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1

The frequency distribution of daily global irradiation at Kumasi  

SciTech Connect

Cumulative frequency distribution curves (CDC) for daily global irradiation on the horizontal produced by Liu and Jordan in 1963 have until recently been considered to have universal validity. Results obtained by Saunier et al. in 1987 and Ideriah and Suleman in 1989 for two tropical locations, Ibadan in Nigeria and Bangkok in Thailand, respectively, have thrown into question the universal validity of the Liu and Jordan generalized CDC. Saunier et al., in particular, showed that their results disagreed with the generalized CDC mainly because of differences in the values of the maximum clearness index (Kmax), as well as the underlying probability density functions. Consequently, they proposed two expressions for determining Kmax and probability densities in tropical locations. This paper presents the results of statistical analysis of daily global irradiation for Kumasi, Ghana, also a tropical location. The results show that the expressions of Saunier et al. provide a better description of the observations than the generalized CDC and, in particular, the empirical equation for Kmax may be valid for Kumasi. Furthermore, the results show that the values of the minimum clearness index (Kmin) for Kumasi are much higher than the generally accepted value of 0.05 for overcast sky conditions. A comparison of the results for Kumasi and Ibadan shows that there is satisfactory agreement when the values of Kmax and Kmin are comparable; in cases where there are discrepancies in the Kmax and Kmin values, the CDC also disagree. 13 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Akuffo, F.O.; Brew-Hammond, A. (Univ. of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana))

1993-02-01

2

Eugene, Or. 1998 Daily Global Irradiance 1 31 61 91 121 151 181 211 241 271 301 331 361  

E-print Network

Eugene, Or. 1998 Daily Global Irradiance 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 1 31 61 91 121 151 181 211 241 271 301 331 361 Year Day GlobalIrradianceWhr/m2 perDay Eugene, Or. 1998 Daily Beam Day BeamIrradianceWhr/m2 perDay #12;Eugene, Or. 1998 Daily Diffuse Irradiance 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8

Oregon, University of

3

COMPARISON OF METHODOLOGIES TO ESTIMATE DIRECT NORMAL IRRADIATION FROM DAILY VALUES OF GLOBAL  

E-print Network

-to-diffuse decomposition model is also explored trough the use of the Erbs model [2]. 2. Database Solar radiation Sevilla (Spain). Phone: (+34) 954487233. Fax: (+34) 954 487233. E-mail: saramt@esi.us.es 2 Solar Thermal the results. Keywords: solar, irradiation, direct, methodologies, TAG, decomposition models. 1. Introduction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

4

Global Daily Reference ET Modeling and Evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate and reliable Evapotranspiration (ET) data sets are crucial in regional water and energy balance studies. Due to the complex instrumentation requirements, actual ET values are generally estimated from reference ET values by adjustment factors using coefficients for water stress and vegetation conditions, commonly referred to as crop coefficients. Until recently, the modeling of reference ET has been solely based on important weather variables collected from weather stations that are generally located on selected agro-climatic locations. Since 2000, NOAA's Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) has been producing 6-hourly climate parameter data sets of the input meteorological variables used to calculate daily reference ET for the whole globe at 1 degree spatial resolution. USGS at the Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) has been producing daily reference ET since 2000 and the results have been used for a variety of models for drought and stream flow monitoring all over the world in an operational basis. With the increasing availability of station-based reference ET estimates over the internet, we evaluated the GDAS-based reference ET estimates using data from the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS). Daily CMIS reference ET estimates from over 120 stations were compared with GDAS-based reference ET at different spatial and temporal scales using the 2004 data. Despite the large difference in spatial scale (point vs ~100 km grid) between the two data sets, the correlations between station-based ET and GDAS-ET were very high, exceeding 0.90 on a daily-basis to more than 0.98 on time scales of over 10 days. The effect of elevation in the reference ET estimation at a coarse spatial scale was also investigated. Both the temporal and spatial correspondences in trend/pattern and magnitudes between the two data sets were satisfactory, suggesting the reliability of using GDAS parameter based reference ET for regional water and energy balance studies in many parts of the world.

Senay, G. B.; Verdin, J. P.; Lietzow, R.

2005-12-01

5

GHCN Daily: A Global Dataset for Climate Extremes Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) Daily dataset is designed to facilitate climate extremes research on the global scale. The dataset contains daily temperature and precipitation time series for over 15,000 stations worldwide, with about 10,000 extending back to 1950 and several thousand being updated daily. Both historical and real-time GHCN data undergo a suite of two dozen rigorous quality

R. Vose; M. Menne; I. Durre; B. Gleason

2007-01-01

6

Mars Daily Global Maps and Animations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) has been taking global map swaths of Mars using its red and blue wide angle cameras every two hours since March 1999. We have processed the global map swaths taken from June to August 1999 which correspond to the end of the northern summer (150 < Ls < 185), and made them

H. Wang; A. P. Ingersoll

2000-01-01

7

Fuzzy Sets Theory Applied for Computing Global Solar Irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new model to estimate daily global solar irradiation via air temperature data developed inside Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy approach is reported. A critical assessment of the model performance and limitations is conducted, overall results demonstrating a reasonable level of accuracy. The model uses as input only the daily air temperature extremes, worldwide the most available meteorological parameters, which greatly increases its area of application.

St. Boata, R.; Paulescu, M.; Tulcan-Paulescu, E.; Gravila, P.

2011-10-01

8

Influence of lunar phase on daily global temperatures  

SciTech Connect

A newly available data set of daily satellite-derived, lower-tropospheric global temperature anomalies provides an opportunity to assess the influence of lunar phase on planetary temperature. These results reveal a statistically significant 0.02 K modulation between new moon and full moon, with the warmest daily global temperatures over a synodic month coincident with the occurrence of the full moon. Spectral analysis of the daily temperature record confirms the presence of a periodicity that matches the lunar synodic (29-53-day) cycle. The precision of the satellite-based daily temperature record allows verification that the moon exerts a discernible influence on the short-term, global temperature record. 25 refs., 2 figs.

Balling, R.C. Jr.; Cerveny, R.S. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

1995-03-10

9

Modeling monthly mean variation of the solar global irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monthly mean variation of the solar global reaching the Earth's surface has been characterized at a global level by a regression model. This model considers the monthly variation itself (to different horizons and even the maximum annual variation) as the study variable, and it is applied without using data corresponding to measured meteorological variable. Two explicative variables have been used, the variation of the extraterrestrial irradiation and the variation of the clear sky global horizontal irradiation. The work has been carried out from datasets including average global daily solar irradiation for each month of the year measured on the ground. The model quality has been proven to be very dependent of the temporal variation considered, in such a way that higher variations, that is to say, higher distances between months, lead to an improvement in the model outcomes.

Vindel, J. M.; Polo, J.; Zarzalejo, L. F.

2015-01-01

10

Daily total global solar radiation modeling from several meteorological data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the modeling of the daily total global solar radiation in Adana city of Turkey using multi-linear regression (MLR), multi-nonlinear regression (MNLR) and feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) methods. Several daily meteorological data, i.e., measured sunshine duration, air temperature and wind speed and date of the year, i.e., monthly and daily, were used as independent variables to the MLR, MNLR and ANN models. In order to determine the relationship between the total global solar radiation and other meteorological data, and also to obtain the best independent variables, the MLR and MNLR analyses were performed with the "Stepwise" method in the Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program. Thus, various models consisting of the combination of the independent variables were constructed and the best input structure was investigated. The performances of all models in the training and testing data sets were compared with the measured daily global solar radiation values. The obtained results indicated that the ANN method was better than the other methods in modeling daily total global solar radiation. For the ANN model, mean absolute error (MAE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), correlation coefficient ( R) and coefficient of determination ( R 2) for the training/testing data set were found to be 0.89/1.00 MJ/m2 day, 7.88/9.23%, 0.9824/0.9751, and 0.9651/0.9508, respectively.

Bilgili, Mehmet; Ozgoren, Muammer

2011-05-01

11

Hematopoietic tissue repair under chronic low daily dose irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The capacity of the hematopoietic system to repair constantly accruing cellular damage under chronic, low daily dose gamma irradiation is essential for the maintenance of a functional hematopoietic system, and, in turn, long term survival. In certain individuals, however, such continuous cycles of damage and repair provide an essential inductive environment for selected types of hematopathologies, e.g., myeloid leukemia (ML). We have been studying temporal and causal relationships between hematopoietic capacity, associated repair functions, and propensities for hematologic disease in canines under variable levels of chronic radiation stress (0.3{minus}26.3 cGy d{sup {minus}1}). Results indicate that the maximum exposure rate tolerated by the hematopoietic system is highly individual-specific and is based largely on the degree to which repair capacity, and, in turn, hematopoietic restoration, is augmented under chronic exposure. In low-tolerance individuals (prone to aplastic anemia, subgroup (1), the failure to augment basic m-pair functions seemingly results in a progressive accumulation of genetic and cellular damage within vital progenitorial marrow compartments particularly marked within erythroid compartments. that results in loss of reproductive capacity and ultimately in collapse of the hematopoietic system. The high-tolerance individuals (radioaccomodated and either prone- or not prone to ML, subgroup 2 & 3 appear to minimize the accumulating damage effect of daily exposures by extending repair functions, which preserves reproductive integrity and fosters regenerative hematopoietic responses. As the strength of the regenerative response manifests the extent of repair augmentation, the relatively strong response of high- tolerance individuals progressing to patent ML suggests an insufficiency of repair quality rather than repair quantity.

Seed, T.M.

1994-12-01

12

Development of energy model based on total daily irradiation and maximum ambient temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

To predict the energy produced by photovoltaic modules under certain meteorological conditions, an energy model can be used. Existing energy models need parameters that are not always available. In this study, an energy model based on regression analysis of total daily irradiation and maximum daily ambient temperature is developed. This model is able to predict daily module energy based on

E. L Meyer; E. E van Dyk

2000-01-01

13

A gridded global data set of daily temperature and precipitation for terrestrial biospheric modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first global terrestrial gridded data set of the daily average and range of temperature and daily precipitation has been developed, intended for use in terrestrial biospheric modeling. Data for the year 1987 are shown to illustrate our methodology. Daily station data, primarily from the World Meteorological Organization global synoptic surface network of stations, have been extensively quality checked and

Stephen C. Piper; Elisabeth F. Stewart

1996-01-01

14

Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers  

SciTech Connect

We evaluated the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer. One minute averages of 3-second data for 12 months from the test instrument measurements were compared with the computed reference data set. Combined uncertainty in the computed reference irradiance is 1.8% {+-} 0.5%. Total uncertainty in the pyranometer comparisons is {+-}2.5%. We show mean percent difference between reference global irradiance and test pyranometer 1 minute data as a function of zenith angle, and percent differences between daily totals for the reference and test irradiances as a function of day number. We offer no explicit conclusion about the performance of instrument models, as a general array of applications with a wide range of instrumentation and accuracy requirements could be addressed with any of the radiometers.

Myers, D.; Wilcox, S. M.

2009-01-01

15

Reproducibility of mantle irradiation with daily imaging films  

SciTech Connect

Daily mantle imaging films were reviewed to evaluate the accuracy of daily treatments for 28 de novo patients with Hodgkin's disease treated with curative intent between September 1978 and September 1983. Each film was compared with the original simulation film by three independent observers. Each observer graded each film for accuracy in the superior mediastinal, axillary, and inferior mediastinal areas and for overall conformity to the treatment plan. Grades ranged from 1 to 3: grade 1 denoted accuracy within +/- 0.5 cm of the treatment plan, grade 2 denoted minor deviations greater than 0.5 cm but with no tumor or prophylactic treatment areas shielded, and grade 3 denoted an unacceptable setup. The results in 28 patients (1,186 films) showed that 84% of the films were within 0.5 cm of original plan, 15% had minor deviations, and 1% were considered unacceptable. Three patients in the study developed recurrence of Hodgkin's disease in the chest. In one of these patients, 4 of 40 films were unacceptable, but recurrence was in lung parenchyma in an area not designated for treatment. Errors in treatment setup in this small sample were not a factor in the likelihood of disease recurrence in the chest. Daily imaging films have helped decrease the number of minor deviations and unacceptable setups, compared with previous experiences.

Taylor, B.W. Jr.; Mendenhall, N.P.; Million, R.R. (Univ. of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville (USA))

1990-07-01

16

Calculation of direct normal irradiation from global horizontal irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) systems only work with the Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI), so a knowledge of DNI data is required for the design and evaluation of these kinds of systems. DNI is not always measured at ground meteorological stations due to equipment costs. In recent years, several spatial databases that estimate DNI from satellite data have been developed. These databases are a very useful tool for CPV applications. However, the databases present uncertainty and provide different values of DNI. This lack of DNI data and the uncertainty of available data contrast with the availability of reliable global horizontal irradiation data, which is easy to find or measure. In this paper, a simple procedure for estimating DNI from global horizontal irradiation is presented. It does not try to improve the existing methods, but meets the basic requirements for the analysis of CPV systems. The method can be easily implemented in a spreadsheet or in computer programs in renewable energy and its accuracy is similar than that of the existing databases.

Rodrigo, Pedro; Pérez-Higueras, Pedro J.; Almonacid, Florencia; Hontoria, Leocadio; Fernández, Eduardo F.; Rus, Catalina; Fernández, Juan I.; Gómez, Pedro; Almonacid, Gabino

2012-10-01

17

Evaluation of SUNY satellite-to-irradiance model performance using ECMWF GEMS daily aerosol optical depth reanalysis data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current version of the State University of New York (SUNY) radiative transfer model (RTM) uses climatological monthly averages derived from a National Renewable Energy Labs (NREL) gridded dataset to parameterize aerosol optical depth (AOD), water vapor and ozone. This is mostly due to the limited availability of high spatially and temporally resolved observations. Several global chemical transport models are analyzed and compared in depth to determine which daily AOD dataset should be implemented into the SUNY Model. After thorough comparison, the chemical transport model chosen was the Global and regional Earth-system Monitoring using satellite and in-situ data (GEMS) model developed by the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Using daily AOD values instead of monthly climatological values, the SUNY Model better captures events of extreme aerosol loadings, which greatly improves the accuracy in calculations of direct normal irradiance (DNI) and to a lesser extent, global horizontal irradiance (GHI). In clear-sky conditions with the sun directly overhead, a change in AOD from 0.1 to 0.5 is found to cause a 55% (20%) decrease in DNI (GHI) for Desert Rock, Nevada in January. A calibration scheme is applied to the daily GEMS AOD reanalysis data. For each site, the monthly means of the GEMS daily AOD are corrected by a factor to match the currently used monthly climatological AOD in order to avoid large errors caused by changing the magnitude of the monthly average AOD. The performance of the SUNY model improved significantly for many of the stations analyzed in this work after applying the daily-calibrated GEMS AOD. The Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) was the most notable statistical improvement, which measures the model’s precision compared to the observed measurements from a ground station, and many other statistical improvements are also evident. All 7 SURFRAD locations showed improvements in DNI RMSE after using the calibrated GEMS daily AOD compared to the monthly climatological AOD values currently used. On average, the mean bias error decreased significantly for all SURFRAD stations as well.

Itterly, Kyle F.

18

Study of the division of global irradiance into direct beam and diffuse irradiance at seven Canadian sites  

SciTech Connect

Canadian hourly global and diffuse irradiation data and associated daily surface meterological data of humidity, temperature and snow depth for the years 1977-1984 are analyzed. These data have been measured at Edmonton, Goose Bay, Montreal, Port Hardy, Resolute, Toronto and Winnipeg. Hourly values of the clearness index k{sub t} and diffuse index k{sub d} are sorted into bivariate histograms according to their numerical values. Different histograms are established for different ranges of the three variables: solar elevation, atmospheric precipitable water, and snow depth for each station. Properties of the different histograms are compared using standard statistical procedures. It is found that the division of global irradiation into direct beam and diffuse irradiation is correlated with the four variables k{sub t}, precipitable water, solar elevation, and snow depth. It is also found that many, but not all, of the differences between data from the same station at different times and between different stations can be attributed to conditions associated with differences in these four variables. The data show evidence that the division of global irradiation into direct and diffuse irradiation can depend upon the properties of the clouds beyond how these clouds are characterized by the four variables. 37 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

Garrison, J.; Sahami, K. [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States)] [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States)

1995-12-31

19

Retrieving daily global solar radiation from routine climate variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation is an important variable for studies related to solar energy applications, meteorology, climatology, hydrology, and agricultural meteorology. However, solar radiation is not routinely measured at meteorological stations; therefore, it is often required to estimate it using other techniques such as retrieving from satellite data or estimating using other geophysical variables. Over the years, many models have been developed to estimate solar radiation from other geophysical variables such as temperature, rainfall, and sunshine duration. The aim of this study was to evaluate six of these models using data measured at four independent worldwide networks. The dataset included 13 stations from Australia, 25 stations from Germany, 12 stations from Saudi Arabia, and 48 stations from the USA. The models require either sunshine duration hours (Ångstrom) or daily range of air temperature (Bristow and Campbell, Donatelli and Bellocchi, Donatelli and Campbell, Hargreaves, and Hargreaves and Samani) as input. According to the statistical parameters, Ångstrom and Bristow and Campbell indicated a better performance than the other models. The bias and root mean square error for the Ångstrom model were less than 0.25 MJ m2 day-1 and 2.25 MJ m2 day-1, respectively, and the correlation coefficient was always greater than 95 %. Statistical analysis using Student's t test indicated that the residuals for Ångstrom, Bristow and Campbell, Hargreaves, and Hargreaves and Samani are not statistically significant at the 5 % level. In other words, the estimated values by these models are statistically consistent with the measured data. Overall, given the simplicity and performance, the Ångstrom model is the best choice for estimating solar radiation when sunshine duration measurements are available; otherwise, Bristow and Campbell can be used to estimate solar radiation using daily range of air temperature.

Moradi, Isaac; Mueller, Richard; Perez, Richard

2014-05-01

20

Diagnosing a daily index of tornado variability with global reanalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent record setting tornado outbreaks in April 2011 has spurred a lot of discussion and debate of the causes of this record setting month. Global warming and the decaying La Niña were both common causes suggested as the reason behind such a destructive tornado season. Due to the inhomogeneity of the observed tornado record, there are few published studies that relate climate variability to occurrences of tornados. We employ a method developed by Harold Brooks and co-authors in 2003 that discriminates tornadic and severe weather soundings from everyday convection to circumvent the problems with the observed tornado record. We will show how this index, derived from the CFS-R, realistically reproduces the observed variability in tornadoes, and the relative impacts of different modes of climate variability on tornadoes over the United States. This analysis will provide a baseline that will be expanded to climate model simulations of the 20th Century and future projections.

Pegion, P. J.; Hoerling, M. P.

2011-12-01

21

Adaptive radiotherapy based on the daily regression of a tumor in carbon-ion beam irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new application of adaptive radiotherapy using a scanning beam, taking into account the daily regression of a tumor. No patient-specific hardware (such as collimators and compensating filters) is needed for the scanning technique; thus, it allows re-planning immediately before each fractional irradiation using the sophisticated conformations of dose distributions. We retrospectively modeled the tumor volume regression curves as a function of the dose from the CT images which were taken three times during the treatment course. The daily shape of the tumor was mathematically interpolated assuming constant continuity of the tumor deformation. We simulated the adaptive radiotherapy by optimizing the dose distribution on the estimated daily tumor volume for every fraction. The dose-volume histogram (DVH) for the organ at risk in the adaptive radiotherapy was compared with that of the current clinical protocol. We performed analysis using the CT images of cervical cancer patients who received carbon-ion radiotherapy in broad-beam irradiation. The DVH for the rectum and the sigmoid colon was improved by adaptive radiotherapy considering the inter-fractional tumor regression. The result shows that this approach has possible advantages.

Nagano, Ai; Minohara, Shinichi; Kato, Shingo; Kiyohara, Hiroki; Ando, Ken

2012-12-01

22

Global Monthly and Daily Precipitation Analysis for the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP): Global and Regional Variations and Trends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 22 year, monthly, globally complete precipitation analysis of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP/GEWEX) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and the four year (1997-present) daily GPCP analysis are described in terms of the data sets and analysis techniques used in their preparation. These analyses are then used to study global and regional variations and trends during the 22 years and the shorter-time scale events that constitute those variations. The GPCP monthly data set shows no significant trend in global precipitation over the twenty years, unlike the positive trend in global surface temperatures over the past century. The global trend analysis must be interpreted carefully, however, because the inhomogeneity of the data set makes detecting a small signal very difficult, especially over this relatively short period. The relation of global (and tropical) total precipitation and ENSO (El Nino and Southern Oscillation) events is quantified with no significant signal when land and ocean are combined. In terms of regional trends 1979 to 2000 the tropics have a distribution of regional rainfall trends that has an ENSO-like pattern with features of both the El Nino and La Nina. This feature is related to a possible trend in the frequency of ENSO events (either El Nino or La Nina) over the past 20 years. Monthly anomalies of precipitation are related to ENSO variations with clear signals extending into middle and high latitudes of both hemispheres. The El Nino and La Nina mean anomalies are near mirror images of each other and when combined produce an ENSO signal with significant spatial continuity over large distances. A number of the features are shown to extend into high latitudes. Positive anomalies extend in the Southern Hemisphere from the Pacific southeastward across Chile and Argentina into the south Atlantic Ocean. In the Northern Hemisphere the counterpart feature extends across the southern U.S. and Atlantic Ocean into Europe. In the Southern Hemisphere an anomaly feature is shown to spiral into the Antarctica land mass. The extremes of ENSO-related anomalies are also examined and indicate that globally, during both El Nino and La Nina, more extremes of precipitation (both wet and dry) occur than during the "neutral" regime, with the El Nino regime showing larger magnitudes. The distribution is different for the globe as a whole and when the area is restricted to just land. The recent (1998-present) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observations are also compared with the GPCP analyses and are evaluated with regard to improving the long-term GPCP data set.

Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George; Curtis, Scott; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

23

Forecasting Plant Productivity and Health Using Diffuse-to-Global Irradiance Ratios Extracted from the OMI Aerosol Product  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric aerosols are a major contributor to diffuse irradiance. This Candidate Solution suggests using the OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) aerosol product as input into a radiative transfer model, which would calculate the ratio of diffuse to global irradiance at the Earth s surface. This ratio can significantly influence the rate of photosynthesis in plants; increasing the ratio of diffuse to global irradiance can accelerate photosynthesis, resulting in greater plant productivity. Accurate values of this ratio could be useful in predicting crop productivity, thereby improving forecasts of regional food resources. However, disagreements exist between diffuse-to-global irradiance values measured by different satellites and ground sensors. OMI, with its unique combination of spectral bands, high resolution, and daily global coverage, may be able to provide more accurate aerosol measurements than other comparable sensors.

Knowlton, Kelly; Andrews, Jane C.; Ryan, Robert E.

2007-01-01

24

DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECTIVE ACCURACY OF SATELLITE-DERIVED GLOBAL, DIRECT AND DIFFUSE IRRADIANCE IN THE CENTRAL UNITED STATES  

E-print Network

-minute and daily. For pixel sizes of the order of 10 km, we show that accuracy achievable with current the apparent accuracy obtained by direct comparison of pixels with ground measurement stations within the pixelDETERMINATION OF THE EFFECTIVE ACCURACY OF SATELLITE-DERIVED GLOBAL, DIRECT AND DIFFUSE IRRADIANCE

Perez, Richard R.

25

Correlations for direct normal and global horizontal irradiation on a French Mediterranean site  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to establish some correlations on direct normal and global horizontal irradiation for a Mediterranean site. The correlations have been developed for monthly mean values, daily and hourly values of irradiation data. The authors have used linear or polynomial regressions between energetical ratio and sunshine duration. For the monthly means and the daily values, the ratio I/I{sub M} fits very well the sunshine duration while, for hourly values, they express I{sub h}/I{sub o,h} as a function of H{sub h}/H{sub o,h}. In all cases, these correlations are, for this Mediterranean site, in good accordance with experimental data. Nevertheless, a study for other locations has to be developed.

Louche, A.; Notton, G.; Poggi, P.; Simonnot, G. (Universite de Corse-CNRS, Ajaccio (France))

1991-01-01

26

Global observed changes in daily climate extremes of temperature and precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suite of climate change indices derived from daily temperature and precipitation data, with a primary focus on extreme events, were computed and analyzed. By setting an exact formula for each index and using specially designed software, analyses done in different countries have been combined seamlessly. This has enabled the presentation of the most up-to-date and comprehensive global picture of

L. V. Alexander; X. Zhang; T. C. Peterson; J. Caesar; B. Gleason; A. M. G. Klein Tank; M. Haylock; D. Collins; B. Trewin; F. Rahimzadeh; A. Tagipour; K. Rupa Kumar; J. Revadekar; G. Griffiths; L. Vincent; D. B. Stephenson; J. Burn; E. Aguilar; M. Brunet; M. Taylor; M. New; P. Zhai; M. Rusticucci; J. L. Vazquez-Aguirre

2006-01-01

27

Daily estimates of the Earth's pole position with the global positioning system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily estimates of the Earth's pole position have been obtained with measurements from a worldwide network of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, obtained during the three week GIG'91 experiment in January- February, 1991. For this short-term study, the GPS based polar motion series agrees with the other space based geodetic techniques (Very Long Baseline Interferometry and Satellite Laser Ranging) to

Ulf J. Lindqwister; Adam P. Freedman; Geoffrey Blewitt

1992-01-01

28

Daily variation in global and local DNA methylation in mouse livers.  

PubMed

DNA methylation is one of the best-characterized epigenetic modifications and has an important biological relevance. Here we showed that global DNA methylation level in mouse livers displayed a daily variation where the peak phases occurred during the end of the day and the lowest level at the beginning of the day in the light-dark or dark-dark cycles. Typical repeat sequence long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) had a similar methylation rhythm to global DNA. DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) and ratio of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) brought a relative forward daily variation to global DNA methylation, and the temporary change in ratio of SAM to SAH had no influence on the DNA methylation level. The rhythm of global DNA methylation was lost and DNA methylation level was increased in Per1-/-Per2-/- double knockout mice, which were in accordance with changes of Dnmt3a mRNA levels and its rhythm. Our results suggest that the daily variation in global DNA methylation was associated with the change of Dnmt3a expression rather than ratio of SAM to SAH. PMID:25689298

Xia, Lin; Ma, Shihong; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Tao; Zhou, Mengyi; Wang, Zhongqiu; Zhang, Jianfa

2015-01-01

29

Daily Variation in Global and Local DNA Methylation in Mouse Livers  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation is one of the best-characterized epigenetic modifications and has an important biological relevance. Here we showed that global DNA methylation level in mouse livers displayed a daily variation where the peak phases occurred during the end of the day and the lowest level at the beginning of the day in the light-dark or dark-dark cycles. Typical repeat sequence long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) had a similar methylation rhythm to global DNA. DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) and ratio of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) brought a relative forward daily variation to global DNA methylation, and the temporary change in ratio of SAM to SAH had no influence on the DNA methylation level. The rhythm of global DNA methylation was lost and DNA methylation level was increased in Per1-/-Per2-/- double knockout mice, which were in accordance with changes of Dnmt3a mRNA levels and its rhythm. Our results suggest that the daily variation in global DNA methylation was associated with the change of Dnmt3a expression rather than ratio of SAM to SAH. PMID:25689298

Xia, Lin; Ma, Shihong; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Tao; Zhou, Mengyi; Wang, Zhongqiu; Zhang, Jianfa

2015-01-01

30

Automated daily process for global ionospheric total electron content maps and satellite ocean altimeter ionospheric calibration based on Global Positioning System data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy of single-frequency ocean altimeters benefits from calibration of the total electron content (TEC) of the ionosphere below the satellite. Data from a global network of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers provides timely, continuous, and globally well-distributed measurements of ionospheric electron content. For several months we have been running a daily automatic Global Ionospheric Map process which inputs global

B. A. Iijima; I. L. Harris; C. M. Ho; U. J. Lindqwister; A. J. Mannucci; X. Pi; M. J. Reyes; L. C. Sparks; B. D. Wilson

1999-01-01

31

Reducing Noise in the MSU Daily Lower-Tropospheric Global Temperature Dataset  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The daily global-mean values of the lower-tropospheric temperature determined from microwave emissions measured by satellites are examined in terms of their signal, noise, and signal-to-noise ratio. Daily and 30-day average noise estimates are reduced by, almost 50% and 35%, respectively, by analyzing and adjusting (if necessary) for errors due to (1) missing data, (2) residual harmonics of the annual cycle unique to particular satellites, (3) lack of filtering, and (4) spurious trends. After adjustments, the decadal trend of the lower-tropospheric global temperature from January 1979 through February 1994 becomes -0.058 C, or about 0.03 C per decade cooler than previously calculated.

Christy, John R.; Spencer, Roy W.; McNider, Richard T.

1995-01-01

32

Global Precipitation at One-Degree Daily Resolution From Multi-Satellite Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The One-Degree Daily (1DD) technique is described for producing globally complete daily estimates of precipitation on a 1 deg x 1 deg lat/long grid from currently available observational data. Where possible (40 deg N-40 deg S), the Threshold-Matched Precipitation Index (TMPI) provides precipitation estimates in which the 3-hourly infrared brightness temperatures (IR T(sub b)) are thresholded and all "cold" pixels are given a single precipitation rate. This approach is an adaptation of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Precipitation Index (GPI), but for the TMPI the IR Tb threshold and conditional rain rate are set locally by month from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I)-based precipitation frequency and the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) satellite-gauge (SG) combined monthly precipitation estimate, respectively. At higher latitudes the 1DD features a rescaled daily Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) precipitation. The frequency of rain days in the TOVS is scaled down to match that in the TMPI at the data boundaries, and the resulting non-zero TOVS values are scaled locally to sum to the SG (which is a globally complete monthly product). The time series of the daily 1DD global images shows good continuity in time and across the data boundaries. Various examples are shown to illustrate uses. Validation for individual grid -box values shows a very high root-mean-square error but, it improves quickly when users perform time/space averaging according to their own requirements.

Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Morrissey, Mark M.; Curtis, Scott; Joyce, Robert; McGavock, Brad; Susskind, Joel

2000-01-01

33

A NEW ADAPTIVE METHODOLGY OF GLOBAL-TO-DIRECT IRRADIANCE BASED ON CLUSTERING AND  

E-print Network

registers in a concrete emplacement, into beam irradiance data. In front of classical global to directA NEW ADAPTIVE METHODOLGY OF GLOBAL-TO-DIRECT IRRADIANCE BASED ON CLUSTERING AND KERNEL MACHINES, or data from well known data bases of global solar radiation. In both cases global-to-beam irradiance

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

34

Daily global fire radiative power fields estimation from one or two MODIS instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires are important emitters of aerosol and trace gases and as such need to be taken into account in any atmospheric composition modeling enterprise. One method to estimate these emissions is to convert Fire Radiative Power (FRP) analysis to dry matter burnt and emissions of smoke constituents using land cover dependent conversion factors. Inventories like the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) follow this approach by calculating daily global smoke emissions from FRP observed by the MODIS instruments on-board of the Terra and Aqua satellites. Observations with different overpass times systematically sample fires at different stages in the strong diurnal fire cycle. For some time periods, observations are available from only one instrument, which leads to a bias in the observed average FRP. We develop a method to correct this bias in daily FRP observations from any Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite, so that the budget of daily smoke emissions remains independent of the number of satellites from which FRP observations are taken into account. This ensures the possibility of running, e.g., GFAS in case of a default of one of the MODIS instruments. It also enables the extension GFAS to 2000-2002 and the inclusion of FRP observations from upcoming satellite missions. The correction combines linear and non-linear regressions and uses an adaptive regionalization algorithm. It removes the bias in daily average FRP observations from Terra and Aqua nearly entirely. Errors are larger for Terra than for Aqua, are generally relatively small at a global scale, but can be important at a local scale. The correction algorithm is applied to Terra observations from 25 February 2000 to 31 December 2002, when Aqua observations were not available. The database of fire emissions GFASv1.0 is extended correspondingly.

Remy, S.; Kaiser, J. W.

2014-08-01

35

Prediction of monthly mean daily global solar radiation using Artificial Neural Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a multilayer feed forward (MLFF) neural network based on back propagation algorithm was developed, trained, and tested to predict monthly mean daily global radiation in Tamil Nadu, India. Various geographical, solar and meteorological parameters of three different locations with diverse climatic conditions were used as input parameters. Out of 565 available data, 530 were used for training and the rest were used for testing the artificial neural network (ANN). A 3-layer and a 4-layer MLFF networks were developed and the performance of the developed models was evaluated based on mean bias error, mean absolute percentage error, root mean squared error and Student's t-test. The 3-layer MLFF network developed in this study did not give uniform results for the three chosen locations. Hence, a 4-layer MLFF network was developed and the average value of the mean absolute percentage error was found to be 5.47%. Values of global radiation obtained using the model were in excellent agreement with measured values. Results of this study show that the designed ANN model can be used to estimate monthly mean daily global radiation of any place in Tamil Nadu where measured global radiation data are not available.

Sivamadhavi, V.; Selvaraj, R. Samuel

2012-12-01

36

Global Mapping of Underwater UV Irradiances and DNA-Weighted Exposures using TOMS and SeaWiFS Data Products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The global stratospheric ozone-layer depletion results In an increase in biologically harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the surface and penetrating to ecologically significant depths in natural waters. Such an increase can be estimated on a global scale by combining satellite estimates of UV irradiance at the ocean surface from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite instrument with the SeaWIFS satellite ocean-color measurements in the visible spectral region. In this paper we propose a model of seawater optical properties in the UV spectral region based on the Case I water model in the visible range. The inputs to the model are standard monthly SeaWiFS products: chlorophyll concentration and the diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490nm. Penetration of solar UV radiation to different depths in open ocean waters is calculated using the RT (radiative transfer) quasi-single scattering approximation (QSSA). The accuracy of the QSSA approximation in the water is tested using more accurate codes. The sensitivity study of the underwater UV irradiance to atmospheric and oceanic optical properties have shown that the main environmental parameters controlling the absolute levels of the UVB (280-320nm) and DNA-weighted irradiance underwater are: solar-zenith angle, cloud transmittance, water optical properties, and total ozone. Weekly maps of underwater UV irradiance and DNA-weighted exposure are calculated using monthly-mean SeaWiFS chlorophyll and diffuse attenuation coefficient products, daily SeaWiFS cloud fraction data, and the TOMS-derived surface UV irradiance daily maps. The final products include global maps of weekly-average UVB irradiance and DNA-weighted daily exposures at 3m and 10m, and depths where the UVB irradiance and DNA-weighted dose rate at local noon are equal to 10% of their surface values.

Vasilkov, Alexander; Krotkov, Nickolay; Herman, Jay; McClain, Charles; Arrigo, Kevin; Robinson, Wayne

1999-01-01

37

Daily global fire radiative power fields estimation from one or two MODIS instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires are important emitters of aerosol and trace gases and as such need to be taken into account in any atmospheric composition modelling enterprise. One method to estimate these emissions is to convert fire radiative power (FRP) analysis into dry matter burnt and emissions of smoke constituents using land-cover-dependent conversion factors. Inventories like the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) follow this approach by calculating daily global smoke emissions from FRP observed by the MODIS instruments onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites. Observations with different overpass times systematically sample fires at different stages in the strong diurnal fire cycle. For some time periods, observations are available from only one instrument, which leads to a bias in the observed average FRP. We develop a method to correct this bias in daily FRP observations from any low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite, so that the budget of daily smoke emissions remains independent of the number of satellites from which FRP observations are taken into account. This ensures the possibility of running, for example, GFAS in case of failure of one of the MODIS instruments. It also enables the extension GFAS to 2000-2002 and the inclusion of FRP observations from upcoming satellite missions. The correction combines linear and non-linear regressions and uses an adaptive regionalization algorithm. It decreases the bias in daily average FRP from Terra and Aqua by more than 95%, and RMSE by 75% for Aqua and 55% for Terra. The correction algorithm is applied to Terra observations from 25 February 2000 to 31 December 2002, when Aqua observations were not available. The database of fire emissions GFASv1.0 is extended correspondingly.

Remy, S.; Kaiser, J. W.

2014-12-01

38

Global and diffuse solar irradiances in urban and rural areas in southeast Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seasonal evolution of daily and hourly values of global and diffuse solar radiation at the surface are compared for the cities of São Paulo and Botucatu, both located in Southeast Brazil and representative of urban and rural areas, respectively. The comparisons are based on measurements of global and diffuse solar irradiance carried out at the surface during a six year simultaneous period in these two cities. Despite the similar latitude and altitude, the seasonal evolution of daily values indicate that São Paulo receives, during clear sky days, 7.8% less global irradiance in August and 5.1% less in June than Botucatu. On the other hand, São Paulo receives, during clear sky days, 3.6% more diffuse irradiance in August and 15.6% more in June than Botucatu. The seasonal variation of the diurnal cycle confirms these differences and indicates that they are more pronounced during the afternoon. The regional differences are related to the distance from the Atlantic Ocean, systematic penetration of the sea breeze and daytime evolution of the particulate matter in São Paulo. An important mechanism controlling the spatial distribution of solar radiation, on a regional scale, is the sea breeze penetration in São Paulo, bringing moisture and maritime aerosol that in turn further increases the solar radiation scattering due to pollution and further reduces the intensity of the direct component of solar radiation at the surface. Surprisingly, under clear sky conditions the atmospheric attenuation of solar radiation in Botucatu during winter the biomass burning period due to the sugar cane harvest is equivalent to that at São Paulo City, indicating that the contamination during sugar cane harvest in Southeast Brazil has a large impact in the solar radiation field at the surface.

Codato, G.; Oliveira, A. P.; Soares, J.; Escobedo, J. F.; Gomes, E. N.; Pai, A. D.

2008-06-01

39

Modeling daylight availability and irradiance components from direct and global irradiance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the latest versions of several models developed by the authors to predict short time-step solar energy and daylight availability quantities needed by energy system modelers or building designers. The modeled quantities are global, direct and diffuse daylight illuminance, diffuse irradiance and illuminance impinging on tilted surfaces of arbitrary orientation, sky zenith luminance and sky luminance angular distribution.

R. Perez; P. Ineichen; R. Seals; J. Michalsky; R. Stewart

1990-01-01

40

The potential of different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques in daily global solar radiation modeling based on meteorological data  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of present study is to predict daily global solar radiation (GSR) on a horizontal surface, based on meteorological variables, using different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques. Daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation, and wind speed values between 2002 and 2006 for Dezful city in Iran (32 16'N, 48 25'E), are used in this study. In order to consider the effect of each meteorological variable on daily GSR prediction, six following combinations of input variables are considered: (I)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature and relative humidity as inputs and daily GSR as output. (II)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature and sunshine hours as inputs and daily GSR as output. (III)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity and sunshine hours as inputs and daily GSR as output. (IV)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and evaporation as inputs and daily GSR as output. (V)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and wind speed as inputs and daily GSR as output. (VI)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation and wind speed as inputs and daily GSR as output. Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) neural networks are applied for daily GSR modeling based on six proposed combinations. The measured data between 2002 and 2005 are used to train the neural networks while the data for 214 days from 2006 are used as testing data. The comparison of obtained results from ANNs and different conventional GSR prediction (CGSRP) models shows very good improvements (i.e. the predicted values of best ANN model (MLP-V) has a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) about 5.21% versus 10.02% for best CGSRP model (CGSRP 5)). (author)

Behrang, M.A.; Assareh, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University, Dezful Branch (Iran); Ghanbarzadeh, A.; Noghrehabadi, A.R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz (Iran)

2010-08-15

41

Prediction of global solar irradiance based on time series analysis: Application to solar thermal power plants energy production planning  

SciTech Connect

Due to strong increase of solar power generation, the predictions of incoming solar energy are acquiring more importance. Photovoltaic and solar thermal are the main sources of electricity generation from solar energy. In the case of solar thermal energy plants with storage energy system, its management and operation need reliable predictions of solar irradiance with the same temporal resolution as the temporal capacity of the back-up system. These plants can work like a conventional power plant and compete in the energy stock market avoiding intermittence in electricity production. This work presents a comparisons of statistical models based on time series applied to predict half daily values of global solar irradiance with a temporal horizon of 3 days. Half daily values consist of accumulated hourly global solar irradiance from solar raise to solar noon and from noon until dawn for each day. The dataset of ground solar radiation used belongs to stations of Spanish National Weather Service (AEMet). The models tested are autoregressive, neural networks and fuzzy logic models. Due to the fact that half daily solar irradiance time series is non-stationary, it has been necessary to transform it to two new stationary variables (clearness index and lost component) which are used as input of the predictive models. Improvement in terms of RMSD of the models essayed is compared against the model based on persistence. The validation process shows that all models essayed improve persistence. The best approach to forecast half daily values of solar irradiance is neural network models with lost component as input, except Lerida station where models based on clearness index have less uncertainty because this magnitude has a linear behaviour and it is easier to simulate by models. (author)

Martin, Luis; Marchante, Ruth; Cony, Marco [Investigaciones y Recursos Solares Avanzados (IrSOLaV), Tres Cantos 2 8045 (Spain); Zarzalejo, Luis F.; Polo, Jesus; Navarro, Ana [Energy Department, CIEMAT, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

2010-10-15

42

A Temperature-Based Model for Estimating Monthly Average Daily Global Solar Radiation in China  

PubMed Central

Since air temperature records are readily available around the world, the models based on air temperature for estimating solar radiation have been widely accepted. In this paper, a new model based on Hargreaves and Samani (HS) method for estimating monthly average daily global solar radiation is proposed. With statistical error tests, the performance of the new model is validated by comparing with the HS model and its two modifications (Samani model and Chen model) against the measured data at 65 meteorological stations in China. Results show that the new model is more accurate and robust than the HS, Samani, and Chen models in all climatic regions, especially in the humid regions. Hence, the new model can be recommended for estimating solar radiation in areas where only air temperature data are available in China. PMID:24605046

Li, Huashan; Cao, Fei; Wang, Xianlong; Ma, Weibin

2014-01-01

43

Measuring Daily Ranging Distances of Rhinopithecus bieti via a Global Positioning System Collar at Jinsichang, China: A Methodological Consideration  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few data on the daily ranging distances of Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti). We fitted 1 adult male from a natural group at Jinsichang in China’s Yunnan Province with a global positioning system (GPS)\\u000a collar and tracked him from December 2003 to October 2004 to estimate the daily ranging distances of the group. The total\\u000a acquisition rate of

Baoping Ren; Ming Li; Yongcheng Long; Cyril C. Grüter; Fuwen Wei

2008-01-01

44

The Nature of Martian Dust Storms as Revealed by Long Term Daily Global Atmospheric Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Martian dust cycle is composed of dust lifting and transport events that span a very wide spectrum of temporal and spatial scales. The largest storm events occur with sufficiently low frequency that we are only beginning to be able to provide an observational baseline for these events after seven Martian years of roughly continuous global atmospheric imaging. Creation of daily global maps from Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and Wide Angle and Mars Color Imager (MARCI) images allows the occurrence, evolutionary pathway and development style of large dust storms to be examined in detail. For the period of observations with Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) or Mars Climate Sounder (MCS), we can also examine commensurate changes in atmospheric opacity, temperature and crudely track those in surface dust cover (for TES). These observations allow us to construct a "climatology" of large dust storms, which shows distinct families of dust storm types on the basis of the season and location of storm origin, replacing prior simplified descriptions of a single "dust storm season". We are also able to describe common transport and evolutionary pathways for storms, including very different behaviors of storms originating in the northern versus the southern mid- and high-latitudes. For some of the larger storms during Mars Years 24-26, we are also able to show how the storms modified the surface dust cover, and on what time scales and by what processes the surface dust distribution "recovers" to pre-storm conditions. The results from MOC and MARCI suggest that we have only just begun to collect enough data for a statistically-meaningful climatology of regional-scale storms, and that substantially longer time series would be needed to understanding the diversity and nature of the very largest, global-scale storms. A planned successor for MARCI is greatly needed for our prospects of adequately understanding these dust storm systems, not only for the current and past climate system dynamics, but also for the planning of future missions.

Wang, H.; Richardson, M. I.

2013-12-01

45

Estimates and Measurements of Photosynthetically Active Radiation and Global Solar Irradiance in Rondonia  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and global solar irradiance (R{sub s}) were made at a LBA (The Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia) experimental site, at Fazenda Nossa Senhora (10 deg. 45' S; 62 deg. 21' W), in Rondonia, in the years of 2004 and 2005, with the objective of estimating the seasonal variation of the ratio between the photosynthetically active radiation and the global solar irradiance. The relationship between PAR and R{sub s} were made by using linear regressions equations with data from year 2004 and tested with data from the year 2005. The seasonal variation of the ratio PAR/R{sub s} ranged from 0.43 (September) to 0.48 (January). The linear regression equations between PAR and R{sub s} obtained were: a) On an hourly basis: PAR 0.747+0.478*R{sub s},(R{sup 2} = 0.99; wet season) and PAR = -4.578+0.452*R{sub s}(R{sup 2} 0.99; dry season); b) On a daily basis: PAR = 4.956+0.466*R{sub s}(R{sup 2} = 0.99; wet season) and PAR = -6.762+0.457*R{sub s}(R{sup 2} = 0.96; dry season)

Aguiar, Leonardo J. G.; Costa, Jose M. N. da; Fischer, Graciela R. [Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Vicosa, CEP 36570000, Vicosa-MG (Brazil); Aguiar, Renata G. [Department of Ambiental Engineering, Federal University of Rondonia, CEP 78960000, Ji-Parana-RO (Brazil)

2009-03-11

46

A model for diffuse and global irradiation on horizontal surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The intensity of the direct radiation and the diffuse radiation at any time on a horizontal surface are each expressed as fractions of the intensity of the extraterrestrial radiation. Using these and assuming a random distribution of the bright sunshine hours and not too wide variations in the values of the transmission coefficients, a number of relations for estimating the global and the diffuse irradiation are derived. Two of the relations derived, including the Angstroem correlation for estimating the global irradiation, are already known empirically while several new correlations have been derived. The relations derived in this paper are: (i) H{sub d}/H{sub o} = a{sub 1} + b{sub 1} (S/S{sub o}); (ii) H/H{sub o} = A{sub 2} + b{sub 2} (S/S{sub o}); (iii) H{sub D}/H{sub o} = a{sub 3} + b{sub 3} (H/H{sub o}); (iv) H{sub D}/H = a{sub 4} + b{sub 4} (h{sub o}/) (v) H/(H{minus}H{sub D}) = a{sub 5} + b{sub 5} (S{sub o}/S); (vi) H{sub D}/(H{minus}H{sub D}) = A{sub 6} + b{sub 6} (S{sub o}/S); (vii) H/H{sub D} = a{sub 7} + b{sub 7} (S/S{sub o}); (viii) H/H{sub D} = A{sub 1} + A{sub 2} (S/S{sub o}) + A{sub 3} (S/S{sub o}){sup 2}. The study identifies three independent basic parameters and the constants appearing in the various equations as simple functions of these three basic parameters. This provides unification and inter-relationships between the various constants. Experimental data for the diffuse irradiation, the global irradiation and the bright sunshine duration for Macerata (Italy), Salisbury and Bulawayo (Zimbabwe) is found to show good correlation for the linear eqns (i) to (vii), and the nature and the interrelationships of the constants is found to be as predicted by theory.

Jain, P.C. (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy))

1990-01-01

47

Global daily precipitation analysis for the validation of medium-range climate predictions (DAPACLIP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Federal Ministry of Education and Research in Germany (BMBF) funds the research programme "Mittelfristige Klimaprognosen" (MiKlip) with the aim to create a model system that can provide reliable decadal forecasts on climate and weather, including extreme weather events. Of central importance for the development process of the MiKlip system is the data and process based validation of the decadal scale prediction system during the development stages of MiKlip. An essential part of the evaluation procedure will be the application of satellite derived data sets to assess the aspired model system with respect to atmospheric water cycle components including clouds and related changes in the radiation budget. Within the MiKlip-DAPACLIP project new precipitation products suitable for the evaluation of the MiKlip prediction system are developed in close contact with the modelling community. These new data sets will be used to evaluate precipitation from global and regional decadal MiKlip hindcasts on a daily time scale, including the statistical analysis of extreme precipitation events. The data products will the time period from 1988-2008 and consists of daily data fields with several grid resolutions (1.0° x 1.0° and 2.5° x 2.5°; over Europe: 0.5°). The data set is based on an optimum combination of a dedicated in situ-based Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) precipitation analyses for land surface areas and a new version of the satellite-derived Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and fluxes from Satellite Data (HOAPS) precipitation analyses for ocean surface areas. An unprecedented feature in comparison to previous efforts is to allow for a traceable estimation of the uncertainty in the aspired data product. Over land the error information is retrieved from an optimized interpolation method that includes a kriging procedure. Over the ocean a 1D-Var retrieval is used to derive the precipitation along with a retrieval uncertainty from passive microwave data. This presentation will show first results of the improved combined precipitation data set as well as the integration of this data in the model evaluation process.

