: once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> evening treatment versus twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> treatment in moderate asthma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Inhaled corticosteroids are the recommended first-line treatment for asthma but adherence to therapy is suboptimal. The objectives of this study were to compare the efficacy and safety of once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> (OD) evening and twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> (BD) regimens of the novel inhaled corticosteroid fluticasone furoate (FF) in asthma patients. Methods Patients with moderate asthma (age ? 12 years; pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) 40-85% predicted; FEV1 reversibility of ? 12% and ? 200 ml) were randomized to FF or fluticasone propionate (FP) regimens in a double-blind, crossover study. Patients were not permitted to have used any ICS for ? 8 weeks prior to enrolment and subsequently received doses of FF or FP 200 ?g OD, FF or FP 100 ?g BD and matching placebo by inhalation for 28 days each. Primary endpoint was Day 28 evening pre-dose (trough) FEV1; non-inferiority of FF 200 ?g OD and FF 100 ?g BD was assessed, as was superiority of all active treatment relative to placebo. Adverse events (AEs) and 24-hour urinary cortisol excretion were assessed. Results The intent-to-treat population comprised 147 (FF) and 43 (FP) patients. On Day 28, pre-dose FEV1 showed FF 200 ?g OD to be non-inferior (pre-defined limit -110 ml) to FF 100 ?g BD (mean treatment difference 11 ml; 95% CI: -35 to +56 ml); all FF and FP regimens were significantly superior to placebo (p ? 0.02). AEs were similar to placebo; no serious AEs were reported. Urinary cortisol excretion at Day 28 for FF was lower than placebo (ratios: 200 ?g OD, 0.75; 100 ?g BD, 0.84; p ? 0.02). Conclusions FF 200 ?g OD in the evening is an efficacious and well tolerated treatment for asthma patients and is not inferior to the same total BD dose. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00766090.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3797633"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of once <span class="hlt">daily</span> versus twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> olmesartan in patients with chronic kidney disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background The effects of olmesartan (OLM) on blood pressure and kidney function in Japanese patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) were compared between 20 mg twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> (BID) and 40 mg once <span class="hlt">daily</span> (QD) treatments. Methods The subjects were Japanese CKD patients with concurrent hypertension who had been treated with OLM 20 mg BID for at least 3 months on an outpatient basis (n=39). After a change in the treatment regimen to 40 mg OLM QD (after breakfast), blood pressure (BP) (n=39), morning home BP (n=13), estimated glomerular filtration rate (n=39), and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (n=17) were monitored for 2 months. Results No significant change in office (mean ± standard deviation [SD] [mmHg], 143.9 ± 18.8/75.7 ± 12.0 to 141.6 ± 16.1/74.7 ± 11.7, not significant [ns]) or early morning home (mean ± SD [mmHg], 133.8 ± 15.9/71.2 ± 11.5 to 133.8 ± 13.9/74.5 ± 10.5, ns) BP was observed 2 months after the change in dose. The estimated glomerular filtration rate increased significantly (mean ± SD, 49.0 ± 28.0 to 51.8 ± 27.0, P<0.05), whereas urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio did not change significantly (mean ± SD, 0.551 ± 0.445 to 0.364 ± 0.5194, ns). Conclusion High-dose OLM administered BID and QD had similar effects on outpatient and early morning home BP in CKD patients, suggesting that the BID regimen can be safely changed to a QD regimen. For CKD patients with hypertension requiring continuous long-term treatment, the possibility that the QD regimen might bring a greater therapeutic effect was suggested. However, recognizing the best blood pressure control level for a CKD patient is still a matter of debate, and should ideally be personalized.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sakai, Yukinao; Suzuki, Anna; Mugishima, Koji; Sumi, Yuichiro; Otsuka, Yusuke; Otsuka, Tomoyuki; Ohno, Dai; Murasawa, Tsuneo; Tsuruoka, Shuichi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JASTP.105...39N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Technique to produce <span class="hlt">daily</span> estimates of the migrating diurnal tide using TIMED/SABER and EOS Aura/MLS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A technique to explicitly compute the day-to-day variability of the migrating diurnal tide (DW1) between 20 km and 80 km on a <span class="hlt">global</span> scale is presented and analyzed. Our method employs temperature data from two satellite instruments: the MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) instrument on the EOS (Earth Observing System) Aura spacecraft and the SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) instrument on the TIMED (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics) spacecraft. By taking advantage of the four <span class="hlt">daily</span> solar local time measurements from the two instruments, a least squares fit representing the DW1 is constructed. Consequently, the <span class="hlt">daily</span> zonal mean, DW1 amplitude and phase are all estimated on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis. Before the implementation of our technique, a comparative analysis between the instrument data sets is conducted. The analysis reveals temperature biases of up to 10 K, which are removed to improve our estimates. To evaluate performance, our method is applied to a model atmosphere constructed from tidal fields obtained from the <span class="hlt">Global</span> Scale Wave Model (GSWM). Performance results indicate that the DW1 is most effectively extracted from the background atmosphere and other tidal components when each latitude circle is well sampled and the local time sampling is evenly spaced. A comparison of our results to the GSWM and past observations support the conclusion that our method produces <span class="hlt">daily</span> estimates of the DW1 that can be utilized for scientifically useful investigations of short term tidal variability.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nguyen, Vu; Palo, S. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE92613582"> <span id="translatedtitle">Facts about food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>: Food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> costs.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This fact sheet gives the cost of a typical food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> facility (US $1 million to US $3 million) and of the food <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> process (US $10-15 per tonne for low-dose applications; US $100-250 per tonne for high-dose applications). These treatments ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40126402"> <span id="translatedtitle">A statistical model to downscale local <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature extremes from synoptic-scale atmospheric circulation patterns in the Australian region</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">.  ?The study seeks to describe one method of deriving information about local <span class="hlt">daily</span> temperature extremes from larger scale atmospheric\\u000a flow patterns using statistical tools. This is considered to be one step towards downscaling coarsely gridded climate data\\u000a from <span class="hlt">global</span> climate models (GCMs) to finer spatial scales. Downscaling is necessary in order to bridge the spatial mismatch\\u000a between GCMs and climate</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Schubert; A. Henderson-Sellers</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AAS...22052121H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Coronal MHD Simulation Using HMI Near-Real-Time Magnetograms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">SDO/HMI is making full-disk line-of-sight magnetogram measurements with a cadence of 45 seconds. The HMI analysis pipeline regularly generates two types of synoptic map of the solar surface magnetic field. Definitive calibrated data maps are created every Carrington Rotation, about every 27 days and a preliminary synoptic map is updated on a near-real-time basis. As an application of the near-real-time data, we have been running a <span class="hlt">daily</span> MHD simulation of the <span class="hlt">global</span> solar corona using the photospheric map as the boundary condition ( http://hmi.stanford.edu/MHD ). The <span class="hlt">daily</span> MHD model assumes a polytropic gas with the specific heat ratio of 1.05, and the simulation is conducted in a 4-pi spherical grid system with latitudinal and longitudinal grid sizes of pi/64. The output available at hmi.stanford.edu/MHD includes the three-dimensional volume data, the shape of the open-field regions corresponding to the coronal holes, and the LoS-integration of the coronal density mimicking coronagraph observations. For validation, we compare the results of the low-resolution <span class="hlt">daily</span> MHD simulation and the high-resolution PFSS calculation with SDO/AIA and SOHO/C2 and C3 image data. In the future the simulation region will be extended to 1 AU, and models of coronal heating and acceleration will be applied to allow a timely prediction of solar wind at the Earth for space weather purposes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hayashi, Keiji; HMI Team</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5886..101G"> <span id="translatedtitle">The measurement and modeling of broadband UV-A <span class="hlt">irradiance</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The estimation of ultraviolet-A radiation across the earth's surface is needed to model plant productivity and future impacts of ultraviolet-B radiation to plant productivity. We have evaluated the quality of broadband ultraviolet-A (UV-A) <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements within a UV climate monitoring network in the USA and developed a model to estimate the UV-A <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> from measurements of the <span class="hlt">global</span> spectral <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at 368-nm. The model was developed from ½ hour interval measurements made during 2000 at three locations across the United States and evaluated from ½ hour measurements made during 2000 through 2002 at seven locations. The stability of the UV-A <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> sensors across the two year period was evaluated by comparison of changes in UV-A sensor response to changes in 368 nm AOD across years on the same (+/-3) day referenced to the change in UV-A response to changes in 368 nm AOD on sequential days during 2000. Most of the seven UV-A sensors installed during 1999 and 2000 appear to have remained stable (within detectable bounds) through 2004. UV-A <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> was modeled using measured <span class="hlt">global</span> 368-nm <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and empirical functions defining UV-A and 368-nm <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> relationships derived from a radiative transfer model. The theoretical pseudo two stream discrete ordinates radiative transfer model provided baseline <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> relationships between UV-A <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> and 368-nm spectral <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. The model estimated the UV-A <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> at seven locations across the USA with a mean bias error of 0.5 W m-2 and a root mean squared error of 1.5 W m-2. The model error was comparable to the combined effect of previously-estimated UV-A and 368-nm <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurement errors but greater than that of the UV-A sensor alone.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grant, Richard H.; Slusser, James R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9255195"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pharmacokinetics of once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> dosing of gentamicin in neonates.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a prospective, randomized trial of once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> versus twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> intravenous or intramuscular dosing with gentamicin, 11 neonates received 5.0 mg/kg once <span class="hlt">daily</span> and 15 received 2.5 mg/kg twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> for 2 ro 3 days. The once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> intravenous dosing group and the twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> intravenous or intramuscular dosing group, respectively, had mean steady-state gentamicin peak concentrations of 10.7 versus 6.6 micrograms/ml (p < 0.05), 6-hour postdosing concentrations of 4.7 versus 2.8 micrograms/ml (p < 0.05), trough concentrations of 1.7 versus 1.7 micrograms/ml, elimination half-life of 8.8 versus 5.4 hours (p < 0.05), and volume of distribution at steady state of 0.67 versus 0.46 L/kg. No nephrotoxic effects were identified in any group. Once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> gentamicin therapy with 5.0 mg/kg in neonates achieves peak serum levels that are more suitable for optimal bacterial killing than those which traditional regimens achieve. Similar trough levels suggest that even larger doses and longer dosing intervals may be ideal in term neonates. PMID:9255195</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hayani, K C; Hatzopoulos, F K; Frank, A L; Thummala, M R; Hantsch, M J; Schatz, B M; John, E G; Vidyasagar, D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/43557353"> <span id="translatedtitle">Another perspective on <span class="hlt">globalization</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose – In the background of the <span class="hlt">global</span> economic and financial crisis, one hears and reads nothing but excoriation and denunciation of <span class="hlt">globalization</span>. The purpose of this paper is to provide an honest and objective analysis of the contemporary <span class="hlt">global</span> economic scenario, which reveals numerous challenges that <span class="hlt">globalization</span> engendered in different countries, country groups as well as in the <span class="hlt">global</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dilip K. Das</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-07-21/pdf/2010-17744.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 42399 - Orders Finding That the PJM WH Real Time Peak <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Contract, PJM WH Real Time Off-Peak <span class="hlt">Daily</span>...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...COMMISSION Orders Finding That the PJM WH Real Time Peak <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Contract, PJM WH Real Time Off-Peak <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Contract and PJM WH Day Ahead...determination whether the PJM \\2\\ WH \\3\\ Real Time Peak <span class="hlt">Daily</span> [[Page 42400</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012HESSD...9.8335V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coupled <span class="hlt">daily</span> streamflow and water temperature modelling in large river basins</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Realistic estimates of <span class="hlt">daily</span> streamflow and water temperature are required for effective management of water resources (e.g. electricity and drinking water production) and freshwater ecosystems. Although hydrological and process-based water temperature modelling approaches have been successfully applied to small catchments and short time periods, much less work has been done at large spatial and temporal scales. We present a physically-based modelling framework for <span class="hlt">daily</span> river discharge and water temperature simulations applicable to large river systems on a <span class="hlt">global</span> scale. Model performance was tested <span class="hlt">globally</span> at 1/2° × 1/2° spatial resolution and a <span class="hlt">daily</span> time step for the period 1971-2000. We made specific evaluations on large river basins situated in different hydro-climatic zones and characterized by different anthropogenic impacts. Effects of anthropogenic heat discharges on simulated water temperatures were incorporated by using <span class="hlt">global</span> gridded thermoelectric water use data sets and representing thermal discharges as point sources into the heat-advection equation. This resulted in a significant increase in the quality of the water temperature simulations for thermally polluted basins (Rhine, Meuse, Danube and Mississippi). Due to large reservoirs in the Columbia which affect streamflow and thermal regimes, a reservoir routing model was used. This resulted in a significant improvement in the performance of the river discharge and water temperature modelling. Overall, realistic estimates were obtained at <span class="hlt">daily</span> time step for both river discharge (median normalized BIAS = 0.3; normalized RMSE = 1.2; r = 0.76) and water temperature (median BIAS = -0.3 °C; RMSE = 2.8 °C; r = 0.91) for the entire validation period, with similar performance during warm, dry periods. Simulated water temperatures are sensitive to headwater temperature, depending on resolution and flow velocity. A high sensitivity of water temperature to river discharge (thermal capacity) was found during warm, dry conditions. The modelling approach has potential to be used for risk analyses and studying impacts of climate change and other anthropogenic effects (e.g. thermal pollution, dams and reservoir regulation) on large rivers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">van Vliet, M. T. H.; Yearsley, J. R.; Franssen, W. H. P.; Ludwig, F.; Haddeland, I.