Dietzsch, Felix; Andersson, Axel; Schamm, Kirstin; Schröder, Marc; Becker, Andreas

2014-05-01

48

Global, Daily, Near Real-Time Satellite-based Flood Monitoring and Product Dissemination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding is the most destructive, frequent, and costly natural disaster faced by modern society, and is expected to increase in frequency and damage with climate change and population growth. Some of 2013's major floods have impacted the New York City region, the Midwest, Alberta, Australia, various parts of China, Thailand, Pakistan, and central Europe. The toll of these events, in financial costs, displacement of individuals, and deaths, is substantial and continues to rise as climate change generates more extreme weather events. When these events do occur, the disaster management community requires frequently updated and easily accessible information to better understand the extent of flooding and better coordinate response efforts. With funding from NASA's Applied Sciences program, we developed and are now operating a near real-time global flood mapping system to help provide critical flood extent information within 24-48 hours of events. The system applies a water detection algorithm to MODIS imagery received from the LANCE (Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS) system at NASA Goddard within a few hours of satellite overpass. Using imagery from both the Terra (10:30 AM local time overpass) and Aqua (1:30 PM) platforms allows an initial daily assessment of flooding extent by late afternoon, and more robust assessments after accumulating cloud-free imagery over several days. Cloud cover is the primary limitation in detecting surface water from MODIS imagery. Other issues include the relatively coarse scale of the MODIS imagery (250 meters), the difficulty of detecting flood waters in areas with continuous canopy cover, confusion of shadow (cloud or terrain) with water, and accurately identifying detected water as flood as opposed to normal water extents. We have made progress on many of these issues, and are working to develop higher resolution flood detection using alternate sensors, including Landsat and various radar sensors. Although these provide better spatial resolution, this typically comes at the cost of being less timely. Since late 2011, this system has been providing daily flood maps of the global non-antarctic land surface. These data products are generated in raster and vector formats, and provided freely on our website. To better serve the disaster response community, we have recently begun providing the products via live OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) services, allowing easy access in a variety of platforms (Google Earth, desktop GIS software, mobile phone apps). We are also working with the Pacific Disaster Center to bring our product into their Disaster Alert system (including a mobile app), which will help simplify product distribution to the disaster management community.

Slayback, D. A.; Policelli, F. S.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Tokay, M. M.; Smith, M. M.; Kettner, A. J.

2013-12-01

49

Estimating the Satellite Equatorial Crossing Time Biases in the Daily, Global Outgoing Longwave Radiation Dataset.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to its long record length (approximately 25 years), the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) dataset has been used in a multitude of climatological studies including studies on tropical circulation and convection, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, and the earth's radiation budget. Although many of the climatological studies using OLR have proven invaluable, proper interpretation of the low-frequency components of the data could be limited by the presence of biases introduced by changes in the satellite equatorial crossing time (ECT). Since long-term global changes could be masked or contaminated by this instrumental bias, it is necessary to take steps to ensure that the daily, global OLR dataset is free from such biases and is as accurate as possible.The goal of this study is to derive a method for estimating the ECT biases in the daily, global OLR dataset. Our analysis utilizes a Procrustes targeted empirical orthogonal function rotation (REOF) on an interpolated OLR dataset to try to isolate and remove the two major ECT biases-afternoon satellite orbital drift and the abrupt transitions from a morning satellite to an afternoon satellite-from the dataset. Two targeted REOF analyses are performed to separate and distinguish between these two artificial satellite bias modes. A `common ECT' of approximately 0245 LST is established for the dataset by removing an estimate of these two ECT biases.Results from the analysis indicate that changes in ECTs can cause large regional biases over both ocean and tropical landmasses. The afternoon satellite ECT drift-bias accounts for 0.4% of the pentad anomaly variance. During a single satellite series (e.g., NOAA-11), the afternoon drift-bias can introduce a difference as large as 10.5 W m2 in the OLR values collected over most tropical landmasses. The morning to afternoon satellite transition bias accounts for 0.9% of the pentad anomaly variance, and is shown to cause a bias of 12 W m2 in the OLR values over most tropical landmasses during the NOAA-SR satellite series. The data are corrected by removing a statistically derived synthetic eigenvector that is associated with each of the ECT bias modes. This synthetic eigenvector is used instead of the exact values of the satellite bias eigenvector to ensure that only the artificial variability is removed from the dataset.The two REOF modes produced in this study are nearly orthogonal to each other having a correlation of only 0.17. This near orthogonality suggests that the use of the two-mode method presented in this study can more adequately describe the individual nature of each of the two ECT biases than a single REOF mode examined in previous studies. However, due to the presence of other forms of variability, it is likely that this study's estimate of the ECT bias includes ECT-related bias as well as some aspects of variability that may be associated with sensor changes, intersatellite calibration and/or natural climate variability. The strengths and limitations of the above technique are discussed, as are suggestions for future efforts.

Lucas, L. E.; Waliser, D. E.; Xie, P.; Janowiak, J. E.; Liebmann, B.

2001-06-01

50

Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer.

Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.

2009-03-01

51

Global horizontal irradiance clear sky models : implementation and analysis.  

SciTech Connect

Clear sky models estimate the terrestrial solar radiation under a cloudless sky as a function of the solar elevation angle, site altitude, aerosol concentration, water vapor, and various atmospheric conditions. This report provides an overview of a number of global horizontal irradiance (GHI) clear sky models from very simple to complex. Validation of clear-sky models requires comparison of model results to measured irradiance during clear-sky periods. To facilitate validation, we present a new algorithm for automatically identifying clear-sky periods in a time series of GHI measurements. We evaluate the performance of selected clear-sky models using measured data from 30 different sites, totaling about 300 site-years of data. We analyze the variation of these errors across time and location. In terms of error averaged over all locations and times, we found that complex models that correctly account for all the atmospheric parameters are slightly more accurate than other models, but, primarily at low elevations, comparable accuracy can be obtained from some simpler models. However, simpler models often exhibit errors that vary with time of day and season, whereas the errors for complex models vary less over time.

Stein, Joshua S.; Hansen, Clifford W.; Reno, Matthew J.

2012-03-01

52

Assessment and management of interfractional variations in daily diagnostic-quality-CT guided prostate-bed irradiation after prostatectomy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To quantify interfractional anatomic variations and limitations of the current practice of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for prostate-bed patients and to study dosimetric benefits of an online adaptive replanning scheme that addresses the interfractional variations. Methods: Contours for the targets and organs at risk (OARs) from daily diagnostic-quality CTs acquired with in-room CT (CTVision, Siemens) were generated by populating the planning contours using an autosegmentation tool based on deformable registration (ABAS, Elekta) with manual editing for ten prostate-bed patients treated with postoperative daily CT-guided IMRT. Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) obtained by maximizing the overlap of contours for a structure between the daily and plan contours was used to quantify the organ deformation between the plan and daily CTs. Three interfractional-variation-correction schemes, the current standard practice of IGRT repositioning, a previously developed online adaptive RT (ART), and the full reoptimization, were applied to these daily CTs and a number of dose-volume quantities for the targets and organs at risk were compared for their effectiveness to account for the interfractional variations. Results: Large interfractional organ deformations in prostate-bed irradiation were seen. The mean DSCs for CTV, rectum, and bladder were 86.6 ± 5.1% (range from 61% to 97%), 77.3% ± 7.4% (range from 55% to 90%), and 75.4% ± 11.2% (range from 46% to 96%), respectively. The fractional and cumulative dose-volume quantities for CTV and PTV: V100 (volume received at least 100% prescription dose), and rectum and bladder: V{sub 45Gy} and V{sub 60Gy} (volume received at least 45 or 60 Gy), were compared for the repositioning, adaptive, reoptimization, and original plans. The fractional and cumulative dosimetric results were nearly the same. The average cumulative CTV V100 were 88.0%, 98.4%, 99.2%, and 99.3% for the IGRT, ART, reoptimization, and original plans, respectively. The corresponding rectal V{sub 45Gy} (V{sub 60Gy}) were 58.7% (27.3%), 48.1% (20.7%), 43.8% (16.1%), and 44.9% (16.8%). The results for bladder were comparable among three schemes. Paired two-tailed Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were performed and it was found that ART and reoptimization provide better target coverage and better OAR sparing, especially rectum sparing. Conclusions: The interfractional organ motions and deformations during prostate-bed irradiation are significant. The online adaptive replanning scheme is capable of effectively addressing the large organ deformation, resulting in cumulative doses equivalent to those originally planned.

Liu, Feng; Ahunbay, Ergun; Lawton, Colleen; Allen Li, X., E-mail: ali@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States)

2014-03-15

53

Artificial Neural Network models for estimating daily solar global UV, PAR and broadband radiant fluxes in an eastern Mediterranean site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, simple Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models for estimating daily solar global broadband as well as solar spectral global UV and PAR radiant fluxes have been established. The data used in this analysis are global ultraviolet UV (GUV), global photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD-QP), broadband global radiant flux (Gh), extraterrestrial radiant flux (G0), air temperature (T), relative humidity (rh), sunshine duration (n), theoretical sunshine duration (N), precipitable water (w) and ozone column density (O3). By using different combinations of the above variables as inputs, numerous ANN-models have been developed. For each model, the output is the daily global GUV, QP and Gh solar radiant fluxes. Firstly, a set of 2 × 365 point (2 years) has been used for training each network-model, whereas a set of 365 point (1 year) has been engaged for testing and validating the ANN-models. It has been found that the ANN-models' accuracy depends on the parameters employed as well as spectral range considered. Comparisons between proposed ANN-models and conventional regression models revealed that the results of both methods are statistically significant. On closer examination of many error measures, though, it is clear that the ANN-models perform better overall. From this point of view, it turned out that the neural network technique is better suited further suggesting that the ANN methodology is a promising and a more accurate tool for estimating both broadband and spectral radiant fluxes.

Jacovides, C. P.; Tymvios, F. S.; Boland, J.; Tsitouri, M.

2015-01-01

54

Parameterization of instantaneous global horizontal irradiance: Cloudy-sky component  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation calculations in global numerical weather prediction (NWP) and climate models are usually conducted in 3-hourly time interval in order to reduce the computational cost. This treatment can lead to an incorrect solar radiation at the Earth's surface which could be one of the error sources in modeled convection and precipitation. In order to improve the simulation of the diurnal cycle of solar radiation a fast scheme has been developed based on detailed radiative transfer calculations for a wide range of atmospheric conditions and can be used to determine the surface solar radiation at each model integration time step with affordable costs. This scheme is divided into components for clear-sky and cloudy-sky conditions. The clear-sky component has been described in a companion paper. The cloudy-sky component is introduced in this paper. The input variables required by this scheme are all available in NWP and climate models or can be obtained from satellite observations. Therefore, the scheme can be used in a global model to determine the surface GHI. It can also be used as an offline scheme to calculate the surface GHI using data from satellite measurements. SUNFLUX scheme has been tested using observations obtained from three Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) stations established by the U. S. Department of Energy. The results show that a half hourly mean relative error of GHI under all-sky conditions is less than 7%. An important application of the scheme is in global climate models. The radiation sampling error due to infrequent radiation calculations is investigated using the SUNFLUX and ARM observations. It is found that errors in the surface net solar irradiance are very large, exceeding 800 W m-2at many non-radiation time steps due to ignoring the effects of clouds. Use of the SUNFLUX scheme can reduce these errors to less than 50 W m-2.

Sun, Z.; Liu, J.; Zeng, X.; Liang, H.

2012-07-01

55

Reconstruction of six decades of daily total solar shortwave irradiation in the Iberian Peninsula using sunshine duration records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total global solar shortwave (G) irradiation and sunshine duration were recorded at nine Spanish stations located in the Iberian Peninsula. G irradiation under cloudless conditions was simulated by means of a radiative transfer model using satellite data as input. A method based on these cloudless simulations and sunshine duration records was developed to reconstruct G series. This model was validated against experimental data, providing a good agreement for cloudless skies (mean bias error of 0.4% and root mean square error of 5.8%). Monthly averages of modelled and measured G irradiation presented a mean bias error of 0.5% and a root mean square error of 3%. Differences between modelled and measured G irradiation were in agreement within the model uncertainties. The reconstruction model was applied to sunshine duration measurements, giving long-term G series at the nine locations. Monthly, seasonal, and annual G anomalies were calculated and analysed. Averaged series (using the nine locations) showed a statistically significant decrease in annual G from 1950 to the mid 1980s (-1.7%dc-1) together with a significant increase from the mid 1980s to 2011 (1.6%dc-1). The effect of uncertainty in the reconstructed series on statistically significant trends was studied.

Román, Roberto; Bilbao, Julia; de Miguel, Argimiro

2014-12-01

56

Good response to chemotherapy spares irradiation for extrarenal rhabdoid tumor conferring better activities of daily living.  

PubMed

A 7-year-old girl with stage IIA extrarenal rhabdoid tumor near the left cubital fossa received preoperative chemotherapy and surgical resection with median nerve reconstruction followed by postoperative high-dose chemotherapy. As preoperative chemotherapy resulted in decreased tumor size, disappearance of fluorodeoxyglucose-uptake, and pathologic complete response with total tumor resection, irradiation was successfully spared to avoid injury to the reconstructed nerve and inhibition of normal bone development. Two years after diagnosis, recurrence has not been observed and median nerve palsy is improving. This case suggests that radiation therapy could be spared for clinically and pathologically chemotherapy-good-responders in case total surgical resection is achieved. PMID:24663072

Asada, Nariaki; Kato, Itaru; Daifu, Tomoo; Umeda, Katsutsugu; Hiramatsu, Hidefumi; Okamoto, Takeshi; Toguchida, Junya; Yamawaki, Satoko; Yoshikawa, Katsuhiro; Adachi, Souichi; Heike, Toshio; Watanabe, Kenichiro

2015-01-01

57

Global Horizontal Irradiance Anomalies in Long Term Series Over India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India has a high potential for solar energy applications due to its geographic position within the Sun Belt and the large number of cloudless days in many regions of the country. However, certain regions of India, particularly those largely populated, can exhibit large aerosol loading in the atmosphere as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions that could have a negative feedback in the solar resource potential. This effect, named as solar dimming, has already been observed in India, and in some other regions in the world, by some authors using ground data from the last two decades. The recent interest in the promotion of solar energy applications in India highlights the need of extending and improving the knowledge of the solar radiation resources in this country, since most of the long term measurements available correspond to global horizontal radiation (GHI) and most of them are also located big cities or highly populated areas. In addition, accurate knowledge on the aerosol column quantification and on its dynamical behavior with high spatial resolution is particularly important in the case of India, due to their impact on direct normal irradiation. Long term studies of solar irradiation over India can be performed using monthly means of GHI measurements from the Indian Meteorological Department. Ground data are available from 1964 till today through the World Radiation Data Centre that publish these values in the web. This work shows a long term analysis of GHI using anomalies techniques over ten different sites over India. Besides, techniques of linear trends have been applied for to show the evolution over this period. The analysis of anomalies has also found two periods of different behavior. From 1964 till 1988 the anomalies observed were positive and the last 20 years seems to be a period of negative anomalies. The results exhibit a decreasing trend and negative anomalies confirming thus the darkening effect already reported by solar dimming studies. This observation is also consequent with solar dimming effect, apparently increased during the last two decades due to the increase of aerosol loading in the atmosphere. These results remark the important of having accurate knowledge of atmospheric aerosol loading and its dynamics over India with high spatial resolution in the framework of solar energy deployment in the country. It is worth to mention that greater anomalies and a noticeable decreasing trend found in Calcutta could be correlated with the highly population rate, and thus the greater the population density of the area the greater the negative anomalies and the decreasing trend of solar irradiation monthly means.

Cony, Marco; Liria, Juan; Weisenberg, Ralf; Serrano, Enrique

2014-05-01

58

Rainfall frequency analysis using a mixed Gamma distribution: evaluation of the global warming effect on daily rainfall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of global warming (represented by general circulation model monthly rainfall predictions) on the daily rainfall distribution is investigated using a mixed Gamma distribution to estimate the change of rainfall quantiles. A mixed distribution is used to overcome the limitation of conventional frequency analysis, which uses a continuous distribution, as this is not applicable for the assessment of the effects of global warming. To summarize the results: (1) Even though the variation of daily rainfall distribution is high due to the variation of monthly rainfall amounts, the scale parameter and the wet probability of a mixed Gamma distribution are found to be closely related to the monthly rainfall amounts. On the other hand, the shape factor remains almost the same regardless of the monthly rainfall amount. (2) The rainfall quantiles estimated using the daily rainfall data from June to September were found to be the most similar to those using the annual maximum data. (3) Regardless of the increasing uncertainty as the return period becomes longer, flood risk is found to be increasing as a result of global warming. Copyright

Yoo, Chulsang; Jung, Kwang-Sik; Kim, Tae-Woong

2005-12-01

59

Optimal Normal Tissue Sparing in Craniospinal Axis Irradiation Using IMRT With Daily Intrafractionally Modulated Junction(s)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To develop a treatment technique for craniospinal irradiation using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with improved dose homogeneity at the field junction(s), increased target volume conformity, and minimized dose to the organs at risk (OARs). Methods and Materials: Five patients with high-risk medulloblastoma underwent CT simulation in supine position. For each patient, an IMRT plan with daily intrafractionally modulated junction(s) was generated, as well as a treatment plan based on conventional three-dimensional planning (3DCRT). A dose of 39.6 Gy in 22 daily fractions of 1.8 Gy was prescribed. Dose-volume parameters for target volumes and OARs were compared for the two techniques. Results: The maximum dose with IMRT was <107% in all patients. V{sub <95} and V{sub >107} were <1 cm{sup 3} for IMRT compared with 3-9 cm{sup 3} for the craniospinal and 26-43 cm{sup 3} for the spinal-spinal junction with 3DCRT. These observations corresponded with a lower homogeneity index and a higher conformity index for the spinal planning target volume with IMRT. IMRT provided considerable sparing of acute and late reacting tissues. V{sub 75} for the esophagus, gastroesophageal junction, and intestine was 81%, 81%, and 22% with 3DCRT versus 5%, 0%, and 1% with IMRT, respectively. V{sub 75} for the heart and thyroid was 42% and 32% vs. 0% with IMRT. Conclusion: IMRT with daily intrafractionally modulated junction results in a superior target coverage and junction homogeneity compared with 3DCRT. A significant dose reduction can be obtained for acute as well as late-reacting tissues.

Kusters, Johannes M.A.M.; Louwe, Rob J.W.; Kollenburg, Peter G.M. van; Kunze-Busch, Martina C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Gidding, Corrie E.M. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lindert, Erik J. van [Department of Neurosurgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Janssens, Geert O.R.J., E-mail: g.janssens@rther.umcn.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

2011-12-01

60

ARIMA representation for daily solar irradiance and surface air temperature time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models are used to compare long-range temporal variability of the total solar irradiance (TSI) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and surface air temperature series. The comparison shows that one and the same type of the model is applicable to represent the TSI and air temperature series. In terms of the model type surface air temperature imitates closely that for the TSI. This may mean that currently no other forcing to the climate system is capable to change the random walk type variability established by the varying activity of the rotating Sun. The result should inspire more detailed examination of the dependence of various climate series on short-range fluctuations of TSI.

Kärner, Olavi

2009-06-01

61

Optimization of an artificial neural network dedicated to the multivariate forecasting of daily global radiation  

E-print Network

). The prediction results are also relevant for the concrete case of a tilted PV wall (1.175 kWp). The addition irradiance [MJ/m²] integrate on the day d PKW Peak wind speed, Maximum speed of 10 meters [m.s-1 ] 0H atmospheric optical depth Su Sunshine duration, direct irradiance from the Sun of at least 120 watts per

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

62

Modeling hourly and daily fractions of UV, PAR and NIR to global solar radiation under various sky conditions at Botucatu, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this analysis, using available hourly and daily radiometric data performed at Botucatu, Brazil, several empirical models relating ultraviolet (UV), photosynthetically active (PAR) and near infrared (NIR) solar global components with solar global radiation (G) are established. These models are developed and dis- cussed through clearness index K T (ratio of the global-to-extraterrestrial solar radiation). Results obtained reveal that the

João F. Escobedo; Eduardo N. Gomes; Amauri P. Oliveira; Jacyra Soares

2008-01-01

63

Daily global maps of carbon monoxide from NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first observations of tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard NASA's Aqua satellite. AIRS daily coverage of ~70% of the planet represents a significant evolutionary advance in satellite trace gas remote sensing. Tropospheric CO abundances are retrieved from AIRS 4.55 mum spectral region using the full AIRS retrieval algorithm run in a research

W. W. McMillan; C. Barnet; L. Strow; M. T. Chahine; M. L. McCourt; J. X. Warner; P. C. Novelli; S. Korontzi; E. S. Maddy; S. Datta

2005-01-01

64

Numerical computations of diffuse fraction of global irradiance on an hourly basis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar Energy is the feedstock for various applications of renewable energy sources, thus, the necessity of using global tilted irradiance is acknowledged for the computations of the performance and monitoring of PV Parks and solar energy applications. In general, global tilted irradiance is computed as the sum of the beam component of direct irradiation on the tilted surface, diffuse tilted and reflected irradiance. These three components can be computed using only the values of Global horizontal and diffuse irradiance. However, although for some locations both global and diffuse irradiance are measured, in most locations, the data comprise measurements of only global horizontal irradiance, either measured on-site or determined from satellite data. This research is based on a numerical analysis and the development of empirical correlations for the computation of the hourly diffuse fraction, based on the measurements of the clearness index. The solar altitude is included as a parameter in the computations in order to reduce the error in the computations, since it embraces the effect of the different time and date in the computations. The derived numerical equations are presented in terms of the solar altitude in steps of 5 degrees and are validated using data from the meteorological station of Athalassa, Cyprus, for a ten year period (2001-2010). The statistical analysis from the comparison (in terms of R-squared and RMSE) showed better results for higher elevation angles, compared to the lower elevation angles that represent the early morning or late afternoon times.

Tapakis, Rogiros; Charalambides, Alexandros G.; Michaelides, Silas

2014-05-01

65

Daily and Hourly Variability in Global Fire Emissions and Consequences for Atmospheric Model Predictions of Carbon Monoxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attribution of the causes of atmospheric trace gas and aerosol variability often requires the use of high resolution time series of anthropogenic and natural emissions inventories. Here we developed an approach for representing synoptic- and diurnal-scale temporal variability in fire emissions for the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3). We distributed monthly GFED3 emissions during 2003-2009 on a daily time step using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived measurements of active fires from Terra and Aqua satellites. In parallel, mean diurnal cycles were constructed from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) active fire observations. We found that patterns of daily variability in fires varied considerably across different biomes, with short but intense periods of daily emissions in boreal ecosystems and lower intensity (but more continuous) periods of bunting in savannas. On diurnal timescales, our analysis of the GOES active fires indicated that fires in savannas, grasslands, and croplands occurred earlier in the day as compared to fires in nearby forests. Comparison with Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) column CO observations provided evidence that including daily variability in emissions moderately improved atmospheric model simulations, particularly during the fire season and near regions with high levels of biomass burning. The high temporal resolution estimates of fire emissions developed here may ultimately reduce uncertainties related to fire contributions to atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Important future directions include reconciling top-down and bottom up estimates of fire radiative power and integrating burned area and active fire time series from multiple satellite sensors to improve daily emissions estimates.

Mu, M.; Randerson, J. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Giglio, L.; Kasibhatla, P.; Morton, D.; Collatz, G. J.; DeFries, R. S.; Hyer, E. J.; Prins, E. M.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Wunch, D.; Toon, G. C.; Sherlock, V.; Wennberg, P. O.

2011-01-01

66

Daily and 3-hourly Variability in Global Fire Emissions and Consequences for Atmospheric Model Predictions of Carbon Monoxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attribution of the causes of atmospheric trace gas and aerosol variability often requires the use of high resolution time series of anthropogenic and natural emissions inventories. Here we developed an approach for representing synoptic- and diurnal-scale temporal variability in fire emissions for the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3). We disaggregated monthly GFED3 emissions during 2003.2009 to a daily time step using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ]derived measurements of active fires from Terra and Aqua satellites. In parallel, mean diurnal cycles were constructed from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) active fire observations. Daily variability in fires varied considerably across different biomes, with short but intense periods of daily emissions in boreal ecosystems and lower intensity (but more continuous) periods of burning in savannas. These patterns were consistent with earlier field and modeling work characterizing fire behavior dynamics in different ecosystems. On diurnal timescales, our analysis of the GOES WF_ABBA active fires indicated that fires in savannas, grasslands, and croplands occurred earlier in the day as compared to fires in nearby forests. Comparison with Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) column CO observations provided evidence that including daily variability in emissions moderately improved atmospheric model simulations, particularly during the fire season and near regions with high levels of biomass burning. The high temporal resolution estimates of fire emissions developed here may ultimately reduce uncertainties related to fire contributions to atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Important future directions include reconciling top ]down and bottom up estimates of fire radiative power and integrating burned area and active fire time series from multiple satellite sensors to improve daily emissions estimates.

Mu, M.; Randerson, J. T.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Giglio, L.; Kasibhatla, P.; Morton, D.; Collatz, G. J.; DeFries, R. S.; Hyer, E. J.; Prins, E. M.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Wunch, D.; Toon, G. C.; Sherlock, V.; Wennberg, P. O.

2011-01-01

67

33 Years of Near-Global Daily Precipitation from Multisatellite Observations and its Application to Drought Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PERSIANN Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR) is a new retrospective satellite-based precipitation data set that is constructed for long-term hydrological and climate studies. The PERSIANN-CDR is a near-global (60°S-60°N) long-term (1980-2012), multi-satellite, high-resolution precipitation product that provides rain rate estimates at 0.25° and daily spatiotemporal resolution. PERSIANN-CDR is aimed at addressing the need for a consistent, long-term, high resolution precipitation data set for studying the spatial and temporal variations and changes of precipitation patterns, particularly in a scale relevant to climate extremes at the global scale. PERSIANN-CDR is generated from the PERSIANN algorithm using GridSat-B1 infrared data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). PERSIANN-CDR is adjusted using the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly precipitation to maintain consistency of two data sets at 2.5° monthly scale throughout the entire reconstruction period. PERSIANN-CDR daily precipitation data demonstrates considerable consistency with both GPCP monthly and GPCP 1DD precipitation products. Verification studies over Hurricane Katrina show that PERSIANN-CDR has a good agreement with NCEP Stage IV radar data, noting that PERSIANN-CDR has better spatial coverage. In addition, the Probability Density Function (PDF) of PERSIANN-CDR over the contiguous United States was compared with the PDFs extracted from CPC gauge data and the TMPA precipitation product. The experiment also shows good agreement of the PDF of PERSIANN-CDR with the PDFs of TMPA and CPC gauge data. The application of PERSIANN-CDR in regional and global drought monitoring is investigated. Consisting of more than three decades of high-resolution precipitation data, PERSIANN-CDR makes us capable of long-term assessment of droughts at a higher resolution (0.25°) than previously possible. The results will be presented at the meeting.

Ashouri, H.; Hsu, K.; Sorooshian, S.; Braithwaite, D.; Knapp, K. R.; Cecil, L. D.

2013-12-01

68

Selecting the optimal method to calculate daily global reference potential evaporation from CFSR reanalysis data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential evaporation (PET) is one of the main inputs of hydrological models. Yet, there is limited consensus on which PET equation is most applicable in hydrological climate impact assessments. In this study six different methods to derive global scale reference PET time series from CFSR reanalysis data are compared: Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor and original and modified versions of the Hargreaves and

F. C. Sperna Weiland; C. Tisseuil; H. H. Dürr; M. Vrac; L. P. H. van Beek

2011-01-01

69

A simplified calibrated model for estimating daily global solar radiation in Madinah, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation is the most important parameter in defining the energy budget at the surface thereby influencing the hydroclimate. Several empirical models based on air temperature are developed and used in several decision-making needs such as agriculture and energy sector. However, a calibration against direct observations is a priori for implementing such models. A calibrated model is developed for Saudi Arabia (Madinah) based on observations during 2007-2011. The model is used to estimate daily solar radiation and results show a correlation coefficient of 0.94. The calibrated model outperforms the uncalibrated model available for this location. To increase the confidence, the calibrated model is also compared with a simple artificial neural network.

Benghanem, M.; Mellit, A.

2014-01-01

70

Combination of spaceborne sensor(s) and 3-D aerosol models to assess global daily near-surface air quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol Particulate Matter (PM), measured by ground-based monitoring stations, is used as a standard by the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) to evaluate daily air quality. PM monitoring is particularly important for human health protection because the exposure to suspended particles can contribute, among others, to lung and respiratory diseases and even premature death. However, most of the PM monitoring stations are located close to cities, leaving large areas without any operational data. Satellite remote sensing is well suited for a global coverage of the aerosol load and can provide an independent and supplemental data source to in situ monitoring. Nevertheless, PM at the ground cannot easily be determined from satellite AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth) without additional information on the optical/microphysical properties and vertical distribution of the aerosols. The objective of this study is to explore the efficacy and accuracy of combining a 3-D aerosol transport model and satellite remote sensing as a cost-effective approach for estimating ground-level PM on a global and daily basis. The estimation of the near-surface PM will use the vertical distribution (and, if possible, the physicochemical properties) of the aerosols inferred from a transport model and the measured total load of particles in the atmospheric column retrieved by satellite sensor(s). The first step is to select a chemical transport model (CTM) that provides “good” simulated aerosol vertical profiles. A few global (e.g., WRF-Chem-GOCART) or regional (e.g., MM5-CMAQ, PM-CAMx) CTM will be compared during selected airborne campaigns like ARCTAS-CARB (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites- California Air Resources Board). The next step will be to devise an algorithm that combines the satellite and model data to infer PM mass estimates at the ground, after evaluating different spaceborne instruments and possible multi-sensor combinations.

Kacenelenbogen, M.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.

2009-12-01

71

Global calibration of terrestrial reference cells and errors involved in using different irradiance monitoring techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of global calibration of terrestrial reference cells is discussed. A simple, accurate 'secondary' calibration technique based on ratios of test to reference cell currents measured in natural sunlight is described. Different techniques for monitoring incident irradiance during solar cell performance measurements are also examined and assessed, including the techniques of black-body detectors, calibrated reference cells, and the convolution of spectral response with solar irradiance.

Curtis, H. B.

1980-01-01

72

A Technique for Global Monitoring of Net Solar Irradiance at the Ocean Surface. Part II: Validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study constitutes the generation and validation of the first satellite-based, long-term record of surface solar irradiance over the global oceans. The record is generated using Nimbus-7 earth radiation budget (ERB) wide-field-of-view (WFOV) planetary-albedo data as input to a numerical algorithm designed and implemented for this study based on radiative transfer theory. Net surface solar irradiance is obtained by

Beth Chertock; Robert Frouin; Catherine Gautier

1992-01-01

73

North Pacific cyclonic and anticyclonic transients in a global warming context: possible consequences for Western North American daily precipitation and temperature extremes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trajectories of surface cyclones and anticyclones were constructed using an automated scheme by tracking local minima and\\u000a maxima of mean daily sea level pressure data in the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis and the Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques\\u000a coupled global climate Model (CNRM-CM3) SRES A2 integration. Mid-latitude lows and highs traveling in the North Pacific were\\u000a tracked and daily frequencies were gridded.

Alice Favre; Alexander Gershunov

2009-01-01

74

Simulation Study of Effects of Solar Irradiance and Sea Surface Temperature on Monsoons and Global Circulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A recent version of the GEOS 2 GCM was used to isolate the roles of the annual cycles of solar irradiation and/or sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) on the simulated circulation and rainfall. Four 4-year long integrations were generated with the GCM. The first integration, called Control Case, used daily-interpolated SSTs from a 30 year monthly SST climatology that was obtained from the analyzed SST-data, while the solar irradiation at the top of the atmosphere was calculated normally at hourly intervals. The next two cases prescribed the SSTs or the incoming solar irradiance at the top of the atmosphere at their annual mean values, respectively while everything else was kept the same as in the Control Case. In this way the influence of the annual cycles of both external forcings was isolated.

Sud, Y. C.; Walker, G. K.; Mehta, V.; Lau, W. K.-M.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

75

Solar total irradiance variations and the global sea surface temperature record  

Microsoft Academic Search

The record of globally averaged sea surface temperature (SST) over the past 130 years shows a highly significant correlation with the envelope of the 11-year cycle of solar activity over the same period. This correlation could be explained by a variation in the sun's total irradiance (the solar constant) that is in phase with the solar-cycle envelope, supporting and updating

George C. Reid

1991-01-01

76

Effect of Kuwait's oil-fire smoke cloud on global horizontal irradiance at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of Kuwait's 1991 Oil-Fire smoke cloud on incident total horizontal solar radiation has been investigated using measurements made at the automatic solar radiation and meteorological monitoring station in Dhahran (26[degrees] 32'N, 50[degrees] 13'E), Saudi Arabia. Results indicate that the global horizontal irradiance on smoky days was 70-87% of that on clear\\/non-smoky days and that the Clearness Index was

M. A. Elhadidy; S. M. Shaahid

1994-01-01

77

Time-course study of different innate immune mediators produced by UV-irradiated skin: comparative effects of short and daily versus a single harmful UV exposure.  

PubMed

The modulatory effects of solar UV radiation on the immune system have been widely studied. As the skin is the main target of UV radiation, our purpose was to compare the impact on skin innate immunity of two contrasting ways to be exposed to sunlight. Hairless mice were UV irradiated with a single high UV dose simulating a harmful exposure, or with repetitive low UV doses simulating short occasional daily exposures. Skin samples were taken at different times after UV irradiation to evaluate skin histology, inflammatory cell recruitment, epidermal T-cell population and the mitochondrial function of epidermal cells. The transcriptional profiles of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, antimicrobial peptides and Toll-like receptors were evaluated by RT-PCR and ELISA in tissue homogenates. Finally, a lymphangiography was performed to assess modification in the lymphatic vessel system. A single high UV dose produces a deep inflammatory state characterized by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that, in turn, induces the recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages into the irradiated area. On the other hand, repetitive low UV doses drive the skin to a photo-induced alert state in which there is no sign of inflammation, but the epithelium undergoes changes in thickness, the lymphatic circulation increases, and the transcription of antimicrobial peptides is induced. PMID:25438991

Cela, Eliana M; Friedrich, Adrian; Paz, Mariela L; Vanzulli, Silvia I; Leoni, Juliana; González Maglio, Daniel H

2015-05-01

78

Irradiance Variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the solar interior emerges magnetic flux that alters the Sun's electromagnetic radiation, producing irradiance variability on a wide range of time scales. The organization, outward extension and expansion of magnetic fields structure the solar atmosphere and cause the entire electromagnetic spectrum to vary in different ways, depending on wavelength. Surface magnetic fields produce variations in near UV, visible and near IR spectra which emerge from the photosphere, and comprise the bulk of total irradiance. Yet the correlation of daily total irradiance and total magnetic field strength is poor; rather, the net effect of two different magnetic features - dark sunspots and bright faculae - better account for the variations observed in total irradiance during the solar cycle. The relationship of UV irradiance with magnetic flux is more direct since bright active regions control the global variations in both these quantities. Connecting X-ray and short wavelength EUV irradiance variations to the solar interior requires the extrapolation of emerging surface magnetic fields to the corona and assumptions about the relationship of their strengths and topologies with coronal pressure. Knowledge of the emergence, evolution, transport and decay of magnetic flux is thus a key to understanding and forecasting solar irradiance variability at all wavelengths. Identification of sizeable magnetic regions on the side of the Sun far from Earth may enable EUV and X-ray irradiance forecasts and subsequent space weather effects on time scales of days to weeks. On multi-decadal time scales improved knowledge of the sub surface dynamo and surface transport processes may help constrain secular solar irradiance evolution, needed for climate change attribution. Also needed is quantification of the association between the closed flux that controls irradiance variability and the open flux that extends into the heliosphere. Although utilized frequently to infer irradiance variability, proxies of long-term solar activity in tree-rings and ice-cores actually reflect heliospheric modulation of galactic cosmic rays. Funded by NASA and ONR.

Lean, J. L.

2003-05-01

79

Simulation of the variability and extremes of daily rainfall during the Indian summer monsoon for present and future times in a global time-slice experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the simulation of the variability and extremes of daily rainfall during the Indian summer monsoon for the present-day and the future climate is investigated. This is done on the basis of a global time-slice experiment (TSL) with the ECHAM4 atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) at a high horizontal resolution of T106. The first time-slice (period: 1970–1999) represents

W. May

2004-01-01

80

Quantitative Assessment of the Integrated Response in Global Heat and Moisture Budgets to Changing Solar Irradiance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earlier, we found time sequences of basin- and global-average upper ocean temperature (that is, diabatic heat storage above the main pycnocline) for 40 years from 1955-1994 and of sea surface temperature for 95 years from 1900-1994 associated with changes in the Sun's radiative forcing on decadal and interdecadal timescales, lagging by 10 deg.- 30 deg. of phase and confined to the upper 60-120 m. Yet, the observed changes in upper ocean temperature (approx. 0.1 K) were approximately twice those expected from the Stefan-Boltzmann black-body radiation law for the Earth's surface, with phase lags (0 deg. to 30 deg. of phase) much shorter than the 90 deg. phase shift expected as well. Moreover, White et al. (1997, 1998) found the Earth's global decadal mode in covarying SST and SLP anomalies phase locked to the decadal signal in the Sun's irradiance. Yet, Allan (2000) found this decadal signal also characterized by patterns similar to those observed on biennial and interannual time scales; that is, the Troposphere Biennial Oscillation (TBO) and the El Nino and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This suggested that small changes in the Sun's total irradiance could excite this global decadal mode in the Earth's ocean-atmosphere-terrestrial system similar to those excited internally on biennial and interannual period scales. This is a significant finding, proving that energy budget models (that is, models based on globally-averaged radiation balances) yield unrealistic responses. Thus, the true response must include positive and negative feedbacks in the Earth's ocean-atmosphere-terrestrial system as its internal mode (that is, the natural mode of the system) respond in damped resonance to quasi-periodic decadal changes in the Sun's irradiance. Moreover, these responses are not much different from those occurring internally on biennial and interannual period scales.

White, Warren B.; Cayan, Daniel R.; Dettinger, Michael; Sharber, James (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

81

Solar total irradiance variations and the global sea surface temperature record  

SciTech Connect

The record of globally averaged sea surface temperature (SST) over the past 130 years shows a highly significant correlation with the envelope of the 11-year cycle of solar activity over the same period. This correlation could be explained by a variation in the sun's total irradiance (the solar constant) that is in phase with the solar-cycle envelope, supporting and updating an earlier conclusion by Eddy (1976) that such variations could have played a major role in climate change over the past millennium. Measurements of the total irradiance from spacecraft, rockets, and balloons over the past 25 years have provided evidence of long-term variations and have been used to develop a simple linear relationship between irradiance and the envelope of the sunspot cycle. This relationship has been used to force a one-dimensional model of the thermal structure of the ocean, consisting of a 100-m mixed layer coupled to a deep ocean and including a thermohaline circulation. The model was started in the mid-seventeenth century, at the time of the Maunder Minimum of solar activity, and mixed-layer temperatures were calculated at 6-month intervals up to the present. The total range of irradiance values during the period was about 1%, and the total range of SST was about 1C. Cool periods, when temperatures were about 0.5C below present-day values, were found in the early decades of both the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The results can be taken as indicating that solar variability has been an important contributor to global climate variations in recent decades. The growing atmospheric burden of greenhouse gases may well have played an important role in the immediate past.

Reid, G.C. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (USA) Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (USA))

1991-02-20

82

Seasonal and geographical variation of Linke turbidity factor and its effect on global horizontal irradiance estimation: UAE case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a clear-sky condition, solar radiation travelling through the Earth's atmosphere encounters atmospheric attenuation caused by several factors. Scattering of solar radiation is mainly caused by air molecules, water vapor, water droplets and dust. On the other hand, the absorption of solar radiation is usually related to the presence of O3, water vapor and CO2 layers in the upper atmosphere. Linke turbidity factor (TL) is commonly used to model the attenuation of solar radiation in the atmosphere. TL is the key parameter used in the Heliosat model, which is developed to estimate the global horizontal irradiance (GHI) at the surface of the earth. TL is calculated by the following equation: T_L=?/?_R where ? is the optical thickness of the whole atmosphere, and ?R is the optical thickness of the Rayleigh atmosphere, i.e. the clear and dry atmosphere. The problem with TL is its dependence on the air mass (m). Therefore, TL is normalized to an air mass of 2 in order to reduce the daily variance. In this study, the monthly TL(m=2) is computed over 7 ground-based stations available in the UAE (figure 1). Spatial and temporal analysis was performed to assess the seasonal and the geographical distribution of TL over the UAE. The computed TL(m=2) values are then applied in the Heliosat model to compare between the measured and modeled GHI values. The model treats the atmospheric and cloud transmittances separately. First, clear-sky direct normal irradiance (DNI) and diffused horizontal irradiance (DHI) values are computed using TL(m=2), solar zenith angle, air mass, sun-earth distance correction, solar constant and the Rayleigh optical depth, from that the clear-sky GHI is determined. Next, the cloud index is derived from the HRV channel available from the SEVIRI instrument, and from that the cloud transmission is computed. The product of the cloud transmission and the clear-sky GHI produces the modeled GHI. The comparison between TL calculated over the seven stations show higher turbidity for the 4 inland stations (stations 4-7) in the summer compared to coastal and near-coastal stations (stations 1-3). This difference could be explained by the high dust generation in desert areas surrounding inland stations, in summer dry and hot weather. A preliminary comparison has been performed between the modeled and the measured GHI values over four inland stations (stations 4-7). The obtained results show RMSE and r2 values ranging between 16.7-18% and 0.95-0.96, respectively.

Eissa, Y. A.; Ghedira, H.

2011-12-01

83

Measures of daily distribution patterns of cow calf pairs using global positioning systems on both cows and calves  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

GPS collars were used to describe the daily distribution patterns of cows and their calves from 18 to 60 days postpartum on pinyon juniper-shortgrass rangeland in central New Mexico. Eighteen, 3 year old cows and their calves were fitted weekly with GPS collars for seven consecutive weeks. Twenty da...

84

Estimation of daily global solar radiation in Vietnamese Mekong Delta area: A combinational application of statistical downscaling method and Bayesian inference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term daily global solar radiation (GSR) data of the same quality in the 20th century has been needed as a baseline to assess the climate change impact on paddy rice production in Vietnamese Mekong Delta area (MKD: 104.5-107.5oE/8.2-11.2oN). However, though sunshine duration data is available, the accessibility of GSR data is quite poor in MKD. This study estimated the daily GSR in MKD for 30-yr (1978- 2007) by applying the statistical downscaling method (SDM). The estimates of GSR was obtained from four different sources: (1) the combined equations with the corrected reanalysis data of daily maximum/minimum temperatures, relative humidity, sea level pressure, and precipitable water; (2) the correction equation with the reanalysis data of downward shortwave radiation; (3) the empirical equation with the observed sunshine duration; and (4) the observation at one site for short term. Three reanalysis data, i.e., NCEP-R1, ERA-40, and JRA-25, were used. Also the observed meteorological data, which includes many missing data, were obtained from 11 stations of the Vietnamese Meteorological Agency for 28-yr and five stations of the Global Summary of the Day for 30-yr. The observed GSR data for 1-yr was obtained from our station. Considering the use of data with many missing data for analysis, the Bayesian inference was used for this study, which has the powerful capability to optimize multiple parameters in a non-linear and hierarchical model. The Bayesian inference provided the posterior distributions of 306 parameter values relating to the combined equations, the empirical equation, and the correction equation. The preliminary result shows that the amplitude of daily fluctuation of modeled GSR was underestimated by the empirical equation and the correction equation. The combination of SDM and Bayesian inference has a potential to estimate the long- term daily GSR of the same quality even though in the area where the observed data is quite limited.

Iizumi, T.; Nishimori, M.; Yokozawa, M.; Kotera, A.; Khang, N. D.

2008-12-01

85

Total ozone column, water vapour and aerosol effects on erythemal and global solar irradiance in Marsaxlokk, Malta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of erythemal (UVER; 280-400 nm) and total solar shortwave irradiance (SW; 305-2800 nm), total ozone column (TOC), water vapour column (w), aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent (?) were carried out at Marsaxlokk, in south-east Malta. These measurements were recorded during a measurement campaign between May and October 2012, aimed at studying the influence of atmospheric compounds on solar radiation transfer through the atmosphere. The effects of TOC, AOD and w on UVER and SW (global, diffuse and direct) irradiance were quantified using irradiance values under cloud-free conditions at different fixed solar zenith angles (SZA). Results show that UVER (but not SW) irradiance correlates well with TOC. UVER variations ranged between -0.24% DU-1 and -0.32% DU-1 with all changes being statistically significant. Global SW irradiance varies with water vapour column between -2.44% cm-1 and -4.53% cm-1, these results proving statistically significant and diminishing when SZA increases. The irradiance variations range between 42.15% cm-1 and 20.30% cm-1 for diffuse SW when SZA varies between 20° and 70°. The effect of aerosols on global UVER is stronger than on global SW. Aerosols cause a UVER reduction of between 28.12% and 52.41% and a global SW reduction between 13.46% and 41.41% per AOD550 unit. Empirical results show that solar position plays a determinant role, that there is a negligible effect of ozone on SW radiation, and stronger attenuation by aerosol particles in UVER radiation.

Bilbao, Julia; Román, Roberto; Yousif, Charles; Mateos, David; de Miguel, Argimiro

2014-12-01

86

Stochastic model to describe atmospheric attenuation from yearly global solar irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new stochastic model to describe atmospheric attenuation from yearly global solar irradiation has been developed and implemented. The proposed model takes into account the consideration that the whole of all attenuating elements can be thought of as a population where the higher the number of individuals the lesser the clearness index. Thus, the inverse of the clearness index is considered as the variable of a stochastic process. From the proposed master equation as starting point, the new model is characterized by transition rates (assessed from a growing parameter - G - and a decreasing parameter - D) which depend mainly on the climatological characteristics at each location. In this sense, different regions with an attenuation level calculated from the yearly global irradiation have been established using the Köppen-Geiger climate classification as a first approach. The model parameters G and D have been determined for different regions using the inverse of the clearness index as variable. The probability density function obtained after the application of the stochastic model for each climate zone shows how the index mode increases from the zones with lower levels of attenuation to those with higher levels of attenuation. This result confirms the proposed null hypothesis related to the use of the inverse of the clearness index as an attenuation population indicator. The fit between the empirical data and the data provided for the model is good enough according to a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test with a significance level of 0.05. Nevertheless, it is necessary to slightly modify the climate zones of Köppen-Geiger initial classification for a better explanation of the atmospheric attenuation. This climate zones modification can be considered as an additional result.

Vindel, J. M.; Polo, J.; Zarzalejo, L. F.; Ramírez, L.

2015-02-01

87

External Beam Accelerated Partial-Breast Irradiation Using 32 Gy in 8 Twice-Daily Fractions: 5-Year Results of a Prospective Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: External beam accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is an increasingly popular technique for treatment of patients with early stage breast cancer following breast-conserving surgery. Here we present 5-year results of a prospective trial. Methods and Materials: From October 2003 through November 2005, 98 evaluable patients with stage I breast cancer were enrolled in the first dose step (32 Gy delivered in 8 twice-daily fractions) of a prospective, multi-institutional, dose escalation clinical trial of 3-dimensional conformal external beam APBI (3D-APBI). Median age was 61 years; median tumor size was 0.8 cm; 89% of tumors were estrogen receptor positive; 10% had a triple-negative phenotype; and 1% had a HER-2-positive subtype. Median follow-up was 71 months (range, 2-88 months; interquartile range, 64-75 months). Results: Five patients developed ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), for a 5-year actuarial IBTR rate of 5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1%-10%). Three of these cases occurred in patients with triple-negative disease and 2 in non-triple-negative patients, for 5-year actuarial IBTR rates of 33% (95% CI, 0%-57%) and 2% (95% CI, 0%-6%; P<.0001), respectively. On multivariable analysis, triple-negative phenotype was the only predictor of IBTR, with borderline statistical significance after adjusting for tumor grade (P=.0537). Conclusions: Overall outcomes were excellent, particularly for patients with estrogen receptor-positive disease. Patients in this study with triple-negative breast cancer had a significantly higher IBTR rate than patients with other receptor phenotypes when treated with 3D-APBI. Larger, prospective 3D-APBI clinical trials should continue to evaluate the effect of hormone receptor phenotype on IBTR rates.

Pashtan, Itai M. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Recht, Abram [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ancukiewicz, Marek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Brachtel, Elena [Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Abi-Raad, Rita F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); D'Alessandro, Helen A. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Levy, Antonin; Wo, Jennifer Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hirsch, Ariel E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kachnic, Lisa A. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Goldberg, Saveli [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Specht, Michelle; Gadd, Michelle; Smith, Barbara L. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Powell, Simon N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Taghian, Alphonse G., E-mail: ataghian@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

2012-11-01

88

Modelling the fate of nonylphenolic compounds in the Seine River--part 2: assessing the impact of global change on daily concentrations.  

PubMed

This study aims at modelling the daily concentrations of nonylphenolic compounds such as 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO) and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NP1EC) within the Seine River downstream of Paris City for over a year, firstly in the present state (year 2010) and for years 2050 and 2100 in order to assess the consequences of global change on the fate of nonylphenolic compounds in the Seine river. Concentrations were first simulated for the year 2010 and compared to monthly measured values downstream of Paris. To achieve this goal, the hydrodynamic and biogeochemical model, ProSe, was updated to simulate the fate of 4-NP, NP1EO and NP1EC. The Seine upstream and Oise River (tributaries of the Seine River) concentrations are estimated according to concentrations-flow relationships. For Seine Aval wastewater treatment plant (SA-WWTP), the concentrations are considered constant and the median values of 11 campaigns are used. The biodegradation kinetics of 4-NP, NP1EO and NP1EC in the Seine River were deduced from the results of the companion paper. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient indicates a good efficiency to simulate the concentrations of 4-NP, NP1EC and NP1EO over an entire year. Eight scenarios were built to forecast the impacts of global warming (flow decrease), population growth (SA-WWTP flow increase) and optimisation of wastewater treatment (improvement of the quality of effluents) on annual concentrations of 4-NP, NP1EO and NP1EC at Meulan by 2050 and 2100. As a result, global warming and population growth may increase the concentrations of 4-NP, NP1EC and NP1EO, especially during low-flow conditions, while the optimisation of wastewater treatment is an efficient solution to balance the global change by reducing WWTP outflows. PMID:24095968

Cladière, Mathieu; Bonhomme, Céline; Vilmin, Lauriane; Gasperi, Johnny; Flipo, Nicolas; Habets, Florence; Tassin, Bruno

2014-01-15

89

Integrating Research on Global Climate Change and Human Use of the Oceans: a Geospatial Method for Daily Monitoring of Sea Ice and Ship Traffic in the Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One apparent consequence of global climate change has been a decrease in the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice more rapidly than models have predicted, while Arctic ship traffic has likewise increased beyond economic predictions. To ensure representative observations of changing climate conditions and human use of the Arctic Ocean, we concluded a method of tracking daily changes in both sea ice and shipping in the Arctic Ocean was needed. Such a process improves the availability of sea ice data for navigational safety and allows future developments to be monitored for understanding of ice and shipping in relation to policy decisions appropriate to optimize sustainable use of a changing Arctic Ocean. The impetus for this work was the 2009 Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment (AMSA) which provided baseline data on Arctic ship traffic. AMSA was based on responses from circumpolar countries, was manpower intensive, and took years to compile. A more timely method of monitoring human use of the Arctic Ocean was needed. To address this, a method of monitoring sea ice on a scale relevant to ship-navigation (<10km) was developed and implemented in conjunction with arctic ship tracking using S-AIS (Satellite Automatic Identification Systems). S-AIS is internationally required on ships over a certain size, which includes most commercial vessels in the Arctic Ocean. Daily AIS and sea ice observations were chosen for this study. Results of this method of geospatial analysis of the entire arctic are presented for a year long period from April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2011. This confirmed the dominance of European Arctic ship traffic. Arctic shipping is maximal during August and diminishes in September with a minimum in winter, although some shipping continues year-round in perennially ice-free areas. Data are analyzed for the four principal arctic quadrants around the North Pole by season for number and nationality of vessels. The goal of this study was not merely to monitor ship traffic and ice conditions concurrently, but also to demonstrate a new method of ocean monitoring based on daily assimilation, data fusion, and integrated visualization of satellite ice remote sensing data and S-AIS ship data. In the future, as Arctic ship traffic and cryosphere sea ice cover variability are both expected to increase, this method can provide near real-time physical data on global climate change and human dimensions of ocean use of to guide policies addressing arctic resource management, Search and Rescue (SAR) operations, oil spill response, and issues such as ship noise impacts on marine mammals, and whale-ship collision avoidance. An internationally agreed implementation of this methodology would benefit ships operating in the Arctic and advance sustainable use of the Arctic Ocean.

Eucker, W.; McGillivary, P. A.

2012-12-01

90

The use of LinkWinds for the validation and analysis of 14 years of Microwave Sounder Unit daily global temperature anomaly data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Temperature data derived from the Microwave Sounder Unit (MSU) provides an opportunity for investigating atmospheric temperatures on a global scale since 1979. Fourteen years of global data sets of daily temperature anomalies within the lower stratosphere and lower troposphere are being generated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. LinkWinds, a visualization/analysis package under development at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, has been extremely useful for validating and analyzing these data sets. LinkWinds provides the ability to interactively scroll and animate through the 10,220 images of temporal data, to selectively slice and view the data along latitude, longitude, or temporal axes, to interactively analyze spatial and temporal variability within the data, and to perform correlative analysis between various elements of the data. These capabilities have been invaluable in allowing the recognition of processing artifacts, as well as the effects that physical phenomena, such as the El Ninos effects and the Mt. Pinatubo eruption, have had on atmospheric temperatures.

Botts, Michael E.; Spencer, Roy W.

1995-01-01

91

Spatial Estimation of Sub-Hour Global Horizontal Irradiance Based on Official Observations and Remote Sensors  

PubMed Central

This study was motivated by the need to improve densification of Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) observations, increasing the number of surface weather stations that observe it, using sensors with a sub-hour periodicity and examining the methods of spatial GHI estimation (by interpolation) with that periodicity in other locations. The aim of the present research project is to analyze the goodness of 15-minute GHI spatial estimations for five methods in the territory of Spain (three geo-statistical interpolation methods, one deterministic method and the HelioSat2 method, which is based on satellite images). The research concludes that, when the work area has adequate station density, the best method for estimating GHI every 15 min is Regression Kriging interpolation using GHI estimated from satellite images as one of the input variables. On the contrary, when station density is low, the best method is estimating GHI directly from satellite images. A comparison between the GHI observed by volunteer stations and the estimation model applied concludes that 67% of the volunteer stations analyzed present values within the margin of error (average of ±2 standard deviations). PMID:24732102

Gutierrez-Corea, Federico-Vladimir; Manso-Callejo, Miguel-Angel; Moreno-Regidor, María-Pilar; Velasco-Gómez, Jesús

2014-01-01

92

A globally calibrated aerosol optical depth gridded dataset for improved solar irradiance predictions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shortwave direct normal irradiance (DNI), as well as the diffuse and global irradiance, all depend on aerosol optical depth (AOD). Recent investigations have shown that many existing modeled DNI datasets were severely biased over areas with large and variable AOD, due to errors in the latter data. Unbiased historical DNI data are of crucial importance for the siting, design and financing of large solar power projects, particularly those using concentrators. This requires unbiased AOD data at any site where such projects can be potentially built. Until now, only sunphotometer stations could provide such unbiased data, but these stations are scarce and their records are generally short. For global coverage, gridded AOD data from satellite observations may be used, but their bias is often significant. Moreover, multiwavelength AOD satellite records only exist since 2000 and are not complete over all areas. In this contribution, a method is developed to optimally combine sources of gridded data from various satellites, calibrate them against ground truth on a regional and seasonal basis, and fill missing data points with an appropriate climatology. The monthly satellite data from MODIS (Terra and Aqua, collection 5.1), generated with or without the Deep Blue retrieval algorithm, and from MISR (version 31), are obtained at 0.5x0.5° resolution using appropriate Digital Elevation Models and scale-height corrections of AOD at 550 nm. The ground-truth data originates from networks such as Aeronet. All monthly ground-truth data points are subjected to a scale-height correction for elevation (so that they can be directly compared to the corresponding satellite data), and to a wavelength correction to obtain AOD at 550 nm. This process is undertaken separately for summer and winter, owing to the varying magnitude of AOD, and possible seasonal variations in aerosol composition. For the same reasons, it is also undertaken on a regional basis. The importance of this is confirmed by the uneven results obtained over adjacent areas. In North America, for instance, the MISR dataset and the various MODIS datasets exhibit relatively low bias over most of the continent, but an extremely high bias over the southwestern USA and northern Mexico, possibly due to higher elevation, lower AOD, and more reflective ground. The satellite data calibration (or "debiasing") is performed by applying appropriate scaling factors on a seasonal and regional basis, after comparison with ground truth. To remove all missing data points during the period 2000-2011, an appropriate climatology is selected from existing sources (including chemical transport models), and is subjected to an identical calibration method. A similar methodology is applied to obtain a complete, gridded dataset of the mean monthly Ångström exponent (AE) over the same period of 144 months. The AOD and AE global datasets thus obtained still contain significant random errors, but their regional bias is considerably reduced compared to existing satellite data. Overall, the combination of AOD and AE from these calibrated datasets can significantly improve the derivation of 12-year time series of DNI, which is demonstrated with a few examples.

Gueymard, C. A.

2012-04-01

93

Estimation of confidence intervals of global horizontal irradiance obtained from a weather prediction model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many photovoltaic (PV) systems have been installed in Japan after the introduction of the Feed-in-Tariff. For an energy management of electric power systems included many PV systems, the forecast of the PV power production are useful technology. Recently numerical weather predictions have been applied to forecast the PV power production while the forecasted values invariably have forecast errors for each modeling system. So, we must use the forecast data considering its error. In this study, we attempted to estimate confidence intervals for hourly forecasts of global horizontal irradiance (GHI) values obtained from a mesoscale model (MSM) de-veloped by the Japan Meteorological Agency. In the recent study, we found that the forecasted values of the GHI of the MSM have two systematical forecast errors; the first is that forecast values of the GHI are depended on the clearness indices, which are defined as the GHI values divided by the extraterrestrial solar irradiance. The second is that forecast errors have the seasonal variations; the overestimation of the GHI forecasts is found in winter while the underestimation of those is found in summer. The information of the errors of the hourly GHI forecasts, that is, confidence intervals of the forecasts, is of great significance for planning the energy management included a lot of PV systems by an electric company. On the PV systems, confidence intervals of the GHI forecasts are required for a pinpoint area or for a relatively large area control-ling the power system. For the relatively large area, a spatial-smoothing method of the GHI values is performed for both the observations and forecasts. The spatial-smoothing method caused the decline of confidence intervals of the hourly GHI forecasts on an extreme event of the GHI forecast (a case of large forecast error) over the relatively large area of the Tokyo electric company (approximately 68 % than for a pinpoint forecast). For more credible estimation of the confidence intervals, it is required to consider the location of the installed PV systems or its capacity over the region.

Ohtake, Hideaki; Gari da Silva Fonseca, Joao, Jr.; Takashima, Takumi; Oozeki, Takashi; Yamada, Yoshinori

2014-05-01

94

Advanced chemistry-transport modeling and observing systems allow daily air quality observations, short-term forecasts, and real-time analyses of air quality at the global and  

E-print Network

Advanced chemistry-transport modeling and observing systems allow daily air quality observations, short-term forecasts, and real-time analyses of air quality at the global and European scales control measures that could be taken for managing such episodes, European-scale air quality forecasting

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

95

Application of A Global-To-Beam Irradiance Model to the Satellite-Based NASA GEWEX SRB Data and Validation of the Results against the Ground-Based BSRN Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA/GEWEX SRB (Surface Radiation Budget) project has produced a 24.5-year continuous global record of shortwave and longwave radiation flux dataset at TOA and the Earth's surface from satellite measurements. The time span of the data is from July 1983 to December 2007, and the spatial resolution is 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude. SRB products are available on 3-hourly, 3-hourly-monthly, daily and monthly time scales. The inputs to the models include: 1.) Cloud parameters derived from pixel-level DX product of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP); 2.) Temperature and moisture profiles of the atmosphere generated with the Goddard Earth Observing System model Version 4.0.3 (GEOS-4.0.3) from a 4-D data assimilation product of the Data Assimilation Office at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; 3.) Atmospheric column ozone record constructed from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aboard Nimbus-7 (July 1983 - November 1994), from the Operational Vertical Sounder aboard the Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS, TOVS) (December 1994 - October 1995), from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and from Stratospheric Monitoring Ozone Blended Analysis (SMOBA) products; 4.) Surface albedos based on monthly climatological clear-sky albedos at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) which in turn were derived from the NASA Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data during 2000-2005; 5.) Surface emissivities from a map developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The SRB global irradiances have been extensively validated against the ground-based BSRN (Baseline Surface Radiation Network), GEBA (Global Energy Balance Archive), and WRDC (World Radiation Data Centre) data, and generally good agreement is achieved. In this paper, we apply the DirIndex model, a modified version of the DirInt model, to the SRB 3-hourly global irradiances and derive the 3-hourly beam, or direct normal, irradiances. Daily and monthly mean direct normal and diffuse irradiances are derived. The input variables include, among others, surface pressure, precipitable water, geopotential height of the surface, 10-meter temperature, and specific humidity from GEOS, and AOD at 700 nm derived from the MATCH (Model for Atmospheric Transport and CHemistry) data. The DirIndex model is modified to accommodate the ranges of the input variables wider than specified in the original DirIndex model. The results are then validated against their BSRN counterparts. Compared with an earlier empirical model for monthly means, the results from the modified DirIndex model shows appreciable improvement.

Zhang, T.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.; Chandler, W.; Hoell, J. M.; Westberg, D. J.

2012-12-01

96

Surface ultraviolet irradiance from OMI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura spacecraft is a nadir-viewing spectrometer that measures solar reflected and backscattered light in a selected range of the ultraviolet and visible spectrum. The instrument has a 2600-km-wide viewing swath, and it is capable of daily, global contiguous mapping. We developed and implemented a surface ultraviolet (UV) irradiance

Aapo Tanskanen; Nickolay A. Krotkov; Jay R. Herman; Antti Arola

2006-01-01

97

A Comparison Between Heliosat-2 and Artificial Neural Network Methods for Global Horizontal Irradiance Retrievals over Desert Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global horizontal irradiance (GHI) retrievals at the surface of any given location could be used for preliminary solar resource assessments. More accurately, the direct normal irradiance (DNI) and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) are also required to estimate the global tilt irradiance, mainly used for fixed flat plate collectors. Two different satellite-based models for solar irradiance retrievals have been applied over the desert environment of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Both models employ channels of the SEVIRI instrument, onboard the geostationary satellite Meteosat Second Generation, as their main inputs. The satellite images used in this study have a temporal resolution of 15-min and a spatial resolution of 3-km. The objective of this study is to compare between the GHI retrieved using the Heliosat-2 method and an artificial neural network (ANN) ensemble method over the UAE. The high-resolution visible channel of SEVIRI is used in the Heliosat-2 method to derive the cloud index. The cloud index is then used to compute the cloud transmission, while the cloud-free GHI is computed from the Linke turbidity factor. The product of the cloud transmission and the cloud-free GHI denotes the estimated GHI. A constant underestimation is observed in the estimated GHI over the dataset available in the UAE. Therefore, the cloud-free DHI equation in the model was recalibrated to fix the bias. After recalibration, results over the UAE show a root mean square error (RMSE) value of 10.1% and a mean bias error (MBE) of -0.5%. As for the ANN approach, six thermal channels of SEVIRI were used to estimate the DHI and the total optical depth of the atmosphere (?). An ensemble approach is employed to obtain a better generalizability of the results, as opposed to using one single weak network. The DNI is then computed from the estimated ? using the Beer-Bouguer-Lambert law. The GHI is computed from the DNI and DHI estimates. The RMSE for the estimated GHI obtained over an independent dataset over the UAE is 7.2% and the MBE is +1.9%. The results obtained by the two methods have shown that both the recalibrated Heliosat-2 and the ANN ensemble methods estimate the GHI at a 15-min resolution with high accuracy. The advantage of the ANN ensemble approach is that it derives the GHI from accurate DNI and DHI estimates. The DNI and DHI estimates are valuable when computing the global tilt irradiance. Also, accurate DNI estimates are beneficial for preliminary site selection for concentrating solar powered plants.

Ghedira, H.; Eissa, Y.

2012-12-01

98

Poetry Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some might say that a poem a day isn't nearly enough, while the skeptical might say that it is quite enough already, thank you very much. Regardless of that debate, Poetry Daily is a splendid resource that brings visitors new poems from books, magazines and journals currently in print. Visitors to the site will find themselves looking straight at "Today's Poem", which of course features the daily poem, along with links to other works by the author. If one poem is simply not enough, the site also contains an archive that goes back approximately one year. Additionally, the site also contains a "News, Reviews, & Special Features" section, which digests recent news stories about the world of poetry.

99

Daily Grammar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Authored by Bill Johanson, a veteran English teacher of junior high and high school students, this Website offers students the opportunity to take their daily dose of grammar electronically. On the site, visitors can sign up for a free email service that sends five grammar lessons a week -- one for each day -- and a sixth one that offers a quiz on the week's lessons. The next scheduled run of the 300 lessons on the standard topics of traditional grammar -- parts of speech, tense, sentence structure, adjectives and adverbs, complex sentence structure, etc. -- begins September 1. Students can sign up now for this cycle (another cycle will begin on January 1, 2001), or they can simply go at their own pace using the complete archive of the lessons posted on-site. Daily Grammar is offered by Word Place, Inc., a purveyor of word processing software and supplemental aids to electronic written communication.

100

Constitution Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Everyone could use a bit of the Constitution added to their daily lives, and this website more than delivers on its promise to deliver "smart conversation about the Constitution". Constitution Daily is an experimental blog edited by the National Constitution Center (NCC) in Philadelphia, and commentary here can include conversations about student privacy rights, the Second Amendment, and the activities of Congress. Visitors can click on the "Issues" section to dive into topic areas that include civility and privacy. After looking at each topic area, visitors can look at an interactive timeline that arranges comments, posts, and discussion on the subject. The site also contains some nice polls, and information about upcoming events at the NCC.

101

Global and direct UV irradiance variation in the Nahuel Huapi National Park (Patagonia, Argentina) after the eruption of Puyehue-Cordon Caulle (Chile)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On June 4th, 2011, the Puyehue-Cordon Caulle volcanic complex (40°35?25?S 72°07?02?W, Chile) started eruption, sending ash 45,000 feet into the atmosphere. After the initial period, the eruption continued for several months, with less intensity. Changes in global irradiance in the UV-B and UV-A, and direct irradiance and AOD in the UV-A, as consequence of the eruption, were studied. Global irradiance has been permanently measured at the Laboratory of Photobiology (LPh) (41.13S, 71.42W, 804 msl) since 1998. In addition, in the frame of a project to study altitude effect on direct and global irradiance, field campaigns were performed during September 17th to 23rd, 2010 and September 14th to 18th, 2011, in the region of the Nahuel Huapi National Park, near 100 km from the eruption. In those periods, simultaneous measurements of direct and global irradiance and aerosol optical depth (AOD) were carried out at three sites: Laboratory of Photobiology (LPh), Mt Otto (41.15S, 71.38W, 1386 msl) and Mt Catedral (41.17S, 71.48W, 1930 msl). The analysis of aerosols in 2011, three to four month after the eruption started, showed the presence of larger particles and more variability than in 2010, at all sites. Global irradiance, at LPh, also exhibited larger variability, compared to 1999, when no eruption or any other event that could have produced major changes in aerosols occurred. The mean decrease, as consequence of the volcano activity, at LPh, was around 20%, at 305 nm and closed to 10%, at 320 nm. At 380 nm, the decrease was very small and not statistically significant, although in particular days, with large aerosol load, a significant decrease was observed. Direct irradiance, in the UV-A, showed larger decrease than global irradiance. The effect of the eruption was more pronounced at the low altitude site.

Diaz, S. B.; Paladini, A. A.; Braile, H. G.; Dieguez, M. C.; Deferrari, G. A.; Vernet, M.; Vrsalovic, J.

2014-05-01

102

Dependence on solar elevation and the daily sunshine fraction of the correlation between monthly-average-hourly diffuse and global radiation  

SciTech Connect

In the present work the authors study for Uccle, Belgium data (50{degree}48 minutes N, 4{degree}21 minutes E), the dependence on {anti {gamma}} and {sigma} of the correlations between {anti K}{sub d} = {anti I}{sub d}/{anti I}{sub o} and {anti I}{sub t} = {anti I}/{anti I}{sub o}, where {anti I}, {anti I}{sub d}, and {anti I}{sub o} are respectively, the monthly-average-hourly value of global, diffuse, and extraterrestrial radiation (all of them on a horizontal surface), {anti {gamma}} is the solar elevation at midhour and {sigma} the daily sunshine fraction. The dependence on {sigma} is studied for different ranges of values, from {sigma} = 0 to {sigma} > 0.9. The dependence on {anti {gamma}} is studied for {anti {gamma}} = 5{degree}, 10{degree}, 15{degree}, 25{degree}-30{degree}; 35{degree}-40{degree}; 45{degree}-60{degree} ({delta}{anti {gamma}} = 5{degree}). Relating the dependence on {sigma}, for increasing values of {sigma}({sigma} {>=} 0), there is an increase in {anti K}{sub d} with the increase in {anti K}{sub t}. For 0.42 < {anti K}{sub t} < 0.52 a maximum is obtained for {anti K}{sub d}. After the maximum, as the skies become clearer, {anti K}{sub d} decreases as {anti K}{sub t} increases. Relating the dependence on {anti {gamma}}, for each range of values of {sigma} ({sigma} > 0.2), values of the slope for linear {anti K}{sub d} = f({anti K}{sub t}) correlations show a tendency to decrease as {anti {gamma}} increases. For each value of {anti {gamma}} the slopes of the linear {anti K}{sub d} = f({anti K}{sub t}) correlations tend to decrease when {sigma} increases.

Soler, A. (E.T.S. Arquitectura, Madrid (Spain))

1992-01-01

103

Computer software affects almost every aspect of our daily lives, and it lies behind the most basic and the most complex processes of global industry.  

E-print Network

GPS ONLINE Computer software affects almost every aspect of our daily lives, and it lies behind complicated computing problems, and solving those problems means drawing on expertise from many different, architectures and life-cycle approaches in the context of different organizational structures, with demonstrated

Fraden, Seth

104

Solutions Network Formulation Report. Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor Measurements of Diffuse-to-Global Irradiance Ratio for Improved Forecasting of Plant Productivity and Health  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies have shown that vegetation is directly sensitive to changes in the diffuse-to-global irradiance ratio and that increased percentage of diffuse irradiation can accelerate photosynthesis. Therefore, measurements of diffuse versus global irradiance could be useful for monitoring crop productivity and overall vegetative health as they relate to the total amount of particulates in the air that result from natural disasters or anthropogenic (manmade) causes. While the components of solar irradiance are measured by satellite and surface sensors and calculated with atmospheric models, disagreement exists between the results, creating a need for more accurate and comprehensive retrievals of atmospheric aerosol parameters. Two satellite sensors--APS and VIIRS--show promise for retrieving aerosol properties at an unprecedented level of accuracy. APS is expected to be launched in December 2008. The planned launch date for VIIRS onboard NPP is September 2009. Identified partners include the USDA s ARS, North Carolina State University, Purdue Climate Change Research Center, and the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere at Colorado State University. Although at present no formal DSSs (decision support systems) require accurate values of diffuse-to-global irradiance, this parameter is sufficiently important that models are being developed that will incorporate these measurements. This candidate solution is aligned with the Agricultural Efficiency and Air Quality National Applications.

Knowlton, Kelly; Andrews, Jane C.; Ryan, Robert E.

2007-01-01

105

Estimation of monthly values of atmospheric turbidity using measured values of global irradiation and estimated values from CSR and Yang Hybrid models. Study case: Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For ten sites in Argentina, monthly average Ångström turbidity coefficient ? values were estimated using mean monthly global solar irradiation values measured at these sites from the former Argentinean radiometric network REDSOL. The values of the horizontal direct and diffuse components of the global irradiation were estimated using the Yang Hybrid model (YHM) and, to determine the representativeness of those results, they were compared to values from the SWERA database which uses the CSR model, developed by NREL, to make estimates. An inconsistency in the estimated values of the diffuse component was detected, therefore a new expression for that component was proposed, generating a corrected version of the YHM (CYHM). The turbidity coefficient ? is considered an independent variable in the equation that estimates the direct transmittance and the values that forces an exact correlation between the measured monthly average global irradiance values with those estimated with the CYHM are considered representative for each site since the RMSE between the monthly global irradiation values of SWERA and CYHM is 11.7%, this value being very close to that found by the designers of the CSR model (10%) when they tested it with meteorological data from USA. The monthly average value estimates of turbidity coefficient ? show expected behavior, with values varying according to the season of the year.

Salazar, Germán A.

2011-05-01

106

The effect of surface irradiance on the absorption spectrum of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in the global ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cycling pathways of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) within marine systems must be constrained to better assess the impact of CDOM on surface ocean photochemistry and remote sensing of ocean color. Photobleaching, the loss of absorption by CDOM due to light exposure, is the primary sink for marine CDOM. Herein the susceptibility of CDOM to photobleaching by sea surface-level solar radiation was examined in 15 samples collected from wide-ranging open ocean regimes. Samples from the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian and Southern Oceans were irradiated over several days with full-spectrum light under a solar simulator at in situ temperature in order to measure photobleaching rate and derive an empirical matrix, ?surf (m-1 ?Ein-1), which quantifies the effect of surface irradiance on the spectral absorption of CDOM. Irradiation responses among the ocean samples were similar within the ultraviolet (UV) region of the spectrum spanning 300-360 nm, generally exhibiting a decrease in the CDOM absorption coefficient (m-1) and concomitant increase in the CDOM spectral slope parameter, S (nm-1). However, an unexpected irradiation-induced increase in CDOM absorption between approximately 360 and 500 nm was observed for samples from high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) environments. This finding was linked to the presence of dissolved nitrate and may explain discrepancies in action spectra for dimethylsulfide (DMS) photobleaching observed between the Equatorial Pacific and Subtropical North Atlantic Oceans. The nitrate-to-phosphate ratio explained 27-70% of observed variability in ?surf at observation wavelengths of 330-440 nm, while the initial spectral slope of the samples explained up to 52% of variability in ?surf at observation wavelengths of 310-330 nm. These results suggest that the biogeochemical and solar exposure history of the water column, each of which influence the chemical character and thus the spectral quality of CDOM and its photoreactivity, are the main factors regulating the susceptibility of CDOM to photodegradation in the surface ocean. The ?surf parameter reported herein may be applied to remote sensing retrievals of CDOM to estimate photobleaching at the surface on regional to global scales.

Swan, Chantal M.; Nelson, Norman B.; Siegel, David A.; Kostadinov, Tihomir S.

2012-05-01

107

Comparison of direct normal irradiance derived from silicon and thermopile global hemispherical radiation detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrating solar applications utilize direct normal irradiance (DNI) radiation, a measurement rarely available. The solar concentrator industry has begun to deploy numerous measurement stations to prospect for suitable system deployment sites. Rotating shadowband radiometers (RSR) using silicon photodiodes as detectors are typically deployed. This paper compares direct beam estimates from RSR to a total hemispherical measuring radiometer (SPN1) multiple fast thermopiles. These detectors simultaneously measure total and diffuse radiation from which DNI can be computed. Both the SPN1 and RSR-derived DNI are compared to DNI measured with thermopile pyrheliometers. Our comparison shows that the SPN1 radiometer DNI estimated uncertainty is somewhat greater than, and on the same order as, the RSR DNI estimates for DNI magnitudes useful to concentrator technologies.

Myers, Daryl R.

2010-08-01

108

Comparison of Direct Normal Irradiance Derived from Silicon and Thermopile Global Hemispherical Radiation Detectors: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Concentrating solar applications utilize direct normal irradiance (DNI) radiation, a measurement rarely available. The solar concentrator industry has begun to deploy numerous measurement stations to prospect for suitable system deployment sites. Rotating shadowband radiometers (RSR) using silicon photodiodes as detectors are typically deployed. This paper compares direct beam estimates from RSR to a total hemispherical measuring radiometer (SPN1) multiple fast thermopiles. These detectors simultaneously measure total and diffuse radiation from which DNI can be computed. Both the SPN1 and RSR-derived DNI are compared to DNI measured with thermopile pyrheliometers. Our comparison shows that the SPN1 radiometer DNI estimated uncertainty is somewhat greater than, and on the same order as, the RSR DNI estimates for DNI magnitudes useful to concentrator technologies.

Myers, D. R.

2010-01-01

109

Fifteen-year results of a randomized prospective trial of hyperfractionated chest wall irradiation versus once-daily chest wall irradiation after chemotherapy and mastectomy for patients with locally advanced noninflammatory breast cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To analyze the results of a Phase III clinical trial that investigated whether a hyperfractionated radiotherapy (RT) schedule could reduce the risk of locoregional recurrence in patients with locally advanced breast cancer treated with chemotherapy and mastectomy. Methods and Materials: Between 1985 and 1989, 200 patients with clinical Stage III noninflammatory breast cancer were enrolled in a prospective study investigating neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy. Of the 179 patients treated with mastectomy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 108 participated in a randomized component of the trial that compared a dose-escalated, hyperfractionated (twice-daily, b.i.d.) chest wall RT schedule (72 Gy in 1.2-Gy b.i.d. fractions) with a once-daily (q.d.) schedule (60 Gy in 2-Gy q.d. fractions). In both arms of the study, the supraclavicular fossa and axillary apex were treated once daily to 50 Gy. The median follow-up period was 15 years. Results: The 15-year actuarial locoregional recurrence rate was 7% for the q.d. arm and 12% for the b.i.d. arm (p = 0.36). The rates of severe acute toxicity were similar (4% for q.d. vs. 5% for b.i.d.), but moist desquamation developed in 42% of patients in the b.i.d. arm compared with 28% of the patients in the q.d. arm (p = 0.16). The 15-year actuarial rate of severe late RT complications did not differ between the two arms (6% for q.d. vs. 11% for b.i.d., p = 0.54). Conclusion: Although the sample size of this study was small, we found no evidence that this hyperfractionation schedule of postmastectomy RT offered a clinical advantage. Therefore, we have concluded that it should not be further studied in this cohort of patients.

Buchholz, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)]. E-mail: tbuchhol@mdanderson.org; Strom, Eric A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Oswald, Mary Jane [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Perkins, George H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Oh, Julia [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Domain, Delora [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Yu, Tse-Kuan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Woodward, Wendy A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Tereffe, Welela [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Singletary, S. Eva [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Thomas, Eva [Department of Breast Medical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Buzdar, Aman U. [Department of Breast Medical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Hortobagyi, Gabriel N. [Department of Breast Medical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); McNeese, Marsha D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2006-07-15

110

Inter-daily variability of a strong thermally-driven wind system over the Atacama Desert of South America: synoptic forcing and short-term predictability using the GFS global model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crucial aspects of a strong thermally-driven wind system in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile during the extended austral winter season (May-September) are studied using 2 years of measurement data from the Sierra Gorda 80-m meteorological mast (SGO, 22° 56' 24? S; 69° 7' 58? W, 2,069 m above sea level (a.s.l.)). Daily cycles of atmospheric variables reveal a diurnal (nocturnal) regime, with northwesterly (easterly) flow and maximum mean wind speed of 8 m/s (13 m/s) on average. These distinct regimes are caused by pronounced topographic conditions and the diurnal cycle of the local radiative balance. Wind speed extreme events of each regime are negatively correlated at the inter-daily time scale: High diurnal wind speed values are usually observed together with low nocturnal wind speed values and vice versa. The associated synoptic conditions indicate that upper-level troughs at the coastline of southwestern South America reinforce the diurnal northwesterly wind, whereas mean undisturbed upper-level conditions favor the development of the nocturnal easterly flow. We analyze the skill of the numerical weather model Global Forecast System (GFS) in predicting wind speed at SGO. Although forecasted wind speeds at 800 hPa do show the diurnal and nocturnal phases, observations at 80 m are strongly underestimated by the model. This causes a pronounced daily cycle of root-mean-squared error (RMSE) and bias in the forecasts. After applying a simple Model Output Statistics (MOS) post-processing, we achieve a good representation of the wind speed intra-daily and inter-daily variability, a first step toward reducing the uncertainties related to potential wind energy projects in the region.

Jacques-Coper, Martín; Falvey, Mark; Muñoz, Ricardo C.

2014-07-01

111

Hourly global irradiance from satellite data in Badajoz, Spain: Spatial and temporal dependence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite estimates of solar radiation at the hourly scale depend on the spatial and temporal variability of solar radiation within a region. To examine this effect, a field program was established near Badajoz, Spain (38.88°N, 7.01°W) consisting in deployment of seven pyranometers at or adjoining the Meteosat pixel for the area. A simple semiempirical retrieval approach based on the satellite reflectance was developed using data from one pyranometer station at the University campus and subsequently tested with an independent data set for the same station. The accuracy of the satellite estimate is a strong function of the averaging period and the frequency of satellite scans used. At the hourly scale, best estimates of solar irradiance are obtained with satellite data taken every 5 min, giving a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.883. Within-pixel spatial variability of measured irradiance is substantial but only for averaging periods less than 1 h. Comparison of surface point measurements with the satellite retrieval algorithm at the 5 min scale are associated with a relative RMS difference of 20.2% out of which 19.5% is due to model-induced uncertainties and 5.2% is due to instrumentation uncertainties involved in the retrieval process. Within-pixel point sampling will lower both the instrument uncertainty and the uncertainty in the retrieval algorithm for averaging periods lower than 1 h. Beyond this time, a single pyranometer is well representative of the overhead cloud structure, reaching root mean square difference values of 14% at the hourly scale.

Nunez, M.; Serrano, A.; Cancillo, M. L.

2013-05-01

112

Changes in the intensity of daily precipitation  

E-print Network

.J. Hennessy, 1995: Potential impacts of global warming on the frequency and magnitude of heavy precipitation? 4. What changes are predicted for the future? 2. Data and method1. Introduction Global warming: Assessing simulations of daily temperature and precipitation variability with global climate models

Feigon, Brooke

113

Globalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Looking at religion from a global perspective requires that we first of all be clear about what that implies. What, sociologically,\\u000a can we mean by “global”? A simple answer would be to say that we would be looking at the entire globe as our unit of analysis\\u000a and not only some part of it, but that elaboration does not go

Peter Beyer

114

A reconstruction of solar irradiance using a flux transport model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar irradiance is one of the important drivers of the Earth's global climate, but it has only been measured for the past 33 years. Its reconstructions are therefore crucial to study longer term variations relevant to climate timescales. Most successful in reproducing the measured irradiance variations have being the models that are based on the assumption that irradiance changes are caused by the evolution of the photospheric magnetic field. Our SATIRE-S model is one of these, which uses solar full-disc magnetograms as an input, and these are available for less than four decades. To reconstruct the irradiance back to times when no observed magnetograms are available, we combine the SATIRE-S model with synthetic magnetograms, produced using a surface flux transport model. The model is fed with daily, observed or modelled statistically, records of sunspot positions, areas, and tilt angles. The concept of overlapping ephemeral region cycles is used to describe the secular change in the irradiance.

Dasi Espuig, Maria; Krivova, Natalie; Solanki, Sami K.; Jiang, Jie

2012-07-01

115

The Daily Martian Weather Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Mars Global Surveyor Radio Science Team features the results of a detailed study of the Martian atmosphere in the form of a daily weather report and precise atmospheric measurements for the planet Mars. Atmospheric temperature and pressure profiles which have been archived with NASA's Planetary Data System are also available on this site. These profiles illustrate the vertical structure of the atmosphere of Mars. The site also includes links to many images of Martian atmospheric and weather phenomena (with captions) from the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera (MGS MOC), the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) and the Hubble Space Telescope.

Mars Global Surveyor Radio Science Team

116

White Paper on SBUV/2 Solar Irradiance Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The importance of solar irradiance measurements by the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet, Model 2 (SBUV/2) instruments on NOAA's operational satellites is described. These measurements are necessary accurately monitor the long-term changes in the global column ozone amount, the altitude distribution of ozone in the upper stratosphere, and the degree to which ozone changes are caused by anthropogenic sources. Needed to accomplish these goals are weekly solar irradiance measurements at the operational ozone wavelengths, daily measurements of the Mg II proxy index, instrument-specific Mg II scale factors, and daily measurements of the solar spectral irradiance at photochemically important wavelengths. Two solar measurement schedules are provided: (1) a baseline schedule for all instruments except the NOAA-14 instrument and (2) a modified schedule for the NOAA-14 SBUV/2 instrument. This latter schedule is needed due to the NOAA-14 grating drive problems.

Hilsenrath, Ernest; DeLand, Matthew T.; Cebula, Richard P.

1996-01-01

117

Cirrus cloud radiative forcing on surface-level shortwave and longwave irradiances at regional and global scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cirrus clouds not only play a major role in the energy budget of the Earth-Atmosphere system, but are also important in the hydrological cycle. According to satellite passive remote sensing high-altitude clouds cover as much as 40% of the earth's surface on average and can reach 70% of cloud cover over the Tropics. Hence, given their very large cloud cover, the relatively small instantaneous radiative effects of these cirrus clouds can engender a significant cumulative radiative forcing at the surface. Precise calculations of the cirrus cloud radiative forcing are obtained from the difference between measured radiative fluxes downwelling at the surface in the presence of cirrus clouds (broadband flux measurements) and computed clear sky references (parametric models with RMS error < 5 W m-2). Overcast and clear sky period identification is obtained from a combined analysis of lidar and broadband flux measurements. In this study, we analyze two datasets: ground-based and satellite measurements. The firsts corresponds to solar and infrared irradiance measurements, cloud and aerosol Lidar backscattering profiles, microwave radiometer brightness temperatures, radiosonde profiles, and sun-photometer extinctions monitored at four observatories located in the midlatitudes (SIRTA Observatory and ARM SGP Lamont), the Tropics (ARM TWP Nauru) and the Arctic (ARM NSA Barrow). This dataset permits us to estimate the Cirrus cloud Radiative Forcing (cloud base altitude above 7 km) on surface-level shortwave (CRFSW) and longwave (CRFLW) irradiances. The sensitivity of CRFSW to Cloud Optical Thickness (noted CRFSW*) is established and ranges from 100 W m-2 to 200 W m-2 per unit of cloud optical thickness. The important variability of aerosols and water vapor content obtained in studying the 4 observatories allows us to quantify the combined influence of aerosol optical thickness and integrated water vapor on CRFSW* : 10 to 20 % CRFSW* range for turbid and pristine atmosphere. Moreover, the sensitivity of the CRFLW to both cloud emissivity and cloud temperature (noted CRFLW*) is established and the influence of integrated water vapor on CRFLW* quantified: partial infrared opacity for arctic site (dry atmosphere) and quasi-total infrared opacity for tropical site (wet atmosphere), respectively 20% and 97% of opacity. Cirrus cloud radiative forcing parameterizations are hence developed starting from the ground-based collocated measurements. They relate CRFSW or CRFLW to cirrus cloud macrophysical properties, atmospheric humidity, aerosol content and solar zenith angle. Satellite measurements are used next as input parameters to the cirrus cloud radiative forcing parameterizations to calculate CRFSW and CRFLW at global scale. CALIOP provide aerosol and cirrus cloud properties and AIRS the integrated water vapor. Meridian distribution are shown and discussed. They reveal a positive cirrus cloud net radiative effect (CRFSW + CRFLW) from 30°N poleward during boreal winter and from 45°S during austral winter. The cumulative cirrus cloud net radiative effect reaches +1.5 W m-2 for these two winter cases and -8 W m-2 near the equator.

Dupont, J. C.; Haeffelin, M.; Long, C. N.

2009-04-01

118

Evaluation of Solar Irradiance Models with a Special Referenceto Globally-Parameterized and Land Cover-Sensitive Solar123  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical models are often the only means available to generate solar irradiance (SR) information, for historical or future SR specifications as well as due to inadequacies of contemporary SR measurements. This paper evaluates five such models that have been proposed as generic and applied as such. Special emphasis is given to Solar123, an integrative model rooted in Lambert's Cosine Law and Bouguer's Law with globally-parameterized atmospheric property functions and with input limited to precipitation, air temperature, geographic location, topography and rudimentary land cover information. The selected SR models in general perform well in reproducing the SR data for the USA, with a root mean square error-to-data mean ratio (RMSE/SRmean ratio) of 9.8-11.4%. A possible exception is the Bristow-Campbell logic as implemented by the Vegetation/Ecosystem Modeling and Analysis Project. Beyond the USA, Solar123 yields an RMSE/SRmean ratio of 8-17% by region (196 stations in total), generally outperforming the other SR models. Compared to time-sequential monthly SR data, projections by Solar123 have an RMSE/SRmean ratio of 8.6-14.1% for six weather stations representative of major climate regimes in Canada, or an RMSE/SRmean ratio of 13-24% for three forest sites in the USA, Germany and Japan. Solar123 projections also compare favorably against the output from the General Circulation Models in terms of ratio change in SR with the doubling of the atmospheric carbon-dioxide concentration: the two fall within +/-10% of each other for 85% of a total 264 cases, and within +/-20% for all but 3 of the cases. The above statistics suggest that Solar123 represents an improvement over other SR models not only in configuration but also in projection accuracy, and that Solar123 is useful for projecting spatial variation in SR across weather stations around the world and over different land covers, and for projecting temporal variation in SR under the present climate regimes and likely for regimes changed beyond the present fluctuation range. The work further calls into question the common practice of applying SR data irrespective of local land cover.

Yin, X.

119

Chronic daily headaches  

PubMed Central

Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches. PMID:23024563

Ahmed, Fayyaz; Parthasarathy, Rajsrinivas; Khalil, Modar

2012-01-01

120

Columbia Journalism Review Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The journalism school at Columbia University is held in high-regard by many for their commitment to training journalists that will hold a high standard of quality investigative reporting that will inspire future generations of like-minded individuals. As with many journalism schools, they have made great headway into offering both critique and comment on the changing world of journalism, and the Columbia Journalism Review Daily is a fine example of such efforts. The Daily was born in 2004 with a mandate to monitor coverage of the presidential election campaign, and has continued over the past several years by offering daily (and, at times, hourly) critiques of political journalism and analyses of the broader forces affecting press performance. Visitors to the homepage can read their commentaries and analyses, and also search the entire contents of the Daily via a handy search feature. Additionally, visitors can make their way through the Daily's archives, if they so wish.

121

Technical and economical system comparison of photovoltaic and concentrating solar thermal power systems depending on annual global irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrating solar thermal power and photovoltaics are two major technologies for converting sunlight to electricity. Variations of the annual solar irradiation depending on the site influence their annual efficiency, specific output and electricity generation cost. Detailed technical and economical analyses performed with computer simulations point out differences of solar thermal parabolic trough power plants, non-tracked and two-axis-tracked PV systems. Therefore,

Volker Quaschning

2004-01-01

122

Global Increase in UV Irradiance during the Past 30 Years (1979-2008) Estimated from Satellite Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zonal average ultraviolet irradiance (flux ultraviolet, F(sub uv)) reaching the Earth's surface has significantly increased since 1979 at all latitudes except the equatorial zone. Changes are estimated in zonal average F(sub uv) caused by ozone and cloud plus aerosol reflectivity using an approach based on Beer's law for monochromatic and action spectrum weighted irradiances. For four different cases, it is shown that Beer's Law leads to a power law form similar to that applied to erythemal action spectrum weighted irradiances. Zonal and annual average increases in F(sub uv) were caused by decreases in ozone amount from 1979 to 1998. After 1998, midlatitude annual average ozone amounts and UV irradiance levels have been approximately constant. In the Southern Hemisphere, zonal and annual average UV increase is partially offset by tropospheric cloud and aerosol transmission decreases (hemispherical dimming), and to a lesser extent in the Northern Hemisphere. Ozone and 340 nm reflectivity changes have been obtained from multiple joined satellite time series from 1978 to 2008. The largest zonal average increases in F(sub uv) have occurred in the Southern Hemisphere. For clear-sky conditions at 50 S, zonal average F(sub uv) changes are estimated (305 nm, 23%; erythemal, 8.5%; 310 nm, 10%; vitamin D production, 12%). These are larger than at 50 N (305 nm, 9%; erythemal, 4%; 310 nm, 4%; vitamin D production, 6%). At the latitude of Buenos Aires, Argentina (34.6 S), the clear-sky Fuv increases are comparable to the increases near Washington, D. C. (38.9 N): 305 nm, 9% and 7%; erythemal, 6% and 4%; and vitamin D production, 7% and 5%, respectively.

Herman, Jay R.

2010-01-01

123

Irradiance gradients  

SciTech Connect

A new method for improving the accuracy of a diffuse interreflection calculation is introduced in a ray tracing context. The information from a hemispherical sampling of the luminous environment is interpreted in a new way to predict the change in irradiance as a function of position and surface orientation. The additional computation involved is modest and the benefit is substantial. An improved interpolation of irradiance resulting from the gradient calculation produces smoother, more accurate renderings. This result is achieved through better utilization of ray samples rather than additional samples or alternate sampling strategies. Thus, the technique is applicable to a variety of global illumination algorithms that use hemicubes or Monte Carlo sampling techniques.

Ward, G.J. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland)); Heckbert, P.S. (Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). School of Computer Science Technische Hogeschool Delft (Netherlands). Dept. of Technical Mathematics and Informatics)

1992-04-01

124

Managing Daily Life  

MedlinePLUS

Managing Daily Life Environmental accessibility As the person with Duchenne starts to have more problems moving around, consider making changes in ... such as wider doorways and ramps, can make life easier once the person with Duchenne cannot climb ...

125

Decadal changes in shortwave irradiance at the surface in the period from 1960 to 2000 estimated from Global Energy Balance Archive Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decadal changes in shortwave irradiance at the Earth's surface are estimated for the period from approximately 1960 through to 2000 from pyranometer records stored in the Global Energy Balance Archive. For this observational period, estimates could be calculated for a total of 140 cells of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project grid (an equal area 2.5° × 2.5° grid at the equator) using regression models allowing for station effects. In large regions worldwide, shortwave irradiance decreases in the first half of the observational period, recovers from the decrease in the 1980s, and thereafter increases, in line with previous reports. Years of trend reversals are determined for the grid cells which are best described with a second-order polynomial model. This reversal of the trend is observed in the majority of the grid cells in the interior of Europe and in Japan. In China, shortwave irradiance recovers during the 1990s in the majority of the grid cells in the southeast and northeast from the decrease observed in the period from 1960 through to 1990. A reversal of the trend in the 1980s or early 1990s is also observed for two grid cells in North America, and for the grid cells containing the Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia), Singapore, Casablanca (Morocco), Valparaiso (Chile) sites, and, noticeably, the remote South Pole and American Samoa sites. Negative trends persist, i.e., shortwave radiation decreases, for the observational period 1960 through to 2000 at the European coasts, in central and northwest China, and for three grid cells in India and two in Africa.

Gilgen, H.; Roesch, A.; Wild, M.; Ohmura, A.

2009-05-01

126

Evaluation of errors made in solar irradiance estimation due to averaging the Angstrom turbidity coefficient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even though the monitoring of solar radiation experienced a vast progress in the recent years both in terms of expanding the measurement networks and increasing the data quality, the number of stations is still too small to achieve accurate global coverage. Alternatively, various models for estimating solar radiation are exploited in many applications. Choosing a model is often limited by the availability of the meteorological parameters required for its running. In many cases the current values of the parameters are replaced with daily, monthly or even yearly average values. This paper deals with the evaluation of the error made in estimating global solar irradiance by using an average value of the Angstrom turbidity coefficient instead of its current value. A simple equation relating the relative variation of the global solar irradiance and the relative variation of the Angstrom turbidity coefficient is established. The theoretical result is complemented by a quantitative assessment of the errors made when hourly, daily, monthly or yearly average values of the Angstrom turbidity coefficient are used at the entry of a parametric solar irradiance model. The study was conducted with data recorded in 2012 at two AERONET stations in Romania. It is shown that the relative errors in estimating global solar irradiance (GHI) due to inadequate consideration of Angstrom turbidity coefficient may be very high, even exceeding 20%. However, when an hourly or a daily average value is used instead of the current value of the Angstrom turbidity coefficient, the relative errors are acceptably small, in general less than 5%. All results prove that in order to correctly reproduce GHI for various particular aerosol loadings of the atmosphere, the parametric models should rely on hourly or daily Angstrom turbidity coefficient values rather than on the more usual monthly or yearly average data, if currently measured data is not available.