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Kabat, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012HESS...16.4303V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coupled <span class="hlt">daily</span> streamflow and water temperature modelling in large river basins</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Realistic estimates of <span class="hlt">daily</span> streamflow and water temperature are required for effective management of water resources (e.g. for electricity and drinking water production) and freshwater ecosystems. Although hydrological and process-based water temperature modelling approaches have been successfully applied to small catchments and short time periods, much less work has been done at large spatial and temporal scales. We present a physically based modelling framework for <span class="hlt">daily</span> river discharge and water temperature simulations applicable to large river systems on a <span class="hlt">global</span> scale. Model performance was tested <span class="hlt">globally</span> at 1/2 × 1/2° spatial resolution and a <span class="hlt">daily</span> time step for the period 1971-2000. We made specific evaluations on large river basins situated in different hydro-climatic zones and characterized by different anthropogenic impacts. Effects of anthropogenic heat discharges on simulated water temperatures were incorporated by using <span class="hlt">global</span> gridded thermoelectric water use datasets and representing thermal discharges as point sources into the heat advection equation. This resulted in a significant increase in the quality of the water temperature simulations for thermally polluted basins (Rhine, Meuse, Danube and Mississippi). Due to large reservoirs in the Columbia which affect streamflow and thermal regimes, a reservoir routing model was used. This resulted in a significant improvement in the performance of the river discharge and water temperature modelling. Overall, realistic estimates were obtained at <span class="hlt">daily</span> time step for both river discharge (median normalized BIAS = 0.3; normalized RMSE = 1.2; r = 0.76) and water temperature (median BIAS = -0.3 °C; RMSE = 2.8 °C; r = 0.91) for the entire validation period, with similar performance during warm, dry periods. Simulated water temperatures are sensitive to headwater temperature, depending on resolution and flow velocity. A high sensitivity of water temperature to river discharge (thermal capacity) was found during warm, dry conditions. The modelling approach has potential to be used for risk analyses and studying impacts of climate change and other anthropogenic effects (e.g. thermal pollution, dams and reservoir regulation) on large rivers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">van Vliet, M. T. H.; Yearsley, J. R.; Franssen, W. H. P.; Ludwig, F.; Haddeland, I.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Kabat, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.9515H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multivariate stochastic generation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> streamflows considering climate change</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For the optimal planning and derivation of operation rules for multi-purpose reservoir systems very long time series of <span class="hlt">daily</span> streamflows are required. Stochastic streamflow models can provide these data. While stochastic generation of monthly time series is state of the art, the synthesis of <span class="hlt">daily</span> flows at multiple sites is still a challenging task. Recently, nonparametric k - nearest neighbor resampling techniques have been applied successfully for the generation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> streamflows at multiple sites. The objective of this study to employ k-nn resampling for the simulation of multivariate <span class="hlt">daily</span> streamflows under changed climate conditions. Observed <span class="hlt">daily</span> streamflows are resampled conditioned on observed and simulated climate variables from regional climate models considering past and future scenarios. The resampling is done in a three step-procedure: 1) annual or biannual flows for an index station representing the flow sum over all considered gauges are generated; 2) the flow sum is spatially disaggregated by resampling station flow proportions from observed data; 3) the individual annual/ biannual flows for all gauges are temporally disaggregated to <span class="hlt">daily</span> data by resampling <span class="hlt">daily</span> flow proportions. The method is applied for a reservoir system in the Harz mountains in Germany comprising five streamflow gauges with long <span class="hlt">daily</span> observations. Climate data from observations and from the regional climate models REMO and WETTREG are used for conditioning. The method is parsimonious, easy to understand and very fast. It simulates all observed statistics well and provides significant change signals concerning future flows. Problems are the restricted ability of the technique to model values not seen in the observations, which however concern only single extreme <span class="hlt">daily</span> and monthly values.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haberlandt, Uwe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22269367"> <span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Daily</span> recovery and well-being: an overview].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this article is to provide a literature review on <span class="hlt">daily</span> recovery and its effects on well-being. Specifically, we will discuss theories that help us understand the process of recovery and we will clarify how recovery and its potential outcomes have been conceptualized so far. Subsequently, we present empirical findings of diary studies addressing the activities that may facilitate or hinder <span class="hlt">daily</span> recovery. We conclude with an overall framework from which recovery can be understood, claiming that <span class="hlt">daily</span> recovery is an important moderator in the buffering process of the negative effects of job demands. PMID:22269367</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Demerouti, Evangelia; Sanz Vergel, Ana Isabel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3686135"> <span id="translatedtitle">Factors Associated with Growth in <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Smoking among Indigenous Adolescents</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">North American Indigenous adolescents smoke earlier, smoke more, and are more likely to become regular smokers as adults than youth from any other ethnic group yet we know very little about their early smoking trajectories. We use multilevel growth modeling across five waves of data from Indigenous adolescents (aged 10 to 13 years at Wave 1) to investigate factors associated with becoming a <span class="hlt">daily</span> smoker. Several factors, including number of peers who smoked at Wave 1 and meeting diagnostic criteria for major depressive episode and conduct disorder were associated with early <span class="hlt">daily</span> smoking. Only age and increases in the number of smoking peers were associated with increased odds of becoming a <span class="hlt">daily</span> smoker.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Whitbeck, Les B.; Hartshorn, Kelley J. Sittner; McQuillan, Julia; Crawford, Devan M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24402404"> <span id="translatedtitle">New <span class="hlt">daily</span> persistent headache and potential new therapeutic agents.