Calinoiu, Delia-Gabriela; Stefu, Nicoleta; Paulescu, Marius; Trif-Tordai, Gavril?; Mares, Oana; Paulescu, Eugenia; Boata, Remus; Pop, Nicolina; Pacurar, Angel

2014-12-01

127

A Investigation of the Relationship Between Beam and Global Irradiation with the Development of Numerical Solar Radiation Models.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of improved numerical models have been developed to predict the beam radiation from global radiation data. The analysis was based on five years of hourly radiation data collected at the Solar Total Energy Project in Shenandoah, Georgia. Previously developed empirical correlations relate hourly values of the beam transmittance, tau _{rm b}--beam normal radiation over the extraterrestrial normal radiation, to clearness index, k_{rm t} --global radiation over the extraterrestrial global radiation. The relationship of tau_{rm b}-k_{rm t} , though, is not deterministic. Some the observed variation was explained by a seasonal dependence. Improved performance was achieved by introducing a third variable, either the atmospheric air-mass (m), or the temporal variation coefficient, eta, a new dimensionless parameter used to describe the sky condition without using any meteorological information. Seasonal effects on solar radiation caused by cloudiness and air quality were found to be significant and two methods were developed to account for this phenomenon. The air-mass dependence of solar radiation was examined through a study of the relationships between (tau _{rm b}-m) and (k _{rm t}-m). A simple clear sky beam transmittance model was developed for the region, although it was shown that clearest skies are not necessarily site specific. Two improved beam radiation models were developed, relating three variables at a time--namely (k_ {rm t},m,tau_ {rm b}) and (k_{ rm t},eta, tau_{rm b}). These correlations have significantly increased the predictive powers of the beam radiation model, without compensating for additional input information. These models can predict different values of beam radiation for a given day and over the year, for the same value of global radiation which is what is observed. Several surface fitting techniques were used to generate the response surface among which are, a best RMS triangulation method, an inversely weighted fit method, and a fifth-degree polynomial fit. The work satisfies a major deficiency in solar radiation modeling by providing the most accurate up-to -date models for the southeast United States. The proposed models were validated with data from the National Observatory of Athens, Greece. The good performance of the models is reassuring of their wide applicability.

Balaras, Constantinos Agelou

128

Capitol Watch Daily News  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Capitol Watch On Line offers content on what's going on in the nations capital daily. A dozen or more headline stories plus a special interests section and links to the Federal News Service and other government sites. "Live chat with candidates and the leaders of our nation" is promised to be coming in 2 weeks.

1999-01-01

129

Daily Food Checklist  

Cancer.gov

The daily food checklist method is a form of food record. The tool is comprised of a list of foods; over the course of a day, a respondent makes a check beside a food each time she or he eats it. The checklist shares an advantage of other record methods in that it does not rely on memory. In addition, it avoids some disadvantages of complete quantitative food records in that it has relatively low respondent and investigator burden.

130

ScienceDaily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ScienceDaily offers the latest discoveries and research projects in all fields of science from labs across North America. The OK Web Site of the Day offers the "coolest" science sites -- OK as in Zero Kelvin -- and you can't get any cooler than that. Other links lead to Science Magazines and Journals, collections of top-rated science sites, and hands-on science centers. http://www.sciencedaily.com/

131

Estimating daily wind speed under climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semi-empirical downscaling approach is presented to estimate spatial and temporal statistical properties of local daily mean wind speed under global climate change. The present semi-empirical downscaling method consists of two elements. Since general circulation models (GCMs) are able to reproduce the features of the present atmospheric general circulation quite correctly, the first element represents the large-scale circulation of the

Istvan Bogardi; Istvan Matyasovzky

1996-01-01

132

A geostatistical approach for producing daily Level-3 MODIS aerosol optical depth analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The daily Level-3 MODIS (dL3M) aerosol optical depth product is a global daily spatial aggregation of the Level-2 MODIS aerosol optical depth (10-km spatial resolution) into a regular grid with a resolution of 1° × 1°. Aerosol optical depth is a seminal parameter for surface solar radiation assessment, in particular, for those applications involving direct irradiance. However, the dL3M AOD is prone to data gaps originated mostly by the unfeasibility of retrieving reliable estimates under cloudy conditions. In addition, its usability is also constrained by regional biases owing to some other reasons. In this work we propose a methodology for bias reduction and data-gaps removal of the dL3M AOD dataset. The result is a database of daily regularly-gridded AOD suitable for use in surface solar radiation applications and large-scale and long-term studies involving AOD without requiring a previous costly data assimilation process involving numerical weather prediction models. The method consists of an empirical approach to bias reduction, data-gaps removal by kriging interpolation and, finally, where reliable ground observations are available, an optimal interpolation procedure. The method was tested in the North American region, where it was able to reduce the initial mean error from 0.067 to 0.001, the root mean square error from 0.130 to 0.057, and increase the squared correlation coefficient from 23% to 58%, as compared against ground measurements.

Ruiz-Arias, J. A.; Dudhia, J.; Lara-Fanego, V.; Pozo-Vázquez, D.

2013-11-01

133

MODIS-derived daily PAR simulation from cloud-free images and its validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a MODIS-derived daily PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) simulation model from cloud-free image over land surface has been developed based on Bird and Riordan’s model. In this model, the total downwelling spectral surface irradiance is divided into two parts: one is beam irradiance, and another is diffuse irradiance. The attenuation of solar beam irradiance comprises scattering by the

Liangfu Chen; Yanhua Gao; Lei Yang; Qinhuo Liu; Xingfa Gu; Guoliang Tian

2008-01-01

134

AstronomyDaily.Com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Astronomy Daily.Com offers real time astronomical data tailored to the viewer's location and time zone. The personalized front page presents a chart of tonight's sky. Diagrams allow users to view the planets in their orbits. Educators and students can find images of today's moon and its phase on the calendar, plus data dealing with its current position and its physical and orbital characteristics. Phil Harrington, a supervisor at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, provides two monthly articles; the first assesses a phenomenon in the sky that can be observed with binoculars and the second discusses a phenomenon in the Deep Sky. Viewers can also participate in many discussion forums with other interested astronomers. Although users are required to register in order to view the customized site, no personal identification is requested. This site is also reviewed in the October 3, 2003 NSDL Physical Sciences Report.

135

Math in Daily Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are your odds of hitting it big at the casino? Should you buy or lease a car? How much will you have when you retire? All of these questions involve math, and this latest addition to the Annenberg Media Projects Learner Online site (described in the September 12, 1997 Scout Report) explores the use of basic mathematical concepts in daily decision-making. The exhibit is divided into several topical sections exploring probability and gambling, compound interest and credit cards, population growth, geometry in the home, and ratios and recipes. In addition to an overview of the topic, each section offers several links to selected related sites and online tools, and two feature interactive learning activities.

136

Math in Daily Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Math in the "real world" happens all the time, and it can involve everything from buying a car to following a simple (or complex) recipe. The "Math in Daily Life" site offers up a series of interesting ways to get students thinking about how math works in everyday life. Created by Annenberg Media, this set of interactive exercises looks at the manifestation of mathematical principles in areas of life such as home decorating, finances, and of course, cooking. In each section, users will find hands-on exercises that complement well-written essays that help introduce visitors to seven different topical areas. Finally, the site includes a list of relevant websites, including links to The Math Forum, the U.S. Census Bureau, and The Metric Conversion Card.

137

The Cornell Daily Sun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Cornell University Library and the Cornell Daily Sun have teamed up to offer access to the complete run of this student newspaper. The paper was first published in September 1880, and over the intervening years it has served as a repository for the hopes, dreams, activities, and general milieu of the members of the Cornell community. Currently, visitors may browse issues dating back to 1880 in their entirety, and the project will eventually allow users to search the entire Sun archives for articles by subject, writer, or date. Visitors can use the "Search" section to type in sample searches like "Ithaca," "sports," or "library." It's an ambitious project, and one that could serve as an ideal model for other student newspapers and related publications hoping to take on a similar challenge.

138

Art & Letters Daily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users wishing quick and easy access to some of the best writing online will want to examine this site. Art & Letters Daily, updated six days per week, offers links to articles, new book notices and reviews, and essays and opinion pieces in all fields of the humanities. The does not site provide original content, but rather mines a wide array of online newspapers, journals, and other publications and offers links with very brief introductions to the "precious nuggets of real content" on the Web. In addition, the site provides a linked list of the publications and columnists used to glean the reports as well as an archive of past features. Certainly few users will find all of the pieces interesting or pertinent, but the quantity and variety of content and the frequency with which it is updated guarantee that there will be something for almost anyone.

139

ArchDaily  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Billed as the "world's most visited architecture website,� ArchDaily is a treasure trove of materials on new building projects, architectural trends, design matters, and competitions. Along the top of its homepage, visitors can delve into areas that include News, Articles, Materials, Software, and Interviews. This last area is a great place to start as it includes fabulous conversations with notables such as Jeanne Gang, Jean-Louis Cohen, and Andreas G. Gjertsen. Moving along, the Materials section offers specific technical information on equipment, finishes, installation techniques, and structural work. The Projects area contains information on new and compelling works, such as the Soundcloud Headquarters in Berlin and the Bagnoli Futura in Italy.

140

SPACE DAILY SPACE WAR TERRA DAILY MARS DAILY SPACE MART SPACE TRAVEL World's Smallest Universal Material  

E-print Network

SPACE DAILY SPACE WAR TERRA DAILY MARS DAILY SPACE MART SPACE TRAVEL NANO TECH World's Smallest spaces as required by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM), successfully characterized, professor of mechanical Get Our Free Newsletters Via Email Space - War - Earth - Energy - China your email

Espinosa, Horacio D.

141

Quantification of Daily Physical Activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of physical activity on the maintenance and adaptation of musculoskeletal tissue is difficult to assess. Cumulative musculoskeletal loading is hard to quantify and the attributes of the daily tissue loading history affecting bone metabolism have not been completely identified. By monitoring the vertical component of the daily ground reaction force (GRFz), we have an indirect measure of cumulative daily lower limb musculoskeletal loading to correlate with bone density and structure. The objective of this research is to develop instrumentation and methods of analysis to quantify activity level in terms of the daily history of ground reaction forces.

Whalen, Robert; Breit, Greg; Quintana, Jason

1994-01-01

142

MUTUAL FUND DAILY CONDITIONAL PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The empirical finance literature reveals that conditional models estimated with monthly data generally improve fund performance. Furthermore, it has been shown that using daily instead of monthly returns in an unconditional framework increases the proportion of abnormal performances relative to timing. In this article, we study conditional performance estimated with daily data in a bivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH)

Frank Coggins; Marie-Claude Beaulieu; Michel Gendron

2009-01-01

143

Searching images in daily life  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the proliferation of images in daily life, it is crucial to investigate what, where, why and how people search images in response to their everyday needs. In order to examine the daily needs of image searchers, a survey questionnaire was administered to 58 college students. The results demonstrated that the majority of college students use Google or Google Image

JungWon Yoon

2011-01-01

144

Mail Irradiation  

MedlinePLUS

Tobacco Smoke Mail Irradiation Food Irradiation Smoke Detectors Becoming Aware of Radiation Sources: Mail Irradiation In October, the deadly bacterium anthrax was found in mail sent to various news agencies, and to offices of the ...

145

Daily Egyptian Diversity News Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed as part of the online collections at Southern Illinois University-Carbondale's Morris Library, the Daily Egyptian Diversity News Index provides historical insight into the campus climate at this unique school. In 2006, Dr. Seymour Bryson, the associate chancellor for diversity, teamed up with several other colleagues to identify articles in the Daily Egyptian (the University's student newspaper) related to the university's historic minority campus populations. The project entailed surveying microfilm and creating searchable transcripts for online access. Currently, the online archive contains over 1,400 items from the Daily Egyptian, and content includes pieces on African American members of the homecoming court, student activists, musical groups, and student government.

146

Global Gene Expression Profiles of the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803 in Response to Irradiation with UV-B and White Light  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a transcript profiling methodology to elucidate expression patterns of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 and used the technology to investigate changes in gene expression caused by irradiation with either intermediate-wavelength UV light (UV-B) or high-intensity white light. Several families of transcripts were altered by UV-B treatment, including mRNAs specifying proteins involved in light harvest- ing, photosynthesis,

Lixuan Huang; Michael P. McCluskey; Hao Ni; Robert A. LaRossa

2002-01-01

147

Sensitivity of erythemal UV/global irradiance ratios to atmospheric parameters: application for estimating erythemal radiation at four sites in Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Factors affecting the ratio of erythemal UV (UVER) to broadband (G) irradiance were investigated in this study. Data from four solar monitoring sites in Thailand, namely Chiang Mai, Ubon Ratchathani, Nakhon Pathom and Songkhla were used to investigate the UVER/G ratio in response to geometric and atmospheric parameters. These comprised solar zenith angle, aerosol load, total ozone column, precipitable water and clearness index. A modeling scheme was developed to isolate and examine the effect of each individual environmental parameter on the ratio. Results showed that all parameters with the exception of solar zenith angle and clearness index influenced the ratios in a linear manner. These results were also used to develop a semi-empirical model for estimating hourly erythemal UV irradiance. Data from 2009 to 2010 were used to construct the ratio model while validation was performed using erythemal UV irradiance at the above four sites in 2011. The validation results showed reasonable agreement with a root mean square difference of 13.5% and mean bias difference of - 0.5%, under all sky conditions and 10.9% and - 0.3%, respectively, under cloudless conditions.

Buntoung, Sumaman; Janjai, Serm; Nunez, Manuel; Choosri, Pranomkorn; Pratummasoot, Noppamas; Chiwpreecha, Kulanist

2014-11-01

148

Once-daily versus multiple-daily dosing of aminoglycosides.  

PubMed

The pharmacodynamic characteristics of isepamicin and other aminoglycosides, both in terms of efficacy and toxicity, explain why once-daily administration of these agents should be the optimal dosing regimen. Isepamicin, as with other aminoglycosides, exhibits concentration-dependent bactericidal activity and produces prolonged post-antibiotic effects against susceptible organisms. High concentrations of these drugs would be expected to produce more rapid and extensive bacterial killing than lower levels. Furthermore, the post-antibiotic effect would protect against bacterial regrowth when serum and tissue concentrations fall below inhibitory levels. In animal models, the magnitude of the peak serum concentration or the area under the concentration-time curve, are the important determinants of efficacy for isepamicin and the other aminoglycosides. Isepamicin also exhibits the "first-exposure effect", i.e. initial exposure of bacteria to isepamicin down-regulates subsequent uptake of the drug. During this period of down-regulation, bacteria exhibit decreased killing and shorter post-antibiotic effects. Since the first-exposure effect lasts for several hours, once-daily administration of the aminoglycosides allows for this effect to dissipate completely between doses. High peak concentrations, greater than 8-10 times the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), will also decrease the emergence of resistant strains. With regard to toxicity, one of the first steps in the uptake of aminoglycosides into sites of toxicity is their binding to the brush borders of renal cells and to the cochlea and vestibular membranes. Binding to these membranes demonstrates saturable kinetics. As a result, uptake of the aminoglycosides is more efficient with low sustained concentrations than with high intermittent levels. Once-daily dosing of aminoglycosides has consistently been less toxic than more frequent dosing in animals. In clinical studies, once-daily dosing of aminoglycosides compared to two-or three-times daily administration has generally exhibited similar efficacy and toxicity. However, a few studies has shown greater efficacy or lower toxicity with once-daily dosing of aminoglycosides. Once-daily dosing of the aminoglycosides has the potential to enhance efficacy, reduce toxicity, and lower administration costs for this drug class. PMID:8622110

Craig, W A

1995-06-01

149

Daily Lightning Measurements from TRMM: April 1, 1998 through April 29, 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Daily actual lightning measurements from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on TRMM for the period from April 1, 1998, through April 29, 1998. Global data is shown, followed by regional data for North America, North and South America, and Africa.

Greg Shirah

1998-05-19

150

Tractor Operation and Daily Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for the tractor operator, the manual describes, with the aid of colored illustrations and diagrams, the tasks involved in the proper operation and daily maintenance of tractors. It offers explanations for the desirability of the various servicing and adjustment operations, as well as guidelines for tractor operation and safety. The…

Fore, J. M.; And Others

151

TMDLs (Total Maximum Daily Loads)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Water Quality Information Center at the National Agricultural Library (USDA) offers this excellent resource on TMDLs (Total Maximum Daily Loads), with links to dozens of relevant and current publications. From basic questions and answers to current policies regarding TMDLs, this collection of resources is well worth browsing.

152

Improving HelioClim-3 estimates of surface solar irradiance using the McClear clear-sky model and recent advances in atmosphere composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The HelioClim-3 database (HC3v3) provides records of surface solar irradiation every 15 min, estimated by processing images from the geostationary meteorological Meteosat satellites using climatological data sets of the atmospheric Linke turbidity factor. This technical note proposes a method to improve a posteriori HC3v3 by combining it with data records of the irradiation under clear skies from the new McClear clear-sky model, whose inputs are the advanced global aerosol property forecasts and physically consistent total column content in water vapour and ozone produced by the MACC (Monitoring Atmosphere Composition and Climate) projects. The method is validated by comparison with a series of ground measurements for 15 min and 1 h for 6 stations and for daily irradiation for 23 stations. The correlation coefficient is large, greater than respectively 0.92, 0.94, and 0.97, for 15 min, 1 h and daily irradiation. The bias ranges from -4 to 4% of the mean observed irradiation for most sites. The relative root mean square difference (RMSD) varies between 14 and 38% for 15 min, 12 and 33% for 1 h irradiation, and 6 and 20% for daily irradiation. As a rule of thumb, the farther from the nadir of the Meteosat satellite located at latitude 0° and longitude 0°, and the greater the occurrence of fragmented cloud cover, the greater the relative RMSD. The method improves HC3v3 in most cases, and with no degradation in the others. A systematic correction of HC3v3 with McClear is recommended.

Qu, Z.; Gschwind, B.; Lefevre, M.; Wald, L.

2014-11-01

153

Toward cinematizing our daily lives  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a cinematographic video production system to create movie-like attractive footage from our indoor daily life.\\u000a Since the system is designed for ordinary users in non-studio environments, it is composed of standard hardware components,\\u000a provides a simple interface, and works in near real-time of 5?~?6 frames\\/sec. The proposed system reconstructs a visual hull\\u000a from acquired multiple videos and then

Hansung Kim; Ryuuki Sakamoto; Itaru Kitahara; Tomoji Toriyama; Kiyoshi Kogure

2009-01-01

154

Approach to chronic daily headache.  

PubMed

Chronic daily headaches (CDH) is a descriptive term used for patients who experience headaches on at least 15 days or more out of the month; for at least 3 months, irrespective of the underlying headache etiology. It is a syndrome that affects many people, usually with an underlying primary headache disorder, leading to a reduction in quality of life. The two most common underlying primary headaches are migraines and tension-type headaches. The prevalence is about 4%, and research is emerging on risk factors and comorbidities. The first step when approaching a patient with chronic daily headaches is to rule out secondary causes. Once that is done, the goal is to effectively reduce the days of headache through preventive treatment as well as complementary therapies. This also often involves limiting the use of abortive therapy to avoid medication-overuse headaches (MOH). The pathophysiology, although not fully understood, is thought to be related to central sensitization along with "neurogenic inflammation." Chronic daily headaches can be difficult to treat and at times require a tertiary specialized center. PMID:25637288

Sheikh, Huma U

2015-03-01

155

Spatial downscaling and mapping of daily precipitation and air temperature using daily station data and monthly mean maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate maps of daily weather variables are an essential component of hydrologic and ecologic modeling. Here we present a four-step method that uses daily station data and transient monthly maps of precipitation and air temperature. This method uses the monthly maps to help interpolate between stations for more accurate production of daily maps at any spatial resolution. The first step analyzes the quality of the each station's data using a discrepancy analysis that compares statistics derived from a statistical jack-knifing approach with a time-series evaluation of discrepancies generated for each station. Although several methods could be used for the second step of producing initial maps, such as kriging, splines, etc., we used a gradient plus inverse distance squared method that was developed to produce accurate climate maps for sparse data regions with widely separated and few climate stations, far fewer than would be needed for techniques such as kriging. The gradient plus inverse distance squared method uses local gradients in the climate parameters, easting, northing, and elevation, to adjust the inverse distance squared estimates for local gradients such as lapse rates, inversions, or rain shadows at scales of 10's of meters to kilometers. The third step is to downscale World Wide Web (web) based transient monthly data, such as Precipitation-Elevation Regression on Independent Slope Method (PRISM) for the US (4 km or 800 m maps) or Climate Research Unit (CRU 3.1) data sets (40 km for global applications) to the scale of the daily data's digital elevation model. In the final step the downscaled transient monthly maps are used to adjust the daily time-series mapped data (~30 maps/month) for each month. These adjustments are used to scale daily maps so that summing them for precipitation or averaging them for temperature would more accurately reproduce the variability in selected monthly maps. This method allows for individual days to have maxima or minima values away from the station locations based on the underlying geographic structure of the monthly maps. We compare our results with the web based 12 km Variable Infiltration Capacity model (VIC) daily data and the 1 km DayMet daily data as well as make comparisons of the month summation or average of daily data sets with the PRISM and CRU data sets. There were mixed results in the comparisons with some good agreement and some bad agreement, even between VIC and DayMet. These daily maps are intended to be used as input to daily hydrological models. The results will provide more insight into the significance of the differences, at least from a hydrology perspective.

Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.; Stern, M. A.

2013-12-01

156

Enhancement of the MODIS Daily Snow Albedo Product  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MODIS daily snow albedo product is a data layer in the MOD10A1 snow-cover product that includes snow-covered area and fractional snow cover as well as quality information and other metadata. It was developed to augment the MODIS BRDF/Albedo algorithm (MCD43) that provides 16-day maps of albedo globally at 500-m resolution. But many modelers require daily snow albedo, especially during the snowmelt season when the snow albedo is changing rapidly. Many models have an unrealistic snow albedo feedback in both estimated albedo and change in albedo over the seasonal cycle context, Rapid changes in snow cover extent or brightness challenge the MCD43 algorithm; over a 16-day period, MCD43 determines whether the majority of clear observations was snow-covered or snow-free then only calculates albedo for the majority condition. Thus changes in snow albedo and snow cover are not portrayed accurately during times of rapid change, therefore the current MCD43 product is not ideal for snow work. The MODIS daily snow albedo from the MOD10 product provides more frequent, though less robust maps for pixels defined as "snow" by the MODIS snow-cover algorithm. Though useful, the daily snow albedo product can be improved using a daily version of the MCD43 product as described in this paper. There are important limitations to the MOD10A1 daily snow albedo product, some of which can be mitigated. Utilizing the appropriate per-pixel Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDFs) can be problematic, and correction for anisotropic scattering must be included. The BRDF describes how the reflectance varies with view and illumination geometry. Also, narrow-to-broadband conversion specific for snow on different surfaces must be calculated and this can be difficult. In consideration of these limitations of MOD10A1, we are planning to improve the daily snow albedo algorithm by coupling the periodic per-pixel snow albedo from MCD43, with daily surface ref|outanoom, In this paper, we compare a daily version of MCD43B3 with the daily albedo from MOD10A1. and MCD43B3 with a 16-day average of MOD10A1, over Greenland. We also discuss some near-future planned enhancements to MOD10A1.

Hall, Dorothy K.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Wang, Zhuosen; Riggs, George A.

2009-01-01

157

Brush border intestinal enzymes after multiple daily fractionation  

SciTech Connect

The modifications in brush border enzyme activity of the epithelial cell of the small intestine were studied after multiple daily fractionation (MDF) of 3 Gy X and 3 Gy X 2 X 2 (12 h split). Disaccharase and dipeptidase activities changed in the same way after irradiation. The results show that both total doses caused the three known phases of increase, decrease, and a return to normal. With MDF, activity at the end of irradiation was similar to or greater than that of controls and remained higher longer than a single dose of 8 Gy. However, the return to normal occurred sooner than after a single dose of 8 Gy. After 11 days, circadian oscillations of brush border enzyme activity appeared similar to those of controls in many segments of the intestine, reaching the highest activity during the night and the lowest in the afternoon.

Becciolini, A.; Giache, V.; Balzi, M.; Morrone, A.

1987-03-01

158

Estrogen and chronic daily headache.  

PubMed

Estrogen exerts a strong influence on episodic headaches, such as migraine and tension-type headache. A relationship between sex hormones and chronic daily headache (CDH) is less well established. However, similarities between episodic and CDH suggest that estrogen also may significantly influence CDH. Pathophysiologic studies of CDH identify neurochemical abnormalities similar to those influenced by estrogen in episodic headache, such as aberrant 5-hydroxytryptamine activity. In addition, gender differences in CDH prevalence in pediatric and adult populations support a hormonal influence. Few studies have evaluated the ability of gynecologic events, such as menses, to influence CDH. PMID:14731385

Marcus, Dawn A

2004-02-01

159

Daily Lesson Plan: Diagnosing Delusions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This New York Times Learning Network Daily Lesson Plan explores the dangers of widespread medical myths. Designed for grades 6-8 and 9-12, the lesson focuses on a NYT article about "a particular medical myth and how it has prevented some lung cancer patients from receiving treatment." Story link and discussion questions are provided. Students then conduct research and develop educational pamphlets on the topic for a neat interdisciplinary way to demonstrate their understanding of the issue. Extension activities, vocabulary words, and Web links are all included.

160

The Effect of Daily Stress, Personality, and Age on Daily Negative Affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined whether stress reactivity becomes stronger or weaker with age. Daily stress and daily negative affect were modeled using 1,012 subjects from the National Study of Daily Events (NSDE), an 8-day daily diary study. Age ranged from 25 to 74. Data were modeled using within-person HLM techniques. Daily stress and neuroticism interacted in their effect on daily

Daniel K. Mroczek; David M. Almeida

2004-01-01

161

Estimation of atmospheric turbidity and surface radiative parameters using broadband clear sky solar irradiance models in Rio de Janeiro-Brasil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of this paper is to estimate a set of optimal seasonal, daily, and hourly values of atmospheric turbidity and surface radiative parameters Ångström's turbidity coefficient (?), Ångström's wavelength exponent (?), aerosol single scattering albedo (? o ), forward scatterance (F c ) and average surface albedo (? g ), using the Brute Force multidimensional minimization method to minimize the difference between measured and simulated solar irradiance components, expressed as cost functions. In order to simulate the components of short-wave solar irradiance (direct, diffuse and global) for clear sky conditions, incidents on a horizontal surface in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro (MARJ), Brazil (22° 51' 27? S, 43° 13' 58? W), we use two parameterized broadband solar irradiance models, called CPCR2 and Iqbal C, based on synoptic information. The meteorological variables such as precipitable water (u w ) and ozone concentration (u o ) required by the broadband solar models were obtained from moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on Terra and Aqua NASA platforms. For the implementation and validation processes, we use global and diffuse solar irradiance data measured by the radiometric platform of LabMiM, located in the north area of the MARJ. The data were measured between the years 2010 and 2012 at 1-min intervals. The performance of solar irradiance models using optimal parameters was evaluated with several quantitative statistical indicators and a subset of measured solar irradiance data. Some daily results for Ångström's wavelength exponent ? were compared with Ångström's parameter (440-870 nm) values obtained by aerosol robotic network (AERONET) for 11 days, showing an acceptable level of agreement. Results for Ångström's turbidity coefficient ?, associated with the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere, show a seasonal pattern according with increased precipitation during summer months (December-February) in the MARJ.

Flores, José L.; Karam, Hugo A.; Marques Filho, Edson P.; Pereira Filho, Augusto J.

2015-01-01

162

Daily Medicine Record for Your Child  

MedlinePLUS

... the-Counter Pain Relievers and Fever Reducers Daily Medicine Record for Your Child (English) (PDF version - 97KB) ... Age: ____ 2 years old___ Weight: ___ 30 pounds ___ Daily Medicine Record Child’s name: ___________________ Today’s date: _________________ Age: ____________ Weight: ________________ (pounds) ...

163

50 CFR 20.24 - Daily limit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.24 Daily limit. No person shall take in any 1 calendar day, more than the daily...

2011-10-01

164

Daily cycles in coastal dunes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Daily cycles of summer sea breezes produce distinctive cyclic foreset deposits in dune sands of the Texas and Oregon coasts. In both areas the winds are strong enough to transport sand only during part of the day, reach a peak during the afternoon, and vary little in direction during the period of sand transport. Cyclicity in the foreset deposits is made evident by variations in the type of sedimentary structure, the texture, and the heavy-mineral content of the sand. Some of the cyclic deposits are made up entirely of one basic type of structure, in which the character of the structure varies cyclically; for example, the angle of climb in a climbing-wind-ripple structure may vary cyclically. Other cyclic deposits are characterized by alternations of two or more structural types. Variations in the concentration of fine-grained heavy minerals, which account for the most striking cyclicity, arise mainly because of segregation on wind-rippled depositional surfaces: where the ripples climb at low angles, the coarsegrained light minerals, which accumulate preferentially on ripple crests, tend to be excluded from the local deposit. Daily cyclic deposits are thickest and best developed on small dunes and are least recognizable near the bases of large dunes. ?? 1988.

Hunter, R.E.; Richmond, B.M.

1988-01-01

165

The Daily Practices of Successful Principals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While many books outline the attributes of successful school leaders, few describe how those traits manifest in daily practice. "The Daily Practices of Successful Principals" goes beyond the outward picture of excellence and provides a compendium of daily practices used by successful principals in various settings. Written by former administrators…

Brock, Barbara L.; Grady, Marilyn L.

2011-01-01

166

Maximizing daily canopy photosynthesis with respect to the leaf nitrogen allocation pattern in the canopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of daily canopy photosynthesis was constructed taking light and leaf nitrogen distribution in the canopy into consideration. It was applied to a canopy of Solidago altissima. Both irradiance and nitrogen concentration per unit leaf area decreased exponentially with increasing cumulative leaf area from the top of the canopy. The photosynthetic capacity of a single leaf was evaluated in

T. Hirose; M. J. A. Werger

1987-01-01

167

Stress and reactivity to daily relationship experiences: How stress hinders adaptive processes in marriage.  

PubMed

Maintaining a relationship requires that intimates successfully navigate the ups and downs of their daily experiences with their partners. Intimates whose daily global satisfaction is heavily dependent on these experiences exhibit worse relationship outcomes than do intimates whose satisfaction is less sensitive to fluctuating daily experiences. The current studies examined how intimates' reactivity to daily experiences within the relationship is affected by their experiences of stress outside the relationship. Using diary data, Study 1 examined the covariance between spouses' daily global and specific relationship evaluations in 146 newlywed couples. Between-subjects analyses revealed that daily global satisfaction covaried with perceptions of specific relationship experiences more strongly in spouses experiencing more stress. Study 2 examined the within-person association between reactivity and stress using 7-day diaries collected at 3 time points over 4 years in a sample of 82 couples. Intimates' reactivity to daily relationship experiences was stronger when they were experiencing greater than normal stress. All findings held when controlling for the influence of various individual difference factors on reactivity. These findings highlight ways that adaptive relationship functioning may be constrained by external stress. PMID:19686000

Neff, Lisa A; Karney, Benjamin R

2009-09-01

168

Emerging issues in food irradiation research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ionizing radiation is used on a global basis to improve the phytosanitary and microbial safety and shelf-life of foods. In recent years progress has been made in the commercial application of irradiation to sterilize destructive invasive insects and to irradiate produce to improve its microbiologica...

169

Brown Daily Herald Digital Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since 1891, the Brown Daily Herald has chronicled "political protest, athletic wins and losses, curricular changes, and students' initiative." Recently, Brown University's Center for Digital Initiatives and the Herald began working together to create this digital archive of the paper. On the site, visitors can learn more about the digitization project, sign up to be part of their LinkedIn group, and also take a look at their online store. Using the archive is quite simple, and visitors are encouraged to view specific issues by year or month, and they can also use a search engine to look for news coverage of particular interest. One rather compelling feature of the site is that returned search results include the page or story in question, along with thumbnails of the other pages in the issues on the bottom of the screen.

170

SciTech Daily Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users wishing quick and easy access to some of the best writing online will want to examine this site. Scitech Daily Review, updated four days per week offers links to articles, new book notices and reviews, and essays and opinion pieces for the fields of science and technology. The site does not provide original content, but rather mines a wide array of online newspapers, journals, and other publications and offer links with very brief introductions to the "precious nuggets of real content" on the Web. In addition, the site provides a linked list of the publications and columnists used to glean the reports as well as an archive of past features. Certainly few users will find all of the pieces interesting or pertinent, but the quantity and variety of content and the frequency with which it is updated guarantee that there will be something for almost anyone.

171

Sleep and chronic daily headache.  

PubMed

Sleep and headache have a complex and extensive interrelationship. This review focuses on the relationship between sleep and chronic daily headache, examining recent advances in the epidemiology and insights into possible mechanisms of this relationship as well as reviewing advances in treatment. There is a clear relationship between obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and snoring and morning headache, but the relationship between OSA and snoring and other primary headaches requires clarification. OSA and chronic migraine share both obesity and patent foramen ovale (PFO) as possible co-morbidities. Hypoxia does not clearly predispose to morning headache. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is an established treatment for OSA, and mixed results have been reported with regards to headache improvement with this treatment. PMID:25416461

Stark, Catherine Diana; Stark, Richard James

2015-01-01

172

THE EFFECT OF CHRONIC GAMMA IRRADIATION ON MOUSE OVARIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

strain 57 (black), a quantitative decrease of all groups of follicles, ; in the body cavity. This is particularly apparent in the group of mice ; irradiated with the largest daily dosc of 0.4 r. Despite vast tissue injury ; individual ovaries contained a small number of cavity developing and primordial ; follicles of normal structure. Chronic irradiation did not

Kopylova

1958-01-01

173

Validation of an hourly resolved global aerosol model in answer to solar electricity generation information needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar energy applications need global aerosol optical depth (AOD) information to derive historic surface solar irradiance databases from geostationary meteorological satellites reaching back to the 1980's. This paper validates the MATCH/DLR model originating in the climate community against AERONET ground measurements. Hourly or daily mean AOD model output is evaluated individually for all stations in Europe, Africa and the Middle East - an area highly interesting for solar energy applications being partly dominated by high aerosol loads. Overall, a bias of 0.02 and a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.23 are found for daily mean AOD values, while the RMSE increases to 0.28 for hourly mean AOD values. Large differences between various regions and stations are found providing a feedback loop for the aerosol modelling community. The difference in using daily means versus hourly resolved modelling with respect to hourly resolved observations is evaluated. Nowadays state-of-the-art in solar resource assessment relies on monthly turbidity or AOD climatologies while at least hourly resolved irradiance time series are needed by the solar sector. Therefore, the contribution of higher temporally modelled AOD is evaluated.

Schroedter-Homscheidt, M.; Oumbe, A.

2013-04-01

174

Measuring Degradation Rates Without Irradiance Data  

SciTech Connect

A method to report PV system degradation rates without using irradiance data is demonstrated. First, a set of relative degradation rates are determined by comparing daily AC final yields from a group of PV systems relative to the average final yield of all the PV systems. Then, the difference between relative and absolute degradation rates is found from a statistical analysis. This approach is verified by comparing to methods that utilize irradiance data. This approach is significant because PV systems are often deployed without irradiance sensors, so the analysis method described here may enable measurements of degradation using data that were previously thought to be unsuitable for degradation studies.

Pulver, S.; Cormode, D.; Cronin, A.; Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Smith, R.

2011-02-01

175

Tonsil Irradiation  

Cancer.gov

A cohort of about 3,000 individuals who were irradiated during childhood for benign head and neck conditions at Michael Reese Hospital was assembled and monitored for the risk of thyroid and other cancers.

176

Photosynthetic characteristics of leaves developed at different irradiances and temperatures: an extension of the current hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthetic characteristics at high measurement irradiance were analyzed for single leaves of two C3 and one C4 species grown under twenty one combinations of irradiance level, irradiance duration, and air temperature in order to test the idea that photosynthetic characteristics developed by leaves in different environments are controlled by the daily amount of photosynthesis. Photosynthetic rates per unit area and

James A. Bunce

1983-01-01

177

Visual stimuli in daily life.  

PubMed

People of all ages, but especially children and adolescents, are increasingly exposed to visual stimuli. Typical environmental stimuli that can trigger epileptic seizures in susceptible persons are televisions (TVs), computers, videogames (VGs), discothèque lights, venetian blinds, striped walls, rolling stairs (escalators), striped clothing, and sunlight reflected from snow or the sea or interrupted by trees during a ride in a car or train. Less common stimuli are rotating helicopter blades, disfunctioning fluorescent lighting, welding lights, etc. New potentially provocative devices turn up now and then unexpectedly. During the last decades especially, displays have become increasingly dominant in many of our daily-life activities. We therefore focus mainly on the characteristics of artificial light and on current and future developments in video displays and videogames. Because VG playing has been shown also to have positive effects, a rating system might be developed for provocativeness to inform consumers about the content. It is important that patients with epilepsy be informed adequately about their possible visual sensitivity. PMID:14706037

Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, Dorothée G A; van der Beld, Gerrit; Heynderickx, Ingrid; Groen, Paul

2004-01-01

178

Whole-abdomen radiotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma using twice-daily fractionation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report the tolerability and efficacy of twice-daily whole-abdomen irradiation (WAI) for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Methods and Materials: Of 123 patients treated for NHL with WAI, 37% received previous chemotherapy, 28% received WAI as part of comprehensive lymphatic irradiation (CLI), and 32% received WAI for palliation. The median dose to the whole abdomen was 25.0 Gy, followed by a median tumor boost of 9.8 Gy in 58 patients. Fractionation was 1.0 Gy once daily (54%) or 0.8 Gy twice daily (46%). Blood counts were measured weekly. Results: At a median follow-up of 4.3 years, local control was 72% and overall survival was 55% at 5 years. Median time of WAI was 42 days for once-daily treatment and 32 days for twice-daily treatment. Patients receiving twice-daily WAI did not have a significantly higher rate of acute side effects (e.g., nausea, diarrhea, platelet or red blood cell toxicity). Overall, acute thrombocytopenia was the most frequent side effect of treatment; 24 of 96 patients (25%) with available hematologic data had Grade 3+ toxicity. There was no acute Grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity and no late small bowel obstruction. Multiple regression indicated that patients with four or less involved sites and disease size {<=}6 cm had improved local control and overall survival. Conclusions: Twice-daily WAI using 0.8 Gy/fraction does not appear to have any greater toxicity compared with once-daily treatment using 1 Gy/fraction. Small doses per fraction (0.8-1 Gy/fx) are effective, tolerated well in the acute setting, and associated with a low rate of late toxicity.

Liauw, Stanley L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Yeh, Alexander M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clarian Health Methodist-IU-Riley Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Morris, Christopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Olivier, Kenneth R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Mendenhall, Nancy Price [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States)]. E-mail: mendenan@shands.ufl.edu

2006-12-01

179

Fourier Analysis of daily solar radiation data in Spain  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this work has been to obtain a Typical Annual Time Function by the application of a calculation procedure based on a Fourier analysis to solar radiation data 21 stations in Spain. This function allows us to estimate the most probable value of the horizontal daily global solar radiation for every day of the year in a certain geographical point. It is confirmed that the first harmonic presents an important percentage of the total variance, located between 61 and 77% and that none of the other harmonics contributes in a significant form to explain the total variance.

Baldasano, J.M. (Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna (Spain)); Clar, J.; Berna, A. (Universitat de les Illes Balears (Spain))

1988-01-01

180

Effects of daily stress on negative mood  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the influence of daily stressors on mental health in a community sample. Ss were 166 married couples who completed diaries each day for 6 weeks. In pooled within-person analyses, daily stressors explained up to 20% of the variance in mood. Interpersonal conflicts were by far the most distressing events. Furthermore, when stressors occurred on a series of

Niall Bolger; Anita DeLongis; Ronald C. Kessler; Elizabeth A. Schilling

1989-01-01

181

Neurons and networks in daily rhythms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological pacemakers dictate our daily schedules in physiology and behaviour. The molecules, cells and networks that underlie these circadian rhythms can now be monitored using long-term cellular imaging and electrophysiological tools, and initial studies have already suggested a theme — circadian clocks may be crucial for widespread changes in brain activity and plasticity. These daily changes can modify the amount

Erik D. Herzog

2007-01-01

182

Children's Daily Routines during Kindergarten Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Routines are an important feature of family life and functioning in families with young children. Common daily routines such as dinnertime, bedtime, and waking activities are powerful organizers of family behavior and may be instrumental to children and families during times of transition, such as elementary school entry. Daily routines were…

Wildenger, Leah K.; McIntyre, Laura Lee; Fiese, Barbara H.; Eckert, Tanya L.

2008-01-01

183

Modeling and Forecasting Electric Daily Peak Loads  

E-print Network

as a series of 24 hourly forecasted loads. This paper is concerned with modeling and forecasting daily peak loads with lead times of 1 to 7 days. Univariate time series techniques such as the BoxModeling and Forecasting Electric Daily Peak Loads Using Abductive Networks R. E. Abdel

Abdel-Aal, Radwan E.

184

Daily Stressors in Primary Education Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Daily stress can have a bearing on children's emotional and academic development. This study aimed to assess daily stressors and to determine their prevalence among primary education students, taking into account their gender, academic year, social adaptation, and the school location. A sample of 7,354 Spanish schoolchildren aged between 6…

Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Trianes, María V.; Escobar, Milagros; Blanca, María J.; Muñoz, Ángela M.

2015-01-01

185

Daily Spiritual Experiences and Prosocial Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines how the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES) relates to range of prosocial behaviors, using a large, nationally representative U.S. data set. It finds that daily spiritual experiences are a statistically and substantively significant predictor of volunteering, charitable giving, and helping individuals one knows personally.…

Einolf, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

186

Changes to the temporal distribution of daily precipitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes to the temporal distribution of daily precipitation were investigated using a data set of 12,513 land-based stations from the Global Historical Climatology Network. The distribution of precipitation was measured using the Gini index (which describes how uniformly precipitation is distributed throughout a year) and the annual number of wet days. The Mann-Kendall test and a regression analysis were used to assess the direction and rate of change to both indices. Over the period of 1976-2000, East Asia, Central America, and Brazil exhibited a decrease in the number of both wet and light precipitation days, and eastern Europe exhibited a decrease in the number of both wet and moderate precipitation days. In contrast, the U.S., southern South America, western Europe, and Australia exhibited an increase in the number of both wet and light precipitation days. Trends in both directions were field significant at the global scale.

Rajah, Kailash; O'Leary, Tess; Turner, Alice; Petrakis, Gabriella; Leonard, Michael; Westra, Seth

2014-12-01

187

Irradiated foods  

MedlinePLUS

... and reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes and for the control of insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

188

Affect and Self-Based Models of Relationships between Daily Events and Daily Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined affect- and self-based explanatory models of relationships between daily events and daily well- being. Twice a week for up to 10 weeks, participants described the events that occurred each day and provided measures of their daily affect, self-esteem, and depressogenic thinking. Partici- pants also provided trait-level measures of affect, depression, and self-esteem. Measures of daily well-being

John B. Nezlek; Rebecca M. Plesko

2003-01-01

189

Adolescent Daily and General Maladjustment: Is There Reactivity to Daily Repeated Measures Methodologies?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined whether repeated exposure to daily surveys about negative social experiences predicts changes in adolescents' daily and general maladjustment, and whether question content moderates these changes. Across a 2-week period, 6th-grade students (N = 215; mode age = 11) completed 5 daily reports tapping experienced or…

Nishina, Adrienne

2012-01-01

190

Deriving Daily Purpose through Daily Events and Role Fulfillment among Asian American Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Establishing life purpose is a key developmental task; however, how it is linked to adolescents' everyday family, school, extracurricular, and leisure experiences remains unclear. Using daily diary data from 180 Asian American ninth and tenth graders (50% ninth; 58% female; 25% first generation), daily purpose was positively related to daily…

Kiang, Lisa

2012-01-01

191

When Daily Deal Services Meet Twitter: Understanding Twitter as a Daily Deal Marketing Platform  

E-print Network

, providing key insights for businesses to consider in formulating social marketing strategies. CategoriesWhen Daily Deal Services Meet Twitter: Understanding Twitter as a Daily Deal Marketing Platform powerful marketing platform. Daily deal service is one of the many types of businesses that leverage

Chung, Chin-Wan

192

Irradiation Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Food Safety Consortium (FSC) is a federally created consortium consisting of researchers from the University of Arkansas, Iowa State University and Kansas State University. The FSC conducts research in poultry, beef, and pork production. This site contains summary articles from the FDA, the Washington Times, the Los Angeles Times, the Chicago Tribune, and newsletter articles from the FSC. Previously approved for use on poultry and fruits and vegetables in the US, irradiation can kill disease-causing bacteria like Salmonella and Escherichia coli 0157:H7 (discussed in the Scout Report for Science and Engineering's In the News section, September 17, 1997), and molds and funguses that cause rot. With recent US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval, irradiation can now be used to process red meat (e.g., beef, pork, lamb, and byproducts). The process involves exposing food to a source of radiation such as gamma rays from radioactive cobalt 60, cesium 137, or x-rays. No radioactive material is added to the product, and the technique is routinely used on grains and spices, as well as for sterilizing disposable medical devices. In spite of a number of tests conducted over the last 30 years substantiating its safety, irradiation has not gained widespread public acceptance in the US. This is largely due to the public's general fear of processes utilizing radiation. Supporters of the technology claim that it will virtually eliminate food-borne illness in the US, while skeptics feel that technology such as steam treatment can accomplish adequate sterilization without the purported risks and public concern associated with irradiation.

193

Adipogenesis is inhibited by brief, daily exposure to high-frequency, extremely low-magnitude mechanical signals.  

PubMed

Obesity, a global pandemic that debilitates millions of people and burdens society with tens of billions of dollars in health care costs, is deterred by exercise. Although it is presumed that the more strenuous a physical challenge the more effective it will be in the suppression of adiposity, here it is shown that 15 weeks of brief, daily exposure to high-frequency mechanical signals, induced at a magnitude well below that which would arise during walking, inhibited adipogenesis by 27% in C57BL/6J mice. The mechanical signal also reduced key risk factors in the onset of type II diabetes, nonesterified free fatty acid and triglyceride content in the liver, by 43% and 39%, respectively. Over 9 weeks, these same signals suppressed fat production by 22% in the C3H.B6-6T congenic mouse strain that exhibits accelerated age-related changes in body composition. In an effort to understand the means by which fat production was inhibited, irradiated mice receiving bone marrow transplants from heterozygous GFP+ mice revealed that 6 weeks of these low-magnitude mechanical signals reduced the commitment of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into adipocytes by 19%, indicating that formation of adipose tissue in these models was deterred by a marked reduction in stem cell adipogenesis. Translated to the human, this may represent the basis for the nonpharmacologic prevention of obesity and its sequelae, achieved through developmental, rather than metabolic, pathways. PMID:17959771

Rubin, C T; Capilla, E; Luu, Y K; Busa, B; Crawford, H; Nolan, D J; Mittal, V; Rosen, C J; Pessin, J E; Judex, S

2007-11-01

194

2010 Daily Log Report #: 2010-00262  

E-print Network

Activity on 06/22/10 #12;2010 Daily Log Report #: 2010-00258 Reported: 06/21/10 1400 Occurred: 06 Location: 28 Faren Drive (Rental Property) Disposition: Report--Closed Comments: Basement flooded by heavy

Boyce, Richard L.

195

Water: Meeting Your Daily Fluid Needs  

MedlinePLUS

... gov . Nutrition for Everyone Nutrition Topics Share Compartir Water: Meeting Your Daily Fluid Needs Ever notice how ... drink more fluids. Where do I get the water I need? Most of your water needs are ...

196

Eldercare at Home: Problems of Daily Living  

MedlinePLUS

... independent life such as cooking, cleaning, doing the laundry, shopping, handling money, writing checks, driving, using public ... and an independent life such as cooking, cleaning, laundry, sewing, and similar tasks. Problems in doing daily ...

197

Daily Experiences of Emotions and Social Contexts of Securely and Insecurely Attached Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined daily emotions and social contexts of young adults who differed in global attachment style (secure vs. insecure). Sixty-nine college students (41% male, 59% female) completed self-report measures of attachment and provided time-sampling data on moods, companionship, and activities using the experience sampling method. Secure (n…

Torquati, Julia C.; Raffaelli, Marcela

2004-01-01

198

Daily streamflow forecasting by machine1 learning methods with weather and climate2  

E-print Network

of Hydrology (revised) 4 August 16, 20115 Abstract6 Weather forecast data generated by the NOAA GlobalDaily streamflow forecasting by machine1 learning methods with weather and climate2 inputs3 Kabir water resources. Factors affecting the rainfall-runoff process29 include local micrometeorological

Hsieh, William

199

Daily precipitation statistics in regional climate models: Evaluation and intercomparison for the European Alps  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation is undertaken of the statistics of daily precipitation as simulated by five regional climate models using comprehensive observations in the region of the European Alps. Four limited area models and one variable-resolution global model are considered, all with a grid spacing of 50 km. The 15-year integrations were forced from reanalyses and observed sea surface temperature and sea

Christoph Frei; Jens Hesselbjerg Christensen; Michel Déqué; Daniela Jacob; Richard G. Jones; Pier Luigi Vidale

2003-01-01

200

Embedding Self-Awareness into Objects of Daily Life -- The Smart Kettle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligent Environments on varying scales and for different purposes are slowly becoming a reality. In the near future, global smart world infrastructures will become a commodity that will support various activities of daily life at different degrees of realism. Such infrastructures have the potential to offer dedicated, context- and situation-aware information and services by simultaneously providing the next-generation of data

Matthias Baumgarten; Daniel Guldenring; Michael Poland; Chris Nugent; Josef Hallberg

2010-01-01

201

Variability of daily precipitation over Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study identified coherent daily precipitation regions in Nigeria by analyzing the spatial and temporal homogeneity of daily precipitation; investigating the dependence of wet day amount (WDAMT) and percentage of wet day (PWD) on latitude, longitude, elevation and distance from the ocean and finally regionalizing the daily precipitation stations. Non-parametric spatial homogeneity test was carried out on daily precipitation over 23 stations in Nigeria between 1992 and 2000 while the temporal analysis was done from 1971 to 2000. Regression analysis was used to determine the dependence of WDAMT and PWD on latitude, longitude, elevation and distance from the ocean. Principal component and cluster analyses were conducted to regionalize the precipitation stations. Seven homogeneous groups of stations were identified. Elevation explains 19.9 and 4.8 % of the variance in WDAMT and PWD, respectively, while latitude explains 76.2 % of variance in PWD. Eight principal components that explain 63.1 % of the variance in the daily precipitation data were retained for cluster analysis. Precipitation in the six daily precipitation regions that emerged from the cluster analysis is influenced by the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone, latitude, distance from ocean and southwesterlies while the northern region alone is influenced by the African Easterly Wave. In addition, precipitation in all the regions is influenced by topography. Low to medium spatial coherence exists in the precipitation regions. The spatial variations of PWD and WDAMT have implications for agricultural productivity and water resources in different parts of the country.

Adeniyi, M. O.

2014-11-01

202

Long-term predictions of the therapeutic equivalence of daily and less than daily alendronate dosing.  

PubMed

Less than daily alendronate dosing has been identified as an attractive alternative to daily dosing for patients and physicians. A recent 2-year study found bone mineral density (BMD) changes caused by weekly alendronate dosing therapeutically equivalent to that caused by daily dosing. There are no methods that can be used to predict how long therapeutic equivalence will be maintained after the first 2 years of treatment. In addition, it is unclear if dosing less frequently than weekly also might be therapeutically equivalent to daily dosing. In this study we use a computer simulation to develop predictions of the therapeutic equivalence of daily and less than daily dosing over time periods as long as a decade. The computer simulation uses a cell-based computer model of bone remodeling and a quantitative description of alendronate pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD). The analyses suggest that less than daily dosing regimens do not increase BMD as much as daily dosing. However, model predictions suggest that dosing as frequent as weekly still may be therapeutically equivalent to daily dosing over periods as long as 10 years. In addition, the simulations predict dosing less frequently than weekly may be therapeutically equivalent to daily dosing within the first year of treatment but may not be therapeutically equivalent after 10 years. Hypotheses based on these simulations may be useful for determining which dosing regimen may be most attractive for clinical trials. PMID:12211437

Hernandez, C J; Beaupré, G S; Marcus, R; Carter, D R

2002-09-01

203

Globalization and the Experiences of Aging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Globalization is a product of urbanization and economic intensification which has escalated since the 1970s. Globalized markets have created many of the features of modern life including consumerism, increased cultural homogeneity, increased social polarization, erosion of the sovereignty of nation states, and delocalization of daily life. The…

Fry, Christine L.

2005-01-01

204

Global canopy interception from satellite observations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new methodology for retrieving rainfall interception rates from multi satellite observations is presented. The approach makes use of the daily productof the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) as driving data and applies Gash’s analytical model to derive interception rates at global sc...

205

Daily Thermal Predictions of the AGR-1 Experiment with Gas Gaps Varying with Time  

SciTech Connect

A new daily as-run thermal analysis was performed at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) test experiment number one at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This thermal analysis incorporates gas gaps changing with time during the irradiation experiment. The purpose of this analysis was to calculate the daily average temperatures of each compact to compare with experimental results. Post irradiation examination (PIE) measurements of the graphite holder and fuel compacts showed the gas gaps varying from the beginning of life. The control temperature gas gap and the fuel compact – graphite holder gas gaps were linearly changed from the original fabrication dimensions, to the end of irradiation measurements. A steady-state thermal analysis was performed for each daily calculation. These new thermal predictions more closely match the experimental data taken during the experiment than previous analyses. Results are presented comparing normalized compact average temperatures to normalized log(R/B) Kr-85m. The R/B term is the measured release rate divided by the predicted birth rate for the isotope Kr-85m. Correlations between these two normalized values are presented.

Grant Hawkes; James Sterbentz; John Maki; Binh Pham

2012-06-01

206

Daily thermal predictions of the AGR-1 experiment with gas gaps varying with time  

SciTech Connect

A new daily as-run thermal analysis was performed at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) test experiment number one at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This thermal analysis incorporates gas gaps changing with time during the irradiation experiment. The purpose of this analysis was to calculate the daily average temperatures of each compact to compare with experimental results. Post irradiation examination (PIE) measurements of the graphite holder and fuel compacts showed the gas gaps changed from the beginning of life. The control temperature gas gap and the fuel compact - graphite holder gas gaps were modeled with a linear change from the original fabrication gap dimensions to the end of irradiation measurements. A steady-state thermal analysis was performed for each daily calculation with the commercial finite element heat transfer code ABAQUS. These new thermal predictions more closely match the experimental data taken during the experiment than previous analyses. Results are presented comparing normalized compact average temperatures to normalized log(R/B) Kr-85m. The R/B term is the measured release rate divided by the predicted birth rate for the isotope Kr-85m. Correlations between these two normalized values are presented. (authors)

Hawkes, G.; Sterbentz, J.; Maki, J.; Pham, B. [Idaho National Laboratory, MS 3870, 2525 Fremont (United States)

2012-07-01

207

Globalization Nationalized  

E-print Network

Globalism and globalization have been seen as competitors to other allegiances, namely regionalism and nationalism. A look at recent efforts at reconceptualizing global history in China, Korea and the U.S., however, suggests ...

Mazlish, Bruce

208

Daily albedo estimation and comparison to MCD43 product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land surface broadband albedo is among the main radiative uncertainties in current climate modelling. An accuracy requirement of 5% and a daily temporal resolution is suggested by the Global Climate Observing System for albedo characterization at spatial and temporal scales compatible with climate studies. Satellite remote sensing provides the only practical way of producing high-quality global albedo data sets with high spatial and temporal resolutions. For view-ilumination geometries such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), in order to retrieve the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) parameters and, consequently, the albedo, a period of sequential measurement is needed to accumulate sufficient observations. This is used to derive the MODIS BRDF/Albedo product (MCD43), which consider a composite period of 16 days with a resulting temporal resolution of 8 days. Looking for an improvement in the albedo temporal resolution that mitigated the assumption of a stable target, Vermote et al. (2009) presented the VJB method that assumes that the BRDF shape variations throughout a year are limited and linked to the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). This method retains the highest temporal resolution (daily, cloud cover permitting). The purpose of this work is to compare the MCD43 product with the VJB method through the albedo. Additionally, we present and study a method based on the VJB assumption, the 5param Rsqr. In this study we focus our analysis on daily MODIS CMG Collection 6 data from both Aqua and Terra satellites over Europe from 2002 until 2011. Figure 1 shows the percentage of the total RMSE of the VJB and the 5param Rsqr method against the MCD43 product. They display that southern latitudes present lower errors while they increase for northern latitudes and mountainous areas. Comparing the methods, the VJB presents errors higher than 15% in 8.2% of total land pixels while they suppose 6.9% of pixels when using the 5param Rsqr. We obtain an overall RMSE of 5% when using the VJB and 5.1% for the 5param Rsqr method. Since both methods meet the absolute requirement of 5% accuracy we conclude that they have an equivalent performance in deriving the albedo to the MODIS product with the advantage of daily temporal resolution. We demonstrate then that a simple four (or five) parameter NDVI-scaled model performs as well as a more complex model with many more degrees of freedom. Additionally, we propose the 5param Rsqr method as an alternative to the VJB method due to its decrease data processing time reducing it 44%. Figure 1. Percentage RMSE of the VJB (right) and 5param Rsqr (left) against the MCD43 product.

Franch, B.; Vermote, E.; Sobrino, J. A.

2013-12-01

209

A comparison of daily CT localization to a daily ultrasound-based system in prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Daily CT localization has been demonstrated to be a precise method of correcting radiation field placement by reducing setup and organ motion variations to facilitate dose escalation in prostate carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of daily ultrasound-guided localization utilizing daily CT as a standard. The relatively simple computer-assisted ultrasound-based system is

Joseph Lattanzi; Shawn McNeeley; Wayne Pinover; Eric Horwitz; Indra Das; Timothy E Schultheiss; Gerald E Hanks

1999-01-01

210

Multisite disaggregation of monthly to daily streamflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Streamflow disaggregation is used to preserve statistical attributes of time series across multiple sites and timescales. Several algorithms for spatial disaggregation and for disaggregation of annual to monthly flows are available. However, the disaggregation of monthly to daily or weekly to daily flows remains a challenge. A new algorithm is presented for simultaneously disaggregating monthly flows at a number of sites and daily flows at an index site to daily flows at a number of sites on a drainage network. The continuity of flow in time across months at each site as well as the intersite flow pattern are preserved. The disaggregated daily flows at the multiple sites are conditioned on the spatial (across site) pattern of monthly flows at the respective sites. The probability distribution of the vector of disaggregated flows conditional on the multisite monthly flows is approximated nonparametrically using the k nearest neighbors of the monthly spatial flow pattern. A constrained optimization problem is solved to adaptively estimate the disaggregated flows in space and time for each such neighborhood. An application to data from a tributary of the Colorado River is used to illustrate the modeling process.

Kumar, D. Nagesh; Lall, Upmanu; Petersen, Michael R.

2000-07-01

211

New daily persistent headache: an update.  

PubMed

New daily persistent headache is a primary headache disorder marked by a unique temporal profile which is daily from onset. For many sufferers this is their first ever headache. Very little is known about the pathogenesis of this condition. It might be a disorder of abnormal glial activation with persistent central nervous system inflammation and it may be a syndrome that occurs in individuals who have a history of cervical hypermobility. At present there is no known specific treatment and many patients go for years to decades without any improvement in their condition despite aggressive therapy. This article will present an up-to-date overview of new daily persistent headache on the topics of clinical presentation, treatment, diagnostic criteria, and presumed pathogenesis. It will also provide some of the authors own treatment suggestions based on recognized triggering events and some suggestions for future clinical trials. PMID:24820732

Rozen, Todd D

2014-07-01

212

MathMastery.com: Daily Brains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Six days a week, a new math problem is posted on this Web site to intrigue and challenge grade school students. Each Daily Brain has a different theme, considering some mathematical perspective of science, history, geography, and more. After solving the problem, or for a little help, students can look at a step-by-step solution that is also posted online. All old Daily Brains are kept in an archive, and as of May 2003, they numbered around 400. The problems are mostly intended for students between fourth and sixth grades.

2007-12-12

213

(Tolerable daily intake of dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler was asked by the World Health Organization (WHO) to participate as a temporary advisor in a Consultation on Tolerable Daily Intake from Food of 2,3,7,8,-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) in Bilthoven, Netherlands, December 4--7, 1990. The goal of the Consultation was to review the scientific literature and, based on a comprehensive toxicological evaluation, develop guidelines for Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) that could be used on an international basis. The Consultation was also to develop guidelines for risk management of TCDD with emphasis on dairy products and other food sources.

Travis, C.C.

1990-12-17

214

Daily temperature and precipitation data for 223 USSR Stations  

SciTech Connect

On- May 23, 1972, the United States and the USSR established a bilateral initiative known as the Agreement on Protection of the Environment. Given recent interest in possible greenhouse gas-induced climate change, Working Group VIII (Influence of Environmental Changes on Climate) has become particularly useful to the scientific communities of both nations. Among its many achievements, Working Group VIII has been instrumental in the exchange of climatological information between the principal climate data centers of each country [i.e., the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) in Asheville, North Carolina, and the Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information in Obninsk, Russia]. Considering the relative lack of climate records previously available for the USSR, data obtained via this bilateral exchange are particularly valuable to researchers outside the former Soviet Union. To expedite the dissemination of these data, NOAA`s Climate and Global Change Program funded the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) and NCDC to distribute one of the more useful archives acquired through this exchange: a 223-station daily data set covering the period 1881-1989. This data set contains: (1) daily mean, minimum, and maximum temperature data; (2) daily precipitation data; (3) station inventory information (WMO No., name, coordinates, and elevation); (4) station history information (station relocation and rain gauge replacement dates); and (5) quality assurance information (i.e., flag codes that were assigned as a result of various data checks). The data set is available, free of charge, as a Numeric Data Package (NDP) from CDIAC. The NDP consists of 18 data files and a printed document which describes both the data files and the 223-station network in detail.

Razuvaev, V.N.; Apasova, E.G.; Martuganov, R.A. [Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Vose, R.S. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Steurer, P.M. [National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC (United States)

1993-11-01

215

Examining the spring discontinuity in daily temperature ranges  

SciTech Connect

The atmosphere and biosphere both change rapidly throughout midlatitude spring. Many weather variables are modified during this season, including the diurnal temperature range (DTR). The mean DTR trend displays a discontinuity at the onset of spring characterized by a rapid increase for several weeks, followed by an abrupt leveling off. The trend then remains essentially flat throughout the remainder of the warm season. These DTR changes reflect the interactive role many weather variables play with surface-layer processes. Thus, diagnosing the causes of these variations may provide background information for numerous global change analyses, as daily temperature data become increasingly available worldwide. The results of this study suggest that several factors (snow cover loss, more frequent southerly winds, and increased ceiling heights) are responsible for the initial rapid increase in the DTR. The second half of the discontinuity (subsequent leveling off) is connected with increased atmospheric moisture and coincides with the onset of plant transpiration. 14 refs., 5 figs, 2 tabs.

Schwartz, M.D. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)] [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

1996-04-01

216

Variability in daily, zonal mean lower-stratospheric temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite data from the microwave sounding unit (MSU) channel 4, when carefully merged, provide daily zonal anomalies of lower-stratosphere temperature with a level of precision between 0.01 and 0.08 C per 2.5 deg latitude band. Global averages of these daily zonal anomalies reveal the prominent warming events due to volcanic aerosol in 1982 (El Chichon) and 1991 (Mt. Pinatubo), which are on the order of 1 C. The quasibiennial oscillation (QBO) may be extracted from these zonal data by applying a spatial filter between 15 deg N and 15 deg S latitude, which resembles the meridional curvature. Previously published relationships between the QBO and the north polar stratospheric temperatures during northern winter are examined but were not found to be reproduced in the MSU4 data. Sudden stratospheric warmings in the north polar region are represented in the MSU4 data for latitudes poleward of 70 deg N. In the Southern Hemisphere, there appears to be a moderate relationship between total ozone concentration and MSU4 temperatures, though it has been less apparent in 1991 and 1992. In terms of empirical modes of variability, the authors find a strong tendency in EOF 1 (39.2% of the variance) for anomalies in the Northern Hemisphere polar regions to be counterbalanced by anomalies equatorward of 40 deg N and 40 deg S latitudes. In addition, most of the modes revealed significant power in the 15-20 day period band.

Christy, John R.; Drouilhet, S. James, Jr.

1994-01-01

217

Large-scale changes in observed daily maximum and minimum temperatures: Creation and analysis of a new gridded data set  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gridded land-only data set representing near-surface observations of daily maximum and minimum temperatures (HadGHCND) has been created to allow analysis of recent changes in climate extremes and for the evaluation of climate model simulations. Using a global data set of quality-controlled station observations compiled by the U.S. National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), daily anomalies were created relative to the

John Caesar; Lisa Alexander; Russell Vose

2006-01-01

218

Fall 2013 BOSTONIA Last year, the Daily  

E-print Network

Fall 2013 BOSTONIA SMSS A RTRR Last year, the Daily Beast named Bostont the country's smartest of electrical and computer engineering and codirector of the Center for Information & Systems Engineering, and Assaf Kfoury, a College of Arts & Sciences professor of computer science

Spence, Harlan Ernest

219

National Institutes of Health Daily Food List  

Cancer.gov

DAILY FOOD LIST PARTICIPANT ID HERE NOTIFICATION TO RESPONDENT OF ESTIMATED BURDEN Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 5 minutes per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information.

220

2009 Daily Fire Log Date & Time  

E-print Network

2009 Daily Fire Log Fire Log Date & Time Occurred Occurred General Location Nature of the Fire Comment 03/16/09 1432 Outside of Corbett Theater Unintentional-Other Abstract art project caught on fire 03/31/09 1833 Lot T Unintentional- Machinery/Industrial Motor vehicle caught on fire; fire department

Boyce, Richard L.

221

2010 Daily Fire Log Date & Time  

E-print Network

2010 Daily Fire Log Fire Log Date & Time Occurred General Location Nature of the Fire Comment 2/24/10 1930 Dorm- Commonwealth Hall Unintentional ­Heating equipment Small fire caused by books being placed materials Report of a trash can on fire in front of AS&T; fire extinguished; fire department responded

Boyce, Richard L.

222

INVEST IN YOUR BONES Daily Activities  

E-print Network

INVEST IN YOUR BONES Daily Activities Leaflet 3 Another osteoporosis prevention step to decrease lifestyle. Let's see how you can do that. If you have osteoporosis, follow carefully the activity program. Remember the following about osteoporosis: is largely preventable and treatable is a serious

223

Daily Precipitation Statistics: An Intercomparison between  

E-print Network

.5 degrees). · Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), a coupled land, ocean, atmosphere reanalysis 1979-2010. Resolution T382 (~0.3x0.3 degrees). #12;R1, R2, CFSR: Comparison to OI Station-based Precipitation Analyses station-based daily precipitation analysis data set (1979-2006). · The high-resolution reanalysis (CFSR

Anisimov, Mikhail

224

News Allocation Policies of American Daily Newspapers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reported in this paper, conducted during the winter of 1973-74, explored the newshole policies of U.S. daily newspapers in the context of rapid technological and economic changes. A national survey consisted of a structured questionnaire mailed to a stratified, random sample of newspapers selected by circulation size. Analysis of…

Drew, Dan G.; Wilhoit, G. Cleveland

225

UNCORRECTED 2 Deriving daily evapotranspiration from remotely  

E-print Network

UNCORRECTED PROOF 2 Deriving daily evapotranspiration from remotely 3 sensed instantaneous; accepted 24 February 2008 KEYWORDS Q4 Evapotranspiration; Evaporative fraction; Diurnal course; Available evapotranspiration from remotely ..., J. Hydrol. (2008), doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2008.02.016 ird-00388433,version1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

226

Daily Reporting Rainfall Station CAPE YORK RIVERS  

E-print Network

Daily Reporting Rainfall Station CAPE YORK RIVERS Manual Heavy Rainfall Station Manual River Station Telemetry Rainfall Station Telemetry River Station Revised: Nov 2011 MAP 919.1 FLOOD WARNING River Pormpuraaw Kowanyama Southwell Croydon Yappar R Blackbull Siding M itchellR StaatenR Dorunda TM

Greenslade, Diana

227

TRENDS IN ANNUAL AND DAILY PRECIPITATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Annual precipitation in the Great Plains was generally higher during the last two decades of the 20th century. Corresponding changes in daily precipitation amount, number of rainy days, and distribution throughout the year were investigated for Kingfisher in central Oklahoma. The number of rainy da...

228

Daily Stock Prediction Using Neurogenetic Hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a neuro-genetic daily stock prediction model. Traditional indicators of stock prediction are utilized to produce useful input features of neural networks. The genetic algorithm optimizes the neural networks under a 2D encoding and crossover. To reduce the time in processing mass data, a parallel genetic algorithm was used on a Linux cluster system. It showed notable improvement on

Yung-keun Kwon; Byung-Ro Moon

2003-01-01

229

INTERPOLATING VANCOUVER'S DAILY AMBIENT PM 10 FIELD  

EPA Science Inventory

In this article we develop a spatial predictive distribution for the ambient space- time response field of daily ambient PM10 in Vancouver, Canada. Observed responses have a consistent temporal pattern from one monitoring site to the next. We exploit this feature of the field b...

230

1300 -1500 CALORIES DAILY 60 GRAMS PROTEIN  

E-print Network

meals) CONSUMING HIGH FAT FOOD ON A REGULAR BASIS WILL HELP YOU RE-GAIN YOUR WEIGHT. The food you eat no higher than 1500 calories daily #12;Meal Planning is essential to ensure you will lose weight full. This is a great way to gain all your weight back!! TO PORTION SIZES ­ keep portion sizes small

Goldman, Steven A.

231

Daily changes to human-associated  

E-print Network

in or on our bodies the human microbiome (1), and a large international effort, called the Hu- man Microbiome represen human body, symbolizing 1013 human cells in a host with 1014 microbial cells (10). Human MicrobesDaily changes to human-associated microbial communities Lawrence David Assistant Professor

Richardson, David

232

Transforming Daily Life Objects into Tactile Interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a few techniques to transform daily life objects into tactile interfaces, and presents the implementation details for three objects chosen as example: a light globe, a tray and a table. Those techniques can be divided in two main categories, acoustic techniques and computer vision techniques. Acoustic techniques use the vibrations that are produced when touching an object

Alain Crevoisier; Cédric Bornand

2008-01-01

233

Assessment of the Level-3 MODIS daily aerosol optical depth in the context of surface solar radiation and numerical weather modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Level-3 MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) product offers interesting features for surface solar radiation and numerical weather modeling applications. Remarkably, the Collection 5.1 dataset extends over more than a decade, and provides daily values of AOD over a global regular grid of 1°×1° spatial resolution. However, most of the validation efforts so far have focused on Level-2 products (10-km, at original resolution) and only rarely on Level-3 (at aggregated spatial resolution of 1°×1°). In this contribution, we compare the Level-3 Collection 5.1 MODIS AOD dataset available since 2000 against observed daily AOD values at 550 nm from more than 500 AERONET ground stations around the globe. One aim of this study is to check the advisability of this MODIS dataset for surface shortwave solar radiation calculations using numerical weather models. Overall, the mean error of the dataset is 0.03 (17%, relative to the mean ground-observed AOD), with a root mean square error of 0.14 (73%, relative to the same), albeit these values are found highly dependent on geographical region. For AOD values below about 0.3 the expected error is found very similar to that of the Level-2 product. However, for larger AOD values, higher errors are found. Consequently, we propose new functions for the expected error of the Level-3 AOD, as well as for both its mean error and its standard deviation. Additionally, we investigate the role of pixel count vis-à-vis the reliability of the AOD estimates. Our results show that a higher pixel count does not necessarily turn into a more reliable AOD estimate. Therefore, we recommend to verify this assumption in the dataset at hand if the pixel count is meant to be used. We also explore to what extent the spatial aggregation from Level-2 to Level-3 influences the total uncertainty in the Level-3 AOD. In particular, we found that, roughly, half of the error might be attributable to Level-3 AOD sub-pixel variability. Finally, we use a~radiative transfer model to investigate how the Level-3 AOD uncertainty propagates into the calculated direct normal (DNI) and global horizontal (GHI) irradiances. Overall, results indicate that, for Level-3 AODs smaller than 0.5, the induced uncertainty in DNI due to the AOD uncertainty alone is below 15% on average, and below 5% for GHI (for a solar zenith angle of 30°. However, the uncertainty in AOD is highly spatially variable, and so is that in irradiance.

Ruiz-Arias, J. A.; Dudhia, J.; Gueymard, C. A.; Pozo-Vázquez, D.

2012-09-01

234

Racial Differences in Exposure and Reactivity to Daily Family Stressors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the National Study of Daily Experiences, the authors examined racial differences in exposure and reactivity to daily stressors involving family members. Respondents included African American and European American adults age 34 to 84 (N = 1,931) who participated in 8 days of daily interviews during which they reported on daily…

Cichy, Kelly E.; Stawski, Robert S.; Almeida, David M.

2012-01-01

235

METRO DAILY PULLBACK AND KNOWLEDGE GAPSWithin and Between Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study of metro daily pullback, analyses of metro and regional daily newspaper penetration were conducted in 87 Minnesota counties. Readership data for metro and regional daily newspapers and small-town weekly and semiweekly papers were studied in 28 communities. Metro daily newspaper penetration has declined sharply in nonmetropolitan areas, with the sharpest drops occurring in agricultural counties. Although change

GEORGE A. DONOHUE; PHILLIP J. TICHENOR; CLARICE N. OLIEN

1986-01-01

236

DOWNSCALING GLOBAL CLIMATE MODEL OUTPUTS TO STUDY THE HYDROLOGIC IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

To correctly model the flood regime of a catchment, continuous rainfall-runoff simulation at hourly or at least at daily time steps is necessary. Such daily rainfall series at a catchment corresponding to future climate scenarios can be derived from Global Climate Model (GCM) outputs using the so called 'downscaling techniques'. These conversion methods can provide future daily rainfall scenarios relevant

YONAS B. DIBIKE; PAULIN COULIBALY

237

Metal ion absorption of carboxymethylcellulose gel formed by ?-ray irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) is well known as a safe and biodegradable material, which is widely used as food additives, wash paste, etc., in our daily life. Aiming at the environmental purification of this eco-friendly substance, the authors have investigated Cu2+ absorption property of CMC gel that was crosslinked by irradiating with ?-rays without toxic crosslinker. The CMC gel has revealed to

K. Hara; M. Iida; K. Yano; T. Nishida

2004-01-01

238

Surface Irradiances Consistent With CERES-Derived Top-of-Atmosphere Shortwave and Longwave Irradiances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The estimate of surface irradiance on a global scale is possible through radiative transfer calculations using satellite-retrieved surface, cloud, and aerosol properties as input. Computed top-of-atmosphere (TOA) irradiances, however, do not necessarily agree with observation-based values, for example, from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES). This paper presents amethod to determine surface irradiances using observational constraints of TOA irradiance from CERES. A Lagrange multiplier procedure is used to objectively adjust inputs based on their uncertainties such that the computed TOA irradiance is consistent with CERES-derived irradiance to within the uncertainty. These input adjustments are then used to determine surface irradiance adjustments. Observations by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO), CloudSat, andModerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) that are a part of the NASA A-Train constellation provide the uncertainty estimates. A comparison with surface observations from a number of sites shows that the bias [root-mean-square (RMS) difference] between computed and observed monthlymean irradiances calculated with 10 years of data is 4.7 (13.3) W/sq m for downward shortwave and 22.5 (7.1) W/sq m for downward longwave irradiances over ocean and 21.7 (7.8) W m22 for downward shortwave and 21.0 (7.6) W/sq m for downward longwave irradiances over land. The bias andRMS error for the downward longwave and shortwave irradiances over ocean are decreased from those without constraint. Similarly, the bias and RMS error for downward longwave over land improves, although the constraint does not improve downward shortwave over land. This study demonstrates how synergetic use of multiple instruments (CERES,MODIS, CALIPSO, CloudSat, AIRS, and geostationary satellites) improves the accuracy of surface irradiance computations.

Kato, Seiji; Loeb, Norman G.; Rose, Fred G.; Doelling, David R.; Rutan, David A.; Caldwell, Thomas E.; Yu, Lisan; Weller, Robert A.

2013-01-01

239

Global Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning module from the Association of American Geographer's Center for Global Geography Education looks into the geographic characteristics of the global economy and the processes linking economic activities at local, regional, and global scales. Four case studies are included in the learning unit, each focusing on a different region (New Zealand, Chile, Central and South America, East/Southeast Asia).

240

Inteligent estimation of daily evapotranspiration susing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evapotranspiration (ET) is one of the parameters in water resources management which is attractive for design of irrigation systems. Due to interaction between meteorology parameter, there are nonlinear relations for assessing the evapotraqnspiration. Artifical neural networks are innovative approaches for estimation and prediction by using learning concept. In this study, by using the daily data of Gorgan synoptical station in Golestan province/ Iran the multilayer perceptron with back propagation learning rule was trained. Five different ANN models comprision various combinations of daily climate variable, i. e. air temperature, sunshine, wind speed and humidity was developed to evaluate degree of effect of each input variables on ET. A comparison is made between the estimated provide by ANN models and ET-values estimated by FAO-Penman-Monteith (F-P-M) method. The results show that ANN models perform better than experimental relation. Keyword : Evapotranspiration, Artifical neural network, Penman-Manteith, Gorgan.

Sharifan, H.; Dehghani, A. A.

2009-04-01

241

Daily rhythms in mobile telephone communication  

E-print Network

Circadian rhythms are known to be important drivers of human activity and the recent availability of electronic records of human behaviour has provided fine-grained data of temporal patterns of activity on a large scale. Further, questionnaire studies have identified important individual differences in circadian rhythms, with people broadly categorised into morning-like or evening-like individuals. However, little is known about the social aspects of these circadian rhythms, or how they vary across individuals. In this study we use a unique 18-month dataset that combines mobile phone calls and questionnaire data to examine individual differences in the daily rhythms of mobile phone activity. We demonstrate clear individual differences in daily patterns of phone calls, and show that these individual differences are persistent despite a high degree of turnover in the individuals' social networks. Further, women's calls were longer than men's calls, especially during the evening and at night, and these calls wer...

Aledavood, Talayeh; Roberts, Sam G B; Reed-Tsochas, Felix; Moro, Esteban; Dunbar, Robin I M; Saramäki, Jari

2015-01-01

242

Continuous Blood Pressure Monitoring in Daily Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous monitoring of blood pressure in daily life could improve early detection of cardiovascular disorders, as well as promoting healthcare. Conventional ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) equipment can measure blood pressure at regular intervals for 24 hours, but is limited by long measuring time, low sampling rate, and constrained measuring posture. In this paper, we demonstrate a new method for continuous real-time measurement of blood pressure during daily activities. Our method is based on blood pressure estimation from pulse wave velocity (PWV) calculation, which formula we improved to take into account changes in the inner diameter of blood vessels. Blood pressure estimation results using our new method showed a greater precision of measured data during exercise, and a better accuracy than the conventional PWV method.

Lopez, Guillaume; Shuzo, Masaki; Ushida, Hiroyuki; Hidaka, Keita; Yanagimoto, Shintaro; Imai, Yasushi; Kosaka, Akio; Delaunay, Jean-Jacques; Yamada, Ichiro

243

Heavy metals in common foodstuff: Daily intake  

SciTech Connect

Lately, toxic effects of some heavy metals (Pb, Cd) as well as desirable ones of some others (Ni, Mn, Zn) have been a field of thorough investigation. The main way of human body fortification in metals is through foodchain depending on the kind and quantity of the consumed food, according to dietary habits. The purpose of this study is the calculation of metals daily intake through common foodstuff of Greek inhabitants. The calculation is based on results from quantitative analysis of Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn, and Zn in common foodstuff from the market of the city of Thessaloniki. The daily food consumption data is derived from three sources: (a) answers to a questionnaire distributed to families of the city of Thessaloniki, (b) nutrition data provided by the Agricultural Bank of Greece and (c) nutrition data according to international bibliography.

Tsoumbaris, P.; Tsoukali-Papadopoulou, H. (Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece))

1994-07-01

244

Modelling total solar irradiance using a flux transport model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reconstructions of solar irradiance into the past are of considerable interest for studies of solar influence on climate. Models based on the assumption that irradiance changes are caused by the evolution of the photospheric magnetic field have been the most successful in reproducing the measured irradiance variations. Our SATIRE-S model is one of these. It uses solar full-disc magnetograms as an input, and these are available for less than four decades. Thus, to reconstruct the irradiance back to times when no observed magnetograms are available, we combine the SATIRE-S model with synthetic magnetograms, produced using a surface flux transport model. The model is fed with daily, observed or modelled statistically, records of sunspot positions, areas, and tilt angles. To describe the secular change in the irradiance, we used the concept of overlapping ephemeral region cycles. With this technique TSI can be reconstructed back to 1700.

Dasi Espuig, Maria; Jiang, Jie; Krivova, Natalie; Solanki, Sami

2014-05-01

245

A reconstruction of solar irradiance using a flux transport model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reconstructions of solar irradiance into the past are of considerable interest for studies of solar influence on climate. Models based on the assumption that irradiance changes are caused by the evolution of the photospheric magnetic field have been the most successful in reproducing the measured irradiance variations. Our SATIRE-S model is one of these. It uses solar full-disc magnetograms as an input, and these are available for less than four decades. Thus, to reconstruct the irradiance back to times when no observed magnetograms are available, we combine the SATIRE-S model with synthetic magnetograms, produced using a surface flux transport model. The model is fed with daily, observed or modelled statistically, records of sunspot positions, areas, and tilt angles. To describe the secular change in the irradiance, we used the concept of overlapping ephemeral region cycles. With this technique TSI can be reconstructed back to 1610.

Dasi Espuig, Maria; Jiang, Jie; Krivova, Natalie; Solanki, Sami

2013-04-01

246

Once-daily versus twice-daily administration of ceftazidime in the preterm infant.  

PubMed Central

Ceftazidime pharmacokinetics in 28 preterm infants (gestational ages, 25.6 to 31.9 weeks) were studied on day 3 of life. Patients with suspected septicemia were randomized on day 1 of life in two groups. One group (n = 13) was administered 25 mg of ceftazidime per kg of body weight once daily, and the other (n = 15) was given 25 mg of ceftazidime per kg twice daily. Both groups also received 25 mg of amoxicillin per kg twice daily. Blood samples were collected on day 3 of life with an arterial catheter at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h after an intravenous bolus injection. An additional blood sample was taken at 24 h from the group dosed once a day. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to determine serum ceftazidime concentrations. The pharmacokinetics of ceftazidime were best described by using a one-compartment model. The half-life for the elimination of the drug from serum, apparent volume of distribution, total body clearance of ceftazidime, and inulin clearance were not significantly different for both groups. The ceftazidime/inulin clearance ratio was 0.72 for both groups. However, trough concentrations in serum for the twice-daily group were significantly (P < 0.001) higher (42.0 +/- 13.4 mg/liter) than those for the once-daily group (13.1 +/- 4.7 mg/liter). The latter concentrations were all still substantially higher than the MIC of ceftazidime for major neonatal pathogens. We conclude that the currently recommended dosage of 25 mg of ceftazidime per kg twice daily for preterm infants with gestational ages below 32 weeks may be adjusted during the first days of life to one daily dose at 25 mg/kg, provided that for the empirical treatment of septicemia, amoxicillin at 25 mg/kg is also given twice daily. PMID:8540714

van den Anker, J N; Schoemaker, R C; van der Heijden, B J; Broerse, H M; Neijens, H J; de Groot, R

1995-01-01

247

Omnivore: A daily news and information service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Richard C. Rath, HNSource, the Central Information Source for Historians at the University of Kansas started Omnivore in 1994. The Omnivore is a menu of pointers to sources of daily news and information. It is organized in a way to make getting the day's news quick, accurate, and up-to-date, while allowing easy access to background information to whatever depth the reader desires. This is a non-commercial service, free to all end-users.

248

Understanding metropolitan patterns of daily encounters.  

PubMed

Understanding of the mechanisms driving our daily face-to-face encounters is still limited; the field lacks large-scale datasets describing both individual behaviors and their collective interactions. However, here, with the help of travel smart card data, we uncover such encounter mechanisms and structures by constructing a time-resolved in-vehicle social encounter network on public buses in a city (about 5 million residents). Using a population scale dataset, we find physical encounters display reproducible temporal patterns, indicating that repeated encounters are regular and identical. On an individual scale, we find that collective regularities dominate distinct encounters' bounded nature. An individual's encounter capability is rooted in his/her daily behavioral regularity, explaining the emergence of "familiar strangers" in daily life. Strikingly, we find individuals with repeated encounters are not grouped into small communities, but become strongly connected over time, resulting in a large, but imperceptible, small-world contact network or "structure of co-presence" across the whole metropolitan area. Revealing the encounter pattern and identifying this large-scale contact network are crucial to understanding the dynamics in patterns of social acquaintances, collective human behaviors, and--particularly--disclosing the impact of human behavior on various diffusion/spreading processes. PMID:23918373

Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W; Lee, Der-Horng; Huang, Xianfeng

2013-08-20

249

Copula-based daily rainfall disaggregation model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A daily rainfall disaggregation model, which uses a copula to model the dependence structure between total depth, total duration of wet periods, and the maximum proportional depth of a wet period, is presented. The wet(1)-dry(0) binary sequence is modeled by the nonrandomized Bartlett-Lewis model with diurnal effect incorporated before superimposing the AR(1) depth process submodel. Unlike previous studies, the model is structured such that all wet day data available are considered in the analysis, without the need to discard any good quality daily data embedded in a month having some missing data. This increased the data size, thus improving the modeling process. Further, the daily data are classified according to the total duration of wet periods duration within the day. In this way a large proportion of the model parameters become seasonal invariant, the overriding factor being the total duration of wet periods. The potential of the developed model has been demonstrated by disaggregating both the data set used in developing the model parameters and also a 12 year continuous rainfall data set not used in the model parameterization. Gross rainfall statistics of several aggregation levels down to 6 min have been very well reproduced by the disaggregation model. The copula dependence structure and the variation of the depth process submodel parameters with the total duration of wet periods are also very well captured by the presented model.

Gyasi-Agyei, Yeboah

2011-07-01

250

Daily animal exposure and children's biological concepts.  

PubMed

A large body of research has focused on the developmental trajectory of children's acquisition of a theoretically coherent naive biology. However, considerably less work has focused on how specific daily experiences shape the development of children's knowledge about living things. In the current research, we investigated one common experience that might contribute to biological knowledge development during early childhood-pet ownership. In Study 1, we investigated how children interact with pets by observing 24 preschool-aged children with their pet cats or dogs and asking parents about their children's daily involvement with the pets. We found that most of young children's observed and reported interactions with their pets are reciprocal social interactions. In Study 2, we tested whether children who have daily social experiences with animals are more likely to attribute biological properties to animals than children without pets. Both 3- and 5-year-olds with pets were more likely to attribute biological properties to animals than those without pets. Similarly, both older and younger children with pets showed less anthropocentric patterns of extension of novel biological information. The results suggest that having pets may facilitate the development of a more sophisticated, human-inclusive representation of animals. PMID:25462037

Geerdts, Megan S; Van de Walle, Gretchen A; LoBue, Vanessa

2015-02-01

251

Reconstruction of solar UV irradiance since 1974  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations of the solar UV irradiance are an important driver of chemical and physical processes in the Earth's upper atmosphere and may also influence global climate. Here we reconstruct solar UV irradiance in the range 115-400 nm over the period 1974-2007 by making use of the recently developed empirical extension of the Spectral And Total Irradiance Reconstruction (SATIRE) models employing Solar Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SUSIM) data. The evolution of the solar photospheric magnetic flux, which is a central input to the model, is described by the magnetograms and continuum images recorded at the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory between 1974 and 2003 and by the Michelson Doppler Imager instrument on SOHO since 1996. The reconstruction extends the available observational record by 1.5 solar cycles. The reconstructed Ly-? irradiance agrees well with the composite time series by Woods et al. (2000). The amplitude of the irradiance variations grows with decreasing wavelength and in the wavelength regions of special interest for studies of the Earth's climate (Ly-? and oxygen absorption continuum and bands between 130 and 350 nm) is 1-2 orders of magnitude stronger than in the visible or if integrated over all wavelengths (total solar irradiance).

Krivova, N. A.; Solanki, S. K.; Wenzler, T.; Podlipnik, B.

2009-09-01

252

Global morphology of infrasound propagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric sound waves in the 0.02–10 Hz region, also known as infrasound, exhibit long-range global propagation characteristics. Measurable infrasound is produced around the globe on a daily basis by a variety of natural and man-made sources. As a result of weak classical attenuation (?0.01 dB km?1 at 0.1 hz), these acoustic signals can propagate thousands of kilometers in tropospheric, stratospheric,

Douglas P. Drob; J. M. Picone; M. Garcés

2003-01-01

253

Southern California Permanent GPS Geodetic Array: Error analysis of daily position estimates and site velocities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze time series of daily positions estimated from data collected by 10 continuously monitoring Global Positioning System (GPS) sites in southern California during the 19-month period between the June 28, 1992 (MW=7.3), Landers and January 17, 1994 (MW=6.7), Northridge earthquakes. Each time series exhibits a linear tectonic signal and significant colored noise. Spectral power at frequencies in the range

Jie Zhang; Yehuda Bock; Hadley Johnson; Peng Fang; Simon Williams; Joachim Genrich; Shimon Wdowinski; Jeff Behr

1997-01-01

254

Nedocromil sodium ophthalmic solution 2% twice daily in patients with allergic conjunctivitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a multicenter, open-label evaluation, 1098 patients with ocular itching and a history of perennial or seasonal allergic\\u000a conjunctivitis instilled one drop of nedocromil sodium 2% twice daily in each eye. Ocular symptoms, signs, and global improvement\\u000a were assessed at baseline and 1 month; satisfaction scores, quality-of-life variables, and adverse events were also recorded.\\u000a Significant improvements from baseline (P <

Joseph Tauber; Hunkeler Eye

2002-01-01

255

The Influence of Social Problem-Solving Ability on the Relationship Between Daily Stress and Adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the role of social problem solving as a moderator and a mediator of the relationship between daily stressful\\u000a events and adjustment in a sample of 259 college students. Problem solving was assessed by the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised,\\u000a which provides scores for global problem-solving ability as well as five specific problem-solving dimensions, namely, positive\\u000a problem orientation, negative problem

Alissa C. Bell; Thomas J. D’Zurilla

2009-01-01

256

Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use the links below to complete your research. The Heat Over Global Warming God and Global Warming Robert Redford: Business Warming Up to Environment Emission Impossible? Senator Stepping Up on Climate Control Interview: Bill McKibben Climate Change and the Media Senate Hearings Five Questions with Environmental Writer Tom Philpott Home Grown Oil, Politics Bribes E2: Energy The Greens Online NewsHour: The Global Warming Debate NewsHour Extra: Global Warming Linked to Humans NewsHour Extra: Global Warming Fears Lead to Ratification of the Kyoto Protocol Frontline: Doubters of Global Warming Journey to Planet Earth: The State of the Planet: Global Warming What s Up With the Weather? Some of the below resources were found in the book Global Warming : Opposing Viewpoints (available in the MRC) The Heritage Foundation - Global Warming Rainforest Alliance Doing a global warming search in this website will result in a list of various articles Sierra Club - homepage eLibrary (Proquest) is now available through the

Ms. Schultz

2007-12-03

257

Assessment and ground-based correction of the Level-3 MODIS daily aerosol optical depth: Implications in the context of surface solar radiation prediction and numerical weather modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Level-3 MODIS (L3M) aerosol optical depth (AOD) product offers interesting features for surface solar radiation and numerical weather modeling applications. However, most of the validation efforts so far have been focused on Level-2 (L2M) products and only rarely on L3M. We compare the Collection 5.1 L3M AOD (Terra dataset) available since 2000 against observed daily AOD values at 550 nm from more than 500 AERONET ground stations. The aim is to check the advisability of this dataset for surface solar radiation calculations using numerical weather models. Overall, the mean error (ME) is 0.03 (17%, relative to the mean observed AOD), with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.14 (73%), albeit these values are found highly dependent on geographical region. For AOD values above about 0.3 the expected error (EE) is found higher than that of the L2M product. We propose specific parameterizations for the EE of the L3M AOD, as well as for both its ME and its standard deviation. We also found that, roughly, half of the uncertainty of the L3M AOD dataset might be attributable to its sub-pixel variability. Finally, we used a radiative transfer model to investigate how the L3M AOD uncertainty propagates into the direct normal (DNI) and global horizontal (GHI) irradiances evaluation. Overall, for AODs smaller than 0.5, the induced uncertainty in DNI due to AOD alone is below 15% on average, and below 5% for GHI (for a solar zenith angle of 30 degrees). But the uncertainty in AOD is highly spatially variable, so is that in irradiance. These results suggest the necessity of a correction method to reduce the bias of the L3M AOD. Ground-based AOD measurements can be also used in a data fusion procedure. We present the results of a preliminary study using optimal interpolation of L3M daily AOD data based on daily AERONET AOD measurements in the US in the period since June to August 2009. The method removes the data gaps in the original dataset, assesses the spatial distribution of uncertainty and corrects the resultant gridded-AOD based on point-wise ground measurements. Overall, based on a cross-validation procedure, the method was able to reduce the ME from 0.013 (9%) to -0.002 (-2%), the RMSE from 0.084 (59%) to 0.070 (49%) and increase the correlation coefficient from 10% to 92%. Fig 1 shows the time series of the mean daily AOD for the original (blue) and the data-fused (red) datasets over the study region. The methodology shall allow creating an accurate and long-term gridded-AOD database suitable to be ingested in numerical weather models so that the effect in the atmospheric system of AOD and its daily variability can be better assessed. Such a dataset is crucial for DNI calculations at surface.

Ruiz-Arias, J. A.; Dudhia, J.; Pozo-Vazquez, D.

2012-12-01

258

Record occurrence and record values in daily and monthly temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the occurrence and the values of record-breaking temperatures in daily and monthly temperature observations. Our aim is to better understand and quantify the statistics of temperature records in the context of global warming. Similar to earlier work we employ a simple mathematical model of independent and identically distributed random variables with a linearly growing expectation value. This model proved to be useful in predicting the increase (decrease) in upper (lower) temperature records in a warming climate. Using both station and re-analysis data from Europe and the United States we further investigate the statistics of temperature records and the validity of this model. The most important new contribution in this article is an analysis of the statistics of record values for our simple model and European reanalysis data. We estimate how much the mean values and the distributions of record temperatures are affected by the large scale warming trend. In this context we consider both the values of records that occur at a certain time and the values of records that have a certain record number in the series of record events. We compare the observational data both to simple analytical computations and numerical simulations. We find that it is more difficult to describe the values of record breaking temperatures within the framework of our linear drift model. Observations from the summer months fit well into the model with Gaussian random variables under the observed linear warming, in the sense that record breaking temperatures are more extreme in the summer. In winter however a significant asymmetry of the daily temperature distribution hides the effect of the slow warming trends. Therefore very extreme cold records are still possible in winter. This effect is even more pronounced if one considers only data from subpolar regions.

Wergen, G.; Hense, A.; Krug, J.

2014-03-01

259

The necessity and availability of noise-free daily satellite-observed NDVI during rapid phenological changes in terrestrial ecosystems in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

General, global, long-term, and comprehensive phenological observations are required to evaluate the variability of photosynthetic activities due to environmental changes in terrestrial ecosystems. The observation of seasonal changes and detection of interannual variation in canopy phenology over regional and global scales require satellite data with high temporal resolution (i.e. a daily time step). However, satellite data often include noise caused

Shin Nagai; Taku M. Saitoh; Rikie Suzuki; Kenlo Nishida Nasahara; Woo-Kyun Lee; Yowhan Son; Hiroyuki Muraoka

2011-01-01

260

Daily Spiritual Experiences and Adolescent Treatment Response  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to explore changes in belief orientation during treatment and the impact of increased daily spiritual experiences (DSE) on adolescent treatment response. One-hundred ninety-five adolescents court-referred to a 2-month residential treatment program were assessed at intake and discharge. Forty percent of youth who entered treatment as agnostic or atheist identified themselves as spiritual or religious at discharge. Increased DSE was associated with greater likelihood of abstinence, increased prosocial behaviors, and reduced narcissistic behaviors. Results indicate a shift in DSE that improves youth self-care and care for others that may inform intervention approaches for adolescents with addiction. PMID:25525291

LEE, MATTHEW T.; VETA, PAIGE S.; JOHNSON, BYRON R.; PAGANO, MARIA E.

2014-01-01

261

Daily Lesson Plan: Thirsty for Drought Relief  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Daily Lesson Plan from the New York Times Learning Network, students explore a variety of drought-related issues and research possible courses of action as part of a "drought preparedness taskforce." Based on New York Times coverage of drought in Arizona (story link provided), this exercise offers an active, interdisciplinary way to learn about water conservation and the ecological and economic effects of drought. Designed for grades 6-8 or 9-12, this exercise can be completed in one class period. The site includes useful Web links and a printer-friendly version of the lesson plan. Free registration is required.

Anderson, Bridget.

2003-01-01

262

BOREAS TE-21 Daily Surface Meteorological Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-21 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the meteorology of boreal forest areas. Daily meteorological data were derived from half-hourly BOREAS tower flux (TF) and Automatic Meteorological Station (AMS) mesonet measurements collected in the Southern and Northern Study Areas (SSA and NSA) for the period of 01 Jan 1994 until 31 Dec 1994. The data were stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Kimball, John; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor)

2000-01-01

263

Cocaine craving and use during daily life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Craving is often assumed to cause ongoing drug use and relapse and is a major focus of addiction research. However, its relationship\\u000a to drug use has not been adequately documented.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between craving and drug use in real time and in the daily living\\u000a environments of drug users.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In a prospective,

Kenzie L. Preston; Massoud Vahabzadeh; John Schmittner; Jia-Ling Lin; David A. Gorelick; David H. Epstein

2009-01-01

264

Global Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the Global Challenge, teams of US high school students collaborate with international counterparts from October to May to address global climate change and compete for prizes and scholarship awards. Students strengthen skills in math, science, engineering, and critical thinking while learning about global business practices. The current Global Challenge is to create science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and business solutions that address climate change and the future of energy. Students ages 14-17 who participate in the competition have the opportunity to receive assistance in admissions to colleges and universities and win praise and acclaim as well as awards.