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">New <span class="hlt">daily</span> persistent headache is a form of a chronic <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache with a unique temporal profile. Patients can recall the exact day when their headache started. It can be one of the most refractory types of headache to treat. Recent publications have highlighted different subtypes and heterogeneity in presentation. Referring to it as a syndrome versus a distinct disorder has also been suggested. Several different classes of medications have been used for the treatment, with mixed results. The underlying pathophysiology of new <span class="hlt">daily</span> persistent headache is unclear, but tumor necrosis factor may play a role. The clinical features, differential diagnosis and potential new therapeutic agents will be discussed. PMID:24402404</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Joshi, Shivang G; Mathew, Paul G; Markley, Herbert G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008EOSTr..89..420F"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> Environmental Solutions Require <span class="hlt">Global</span> Funding</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As members of the next generation of environmental scientists, we are committed to conducting solutions-oriented research on <span class="hlt">global</span> environmental problems. In addition to the highly visible problem of climate change, we face <span class="hlt">global</span> environmental threats such as biodiversity loss, worsening air quality, and limited food security and water availability. These threats do not stop at national borders. Research in these areas requires <span class="hlt">global</span> coordination and collaboration, and it would be best served by an equally <span class="hlt">global</span> funding infrastructure.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fry, Juliane</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59085538"> <span id="translatedtitle">In League: <span class="hlt">Global</span> Warming And <span class="hlt">Globalization</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">What relationship exists between the phenomena of <span class="hlt">global</span> warming and <span class="hlt">globalization</span>? How can a small grassroots organization promote green living and cultural food traditions through environmental education?\\u000aExamination of the relationship between <span class="hlt">global</span> warming and <span class="hlt">globalization</span> has required a process of basic research of pre-written texts; resulting in a theoretical analysis on selected journalism within this field of research. The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Allissa Beth Cloer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24554276"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development, validity, and reliability of the General Activities of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Living Scale: a multidimensional measure of activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living for older people.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective: To propose and evaluate the psychometric properties of a multidimensional measure of activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living (ADLs) based on the Katz and Lawton indices for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: In this study, 85 patients with MCI and 93 with AD, stratified by age (? 74 years, > 74 years), completed the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Geriatric Depression Scale, and their caregivers completed scales for ADLs. Construct validity (factor analysis), reliability (internal consistency), and criterion-related validity (receiver operating characteristic analysis and logistic regression) were assessed. Results: Three factors of ADL (self-care, domestic activities, and complex activities) were identified and used for item reorganization and for the creation of a new inventory, called the General Activities of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Living Scale (GADL). The components showed good internal consistency (> 0.800) and moderate (younger participants) or high (older participants) accuracy for the distinction between MCI and AD. An additive effect was found between the GADL complex ADLs and <span class="hlt">global</span> ADLs with the MMSE for the correct classification of younger patients. Conclusion: The GADL showed evidence of validity and reliability for the Brazilian elderly population. It may also play an important role in the differential diagnosis of MCI and AD. PMID:24554276</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paula, Jonas J de; Bertola, Laiss; Avila, Rafaela T de; Assis, Luciana de O; Albuquerque, Maicon; Bicalho, Maria A; Moraes, Edgar N de; Nicolato, Rodrigo; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22056202"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interfractional Target Variations for Partial Breast <span class="hlt">Irradiation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: In this work, we quantify the interfractional variations in the shape of the clinical target volume (CTV) by analyzing the <span class="hlt">daily</span> CT data acquired during CT-guided partial breast <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> (PBI) and compare the effectiveness of various repositioning alignment strategies considered to account for the variations. Methods and Materials: The <span class="hlt">daily</span> CT data for 13 breast cancer patients treated with PBI in either prone (10 patients) or supine (3 patients) with <span class="hlt">daily</span> kV CT guidance using CT on Rails (CTVision, Siemens, Malvern, PA) were analyzed. For approximately 25 points on the surface of the CTV, deformation vectors were calculated by means of deformable image registration and verified by visual inspection. These were used to calculate the distances along surface normals (DSN), which directly related to the required margin expansions for each point. The DSN values were determined for seven alignment methods based on volumetric imaging and also two-dimensional projections (portal imaging). Results: The margin expansion necessary to cover 99% of all points for all days was 2.7 mm when utilizing the alignment method based on deformation field data (the best alignment method). The center-of-mass based alignment yielded slightly worse results (a margin of 4.0 mm), and shifts obtained by operator placement (7.9 mm), two-dimensional-based methods (7.0-10.1 mm), and skin marks (13.9 mm) required even larger margin expansions. Target shrinkage was evident for most days by the negative values of DSN. Even with the best alignment, the range of DSN values could be as high as 7 mm, resulting in a large amount of normal tissue <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>, unless adaptive replanning is employed. Conclusion: The appropriate alignment method is important to minimize the margin requirement to cover the significant interfractional target deformations observed during PBI. The amount of normal tissue unnecessarily <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> is still not insignificant, and can be minimized if adaptive radiotherapy is applied.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ahunbay, Ergun E., E-mail: eahunbay@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Robbins, Jared; Christian, Robert; Godley, Andrew; White, Julia; Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49669764"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> mental health: <span class="hlt">Global</span> strengths and strategies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Global</span> mental health challenges sit at the frontiers of health care worldwide. The frequency of mental health disorders is increasing, and represents a large portion of the <span class="hlt">global</span> burden of human disease (DALYs). There are many impeding forces in delivering mental health care <span class="hlt">globally</span>. The knowledge of what mental health and its diseased states are limits the ability to seek</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Melvin G. McInnis; Sofia D. Merajver</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23000443"> <span id="translatedtitle">Low-dose gamma <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> of food protein increases its allergenicity in a chronic oral challenge.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Few chronic food protein models have described the relationship between allergenicity and the molecular structure of food protein after physical processing. The effect of ?