Craig DeLuca, The Arno Group, LLC

2007-10-31

265

Deriving a light use efficiency model from eddy covariance flux data for predicting daily gross primary production across biomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantitative simulation of gross primary production (GPP) at various spatial and temporal scales has been a major challenge in quantifying the global carbon cycle. We developed a light use efficiency (LUE) daily GPP model from eddy covariance (EC) measurements. The model, called EC-LUE, is driven by only four variables: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), air

Wenping Yuan; Shuguang Liu; Guangsheng Zhou; Guoyi Zhou; Larry L. Tieszen; Dennis Baldocchi; Christian Bernhofer; Henry Gholz; Allen H. Goldstein; Michael L. Goulden; David Y. Hollinger; Yueming Hu; Beverly E. Law; Paul C. Stoy; Timo Vesala; Steven C. Wofsy

2007-01-01

266

Original article Seasonal and daily variation of honeybee dancing  

E-print Network

Original article Seasonal and daily variation of honeybee dancing temperature under constant) Summary — The seasonal and daily variation of the thorax temperature of dancing honeybee for- agers. honeybee / dancing / season and daytime / thermoregulation / thermography INTRODUCTION Honeybees foraging

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

267

42 CFR 409.34 - Criteria for “daily basis”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Requirements for Coverage of Posthospital SNF Care § 409.34 Criteria for “daily basis”. (a) To meet the daily basis requirement specified in §...

2014-10-01

268

42 CFR 409.34 - Criteria for “daily basis”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Requirements for Coverage of Posthospital SNF Care § 409.34 Criteria for “daily basis”. (a) To meet the daily basis requirement specified in §...

2010-10-01

269

42 CFR 409.34 - Criteria for “daily basis”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Requirements for Coverage of Posthospital SNF Care § 409.34 Criteria for “daily basis”. (a) To meet the daily basis requirement specified in §...

2011-10-01

270

42 CFR 409.34 - Criteria for “daily basis”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Requirements for Coverage of Posthospital SNF Care § 409.34 Criteria for “daily basis”. (a) To meet the daily basis requirement specified in §...

2013-10-01

271

42 CFR 409.34 - Criteria for “daily basis”.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Requirements for Coverage of Posthospital SNF Care § 409.34 Criteria for “daily basis”. (a) To meet the daily basis requirement specified in §...

2012-10-01

272

More Than 1 in 10 Use Daily Aspirin Inappropriately  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. More Than 1 in 10 Use Daily Aspirin Inappropriately For many users, the odds of heart ... Many Americans are likely using daily low-dose aspirin inappropriately in the hopes of preventing a first- ...

273

Correlation of solar irradiance and atmospheric temperature variations derived from spacecraft radiometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-term changes in the mean global atmospheric temperature and the total solar irradiance were examined utilizing 1979-1989 spacecraft measurements. Outgoing longwave radiation at the top of the atmosphere was employed to infer global atmospheric temperatures. Evidence was determined that indicates the global temperatures should decline in the 1990-1997 period as the magnitude of the incoming solar irradiance declines with decreasing solar magnetic activity.

Lee, Robert B., III; Bolden, William C.; Gibson, M. A.; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.

1992-01-01

274

Brooklyn Daily Eagle Online, 1841-1902  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sometimes referred to as "the borough of homes and churches," Brooklyn has long been an urban community that has captured the attention of the United States and the rest of the world. For over a century, the Brooklyn Daily Eagle chronicled the community's history while under the reins of a host of well-regarded editors, including Walt Whitman. This Web site, which is a collaboration between the Brooklyn Public Library and the Institute of Museum and Library Services, brings over seventy years of this paper online for viewing by the Web-browsing public. The Web site includes an introduction to the paper's history over its long tenure as Brooklyn's main daily paper, as well as a timeline of important changes to the paper's format, layout, and content organization. What is perhaps most remarkable about this online archive is that the entire run from 1841 to 1902 can be searched by keyword, date, and content type. It is important to note that this current archive is a beta release, and that, at certain times (until the main release in the summer of 2003), certain features may not be always available. Regardless of this fact, this is an excellent resource for urban historians and researchers.

2003-01-01

275

Children's and parents' daily stressful events and psychological symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Associations of children's daily stressful events and their parents' daily hassles and psychological symptoms with children's emotional\\/behavioral problems were examined in a sample of fourth- and fifth-grade children and their parents. Correlational analyses indicated that children's self-reports of depressive symptoms were associated with children's daily stressors and mothers' daily hassles, and children's selfreports of anxiety symptoms were associated with children's

Gerard A. Banez; Bruce E. Compas

1990-01-01

276

Simulation of daily runoff in Central Asian alpine watersheds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-component model of river runoff simulation in alpine regions of Central Asia has been implemented. The first component was devoted to the estimation of daily water input. The second component converts water input to river runoff hydrograph. The method of water input simulation was based on mean daily air temperature and daily precipitation at a reference meteorological station, and

V. Aizen; E. Aizen; G. Glazirin; H. A. Loaiciga

2000-01-01

277

Regional Model Nesting Within GFS Daily Forecasts Over West Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study uses the RM3, the regional climate model at the Center for Climate Systems Research of Columbia University and the NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies (CCSR/GISS). The paper evaluates 30 48-hour RM3 weather forecasts over West Africa during September 2006 made on a 0.5 grid nested within 1 Global Forecast System (GFS) global forecasts. September 2006 was the Special Observing Period #3 of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA). Archived GFS initial conditions and lateral boundary conditions for the simulations from the US National Weather Service, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration were interpolated four times daily. Results for precipitation forecasts are validated against Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite estimates and data from the Famine Early Warning System (FEWS), which includes rain gauge measurements, and forecasts of circulation are compared to reanalysis 2. Performance statistics for the precipitation forecasts include bias, root-mean-square errors and spatial correlation coefficients. The nested regional model forecasts are compared to GFS forecasts to gauge whether nesting provides additional realistic information. They are also compared to RM3 simulations driven by reanalysis 2, representing high potential skill forecasts, to gauge the sensitivity of results to lateral boundary conditions. Nested RM3/GFS forecasts generate excessive moisture advection toward West Africa, which in turn causes prodigious amounts of model precipitation. This problem is corrected by empirical adjustments in the preparation of lateral boundary conditions and initial conditions. The resulting modified simulations improve on the GFS precipitation forecasts, achieving time-space correlations with TRMM of 0.77 on the first day and 0.63 on the second day. One realtime RM3/GFS precipitation forecast made at and posted by the African Centre of Meteorological Application for Development (ACMAD) in Niamey, Niger is shown.

Druyan, Leonard M.; Fulakeza, Matthew; Lonergan, Patrick; Worrell, Ruben

2010-01-01

278

Interfractional Target Variations for Partial Breast Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In this work, we quantify the interfractional variations in the shape of the clinical target volume (CTV) by analyzing the daily CT data acquired during CT-guided partial breast irradiation (PBI) and compare the effectiveness of various repositioning alignment strategies considered to account for the variations. Methods and Materials: The daily CT data for 13 breast cancer patients treated with PBI in either prone (10 patients) or supine (3 patients) with daily kV CT guidance using CT on Rails (CTVision, Siemens, Malvern, PA) were analyzed. For approximately 25 points on the surface of the CTV, deformation vectors were calculated by means of deformable image registration and verified by visual inspection. These were used to calculate the distances along surface normals (DSN), which directly related to the required margin expansions for each point. The DSN values were determined for seven alignment methods based on volumetric imaging and also two-dimensional projections (portal imaging). Results: The margin expansion necessary to cover 99% of all points for all days was 2.7 mm when utilizing the alignment method based on deformation field data (the best alignment method). The center-of-mass based alignment yielded slightly worse results (a margin of 4.0 mm), and shifts obtained by operator placement (7.9 mm), two-dimensional-based methods (7.0-10.1 mm), and skin marks (13.9 mm) required even larger margin expansions. Target shrinkage was evident for most days by the negative values of DSN. Even with the best alignment, the range of DSN values could be as high as 7 mm, resulting in a large amount of normal tissue irradiation, unless adaptive replanning is employed. Conclusion: The appropriate alignment method is important to minimize the margin requirement to cover the significant interfractional target deformations observed during PBI. The amount of normal tissue unnecessarily irradiated is still not insignificant, and can be minimized if adaptive radiotherapy is applied.

Ahunbay, Ergun E., E-mail: eahunbay@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Robbins, Jared; Christian, Robert; Godley, Andrew; White, Julia; Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

2012-04-01

279

Identification of Proteins Secreted into the Medium by Human Lymphocytes Irradiated in Vitro with or Without Adaptive Environments  

PubMed Central

There is increasing evidence to support the hypothesis of adaptive response, a phenomenon in which protection arises from a low-dose radiation (<0.1 Gy) against damage induced by subsequent exposure to high-dose radiation. The molecular mechanisms underlying such protection are poorly understood. The goal of this study was to fill this knowledge gap. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics was used to characterize global protein expression profiles in the medium collected from human lymphocyte cultures given sham irradiation (0 Gy) or a priming low dose of 0.03 Gy 137Cs ? rays 4 h prior to a challenging dose of 1 Gy 137Cs ? rays. Adaptive response was determined by decreased micronucleus frequencies in lymphocytes receiving low dose irradiation prior to high dose irradiation compared to those receiving only high dose irradiation. Adaptive response was found in these experiments. Proteomic analysis of media revealed: (a) 55 proteins with similar abundance in both groups; (b) 23 proteins in both groups, but 7 of them were high abundance in medium with adaptive environment, while 16 high abundance proteins were in medium without adaptive environment; (c) 17 proteins in medium with adaptive environment only; and (d) 8 proteins in medium without adaptive environment only. The results provide a foundation for improving understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with the beneficial effects of low dose radiation that, in turn, will have an important impact on radiation risk estimation. Hence, these studies are highly relevant to radiation protection due to an increased use of low dose radiation in daily life (e.g., medical diagnosis or airport safety) or an unavoidable exposure to low level background radiation. PMID:22134077

Rithidech, Kanokporn Noy; Lai, Xianyin; Honikel, Louise; Reungpatthanaphong, Paiboon; Witzmann, Frank A.

2013-01-01

280

Global Chaotic Mixing on Isentropic Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general nature of two-dimensional mixing on isentropic surfaces in the troposphere has been investigated. The daily time series of isentropic winds is obtained from a global general circulation model and is used to drive a high-resolution fully Lagrangian passive tracer model. Results are compared with the extremes of chaotic mixing by organized waves on the one hand and classical

R. T. Pierrehumbert; H. Yang

1993-01-01

281

Investigation of daily covering material for biocells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioreactor landfilling, with the acceptance of landfill Directive 1999/31/EC has lost its actuality in European Union; at the same time, this method can still be used for acceleration of biowaste degradation and biogas production. One of the possibilities to reduce the disposal of biowaste is to use biocells for its anaerobic pre-treatment before landfilling. The daily filling up of such a cell requires isolation of the main volume to limit gas emissions, reduce smells, etc. Bioprocesses that are of the utmost importance for biocell treatment are often not taken into account in selection of materials to be used as daily landfill covers. Based on physical, chemical and biological methods the investigations have been carried out into different covering materials offered in the market, with identification of parameters that are the most important for daily covering the biocells. It is found that the materials fitted best this purpose should be of biological origin and consist of small bio-particles with large surface, without the inhibitors of anaerobic processes such as sulphuric compounds. Bioreaktoru pielietošana atkritumu uzglab?šanas sf?r?, sakar? ar Direkt?vas 1999/31/EC pie?emšanu, ir zaud?jusi savu aktualit?ti, ta?u š? metode v?l joproj?m var tikt izmantota bioatkritumu no?rd?šanai un biog?zes ražošanai. Viena no iesp?j?m k? samazin?t bioatkritumu izvietošanu ir bioš?nu izmantošana bioatkritumu anaerobai pirmsapstr?dei pirms to noglab?šanas. Š?nas piepild?šana ikdien? prasa nepieciešam?bu izol?t liel?ko t?s da?u, lai samazin?tu g?zes emisiju, smakas, utt. Materi?li, kas ikdien? tiek izmantoti atkritumu p?rkl?šanai, nepietiekami ietekm? bioprocesus, kas pamat? ir galvenais bioš?nas izmantošanas m?r?is. Šaj? sakar? ir veikta daž?du tirdzniec?b? pieejamu p?rkl?juma materi?lu izp?te, pielietojot virkni fizik?lo, ??misko un biolo?isko metožu, un nosakot svar?g?kos parametrus, kas ir b?tiski šo materi?lu izmantošanai ikdien? k? bioš?nas p?rkl?jumu. P?t?jumu rezult?t? noteikts, ka visatbilstoš?kie ir materi?li ar biolo?isko izcelsmi, sast?voši no maz?m bio da?i??m ar lielu laukumu bez anaerobo procesu inhibitoriem, piem?ram, s?ra komponent?m.

Bendere, R.; Smigins, R.; Medne, O.; Berzina-Cimdina, L.; Rugele, K.

2014-02-01

282

Dapagliflozin twice daily or once daily: effect on pharmacokinetics and urinary glucose excretion in healthy subjects.  

PubMed

The primary objective of this single-centre, open-label crossover study (NCT01072578) was to assess the effect of dapagliflozin on the amount of glucose in the blood and urine in healthy volunteers when dapagliflozin was administered once a day (10?mg) versus twice a day (5?mg every 12?h) after 5?days of dosing. At steady state, the AUCss (0-24) (area under the dapagliflozin curve (0-24 hours) at steady state), Css, av (average concentration at steady state) between dapagliflozin 5?mg twice daily and 10?mg once daily were similar AUCss(0-24) [5 mg bid, (458.0 (28.7)) and 10 mg qd, (470.0 (28.5))] and Css, av [5 mg bid 18.8 (28.9)) and 10 mg qd, (19.6(28.5))], but minimum and maximum plasma levels of dapagliflozin differed significantly. Percent inhibition of renal glucose reabsorption (%IRGRA) and total urinary glucose excretion over 24?h were similar for both doses. The relationship between the mean dapagliflozin concentration and %IRGRA and the total urinary glucose excreted was well described by a maximum effect model. The results indicate that dapagliflozin may be used for either once daily or twice daily administration. PMID:25511685

Tang, W; Reele, S; Hamer-Maansson, J E; Parikh, S; de Bruin, T W A

2015-04-01

283

Ruminative self-focus in daily life: associations with daily activities and depressive symptoms.  

PubMed

The present study examined the situations and conditions in which ruminative self-focus is less likely to occur in daily life. Previous researchers have described a mood-brightening effect of depression, where depressed individuals exhibit greater positive emotional reactivity to positive daily events than do nondepressed individuals. To better understand this paradoxical effect, we investigated the moderating role of depression in the relationship between daily activities and ruminative thinking. Forty-one Japanese undergraduates (9 women and 32 men) recorded their thought contents and the type and subjective appraisals of activities that they engaged in 8 times a day for a week at semirandom intervals. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that subjectively pleasant activities were associated with improved mood states and reduced ruminative thinking. However, some of these associations were moderated by depressive symptoms, suggesting that individuals with higher levels of depression showed a greater reduction of ruminative thinking during pleasant activities. These results imply that daily activities are important for reducing rumination, particularly for individuals with higher levels of depression, and that the brightening effect of depression is evident for cognitive as well as emotional activities. The cognitive basis of this paradoxical effect is discussed. PMID:23527502

Takano, Keisuke; Sakamoto, Shinji; Tanno, Yoshihiko

2013-08-01

284

Council on Foreign Relations: Daily Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Council on Foreign Relations produces an impressive array of background papers, online debates, op-ed pieces, and articles every year. International relations gurus, policy pundits, and members of the public benefit widely from these works, and those persons who haven't looked over the Council's "Daily Analysis" yet, may wish to do so now. Here visitors can read analytical briefs written by staff members on issues of the day, complete with links to "the news, analysis, commentary, and primary source materials that put the facts in context." The briefs are arranged chronologically, and recent pieces include "Is Brain Drain Good For Africa?", "China's Olympic Moment", and "Picking Presidents and Foreign Policy". These briefs are a great way to get acquainted with important news developments from around the world, and it's easy to see how educators might want to draw on the site as a resource for political science or international relations courses.

2008-01-01

285

The Science of Sleep and Daily Rhythms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created as part of the BioEd initiative at the Baylor College of Medicine, this fine guide to the science of sleep and daily rhythms was authored by Nancy P. Moreno, Barbara Z. Tharp, and Gregory L. Vogt. The 32-page document is designed for use in a variety of classrooms, and it contains activities, worksheets, and information about how sleep studies are used to improve performance across a wide range of human endeavors. The activities here include "Using a Sundial," "Living Clocks," "Sleep Patterns," and "Investigating Sleep." Each of these activities is explained succinctly and thoroughly, and many do not required specialized equipment. One of the most interesting activities is the sun tracking board which allows students to track the sun's movements with just a bit of cardboard, several writing instruments, a ruler, and some string. Finally, the sleep cycle rhythms activity gets creative, as students are asked to write a few poems about their own sleep patterns.

Moreno, Nancy P.

2012-07-06

286

Daily oral iron supplementation during pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background Iron and folic acid supplementation has been the preferred intervention to improve iron stores and prevent anaemia among pregnant women, and it may also improve other maternal and birth outcomes. Objectives To assess the effects of daily oral iron supplements for pregnant women, either alone or in conjunction with folic acid, or with other vitamins and minerals as a public health intervention. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (2 July 2012). We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (2 July 2012) and contacted relevant organisations for the identification of ongoing and unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised trials evaluating the effects of oral preventive supplementation with daily iron, iron + folic acid or iron + other vitamins and minerals during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis We assessed the methodological quality of trials using standard Cochrane criteria. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data and conducted checks for accuracy. Main results We included 60 trials. Forty-three trials, involving more than 27,402 women, contributed data and compared the effects of daily oral supplements containing iron versus no iron or placebo. Overall, women taking iron supplements were less likely to have low birthweight newborns (below 2500 g) compared with controls (8.4% versus 10.2%, average risk ratio (RR) 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68 to 0.97, 11 trials, 8480 women) and mean birthweight was 30.81 g greater for those infants whose mothers received iron during pregnancy (average mean difference (MD) 30.81; 95% CI 5.94 to 55.68, 14 trials, 9385 women). Preventive iron supplementation reduced the risk of maternal anaemia at term by 70% (RR 0.30; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.46, 14 trials, 2199 women) and iron deficiency at term by 57% (RR 0.43; 95% CI 0.27 to 0.66, seven trials, 1256 women). Although the difference between groups did not reach statistical significance, women who received iron supplements were more likely than controls to report side effects (25.3% versus 9.91%) (RR 2.36; 95% CI 0.96 to 5.82, 11 trials, 4418 women), particularly at doses 60 mg of elemental iron or higher. Women receiving iron were on average more likely to have higher haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations at term and in the postpartum period, but were at increased risk of Hb concentrations greater than 130g/L during pregnancy and at term. Twenty-three studies were conducted in countries that in 2011 had some malaria risk in parts of the country. In some of these countries/territories, malaria is present only in certain areas or up to a particular altitude. Only two of these reported malaria outcomes. There is no evidence that iron supplementation increases placental malaria. For some outcomes heterogeneity was higher than 50%. Authors’ conclusions Prenatal supplementation with daily iron are effective to reduce the risk of low birthweight, and to prevent maternal anaemia and iron deficiency in pregnancy. Associated maternal side effects and particularly high Hb concentrations during pregnancy at currently used doses suggest the need to update recommendations on doses and regimens for routine iron supplementation. PMID:23235616

Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Dowswell, Therese; Viteri, Fernando E

2014-01-01

287

Illinois Digital Newspaper Collection: The Daily Illini  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The digitization of historically important and interesting newspapers continues apace, and this latest collection is quite a find. The Illinois Digital Newspaper Collection is a project of the History, Philosophy, and Newspaper Library at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Library. Their first project is the digitization of select years from the Daily Illini, which is the student newspaper on campus. Currently, visitors can browse and search papers from 1916 to 1936, and there are plans to include the years 1937 to 1945 in the near future. Interested parties can also search by keyword across articles, advertisements and photo captions. One can imagine that this type of archive would be of interest to social historians, journalists, and anyone who wishes to peer into the world of campus life in the Roaring 20s and the not-so-Roaring 30s.

2008-01-01

288

Photophysiology and daily primary production of a temperate symbiotic gorgonian.  

PubMed

Gorgonians are one of the most important benthic components of tropical and temperate areas, and play a fundamental role as ecosystem engineers. Although global warming and pollution increasingly threaten them, the acquisition of nutrients, which is a key process in fitness and stress resistance, has been poorly investigated in such species. This study has thus used an advanced in situ incubation chamber for the first time with gorgonians, to assess the daily acquisition of nutrients and the photophysiology of the Mediterranean symbiotic species, Eunicella singularis. The xanthophyll cycle was assessed in parallel. This work has revealed that E. singularis presents a different functioning than the Mediterranean symbiotic corals. This gorgonian indeed relies on both autotrophy and heterotrophy in summer to optimize its energetic budget, while corals mainly shift to autotrophy for their respiratory needs and tissue growth. In addition, although E. singularis lives in the same depths/locations, and harbours the same symbiont genotype than the corals, the photosynthetic performances of their respective symbionts are significantly different. Indeed, E. singularis acquired 2-3 times less autotrophic carbon from its symbionts than corals, but maintained a positive carbon budget by reducing respiration rates, and by presenting maximal photosynthetic rates throughout the day, suggesting a very efficient light utilization. Almost no photoinhibition was observed under very high light levels, because of the induction of a xanthophyll photoprotection process. These results help understanding why gorgonians often dominate many benthic ecosystems. PMID:25255987

Ferrier-Pagès, C; Reynaud, S; Béraud, E; Rottier, C; Menu, D; Duong, G; Gévaert, F

2015-01-01

289

[The alcoholic patient in the daily routine].  

PubMed

Chronic alcohol abuse is of significant clinical and economic relevance. A major part of internal medical pathology is associated with chronic alcoholism. 50% of all accidents with subsequent traumatic injuries are related to alcohol intake. Patients who are chronic alcohol abusers have prolonged hospital stays and substantial increases in postoperative morbidity. A sophisticated diagnosis of alcoholism within standard clinical routine is often difficult, and in most cases the treatment of alcohol-related diseases and complications is protracted and requires increased energy expenditure by the treating physicians. In surgical patients, chronic alcohol abuse is associated with a 3- to 4-fold risk of infections, sepsis, cardiac and bleeding complications. Therefore, the patients themselves, along with the general practitioner and an in-hospital interdisciplinary team should cooperate in medical and operative treatment in order to attain better clinical outcome. Each patient history should include a detailed assessment of the quantity of daily alcohol intake. Alcoholic diagnostic regimens including questionnaires (i.e. CAGE, AUDIT) in combination with specific laboratory markers (CDT, GGT, MCV), if implemented, could prove valuable, especially in cases where major surgical procedures are considered. Strict abstinence by alcoholic patients with organ pathology in medical and elective surgical settings as well as the prophylactic treatment of pre-operative alcohol withdrawal appear to be useful strategies to reduce the risk of complications. Short-term interventions are associated with reduced alcohol intake and decreased incidence of re-trauma. Considering the clinical relevance of alcohol abuse, sufficient screening, interventions, and open approaches to address alcohol problems should be important components of the daily clinical routine in outpatient clinics, emergency rooms, in GPs' offices and in general hospitals. PMID:14603733

Breuer, Jan-Philipp; Neumann, Tim; Heinz, Andreas; Kox, Wolfgang J; Spies, Claudia

2003-09-30

290

Daily irradiance and feedback inhibition of photosynthesis at elevated carbon dioxide concentration in Brassica oleracea  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fundamental cause of down-regulation of photosynthesis at elevated carbon dioxide concentration is thought to be a slower rate of utilization of carbohydrates than their stimulated rate of production, but there are few studies directly supporting this idea. We hypothesized that down-regulation w...

291

Children as Global Citizens: A Socratic Approach to Teaching Character  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators around the world are being challenged to promote positive global citizenship skills in the face of daily news concerning widespread discord, dissonance, injustice, and corruption. This article describes a Socratic approach to developing global citizenship. Recognizing the central role of teachers in educating future generations of a…

Helterbran, Valeri R.; Strahler, Brianna R.

2013-01-01

292

Potential global fire monitoring from EOS-MODIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) plans to launch the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MEDIS) on the polarorbiting Earth Observation System (EeS) providing morning and evening global observations in 1999 and afternoon and night observations in 2000. These four MEDIS daily fire observations will advance global fire monitoring with special 1 km resolution fire channels at 4 and 11

Yoram J. Kaufman; Christopher O. Justice; Luke P. Flynn; Jackie D. Kendall; Elaine M. Prins; Louis Giglio; Darold E. Ward; W. Paul Menzel; Alberto W. Setzer

1998-01-01

293

Globalization and the "Identity Remix" among Urban Adolescents in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined adolescents' perceptions of cultural change and identity development during an age of globalization in India. Analyses of data from 1497 Indian, urban, middle-class 12-15-year-olds (46% girls) revealed that these youth were aware of changes in their daily lives due to globalization and evaluated such changes in a pragmatic…

Rao, Mrinalini A.; Berry, Ruhi; Gonsalves, Ayesha; Hastak, Yogita; Shah, Mukti; Roeser, Robert W.

2013-01-01

294

Olodaterol: first global approval.  

PubMed

Olodaterol (Striverdi(®) Respimat(®)) is a novel, long-acting, ?2-adrenergic receptor agonist developed by Boehringer Ingelheim for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The drug is delivered via the Respimat(®) Soft Mist™ inhaler. Olodaterol received its first global approval for the once-daily maintenance treatment of COPD in Canada and Russia, and submissions for regulatory approval have also been made in the USA, the EU and elsewhere. Phase II trials have been conducted in patients with asthma. The company is also developing a fixed-dose combination of olodaterol with tiotropium bromide, a long-acting anti-muscarinic agent, for the treatment of COPD. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of olodaterol leading to this first approval for COPD. PMID:24158691

Gibb, Andrew; Yang, Lily P H

2013-11-01

295

Global Investor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Global Investor was developed by Numa Financial Services. The main feature of the site is the Global Investor Directory which contains investment-related sites from around the world. The sites are divided into global, regional and country sites and are rated on a five-star scale. Users can also compare the relative performance of the world's stock markets at the site using the currency of their choice. The latest finance news on the Internet can be found in the Finance netWatch section. There is also a list of international American Depositary Receipts (ADRs) for those interested in creating an ADR portfolio.

296

Plant responses to UV-B irradiation are modified by UV-A irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The increasing UV-B radiation (0.28-0.32 [mu]m) reaching the earth's surface is an important concern. Plant response in artificial UV-B irradiation studies has been difficult to assess, especially regarding photosynthetic pigments, because the fluorescent lamps also produce UV-A (0.32-0.40[mu]m) radiation which is involved with blue light in pigment synthesis. Both UV-A and UV-B irradiances were controlled in two glasshouse experiments conducted under relatively high PPFD (> 1300[mu]mol m[sup [minus]2] s[sup [minus]1]) at two biologically effective daily UV-B irradiances (10.7 and 14.1 kJ m[sup [minus]2]); UV-A irradiances were matched in Controls ([approximately]5, 9 kJ m[sup [minus]2]). Normal, chlorophyll-deficient, and flavonoid-deficient isolines of soybean cultivar, Clark, were utilized. Many growth/ pigment variables exhibited a statistically significant interaction between light quality and quantity: in general, UV-A radiation moderated the damaging effects of UV-B radiation. Regression analyses demonstrated that a single negative function related photosynthetic efficiency to carotenoid Content (r[sup 2] =0.73, P[le]0.001), implying a [open quotes]cost[close quotes] in maintaining carotenoids for photoprotection. A stomatal limitation to photosynthesis was verified and carotenoid content was correlated with UV-B absorbing compound levels, in UV-B irradiated plants.

Middleton, E.M.; Teramura, A.H. (NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States) Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States))

1993-06-01

297

Analyzing UV-B narrowband solar irradiance: comparison with erythemal and vitamin D production irradiances.  

PubMed

The heliotherapy and the phototherapy are mainly focused on taking benefit of the therapeutic effects of the ultraviolet (UV) irradiance on different skin diseases. The use of UV-B narrowband lamps, with emissions centered at 311 nm, has spread out among the dermatologist community because of its high therapeutic effect in comparison with its low erythema dose. For cloudless sun exposure, the balance of solar erythemal and solar narrowband (NB)-equivalent irradiances depends on several factors such as the solar zenith angle (SZA), the total ozone column (TOC) and the altitude. For SZA below 55°, the ratio of solar UV-B narrowband and erythemal irradiances increases with the SZA whereas the ratio of vitamin D production and erythemal irradiances decreases with the SZA with the maximum around midday. Furthermore, the solar NB ratio also increases with the TOC because the shorter wavelengths of the erythemal action spectrum are more affected by the ozone absorption processes. Considering the daily variations of the ratio between narrowband and erythemal irradiance, sun exposures avoiding midday hours are recommended in order to prevent negative side-effects. However to accumulate great NB doses and sufficient vitamin D in winter months is difficult because the time exposures may be longer than the day duration. PMID:23092623

Sola, Yolanda; Lorente, Jerónimo; Ossó, Albert

2012-12-01

298

Springs-neaps cycles in daily total seabed light: Daylength-induced changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In shallow, tidal seas, daily total seabed light is determined largely by the interaction of the solar elevation cycle, the tidal cycle in water depth, and any temporal variability in turbidity. Since tidal range, times of low water, and often turbidity vary in regular ways over the springs-neaps cycle, daily total seabed light exhibits cycles of the same periodicity. Corresponding cycles are likely to be induced in the daily total primary production of benthic algae and plants, particularly those light-limited specimens occupying the lower reaches of a sub-tidal population. Consequently, this effect is an important control on the growth patterns, depth distribution and survival of, for example, macroalgal forests and seagrass meadows. Seasonal changes in daylength exert an important additional control on these cycles, as they alter the fraction of the tidal and turbidity cycles occurring within daylight hours. Bowers et al. (1997) modelled this phenomenon numerically and predicted that for a site with low water at about midday and midnight at neaps tides, 6 am and 6 pm at springs, daily total seabed light peaks at neaps in winter, but the ‘sense' of the cycle ‘switches' so that it peaks at springs in summer - the longer daylength permits the morning and evening low water springs to contribute substantially to the daily total. Observations for such a site in North Wales (UK), presented in this paper, show that no such ‘switch' occurs, and neaps tides host the largest daily totals throughout the year. The predicted ‘switch' is not observed because turbidity increases generally at spring tides, and specifically at low water springs, both of which were not accounted for in the model. Observations at a second site in Brittany (France), diametrically opposite in terms of the times of low water at neaps and at springs, indicate a peak at springs throughout the year. Analytical tools are developed to calculate the percentage of daily total sea surface irradiance reaching the bed at a site of interest on any given day, and to determine the sense of any springs-neaps cycle thereof for a given season. The conditions required for a ‘switch' are explored graphically, resulting in the identification of criteria (and a useful parameter) for predicting their occurrence. Consequences for the growth patterns, depth limits and long-term survival of benthic algae and plants are discussed.

Roberts, E. M.; Bowers, D. G.; Davies, A. J.

2014-04-01

299

Global Composite  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... title:  MISR Global Images See the Light of Day     View Larger Image As ... particulates is an important step toward understanding the Earth's climate system. These images are among the first planet-wide summary ...

2013-04-19

300

Global Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Module covering the conceptual framework and case studies on economic globalization. The module is primarily expositive but includes some interactive sections for checking factual understanding and user submitted interactive projects which are available with a (free) registration.

American Association for Global Geography Education

301

Effects of Converting Tacrolimus Formulation from Twice-Daily to Once-Daily in Liver Transplantation Recipients  

PubMed Central

Typically, tacrolimus is administrated twice daily. Prolonged-release tacrolimus is the once-daily formulation and may be more convenient for patients. Experience with the administration of the once-daily formulation is still limited. This study enrolled 210 liver transplant recipients who had stable liver function and converted tacrolimus from a twice-daily to once-daily formulation on a 1?mg to 1?mg basis. Among 210 patients, seven patients (3.3%) were withdrawn from the once-daily formulation due to allergy and fatigue. For the other patients, the trough concentration after converting to the once-daily formulation was lower than that of the twice-daily formulation. Liver enzymes were mildly elevated in 3 months after formulation conversion and serum creatinine and uric acid were mildly decreased. Seven patients (3.4%) had clinical suspicion of acute rejection after the formulation conversion and three of them were caused by nonadherence. 155 patients (76.4%) experienced a more convenient life with an increase of social activity. Forty-seven patients (23.2%) experienced the convenience of once-daily formulation during overseas trips. In conclusion, tacrolimus can be safely converted from the twice-daily to the once-daily formulation for most stable liver recipients. Acute rejection may occur in a minority of patients during formulation conversion and should be carefully monitored. PMID:25121091

Thorat, Ashok; Chou, Hong-Shiue; Lee, Chen-Fang; Soong, Ruey-Shyang; Wu, Ting-Jung; Lee, Wei-Chen

2014-01-01

302

Global Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students create graphs of real temperature data to analyze climate trends by analyzing the global temperature record from 1867 to the present. Long-term trends and shorter-term fluctuations are both evaluated. The data is examined for evidence of the impact of natural and anthropogenic climate forcing mechanisms on the global surface temperature variability. Students are prompted to determine the difficulties scientists face in using this data to make climate predictions.

Robert MacKay

303

Bystander Effects Induced by Medium From Irradiated Cells: Similar Transcriptome Responses in Irradiated and Bystander K562 Cells  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Cells exposed to ionizing radiation release factors that induce deoxyribonucleic acid damage, chromosomal instability, apoptosis, and changes in the proliferation rate of neighboring unexposed cells, phenomena known as bystander effects. This work analyzes and compares changes in global transcript levels induced by direct irradiation and by bystander effects in K562 (human erythroleukemia) cells. Methods and Materials: Cells were X-irradiated with 4 Gy or transferred into culture medium collected from cells 1 h after irradiation (irradiation-conditioned medium). Global transcript profiles were assessed after 36 h of growth by use of Affymetrix microarrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) and the kinetics of change of selected transcripts by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results: The level of the majority (72%) of transcripts changed similarly (increase, decrease, or no change) in cells grown in irradiation-conditioned medium or irradiated, whereas only 0.6% showed an opposite response. Transcript level changes in bystander and irradiated cells were significantly different from those in untreated cells grown for the same amount of time and were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for selected genes. Signaling pathways in which the highest number of transcripts changed in both conditions were found in the following groups: neuroactive ligand-receptor, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Janus Kinase-Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (JAK-STAT) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) In control cells more transcripts were downregulated than in irradiated and bystander cells with transcription factors YBX1 and STAT5B, heat shock protein HSPA1A, and ribonucleic acid helicase DDX3X as examples. Conclusions: The transcriptomes of cells grown in medium from X-irradiated cells or directly irradiated show very similar changes. Signals released by irradiated cells may cause changes in the transcriptome of neighboring cells that sustain their survival.

Herok, Robert; Konopacka, Maria [Department of Experimental and Clinical Radiobiology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); Polanska, Joanna; Swierniak, Andrzej [System Engineering Group, Institute of Automatic Control, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland); Rogolinski, Jacek [Department of Experimental and Clinical Radiobiology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); Jaksik, Roman [System Engineering Group, Institute of Automatic Control, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland); Hancock, Ronald [Laval University Cancer Research Centre, Hotel-Dieu Hospital, Quebec, QC (Canada); Rzeszowska-Wolny, Joanna, E-mail: jwolny@io.gliwice.p [Department of Experimental and Clinical Radiobiology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); System Engineering Group, Institute of Automatic Control, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland)

2010-05-01

304

A comparison of alternatives for daily to sub-daily rainfall disaggregation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThis paper evaluates three distinct approaches for disaggregating daily rainfall to sub-daily sequences: (1) random multiplicative cascades (microcanonical and canonical versions), (2) point process (randomized Bartlett-Lewis model - RBLM), and (3) resampling (method of fragments). These methods are used to perform disaggregation of daily rainfall to hourly rainfall at four point locations across Australia (Sydney, Perth, Cairns, and Hobart), which are associated with different climatic regimes. The methods are evaluated based on parameter estimation procedures applied (including introduction of the sequential Monte Carlo sampler in RBLM), the capability of the resulting sequences to reproduce standard validation statistics, and the representation of observed rainfall variability and intermittency, within-day wet spells, and extreme rainfall percentiles. The results generally indicate that the method of fragments outperforms the other models. While all the models are found to simulate reasonably well the commonly used statistical measures (e.g. mean and dry proportions) of rainfall at the hourly timestep, the microcanonical model is found to significantly overestimate the hourly rainfall variance. With respect to extreme value characteristics, the resampling approach is found to match well the observed intensity-frequency relationship at an hourly scale, with the cascade models underestimating (canonical) and overestimating (microcanonical) extreme rainfall. The point process model's performance is poor in Cairns but reasonably good at other locations. An analysis of the empirical within-day wet- and dry-spell distributions further reveals that the cascade-based models are not robust for observed wet and dry spells.

Pui, Alexander; Sharma, Ashish; Mehrotra, Rajeshwar; Sivakumar, Bellie; Jeremiah, Erwin

2012-11-01

305

TRENDS IN ESTIMATED MIXING DEPTH DAILY MAXIMUMS  

SciTech Connect

Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential temperature and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth daily maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.

Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M

2007-11-12

306

Chaos and scaling in daily river flow  

E-print Network

Adequate knowledge of the nature of river flow process is crucial for proper planning and management of our water resources and environment. This study attempts to detect the salient characteristics of flow dynamics of the Karoon River in Iran. Daily discharge series observed over a period of six years (1999-2004) is analyzed to examine the chaotic and scaling characteristics of the flow dynamics. The presence of chaos is investigated through the correlation dimension and Lyapunov exponent methods, while the Hurst exponent and R\\'enyi dimension analyses are performed to explore the scaling characteristics. The low correlation dimension ($2.60 \\pm 0.07$) and the positive largest Lyapunov exponent ($0.014 \\pm 0.001$) suggest the presence of low-dimensional chaos; they also imply that the flow dynamics are dominantly governed by three variables and can be reliably predicted up to 48 days (i.e. prediction horizon). Results from the Hurst exponent and R\\'enyi dimension analyses reveal the multifractal character of the flow dynamics, with persistent and anti-persistent behaviors observed at different time scales.

M. De Domenico; M. Ali Ghorbani

2011-04-07

307

Safer Food with Irradiation  

E-print Network

material by C.M. Bruhn at the University of California-Davis Center for Consumer Marketing. is reduced when eggs are irradiated. These dif- ferences are so small that there is no effect on the American diet. What are the benefits of food irradiation... of Agriculture (USD A), and health organizations such as the W orld Health Organization, the American MedicalA ssociation, and the American Dietetic A ssociation ha v e endorsed the safety of irradi- ated food . Does irradiation cause cancer orother health...

Thompson, Britta; Vestal, Andy; Van Laanen, Peggy

2003-01-21

308

The sun’s total and spectral irradiance for solar energy applications and solar radiation models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the most recent composite time series of total solar irradiance spaceborne measurements, a solar constant value of 1366.1 Wm?2 is confirmed, and simple quadratic expressions are proposed to predict its daily value from the Zurich sunspot number, the MgII index, or the 10.7 cm radio flux index. Whenever these three indices are available on a daily basis (since 1978),

Christian A. Gueymard

2004-01-01

309

Indoor and Outdoor Spectroradiometer Intercomparison for Spectral Irradiance Measurement  

SciTech Connect

This report details the global spectral irradiance intercomparison using spectroradiometers that was organized by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. The intercomparison was performed both indoors and outdoors on September 17, 2013. Five laboratories participated in the intercomparison using 10 spectroradiometers, and a coordinated measurement setup and a common platform were employed to compare spectral irradiances under both indoor and outdoor conditions. The intercomparison aimed to understand the performance of the different spectroradiometers and to share knowledge in making spectral irradiance measurements. This intercomparison was the first of its kind in the United States.

Habte, A.; Andreas, A.; Ottoson, L.; Gueymard, C.; Fedor, G.; Fowler, S.; Peterson, J.; Naranen, R.; Kobashi, T.; Akiyama, A.; Takagi, S.

2014-05-01

310

Global healthy backpack initiatives.  

PubMed

Schoolbag use by children is a global common concern.. Children carry school books and other amenities in their school bags. Global evidence indicates that daily load carried by school children may have negative health implications. Backpack as a school bag model, is the healthiest way of load carriage for school children. Several initiatives have been launched world over to minimize unhealthy consequences resulting from schoolbags. Based on a situation analysis, Sri Lanka implemented a national healthy schoolbag campaign by joint efforts of Ministries of Health and Education. Actions were contemplated on; strategies for bag weight reduction, introduction of an ergonomically modeled schoolbag and bag behaviour change. New strategies were introduced with awareness campaigns to policy makers, bag manufacturers, parents, teachers and children. Four million schoolchildren benefitted. In 2000, the backpack strategy of "Pack it Light, Wear it Right" was started as a public health initiative in the United States by the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA). Over the last eleven years, thousands of occupational therapy practitioners and students participated in educational programs and outreach activities. In 2004, modeled after the success AOTA initiative, the Icelandic Occupational Therapy Association launched a national backpack awareness initiative. This article shares examples of practices that could be implemented in any context to the promote health of children. PMID:22317612

Jayaratne, Kapila; Jacobs, Karen; Fernando, Dulitha

2012-01-01

311

Estimation of daily sperm production in rats and monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily sperm production in rats and monkeys were estimated by extended histometric method. Individual seminiferous tubules\\u000a were separated, fixed, processed and embedded. Semi-thin sections were stained with toluidine blue and the different cell\\u000a types quantitated with Chalkley’s eye piece. The daily sperm production estimated was compared with that obtained by the homogenization\\u000a method. The results indicate that daily sperm production

K. Gopalkrishnan; S. Kholkute; T. C. Anand Kumar

1987-01-01

312

Global Grocery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fun Web site is part of OLogy, where kids can collect virtual trading cards and create projects with them. Here, they take a behind-the-scenes look at the biodiversity that's part of the many things they eat and use daily. The site opens by asking kids a series of questions to get them thinking about the ingredients in common foods and products. Then it takes them to a well-stocked kitchen, where they can mouse over everything from chocolate chip cookies and coffee to cough drops and cold medicine to learn about the origins of key ingredients.

313

Global warming, global research, and global governing  

SciTech Connect

The anticipated dangers of Global Warming can be mitigated by reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, especially CO{sub 2}. To reach acceptable, constant levels within the next couple of centuries it might be necessary to accept stabilization levels higher than present ones, The annual CO{sub 2} emissions must be reduced far below today`s values. This is a very important result of the models discussed in the 1995 IPCC report. However, any even very modest scenario for the future must take into account a substantial increase in the world population which might double during the 21st century, There is a considerable emission reduction potential of the industrialized world due to efficiency increase, However, the demand for energy services by the growing world population will, inspite of the availability of alternative energy resources, possibly lead to a net increase in fossil fuel consumption. If the climate models are right, and the science community believes they are, we will experience a global warming of the order of a couple of degrees over the next century; we have to live with it. To be prepared for the future it is essential for us to use new research techniques embracing not only the familiar fields of hard sciences but also social, educational, ethical and economic aspects, We must find a way to build up the essential intellectual capacities needed to deal with these kinds of general problems within all nations and all societies. But this is not Although, we also have to find the necessary dynamical and highly flexible structures for a global governing using tools such as the environmental regime. The first step was the Framework Convention On Climate Change, UN 1992; for resolution of questions regarding implementations the Conference of the Parties was established.

Preining, O.

1997-12-31

314

A stochastic disaggregation algorithm for analysis of change in the sub-daily extreme rainfall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The statistical characteristics of local extreme rainfall, particularly at shorter durations, are among the key design parameters for urban storm water collection systems. Recent observations have provided sufficient evidence that the ongoing climate change alters form, pattern, intensity and frequency of precipitation across various temporal and spatial scales. Quantifying and predicting the resulted changes in the extremes, however, remains as a challenging problem, especially for local and shorter duration events. Most importantly, climate models are still unable to produce the extreme rainfall events at global and regional scales. In addition, current simulations of climate models are at much coarser temporal and spatial resolutions than can be readily used in local design applications. Spatial and temporal downscaling methods, therefore, are necessary to bring the climate model simulations into finer scales. To tackle the temporal downscaling problem, we propose a stochastic algorithm, based on the novel notion of Rainfall Distribution Functions (RDFs), to disaggregate the daily rainfall into hourly estimates. In brief, RDFs describe how the historical daily rainfall totals are distributed into hourly segments. By having a set of RDFs, an empirical probability distribution function can be constructed to describe the proportions of daily cumulative rainfall at each hourly time step. These hour-by-hour empirical distribution functions can be used for random generation of hourly rainfall given total daily values. We used this algorithm for disaggregating the daily spring and summer rainfalls in the city of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada and tested the performance of the disaggregation with respect to reproduction of extremes. In particular, the Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves generated based on both historical and reconstructed extremes are compared. The proposed disaggregation scheme is further plugged into an existing daily rainfall generator to provide a fully stochastic spatiotemporal framework for downscaling Global Climate Models' (GCMs) outputs. Using future simulations of HadCM3 and CGCM, provided through CMIP5 portal, we realized large ensembles of hourly rainfall for the city of Saskatoon throughout the whole 21st century. The chance of alteration in the extreme rainfall intensities at different durations and return periods are then investigated and discussed.

Nazemi, Ali; Elshorbagy, Amin

2014-05-01

315

21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily activity assist device. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

316

21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily activity assist device. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

317

21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily activity assist device. (a) Identification....

2012-04-01

318

21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily activity assist device. (a) Identification....

2010-04-01

319

21 CFR 890.5050 - Daily activity assist device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 Daily activity assist device. (a) Identification....

2014-04-01

320

A Method for Calculating Reference Evapotranspiration on Daily Time Scales  

E-print Network

Measures of reference evapotranspiration are essential for applications of agricultural management and water resources engineering. Using numerous esoteric variables, one can calculate daily reference evapotranspiration ...

Farmer, William

321

Global Compact  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Global Compact is a joint project of the International Labor Organization (ILO), the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP), and the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. The site outlines the nine principles drafted at the World Economic Forum on January 31, 1999 to serve as guidelines for world businesses. The principles address three basic areas of concern: human rights, labor standards, and environment. The Global Compact also provides means and methods for enacting these principles, including case studies and research from the ILO and the UNEP. The site's Country Information section is a searchable database of labor, human rights, and environmental information from Abkhyazia to Zimbabwe. The News and Reviews section contains current and archived news, as well as statements about the Global Compact from UN Secretary General Kofi Annan and Secretary General Amnesty International Pierre Sane among others. Here, users will also find an analytical overview of the research and debates over these topics.

322

RMAWGEN: A software project for a daily Multi-Site Weather Generator with R  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modeling in in climate change applications for agricultural or hydrological purposes often requires daily time-series of precipitation and temperature. This is the case of downscaled series from monthly or seasonal predictions of Global Climate Models (GCMs). This poster presents a software project, the R package RMAWGEN (R Multi-Sites Auto-regressive Weather GENerator), to generate daily temperature and precipitation time series in several sites by using the theory of vectorial auto-regressive models (VAR). The VAR model is used because it is able to maintain the temporal and spatial correlations among the several series. In particular, observed time series of daily maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation are used to calibrate the parameters of a VAR model (saved as "GPCAvarest2" or "varest2" classes, which inherit the "varest" S3 class defined in the package vars [Pfaff, 2008]). Therefore the VAR model, coupled with monthly mean weather variables downscaled by GCM predictions, allows to generate several stochastic daily scenarios. The structure of the package consists in functions that transform precipitation and temperature time series into Gaussian-distributed random variables through deseasonalization and Principal Component Analysis. Then a VAR model is calibrated on transformed time series. The time series generated by VAR are then inversely re-transformed into precipitation and/or temperature series. An application is included in the software package as an example; it is presented by using a dataset with daily weather time series recorded in 59 different sites of Trentino (Italy) and its neighborhoods for the period 1958-2007. The software is distributed as a Free Software with General Public License (GPL) and is available on CRAN website (http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/RMAWGEN/index.html)

Cordano, E.; Eccel, E.