-radiation on the structure of food protein was measured by fluorescence, circular dichroism and microcalorimetry. BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally sensitized and then given non-<span class="hlt">irradiated</span> and <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> Con-A by <span class="hlt">daily</span> gavage for 28days. The tendency to form insoluble amorphous aggregates and partially unfolded species was observed after <span class="hlt">irradiation</span>. The administration of non-<span class="hlt">irradiated</span> and <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> samples at low-dose significantly increased weight loss as well as plasma levels of eotaxin in animals repeatedly exposed to Con-A. Significant lymphocytic infiltrate filling completely the stroma of microvilli and tubular glands was observed in the small intestinal of the group given Con-A <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> at a low dose. This phenotype was not observed in animals treated with Con-A <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> at a high dose. PMID:23000443</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vaz, A F M; Souza, M P; Medeiros, P L; Melo, A M M A; Silva-Lucca, R A; Santana, L A; Oliva, M L V; Perez, K R; Cuccovia, I M; Correia, M T S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22291226"> <span id="translatedtitle">ELPIS-JP: a dataset of local-scale <span class="hlt">daily</span> climate change scenarios for Japan.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We developed a dataset of local-scale <span class="hlt">daily</span> climate change scenarios for Japan (called ELPIS-JP) using the stochastic weather generators (WGs) LARS-WG and, in part, WXGEN. The ELPIS-JP dataset is based on the observed (or estimated) <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather data for seven climatic variables (<span class="hlt">daily</span> mean, maximum and minimum temperatures; precipitation; solar radiation; relative humidity; and wind speed) at 938 sites in Japan and climate projections from the multi-model ensemble of <span class="hlt">global</span> climate models (GCMs) used in the coupled model intercomparison project (CMIP3) and multi-model ensemble of regional climate models form the Japanese downscaling project (called S-5-3). The capability of the WGs to reproduce the statistical features of the observed data for the period 1981-2000 is assessed using several statistical tests and quantile-quantile plots. Overall performance of the WGs was good. The ELPIS-JP dataset consists of two types of <span class="hlt">daily</span> data: (i) the transient scenarios throughout the twenty-first century using projections from 10 CMIP3 GCMs under three emission scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1) and (ii) the time-slice scenarios for the period 2081-2100 using projections from three S-5-3 regional climate models. The ELPIS-JP dataset is designed to be used in conjunction with process-based impact models (e.g. crop models) for assessment, not only the impacts of mean climate change but also the impacts of changes in climate variability, wet/dry spells and extreme events, as well as the uncertainty of future impacts associated with climate models and emission scenarios. The ELPIS-JP offers an excellent platform for probabilistic assessment of climate change impacts and potential adaptation at a local scale in Japan. PMID:22291226</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Iizumi, Toshichika; Semenov, Mikhail A; Nishimori, Motoki; Ishigooka, Yasushi; Kuwagata, Tsuneo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title26-vol18/pdf/CFR-2013-title26-vol18-sec301-6622-1.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">26 CFR 301.6622-1 - Interest compounded <span class="hlt">daily</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Underpayments § 301.6622-1 Interest compounded <span class="hlt">daily</span>. (a) General rule. Effective for interest accruing after December 31...December 31, 1982 â(1) In general. The unpaid interest (or other amount) that...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title27-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title27-vol2-sec70-94.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">27 CFR 70.94 - Interest compounded <span class="hlt">daily</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...ADMINISTRATION Collection of Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Interest § 70.94 Interest compounded <span class="hlt">daily</span>. (a) General rule. Effective for interest accruing after December 31, 1982, in computing the amount of...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE97641712"> <span id="translatedtitle">Automation of PUSPATI Triga reactor's <span class="hlt">daily</span> operation log book.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper discusses the computerization of nuclear reactor parameters, where the <span class="hlt">daily</span> reactor operation log book was produced automatically. It uses microprocessor 80386 based microcomputers, analog input interface cards, and MC5.1 programming language.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mohamad Idris Taib</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5433826"> <span id="translatedtitle">Possible <span class="hlt">daily</span> variation in the color of the blue ocean</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Possible <span class="hlt">daily</span> variations in the color of the blue ocean are inferred from the variations in the particulate organic carbon concentrations in an ocean layer (0-50 m) which should alter the respected refractance of incident solar radiation. (AIP)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Postma, H.; Spitzer, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9781406"> <span id="translatedtitle">Everyday stressors and gender differences in <span class="hlt">daily</span> distress.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article examines gender differences in psychological distress by assessing men's and women's experience of <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors and psychological distress in a sample of 166 married couples. Respondents completed a structured <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary each day over the course of 42 days. Results showed that women reported a higher prevalence of high distress days and a lower prevalence of distress-free days than men. Gender differences in <span class="hlt">daily</span> distress were attributable largely to women experiencing more onsets of distress episodes rather than being more likely to continue in a distress state from one day to subsequent days. Results from hierarchical linear models (HLM) indicated that the significant gender differences diminished after respondents' <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors were taken into account. Implications of these findings for gender role and rumination theories are discussed. PMID:9781406</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Almeida, D M; Kessler, R C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_145156.html"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Fish Oil Supplement May Not Help Your Heart</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Fish Oil Supplement May Not Help Your Heart: Studies ... March 17, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- People who take fish oil capsules may not be getting the heart- ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996AAS...188.3615L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span>, Plage and SOHO UV Images</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Calcium K and H alpha plage and sunspot area have been monitored using Big Bear Observatory images on the INTERNET since November of 1992. The purpose of the project is to determine the correlation of changing plage area and solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> changes. We also monitor changes in the K2 spec- tral index provided <span class="hlt">daily</span> from Sacramento Peak. With the recent launching of the SOHO satellite, we are able to monitor the plage in the He II 304 Angstroms UV image. This image is near the top of the chromosphere nar or just under the transition region. The images show limb brightening as expected. Since it is widely believed that short time scale changes in the UV may be the dominant cause for low amplitude solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> changes, the comparison of the "plage" ara in these UV images to those in conventional visible images should prove instructive.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lopresto, James C.; Manross, Kevin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/p583n20174177052.