2012-04-01

323

Daily cost of newer glaucoma agents.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the drop characteristics of newer glaucoma medicines compared to timolol solution and timolol gel forming solution (Timoptic-XE, Merck). We evaluated latanoprost 0.005% (2.5 ml bottle), brimonidine 0.2%, apraclonidine 0.5%, dorzolamide 2%, timolol solution 0.5% (5 and 10 ml bottles), and timolol gel forming solution 0.5% (5 ml bottle) in 14 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Each patient placed 10 drops onto an analytical scale (one drop every 10 seconds) for all ten preparations. Patients then attempted to instill 10 drops of a tear replacement solution into their ocular cul-de-sac. Medication bottles were weighed before and after patients dispensed from the bottle and then after the bottle was emptied. Weights were converted to volume using the density of the medicine. A statistical difference existed between groups for mean drop volume with latanoprost having the smallest drop volume (.0273 +/- .004 ml) (P<0.005). All manufacturers filled correctly or overfilled their bottles with product and had <10% of medicine wasted. Patients instilled 77.9% of the tear solution correctly. When dosed according to labeling, latanoprost had the lowest cost of therapy at $0.87 daily compared to the other newly released medications (range $1.05 to $1.40). Latanoprost was more expensive, however, than timolol maleate solution or gel (range $0.45 to $0.54 per day). Latanoprost therapy is less expensive per day than dorzolamide, brimonidine or apraclonidine, but more expensive than timolol maleate. Cost per day could be further reduced by limiting medicine wastage upon instillation, however. PMID:10530699

Stewart, W C; Hudgins, A C; Pruitt, C A; Sine, C

1999-10-01

324

Global Ecology  

SciTech Connect

Global Ecology is a collection of recent papers and original essays which explore the biosphere - its nature, extent, functional properties and current condition. The essays consider ecological principles and problems on a worldwide basis and grapple with difficult questions concerning man's future prospects. Many chapters however, while acknowledging dangerous and discouraging trends, point in positive directions if science and human affairs can be properly utilized and managed. The book provides supplementary material for use with standard textbooks of ecology or environmental science; it may also be used as the basis for an entire course in global ecology.

Southwich, C.H.

1985-01-01

325

Global Winds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On this worksheet, students examine a diagram of global winds and learn the position of the prevailing westerlies, the polar easterlies, the trade winds, the horse latitudes and the doldrums, and that together, the uneven heating of the planet by the Sun and the Coriolis Effect are responsible for the global wind belts. The resource is part of the teacher's guide accompanying the video, NASA Why Files: The Case of the Mysterious Red Light. Lesson objectives supported by the video, additional resources, teaching tips and an answer sheet are included in the teacher's guide.

2012-08-03

326

Controlled synthesis of gold nanoparticles by fluorescent light irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel photochemical synthesis of size-controlled gold nanoparticles was reliably accomplished via both a direct reduction and a seeded-growth method at room temperature under the irradiation of fluorescent light. These methods utilized the intensity of fluorescent light that closely resembles daily sunlight (~100 mW cm - 2). This effectively allowed for the formation of gold nanoparticles with tunable sizes simply

Jun-Hyun Kim; Brian W. Lavin; Roarke D. Burnett; Brett W. Boote

2011-01-01

327

Global Warming And Meltwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to find new approaches and new ideas for my students to appreciate the importance of science in their daily life, I proposed a theme for them to debate. They had to search for global warming information and illustrations in the media, and discuss the articles they found in the classroom. This task inspired them to search for new information about this important and timely theme in science. I informed my students that all the best information about global warming and meltwater they found would be used in a poster that would help us to update the knowledge base of the Physics laboratory. I guided them to choose the most eloquent images and significant information. Searching and working to create this poster, the students arrived to better appreciate the importance of science in their daily life and to critically evaluate scientific information transmitted via the media. In the poster we created, one can find images, photos and diagrams and some interesting information: Global warming refers to the rising average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans and its projected evolution. In the last 100 years, the Earth's average surface temperature increased by about 0.8 °C with about two thirds of the increase occurring over just the last three decades. Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and scientists are more than 90% certain most of it is caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuel. They indicate that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 2.9 °C for the lowest emissions scenario and 2.4 to 6.4 °C for the highest predictions. An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, and potentially result in expansion of subtropical deserts. Warming is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing decrease of glaciers, permafrost and sea ice. Other likely effects of the warming include more frequent occurrences of extreme weather events including heat waves, droughts and heavy rainfall events, species extinctions due to shifting temperature regimes, and changes in agricultural yields. Meltwater is the water released by the melting of snow or ice, including glacial ice and ice shelves in the oceans. Meltwater is often found in the ablation zone of glaciers, where the rate of snow cover is reduced. In a report published in June 2007, the United Nations Environment Program estimated that global warming could lead to 40% of the world's population being affected by the loss of glaciers, snow and the associated meltwater in Asia. This is one of many activities of the physics laboratory that the students of our high school are involved in.

Bratu, S.

2012-04-01

328

Global Snow Cover from MODIS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides data in 36 spectral bands, some of which are used in an algorithm to map global snow cover. The animation shows the dynamic behavior of the advance and retreat of continental snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere for the winter of 2001-02 from MODIS-derived 8-day composite snow maps with a spatial resolution of about 5 km. A time series of MODIS snow-cover maps of the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California, derived from MODIS-derived daily snow maps with 500-m resolution, is also shown for the winter and spring of 2001.

Cindy Starr

2002-07-01

329

The Global Sun Temperature Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website created by Stevens Institute of Technology and the Center for Innovation in Engineering and Science Education (CIESE) allows students from around the world to work together to determine how average daily temperatures and hours of sunlight change with distance from the equator. Upper elementary, middle, and high school students can participate in the Global Sun Temperature Project from March 18 to June 3, 2005. Educators can find project information, lesson plans, and implementation assistance. Participants can submit their project data, pictures, and final reports. If interested parties miss the May 6th registration deadline, check out the website to discover future runs.

330

Problems in food irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the framework of a report on a meeting of the study group Berlin ; of the GDCh task group on Food Chemistry and Forensic Chemistry'', a lecture ; given-by Guenter E. Mueller on Problems in Food Irradiation'' is reviewed. The ; lecture gives a brief survey of the development and present state of food ; irradiation, particularly discussing the

Gerner

1972-01-01

331

Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

Bauer, Roger E. (Kennewick, WA); Straalsund, Jerry L. (Kennewick, WA); Chin, Bryan A. (Auburn, AL)

1985-01-01

332

Irradiator apparatus and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An irradiator of the type using a radioactive material as a source of radiation is combined with a gaseous liquid contact chamber. The irradiator has a casing having an input and output therefrom and a plurality of connected chambers formed in the casing and separated by walls having an opening therethrough. A plurality of gamma radiation sources are located in

Woodbridge

1984-01-01

333

Helium-neon laser irradiation inhibits the growth of kidney epithelial cells in culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the in vitro action of helium-neon (He-Ne) laser light on the cell cycle and the growth of rat kidney epithelial cell cultures. Dose-response studies showed that repeated He-Ne irradiation (dose rate 40 mW\\/cm2) once a day in a dose range between 11.9 and 142 J\\/cm2 significantly inhibited cell growth, while daily irradiation with 4.7 J\\/cm2 had no

Andreas J. Gross; Wolfgang Jelkmann

1990-01-01

334

Global Health: World Regions  

MedlinePLUS

... Africa Americas Asia & Pacific Europe & Eurasia Middle East Global Health Topics Communicable Diseases Global Water Supply and Safety ... Global Programs & Initiatives Emergency Response Exchange Visitor Program Global Health Initiative Global Health Partners One Health PEPFAR About ...

335

The Effect of Personality on Daily Life Emotional Processes  

PubMed Central

Personality features are associated with individual differences in daily emotional life, such as negative and positive affectivity, affect variability and affect reactivity. The existing literature is somewhat mixed and inconclusive about the nature of these associations. The aim of this study was to shed light on what personality features represent in daily life by investigating the effect of the Five Factor traits on different daily emotional processes using an ecologically valid method. The Experience Sampling Method was used to collect repeated reports of daily affect and experiences from 104 healthy university students during one week of their normal lives. Personality traits of the Five Factor model were assessed using NEO Five Factor Inventory. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze the effect of the personality traits on daily emotional processes. Neuroticism predicted higher negative and lower positive affect, higher affect variability, more negative subjective evaluations of daily incidents, and higher reactivity to stressors. Conscientiousness, by contrast, predicted lower average level, variability, and reactivity of negative affect. Agreeableness was associated with higher positive and lower negative affect, lower variability of sadness, and more positive subjective evaluations of daily incidents. Extraversion predicted higher positive affect and more positive subjective evaluations of daily activities. Openness had no effect on average level of affect, but predicted higher reactivity to daily stressors. The results show that the personality features independently predict different aspects of daily emotional processes. Neuroticism was associated with all of the processes. Identifying these processes can help us to better understand individual differences in daily emotional life. PMID:25343494

Komulainen, Emma; Meskanen, Katarina; Lipsanen, Jari; Lahti, Jari Marko; Jylhä, Pekka; Melartin, Tarja; Wichers, Marieke; Isometsä, Erkki; Ekelund, Jesper

2014-01-01

336

Irradiation Creep in Graphite  

SciTech Connect

An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

2014-03-13

337

Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document was created as a presentation for a fuel cell training seminar at Hocking College. The presentation covers the basics of global warming, how human behavior has impacted our environment and the change using renewable fuels can have. This document may be downloaded in Power Point file format.

338

How do GCMs represent daily maximum and minimum temperatures in La Plata Basin?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work focuses on southern La Plata Basin region which is one of the most important agriculture and hydropower producing regions worldwide. Extreme climate events such as cold and heat waves and frost events have a significant socio-economic impact. It is a big challenge for global climate models (GCMs) to simulate regional patterns, temporal variations and distribution of temperature in a daily basis. Taking into account the present and future relevance of the region for the economy of the countries involved, it is very important to analyze maximum and minimum temperatures for model evaluation and development. This kind of study is aslo the basis for a great deal of the statistical downscaling methods in a climate change context. The aim of this study is to analyze the ability of the GCMs to reproduce the observed daily maximum and minimum temperatures in the southern La Plata Basin region. To this end, daily fields of maximum and minimum temperatures from a set of 15 GCMs were used. The outputs corresponding to the historical experiment for the reference period 1979-1999 were obtained from the WCRP CMIP5 (World Climate Research Programme Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5). In order to compare daily temperature values in the southern La Plata Basin region as generated by GCMs to those derived from observations, daily maximum and minimum temperatures were used from the gridded dataset generated by the Claris LPB Project ("A Europe-South America Network for Climate Change Assessment and Impact Studies in La Plata Basin"). Additionally, reference station data was included in the study. The analysis was focused on austral winter (June, July, August) and summer (December, January, February). The study was carried out by analyzing the performance of the 15 GCMs , as well as their ensemble mean, in simulating the probability distribution function (pdf) of maximum and minimum temperatures which include mean values, variability, skewness, et c, and regional patterns. The results indicate that models are able to reproduce the full range of summer and winter maximum and minimum temperature values, although the inter-model dispersion is high. Most models reproduce fairly well the differences between daily summer and daily winter temperature distributions, however GCMs tend to smooth the extreme values. The largest differences are found for winter minimum temperature values.

Bettolli, M. L.; Penalba, O. C.; Krieger, P. A.

2013-05-01

339

Solar influences on global change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monitoring of the Sun and the Earth has yielded new knowledge essential to this debate. There is now no doubt that the total radiative energy from the Sun that heats the Earth's surface changes over decadal time scales as a consequence of solar activity. Observations indicate as well that changes in ultraviolet radiation and energetic particles from the Sun, also connected with the solar activity, modulate the layer of ozone that protects the biosphere from the solar ultraviolet radiation. This report reassesses solar influences on global change in the light of this new knowledge of solar and atmospheric variability. Moreover, the report considers climate change to be encompassed within the broader concept of global change; thus the biosphere is recognized to be part of a larger, coupled Earth system. Implementing a program to continuously monitor solar irradiance over the next several decades will provide the opportunity to estimate solar influences on global change, assuming continued maintenance of observations of climate and other potential forcing mechanisms. In the lower atmosphere, an increase in solar radiation is expected to cause global warming. In the stratosphere, however, the two effects produce temperature changes of opposite sign. A monitoring program that would augment long term observations of tropospheric parameters with similar observations of stratospheric parameters could separate these diverse climate perturbations and perhaps isolate a greenhouse footprint of climate change. Monitoring global change in the troposphere is a key element of all facets of the United States Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), not just of the study of solar influences on global change. The need for monitoring the stratosphere is also important for global change research in its own right because of the stratospheric ozone layer.

1994-01-01

340

Long daily movements of wolves (Canis lupus) during pup raising  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wolves, Canis lupus, on Ellesmere Island traveled a daily round-trip distance of 40.2 km from their den to a landfill during July 2008, plus an undetermined distance hunting after leaving the landfill. Although long travels by Wolves are well known, this appears to be the first documentation of long daily movements by Wolves rearing pups.

Mech, L. David; Cluff, H. Dean

2009-01-01

341

Daily Mortality and PM10 Pollution in Utah Valley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between daily mortality and respirable particulate pollution (PM10) in Utah County was assessed from April 1985 through December 1989. Poisson regression analysis was used to regress daily death counts on PM10 pollution levels, controlling for variability in the weather. A significant positive association between nonaccidental mortality and PM10 pollution was observed. The strongest association was with 5-d moving

C. Arden Pope III; Joel Schwartz; Michael R. Ransom

1992-01-01

342

Circulation Practices and Pricing in Mid-Sized Dailies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study analyzed circulation practices and pricing of mid-sized daily newspapers, seeking to draw together a comprehensive description of the circulation situation for those papers. Seventy-five circulation directors, randomly selected from newspapers with daily circulation between 25,000 and 100,000, completed mailed questionnaires requesting…

Picard, Robert G.

343

Changes in Daily Newspapers: Implications for Community Political Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A decline in the daily reading of newspapers has been observed in the United States since World War II. In the decade from the late 1960s to the late 1970s, most daily newspapers employed market research to document and diagnose trends in readership, to estimate their present and future audiences' composition, and to assess the audiences'…

Smith, Michael V.

344

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Sequentiality of Daily Life Physiology: An Automatized  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Sequentiality of Daily Life Physiology: An Automatized Segmentation Approach J on the hypotheses that (1) a physiological organization exists inside each activity of daily life and (2) the pattern of evolution of physiological variables is characteristic of each activity, pattern changes should

Fontecave-Jallon, Julie

345

Rich News: Metropolitan Dailies and the Urban Poor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The migration of people from cities to suburbs, new patterns of advertising, a less homogeneous and unified readership, and increasing competition from other media have produced tremendous pressures on daily newspapers. In responding to these pressures, metropolitan dailies are turning from "hard" to "soft" news, away from their poorer urban…

Draper, Mary Jo

346

49 CFR 236.586 - Daily or after trip test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Daily or after trip test. 236.586 Section 236.586...Locomotive § 236.586 Daily or after trip test. (a) Except where tests...within 24 hours before departure upon each trip. (b) Each equipped locomotive...

2010-10-01

347

Which metric of ambient ozone to predict daily mortality?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that ozone concentration is associated with daily cause specific mortality. But which ozone metric is the best predictor of the daily variability in mortality? We performed a time series analysis on daily deaths (all causes, respiratory and cardiovascular causes as well as death in elderly 65+) in Vienna for the years 1991-2009. We controlled for seasonal and long term trend, day of the week, temperature and humidity using the same basic model for all pollutant metrics. We found model fit was best for same day variability of ozone concentration (calculated as the difference between daily hourly maximum and minimum) and hourly maximum. Of these the variability displayed a more linear dose-response function. Maximum 8 h moving average and daily mean value performed not so well. Nitrogen dioxide (daily mean) in comparison performed better when previous day values were assessed. Same day ozone and previous day nitrogen dioxide effect estimates did not confound each other. Variability in daily ozone levels or peak ozone levels seem to be a better proxy of a complex reactive secondary pollutant mixture than daily average ozone levels in the Middle European setting. If this finding is confirmed this would have implications for the setting of legally binding limit values.

Moshammer, Hanns; Hutter, Hans-Peter; Kundi, Michael

2013-02-01

348

When Opportunity Knocks: Integrating Language Arts and the Daily Calendar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With daily classroom schedules jammed with many concepts and skills to cover, integrating subjects whenever possible offers some relief. Primary classrooms can use their daily calendar time to integrate language arts and math. This teaching approach includes the use of word walls, interactive writing, journaling, and other effective teaching…

Biddle, Melissa

2007-01-01

349

The Flying Newsboy: A Small Daily Attempts Air Delivery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For 10 months in 1929-30, subscribers to "The McCook (Nebraska) Daily Gazette" (a daily newspaper serving 33 towns in southwestern Nebraska and northwestern Kansas) received their newspapers via air delivery with "The Newsboy," a Curtis Robin cabin monoplane. In an age when over-the-road travel was difficult and air travel was just emerging,…

Watts, Elizabeth A.

350

Manual of Alternative Procedures: Activities of Daily Living.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for teachers and others providing services for moderately and severely physically and/or mentally handicapped children and young adults, the manual presents strategies, procedures, and task analyses for training in daily living skills. Section I provides an overview of tactics for teaching activities of daily living (ADL) skills,…

McCormack, James E.; And Others

351

"Daily News" High School Reading Program. Final Evaluation Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help raise the reading scores and attitudes of selected "at-risk" students from Thomas Jefferson, Springfield Gardens, and Franklin D. Roosevelt High Schools in New York City, a pilot study daily provided students with individual copies of the "New York Daily News" and integrated the use of the paper into regular instruction. Teachers were…

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

352

What Impact Does Developmental Coordination Disorder Have on Daily Routines?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to understand how age and motor difficulties impact on daily routines, this qualitative investigation used focus groups and in-depth interviews with Australian and Canadian parents to examine the daily routines of younger (5 to 7 years of age) and older children (8 to 9 years of age) with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder…

Summers, Janet; Larkin, Dawne; Dewey, Deborah

2008-01-01

353

SCIENTIFIC NOTE Variations in daily quality assurance dosimetry from device  

E-print Network

SCIENTIFIC NOTE Variations in daily quality assurance dosimetry from device levelling, feet are effective tools for analysis of daily dosimetry including flatness, symmetry, energy, field size and central these backscattering effects. Keywords Radiotherapy Á Quality assurance Á Dosimetry Á X-rays Introduction Radiotherapy

Yu, K.N.

354

Telemetry system of daily life motion and arrhythmia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) recording system have been used to record cardiac arrhythmia in daily life. The system can continuously record the ECG waveform so that physicians could diagnose the cardiac disease, together with event recordings which can also provide the recording of activity of daily life (ADL), such as standing, walking, or eating. Patients, however, often forget to record

I. Kobayashi; R. Hayashi; A. Sugawara; H. Matsumoto

1997-01-01

355

Experiences with adaptive statistical models for biosignals in daily life  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the merits of adaptive statistical models for biosignals in a daily life context. Processing of this type of signals poses a number of challenges. First, it is clear that an adaptive model is needed to tailor for the differences in physiology between individuals, as well as adapt to someone's current physiological state. Second, in a daily life setting

Stijn de Waele; Gert-Jan de Vries; Mark JÃger

2009-01-01

356

Comparison of Daily GRACE Gravity Field and Numerical Water Storage Models for De-aliasing of Satellite Gravimetry Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing aliasing effects of insufficiently modelled high-frequent, non-tidal mass variations of the atmosphere, the oceans and the hydrosphere in gravity field models derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission is the topic of this study. The signal content of the daily GRACE gravity field model series (ITG-Kalman) is compared to high-frequency bottom pressure variability and terrestrially stored water variations obtained from recent numerical simulations from an ocean circulation model (OMCT) and two hydrological models (WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model, Land Surface Discharge Model). Our results show that daily estimates of ocean bottom pressure from the most recent OMCT simulations and the daily ITG-Kalman solutions are able to explain up to 40 % of extra-tropical sea-level variability in the Southern Ocean. In contrast to this, the daily ITG-Kalman series and simulated continental total water storage variability largely disagree at periods below 30 days. Therefore, as long as no adequate hydrological model will become available, the daily ITG-Kalman series can be regarded as a good initial proxy for high-frequency mass variations at a global scale. As a second result of this study, based on monthly solutions as well as daily observation residuals, it is shown that applying this GRACE-derived de-aliasing model supports the determination of the time-variable gravity field from GRACE data and the subsequent geophysical interpretation. This leads us to the recommendation that future satellite concepts for determining mass variations in the Earth system should be capable of observing higher frequeny signals with sufficient spatial resolution.

Zenner, L.; Bergmann-Wolf, I.; Dobslaw, H.; Gruber, T.; Güntner, A.; Wattenbach, M.; Esselborn, S.; Dill, R.

2014-11-01

357

Modeling and forecasting daily movement of ambient air mean PM?.? concentration based on the elliptic orbit model with weekly quasi-periodic extension: a case study.  

PubMed

Nowadays, the issue of air pollution has continuously been a global public health concern. Modeling and forecasting daily movement of ambient air mean PM2.5 concentration is an increasingly important task as it is intimately associated with human health that the air pollution has unignorable negative effects in reducing air quality, damaging environment, even causing serious harm to health. It is demonstrated that daily movement of mean PM?.? concentration approximately exhibits weekly cyclical variations as daily particle pollution in the air is largely influenced by human daily activities. Then, based on weekly quasi-periodic extension for daily movement of mean PM?.? concentration, the called elliptic orbit model is proposed to describe its movement. By mapping daily movement of mean PM?.? concentration as one time series into the polar coordinates, each 7-day movement is depicted as one elliptic orbit. Experimental result and analysis indicate workability and effectiveness of the proposed method. Here we show that with the weekly quasi-periodic extension, daily movements of mean PM?.? concentration at the given monitoring stations in Xiangtan of China are well described by the elliptic orbit model, which provides a vivid description for modeling and prediction daily movement of mean PM?.? concentration in a concise and intuitive way. PMID:24809488

Yang, Zong-chang

2014-08-01

358

A general model to predict individual exposure to solar UV by using ambient irradiance data.  

PubMed

Excessive exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) is the main cause of skin cancer. Specific prevention should be further developed to target overexposed or highly vulnerable populations. A better characterisation of anatomical UV exposure patterns is however needed for specific prevention. To develop a regression model for predicting the UV exposure ratio (ER, ratio between the anatomical dose and the corresponding ground level dose) for each body site without requiring individual measurements. A 3D numeric model (SimUVEx) was used to compute ER for various body sites and postures. A multiple fractional polynomial regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of ER. The regression model used simulation data and its performance was tested on an independent data set. Two input variables were sufficient to explain ER: the cosine of the maximal daily solar zenith angle and the fraction of the sky visible from the body site. The regression model was in good agreement with the simulated data ER (R(2)=0.988). Relative errors up to +20% and -10% were found in daily doses predictions, whereas an average relative error of only 2.4% (-0.03% to 5.4%) was found in yearly dose predictions. The regression model predicts accurately ER and UV doses on the basis of readily available data such as global UV erythemal irradiance measured at ground surface stations or inferred from satellite information. It renders the development of exposure data on a wide temporal and geographical scale possible and opens broad perspectives for epidemiological studies and skin cancer prevention. PMID:24496216

Vernez, David; Milon, Antoine; Vuilleumier, Laurent; Bulliard, Jean-Luc; Koechlin, Alice; Boniol, Mathieu; Doré, Jean F

2015-01-01

359

Short-term effects of daily air pollution on mortality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The daily variations of air pollutants in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, which includes Kuala Lumpur were investigated for its association with mortality counts using time series analysis. This study located in the tropic with much less seasonal variation than typically seen in more temperate climates. Data on daily mortality for the Klang Valley (2000-2006), daily mean concentrations of air pollutants of PM10, SO2, CO, NO2, O3, daily maximum O3 and meteorological conditions were obtained from Malaysian Department of Environment. We examined the association between pollutants and daily mortality using Poisson regression while controlling for time trends and meteorological factors. Effects of the pollutants (Relative Risk, RR) on current-day (lag 0) mortality to seven previous days (lag 7) and the effects of the pollutants from the first two days (lag 01) to the first eight days (lag 07) were determined. We found significant associations in the single-pollutant model for PM10 and the daily mean O3 with natural mortality. For the daily mean O3, the highest association was at lag 05 (RR = 1.0215, 95% CI = 1.0013-1.0202). CO was found not significantly associated with natural mortality, however the RR's of CO were found to be consistently higher than PM10. In spite of significant results of PM10, the magnitude of RR's of PM10 was not important for natural mortality in comparison with either daily mean O3 or CO. There is an association between daily mean O3 and natural mortality in a two-pollutants model after adjusting for PM10. Most pollutants except SO2, were significantly associated with respiratory mortality in a single pollutant model. Daily mean O3 is also important for respiratory mortality, with over 10% of mortality associated with every IQR increased. These findings are noteworthy because seasonal confounding is unlikely in this relatively stable climate, by contrast with more temperate regions.

Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Sahani, Mazrura; Aripin, Rasimah; Latif, Mohd Talib; Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Wong, Chit-Ming

2013-02-01

360

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of boosted once-daily darunavir.  

PubMed

The ability to dose antiretroviral agents once daily simplifies the often complex therapeutic regimens required for the successful treatment of HIV infection. Thus, once-daily dosing can lead to improved patient adherence to medication and, consequently, sustained virological suppression and reduction in the risk of emergence of drug resistance. Several trials have evaluated once-daily darunavir/ritonavir in combination with other antiretrovirals (ARTEMIS and ODIN trials) or as monotherapy (MONET, MONOI and PROTEA trials) in HIV-1-infected adults. Data from ARTEMIS and ODIN demonstrate non-inferiority of once-daily darunavir/ritonavir against a comparator and, together with pharmacokinetic data, have established the suitability of once-daily darunavir/ritonavir for treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients with no darunavir resistance-associated mutations. The findings of ARTEMIS and ODIN have led to recent updates to treatment guidelines, whereby once-daily darunavir/ritonavir, given with other antiretrovirals, is now a preferred treatment option for antiretroviral-naive adult patients and a simplified treatment option for antiretroviral-experienced adults who have no darunavir resistance-associated mutations. Once-daily dosing with darunavir/ritonavir is an option for treatment-naive and for treatment-experienced paediatric patients with no darunavir resistance-associated mutations based on the findings of the DIONE trial and ARIEL substudy. This article reviews the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety and tolerability of once-daily boosted darunavir. The feasibility of darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy as a treatment approach for some patients is also discussed. Finally, data on a fixed-dose combination of 800/150 mg of darunavir/cobicistat once daily are presented, showing comparable darunavir bioavailability to that obtained with 800/100 mg of darunavir/ritonavir once daily. PMID:24951533

Kakuda, Thomas N; Brochot, Anne; Tomaka, Frank L; Vangeneugden, Tony; Van De Casteele, Tom; Hoetelmans, Richard M W

2014-10-01

361

Daily or Intermittent Budesonide in Preschool Children with Recurrent Wheezing  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Daily inhaled glucocorticoids are recommended for young children at risk for asthma exacerbations, as indicated by a positive value on the modified asthma predictive index (API) and an exacerbation in the preceding year, but concern remains about daily adherence and effects on growth. We compared daily therapy with intermittent therapy. METHODS We studied 278 children between the ages of 12 and 53 months who had positive values on the modified API, recurrent wheezing episodes, and at least one exacerbation in the previous year but a low degree of impairment. Children were randomly assigned to receive a budesonide inhalation suspension for 1 year as either an intermittent high-dose regimen (1 mg twice daily for 7 days, starting early during a predefined respiratory tract illness) or a daily low-dose regimen (0.5 mg nightly) with corresponding placebos. The primary outcome was the frequency of exacerbations requiring oral glucocorticoid therapy. RESULTS The daily regimen of budesonide did not differ significantly from the intermittent regimen with respect to the frequency of exacerbations, with a rate per patient-year for the daily regimen of 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76 to 1.22) versus a rate of 0.95 (95% CI, 0.75 to 1.20) for the intermittent regimen (relative rate in the intermittent-regimen group, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.35; P=0.60). There were also no significant between-group differences in several other measures of asthma severity, including the time to the first exacerbation, or adverse events. The mean exposure to budesonide was 104 mg less with the intermittent regimen than with the daily regimen. CONCLUSIONS A daily low-dose regimen of budesonide was not superior to an intermittent high-dose regimen in reducing asthma exacerbations. Daily administration led to greater exposure to the drug at 1 year. PMID:22111718

Zeiger, Robert S.; Mauger, David; Bacharier, Leonard B.; Guilbert, Theresa W.; Martinez, Fernando D.; Lemanske, Robert F.; Strunk, Robert C.; Covar, Ronina; Szefler, Stanley J.; Boehmer, Susan; Jackson, Daniel J.; Sorkness, Christine A.; Gern, James E.; Kelly, H. William; Friedman, Noah J.; Mellon, Michael H.; Schatz, Michael; Morgan, Wayne J.; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Raissy, Hengameh H.; Bade, Elizabeth; Malka-Rais, Jonathan; Beigelman, Avraham; Taussig, Lynn M.

2011-01-01

362

Continuous rainfall simulation: 2. A regionalized daily rainfall generation approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is the second of two in the current issue that presents a framework for simulating continuous (uninterrupted) rainfall sequences at both gaged and ungaged locations. The ultimate objective of the papers is to present a methodology for stochastically generating continuous subdaily rainfall sequences at any location such that the statistics at a range of aggregation scales are preserved. In this paper we complete the regionalized algorithm by adopting a rationale for generating daily sequences at any location by sampling daily rainfall records from "nearby" gages with statistically similar rainfall sequences.The approach consists of two distinct steps: first the identification of a set of locations with daily rainfall sequences that are statistically similar to the location of interest, and second the development of an algorithm to sample daily rainfall from those locations. In the first step, the similarity between all bivariate combinations of 2708 daily rainfall records across Australia were considered, and a logistic regression model was formulated to predict the similarity between stations as a function of a number of physiographic covariates. Based on the model results, a number of nearby locations with adequate daily rainfall records are identified for any ungaged location of interest (the "target" location), and then used as the basis for stochastically generating the daily rainfall sequences. The continuous simulation algorithm was tested at five locations where long historical daily rainfall records are available for comparison, and found to perform well in representing the distributional and dependence attributes of the observed daily record. These daily sequences were then used to disaggregate to a subdaily time step using the rainfall state-based disaggregation approach described in the first paper, and found to provide a good representation of the continuous rainfall sequences at the location of interest.

Mehrotra, Rajeshwar; Westra, Seth; Sharma, Ashish; Srikanthan, Ratnasingham

2012-01-01

363

Irradiation-Induced Nanostructures  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the results of the studies of the irradiation-induced formation of nanostructures, where the injected interstitials from the source of irradiation are not major components of the nanophase. This phenomena has been observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in a number of intermetallic compounds and ceramics during high-energy electron or ion irradiations when the ions completely penetrate through the specimen. Beginning with single crystals, electron or ion irradiation in a certain temperature range may result in nanostructures composed of amorphous domains and nanocrystals with either the original composition and crystal structure or new nanophases formed by decomposition of the target material. The phenomenon has also been observed in natural materials which have suffered irradiation from the decay of constituent radioactive elements and in nuclear reactor fuels which have been irradiated by fission neutrons and other fission products. The mechanisms involved in the process of this nanophase formation are discussed in terms of the evolution of displacement cascades, radiation-induced defect accumulation, radiation-induced segregation and phase decomposition, as well as the competition between irradiation-induced amorphization and recrystallization.

Birtcher, R.C.; Ewing, R.C.; Matzke, Hj.; Meldrum, A.; Newcomer, P.P.; Wang, L.M.; Wang, S.X.; Weber, W.J.

1999-08-09

364

Global Health Research | 2 Global Health Research  

E-print Network

Global Health Research | 2 Global Health Research Supporting researchers in low- and middle Health Research #12;Global Health Research | 4 We are a global charitable foundation dedicated water. Mark Jones #12;5 | Global Health Research We support researchers in low- and middle- income

Rambaut, Andrew

365

Global Integrity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many of the worldâ??s national governments have been plagued by charges of corruption and pervasive malfeasance over the past few decades. As a result, a number of international organizations have been created to provide information on corruption and governance trends for the policy community and the general public. With funding from the World Bank, the Global Integrity organization produces the Global Integrity Report, which features a number of â??integrity indicatorsâ?, which analyze openness, governance, and anti-corruption mechanisms for a wide range of countries. Visitors to their site can read the Report in its entirety here, and also browse through a number of media resources designed for journalists. Additionally, visitors can also learn more about the organizationâ??s staff members and their various methodologies for compiling reports.

366

Flight Global  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Perhaps you are interested in the projects that AirTran has going on? And maybe you'd like to know more about helicopters? These topics (and many more) are all covered on the Flight Global site. The homepage contains a briefing of global airline news, complete with related links, polls, and information from their breaking news blog. Curious parties should also look at the left-hand side of the page, as it contains a list of fourteen different topics, ranging from "Aircraft" to "Media Centre". Further down, the page also contains a "Jobs" area for people looking to enter the industry or to make a career move. The site also contains "cutaways", which feature the interior schematics of military and commercial planes. Visitors should also check out the "AirSpace Image of the Week", which highlights some beautiful and amazing photographs.

367

Alaskan Commodities Irradiation Project  

SciTech Connect

The ninety-ninth US Congress commissioned a six-state food irradiation research and development program to evaluate the commercial potential of this technology. Hawaii, Washington, Iowa, Oklahoma and Florida as well as Alaska have participated in the national program; various food products including fishery products, red meats, tropical and citrus fruits and vegetables have been studied. The purpose of the Alaskan study was to review and evaluate those factors related to the technical and economic feasibility of an irradiator in Alaska. This options analysis study will serve as a basis for determining the state's further involvement in the development of food irradiation technology. 40 refs., 50 figs., 53 tabs.

Zarling, J.P.; Swanson, R.B.; Logan, R.R.; Das, D.K.; Lewis, C.E.; Workman, W.G.; Tumeo, M.A.; Hok, C.I.; Birklid, C.A.; Bennett, F.L.

1988-12-01

368

Mapping Daily Evapotranspiration at Field to Global Scales using Geostationary and Polar Orbiting Satellite Imagery  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing of land-surface temperature (LST) provides valuable information about the sub-surface moisture status required for estimating evapotranspiration (ET) and detecting the onset and severity of drought. While empirical indices measuring anomalies in LST and vegetati...

369

GSOD Based Daily Global Mean Surface Temperature and Mean Sea Level Air Pressure (1982-2011)  

DOE Data Explorer

This data product contains all the gridded data set at 1/4 degree resolution in ASCII format. Both mean temperature and mean sea level air pressure data are available. It also contains the GSOD data (1982-2011) from NOAA site, contains station number, location, temperature and pressures (sea level and station level). The data package also contains information related to the data processing methods

Xuan Shi, Dali Wang

370

GSOD Based Daily Global Mean Surface Temperature and Mean Sea Level Air Pressure (1982-2011)  

SciTech Connect

This data product contains all the gridded data set at 1/4 degree resolution in ASCII format. Both mean temperature and mean sea level air pressure data are available. It also contains the GSOD data (1982-2011) from NOAA site, contains station number, location, temperature and pressures (sea level and station level). The data package also contains information related to the data processing methods

Xuan Shi, Dali Wang

2014-05-05

371

Global Predictions  

E-print Network

above 500 will institute a burn ban. The index uses weather station estimates of temperature and Doppler radar-based precipitation estimates to produce geographic information systems (GIS) maps. The KBDI maps are one of more than 15 map products... created every day by the lab and used by the forest service, county commissioners and others. Using computer technology and satellites, the lab currently focuses on three core spatial technologies? GIS, global positioning systems (GPS) and remote...

Swyden, Courtney

2006-01-01

372

Sequential estimation of surface water mass changes from daily satellite gravimetry data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a recursive Kalman filtering approach to map regional spatio-temporal variations of terrestrial water mass over large continental areas, such as South America. Instead of correcting hydrology model outputs by the GRACE observations using a Kalman filter estimation strategy, regional 2-by-2 degree water mass solutions are constructed by integration of daily potential differences deduced from GRACE K-band range rate (KBRR) measurements. Recovery of regional water mass anomaly averages obtained by accumulation of information of daily noise-free simulated GRACE data shows that convergence is relatively fast and yields accurate solutions. In the case of cumulating real GRACE KBRR data contaminated by observational noise, the sequential method of step-by-step integration provides estimates of water mass variation for the period 2004-2011 by considering a set of suitable a priori error uncertainty parameters to stabilize the inversion. Spatial and temporal averages of the Kalman filter solutions over river basin surfaces are consistent with the ones computed using global monthly/10-day GRACE solutions from official providers CSR, GFZ and JPL. They are also highly correlated to in situ records of river discharges (70-95 %), especially for the Obidos station where the total outflow of the Amazon River is measured. The sparse daily coverage of the GRACE satellite tracks limits the time resolution of the regional Kalman filter solutions, and thus the detection of short-term hydrological events.

Ramillien, G. L.; Frappart, F.; Gratton, S.; Vasseur, X.

2015-03-01

373

Reproduction of Japanese quail after microwave irradiation (2. 45 GHz CW) during embryogeny  

SciTech Connect

Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) embryos were irradiated continuously in ovo with 2.45-GHz continuous wave radiation during the first 12 days of embryogenesis at an incident power of 5 mW/cm2 and a specific absorption rate of 4.03 mW/g. The internal temperature of irradiated and nonirradiated (sham) eggs was 37.5 +/- 0.3 degrees C, which is the optimum temperature for incubating quail eggs. At 35 days after hatching irradiated and sham-irradiated males were paired with irradiated or sham-irradiated females and daily records of reproductive performance were collected through 224 days of age. Progeny were hatched from each of the male-female pairs, and progeny reproductive performance was measured from 35 through 168 days of age. Hatchability was not affected by irradiation during embryogeny. Mortality after hatching, egg production, egg weight, fertility, hatchability of eggs produced, and reproductive performance of the progeny were not affected by irradiation during embryogeny. These observations indicate that irradiation of quail embryos with low-level microwave radiation does not affect the reproductive capacity of the hatchlings or of progeny produced from quail irradiated during incubation.

Gildersleeve, R.P.; Galvin, M.J.; McRee, D.I.; Thaxton, J.P.; Parkhurst, C.R.

1987-01-01

374

Moral purpose, economic incentive and global trade : why new business models are needed  

E-print Network

Globalization has occurred in various forms over the past century, yet only recently has it become daily news. This evolving process has created numerous underlying tensions that are not well understood. While western ...

Samel, Hiram M

2006-01-01

375

Validation of Daily Reference Evapotranspiration Estimates from Newly Available Data Assimilation Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different sources of atmospheric parameters and land surface flux data are currently available for environmental monitoring and agroclimatological applications. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Authority’s (NOAA) National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) has been producing global data assimilation data (GDAS) at 100km (1-degree) resolution that contains a range of atmospheric parameters since 2000. The newly available North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) produces atmospheric parameters at 12 to 15 km (0.125-degree) resolution for the Conterminous United States (CONUS). Estimates of daily Reference Evapotranspiration (ETo) from NLDAS and USGS-EROS generated global daily ETo data from GDAS using the FAO Penman-Monteith model from 2006 - 2007 are evaluated against ETo estimated from 74 stations of the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) and from 115 stations of the Oklahoma Meteorological Network (Mesonet). The results indicate that GDAS-forced ETo estimates show good results over inland areas but show lower accuracies in coastal areas owing to their coarse resolution. NLDAS-forced ETo provides high-resolution ETo and thus avoids the coastal area problem. Over inland areas however, ETo estimates from both assimilation products demonstrate high correlation with gauge data. The results indicate the potential of these datasets for agroclimatological applications particularly in data-scarce regions.

Alemu, H.; Senay, G. B.

2010-12-01

376

Food irradiation in perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Food irradiation already has a long history of hopes and disappointments. Nowhere in the world it plays the role that it should have, including in the much needed prevention of foodborne diseases. Irradiated food sold well wherever consumers were given a chance to buy them. Differences between national regulations do not allow the international trade of irradiated foods. While in many countries food irradiation is still illegal, in most others it is regulated as a food additive and based on the knowledge of the sixties. Until 1980, wholesomeness was the big issue. Then the "prerequisite" became detection methods. Large amounts of money have been spent to design and validate tests which, in fact, aim at enforcing unjustified restrictions on the use of the process. In spite of all the difficulties, it is believed that the efforts of various UN organizations and a growing legitimate demand for food safety should in the end lead to recognition and acceptance.

Henon, Y. M.

1995-02-01

377

Nasopharyngeal Radium Irradiation (NRI)  

MedlinePLUS

... received this treatment may experience delayed adverse health effects. In September 1995, we convened a workshop on "The Public Health Response to Nasopharyngeal Radium Irradiation." It brought together a diverse group of more ...

378

Stability of ?-Irradiated Carmine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carmine is a dye used mainly for coloring food products and galenicals but also in inks. As food irradiation is becoming a regular treatment for food preservation, it is desirable to have a proper knowledge about the radiation sensitivity of additives that can be included in the food formula. The aim of this work was to establish the radiation stability of carmine against Co-60 gamma radiation. Samples of 50% pure carmine powder as well as 50%, 10% and 5% aqueous solutions were irradiated in a Gammacell 220, dose rate of about 5.2 kGy/h, with doses of 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 kGy. Spectrophotometric readings at 494 nm show a slight decrease of the absorbance as a function of dose: Samples irradiated with 4 and 32 kGy retained 95% and 90% of absorbance of the unirradiated samples respectively. These results indicate a rather good stability of carmine against ?-irradiation.

Cosentino, Hélio M.; Fontenele, Rinaldo S.; DelMastro, Nélida L.

2005-01-01

379

Asymmetric Globalization: Global Markets Require Good Global Politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper sets out two views of the facts about the effects of globalization on world poverty and inequality. The bottom line: globalization is not the cause, but neither is it the solution to world poverty and inequality. The paper then explores why and how the global economy is stacked against the poor, making globalization asymmetric, at least up to

Nancy Birdsall

2002-01-01

380

Comparison of once daily versus twice daily olmesartan in patients with chronic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Background The effects of olmesartan (OLM) on blood pressure and kidney function in Japanese patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) were compared between 20 mg twice daily (BID) and 40 mg once daily (QD) treatments. Methods The subjects were Japanese CKD patients with concurrent hypertension who had been treated with OLM 20 mg BID for at least 3 months on an outpatient basis (n=39). After a change in the treatment regimen to 40 mg OLM QD (after breakfast), blood pressure (BP) (n=39), morning home BP (n=13), estimated glomerular filtration rate (n=39), and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (n=17) were monitored for 2 months. Results No significant change in office (mean ± standard deviation [SD] [mmHg], 143.9 ± 18.8/75.7 ± 12.0 to 141.6 ± 16.1/74.7 ± 11.7, not significant [ns]) or early morning home (mean ± SD [mmHg], 133.8 ± 15.9/71.2 ± 11.5 to 133.8 ± 13.9/74.5 ± 10.5, ns) BP was observed 2 months after the change in dose. The estimated glomerular filtration rate increased significantly (mean ± SD, 49.0 ± 28.0 to 51.8 ± 27.0, P<0.05), whereas urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio did not change significantly (mean ± SD, 0.551 ± 0.445 to 0.364 ± 0.5194, ns). Conclusion High-dose OLM administered BID and QD had similar effects on outpatient and early morning home BP in CKD patients, suggesting that the BID regimen can be safely changed to a QD regimen. For CKD patients with hypertension requiring continuous long-term treatment, the possibility that the QD regimen might bring a greater therapeutic effect was suggested. However, recognizing the best blood pressure control level for a CKD patient is still a matter of debate, and should ideally be personalized. PMID:24143121

Sakai, Yukinao; Suzuki, Anna; Mugishima, Koji; Sumi, Yuichiro; Otsuka, Yusuke; Otsuka, Tomoyuki; Ohno, Dai; Murasawa, Tsuneo; Tsuruoka, Shuichi

2013-01-01

381

Determination of daily total ultraviolet-B in a subtropical region (Upper Egypt): An empirical approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the fundamental role played by ultraviolet-B (UVB) and due to the lack of long-term measurements of its magnitude, the present work has established an empirical approach to estimate daily total UVB in all sky conditions (UVBd). Data from eight years (2000-2007) of UVBd and daily total global solar radiation (Gd) have been used. For both variables, the dataset used was examined, and a relationship between these two quantities was developed. In addition, the variation of daily clearness indices of UVB and global solar radiation, G (KtUVB and Kt respectively) was determined. Kt was introduced to determine UVBd. This variable can be considered as an atmospheric modulator of the maximum values of UVBd (under clear-sky conditions, UVB0d). The relationship between UVBd and the product of UVB0d and Kt (UVB0d*Kt) was parameterized. The significance and performance of this empirical approach have been evaluated with the aid of several statistical analysis procedures. The results show that the modeling index (d) and the coefficient of modeling efficiency (ME) were 0.99 and 1 respectively. In addition, the root mean square error (RMSE), the mean bias error (MBE), and the mean absolute error (MAE) were 8%, - 0.3%, and 6%, respectively. Datasets for a new time period from Qena and another location (Aswan) were used to validate the proposed approach. The results of this empirical approach were satisfactory, with a correlation coefficient of 0.98 between measured and estimated values of UVBd for both sites.

Adam, Mahmoud El-Nouby

2015-02-01

382

Time series ARIMA models for daily price of palm oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Palm oil is deemed as one of the most important commodity that forms the economic backbone of Malaysia. Modeling and forecasting the daily price of palm oil is of great interest for Malaysia's economic growth. In this study, time series ARIMA models are used to fit the daily price of palm oil. The Akaike Infromation Criterion (AIC), Akaike Infromation Criterion with a correction for finite sample sizes (AICc) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) are used to compare between different ARIMA models being considered. It is found that ARIMA(1,2,1) model is suitable for daily price of crude palm oil in Malaysia for the year 2010 to 2012.

Ariff, Noratiqah Mohd; Zamhawari, Nor Hashimah; Bakar, Mohd Aftar Abu

2015-02-01

383

Contribution of daily and seasonal biorhythms to obesity in humans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the significance of obesity as a serious health problem is well recognized, little is known about whether and how biometerological factors and biorhythms causally contribute to obesity. Obesity is often associated with altered seasonal and daily rhythmicity in food intake, metabolism and adipose tissue function. Environmental stimuli affect both seasonal and daily rhythms, and the latter are under additional control of internal molecular oscillators, or body clocks. Modifications of clock genes in animals and changes to normal daily rhythms in humans (as in shift work and sleep deprivation) result in metabolic dysregulation that favours weight gain. Here, we briefly review the potential links between biorhythms and obesity in humans.

Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Witowski, Janusz

2014-07-01

384

ELPIS-JP: a dataset of local-scale daily climate change scenarios for Japan  

PubMed Central

We developed a dataset of local-scale daily climate change scenarios for Japan (called ELPIS-JP) using the stochastic weather generators (WGs) LARS-WG and, in part, WXGEN. The ELPIS-JP dataset is based on the observed (or estimated) daily weather data for seven climatic variables (daily mean, maximum and minimum temperatures; precipitation; solar radiation; relative humidity; and wind speed) at 938 sites in Japan and climate projections from the multi-model ensemble of global climate models (GCMs) used in the coupled model intercomparison project (CMIP3) and multi-model ensemble of regional climate models form the Japanese downscaling project (called S-5-3). The capability of the WGs to reproduce the statistical features of the observed data for the period 1981–2000 is assessed using several statistical tests and quantile–quantile plots. Overall performance of the WGs was good. The ELPIS-JP dataset consists of two types of daily data: (i) the transient scenarios throughout the twenty-first century using projections from 10 CMIP3 GCMs under three emission scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1) and (ii) the time-slice scenarios for the period 2081–2100 using projections from three S-5-3 regional climate models. The ELPIS-JP dataset is designed to be used in conjunction with process-based impact models (e.g. crop models) for assessment, not only the impacts of mean climate change but also the impacts of changes in climate variability, wet/dry spells and extreme events, as well as the uncertainty of future impacts associated with climate models and emission scenarios. The ELPIS-JP offers an excellent platform for probabilistic assessment of climate change impacts and potential adaptation at a local scale in Japan. PMID:22291226

Iizumi, Toshichika; Semenov, Mikhail A.; Nishimori, Motoki; Ishigooka, Yasushi; Kuwagata, Tsuneo

2012-01-01

385

ELPIS-JP: a dataset of local-scale daily climate change scenarios for Japan.  