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling of <span class="hlt">daily</span> pan evaporation using partial least squares regression</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study presented the application of partial least squares regression (PLSR) in estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> pan evaporation by utilizing\\u000a the unique feature of PLSR in eliminating collinearity issues in predictor variables. The climate variables and <span class="hlt">daily</span> pan\\u000a evaporation data measured at two weather stations located near Elephant Butte Reservoir, New Mexico, USA and a weather station\\u000a located in Shanshan County, Xinjiang,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shalamu Abudu; ChunLiang Cui; J. Phillip King; Jimmy Moreno; A. Salim Bawazir</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/38430743"> <span id="translatedtitle">Once <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Sublingual Immunotherapy without Updosing – A New Treatment Schedule</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Treatment regimens with specific immunotherapy include updosing. Due to excellent tolerance of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT), it was hypothesized that administration of once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> SLIT could be initiated safely without updosing. The objective was to evaluate tolerability of SLIT administered once <span class="hlt">daily</span> without updosing. Methods: 135 patients suffering from allergic rhinitis with\\/without asthma were included in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. Rodriguez; M. Boquete; M. D. Ibáñez; F. de la Torre-Martínez; A. I. Tabar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2650501"> <span id="translatedtitle">Once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> Dosing of Gentamicin in Obstetrics and Gynecology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Gentamicin, an aminoglycoside with broad antimicrobial activity, is commonly used in both obstetrics and gynecology. Traditional dosing regimens for gentamicin have called for 3 times <span class="hlt">daily</span> dosing, but recent insights into the pharmacodynamics of the drug have led to multiple studies of once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> dosing regimens. Many studies have demonstrated efficacy, safety, and economy of the 24-hour dosing interval, resulting in recommendations that this become the standard for aminoglycoside administration. However, because of the unique considerations for drug administration in pregnant and postpartum women, the once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> dosing regimens have not been widely adopted. Additional studies in pregnant and postpartum women have demonstrated therapeutic noninferiority, no increase in adverse events, and significant cost savings with once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> dosing versus 3 times <span class="hlt">daily</span> dosing of gentamicin. We review the literature and present rationale based on multiple-controlled studies supporting single-<span class="hlt">daily</span> dosing of gentamicin, 5?mg/kg/d actual body weight, for many common obstetrics-gynecology infections.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">WARD, KRISTY; THEILER, REGAN N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22795386"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> hassles reported by Dutch multiple sclerosis patients.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is growing evidence for the association between stress and relapse risk in multiple sclerosis (MS). The current study focuses on <span class="hlt">daily</span> hassles, which by their chronic and accumulating nature can cause considerable psychosocial stress. The main aim was to investigate the frequency, associated distress and type of <span class="hlt">daily</span> hassles encountered by Dutch MS patients from a large community-based sample. We further examined factors associated with high levels of psychosocial stress. Questionnaires concerning demographics, disease characteristics, physical functioning, <span class="hlt">daily</span> hassles, fatigue, depression and anxiety were completed by 718 MS patients. Three patients younger than 18 were excluded, resulting in 715 patients. Compared with published norm data, more than 50% of the participants reported a high number of <span class="hlt">daily</span> hassles (57.5%) and high levels of associated distress (55.7%). Frequently mentioned <span class="hlt">daily</span> hassles concern personal functioning and social developments. A logistic regression model revealed that being female, being younger, having a higher educational level, using benzodiazepines, exhibiting more symptoms of anxiety, and a higher physical impact of fatigue were all independently associated with high levels of psychosocial stress. Our findings may alert clinicians of the high prevalence and impact of <span class="hlt">daily</span> hassles in MS and underline the need to incorporate stress and anxiety management strategies in (psycho)therapeutic interventions. PMID:22795386</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">van der Hiele, Karin; Spliethoff-Kamminga, Noëlle G; Ruimschotel, Rob P; Middelkoop, Huub A; Visser, Leo H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6253156"> <span id="translatedtitle">Normal tissue response to fractionated heat and X-<span class="hlt">irradiation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Researchers used the mouse tail to examine normal tissue tolerance to fractionated heat and X-<span class="hlt">irradiation</span>. Variables examined were level of heat, dose/fraction, total dose, fraction interval, and heat followed by X-<span class="hlt">irradiation</span> versus <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> followed by heat. With low level heat (42 degrees C, 1 hr), high total dose (6,000 rad) with high dose/fraction was needed to induce necrosis. In contrast, high heat level (44 degrees C, 30 min) induced necrosis with 1,000 rad (200 rad <span class="hlt">daily</span>). However, the high temperature could be tolerated with a low dose/fraction and an increased interval between fractions. In general, with a higher temperature, heat before X-<span class="hlt">irradiation</span> was more damaging than the reverse; the slopes for incidence of necrosis were steep. More work is required for the establishment of threshold doses and slopes of response for these treatment sequences.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Feingold, S.M.; Hahn, E.W.; Kim, J.H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2940649"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prolonged survival for patients with newly diagnosed, inoperable glioblastoma with 3-times <span class="hlt">daily</span> ultrafractionated radiation therapy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ultrafractionation of radiation therapy is a novel regimen consisting of <span class="hlt">irradiating</span> tumors several times <span class="hlt">daily</span>, delivering low doses (<0.75 Gy) at which hyperradiosensitivity occurs. We recently demonstrated the high efficiency of ultrafractionated radiotherapy (RT) on glioma xenografts and report here on a phase II clinical trial to determine the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of an ultrafractionation regimen in patients with newly and inoperable glioblastoma (GBM). Thirty-one patients with histologically proven, newly diagnosed, and unresectable supratentorial GBM (WHO grade IV) were enrolled. Three <span class="hlt">daily</span> doses of 0.75 Gy were delivered at least 4 hours apart, 5 days per week over 6–7 consecutive weeks (90 fractions for a total of 67.5 Gy). Conformal <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> included the tumor bulk with a margin of 2.5 cm. The primary end points were safety, toxicity, and tolerability, and the secondary end points were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Multivariate analysis was used to compare the OS and PFS with the EORTC-NCIC trial 26981-22981/CE.3 of RT alone vs radiation therapy and temozolomide (TMZ). The ultrafractionation radiation regimen was safe and well tolerated. No acute Grade III and/or IV CNS toxicity was observed. Median PFS and OS from initial diagnosis were 5.1 and 9.5 months, respectively. When comparing with the EORTC/NCIC trial, in both PFS and OS multivariate analysis, ultrafractionation showed superiority over RT alone, but not over RT and TMZ. The ultrafractionation regimen is safe and may prolong the survival of patients with GBM. Further investigation is warranted and a trial associating ultra-fractionation and TMZ is ongoing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beauchesne, Patrick; Bernier, Valerie; Carnin, Charlotte; Taillandier, Luc; Djabri, Mohamed; Martin, Laurent; Michel, Xavier; Maire, Jean-Philippe; Khalil, Toufic; Kerr, Christine; Gorlia, Thierry; Stupp, Roger; Pedeux, Remy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910068669&hterms=ocean+wave+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Docean%2Bwave%2Benergy"> <span id="translatedtitle">Energetics of <span class="hlt">global</span> ocean tides from Geosat altimetry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present paper focuses on resonance and energetics of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> tides, especially in the southern ocean, the distribution of gravitational power input of <span class="hlt">daily</span> and half-<span class="hlt">daily</span> tides, and comparison with other estimates of <span class="hlt">global</span> dissipation rates. The present <span class="hlt">global</span> tidal maps, derived from Geosat altimetry, compare favorably with ground truth data at about the same rms level as the models of Schwiderski (1983), and are slightly better in lunar than in solar tides. Diurnal admittances clearly show Kelvin wave structure in the southern ocean and confirm the resonant mode of Platzman (1984) at 28.5 + or - 0.1 hr with an apparent Q of about 4. Driving energy is found to enter dominantly in the North Pacific for the <span class="hlt">daily</span> tides and is strongly peaked in the tropical oceans for the half-<span class="hlt">daily</span> tides. <span class="hlt">Global</span> rates of working on all major tide constituents except S2 agree well with independent results from analyses of gravity through satellite tracking. Comparison at S2 is improved by allowing for the air tide in gravitational results but suggests deficiencies in all solar tide models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cartwright, David E.; Ray, Richard D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48063072"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adaptation to <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Stress Among Mothers of Children With an Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Positive Affect</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Raising a child with an autism spectrum disorder is a challenging experience that can impact maternal well-being. Using a\\u000a <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary methodology, this study investigates (1) the relationship between stress and negative affect, and (2) the role\\u000a of <span class="hlt">daily</span> positive affect as a protective factor in the stress and negative affect relationship. Results from hierarchical\\u000a linear models revealed that higher</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Naomi V. EkasThomas; Thomas L. Whitman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6144858"> <span id="translatedtitle">Plant responses to UV-B <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> are modified by UV-A <span class="hlt">irradiation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The increasing UV-B radiation (0.28-0.32 [mu]m) reaching the earth's surface is an important concern. Plant response in artificial UV-B <span class="hlt">irradiation</span> studies has been difficult to assess, especially regarding photosynthetic pigments, because the fluorescent lamps also produce UV-A (0.32-0.40[mu]m) radiation which is involved with blue light in pigment synthesis. Both UV-A and UV-B <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> were controlled in two glasshouse experiments conducted under relatively high PPFD (> 1300[mu]mol m[sup [minus]2] s[sup [minus]1]) at two biologically effective <span class="hlt">daily</span> UV-B <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> (10.7 and 14.1 kJ m[sup [minus]2]); UV-A <span class="hlt">irradiances</span> were matched in Controls ([approximately]5, 9 kJ m[sup [minus]2]). Normal, chlorophyll-deficient, and flavonoid-deficient isolines of soybean cultivar, Clark, were utilized. Many growth/ pigment variables exhibited a statistically significant interaction between light quality and quantity: in general, UV-A radiation moderated the damaging effects of UV-B radiation. Regression analyses demonstrated that a single negative function related photosynthetic efficiency to carotenoid Content (r[sup 2] =0.73, P[le]0.001), implying a [open quotes]cost[close quotes] in maintaining carotenoids for photoprotection. A stomatal limitation to photosynthesis was verified and carotenoid content was correlated with UV-B absorbing compound levels, in UV-B <span class="hlt">irradiated</span> plants.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Middleton, E.M.; Teramura, A.H. (NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States) Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC21B0881W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Data Products at the LASP Interactive Solar <span class="hlt">IRradiance</span> Datacenter (LISIRD)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) has developed the LASP Interactive Solar <span class="hlt">IRradiance</span> Datacenter (LISIRD) to provide access to a comprehensive set of solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> measurements. LISIRD has recently been updated to serve many new datasets and models, including data from SORCE, UARS-SOLSTICE, SME, and TIMED-SEE, and model data from the Flare <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> Spectral Model (FISM). The user interface emphasizes web-based interactive visualizations, allowing users to explore and compare this data before downloading it for analysis. The data provided covers a wavelength range from soft X-ray (XUV) at 0.1 nm up to the near infrared (NIR) at 2400 nm, as well as wavelength-independent Total Solar <span class="hlt">Irradiance</span> (TSI). Combined data from the SORCE, TIMED-SEE, UARS-SOLSTICE, and SME instruments provide continuous coverage from 1981 to the present, while Lyman-alpha measurements, FISM <span class="hlt">daily</span> data, and TSI models date from the 1940s to the present. LISIRD will also host Glory TSI data as part of the SORCE data system. This poster provides an overview of the LISIRD system, summarizes the data sets currently available, describes future plans and capabilities, and provides details on how to access solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> data through LISIRD’s interfaces.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ware Dewolfe, A.; Wilson, A.; Lindholm, D. M.; Pankratz, C. K.; Snow, M. A.; Woods, T. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2089702"> <span id="translatedtitle">Improved <span class="hlt">global</span> sea surface temperature analyses using optimum interpolation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The new NOAA operational <span class="hlt">global</span> sea surface temperature (SST) analysis is described. The analyses use 7 days of in situ (ship and buoy) and satellite SST. These analyses are produced weekly and <span class="hlt">daily</span> using optimum interpolation (OI) on a 1[degrees] grid. The OI technique requires the specification of data and analysis error statistics. These statistics are derived and show that</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richard W. Reynolds; Thomas M. Smith</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26456102"> <span id="translatedtitle">Correlations for the estimation of hourly <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Empirical correlations for estimating the ratios of monthly mean hourly to <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">global</span> solar radiation received on horizontal surfaces have been compared and their validities tested. The correlation of Collares-Pereira and Rabl [Solar Energy, 22, (1979) 155] yields the best results, while the correlations of Liu and Jordan [Solar Energy, 4 (1960) 19], and Garg and Garg [Solar & Wind</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. K. Srivastava; O. P. Singh; G. N. Pandey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57478316"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diffuse, <span class="hlt">global</span> and extra-terrestrial solar radiation for Singapore</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, equations have been developed to estimate diffuse fraction of the hourly, <span class="hlt">daily</span> and monthly <span class="hlt">global</span> insolation on a horizontal surface. These correlations are expressed in terms of Kd, the ratio of diffuse-to-total radiation, and KT, the clearness index. The hourly correlation equations, show a fairly similar trend to that of Orgill and Hollands (1) and Spencer (5)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. N. A. Hawlader</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1018269.