PubMed

We developed a dataset of local-scale daily climate change scenarios for Japan (called ELPIS-JP) using the stochastic weather generators (WGs) LARS-WG and, in part, WXGEN. The ELPIS-JP dataset is based on the observed (or estimated) daily weather data for seven climatic variables (daily mean, maximum and minimum temperatures; precipitation; solar radiation; relative humidity; and wind speed) at 938 sites in Japan and climate projections from the multi-model ensemble of global climate models (GCMs) used in the coupled model intercomparison project (CMIP3) and multi-model ensemble of regional climate models form the Japanese downscaling project (called S-5-3). The capability of the WGs to reproduce the statistical features of the observed data for the period 1981-2000 is assessed using several statistical tests and quantile-quantile plots. Overall performance of the WGs was good. The ELPIS-JP dataset consists of two types of daily data: (i) the transient scenarios throughout the twenty-first century using projections from 10 CMIP3 GCMs under three emission scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1) and (ii) the time-slice scenarios for the period 2081-2100 using projections from three S-5-3 regional climate models. The ELPIS-JP dataset is designed to be used in conjunction with process-based impact models (e.g. crop models) for assessment, not only the impacts of mean climate change but also the impacts of changes in climate variability, wet/dry spells and extreme events, as well as the uncertainty of future impacts associated with climate models and emission scenarios. The ELPIS-JP offers an excellent platform for probabilistic assessment of climate change impacts and potential adaptation at a local scale in Japan. PMID:22291226

Iizumi, Toshichika; Semenov, Mikhail A; Nishimori, Motoki; Ishigooka, Yasushi; Kuwagata, Tsuneo

2012-03-13

386

Spatio-temporal prediction of daily temperatures using time-series of MODIS LST images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computational framework to generate daily temperature maps using time-series of publicly available MODIS MOD11A2 product Land Surface Temperature (LST) images (1 km resolution; 8-day composites) is illustrated using temperature measurements from the national network of meteorological stations (159) in Croatia. The input data set contains 57,282 ground measurements of daily temperature for the year 2008. Temperature was modeled as a function of latitude, longitude, distance from the sea, elevation, time, insolation, and the MODIS LST images. The original rasters were first converted to principal components to reduce noise and filter missing pixels in the LST images. The residual were next analyzed for spatio-temporal auto-correlation; sum-metric separable variograms were fitted to account for zonal and geometric space-time anisotropy. The final predictions were generated for time-slices of a 3D space-time cube, constructed in the R environment for statistical computing. The results show that the space-time regression model can explain a significant part of the variation in station-data (84%). MODIS LST 8-day (cloud-free) images are unbiased estimator of the daily temperature, but with relatively low precision (±4.1°C); however their added value is that they systematically improve detection of local changes in land surface temperature due to local meteorological conditions and/or active heat sources (urban areas, land cover classes). The results of 10-fold cross-validation show that use of spatio-temporal regression-kriging and incorporation of time-series of remote sensing images leads to significantly more accurate maps of temperature than if plain spatial techniques were used. The average (global) accuracy of mapping temperature was ±2.4°C. The regression-kriging explained 91% of variability in daily temperatures, compared to 44% for ordinary kriging. Further software advancement—interactive space-time variogram exploration and automated retrieval, resampling and filtering of MODIS images—are anticipated.

Hengl, Tomislav; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Per?ec Tadi?, Melita; Pebesma, Edzer J.

2012-01-01

387

Total solar irradiance monitors, space instruments for measuring total solar irradiance on FY-3 satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) has been recorded daily by Total Solar Irradiance Monitors (TSIM) with overlapping measurements on FY-3 (Feng Yun-3) series satellites since 2008. Instrument descriptions, operation in space and flight performance of three TSIMs are presented in this paper. TSI is measured by electrical substitution radiometers integrated in TSIM, with traceability to SI. TSIM/FY-3A and TSIM/FY-3B share nearly the same design. Since TSIM/FY-3A and TSIM/FY-3B have no pointing system, the Sun is only observed when the Sunlight sweeps TSIM's field-of-view and TSI measurements are influenced inevitably by solar pointing errors. TSIM/FY-3C, a radiometer package was constructed with a pointing system for solar tracking in order to achieve accurate solar pointing. TSIM/FY-3C was sent into orbit in September 2013 onboard FY-3C satellite. Daily TSI measurements have been performed by TSIM/FY-3C with autonomous accurate solar tracking for 1 year. TSIM/FY-3C is in a good instrument health according to its on-orbit data.

Wang, Hongrui; Wang, Yupeng; Ye, Xin; Wang, Kai; Yang, Dongjun; Fang, Wei; Li, Huiduan

2014-11-01

388

Blood irradiation: Rationale and technique  

SciTech Connect

Upon request by the local American Red Cross, the Savannah Regional Center for Cancer Care irradiates whole blood or blood components to prevent post-transfusion graft-versus-host reaction in patients who have severely depressed immune systems. The rationale for blood irradiation, the total absorbed dose, the type of patients who require irradiated blood, and the regulations that apply to irradiated blood are presented. A method of irradiating blood using a linear accelerator is described.

Lewis, M.C. (Savannah Regional Center for Cancer Care, Memorial Medical Center, GA (USA))

1990-01-01

389

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF MICE OFFSPRING AFTER IRRADIATION IN UTERO WITH 2,450-MHZ MICROWAVES  

EPA Science Inventory

Mice offspring irradiated in utero with 2,450-MHz radio-frequency (RF) radiation at 0 or 28 mW/cm. sq. (whole-body averaged specific absorption rate = 0 or 16.5 W/kg) for 100 minutes daily on days 6 through 17 of gestation were evaluated for maturation and development on days 1, ...

390

ASSESSMENT OF IMMUNE FUNCTION DEVELOPMENT IN MICE IRRADIATED IN UTERO WITH 2450-MHZ MICROWAVES  

EPA Science Inventory

Groups of time-bred pregnant mice were irradiated with 2450-MHz microwaves at an incident power density of 28 mW/sq. cm. for 100 min daily from day 6 to day 18 of pregnancy. The average specific absorption rate (SAR) was 16.5 W/kg. Two experiments were performed under these condi...

391

Specific dimensions of impulsivity are differentially associated with daily and non-daily cigarette smoking in young adults.  

PubMed

Young adults are at risk for initiation of tobacco use and progression to tobacco dependence. Not every person who smokes cigarettes becomes tobacco dependent, however, and non-daily smoking is becoming more prevalent among those who use tobacco. It is likely that individual differences in psychosocial and behavioral factors influence risk for engaging in non-daily and daily cigarette smoking. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between impulsivity and smoking status in young adults who vary in frequency of cigarette smoking. Young adult first-year college students between the ages of 18-24 (512) were classified to one of three groups: non-smokers, non-daily smokers, or daily smokers, and impulsivity was assessed using the UPPS-P (negative and positive urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, sensation seeking). When all impulsivity dimensions were used simultaneously to predict smoking status, negative urgency predicted increased risk of membership in the daily smoking group and lack of premeditation predicted increased risk of membership in the non-daily smoking group. These results suggest that dimensions of impulsivity may contribute differentially to forms of smoking behavior in young adults. PMID:25827335

Lee, Dustin C; Peters, Jessica R; Adams, Zachary W; Milich, Richard; Lynam, Donald R

2015-07-01

392

global warming's six indias  

E-print Network

global warming's six indias: An Audience Segmentation Analysis #12;Global Warming's Six Indias 1............................................................................................................................................20 2. Global Warming Beliefs and Attitudes................................................................................ 21 Knowledge about global warming varies widely by group

Haller, Gary L.

393

University of Connecticut Daily Temperature Log Specimen Refrigerator Log  

E-print Network

University of Connecticut Daily Temperature Log ­ Specimen Refrigerator Log Month / Year Clinical ___ Fac. Mgmt. Resolution: 31 ___ Fac. Mgmt. Resolution: If the refrigerator temperature falls out refrigerator. This record must be kept for one year and then destroyed per State requirement

Oliver, Douglas L.

394

Daily variability in abundance of larval fishes inside Beaufort Inlet  

E-print Network

. Species of interest were Brevoortia tyrannus, Lagodon rhomboides, Leio- stomus xanthurus, Micropogonias- mental variables. Daily collections ofB. tyrannus larvae provided otoliths (n=1,341) showing that a large

395

Daily Spousal Influence on Physical Activity in Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Background Physical activity is critical for the management of knee osteoarthritis, and the spouse may play a role in encouraging or discouraging physical activity. Purpose To examine four types of spousal influence—spouses' daily activity, autonomy support, pressure, and persuasion--on the daily physical activity of adults living with knee osteoarthritis. Methods A total of 141 couples reported their daily experiences for 22 days using a handheld computer, and wore an accelerometer to measure moderate activity and steps. Results Spouses' autonomy support for patient physical activity, as well as their own level of activity, was concurrently associated with patients' greater daily moderate activity and steps. In addition, on days when male patients perceived that spouses exerted more pressure to be active, they spent less time in moderate activity. Conclusions Couple-oriented interventions for knee osteoarthritis should target physical activity in both partners and spousal strategies for helping patients stay active. PMID:23161472

Martire, Lynn M.; Stephens, Mary Ann Parris; Mogle, Jacqueline; Schulz, Richard; Brach, Jennifer; Keefe, Francis J.

2012-01-01

396

Corneal Transplant Improves Vision and Daily Life for Some Children  

MedlinePLUS

... to 60 Adults Over 60 Babies, Children & Teenagers Computer Usage Diabetes Diet ... Release Index March 1, 2011 Rare, but Effective: Corneal Transplant Improves Vision and Daily Life for Some Children SAN FRANCISCO, ...

397

20 CFR 330.3 - Daily rate of compensation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...reported, the daily rate of compensation shall be determined by...in the base year. (e) Commissions or percentage of sales. Where the compensation reported consists of or includes commissions or percentages of...

2010-04-01

398

Daily spatiotemporal precipitation simulation using latent and transformed Gaussian processes  

E-print Network

Daily spatiotemporal precipitation simulation using latent and transformed Gaussian processes precipitation generator that yields spatially consistent gridded quantitative precipitation realizations is described. The methodology relies on a latent Gaussian process to drive precipitation occurrence

Katz, Richard

399

Development and analysis of a 12-year daily 1-km forest fire dataset across North America from NOAA\\/AVHRR data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fires in boreal and temperate forests play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. While forest fires in North America (NA) have been surveyed extensively by U.S. and Canadian forest services, most fire records are limited to seasonal statistics without information on temporal evolution and spatial expansion. Such dynamic information is crucial for modeling fire emissions. Using the daily

Ruiliang Pu; Zhanqing Li; Peng Gong; Ivan Csiszar; Robert Fraser; Wei-Min Hao; Shobha Kondragunta; Fuzhong Weng

2007-01-01

400

Salt plays an important role in our daily lives. True, salt makes our food tastier, but perhaps its most significant role is as an ingredient in  

E-print Network

Salt plays an important role in our daily lives. True, salt makes our food tastier, but perhaps its, or the concentration of salt at the ocean's surface, gives scientists vital information on global ocean circulation changes, so does salinity! Ocean salinity is affected by the water cycle. As salt water evaporates

Waliser, Duane E.

401

The Learning Affect Monitor (LAM): A Computer-Based System Integrating Dimensional and Discrete Assessment of Affective States in Daily Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Learning Affect Monitor (LAM) is a new computer-based assessment system integrating basic dimensional evaluation and discrete description of affective states in daily life, based on an autonomous adapting system. Subjects evaluate their affective states according to a tridimensional space (valence and activation circumplex as well as global intensity) and then qualify it using up to 30 adjective descriptors chosen

Michael Reicherts; Virginie Salamin; Christian Maggiori; Karl Pauls

2007-01-01

402

Surface solar irradiance from SCIAMACHY measurements: algorithm and validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broadband surface solar irradiances (SSI) are, for the first time, derived from SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY) satellite measurements. The retrieval algorithm, called FRESCO (Fast REtrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A band) SSI, is similar to the Heliosat method. In contrast to the standard Heliosat method, the cloud index is replaced by the effective cloud fraction derived from the FRESCO cloud algorithm. The MAGIC (Mesoscale Atmospheric Global Irradiance Code) algorithm is used to calculate clear-sky SSI. The SCIAMACHY SSI product is validated against globally distributed BSRN (Baseline Surface Radiation Network) measurements and compared with ISCCP-FD (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project Flux Dataset) surface shortwave downwelling fluxes (SDF). For one year of data in 2008, the mean difference between the instantaneous SCIAMACHY SSI and the hourly mean BSRN global irradiances is -4 W m-2 (-1 %) with a standard deviation of 101 W m-2 (20 %). The mean difference between the globally monthly mean SCIAMACHY SSI and ISCCP-FD SDF is less than -12 W m-2 (-2 %) for every month in 2006 and the standard deviation is 62 W m-2 (12 %). The correlation coefficient is 0.93 between SCIAMACHY SSI and BSRN global irradiances and is greater than 0.96 between SCIAMACHY SSI and ISCCP-FD SDF. The evaluation results suggest that the SCIAMACHY SSI product achieves similar mean bias error and root mean square error as the surface solar irradiances derived from polar orbiting satellites with higher spatial resolution.

Wang, P.; Stammes, P.; Mueller, R.

2011-05-01

403

Surface solar irradiance from SCIAMACHY measurements: algorithm and validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broadband surface solar irradiances (SSI) are, for the first time, derived from SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY) satellite measurements. The retrieval algorithm, called FRESCO (Fast REtrieval Scheme for Clouds from Oxygen A band) SSI, is similar to the Heliosat method. In contrast to the standard Heliosat method, the cloud index is replaced by the effective cloud fraction derived from the FRESCO cloud algorithm. The MAGIC (Mesoscale Atmospheric Global Irradiance Code) algorithm is used to calculate clear-sky SSI. The SCIAMACHY SSI product is validated against the globally distributed BSRN (Baseline Surface Radiation Network) measurements and compared with the ISCCP-FD (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project Flux Dataset) surface shortwave downwelling fluxes (SDF). For one year of data in 2008, the mean difference between the instantaneous SCIAMACHY SSI and the hourly mean BSRN global irradiances is -4 W m-2(-1%) with a standard deviation of 101 W m-2 (20%). The mean difference between the globally monthly mean SCIAMACHY SSI and ISCCP-FD SDF is less than -12 W m-2 (-2%) for every month in 2006 and the standard deviation is 62 W m-2 (12%). The correlation coefficient is 0.93 between SCIAMACHY SSI and BSRN global irradiances and is greater than 0.96 between SCIAMACHY SSI and ISCCP-FD SDF. The evaluation results suggest that the SCIAMACHY SSI product achieves similar mean bias error and root mean square error as the surface solar irradiances derived from polar orbiting satellites with higher spatial resolution.

Wang, P.; Stammes, P.; Mueller, R.

2011-02-01

404

Global Journalist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To experience the world of high quality reporting from North Korea, meditations on the state of journalism, and a wide range of other stories, direct your browser to the Global Journalist website. Originally created for the International Press Institute in 1995, the publication moved to the Missouri School of Journalism in 1999. Today, journalism students work with staff members to produce content for the site and its accompanying radio show, which is broadcast on KBIA, central Missouri's NPR affiliate. With funding provided in part by the Donald W. Reynolds Journalism Institute, the people at the Global Journalist provide users with current and archived radio shows on the homepage. After listening to a few recent stories, interested parties may wish to click on the Free Press Watch section. Here they can use the interactive map to learn about various transgressions committed against members of the press around the world. Also, users shouldn't miss the Blogs area which contains links to high-quality news blogs from "Persian Letters" (billed as "a window into Iranian politics and society") and the Guardian's "Newsblog."

2012-01-01

405

Once Daily Sublingual Immunotherapy without Updosing – A New Treatment Schedule  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Treatment regimens with specific immunotherapy include updosing. Due to excellent tolerance of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT), it was hypothesized that administration of once-daily SLIT could be initiated safely without updosing. The objective was to evaluate tolerability of SLIT administered once daily without updosing. Methods: 135 patients suffering from allergic rhinitis with\\/without asthma were included in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study.

F. Rodriguez; M. Boquete; M. D. Ibáñez; F. de la Torre-Martínez; A. I. Tabar

2006-01-01

406

Obesity in Print: An Analysis of Daily Newspapers  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground: Stigmatizing attitudes towards obese people are common in the public. Based on findings that portrayals of obesity in entertainment media foster weight-related stigmatization, the goal of the current study was to analyze media coverage of obesity in daily newspapers. Methods: For the year 2006, all 1,563 issues of five high-circulation daily newspapers (two national newspapers, one tabloid newspaper, and

Anja Hilbert; Jens Ried

2009-01-01

407

Spatial interpolation of daily precipitation in China: 1951–2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate research relies heavily on good quality instrumental data; for modeling efforts gridded data are needed. So far, relatively\\u000a little effort has been made to create gridded climate data for China. This is especially true for high-resolution daily data.\\u000a This work, focuses on identifying an accurate method to produce gridded daily precipitation in China based on the observed\\u000a data at

Deliang Chen; Tinghai Ou; Lebing Gong; Chong-Yu Xu; Weijing Li; Chang-Hoi Ho; Weihong Qian

2010-01-01

408

Climatological variations in daily hospital admissions for acute coronary syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We examined the association between climatologic parameters and daily admissions for non-fatal acute coronary syndromes (ACS) to emergency units of hospitals in the greater Athens area, from January 2001 to August 2002. Methods: Daily mean, maximum and minimum temperatures, relative humidity, wind speed, barometric pressure and a thermo-hydrological index (T.H.I.) were measured at the meteorological station of the Laboratory

Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos; Christina Chrysohoou; Christos Pitsavos; Panagiotis Nastos; Aggelos Anadiotis; Constantinos Tentolouris; Christodoulos Stefanadis; Pavlos Toutouzas; Athanasios Paliatsos

2004-01-01

409

Pressure-Change Theory and the Daily Barometric Wave  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is proposed that both the semi-diurnal and the diurnal components of the daily pressure wave are the result of horizontal divergence associated with the daily temperature variation. A combined theoretical-empirical approach suggests that the divergence can be attributed to the Brunt-Douglas isallobaric wind if certain modifications are introduced into the original Brunt-Douglas equation. These modifications include the retention of

Miles F. Harris

1955-01-01

410

A Majorca case study of daily extreme temperatures homogenization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detecting sudden jumps in daily climatological data is a problematic task due to the low signal/noise ratio. For this reason, usual methodologies begin by the detection of the jumps in annual, seasonal or monthly series at most, followed by the computation of the correction terms or factors, which are then applied to the daily data. However, sometimes it is necessary to detect the jumps directly on the daily series. An example is presented from Majorca, where meta-data indicates that, during an approximate period of three months at the beginning of 1961, a different thermometer was used in a particular station to measure extreme daily temperatures, resulting in a systematic error of around 5°C in these data. As there was no indication neither of the exact amount of the error nor of the precise initial and final days when this anomalous thermometer was used, a homogenization procedure was applied to the daily data to determine this details. The process consisted in comparing one year of extreme daily temperatures of the problem station with contemporary data from the other five available stations in the island at that time. After removing the annual cycle, the R homogenization package "Climatol" was used to detect the timing of the shifts and evaluate their magnitude. Results suggest a correction of -7°C, and show some uncertainty in the first thermometer change, although a more precise date for the replacement of the original instrument can be assessed.

Guijarro, J. A.

2010-09-01

411

Global malnutrition.  

PubMed

The four most important forms of malnutrition worldwide (protein-energy malnutrition, iron deficiency and anaemias (IDA), vitamin A deficiency (VAD), and iodine deficiency disorders (IDD)) are examined below in terms of their global and regional prevalences, the age and gender groups most affected, their clinical and public health consequences, and, especially, the recent progress in country and regional quantitation and control. Zinc deficiency, with its accompanying diminished host resistance and increased susceptibility to infections, is also reviewed. WHO estimates that malnutrition (underweight) was associated with over half of all child deaths in developing countries in 1995. The prevalence of stunting in developing countries is expected to decline from 36% in 1995 to 32.5% in 2000; the numbers of children affected (excluding China) are expected to decrease from 196.59 millions to 181.92 millions. Stunting affects 48% of children in South Central Asia, 48% in Eastern Africa, 38% in South Eastern Asia, and 13-24% in Latin America. IDA affects about 43% of women and 34% of men in developing countries and usually is most serious in pregnant women and children, though non-pregnant women, the elderly, and men in hookworm-endemic areas also comprise groups at risk. Clinical VAD affects at least 2.80 million preschool children in over 60 countries, and subclinical VAD is considered a problem for at least 251 millions; school-age children and pregnant women are also affected. Globally about 740 million people are affected by goitre, and over two billions are considered at risk of IDD. However, mandatory salt iodisation in the last decade in many regions has decreased dramatically the percentage of the population at risk. Two recent major advances in understanding the global importance of malnutrition are (1) the data of 53 countries that links protein-energy malnutrition (assessed by underweight) directly to increased child mortality rates, and (2) the outcome in 6 of 8 large vitamin A supplementation trials showing decreases of 20-50% in child mortality. PMID:11386691

Stephenson, L S; Latham, M C; Ottesen, E A

2000-01-01

412

75 FR 42399 - Orders Finding That the PJM WH Real Time Peak Daily Contract, PJM WH Real Time Off-Peak Daily...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Time Off-Peak Daily Contract and PJM WH Day Ahead LMP Peak Daily Contract Offered for...Daily (``ODP'') contract and PJM WH Day Ahead LMP Peak Daily (``PDA'') contract...of the CEA that averaged five trades per day or more over the most recent calendar...

2010-07-21

413

ORNL irradiation creep facility  

SciTech Connect

A machine was developed at ORNL to measure the rates of elongation observed under irradiation in stressed materials. The source of radiation is a beam of 60 MeV alpha particles from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC). This choice allows experiments to be performed which simulate the effects of fast neutrons. A brief review of irradiation creep and experimental constraints associated with each measurement technique is given. Factors are presented which lead to the experimental choices made for the Irradiation Creep Facility (ICF). The ICF consists of a helium-filled chamber which houses a high-precision mechanical testing device. The specimen to be tested must be thermally stabilized with respect to the temperature fluctuations imposed by the particle beam which passes through the specimen. Electrical resistance of the specimen is the temperature control parameter chosen. Very high precision in length measurement and temperature control are required to detect the small elongation rates relevant to irradiation creep in the test periods available (approx. 1 day). The apparatus components and features required for the above are presented in some detail, along with the experimental procedures. The damage processes associated with light ions are discussed and displacement rates are calculated. Recent irradiation creep results are given, demonstrating the suitability of the apparatus for high resolution experiments. Also discussed is the suitability of the ICF for making high precision thermal creep measurements.

Reiley, T.C.; Auble, R.L.; Beckers, R.M.; Bloom, E.E.; Duncan, M.G.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shannon, R.H.

1980-09-01

414

Interstitial irradiation for craniopharyngioma.  

PubMed

The results of interstitial irradiation treatment for craniopharyngioma in two patients with six year follow-ups are presented. Stereotactic interstitial irradiation with Iodine-125 sources as sole therapy was employed in two adult patients who refused surgical resection. The diagnoses were confirmed by stereotactic biopsy. The first tumour which underwent interstitial irradiation was solid and 4 cm in diameter, and the second, 2.7 cm in diameter, had both cystic and solid components. The implanted Iodine-125 seeds delivered 67 Gy and 60 Gy to tumour periphery at the rate of 12 and 14 cGy/h, respectively, were removed at the end of designated radiation periods. Tumour shrinkage and central hypodensity, first observed 3 months after irradiation, continued until one tumour shrank to less than 1 cm at 12 months, and the other disappeared completely at 24 months. In both cases functional integrity was restored, and neither radiation induced toxicity nor recurrence has occurred six years after treatment. The results in these two cases suggest that solid craniopharyngiomas are sensitive to interstitial irradiation. PMID:10883334

Barlas, O; Bayindir, C; Can, M

2000-01-01

415

Global environment  

SciTech Connect

Dr. Tolba feels that multidisciplinary and multinational research is necessary to help man understand basic global ecology and the influences that impact on biogeochemical cycles. There are danger signs of adverse effects on the world's climate and soil, for example, affecting the capacity to grow adequate food. The tradeoffs society chooses involve ecological, social, and economic choices that are often harmful. Many choices, such as the indiscriminate use of pesticides, can be reversed and technological improvements can make more food available. Assessments are needed to see if chlorinated hydrocarbons and other substances need stronger controls. Dr. Tolba says industrial development needs to increase in the developing countries, but at a more rational pace and with more environmental prudence. (DCK)

Tolba, M.K.

1980-01-01

416

Daily torpor and hibernation in birds and mammals.  

PubMed

Many birds and mammals drastically reduce their energy expenditure during times of cold exposure, food shortage, or drought, by temporarily abandoning euthermia, i.e. the maintenance of high body temperatures. Traditionally, two different types of heterothermy, i.e. hypometabolic states associated with low body temperature (torpor), have been distinguished: daily torpor, which lasts less than 24 h and is accompanied by continued foraging, versus hibernation, with torpor bouts lasting consecutive days to several weeks in animals that usually do not forage but rely on energy stores, either food caches or body energy reserves. This classification of torpor types has been challenged, suggesting that these phenotypes may merely represent extremes in a continuum of traits. Here, we investigate whether variables of torpor in 214 species (43 birds and 171 mammals) form a continuum or a bimodal distribution. We use Gaussian-mixture cluster analysis as well as phylogenetically informed regressions to quantitatively assess the distinction between hibernation and daily torpor and to evaluate the impact of body mass and geographical distribution of species on torpor traits. Cluster analysis clearly confirmed the classical distinction between daily torpor and hibernation. Overall, heterothermic endotherms tend to be small; hibernators are significantly heavier than daily heterotherms and also are distributed at higher average latitudes (?35°) than daily heterotherms (?25°). Variables of torpor for an average 30 g heterotherm differed significantly between daily heterotherms and hibernators. Average maximum torpor bout duration was >30-fold longer, and mean torpor bout duration >25-fold longer in hibernators. Mean minimum body temperature differed by ?13°C, and the mean minimum torpor metabolic rate was ?35% of the basal metabolic rate (BMR) in daily heterotherms but only 6% of BMR in hibernators. Consequently, our analysis strongly supports the view that hibernators and daily heterotherms are functionally distinct groups that probably have been subject to disruptive selection. Arguably, the primary physiological difference between daily torpor and hibernation, which leads to a variety of derived further distinct characteristics, is the temporal control of entry into and arousal from torpor, which is governed by the circadian clock in daily heterotherms, but apparently not in hibernators. PMID:25123049

Ruf, Thomas; Geiser, Fritz

2014-08-15

417

Adaptation to Daily Stress Among Mothers of Children With an Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Daily Positive Affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raising a child with an autism spectrum disorder is a challenging experience that can impact maternal well-being. Using a\\u000a daily diary methodology, this study investigates (1) the relationship between stress and negative affect, and (2) the role\\u000a of daily positive affect as a protective factor in the stress and negative affect relationship. Results from hierarchical\\u000a linear models revealed that higher

Naomi V. EkasThomas; Thomas L. Whitman

418

Ethnic identity and the daily psychological well-being of adolescents from Mexican and Chinese backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protective effects of ethnic identity on daily psychological well-being were examined in a sample of 415 ninth graders from Mexican and Chinese backgrounds. Utilizing daily diary assessments and multilevel modeling, adolescents with a greater regard for their ethnic group exhibited greater levels of daily happiness and less daily anxiety averaged over the 2-week study period. Ethnic regard moderated the daily

Lisa Kiang; Melinda Gonzales-Backen; Tiffany Yip; Melissa Witkow; Andrew J. Fuligni

2006-01-01

419

Energetics of global ocean tides from Geosat altimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present paper focuses on resonance and energetics of the daily tides, especially in the southern ocean, the distribution of gravitational power input of daily and half-daily tides, and comparison with other estimates of global dissipation rates. The present global tidal maps, derived from Geosat altimetry, compare favorably with ground truth data at about the same rms level as the models of Schwiderski (1983), and are slightly better in lunar than in solar tides. Diurnal admittances clearly show Kelvin wave structure in the southern ocean and confirm the resonant mode of Platzman (1984) at 28.5 + or - 0.1 hr with an apparent Q of about 4. Driving energy is found to enter dominantly in the North Pacific for the daily tides and is strongly peaked in the tropical oceans for the half-daily tides. Global rates of working on all major tide constituents except S2 agree well with independent results from analyses of gravity through satellite tracking. Comparison at S2 is improved by allowing for the air tide in gravitational results but suggests deficiencies in all solar tide models.

Cartwright, David E.; Ray, Richard D.

1991-01-01

420

Effects of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on the hematologic recovery and survival of irradiated mice  

SciTech Connect

We studied the effects of intraperitoneal injections of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) according to various administration schedules on the recovery of spleen colony-forming units (CFU-S) and peripheral blood counts, and on the survival of irradiated mice. The sooner and more frequently the mice were injected with rhG-CSF after irradiation, the more enhanced the recovery of CFU-S in bone marrow was obtained on day 7. Twice-daily injections of rhG-CSF from day 0 to day 2 significantly enhanced the recovery of platelets and hematocrit, but two injections of rhG-CSF on only day 0 did not. Twice-daily injections of rhG-CSF from day 0 to day 6 enhanced the recovery of platelets more effectively than twice-daily injections of rhG-CSF from day 1 to day 7, and increased the survival of irradiated mice more effectively than any other examined administration schedules. Twice-daily injections of rhG-CSF from day 0 to day 6 were significantly effective in enhancing the survival of mice irradiated with 8.5-, 9.0-, and 9.5-Gy x-rays, although not effective after irradiation of 10.5-Gy x-rays.

Tanikawa, S.; Nose, M.; Aoki, Y.; Tsuneoka, K.; Shikita, M.; Nara, N. (National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

1990-08-01

421

What is the evidence for once-daily aminoglycoside therapy?  

PubMed

Aminoglycosides are important antibacterial agents for the treatment of serious infection. Evidence suggests that high peak plasma concentrations must be achieved early in the course of treatment if these agents are to be effective, but prolonged high concentrations may cause ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Peak plasma concentrations of 6 to 10 mg/L and trough concentrations of less than 2 mg/L for gentamicin and tobramycin have been traditional goals of therapy. Extensive recent evidence from in vitro, animal and human studies suggests that these target concentrations need revision. Aminoglycosides display concentration-dependent bacterial killing, have a long postantibiotic effect, and induce adaptive resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. All of these factors support the use of larger doses of aminoglycosides that are given less frequently than conventional therapy. Studies in vitro support this approach, showing greater activity when aminoglycosides are given less frequently. Animal studies comparing different dosage intervals have shown varying results, with only a slight bias favouring the longer dosage interval. However, the short elimination half-lives for the drugs in animals limit the applicability of these models to humans. Importantly, there is convincing evidence in animal studies that nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity are both reduced when the same total daily dose is administered in less frequent doses. There have been at least 29 clinical trials comparing once-daily administration of aminoglycosides with conventional administration 2 to 4 times daily. In general, efficacy has not been shown to be different between regimens, although one trial showed an advantage for once-daily administration compared with administration 3 times daily. A small number of trials have shown less nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity with once-daily administration, leading several authors to suggest that there is sufficient evidence to warrant a change to once-daily administration of aminoglycosides. However, once-daily administration has not been well studied in the paediatric population, or in patients with renal failure or endocarditis, and cannot be recommended in these patients as yet. The choice of a 24-hour dosage interval is somewhat arbitrary, and the optimal interval may not necessarily be 24 hours. No studies have included dosage adjustment based on pharmacokinetic modelling methods, and the effect of this on treatment outcome needs to be assessed. The best method of administering aminoglycosides once daily is yet to be determined. PMID:7955770

Barclay, M L; Begg, E J; Hickling, K G

1994-07-01

422

Global Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nations around the world have recognized biodiversity as one of the most pressing ecological issues of our time. Declining biodiversity over recent decades has prompted the formation of international coalitions and national biodiversity programs. This Topic in Depth explores the work of both international and national efforts to increase global biodiversity. The first site presents an archived report from the Convention on Biological Diversity, an international organization formed by many world nations after the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. This first edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook report, published in 2001, was created to provide a status summary, and an analysis of Convention objectives. It is expected that a second edition will be published this year presenting more recent data and analysis (1). Explore Biodiversity is an innovative project involving a team of scientists and filmmakers working to document the diminishing biological diversity of our planet. The hip Explore website shares beautiful images, videos, and information from expeditions to Hawaii, Mexico, and Alaska (2). The third site, from the Australian Government's Department of the Environment and Heritage, discusses biodiversity in Australia. The site contains sections regarding Migratory Species; Conservation and Regional Planning; Invasive Species; and Biodiversity Hotspots--to name a few (3). The fourth website presents the Belgian Biodiversity Platform (4), which is "an integrated network of people and institutions funded by the Belgian Federal Science Policy to facilitate dialogue and collaboration between scientists in Belgium and abroad, in the field of biological diversity." From the Nepalese Government's Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, the fifth site presents information about biodiversity programs in Nepal. The site contains sections about Forests, National Parks, Plant Resources, and the Ministry's National Biodiversity Unit (5). The final website presents the Centre for Marine Biodiversity (CMB), a Canada-based organization that was established in 2000 to promote scientific support of marine biodiversity. The CMB website contains research reports, links to several databases, links to various identification guides, and a photo gallery with some nice underwater images (6).

423

Modeling maximum daily temperature using a varying coefficient regression model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relationships between stream water and air temperatures are often modeled using linear or nonlinear regression methods. Despite a strong relationship between water and air temperatures and a variety of models that are effective for data summarized on a weekly basis, such models did not yield consistently good predictions for summaries such as daily maximum temperature. A good predictive model for daily maximum temperature is required because daily maximum temperature is an important measure for predicting survival of temperature sensitive fish. To appropriately model the strong relationship between water and air temperatures at a daily time step, it is important to incorporate information related to the time of the year into the modeling. In this work, a time-varying coefficient model is used to study the relationship between air temperature and water temperature. The time-varying coefficient model enables dynamic modeling of the relationship, and can be used to understand how the air-water temperature relationship varies over time. The proposed model is applied to 10 streams in Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, and Georgia using daily maximum temperatures. It provides a better fit and better predictions than those produced by a simple linear regression model or a nonlinear logistic model.

Li, Han; Deng, Xinwei; Kim, Dong-Yun; Smith, Eric P.

2014-04-01

424

Pollutant roses for daily averaged ambient air pollutant concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollutant roses are indispensable tools to identify unknown (fugitive) sources of heavy metals at industrial sites whose current impact exceeds the target values imposed for the year 2012 by the European Air Quality Daughter Directive 2004/207/EC. As most of the measured concentrations of heavy metals in ambient air are daily averaged values, a method to obtain high quality pollutant roses from such data is of practical interest for cost-effective air quality management. A computational scheme is presented to obtain, from daily averaged concentrations, 10° angular resolution pollutant roses, called PRP roses, that are in many aspects comparable to pollutant roses made with half-hourly concentrations. The computational scheme is a ridge regression, based on three building blocks: ordinary least squares regression; outlier handling by weighting based on expected values of the higher percentiles in a lognormal distribution; weighted averages whereby observed values, raised to a power m, and daily wind rose frequencies are used as weights. Distance measures are used to find the optimal value for m. The performance of the computational scheme is illustrated by comparing the pollutant roses, constructed with measured half-hourly SO 2 data for 10 monitoring sites in the Antwerp harbour, with the PRP roses made with the corresponding daily averaged SO 2 concentrations. A miniature dataset, made up of 7 daily concentrations and of half-hourly wind directions assigned to 4 wind sectors, is used to illustrate the formulas and their results.

Cosemans, Guido; Kretzschmar, Jan; Mensink, Clemens

425

25 CFR 36.96 - May students be required to assist with daily or weekly cleaning?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...required to assist with daily or weekly cleaning? 36.96 Section 36.96 Indians...required to assist with daily or weekly cleaning? Yes, students can be required to assist with daily or weekly cleaning. However, the ultimate...

2010-04-01

426

Long-term variation in the upper atmosphere as seen in the amplitude of the geomagnetic solar quiet daily variation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been well-known that geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation is produced by global ionospheric currents flowing in the E-region from middle latitudes to the magnetic equator. These currents are generated by a dynamo process via interaction between the neutral wind and ionospheric plasma in a region of the thermosphere and ionosphere. From the Ohm's equation, the ionospheric currents strongly depend on the ionospheric conductivity, polarization electric field and neutral wind. Then, to investigate the Sq amplitude is essential for understanding the long-term variations in the ionospheric conductivity and neutral wind of the thermosphere and ionosphere. Elias et al. [2010] found that the Sq amplitude tends to increase by 5.4-9.9 % in the middle latitudes from 1961 to 2001. They mentioned that the long-term variation of ionospheric conductivity associated with geomagnetic secular variation mainly determines the Sq trend, but that the rest component is ionospheric conductivity enhancement associated with cooling effects in the thermosphere due to increasing the greenhouse gases. In this talk, we clarify the characteristics of the long-term variation in the Sq amplitude using the long-term observation data of geomagnetic field and neutral wind. These observation data have been provided by the IUGONET (Inter-university Upper atmosphere Global Observation NETwork) project. In the present analysis, we used the F10.7 flux as an indicator of the variation in the solar irradiance in the EUV and UV range, geomagnetic field data with time resolution of 1 hour. The definition of the Sq amplitude is the difference of the H-component between the maximum and minimum per day when the Kp index is less than 4. As a result, the Sq amplitude at all the stations strongly depends on 11-year solar activity, and tends to enhance more during the high activities (19- and 22- solar cycles) than during the low activity (20-solar cycle). The Fourier spectra of the F10.7 flux and Sq amplitude at Guam (13.59N, 144.87E) showed that the common peaks appear at the periods of 5.5, 7,5 and 10.5 years with the coherence of more than 0.9 while the spectrum peaks around 0.5 and 1.0 year appear only in the Sq amplitude. The former peak of the Sq amplitude is due to the solar activity while the latter is a cause of the upper atmosphere variation. In order to minimize the solar activity dependence of the Sq amplitude, we calculated the residual Sq amplitude using a second degree polynomial curve between the F10.7 and Sq amplitude during 1957-2010, and examined the residual Sq field defined as the deviation from the fitting curve. The residual Sq amplitude showed a clear tendency to increase and decrease during the periods of 1957-1992 and 1993-2010, respectively. It should be noted that the residual Sq amplitude around 2010 is almost the same level as that around 1970. In order to verify qualitatively the above signatures, we need to investigate the long-term variation in the ionospheric conductivities calculated with the IRI-2007 and MSIS-00 models.

Shinbori, A.; Koyama, Y.; Hayashi, H.; Nose, M.; Hori, T.; Otsuka, Y.; Tsuda, T.

2011-12-01

427

Global Voices  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Former CNN Beijing and Tokyo Bureau Chief Rebecca MacKinnon and Africa expert Ethan Zuckerman started Global Voices while they were both fellows at Harvard. The website is a community of over 300 bloggers and translators from around the world whose aim is "to redress some of the inequities in media attention by leveraging the power of citizens' media." The website has "featured stories" and "latest stories" on the homepage, as well as "Updates" and "Special Coverage", such as "Gabon Unrest 2011", "Nigeria Elections 2011", and the "Death of Osama Bin Laden". The site can also be searched by "Countries", "Topics" and "Contributors". The "Countries" link contains an extensive list of countries that visitors can peruse at their leisure. There is also a monthly archive that shows the number of posts for that country, and they date all the way back to August 2005. A look at Algeria allows visitors to read the post "Arab World: Tears Spilled on the Break Up of Sudan", which shows the reaction of Arab netizens on Twitter to South Sudan's Independence referendum. The tweets have been translated from the Arabic into English, which is particularly useful for those persons who do not speak Arabic.

428

Global challenges.  

PubMed

In a speech the night before World AIDS Day 1998, James Carmichael of UNAIDS noted that two-thirds of those living with HIV worldwide are from sub-Saharan Africa, which also has overwhelming numbers of AIDS-related deaths. Despite these statistics, some hope exists in countries like Uganda. Prevalence rates in Uganda are decreasing, partly because of the government's active role in attempting to control HIV infection, and its participation in events such as World AIDS Day. Uganda's event commemorating World AIDS Day in 1997 featured several cabinet ministers, along with local children who related personal stories about the impact AIDS had on their lives. The global picture of HIV/AIDS is that of an evolving epidemic which claimed the lives of 2.5 million people in 1998, and is increasingly affecting women and young people. More than 95 percent of HIV-infected people live in developing countries, where there is an equal percentage of all AIDS deaths. In addition, Carmichael explored the role of UNAIDS, a program founded by six United Nations-related organizations to assist countries coping with AIDS, which works on issues from prevention through care. UNAIDS's priorities include providing information, counseling, and health support services to sub-Saharan Africa, and implementing strategies to prevent perinatal transmission. The program is also striving to enlist developing nations into research participation for a vaccine and to elicit more involvement of people living with HIV. PMID:11367173

Carmichael, J

1999-01-01

429

Global trends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measuring trends in ozone, and most other geophysical variables, requires that a small systematic change with time be determined from signals that have large periodic and aperiodic variations. Their time scales range from the day-to-day changes due to atmospheric motions through seasonal and annual variations to 11 year cycles resulting from changes in the sun UV output. Because of the magnitude of all of these variations is not well known and highly variable, it is necessary to measure over more than one period of the variations to remove their effects. This means that at least 2 or more times the 11 year sunspot cycle. Thus, the first requirement is for a long term data record. The second related requirement is that the record be consistent. A third requirement is for reasonable global sampling, to ensure that the effects are representative of the entire Earth. The various observational methods relevant to trend detection are reviewed to characterize their quality and time and space coverage. Available data are then examined for long term trends or recent changes in ozone total content and vertical distribution, as well as related parameters such as stratospheric temperature, source gases and aerosols.

Megie, G.; Chanin, M.-L.; Ehhalt, D.; Fraser, P.; Frederick, J. F.; Gille, J. C.; Mccormick, M. P.; Schoebert, M.; Bishop, L.; Bojkov, R. D.

1990-01-01

430

Sensitivity of flood events to global climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of Acheloos river flood events at the outfall of the mountainous Mesochora catchment in Central Greece was analysed under various scenarios of global climate change. The climate change pattern was simulated through a set of hypothetical and monthly GISS (Goddard Institute for Space Studies) scenarios of temperature increase coupled with precipitation changes. The daily outflow of the catchment,

Dionysia Panagoulia; George Dimou

1997-01-01

431

cMOOCs and Global Learning: An Authentic Alternative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Massive open online courses (MOOCs) continue to attract press coverage as they change almost daily in their format, number of registrations, and potential for credentialing. An enticing aspect of the MOOC is its global reach. In this paper, we will focus on a type of MOOC called a cMOOC because it is based on the theory of connectivism and fits…

Yeager, Carol; Hurley-Dasgupta, Betty; Bliss, Catherine A.

2013-01-01

432

Improved global sea surface temperature analyses using optimum interpolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new NOAA operational global sea surface temperature (SST) analysis is described. The analyses use 7 days of in situ (ship and buoy) and satellite SST. These analyses are produced weekly and daily using optimum interpolation (OI) on a 1[degrees] grid. The OI technique requires the specification of data and analysis error statistics. These statistics are derived and show that

Richard W. Reynolds; Thomas M. Smith

1994-01-01

433

Hourly, daily, and seasonal variability in the absorption spectra of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in a eutrophic, humic lake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The short-term (hourly and daily) variation in chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in lakes is largely unknown. We assessed the spectral characteristics of light absorption by CDOM in a eutrophic, humic shallow mixed lake of temperate Sweden at a high-frequency (30 min) interval and during a full growing season (May to October). Physical time series, such as solar radiation, temperature, wind, and partial pressures of carbon dioxide in water and air, were measured synchronously. We identified a strong radiation-induced summer CDOM loss (25 to 50%) that developed over 4 months, which was accompanied by strong changes in CDOM absorption spectral shape. The magnitude of the CDOM loss exceeded subhourly to daily variability by an order of magnitude. Applying Fourier analysis, we demonstrate that variation in CDOM remained largely unaffected by rapid shifts in weather, and no apparent response to in-lake dissolved organic carbon production was found. In autumn, CDOM occasionally showed variation at hourly to daily time scales, reaching a maximum daily coefficient of variation of 15%. We suggest that lake-internal effects on CDOM are quenched in humic lake waters by dominating effects associated with imported CDOM and solar exposure. Since humic lake waters belong to one of the most abundant lake types on Earth, our results have important implications for the understanding of global CDOM cycling.

Müller, R. A.; Kothawala, D. N.; Podgrajsek, E.; Sahlée, E.; Koehler, B.; Tranvik, L. J.; Weyhenmeyer, G. A.

2014-10-01

434

Long-term trends and extremes in observed daily precipitation and near surface air temperature in the Philippines for the period 1951-2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observed daily precipitation and near surface air temperature data from 34 synoptic weather stations in the Philippines for the period 1951-2010 were subjected to trend analysis which revealed an overall warming tendency compared to the normal mean values for the period 1961-1990. This warming trend can be observed in the annual mean temperatures, daily minimum mean temperatures and to a lesser extent, daily maximum mean temperatures. Precipitation and temperature extremes for the period 1951-2010 were also analysed relative to the mean 1961-1990 baseline values. Some stations (Cotabato, Iloilo, Laoag and Tacloban,) show increases in both frequency and intensity of extreme daily rainfall events which are significant at the 95% level with none of the stations showing decreasing trends. The frequency of daily temperature maximum above the 99th percentile (hot days) and nights at the 1st percentile (cold nights) suggests that both days and nights in particular are becoming warmer. Such indicators of a warming trend and increase in extreme events in the Philippines are discussed in the context of similar national, regional (Asia Pacific) and global studies. The relevance of such empirically based climatology studies, particularly for nations such as the Philippines which are increasingly vulnerable to the multiple impacts of global climate change, is also considered.

Cinco, Thelma A.; de Guzman, Rosalina G.; Hilario, Flaviana D.; Wilson, David M.

2014-08-01

435

Neutron irradiation therapy machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a neutron irradiation therapy machine for treating patients with a beam of high energy neutrons, a gantry is provided which supports a non-superconducting cyclotron proton accelerator and target for generating a neutron beam and which permits rotation of the accelerator and neutron beam around an axis of revolution coaxial with a patient treatment zone. A counter-weight is carried from

Nunan

1978-01-01

436

Spatial distribution of the daily precipitation concentration index in Algeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the spatial and temporal distribution of the daily precipitation concentration index (CI) in Algeria (south Mediterranean Sea) has been assessed. CI is an index related to the rainfall intensity and erosive capacity; therefore, this index is of great interest for studies on torrential rainfall and floods. Forty-two daily rainfall series based on high-quality and fairly regular rainfall records for the period from 1970 to 2008 were used. The daily precipitation CI results allowed the identification of three climate zones: the northern country, characterized by coastal regions with CI values between 0.59 and 0.63; the highlands, with values between 0.57 and 0.62, except for the region of Biskra (CI = 0.70); and the southern region of the country, with high rainfall concentrations with values between 0.62 and 0.69.

Benhamrouche, A.; Boucherf, D.; Hamadache, R.; Bendahmane, L.; Martin-Vide, J.; Teixeira Nery, J.

2015-03-01

437

Daily water level by ENVISAT altimetry of the Amazon River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radar Altimetry is a remote sensing technique applied in order to obtain the level of water of the hydrological processes, mostly in remote regions such as in the Amazon basin. However, the altimetry satellites have a limitation in their temporal resolution, which in the case of ENVISAT is 35 days, which prevents the study of short-term hydrological events alert of floods and droughts and etc. Thus, a method of obtaining altimetric daily time series water level, based on a linear model of interpolation by optimization with multi-objective criteria was applied, using data from in situ on pluvial stations, along the Amazon River. The altimetry data validation show accurate results with a RMS of 11 cm, while the estimates carried out by the model obtained 63% of altimetric daily time series water level data with RMS less than 40 cm, thus allowing the use of altimetry data daily at various hydrological studies, hydrodynamic modeling and monitoring of extreme events.

Sousa, A. C.; Pereira, P.; Silva, J. S.; Calmant, S.; Seyler, F.

2013-05-01

438

Associations of Subjective Social Status with Nondaily and Daily Smoking  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore associations between subjective social status (SSS) and smoking level among 2274 adult current smokers. Methods Associations were investigated using a covariate-adjusted proportional odds cumulative logit model. Moderation (via race/ethnicity or sex) and mediation (via depressive symptoms, social/emotional support, or life satisfaction) were explored in additional models. Results Higher SSS was associated with greater likelihood of nondaily versus light daily or moderate/ heavy daily smoking (p = .017). Life satisfaction partially mediated the association of SSS and smoking level (p = .003). Conclusions Higher SSS was associated with greater likelihood of nondaily relative to light daily or moderate to heavy smoking, potentially via greater life satisfaction. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24629553

Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Buchanan, Taneisha S.; Nguyen, Nga; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

2013-01-01

439

Generating Multiyear Gridded Daily Rainfall over New Zealand.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily rainfall totals are a key input for hydrological models that are designed to simulate water and pollutant flow through both soil and waterways. Within New Zealand there are large areas and many river catchments where no long-term rainfall observations exist. A method for estimating daily rainfall over the whole of New Zealand on a 5-km grid is described and tested over a period from January 1985 to April 2002. Improvement over a spatial interpolation method was gained by scaling high-elevation rainfall estimates using simulated mesoscale model rainfall surfaces that are generated for short periods in 1994 and 1996. This method is judged to produce reasonable and useful estimates of daily rainfall.

Tait, Andrew; Turner, Richard

2005-09-01

440

Going Global Activity Guide: A Project To Educate and Involve American Students in Global Hunger Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Global hunger is one of the most urgent health and social problems the world faces at the beginning of the new millennium. In a world that produces enough food to feed every human being on the planet, there are still some 830 million people who do not get enough food on a daily basis. About 24,000 people die each day from the effects of hunger;…

White, Gene; Balakshin, Maria