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">cMOOCs and <span class="hlt">Global</span> Learning: An Authentic Alternative</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Massive open online courses (MOOCs) continue to attract press coverage as they change almost <span class="hlt">daily</span> in their format, number of registrations, and potential for credentialing. An enticing aspect of the MOOC is its <span class="hlt">global</span> reach. In this paper, we will focus on a type of MOOC called a cMOOC because it is based on the theory of connectivism and fits…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yeager, Carol; Hurley-Dasgupta, Betty; Bliss, Catherine A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2910133"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Medication Use in Nursing Home Residents with Advanced Dementia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objectives Many medications commonly used to treat chronic conditions have unclear benefits for nursing home (NH) residents with advanced dementia. This study describes the pattern and factors associated with <span class="hlt">daily</span> medication use in this population. Design, Setting, Participants Residents with advanced dementia (N=323) from 22 Boston-area NHs were followed prospectively for 18 months. Measurements Data from residents’ records were used to determine the number or <span class="hlt">daily</span> medications, specific drugs prescribed, and use of drugs deemed ‘never appropriate’ in advanced dementia. Resident characteristics associated with the use of more <span class="hlt">daily</span> medications and drugs deemed inappropriate were examined. Results Residents were prescribed a mean of 5.9 ± 3.0 <span class="hlt">daily</span> medications, and 37.5% received at least one medication considered ‘never appropriate’ in advanced dementia. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (15.8%) and lipid-lowering agents (12.1%) were the most common inappropriate drugs. Twenty-eight percent of residents took antipsychotics <span class="hlt">daily</span>. Modest reductions of most <span class="hlt">daily</span> medications only occurred during the last week of life. Factors independently associated with taking more <span class="hlt">daily</span> medications included older age, male, non-white, dementia not due Alzheimer’s, better cognition, cardiovascular disease, acute illness, and hospice referral. Factors independently associated with greater likelihood of taking inappropriate medications included male, shorter NH stay, better functional status, and diabetes, while a do-not-hospitalize order was associated with a lower likelihood. Conclusion Questionably beneficial medications are common in advanced dementia, even as death approaches. Several characteristics can help identify residents at risk for greater medication burden. Medication use in advanced dementia should be tailored to the goals of care.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tjia, Jennifer; Rothman, Margaret R.; Kiely, Dan K.; Shaffer, Michele L.; Holmes, Holly M.; Sachs, Greg A.; Mitchell, Susan L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35289242"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Global</span> supply chain management</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ability of organizations to effectively compete in the <span class="hlt">global</span> marketplace is contingent on identifying and selecting an adequate number of qualified <span class="hlt">global</span> managers. Nowhere is the shortage of managerial talent more evident than in the management of <span class="hlt">global</span> supply chains. The complex and vexing set of problems facing <span class="hlt">global</span> supply chain managers makes the task of selecting an adequate</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael G Harvey; R. Glenn Richey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED304940.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Attainable <span class="hlt">Global</span> Perspective.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Concordia College (Minnesota) has established a <span class="hlt">global</span> studies curriculum that encourages the development of a <span class="hlt">global</span> perspective in future business leaders. <span class="hlt">Global</span> perspective is seen as having five dimensions: (1) perspective consciousness; (2) "state of the planet" awareness; (3) cross-cultural awareness; (4) knowledge of <span class="hlt">global</span> dynamics; and…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">de Castaneda, Viann Pedersen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1070K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exogenous model of <span class="hlt">global</span> tectonics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a new model of lithosphere-plates movement based on three pillars: 1) The thermoelastic wave, which was described first of all by Berger (1975), 2) The ratcheting mechanism, which was described for asphalt buckling and/or lithosphere evolution by J. Croll (2006, 2007), and 3) the solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> energy, as quantified by IPCC (2007). The thermal wave, which is generated by solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> on the surface, penetrates into depth, and subsurface rocks are expanded. The deformation spreads to the surrounding of expanded rocks and to the depths. Such elastic wave is called thermoelastic wave and has dominant periods of one day, one year, (short) climate periods (AMO, PDO and other oscillations), Milankovich periods (14000 - 120000 years) and longer climate periods. This deformation concerns prevalently the continental lithosphere and not lithosphere covered by ocean or thick layers of unconsolidated sediments. This non-uniform deformation of continental and/or oceanic plates leads to opening of the cracks, faults and/or rifts during the period of continental contraction. The ratchets can fulfil such free spaces and openings. During the next period of continental expansion, such faults, cracks or rifts cannot reach the same positions as before, which leads to increasing stress, which accumulates on the discontinuities especially between continental and oceanic crust (Kalenda et al. 2012). Such process can accumulate a portion of the solar energy reaching the solid surface rocks. Then we can explain the whole energy budget of seismic and volcanic activity (1022 J/year) only by solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span>. Only 4 % of total solar <span class="hlt">irradiance</span> of the Earth's surface (1024 J/year) is enough to cover all budget of lithosphere plate movement. No other resources are necessary. Because this new model of the lithosphere plate movement is not accepted at that moment by the mainstream, it is necessary to publish it in the section Geoethics, as a one of the examples of the behaviour of the Science as a whole. References Berger, J. (1975): A Note on Thermoelastic Strains and Tilts, 1975, J. Geophys.Res., 80, pp. 274-277. Croll, J.G.A. (2006): From asphalt to the Arctic: new insights into thermo-mechanical ratcheting processes. III Int. Conf. On Computational Mechanics. Lisbon, Portugal, 5-8 June. Croll, J.G.A. (2007): A new hypothesis for Earth lithosphere evolution. New Concepts in <span class="hlt">Global</span> Tectonics Newsletter, no. 45, December, 2007, 34-51. IPCC (2007): IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007 (AR4). http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_and_data_reports.shtml Kalenda P. et al. (2012): Tilts, <span class="hlt">global</span> tectonics and earthquake prediction. SWB, London, 247pp.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kalenda, Pavel; Wandrol, Ivo; Kopf, Tomáš; Frydrýšek, Karel; Neumann, Libor; Procházka, Václav; Ost?ihanský, Lubor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fordham.edu/academics/programs_at_fordham_/psychology/yip/pdf/kiang_et_al_2006.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ethnic identity and the <span class="hlt">daily</span> psychological well-being of adolescents from Mexican and Chinese backgrounds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Protective effects of ethnic identity on <span class="hlt">daily</span> psychological well-being were examined in a sample of 415 ninth graders from Mexican and Chinese backgrounds. Utilizing <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary assessments and multilevel modeling, adolescents with a greater regard for their ethnic group exhibited greater levels of <span class="hlt">daily</span> happiness and less <span class="hlt">daily</span> anxiety averaged over the 2-week study period. Ethnic regard moderated the <span class="hlt">daily</span></p> <div class="credits">